Ünal, Süleyman; Çeliköz, Nadir; Sari, Irfan
The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of Turkish-English Language Teaching (ELT) learners' perceptions of learner autonomy with ELT learner's proficiency level in language learning. Particularly, the study aimed at investigating to what extent ELT learners' autonomy perceptions are affected by proficiency level of learners.…
Cheatham, Gregory A.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Wodrich, David L.; Kasai, Masahiro
The purpose of this analog study was to determine if increased access to information about a hypothetical English Language Learner (ELL) students' language proficiency increased preservice teachers' recognition that limited English proficiency is the likely cause of student difficulties. We find that the provision of increasing levels of…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Faulkner-Bond, Molly
States use standards-based English language proficiency (ELP) assessments to inform relatively high-stakes decisions for English learner (EL) students. Results from these assessments are one of the primary criteria used to determine EL students' level of ELP and readiness for reclassification. The results are also used to evaluate the…
Huang, Yun-Yin; Liu, Chen-Chung; Wang, Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Hung-Ming
English proficiency difference among students is a challenging pedagogical issue in EFL classrooms worldwide. Collaborative digital storytelling has been adopted in language learning settings to increase motivation and engagement, especially for young learners. However, it remains unknown whether students of different proficiency levels can…
Full Text Available Language clubs have been reported to be effective in learning languages, increasing motivation and independence (Gao, 2009. The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of a web-based language club on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL learners. A number of pre-intermediate learners form two universities (118 were selected among 154 through a test of proficiency (TOEFL PBL, then they were put into experimental and control groups. The participants in experimental group got on line and acted as a member of a virtual language club for a period of 6 months. They got involved with activities like emailing, chatting, and weblogging. Data were collected through TOEFL PBL. The analyzed data from the test of proficiency indicated the outperformance of those in experimental group. Consequently, it might be proposed that web-based language clubs can make language learning easier and more efficient.
Myartawan, I. Putu Ngurah Wage; Latief, Mohammad Adnan; Suharmanto
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between learner autonomy psychologically defined in the study as a composite of behavioral intentions to do autonomous learning and self-efficacy in relation to autonomous learning, and English proficiency. The sample comprised 120 first semester English-majored students of a state university…
Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna
This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…
Maria Vladimirovna Zarudnaya; Oksana Ivanovna Barsova
The educational system in the Russia provides opportunities for life-long learning, which presupposes availability of studying foreign languages at every stage, including further education (MBA and Presidential Program). Although adult learners realize the importance and necessity of mastering a foreign language, they might lack motivation due to a number of factors, such as different sociocultural backgrounds, social status, lifestyle, and knowledge of the foreign language. We have conducted...
Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi
Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning since it provides the learners with numerous diverse privileges such as independency from teacher. The researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in Iranian EFL learners with different language proficiency levels. To meet the above purpose, a total number of 190 male and female EFL learners participated in this study. The methodology underlying this study was quantitative (thorough the administration of two questionnaires and two language proficiency test – TOEFL for advanced group, and Nelson for intermediate level. The quantitative data was analyzed using a set of correlational analysis revealing a significant positive correlation between learner autonomy and vocabulary learning strategies use in high proficient group, and a significant positive relationship between these two constructs in low proficient group, however not as strong as in the advanced group.
Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman
Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…
This study investigated the overall patterns of variation across seven oral proficiency levels of 1,263 Japanese EFL learners and native English speakers. The methodological approach combined a learner corpus, language processing techniques, and multivariate statistical analyses to identify patterns of language use. The largest spoken learner corpus in Japan, the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology Japanese Learner English (NICT JLE) Corpus was used for the analysi...
This research paper presents a learners' perspective on (the promotion of) learner autonomy and Self-Access Language Learning in an English Proficiency Program. It provides an evaluation of the success of these course elements as well as an interpretation of students' understanding of the related concepts. Finally, it identifies factors that…
Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung
This exploratory study focused on the factors that constitute second language (L2) learners' resilience, and how these factors are related to L2 learning by investigating what relation resilience may have to motivated behaviour and proficiency in English learning. A total of 1620 secondary school learners of English participated in a questionnaire…
Although self-assessment of foreign language skills is not a new topic, it has not yet been widely explored in the Turkish English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context. The current study investigates the potential of self-assessment of foreign language skills in determining proficiency levels of Turkish learners of EFL: 239 learners participated in…
Ansarian, Loghman; Adlipour, Ali Akbar; Saber, Mehrnoush Akhavan; Shafiei, Elmira
The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks on speaking proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in comparison to the effect of objective-based tasks. To this end, a true experimental research design was employed. Ninety five (N = 95) language learners studying at a language institute in the…
Slama, Rachel; Molefe, Ayrin; Gerdeman, Dean; Herrera, Angelica; Brodziak de los Reyes, Iliana; August, Diane; Cavazos, Linda
English learner students are challenged by the difficult task of learning English concurrently with learning content in areas such as reading and math. English learner students who have not attained proficiency in English or learned core course content by the middle and upper grades may not have the requisite skills to enroll in courses required…
Full Text Available The present study has attempted to determine weather there is any relationship between language learning strategies employed by language learners, and if so what relationship exists between them. Furthermore, it has tried to investigate what effective and useful strategies the learners employ while learning English as a foreign language correspondent with their proficiency levels. A simulated TOEFL (REA, 1993 test was initially administered to classify the learners into three classes of proficiency levels. Oxford‟s Strategy Inventory, SILL, (Oxford, 1990 was used to determine the frequency of the language learning strategies applied by learners. The results of this study provide confirmation of previous research findings concerning the direct relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency level, and represent the types of the strategies adopted by advanced, intermediate and elementary language learners. The implications of this study are to suggest both the metacognitive compensatory strategies, the most frequent strategies employed by advanced learners be instructed to the language learners in order to upgrade their proficiency level.
Nip, Ignatius S B; Blumenfeld, Henrike K
Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Speech movements of 29 native English speakers with low or high proficiency in Spanish were recorded while producing simple and syntactically complex sentences in English and Spanish. Sentences were loaded with cognate (e.g., baby-bebé) or noncognate (e.g., dog-perro) words. Effects of proficiency, lexicality (cognate vs. noncognate), and syntactic complexity on maximum speed, range of movement, duration, and speech movement variability were examined. In general, speakers with lower L2 proficiency differed in their speech motor control and performance from speakers with higher L2 proficiency. Speakers with higher L2 proficiency generally had less speech movement variability, shorter phrase durations, greater maximum speeds, and greater ranges of movement. In addition, lexicality and syntactic complexity affected speech motor control and performance. L2 proficiency, lexicality, and syntactic complexity influence speech motor control and performance in adult L2 learners. Information about relationships between speech motor control, language proficiency, and cognitive-linguistic demands may be used to assess and treat bilingual clients and language learners.
Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Neissi, Sina
The relationship between identity processing styles and language proficiency in English as foreign language (EFL) was investigated among the Persian EFL learners. 266 Persian candidates taking part in a Ph.D. examination at Shiraz University took part. The Language Proficiency Test was used to measure language proficiency in English. The Identity Styles Inventory was used to measure normative, informational, and diffuse-avoidant identity processing styles. Relationships between normative and informational styles and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were positive and significant. Negative relationships between diffuse-avoidant style and language proficiency and its subscales (grammar, vocabulary, and reading) were observed. There were significant sex differences for diffuse-avoidant style and for vocabulary.
Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam
This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…
Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart
As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…
Gönen, Ipek Kuru
Reading in FL possesses certain challenges for FL readers such as difficulty in inferring underlying messages in texts and dealing with unfamiliar cultural load. All these challenges may be associated with FL learners' reading proficiency and their use of FL reading strategies especially while reading academic materials. This study aims at…
Galaczi, Evelina D.
Paired speaking tasks are now commonly used in both pedagogic and assessment contexts, as they elicit a wide range of interactional skills. The current study aims to offer an investigation of the interaction co-constructed by learners at different proficiency levels who are engaged in a paired speaking test, and to provide insights into the…
Freberg, Miranda E.
The purpose of the study was to investigate how English language proficiency is related to teacher judgments of students' academic and interpersonal competence. It was hypothesized that English Language Learner (ELL) students would generally be perceived as having weaker academic and interpersonal skills than their non-ELL counterparts regardless…
Suzuki, Wataru; Itagaki, Nobuya
Languaging that second language (L2) learners engage in while producing and comprehending language is a major source of L2 learning [Swain, M., 2006. "Languaging, agency and collaboration in advanced language proficiency." In: Byrnes, H. (Ed.), "Advanced Language Learning: The Contribution of Halliday and Vygotsky." Continuun,…
This paper explores teachers' perceptions of their learners' proficiency in statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking. Research in Statistics education has prompted a move away from the teaching of statistical skills, towards focusing on the development of statistical literacy, reasoning and thinking. The recent South African Grade 10-12…
Full Text Available This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1 the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2 the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 70 item questionnaire of Oral Communication Learning Strategy (OCLS and a 10 item self-assessment of speaking proficiency. The statistical analysis revealed that gender provided significant effects on the intensity of use of six types of strategies of learning speaking skill – interactional-maintenance, self-evaluation, fluency-oriented, time gaining, compensation, and interpersonal strategies – with female learners reporting higher intensity of use. A further analysis found that four strategy types – interactional-maintenance, self-improvement, compensation, and memory strategies – greatly contribute to the speaking proficiency. These findings imply that strategies-based instruction, covering the four most influential strategies, needs to be integrated explicitly in the speaking class to help learners, particularly male learners, cope with problems in learning speaking skill.
Heritage language learners soon learn that their verbal competence can be both a blessing and a burden. Reliance on aural cues can provide significant interference in attempts to master spelling conventions. Now, an unlikely source--the Russian-language internet--threatens to provide negative reinforcement for the very spelling habits that…
Feng, Hui-Hsien; Saricaoglu, Aysel; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny
Thanks to natural language processing technologies, computer programs are actively being used not only for holistic scoring, but also for formative evaluation of writing. CyWrite is one such program that is under development. The program is built upon Second Language Acquisition theories and aims to assist ESL learners in higher education by…
Moore, Kathleen A.; Rutherford, Camille; Crawford, Keith A.
Postsecondary international students who are also English language learners face a number of challenges when studying abroad and often are provided with services to support their learning. Though some research examines how institutions can support this population of students, few studies explore how technology is used to support language…
Ankara : The Program of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Bilkent University, 2011. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2011. Includes bibliographical references leaves 59-63. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between language achievement and starting age of learning English as a foreign language, type of high school, languages known by the learners and spoken in their home environment and learners’ attitudes towards language learning, and also...
Full Text Available The importance of the role of language in teacher education programmes and in children's learning is crucial. This study focuses on the use of English as the language of learning and teaching and its impact on the language development of English second language (ESL student teachers and ESL learners. Against the background of major theories in second language (L2 acquisition and learning, this topic is contextualized within the South African education system. An empirical inquiry was carried out in which portfolios (evidence of practical teaching including lesson plans and learners' work submitted by final year student teachers enrolled at a large distance teaching university for the Advanced Certificate in Education: Inclusive Education were scrutinised. A comparison of teacher and learner written errors was made. Based on the findings, a questionnaire was designed to determine the extent of the impact of teachers' limited English proficiency on learners' English proficiency. The findings of the questionnaire responses are presented. Recommendations are made on how student teachers can improve their teaching practice to ensure quality ESL teacher input and ESL learner performance.
Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina
The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551
Lodhi, Muhammad Arfan; ,
The current researchstudy was empirical in nature .The main focus of the study was to investigate therole of anxiety in the oral proficiency of ESL learners. So this study attempts to find out the reasonsbehind students’ anxiety while speaking in English inside and outside the ESLclassroom. Thirty five students of intermediate level at S.E College Bahawalpurwere chosen as sample for this study. To check the notion that how and why studentsfeel anxiety while speaking English as their...
Zhou, Yao; Dai, Zhongxin
Knowledge of English vocabulary contributes to the learner's proficiency of English as a foreign language, but how the learner's lexical knowledge behaves in the contribution. Researchers in mainland China have conducted studies of various kinds in order to find out how the learner's lexical knowledge correlates with his proficiency. This article…
This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…
Chan, Hoi Wing
This paper reports on how and why proficient learners of English in Hong Kong participated in popular culture, out-of-class activities, with an emphasis on their development of learner autonomy. Autonomy in language learning is defined as an individual's ability and responsibility to take charge of his or her own learning . Out-of-class…
Wang, Tuntiga; Rajprasit, Krich
Theoretically, beliefs about English language learning have a psychological factor, such as predicting the rate of success or failure among learners in the classroom context. However, learners with different levels of language proficiency may perceive such beliefs in a different way, which may lead to the development of special needs, in terms of…
Full Text Available Some Grade 4 educators have expressed feelings of ineptitude regarding the support of ESL (English Second Language learners with limited English proficiency as they do not know how to support these learners effectively. Their litany emphasises ESL educators' need for supportive and preventive intervention. A Story-based Language Enrichment Programme (SLEP was compiled to suit the needs of educators teaching Grade 4 ESL learners with limited English proficiency. The programme was designed to maintain or improve the English proficiency of ESL learners. An intervention research method was followed to test the efficacy of SLEP. Forty teachers implemented SLEP over a six-week period. Thirty-nine teachers provided constructive feedback at the end of this period. Between 92% and 100% of the participants rated SLEP positively. Rural participants suggested some refinements to the programme. The overall conclusion was that SLEP makes a useful contribution to ESL practice.
Stein, Maria; Federspiel, Andrea; Koenig, Thomas; Wirth, Miranka; Lehmann, Christoph; Wiest, Roland; Strik, Werner; Brandeis, Daniel; Dierks, Thomas
The factors influencing the degree of separation or overlap in the neuronal networks responsible for the processing of first and second language are still subject to investigation. This longitudinal study investigates how increasing second language proficiency influences activation differences during lexico-semantic processing of first and second…
Full Text Available Communication strategies (CSs are systematic attempts by language learners to encode or decode meaning in a target language in situations where the appropriate target language rules have not been formed. Based on this view, communication strategies can be seen as compensatory means for making up for linguistic deficiencies of second or foreign language learners. Within the conceptual framework outlined, this paper is a report on a research conducted at Azarbaijan Teachers Education University on the students majoring in English Language and Literature. The main aim was to seek a relationship between the subjects’ use of communication strategies in solving communication problems and their proficiency levels in English as a foreign language. The data was collected by means of one-to-one interviews with the participants, and were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicated that the frequency of communication strategies applied by the participants varied according to their proficiency levels, i.e. low proficient learners tended to employ more communication strategies in comparison with high and moderate ones. The type of communication strategies employed also varied according to their oral proficiency level. It was revealed that high level participants employed more L2-based communication strategies where the low proficient learners used more L1-based ones.
Full Text Available Abstract The present study addresses the perceptions of international teaching assistants regarding the role of language learning tasks using Wimba Voice (WV in aiding the improvement of their second language (L2 oral skills. It specifically examines how this asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC technology can foster the development of these learners’ L2 selves. According to Dörnyei (2009, the more clearly learners can envision their future L2 selves, the more motivated they will be to achieve their L2 goals. With increased planning of oral production, access to instructor and peer feedback, and additional opportunities for self-reflection, asynchronous CMC technologies have been found to enable L2 learners to express their thoughts at their own pace and feel more relaxed and confident than in more threatening face-to-face situations (Sun, 2009. The findings suggest that learners have a variety of opinions regarding the role of asynchronous WV tasks in motivating them to develop their L2 oral proficiency. Also, many may prefer oral CMC environments that facilitate interaction and meaning negotiation. Results were inconclusive concerning the effect of WV-based tasks on students' perceptions of their future L2 selves; however, this may have been due to the short time frame in which these activities were employed. Résumé Nous étudions ici les perceptions d’un groupe d’assistants internationaux sur le rôle des tâches d’apprentissage linguistique à l’aide de Wimba Voice (WV. Le projet avait pour but d’améliorer les compétences orales des participants dans leur langue seconde. La présente étude examine en particulier la voie par laquelle cette technologie de la communication asynchrone par ordinateur peut favoriser l’évolution de la langue seconde des apprenants. Selon Dörnyei (2009, plus les apprenants peuvent envisager clairement un futur emploi de leur langue seconde, plus ils seront motivés à atteindre
Wu, Chia-Pei; Lin, Huey-Ju
This study utilized the Oxford Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English writing anxiety scale to examine the relationship between learning strategies and English writing anxiety in 102 university-level English language learners (ELLs) with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in a university in Taiwan. Kruskal Wallis Test…
Roever, Carsten; Al-Gahtani, Saad
ESL learners can find it challenging to use English in a way that is pragmatically appropriate to the situation and interlocutor. In this article, we explore the impact of increased proficiency on learners' pragmatic performance. ESL learners in Australia at four proficiency levels completed three role plays, and we analysed how the learners…
Yong Mei Fung
Full Text Available ESL learners often experience anxiety and feel uncomfortable when speaking in the target language. This paper examines the anxiety level of polytechnic students when speaking English and the effects of board game on their speaking performance. The participants were selected from two intact classes which were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups comprising 30 students each. Data were obtained from pre- and post-treatment speaking tests and questionnaire. The questionnaire measuring anxiety factors was adapted from Yaikhong and Usaha (2012 and Woodrow (2006. The board game “What Say You” employed during the treatment was a speaking activity which required players to speak on a topic within a given time frame. The experimental group played the board games over six sessions. The results from the experimental and control groups showed significant difference in the pre- and post-treatment speaking test scores. However, the speaking performance of the experimental group revealed significantly higher scores. Students who were initially hesitant and passive were more willing to speak and were able to present and justify their ideas more confidently as compared to the control group after the treatment. The findings reveal that the board game is a useful tool to engage learners’ participation in class and to enhance the speaking ability of low-proficiency ESL learners.
Arellano, Brenda; Liu, Feng; Stoker, Ginger; Slama, Rachel
To what extent do Spanish-speaking English learner students develop English proficiency and grade-level readiness in English language arts and math from early elementary school to upper elementary school? Is there a relationship between proficiency in a student's primary home language, Spanish, and the amount of time needed to attain fluency in…
M.Ed. (Educational Linguistics) This study examined language barriers affecting a selected group of Grade Four learners from a disadvantaged community, to whom English, the medium of classroom instruction, was their second language. They were disadvantaged because their language proficiency had not been developed early enough to serve as a springboard for conceptualizations of academic aspects. They struggled to express themselves and grappled with simple linguistic concepts which they wer...
Yu, Shulin; Hu, Guangwei
Informed by Vygotsky's conceptualization of the Zone of Proximal Development, this case study investigated the benefits of peer feedback on second language (L2) writing for students with high L2 proficiency and the factors that may influence their learning in peer feedback in the Chinese English-as-a-foreign-language context. Specifically, the…
The goal of teaching English speaking is to improve students' communicative efficiency,or make students speak the target language clearly,coherently,accurately and fluendy (Xu,2005).However,in China,a number of students in an English speaking class tend to be passive and reluctant to speak out or be singled out publicly mainly due to their high anxiety,which,of course,becomes a significant constraint on improving their English proficiency.Therefore,how to create a relaxed atmosphere with a sense of security in the English speaking class to alleviate Chinese learners' anxiety and to provide them with as many opportunities as possible to practice speaking English and improve their English proficiency is one of the central tasks for hnguage teachers.his paper will firstly outline my teaching context in China in physical,pedagogical,institutional and personal aspects.This will be followed by the definition and classification of language learning anxiety,and the analysis of various factors contributing to foreign language learners' anxiety as well as some suggestions of how to reduce the learners' anxiety in the oral class according to the current literature.Finally,some applications will be presented in my teaching context in the hope of decreasing Chinese students' anxiety to enhance their English speaking proficiency.
Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam
Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
... for developmental problems associated with inadequate motor skills and should consequently be addressed, especially during the preschool years and the initial years of the primary school phase. Key words: Motor proficiency; School beginner; Gender; Race; Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 Short Form.
Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik
This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…
F. Filiz Yalçın Tılfarlıoğlu
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny; Herman, Joan; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison; Bachman, Patina L.; Farnsworth, Tim; Chang, Sandy M.
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has made a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency (ELP), as well as content knowledge and skills. Although states have…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison L.; Griffin, Noelle
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, 2002) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states…
Roberts, Theresa; Neal, Harriet
Thirty-three preschool children who were learning English as a second language participated in 16 weeks of either comprehension-oriented or letter/rhyme-focused small group instruction. Pretests and posttests of book vocabulary, story comprehension, print concepts, letter naming, writing, rhyming, and English oral proficiency were given. Children…
Yu, Zhonggen; Yu, Liheng
Although the flipped class has been hotly discussed, the clicker-aided flipped EFL class (CFEC) still remains a mystery for most scholars. This study aims to determine the correlations between the initial EFL proficiency and other variables of the clicker-aided EFL flipped class. The sample was made up of randomly selected 79 participants (Female…
Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.
Purpose: Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Method: Speech…
Erin Jacquelyn White
Full Text Available This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2 grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1 background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese. Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1 higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2 with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization" are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.
White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten
This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner's first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1-L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., "grammaticalization") are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning.
Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia
Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…
Hadi, Marham Jupri
Researcher's observation on his ESL class indicates the main issues concerning the writing skills: learners' low motivation to write, minimum interaction in writing, and poor writing skills. These limitations have led them to be less confidence to write in English. This article discusses how computers can be used for the purpose of increasing…
Aliakbari, Mohammad; Nejad, Ali Mansoori
The present study aimed to examine how co-teaching may affect the learning process. To do so, a group of 58 first-grade students were assigned to two homogeneous classes. In one group learners received grammar instruction from co-teachers while in other grammar instruction was delivered by a single teacher. The findings revealed that the…
Blackwell, Jacqueline Rushin
The purpose of this research is to identify teaching strategies and practices that impact the vocabulary and language development for English Language Learners. Today, there are over 3.5 million non-English speaking students enrolled in public classrooms and the number has continued to climb over the past decade. Many ELL students live in poverty…
In 2001, California instituted a statewide test measuring English proficiency for English learners, students who are not proficient in English. In 2003 and 2004, nearly 500,000 English learners in grades 1-5 took this test each year. The relationship between bilingual education receipt and English proficiency is estimated using value-added…
White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten
This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitive processes underlying this component become available after intensive L2 instruction. Korean- and Chinese late-L2-learners of English were tested at the beginning and end of a 9-week intensive English-L2 course. ERPs were recorded while participants read English sentences containing violations of regular past tense (a grammatical structure that operates differently in Korean and does not exist in Chinese). Whereas no P600 effects were present at the start of instruction, by the end of instruction, significant P600s were observed for both L1 groups. Latency differences in the P600 exhibited by Chinese and Korean speakers may be attributed to differences in L1–L2 reading strategies. Across all participants, larger P600 effects at session 2 were associated with: 1) higher levels of behavioural performance on an online grammaticality judgment task; and 2) with correct, rather than incorrect, behavioural responses. These findings suggest that the neuro-cognitive processes underlying the P600 (e.g., “grammaticalization”) are modulated by individual levels of L2 behavioural performance and learning. PMID:23300641
Full Text Available Universities around the world especially those in developing countries are faced with the problem of delivering the level of information and communications technology (ICT needed to facilitate teaching, learning, research, and development activities ideal in a typical university, which is needed to meet educational needs in-line with advancement in technology and the growing dependence on IT. This is mainly due to the high cost involved in providing and maintaining the needed hardware and software. A technology such as cloud computing that delivers on demand provisioning of IT resources on a pay per use basis can be used to address this problem. Cloud computing promises better delivery of IT services as well as availability whenever and wherever needed at reduced costs with users paying only as much as they consume through the services of cloud service providers. The cloud technology reduces complexity while increasing speed and quality of IT services provided; however, despite these benefits the challenges that come with its adoption have left many sectors especially the higher education skeptical in committing to this technology. This article identifies the reasons for the slow rate of adoption of cloud computing at university level, discusses the challenges faced and proposes a cloud computing adoption model that contains strategic guidelines to overcome the major challenges identified and a roadmap for the successful adoption of cloud computing by universities. The model was tested in one of the universities and found to be both useful and appropriate for adopting cloud computing at university level.
This paper synthesizes cross-sectional studies of the effect of proficiency on second language (L2) pragmatics to answer the synthesis question: Does proficiency affect adult learners' pragmatic competence? Findings have revealed an overall positive proficiency effect on pragmatic competence, and in most cases higher proficiency learners have…
Assessing and monitoring student progress is becoming increasingly important in classrooms and for accountability purposes. Yet, in order to interpret changes in assessment results from one year to the next as reflecting differences in underlying ability rather than as variations in the measurement, the assessments used should be measuring the…
Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Cummins, Jim; Wagner, Maryam; Stille, Saskia; Dunlop, Maggie
Research on issues concerning the assessment of school-age English language learners (ELLs) in curriculum-learning contexts has been relatively less productive than assessment of adult language learners. A growing demand for assessing school-age ELLs has led to the development of assessment frameworks that provide the opportunity to examine the…
Hulstijn, Jan H.; Schoonen, Rob; de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen
This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral Production scale of the Common European Framework of…
Hulstijn, J.H.; Schoonen, R.; de Jong, N.H.; Steinel, M.P.; Florijn, A.
This study examines the associations between the speaking proficiency of 181 adult learners of Dutch as a second language and their linguistic competences. Performance in eight speaking tasks was rated on a scale of communicative adequacy. After extrapolation of these ratings to the Overall Oral
Ghapanchi, Zargham; Taheryan, Atefeh
This study examined the influence of language knowledge, metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive strategy use on speaking and listening proficiency. Ninety six freshman and sophomore Iranian university students (male = 6, female = 90) were participated in the study. Two kinds of questionnaire and one language knowledge test were administered.…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across English and Japanese. Chinese university students (N…
Jin, Yinxing; de Bot, Kees; Keijzer, Merel
Adopting a longitudinal design, this study investigates the effects of foreign language anxiety on foreign language proficiency over time within English and Japanese learning contexts. It also explores the stability of anxiety in English and Japanese over time and the stability of anxiety across
Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jean L. Mercier; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Beck, Carrie Thomas
This study examined the validity of Nonsense Word Fluency as an index of beginning reading proficiency for students in kindergarten through second grade. Validity evidence for Nonsense Word Fluency is addressed in the context of research-based instructional practices implemented on a large scale. Technical adequacy data are presented for all…
Garcia, Eugene E.; Lawton, Kerry; Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo H.
This study analyzes the Arizona policy of utilizing a single assessment of English proficiency to determine if students should be exited from the ELL program, which is ostensibly designed to make it possible for them to succeed in the mainstream classroom without any further language support. The study examines the predictive validity of this…
Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks on speaking proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners in comparison to the effect of objective-based tasks. To this end, a true experimental research design was employed. Ninety five (N=95 language learners studying at a language institute in the city of Esfahan, Iran were given an IELTS listening and speaking test as the proficiency test and 75 learners were selected. In the next phase of the study, a second IELTS speaking test was administered as the homogeneity test and the pre-test to seventy five (N=75 learners chosen from the population and forty-eight (N=48 homogeneous intermediate learners were selected for the study (i.e., 24 learners in control group and 24 in experimental one. The results of an independent-sample t-test gained from the study proved that not only does implementation of problem-based learning through cognition-based tasks significantly increased intermediate participants’ speaking proficiency, but also it had more positive effect in comparison to objective-based tasks on participants’ speaking proficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that problem-based learning ought to be taken into account by educational scholars, those in charge of syllabus, material producers, language teachers and language learners. Keywords: Cognition-Based Tasks, Objective-Based Tasks, EFL Learners, Speaking Proficiency, Problem-Based Learning
This article reports the results of an experimental study on the effectiveness of mobile technology (WhatsApp) in improving the critique writing skills of English as a Foreign Language learners and increasing their motivation for learning. The participants (n = 52) are Average-English proficient learners enrolled in two writing courses given at…
Athanasopoulos, Panos; Damjanovic, Ljubica; Burnand, Julie; Bylund, Emanuel
The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of nonaspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task…
Many of the textbooks used to teach Indian management students are South East Asian editions of U.S. publications. Although these provide a great deal of information on the business world, particularly in a North American context, outside of India, they do not always meet the needs of either the Indian ESL Learner, or of Indian business and…
Yoke, Soo Kum; Hasan, Nor Haniza
The teaching of English grammar to second language learners is usually a tedious, stressful and time consuming activity and even after all the effort, students have generally found these lessons boring and confusing. As such, innovative language instructors have been trying different approaches to the teaching of grammar in their classrooms. Using…
A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes
Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This
Serafini, Ellen J.; Sanz, Cristina
This study investigated whether the role of working memory capacity varies over the course of second language (L2) morphosyntactic development. Eighty-seven beginning, intermediate, and advanced university L2 Spanish learners completed two nonverbal tasks measuring executive function (EF) and phonological working memory (PWM) in their native…
This analysis uses data on science achievement and transcript reports of science course taking patterns of students from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) to estimate the relationship between science course taking and the change in science proficiency levels between 8th and 12th grades. It also explores the extent to…
Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A.; Booth, James R.
The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters. PMID:23654223
Cao, Fan; Tao, Ran; Liu, Li; Perfetti, Charles A; Booth, James R
The assimilation hypothesis argues that second language learning recruits the brain network for processing the native language, whereas the accommodation hypothesis argues that learning a second language recruits brain structures not involved in native language processing. This study tested these hypotheses by examining brain activation of a group of native Chinese speakers, who were late bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English, when they performed a rhyming judgment to visually presented English word pairs (CE group) during fMRI. Assimilation was examined by comparing the CE group to native Chinese speakers performing the rhyming task in Chinese (CC group), and accommodation was examined by comparing the CE group to native English speakers performing the rhyming task in English (EE group). The CE group was very similar in activation to the CC group, supporting the assimilation hypothesis. Additional support for the assimilation hypothesis was the finding that higher proficiency in the CE group was related to increased activation in the Chinese network (as defined by the CC > EE), including the left middle frontal gyrus, the right inferior parietal lobule, and the right precuneus, and decreased activation in the English network (as defined by the EE > CC), including the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior temporal gyrus. Although most of the results support assimilation, there was some evidence for accommodation as the CE group showed less activation in the Chinese network including the right middle occipital gyrus, which has been argued to be involved in holistic visuospatial processing of Chinese characters.
Esquierdo, J. Joy; Almaguer, Isela
In today's schools, many teachers of bilingual learners find teaching science a challenge. Teachers of bilingual learners tend to focus on increasing second-language proficiency and not on science literacy. When second-language development is the target, the development of science literacy can lose priority. This article introduces the framework…
The present study investigates (i) English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners' receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii) how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as linguistic proficiency develops; and (iii) the extent to which receptive knowledge of ...
Rooy, Susan Coetzee-Van
More and more learners of English from the Expanding Circle are travelling to Outer Circle contexts to learn English or to improve their English proficiency. This is also the case for some Korean families who moved to Potchefstroom, South Africa. This phenomenon poses challenges in terms of assessment of English proficiency, and emphasizes the…
Carr, Nicole Schrat
This article discusses how teachers can increase the effectiveness of homework assignments for all learners. Homework, when designed and implemented properly, is a valuable tool for reinforcing learning. This essay provides a summary of educational research on homework, discusses the elements of effective homework, and suggests practical classroom…
Please refer to original publication: Koper, E.J.R. (2005). Increasing Learner Retention in a Simulated Learning Network Using Indirect Social Interaction. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation vol. 8, no. 2. http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/8/2/5.html Software is only stored to ensure
Suggests a variety of ways to increase interaction with distance learners on an interactive telecommunications system, based on experiences at the University of Maine at Augusta. Highlights include establishing the proper environment; telephone systems; voice mail; fax; electronic mail; computer conferencing; postal mail; printed materials; and…
Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Boscardin, Christy Kim
This investigation examined the impact of opportunity to learn content and skills targeted by a writing assessment on the achievement of English learners (ELs), including the potential for differential impact of increased exposure to literary analysis and writing instruction. Results revealed several factors contributing to students' writing…
Haas, Eric; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min
When is the right moment to transition an English learner student from part-time participation in English language development classes into full-time participation in mainstream English-only classes? English learner students should be moved into full-time mainstream English-only classes when they are sufficiently fluent in English to be able to…
Hell, J.G. van; Tokowicz, N.
There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2
Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Froman, Terry
The time it takes for an English Language Learner (ELL) to reach reading proficiency in English depends on the grade level of entry into the English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) program and on the student's initial English proficiency level. The summary table below presents the average years to English proficiency across different grade…
Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan
This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
飯田, 毅; Tsuyoshi, IIDA; Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts
Although numerous studies have examined the relationship between metalinguistic knowledge and L2 proficiency, this relationship has not been sufficiently clarified yet. The present study examined the relationship between metalinguistic knowledge and L2 proficiency among different groups of learners. Also, it clarified to what extent metalinguistic knowledge contributes to L2 proficiency. The participants were 50 Japanese undergraduates comprising instructed-only EFL learners, returnees who ha...
Jaquet, Karina; Fong, Anthony B.
Research has found high repetition rates for students in Algebra I, with one study finding a repetition rate of 44 percent for students in a large urban high school district. Less is known about how math performance and Algebra I course repetition rates vary among students with different levels of English proficiency. This report examines Algebra…
Conger, Dylan; Hatch, Megan; McKinney, Jessica; Atwell, Meghan Salas; Lamb, Anne
Since the 2002 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was signed into law, schools have been allowed to administer grade-level content reading exams in the native language of English Language Learner (ELL) students for up to three years after they enter the school system. From that point, the students are expected to take the state assessments in…
Ordin, Mikhail; Polyanskaya, Leona
The development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) acquisition was investigated. Speech rhythm was defined as durational variability that can be captured by the interval-based rhythm metrics. These metrics were used to examine the differences in durational variability between proficiency levels in L2 English spoken by French and German learners. The results reveal that durational variability increased as L2 acquisition progressed in both groups of learners. This indicates that speech rhythm in L2 English develops from more syllable-timed toward more stress-timed patterns irrespective of whether the native language of the learner is rhythmically similar to or different from the target language. Although both groups showed similar development of speech rhythm in L2 acquisition, there were also differences: German learners achieved a degree of durational variability typical of the target language, while French learners exhibited lower variability than native British speakers, even at an advanced proficiency level.
Serafini, Ellen J.
This study draws on conceptual and methodological insights afforded within a dynamic systems perspective to explore shifting interrelationships between cognitive capacity and motivational resources in instructed adult second language (L2) learners of Spanish at increasing proficiency. Relationships that emerged showed both stability and…
Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011 while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995. There is prima facie evidence that both dimensions are inversely related as Foreign Language Learning contexts are full of ambiguities which may contribute to anxiety. However, the relationship between FLCA and SLTA has been under-researched. The present study is an attempt to fill this gap by investigating the link between SLTA and FLCA in English of 73 secondary school students in Hong Kong. They filled out an online questionnaire consisting of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986 and the Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (Ely, 1995. Statistical analyses revealed that FLCA, SLTA and Self-rated English proficiency predict half of the variance in each other; in other words, students who were more tolerant of second language ambiguity were less anxious in their EFL classes and they also felt more proficient.
Lee, Jonathan S; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gregorich, Steven E; Crawford, Michael H; Green, Adrienne; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah S
Language barriers disrupt communication and impede informed consent for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) undergoing healthcare procedures. Effective interventions for this disparity remain unclear. Assess the impact of a bedside interpreter phone system intervention on informed consent for patients with LEP and compare outcomes to those of English speakers. Prospective, pre-post intervention implementation study using propensity analysis. Hospitalized patients undergoing invasive procedures on the cardiovascular, general surgery or orthopedic surgery floors. Installation of dual-handset interpreter phones at every bedside enabling 24-h immediate access to professional interpreters. Primary predictor: pre- vs. post-implementation group; secondary predictor: post-implementation patients with LEP vs. English speakers. Primary outcomes: three central informed consent elements, patient-reported understanding of the (1) reasons for and (2) risks of the procedure and (3) having had all questions answered. We considered consent adequately informed when all three elements were met. We enrolled 152 Chinese- and Spanish-speaking patients with LEP (84 pre- and 68 post-implementation) and 86 English speakers. Post-implementation (vs. pre-implementation) patients with LEP were more likely to meet criteria for adequately informed consent (54% vs. 29%, p = 0.001) and, after propensity score adjustment, had significantly higher odds of adequately informed consent (AOR 2.56; 95% CI, 1.15-5.72) as well as of each consent element individually. However, compared to post-implementation English speakers, post-implementation patients with LEP had significantly lower adjusted odds of adequately informed consent (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.91). A bedside interpreter phone system intervention to increase rapid access to professional interpreters was associated with improvements in patient-reported informed consent and should be considered by hospitals seeking to improve
Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Hall, Elisabeth
This paperexamines clinical wisdom which has emerged from a broader study anout nurse managers´influence on proficient registered nurse turnover and retention. The purpose of the study was to increase understanding of proficient nurses´experience and clinical practice by giving voice to the nurses...
Full Text Available The present study investigates, (i English as Foreign Language (EFL learners’ receptive collocational knowledge growth in relation to their linguistic proficiency level; (ii how much receptive collocational knowledge is acquired as proficiency develops; and (iii the extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. A proficiency measure and a collocation test were administered to English majors at the University of Burundi. Results of the study suggest that receptive collocational competence develops alongside EFL learners’ linguistic proficiency; which lends empirical support to Gyllstad (2007, 2009 and Author (2011 among others, who reported similar findings. Furthermore, EFL learners’ collocations growth seems to be quantifiable wherein both linguistic proficiency level and word frequency occupy a crucial role. While more gains in terms of collocations that EFL learners could potentially add as a result of change in proficiency are found at lower levels of proficiency; collocations of words from more frequent word bands seem to be mastered first, and more gains are found at more frequent word bands. These results confirm earlier findings on the non-linearity nature of vocabulary growth (cf. Meara 1996 and the fundamental role played by frequency in word knowledge for vocabulary in general (Nation 1983, 1990, Nation and Beglar 2007, which are extended here to collocations knowledge.
Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research que...
Burns, Matthew K.; Frederick, Amy; Helman, Lori; Pulles, Sandra M.; McComas, Jennifer J.; Aguilar, Lisa
Many English language learners (ELLs) experience difficulties with basic English reading due in part to low language proficiency. The authors examined the relationship between English language proficiency and growth during reading interventions for ELLs. A total of 201 second- and third-grade students with a variety of home languages participated.…
A study investigated the bipolar tension/relaxation factors that affect a second language learner's oral proficiency. While the traditional assumption in the field of second language acquisition is that negative attitudes toward communicative interaction naturally predicate low proficiency, the data gathered from 50 subjects studying English as a…
Henry, Denfield L.; Nistor, Nicolae; Baltes, Beate
Multiple studies propose that English proficiency dictates English language learners' (ELLs) performances on mathematics assessments. The current study investigates the predictive power of English proficiency on mathematics scores, while controlling for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and grade level among ELLs at a south Florida elementary…
Empirical data that indicate a discrepancy between perceptions and scores on English tests among South African participants (1998-2011) are reported. A discrepancy between perceptions of English proficiency and scores on English tests is important because of its potential impact on language learner motivation. It will be ...
Looks at the washback effect in language testing, using as an example the new University of Michigan Examination for Certificate of Competency (ECCE), designed for intermediate- to upper-intermediate level learners. The ECCE can be considered an example of the movement toward achievement-oriented proficiency tests. (Author/VWL)
This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuing medical education (CME for general practitioners relies on specialist-based teaching methods in many settings. Formal lectures by specialists may not meet the learning needs of practitioners and may cause dissatisfaction with traditional CME. Increasing learner involvement in teaching programs may improve learner satisfaction. Methods A quality improvement program for CME for 18 general practitioners in the Tel Aviv region was designed as a result of dissatisfaction with traditional CME activities. A two-step strategy for change was developed. The CME participants first selected the study topics relevant to them from a needs assessment and prepared background material on the topics. In the second step, specialist teachers were invited to answer questions arising from the preparation of selected topics. Satisfaction with the traditional lecture program and the new participatory program were assessed by a questionnaire. The quality criteria included the relevance, importance and applicability of the CME topic chosen to the participant's practice, the clarity of the presentation and the effective use of teaching aids by the lecturer and the potential of the lecturer to serve as a consultant to the participant. Results The participatory model of CME significantly increased satisfaction with relevance, applicability and interest in CME topics compared to the traditional lecture format. Conclusions Increased learner participation in the selection and preparation of CME topics, and increased interaction between CME teachers and learners results in increased satisfaction with teaching programs. Future study of the effect of this model on physician performance is required.
"If I write like a scientist, then soy un cientifico": Differentiated Writing Supports and the Effects on Fourth-Grade English Proficient Students' and English Language Learners' Science Content Knowledge and Explanatory Writing About Magnetism and Electricity
Lichon, Kathryn A.
The purpose of this pre-post quasi-experimental dissertation was to investigate the effects of differentiated writing supports on English Proficient Students' (EPSs) and English Language Learners' (ELLs) science content knowledge and explanatory writing about magnetism and electricity. Eighty-seven fourth-grade students (EPSs = 35; ELLs = 52) were randomly assigned to two groups based on two differentiated writing: guided questions ( n = 43) or targeted writing frames (n = 44). In the guided questions condition, students completed four question sets after a science investigation, and in the targeted writing frames condition, students completed the same four question sets, but with explicit support for vocabulary, transitions, and relational language in the form of if-then statements. Over the course of the four week intervention, students completed a total of nine writing tasks, and were pretested and posttested on six variables: magnetism and electricity content knowledge test, explanatory writing task, total number of words written, total number of sentences written, number of if-then statements, and number of content-based vocabulary words. Results indicate that EPSs and ELLs in both writing conditions improved significantly from pretest to posttest on six content and explanatory writing variables, with statistically significant gain scores occurring for the magnetism and electricity content knowledge test in which the targeted writing frames condition had a larger rate of gain. ANCOVA results indicated that in comparing writing conditions, a statistically significant difference was found for magnetism and electricity content knowledge posttests, when controlling for pretests. No statistically significant effects for language classification on the six variables were found when controlling for pretest scores. Interaction effects between writing condition and language classification were statistically significantly different for the interaction effect found on if
Since online educational technology can support a ubiquitous language learning environment, there are many ways to develop English learners' autonomy through self-access learning. This study investigates whether English as a second language (ESL) learners can improve their oral proficiency through independent study by using online self-study…
Applying the Writing Scales of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" to the New HSK Test of Proficiency in Chinese: Realities, Problems and Some Suggestions for Chinese Language Teachers and Learners
Hsiao, Ya Ping; Broeder, Peter
This article explores levels of proficiency in Chinese with reference to the new HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi) Chinese Proficiency Test and the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages" (CEFR). Special attention is given to learning and teaching the writing of Chinese characters and the use of Pinyin, a phonetic Romanization…
Vaca Torres, Ady Marcela; Gómez Rodríguez, Luis Fernando
This research study examined how a group of ninth graders enhanced the speaking skill in an English as a foreign language classroom through project-based learning. Data about the experience were collected through field notes, transcripts of learners' oral performance, and one interview. Grounded theory was implemented for data analysis, out of…
O'Donnell, Mary E.
In an attempt to increase second language (L2) learners' understanding of the benefits associated with the process approach to writing and, more specifically, to gain their appreciation of how their peers might contribute to the quality of their writing, in this study peer revision was modified between two groups of lower-level proficiency L2…
Lee, Bradford; Pirotto, Christopher
Individual differences (ID) among language learners (e.g. language aptitude or motivation), are variables that are theorized to affect the degree of success one will have in acquiring a second language (L2). This study sought to add to the body of literature on learning style. 225first year students (divided into two groups based on English proficiency) at a private Japanese university were surveyed to determine their preferred learning style(s). The data obtained were then examined in relati...
Full Text Available Although the foreign-language profession routinely stresses the importance of technology for the curriculum, many teachers still harbor deep-seated doubts as to whether or not a hybrid course, much less a completely distance-learning class, could provide L2 learners with a way to reach linguistic proficiency, especially with respect to oral language skills. In this study, we examine the case of Spanish Without Walls (SWW, a first-year language course offered at the University of California - Davis in both hybrid and distance-learning formats. The SWW curriculum includes materials delivered via CD-ROM/DVD programs, online content-based web pages, and synchronous bimodal chat that includes sound and text. The contribution of each of these components is evaluated in the context of a successful technologically assisted course. To address the issue of oral proficiency, we compare the results from both classroom and distance-learning students who took the 20-minute Versant for Spanish test, delivered by phone and automatically graded. The data generated by this instrument shows that classroom, hybrid, and distance L2 learners reach comparable levels of oral proficiency during their first year of study. Reference is also made to two other ongoing efforts to provide distance-learning courses in Arabic and Punjabi, two languages where special difficulties in their writing systems have an impact on the design of the distant-learning format. The rationale for offering language courses in either a hybrid or distance-learning format is examined in light of increasing societal pressures to help L2 learners reach advanced proficiency, especially in less commonly taught languages (LCTLs.
Khare, Vatsala; Verma, Ark; Kar, Bhoomika; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Brysbaert, Marc
The attentional blink task involves rapid serial presentation of visual stimuli, two of which the participants have to report. The usual finding is that participants are impaired at reporting the second target if it appears in close temporal proximity to the first target. Previous research has shown that the effect is stronger in bilinguals than monolinguals. We investigated whether the difference between monolinguals and proficient bilinguals can be extended to bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Therefore, we replicated the paradigm in a large sample of Hindi-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels of English, as measured with a validated vocabulary test. We additionally measured the participants' intelligence with the raven progressive matrices. We found that the size of the attentional blink effect correlates with the degree of second language proficiency and not with the degree of intelligence. This indicates that research on executive control functions can be done with bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Our results are also in line with recent findings showing that the attentional blink effect is not primarily due to limited processing resources.
The issue of low graduation rates among Indigenous learners transcends borders. Some argue that racism and discrimination in schools and in wider society impede the success of Indigenous learners. Although teachers may not intend to make discriminatory decisions based on a learner's ascribed characteristics, research has demonstrated that…
Butler, Yuko Goto; Someya, Yuumi; Fukuhara, Eiji
Young learners' use of instructional games in foreign language learning is not yet well understood. Using games that were part of the learning tools for an online assessment, Jido-Eiken, a standardized English proficiency test for young learners in Japan, we examined young learners' game-playing behaviours and the relationship of these behaviours…
Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.
Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…
Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, 2015
The "Washington English Language Proficiency Assessment" (WELPA) is a No Child Left Behind (NCLB)-compliant instrument that is used in Grades K-12 as a formal and standardized method of measuring language proficiency. The test results provide important information for classifying English Language Learners (ELLs) and subsequently for…
Coughlin, Caitlin E.; Tremblay, Annie
This study examines the roles of proficiency and working memory (WM) capacity in second-/foreign-language (L2) learners' processing of agreement morphology. It investigates the processing of grammatical and ungrammatical short- and long-distance number agreement dependencies by native English speakers at two proficiencies in French, and the…
This study investigated the metacognitive awareness and reading strategies use of high school-aged English language learners (ELLs) and the relationship between ELL reading strategy use and reading proficiency as measured by a standardized reading test and self-rated reading proficiency. Results reveal that participants reported moderate use of…
In this ethnographic study, I investigate heterogeneous-language peer interactions in an English-only kindergarten classroom. English Learners and English Proficient students co-created language necessary to build an argument, one discourse valued in schools. Students developed complex oral language proficiency skills but were viewed as engaging…
Bowden, Harriet Wood
Proficiency is a key variable in late second language (L2) learning, but one that is undermeasured in current research. This study investigates whether L2 oral proficiency can be quickly and reliably assessed via the Spanish "elicited imitation task" (EIT; Ortega, Iwashita, Rabie, & Norris, 1999). Thirty-seven L2 learners of Spanish…
Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Samani, Behrouz Nouri
This is a study with descriptive hypothesis-testing design investigating the true nature of L2 grammatical proficiency via focusing on its component parts. It examines the performance of 60 female EFL learners between 19 and 30 years of age at 2 proficiency levels using 2 types of computerized Grammaticality Judgement tasks in different orders…
Simon, E.; Escudero, P.; Broersma, M.; Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, K.; Wrembel, M.; Kul, M.
This study examines the effect of proficiency in the L2 (English) and L3 (Dutch) on word learning in the L3. Learners were 92 L1 Spanish speakers with differing proficiencies in L2 and L3, and 20 native speakers of Dutch. The learners were divided into basic and advanced English and Dutch
Alcaraz, A; Gregg, H; Koester, C
The current format of the OPCW proficiency tests has multiple sets of 2 samples sent to an analysis laboratory. In each sample set, one is identified as a sample, the other as a blank. This method of conducting proficiency tests differs from how an OPCW designated laboratory would receive authentic samples (a set of three containers, each not identified, consisting of the authentic sample, a control sample, and a blank sample). This exercise was designed to test the reporting if the proficiency tests were to be conducted. As such, this is not an official OPCW proficiency test, and the attached report is one method by which LLNL might report their analyses under a more realistic testing scheme. Therefore, the title on the report ''Report of the Umpteenth Official OPCW Proficiency Test'' is meaningless, and provides a bit of whimsy for the analyses and readers of the report.
Kötter, Bernhard; Frey, Benjamin; Winderl, Markus; Rubner, Yvonne; Scheithauer, Heike; Sieber, Renate; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S
Radiotherapy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment. Immune activating properties of especially hypofractionated irradiation are in the spotlight of clinicians, besides the well-known effects of radiotherapy on cell cycle and the reduction of the clonogenic potential of tumor cells. Especially combination of radiotherapy with further immune stimulation induces immune-mediated anti-tumor responses. We therefore examined whether hypofractionated irradiation alone or in combination with hyperthermia as immune stimulants is capable of inducing breast cancer cells with immunogenic potential. Clonogenic assay, AnnexinA5-FITC/Propidium iodide assay and ELISA analyses of heat shock protein 70 and high mobility group box 1 protein were applied to characterize colony forming capability, cell death induction, cell death forms and release of danger signals by breast cancer cells in response to hypofractionated radiation (4x4Gy, 6x3Gy) alone and in combination with hyperthermia (41.5 °C for 1 h). Caspase-3 deficient, hormone receptor positive, p53 wild type MCF-7 and caspase-3 intact, hormone receptor negative, p53 mutated MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, the latter in absence or presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk, were used. Supernatants of the treated tumor cells were analyzed for their potential to alter the surface expression of activation markers on human-monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Irradiation reduced the clonogenicity of caspase deficient MCF-7 cells more than of MDA-B231 cells. In contrast, higher amounts of apoptotic and necrotic cells were induced in MDA-B231 cells after single irradiation with 4Gy, 10Gy, or 20Gy or after hypofractionated irradiation with 4x4Gy or 6x3Gy. MDA-B231 cells consecutively released higher amounts of Hsp70 and HMGB1 after hypofractionated irradiation. However, only the release of Hsp70 was further increased by hyperthermia. Both, apoptosis induction and release of the danger signals, was dependent on caspase-3. Only
This paper reports a follow-up study that explored the relationship between EFL learners' critical literacy practices and the English language proficiency. It investigated four focal EFL learners' critical literacy practices in their dialogic interaction and also analyzed 39 students' views on their critical literacy learning. The four focal…
Full Text Available This study aims to find out the various strategies used in learning vocabularies among Iranian EFL learners in three different proficiency levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced in Zanjan province. The vocabulary learning strategies which have been used in this research include determination, social, memory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive which follow Schmitt’s taxonomy. 110 students were randomly selected from two language institutes in Zanjan. Schmitt’s (1997 Vocabulary Learning Strategies’ questionnaire was administered to the learners with three proficiency levels. Then, descriptive statistics and Anova were utilized to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics revealed that the participants of the study regardless of their proficiency levels were generally medium strategy users who used all these strategies moderately except for the determination strategies that were used in high level. In addition, basic learners used all different types of strategies more frequently than intermediate and advanced learners. By comparing two other proficiency levels, advanced learners used determination strategies and meta-cognitive strategies more frequently than intermediate learners, while social, memory and cognitive strategies were used more frequently by Intermediates. In order to perceive if the results were statistically significant, Anova for between group mean differences was conducted. It revealed the fact that there is no significant difference among learners with different proficiency levels in application of determination and meta-cognitive strategies while the learners with lower proficiency level used social, memory and cognitive strategies more frequently, that is, these three strategies were used more frequently by basic, intermediate and advanced learners respectively.
de Greef, Maurice; Verté, Dominique; Segers, Mien
To date a significant share of the European population can be considered at risk of social exclusion. It has been argued that adult education programmes are a powerful tool to support vulnerable adults increasing their social inclusion. This study aims to answer the question if and which subgroups of vulnerable adults experience an increase in…
Tetsuya, KASHIWAGI; Kitakyushu University
Many studies have been conducted which focus on interlanguage features in second language (L2) development of EFL learners. Although contribution of the first language (L1) to L2 development is considered to be such a feature, research into how an EFL learner's L2 proficiency moderates L1 influence on written features is limited. In order to probe the relationship between Japanese EFL learners' L2 proficiency and the degree of L1 influence on their products in second language (L2) writing, th...
This cross-sectional study examined the effect of general proficiency and study-abroad experience in production of speech acts among learners of L2 English. Participants were 25 native speakers of English and 64 Japanese college students of English divided into three groups. Group 1 (n = 22) had lower proficiency and no study-abroad experience.…
Seyyed Ali Ostovar-Namaghi
Full Text Available Having developed foreign language proficiency, a large number of EFL learners experience some degrees of foreign language loss later in life since English has no social function in many EFL contexts including Iran. However, there are some language learners who actively maintain and develop their proficiency long after they leave language education programs. This study aims at uncovering techniques applied by this minority group in maintaining their foreign language proficiency. Participants who were willing to share their experience of proficiency maintenance were selected through purposive and snowball sampling and verbalizations of their experience were then analyzed in line with phenomenology research design. Abstraction and thematic analysis of the participants’ experiences revealed that they actively create conditions that are conducive to proficiency maintenance such as reviewing previously learned materials, watching target language movies and actively manipulating subtitles, reading for pleasure, attending discussion groups, and using internet to communicate in the target language. While proficiency loss and attrition is the norm in EFL contexts, maintenance is an exception; hence, the findings of this study have clear and immediate implications for both foreign language teachers and learners since they provide them with down-to-earth, data-driven techniques of proficiency maintenance.
Zalzadeh Borazjani, Ashraf
The purpose of this study is to investigate how learner variables, including language proficiency, motivation, effort, and family background affect Iranian language learners' EFL vocabulary strategy use? Subjects in this study were 450 EFL students (N = 450) at Payam e Noor University, Borazjan, Iran. After a placement test, they were grouped into…
Rezaei, Saeed; Khatib, Mohammad; Baleghizadeh, Sasan
The present study is a nationwide survey of language identity among English language learners in Iran. The participants who completed the survey in this research included 1851 English language learners from different parts of the country who belonged to different genders, age groups and English language proficiency levels. The main instrument was…
Paker, Turan; Özkardes-Dögüs, Alev
The aim of the study is to find out the achievement attributions of preparatory class learners studying at preintermediate and intermediate levels for their perceived success or failure, and to investigate whether there is a significant relationship between achievement attributions of learners, their gender and level of language proficiency. The…
Cons, Andrea Marie
This study investigated the specific ways secondary English learners (ELs) and redesignated fluent English-proficient learners (RFEPs) use academic vocabulary that assesses interpretive reading and analytical writing ability. The research examines how ELs and RFEPs, formerly ELs, differ in use and misuse of academic words. The study extends…
This study focuses on variation within a group of learners of Spanish (N = 253) who produced requests and complaints via a written discourse completion task. It examines the effects of learner and situational variables on production--the effect of proficiency and addressee-gender on speech-act choice and the effect of perception of imposition on…
Ilieva, Gabriela Nik.
The present paper examines the oral performance of Hindi language learners during practice Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPI) conducted during workshops hosted by New York University and sponsored by STARTALK. The most salient characteristics of the heritage language learners' output are compared with the output of foreign language learners who are…
Brenders, P.E.A.; Hell, J.G. van; Dijkstra, A.F.J.
We studied how Dutch children learned English as a second language (L2) in the classroom. Learners at different levels of L2 proficiency recognized words under different task conditions. Beginning learners in primary school (fifth and sixth grades) and more advanced learners in secondary school
Brenders, Pascal; van Hell, Janet G.; Dijkstra, Ton
We studied how Dutch children learned English as a second language (L2) in the classroom. Learners at different levels of L2 proficiency recognized words under different task conditions. Beginning learners in primary school (fifth and sixth grades) and more advanced learners in secondary school (seventh and ninth grades) made lexical decisions on…
de Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen F.; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.
This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants--181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch--performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel of judges and formed the dependent variable in…
Albuquerque Technical-Vocational Institute's system for grading business courses by proficiency certification in place of the traditional A through F system is described. A certificate is developed for each course, with evaluation of student performance in each area. This system requires a greater volume of paper work and skill analysis but it is…
de Jong, N.H.; Steinel, M.P.; Florijn, A.F.; Schoonen, R.; Hulstijn, J.H.
This study examined the componential structure of second-language (L2) speaking proficiency. Participants—181 L2 and 54 native speakers of Dutch—performed eight speaking tasks and six tasks tapping nine linguistic skills. Performance in the speaking tasks was rated on functional adequacy by a panel
Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Hsu, Chih-Chun; Chang, Li-Yun; Lin, Yu-Chi; Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting
The present study is aimed at investigating the effect of a radical-derived Chinese character teaching strategy on enhancing Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners' Chinese orthographic awareness. An e-learning teaching platform, based on statistical data from the Chinese Orthography Database Explorer (Chen, Chang, Chou, Sung, & Chang,…
This study investigated whether the effects of pragmatics instruction delivered via a self-access website in a Chinese as a foreign language learning environment vary according to learners' language proficiency. The website provided learners with explicit instruction in how to express gratitude appropriately in Chinese and offered them pragmatic…
Gallegos, Carol; Wise, Donald
This article discusses the decisions that school leaders must make to reclassify students as fluent and proficient in English and the implications that reclassification decisions could have for the future achievement of those students. The study examined the achievement gap between English learners and the overall student population and the…
Seyyed Mohammad Reza Adel
Full Text Available In regard to the significant role of information and communication technology (ICT in educational systems, it becomes increasingly important to gain a better understanding of the features of the language used by learners in the new contexts created by this medium. This paper aims at analyzing politeness strategies including negative politeness, positive politeness, bald on-record, and bald-off record strategies in posts written by Iranian EFL learners in a class blog as an opportunity for asynchronous interaction in response to their teachers and peers. The participants of the study were 14 Iranian EFL learners selected based on their level of language proficiency. There were 1520 politeness utterances across all posts including 800 politeness utterances used when learners were interacting with their instructor and 720 politeness utterances used when learners were interacting with their peers. The collected data were analyzed using content analysis as well as Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis (CMDA. The results revealed that learners frequently used positive strategies as signs of psychologically close relationship, reciprocity and friendship in a group.
Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.
Siddiqui, Fauzia Hasan
This study aims at grabbing the attention of EFL /ESL teachers, trainers, and administrators towards the importance of teaching speaking skill to enhance overall language proficiency of EFL learners...
Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje
This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…
Kelly, Patricia R.; Gomez-Bellenge, Francisco-Xavier; Chen, Jing; Schulz, Melissa M.
This study investigated the efficacy of Reading Recovery[R] (RR) with first grade English language learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools by examining the literacy outcomes of ELLs compared with their native English-speaking (NES) peers, who were also enrolled in RR. We also explored how ELLs' fall oral English proficiency levels were related to their…
This paper investigated the phonological acquisition of English /s/ + consonant onset clusters by Korean learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) who varied in their levels of proficiency. The data were collected from twenty eighth-graders in a Korean secondary school, who were divided into two groups according to their proficiency: low-…
Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis; Castellano, Katherine; Himelfarb, Igor; Tsutagawa, Fred S.
This article investigates ways to improve the assessment of English learner students' English language proficiency given the current movement of creating next-generation English language proficiency assessments in the Common Core era. In particular, this article discusses the integration of scaffolding strategies, which are prevalently utilized as…
Garcia, Ofelia; Kleifgen, Jo Anne; Falchi, Lorraine
One of the most misunderstood issues in pre-K-12 education today is how to educate children who are not yet proficient in English. When policymakers refer to these students as English language learners (ELLs)--as many school district officials presently do--or as limited English proficient students (LEPs)--as federal legislators did in the No…
Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David
This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…
Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Laitusis, Cara; Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene
This paper is the second in a series from Educational Testing Service (ETS) that conceptualizes next-generation English language proficiency (ELP) assessment systems for K-12 English learners (ELs) in the United States.The first paper articulated a high-level conceptualization of next-generation ELP assessment systems (Hauck, Wolf, & Mislevy,…
Iino, Atsushi; Yabuta, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yoichi
The purpose of this study is to find the effects of using Videoconferencing (VC) as a tool for foreign language instructions in a semester long research study. The research questions focus on the effects of VC (1) on speaking skills, and (2) on general proficiency scores. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners in a university in Japan were…
Boers, Frank; Eyckmans, June; Kappel, Jenny; Stengers, Helene; Demecheleer, Murielle
This study reports a small-scale experiment that was set up to estimate the extent to which (i) the use of formulaic sequences (standardized phrases such as collocations and idiomatic expressions) can help learners come across as proficient L2 speakers and (ii) an instructional method that emphasizes "noticing" of L2 formulaic sequences can help…
Zarei, Abbas Ali; Zarei, Nasrin
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Iranian EFL learners' proficiency level on their self-related personality traits (self-esteem and self-efficacy). To this end, 141 English major students, male and female, studying at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU) and Kar Non-profit University in Qazvin, Iran were…
The current project examined whether and to what degree age of acquisition (AOA), defined as the first intensive exposure to a second language (L2) environment, can be predictive of the end state of postpubertal L2 oral proficiency attainment. Data were collected from 88 experienced Japanese learners of English and two groups of 20 baseline…
The study addresses the degree of transfer of literacy dimensions of academic proficiency (AP), that is, reading comprehension and writing, across three languages--Russian (L1), Hebrew (L2), and English (L3)--and investigates whether a common conceptual source underlies the linguistic and cognitive operations of the trilingual learner (Grosjean,…
Martin, Amy L.; Reeves, Todd D.; Smith, Thomas J.; Walker, David A.
Online learning is variously employed in K-12 education, including for teacher professional development. However, the use of computer-based technologies for learning purposes assumes learner computer proficiency, making this construct an important domain of procedural knowledge in formal and informal online learning contexts. Addressing this…
The Certificates of Foreign Language Proficiency are general purpose tests of language use designed for the adult learner in Finland. This paper deals with the techniques of validation used when designing the test specifications and implementing these into the first versions of the tests. The data comes from the development of tests in one…
Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu
This study aims to investigate the effect of experience abroad and second language proficiency on foreign language classroom anxiety. Particularly, this study is an attempt to fill the gap in the literature about the affective outcomes after experiences abroad through the anxiety profiles of Korean learners of English as a foreign language (EFL)…
Butler, Yuko Goto; Zeng, Wei
In response to the growing interest in evaluating young learners' foreign language (FL) performance, this study aims to deepen our understanding of young learners' developmental differences in interaction during task-based paired-language assessments. To examine age effects separately from the effect of general language proficiency, we analysed…
Keywords: educator assessment feedback; journal entries; learner feelings; learner motivation; learners' voices; understanding of assessment feedback. Introduction. International and national studies have revealed the poor mathematics skills of South African learners. The performance of Grade 8 learners in the Trends.
This study compares the virtual identities of one hundred Taiwanese and one hundred Japanese learners of English on a popular language exchange forum. Issues of image projection, online behaviors, target language proficiency, and investment are addressed. In light of recent research on identity theory, it outlines varied ways that language learners attempt to negotiate multiple identities and position themselves online. Adopting Sealey and Carter’s (2004) social realism framework, this study ...
Lo, Ya-yu; Anderson, Adrienne L.; Bunch-Crump, Kimberly
Many educators in public schools in the United States experience challenges in meeting the unique needs of the growing population of English learners who must simultaneously attain academic skills while acquiring English language proficiency. Such unique needs intensify for English learners with reading disabilities. Morphological awareness is key…
Alharbi, Adel M.
This project investigated Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs) English Language Learners used; and strategies they thought were effective to them in terms of language proficiency. Using an online survey, 121 participants responded to statements regarding their usage of VLSs. Participants have been divided into two groups: (1) learners with low…
Having acquired some degree of oral proficiency but low (or non-existent) literacy, the learning of Chinese heritage learners' (CHLs) learning needs are different from those of Chinese foreign language learners (CFLs), who have learned Chinese only in the classroom setting. Although researchers have advocated for a separate curriculum for…
Amin Afshar, Maryam; Mojavezi, Ahmad
EFL learners at all ages and proficiency levels are usually confronted with various problems in vocabulary learning and retention. This study sought to introduce strategies for improvement of vocabulary learning and retention. Therefore, the effects of using aural/visual storytelling on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary learning and retention were…
Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh
The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…
Dewey, Dan P.; Belnap, R. Kirk; Hillstrom, Rebecca
Language learners and educators have subscribed to the belief that those who go abroad will have many opportunities to use the target language and will naturally become proficient. They also assume that language learners will develop relationships with native speakers allowing them to use the language and become more fluent, an assumption…
Ahn, Tae youn
Language exchange refers to a learning partnership between two learners with different native languages who collaborate to help each other improve their proficiency in the other's language. The purpose of this study is to examine the ways in which language-exchange participants activate learner agency to construct opportunities for learning in…
Kim, Sun-A; Packard, Jerome; Christianson, Kiel; Anderson, Richard C.; Shin, Jeong-Ah
This study investigated whether orthographic consistency and individual learner differences including working memory (WM), first language (L1) background, and second language (L2) proficiency affect Chinese L2 learners' literacy acquisition. Seventy American college students in beginning or intermediate Chinese classes participated in a character…
Zhao, Aiping; Guo, Ying; Biales, Carrie; Olszewski, Arnold
This study examined the predictive role of several learner factors in second language (L2) incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading: L2 proficiency, motivation, anxiety, and mastery of strategies. Participants were 129 English learners in a comprehensive university in China. Participants read two English texts and were given an…
It is common knowledge that foreign learners struggle when it comes to producing the sounds of the target language accurately. Research in L2 speech acquisition has shown that in order to achieve native-like production of sounds in a foreign language, the learner must first become proficient in
Isazadeh, Parya; Makui, Selma Mohammad Zadeh; Ansarian, Loghman
The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n = 180) language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred…
Alnamer, Sulafah Abdul Salam
This study measures the extent to which Arabic-speaking EFL learners are aware of polysemy in English. It also investigates whether the English proficiency level of Arabic-speaking EFL learners plays a role in their ability to distinguish between the various meanings of English polysemous words, and whether they face problems when they encounter…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that trigger language anxiety among Saudi learners in English as Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. The factor of anxiety is especially found among learners while developing proficiency in over all communication and speaking skills as felt by the EFL teachers. The study also seeks to answer…
Alotaibi, Maye A.; Alotaibi, Abdullah M.
This study aims to test the extent to which 80 Kuwaiti EFL learners are aware of prenominal adjective ordering system in English, particularly how it affects Kuwaiti EFL learners' grasp on English grammar. In addition, it checks whether the English proficiency level of the participants plays a role in their answers on the test. Therefore, a…
Gamification is a new but upcoming feature in classrooms that has grown with the digitalisation in Swedish homes and schools. The aim of this literature review is to research how gamification can influence upper secondary students’ language proficiency in English as a foreign language. Five sources were analysed, four journals and one conference paper, and the results show that gamification could increase language proficiency if it is used in a moderate amount and that the summative assessmen...
This study investigates learners' performance in a Taiwanese tertiary content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programme. Learners' English proficiency was measured immediately after entering the programme and before their industrial placement, i.e. after two years. As in previously reported cases, the learners showed a significant…
Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D; Mitzner, Tracy; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran
Computers and the Internet have the potential to enrich the lives of seniors and aid in the performance of important tasks required for independent living. A prerequisite for reaping these benefits is having the skills needed to use these systems, which is highly dependent on proper training. One prerequisite for efficient and effective training is being able to gauge current levels of proficiency. We developed a new measure (the Computer Proficiency Questionnaire, or CPQ) to measure computer proficiency in the domains of computer basics, printing, communication, Internet, calendaring software, and multimedia use. Our aim was to develop a measure appropriate for individuals with a wide range of proficiencies from noncomputer users to extremely skilled users. To assess the reliability and validity of the CPQ, a diverse sample of older adults, including 276 older adults with no or minimal computer experience, was recruited and asked to complete the CPQ. The CPQ demonstrated excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = .98), with subscale reliabilities ranging from .86 to .97. Age, computer use, and general technology use all predicted CPQ scores. Factor analysis revealed three main factors of proficiency related to Internet and e-mail use; communication and calendaring; and computer basics. Based on our findings, we also developed a short-form CPQ (CPQ-12) with similar properties but 21 fewer questions. The CPQ and CPQ-12 are useful tools to gauge computer proficiency for training and research purposes, even among low computer proficient older adults. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mania Nosratinia; Fatemeh Abbasi
The present study attempted to compare the effect of teaching concept mapping in reading on extrovert and introvert English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' Self-Regulation (SR). The participants were 60 female EFL learners at the intermediate level of English language proficiency, between 18 and 20 (Mage = 19). The Preliminary English Test was employed in order to select homogeneous participants in terms of English language proficiency level, followed by administering Eysenck's Personal...
Greenberg Motamedi, Jason; Singh, Malkeet; Thompson, Karen D.
How long does it typically take English learner students to develop English language proficiency? And how does this time vary by student characteristics such as English proficiency at entry to kindergarten, gender, and home language? The answers to these questions can provide valuable information to districts and schools. Regional Educational…
Florez, Ida Rose
The Arizona English Language Learners Assessment (AZELLA) is used by the Arizona Department of Education to determine which children should receive English support services. AZELLA results are used to determine if children are either proficient in English or have English language skills in one of four pre-proficient categories (pre-emergent,…
Wood, Lara A; Kendal, Rachel L; Flynn, Emma G
The current study investigated whether 4- to 6-year-old children's task solution choice was influenced by the past proficiency of familiar peer models and the children's personal prior task experience. Peer past proficiency was established through behavioral assessments of interactions with novel tasks alongside peer and teacher predictions of each child's proficiency. Based on these assessments, one peer model with high past proficiency and one age-, sex-, dominance-, and popularity-matched peer model with lower past proficiency were trained to remove a capsule using alternative solutions from a three-solution artificial fruit task. Video demonstrations of the models were shown to children after they had either a personal successful interaction or no interaction with the task. In general, there was not a strong bias toward the high past-proficiency model, perhaps due to a motivation to acquire multiple methods and the salience of other transmission biases. However, there was some evidence of a model-based past-proficiency bias; when the high past-proficiency peer matched the participants' original solution, there was increased use of that solution, whereas if the high past-proficiency peer demonstrated an alternative solution, there was increased use of the alternative social solution and novel solutions. Thus, model proficiency influenced innovation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Norland, Jennifer Jane
The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions of eighth grade English Language Learners in an inclusive science classroom. There is a paucity of research in this area. Central to this study was the students' perceptions and interactions with five different science curriculum features; teacher presentation and guided notes, worksheets, homework, labs, and practice and review activities. The student participants were English Language Learners from two language proficiency levels and the teacher was a provisionally licensed first year science teacher. The aggregate data included individual interviews with the students and teacher, classroom observations, and the collection of classroom artifacts. The findings revealed: (a) students' comprehension of the material was inconsistent throughout all of the curriculum features and differences were observed not only between but also within the two proficiency levels; (b) classroom organizational issues created challenges for both the teacher and the students; (c) off task behavior was most prevalent during the teacher's one-to-one instruction and interfered with learning; (d) differences between levels of language proficiency were observed among students who preferred to work independently and were comfortable asking the teacher for assistance and the students who preferred working with and receiving assistance from peers; and (e) language proficiency rather than cultural differences appeared to be the greatest barrier to classroom success. Overall, English language proficiency was a crucial determinant in the English Language Learners success in the inclusive classroom. Additionally, implications suggest that a limited teaching skill set could adversely affect the success of students in inclusive classrooms.
Rinaldi, Claudia; Samson, Jennifer
The most salient difficulty in assessing English language learner (ELL) students who exhibit academic difficulties is identifying whether the problem is one of English proficiency or of a learning disability. In many cases, the symptoms are shared and difficult to disentangle, but obtaining a comprehensive picture of the child is vital for…
Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.
Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…
O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Rogers, Margaret R.
This study explored bilingual school psychologists' assessment practices with students identified as English language learners (ELL). One thousand bilingual National Association of School Psychologist members were recruited nationwide, and 276 participated. Among those conducting language proficiency assessments of ELLs, many (58%) use…
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development can help English learners develop academic proficiency with the English language. In this investigation, at one middle school, teachers focused on improving oral language skills. Using a formative experiment process, the teachers developed an intervention to accomplish their pedagogical goal and then tracked data to see…
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012
The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education commissioned this paper to explore several questions about students who are English language learners (ELL) in Massachusetts: (1) For how many years is a typical ELL student in Massachusetts classified as limited English proficient (LEP)?; (2) How much variation is there in a the…
Peña, Rodrigo H.; Maxwell, Gerri M.
This study explores classroom placement for first year English Language Learner (ELL) students from the perspective of a dual language director and two bilingual education strategists. The study strives to interrogate classroom placement for first year ELL students whose language proficiency level is at beginning level. Through a process of coding…
Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed
This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…
Miller, Rhonda D.
English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities (LD) can find navigating the content areas quite difficult due to challenges involving limitations in English language proficiency, gaps in English academic vocabulary, difficulties with working memory and long-term memory, and limited background knowledge on content area topics. However,…
Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D
A large body of literature has characterized unimodal monolingual and bilingual lexicons and how neighborhood density affects lexical access; however there have been relatively fewer studies that generalize these findings to bimodal (M2) second language (L2) learners of sign languages. The goal of the current study was to investigate parallel language activation in M2L2 learners of sign language and to characterize the influence of spoken language and sign language neighborhood density on the activation of ASL signs. A priming paradigm was used in which the neighbors of the sign target were activated with a spoken English word and compared the activation of the targets in sparse and dense neighborhoods. Neighborhood density effects in auditory primed lexical decision task were then compared to previous reports of native deaf signers who were only processing sign language. Results indicated reversed neighborhood density effects in M2L2 learners relative to those in deaf signers such that there were inhibitory effects of handshape density and facilitatory effects of location density. Additionally, increased inhibition for signs in dense handshape neighborhoods was greater for high proficiency L2 learners. These findings support recent models of the hearing bimodal bilingual lexicon, which posit lateral links between spoken language and sign language lexical representations.
Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software-Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007-was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students' English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners' EAT. Chinese EFL learners' ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners' EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years' English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed.
This discussion paper focuses on English proficiency standards for nursing registration in Australia, how Australia has dealt with the issue of language proficiency, and the factors which have led to the establishment of the current language standards. Also, this paper will provide a comparison of the two language tests that are currently accepted in Australia (OET and IELTS), including the appropriateness of these tests and the minimum standards used. The paper will also examine the use of educational background as an indicator of language proficiency. Finally, communication-based complaints in the post-registration environment will be explored, and some discussion will be provided about why pre-registration measures might have failed to prevent such problematic situations from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available For the first time learner's passport was pre sented at the international conference on permanent education, taking place in Rome in December 1994. This document is not meant for students only but for the entire population. It should contain notes on any format education, additional education, working experiences, cultural activities, sport results, awards, prizes and recommen dations. The mission of learner's passport is to gather all documents in one place, a handy book let which gives one an overall view over his/her achievements. It should help personnel departments in choosing the right person for a certain job as well as indirectly stimul ate additional activities of the learner's passport holder.
Cataloged from PDF version of article. This study investigated the role of writing portfolios in increasing learners’ confidence in writing and possible attitude changes towards writing. The study also examined the attitudes of students and teachers towards using writing portfolios as a self-assessment tool. The study was conducted with 60 pre-intermediate level students, one experimental and two control groups, and their classroom teacher in the Preparatory School of Englis...
Jiang, Jiahong; Yu, Yibing
English writing, an indispensable skill in English learning, plays an important role in improving learners' language proficiency. With the wide spread and use of wired or wireless internet, EFL students can easily help and be helped with English writing. Therefore, the application of internet-based peer feedback training on writing to foreign or…
The current longitudinal study examines the similarities and differences between primary and secondary foreign language curricula and pedagogy along with the development of motivation for language learning and second language proficiency. Data from 26 English learners of French (aged 10-11) were collected across three times points over a 12-month…
Gill, Kavarljit Kaur; Williams, Andrew N.
Learning another language is very much affected by positive or negative connotations attached to the new language by the language learner. Entering Malaysian public universities there are many students with a low proficiency in English, despite spending eleven years studying English in schools. Could it be that the lack of progress among these…
Andria, Maria; Serrano, Raquel
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of first language thinking-for-speaking patterns on the acquisition of Greek as a second language (L2), as well as to determine whether proficiency level and stays in the target-language country have an effect on such influence. The participants (N = 50) were Spanish/Catalan learners of…
Christensen, Laurene L.; Albus, Debra A.; Liu, Kristin K.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Kincaid, Aleksis
English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities are required to participate in all state and district assessments similar to their peers without disabilities. This includes assessments used for the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I accountability purposes for demonstrating proficiency in academic content, assessments used…
Franklin, Pat; Stephens, Claire Gatrell
Turning students into lifelong learners is not easily accomplished. How do school librarians ensure that students have a zeal for learning? How do they encourage, cajole, or entice students to want to learn? The answer lies in empowering students with the skills they need to enjoy researching as well as reading for information and pleasure. This…
Developing children's capacity to learn is at the forefront of all endeavours in schools. Teachers strive to capitalise on a wide range of teaching styles and innovations to stimulate, motivate and engage their children to become "better learners". Since September 1999, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University has…
Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others
A study investigated lexical decision-making among Dutch-English bilinguals in the auditory modality. Subjects, bilinguals at three proficiency levels (intermediate, high, and near-native) were presented with 40 cognate and 40 non-cognate word pairs, a similar number of English and Dutch distractors, and a similar number of nonsense words in each…
An attempt to test students objectively in a five-part, French, speaking proficiency test is described and discussed. Concrete nouns, abstract words, pronunciation, syntax, and fluency are tested with a combination of tape and picture stimuli. Reliability, validity, and practical questions are raised; and previous aural-oral testing procedures are…
A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…
The everyday use of "proficient" carries connotations of having reached a level of expertise. One would not describe someone stumbling through a rendition of "Chopsticks" as a proficient piano player; but novice pianists work on musical proficiencies--practicing scales or playing a polka--in parallel. They do not put off…
Davies, Sarah E; Dodd, Karen J; Tu, April; Zucchi, Emiliano; Zen, Stefania; Hill, Keith D
To determine whether English proficiency and/or the frequency of interpreter use impacts on health outcomes for inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Retrospective case-control study. People admitted for inpatient stroke rehabilitation. A high English proficiency group comprised people with native or near native English proficiency (n = 80), and a low English proficiency group comprised people who preferred a language other than English (n = 80). Length of stay (LOS), discharge destination and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The low English proficiency group showed a greater improvement in FIM from admission to discharge (p = 0.04). No significant differences were found between groups in LOS, discharge destination and number of encounters with allied health professionals. Increased interpreter usage improved FIM efficiency but did not significantly alter other outcomes. English proficiency does not appear to impact on health outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation with a primarily in-house professional interpreter service. However, there is a need for a larger powered study to confirm these findings. Implications for rehabilitation People with low English proficiency undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation in a setting with a primarily in-house professional interpreter service, achieved similar outcomes to those with high English proficiency irrespective of frequency of interpreter usage. A non-significant increase of 4 days length of stay was observed in the low English proficiency group compared to the high English proficiency group. For patients with low English proficiency, greater change in Functional Independence Measure efficiency scores was observed for those with higher levels of interpreter use relative to those with low interpreter use. Clinicians should optimise use of interpreters with patients with low English proficiency when possible.
Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis
Meyer, Oliver; Coyle, Do; Halbach, Ana; Schuck, Kevin; Ting, Teresa
Over the past decades content and language integrated learning (CLIL) research has predominantly focused on the language proficiency of CLIL learners. The results are very promising and show that working language skills in learners, especially reading and listening skills, can be improved through a CLIL programme. Studies focusing on subject…
Wilson, Damian Vergara; Martinez, Ricardo
Although the definition of heritage language learner (HLLs) has been widely explored, researchers tend to base their definitions on learner proficiency. While such a premise is a safe and conservative way to identify heritage students, it pays little mind to inclusivity. Indeed, it may place the university in the role of cultural gatekeeper,…
Eslami, Zohreh R.; Kung, Wan-Tsai
The purpose of this study was to explore the occurrence of incidental focus-on-form and its effect on subsequent second language (L2) production of learners of different dyads in an online task-based language learning context. The participants included Taiwanese learners of English as a foreign language at different proficiency levels, and native…
Kalali, Nazanin Naderi; Pishkar, Kian
The main thrust of this study was to determine whether a genre-based instruction improve the writing proficiency of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 30 homogenous Iranian BA learners studying English at Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch were selected as the participants of the study through a version of TOEFL test as the proficiency…
In response to growing linguistic diversity, many U.S. universities have implemented language policies that include procedures for English learner (EL) identification. Institutional labels such as "English learner" and "limited English proficiency" are regularly used to identify students who may need English language support;…
Full Text Available In the written texts on foreign language learning, a group of studies has stressed the function of learning context and learning chances for learners’ language input. The present thesis had two main goals: on the one hand, different types of input to which Iranian grade four high school EFL learners’ are exposed were looked at; on the other hand, the possible relationship between types and quantity of input and Iranian EFL learners’ oral proficiency was investigated. It was supposed that EFL learners who have access to more input will show better oral proficiency than those who do not have. Instruments used in the present study for the purpose of data collation included PET test, researcher- made questionnaire, oral language proficiency test and face- to -face interview. Data were gathered from 50 Iranian female grade four high school foreign language learners who were selected from among 120 students whose score on PET test were +1SD from the mean score. The results of the Spearman rank –order correlation test for the types of input and oral language proficiency scores, showed that the participants’ oral proficiency score significantly correlated with the intended four sources of input including spoken (rho= 0.416, sig=0.003, written (rho= 0.364, sig=0.009, aural (rho= 0.343, sig=0.015 and visual or audio-visual types of input (rho= 0.47, sig=0.00. The findings of Spearman rank –order correlation test for the quantity of input and oral language proficiency scores also showed a significant relationship between quantity of input and oral language proficiency (rho= 0.543, sig= 0.00. The findings showed that EFL learners’ oral proficiency is significantly correlated with efficient and effective input. The findings may also suggest answers to the question why most Iranian English learners fail to speak English fluently, which might be due to lack of effective input. This may emphasize the importance of the types and quantity of
Full Text Available This paper presents a study investigating the relationship between corrective feedback, students’ language proficiency and classroom communication orientation in classrooms of Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL at a US university. Inspired by Lyster and Mori (2006, this comparative analysis of teacher-student interaction investigates the immediate effects of prompt, recast, and explicit correction on learner uptake and repair across three different Chinese proficiency levels. By use of two measurement tools—Error Treatment Model and COLT coding scheme, the study attempts to seek the distribution pattern of feedbacks and the sequent uptakes, as well as the impact of learners’ proficiency levels on the pattern of feedback and uptakes in CFL classrooms. Results show that recasts still remain the most common feedback type across the classes in this study. The uptake of feedback is influenced both by classroom communication orientation and the students’ language proficiency.
Full Text Available Performance deficiencies and inconsistencies among SLA or FL learners can be attributed to variety of sources including both systemic (i.e., language issues and individual variables. Contrary to a rich background, the literature still suffers from a gap as far as delving into the issue from language proficiency and learning style is concerned. To fill the gap, this study addressed EFL learners’ interlanguage performance (i.e., error types in the light of their learning styles and language proficiency levels. Participants were 73 Iranian graduate EFL learners, who received the Michigan proficiency tests along with the Perceptual Learning-Style Preference Questionnaire (of Reid in order to measure their language proficiency level and learning style types. For the purpose of the study they were divided into pre-intermediate, intermediate and upper-intermediate levels. To explore their performance inconsistencies, both oral data from an semi-structured (SST interview and written data based on an on-the-spot piece of writing were used and then classified based on Corder’s (1971 scheme into pre-systematic, systematic and post-systematic errors. The results revealed significant relationships among the target variables, if not predictor-predicted relationships. The non-linear relationship among the variable underscores significance of an integrative approach to EFL learner’s performance inconsistencies and the importance of stylistic instruction in EFL contexts.
Full Text Available The critical discussions and matters in enhancing students’ learning performance, knowledge, and language proficiency have received a remarkable degree of attention in educational contexts. This study was undertaken to encourage learners to build the required competence in the foreign language by utilizing learning strategies so that they could become autonomous learners. Language learners' learning difficulties while learning a foreign language were identified in this study. With regard to problems which language learners faced in learning a foreign language, the teachers are able to recognize and to utilize appropriate language learning strategies in order to develop autonomy in learners who conceptualize and use those strategies in the foreign language. The research design adopted for the present study was survey method. The data for the study were collected with the use of a questionnaire. This questionnaire was administered to a total of 60 EFL learners who were selected from a university in Iran. It was used to assess learners’ awareness and perceived use of strategies and to provide data on their best utilized strategies. Results have been driven through statistical analysis. The analyzed data reveal the students’ styles and assist teachers to take part in shifting the strategies and heighten language learners' autonomy. The findings support the claim that knowing and making language learners aware of the most appropriate strategy would assist learners to improve their autonomy and to enhance their learning.
Ilgaz, Hale; Gulbahar, Yasemin
Offering many advantages to adult learners, e-Learning is now being recognized--and preferred--by more and more people, resulting in an increased number of distance learners in recent years. Numerous research studies focus on learner preferences for online learning, with most converging around the individual characteristics and differences, if not…
The Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) has been increasingly used in academia. However, while multiple studies have documented the growth in OPI implementation across the United States and the proficiency rates of its completers, few have focused specifically on foreign language teacher candidates, and even fewer have investigated the impact that…
Van Viegen Stille, Saskia; Jang, Eunice; Wagner, Maryam
The Ontario Ministry of Education recently implemented the Steps to English Proficiency (STEP) language assessment framework to build educator capacity for addressing the needs of English language learners (ELLs) in K-12 schools. The STEP framework is a set of descriptors-based language proficiency scales that specify observable linguistic…
Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul
In this study, we investigated criterial discourse features in L2 writing through the use of recurrent word combinations, a.k.a. lexical bundles, taking a corpus-driven and expert-judged approach by examining L2 English data across various proficiency levels from L1 Chinese learners. Proficiency was determined by a robust rating procedure which is…
Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas
This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF) was administered to 540 children (272 boys), 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex) × 4 (age groups) ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did ...
Fauzia Hasan Siddiqui
This study aims at grabbing the attention of EFL /ESL teachers, trainers, and administrators towards the importance of teaching speaking skill to enhance overall language proficiency of EFL learners. Comprehensive research done in the field of applied linguistics and English Language Teaching (ELT) establishes a positive correlation of speaking skill with the overall language proficiency. Despite this obvious significance of speaking skill in language learning process, it has not gained suffi...
Full Text Available At the University of South Africa (Unisa, a large, open and distance education university in South Africa, the majority of the practising teachers who enrolled as students (henceforth referred to as teacher students for the practical component of the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE: Inclusive Education (Learning Difficulties for the year 2008 lacked English proficiency. Because these students’ primary language is not English, they found it difficult to master this course, as reflected by the low throughput rate of 44 per cent in 2008. The question arose: Does poor proficiency in English of English second-language (ESL teacher students influence ESL learners’ progress during learner support lessons taught by teacher students as part of their teaching practice for the ACE: Inclusive Education (Learning Difficulties? In an attempt to answer this question, we report on typical errors made by the learners and the teacher students and similarities between teacher errors and learner errors, against the background of a literature overview which includes the relationship between input and output and prominent theories of second-language acquisition. Departing from a phenomenological/interpretive paradigm, a qualitative analysis of the teacher students’ portfolios was undertaken (Hussey & Hussey, 1997:54. The document analysis was done by means of error analysis of the teacher-student portfolios (which included ESL learner support lessons and ESL learner evidence that were submitted by the teacher students to Unisa by 1 September 2008. The results of this study are significant because it alerts academia to the fact that qualified practising ESL teachers are not necessarily proficient in English and that this may have an effect on the ESL learner’s ability to acquire English proficiency. However, it was pointed out that several other contributing factors may exist and that further in-depth research is required. Nevertheless, a re
van Bree, Chris; Rodermond, Hans M.; de Vos, Judith; Haveman, Jaap; Franken, Nicolaas A. P.
Purpose: Mismatch repair (MMR) proficiency has been reported to either increase or decrease radioenhancement by 24-h incubations with gemcitabine. This study aimed to establish the importance of MMR for radioenhancement by gemcitabine after short-exposure, high-dose treatment and long-exposure,
Poor fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency can contribute to a decrease in participation in energy-expending recreational and sporting endeavours. Against the backdrop of the increasing obesity epidemic, ensuring that these foundational motor skills are established in childhood is justified. The purpose of this ...
Freeman, Donald; Katz, Anne; Garcia Gomez, Pablo; Burns, Anne
The expansion of English teaching in state education systems places increasing demands on English language teachers and how they are trained. A major thrust of these efforts has focused on improving teachers' English language proficiency. This expectation is manifested in policy and pedagogical directives that teachers "teach English in…
Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem
As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…
Nenden Sri Lengkanawati
Full Text Available Learner autonomy in Indonesian educational institutions has not commonly been listed as a teaching-learning objective, and most teachers seem to be hardly acquainted with learner autonomy (LA. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study of LA as perceived and experienced by school teachers and to find out the importance of LA training for professional development. A questionnaire was used to collect the data about English teachers’ perceptions regarding LA and LA-based practices. In addition, an LA training was conducted to see its significance for professional development. After the data were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, it was found that the participating teachers tended to maintain that autonomy should be inculcated among learners, and that the LA concept should not be misinterpreted as learning without a teacher. Concerning choices and decisions by the learners, it was believed that learners’ making choices about how they learned and what activities they did, and involving them to decide what and how to learn could promote autonomy among learners. As regards LA-based teaching-learning practices, it was revealed that most teachers desired to implement LA principles in their teaching-learning contexts, although they identified that many of the LA principles were not that feasible to apply in their situation. It was also found that LA training could improve the teachers’ perceptions regarding LA concepts and principles. There were some constraints which could make learner autonomy difficult to develop among Indonesian learners in general: limited time allotted for the implementation of the curriculum, learners’ lack of autonomous learning experience, too much focus on national examinations, and insufficient proficiency of English. LA-based teaching-learning practices were most desired; however, many were considered as having insufficient feasibility. In this respect, commitment is certainly the key to
Full Text Available The present study attempted to examine the relationship between English as a Foreign Language (EFL learnersâ motivational beliefs and their use of learning strategies. The three components of motivation, i.e. expectancy component, value component and affective component, were examined in relation to metacognitive, cognitive and effort management strategies. Two hundred and fifty seven EFL learners representing different proficiency levels completed the Persian version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, which consisted of motivation scale and learning strategies scale. The analysis of the effect of proficiency level on motivational beliefs showed a significant effect of proficiency level on test anxiety and extrinsic goal orientation, suggesting that less proficient learners were significantly more anxious and more extrinsically oriented compared to advanced learners of English. It was also found that self-efficacy, control of learning beliefs, intrinsic goal orientation and task value could account for 70% of variations in self-regulated learning (SRL strategies. Based on the findings of this study, several suggestions are made to aid instructors in creating a non-product-oriented approach to learning, which promotes foreign language learnersâ learning outcomes.
Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Grainger, Jonathan; Casalis, Séverine; Ziegler, Johannes C
Prior evidence from masked morphological priming has revealed conflicting findings regarding the acquisition of morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanisms in developing readers. Here, we examined changes in masked morphological priming across grade within a large sample of French primary school children (n = 191, Grades 2-5) and how these effects are modulated by individual differences in reading proficiency, spelling proficiency, and morphological awareness. Target words were preceded by either (a) a suffixed word prime (e.g., tristesse-TRISTE), (b) a suffixed nonword prime (e.g., tristerie-TRISTE), (c) a non-suffixed nonword prime (e.g., tristald-TRISTE), or (d) an unrelated prime (e.g., direction-TRISTE) using very short prime durations (50 ms). Moreover, a frequency manipulation was included for suffixes and non-suffixes. The results revealed robust suffixed word priming across all children independent of grade and proficiency. On the other hand, priming in the suffixed and non-suffixed nonword conditions was modulated by reading proficiency, with high-proficiency children showing facilitation and low-proficiency children showing inhibition. The effects of suffix and non-suffix frequency were modulated by grade, with decreasing effects as grade increased. None of the observed priming effects were modulated by grade, spelling proficiency, or morphological awareness. The results suggest that reading proficiency is an important predictor for embedded stem activation mechanisms in primary school children, which we discuss in the context of recent theories of morphological processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In the context of five less commonly taught languages (LCTLs, this article investigates learners’ perceptions of the difficulty level of the language of study, their insights on their learning experience and their classrooms’ conditions and practices, and most importantly their views on having both heritage and non-heritage learners in the same classroom. 124 university students enrolled in Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, and Russian completed a questionnaire survey. The findings reveal that non-heritage learner of the five LCTLs view the LCTL of study as difficult because of the writing system; heritage learners, however, perceive it as neither easy nor difficult. In addition, among all learners, Arabic heritage learners are the only ones who recognize that the learning challenges are the various levels of proficiency in the same classroom, and the dissimilarity between the standard variety and the dialect are. Results also show that both heritage and non-heritage learners disapprove of the learning conditions and practices of the classrooms. Surprisingly, nearly all learners from the two groups are in favor of having both groups in the same classroom. Based on the findings, the researcher suggests some pedagogical implications and recommendations to accommodate needs of both heritage and non-heritage learners and enhance teaching such combined classes of LCTLs.
Full Text Available Young Learners have less reinforcement to speak with others. One of the causes is the trend of formal or clumsy learning setting in emphasizing the speaking proficiency. Speaking based on the culture context also contribute them in increasing their motivation to express their ideas. Casual style as one of the language variations gives contribution in increasing students’ motivation to be more active in the class. The simply characteristics of Casual style can be memorized and applied easily. Casual style tends to adjust the culture of speaker in communication so it will be easy to be understood. Students also can use the utterances in their daily life because most of the utterances are familiar for them. The raising of motivation from students will give positive effect for teaching and learning process, students, and also teachers.
O'Loughlin, Tricia Ann
Beginning learners of English progress through the same stages to acquire language. However, the length of time each student spends at a particular stage may vary greatly. Under the current educational policies, ELL students are expected to participate in the general education curriculum while developing their proficiency in the English language.…
This study explores the relationship between adult English-language learners' assessment of their own language proficiency on the English Ability Questionnaire (EAQ) and their performance on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). It addresses aspects of developing the ""autonomous"" student and makes for the integration of self-directed learners who will be more aware of their strengths and weaknesses and how to address them
Barquero Vargas, Ana Patricia
This article examines the impact of the Collaborative and Interaction Theories on second language learners in the writing centers. It also supports the notion that when English language learners meet with writing consultants to negotiate meaning when analyzing their texts, they gain proficiency in the target language. Meaning negotiation is going to be understood as the interaction that takes place between speakers when some misconstruction occurs. In addition, it provides an overview of rese...
Hayes, Aneta L.; Mansour, Nasser
Changes in the cultural and linguistic environments of learners are often associated with identity shifts. The aim of this study was to explore what identity shifts occur when science students from Bahraini national schools transition to an international university. The role of two aspects of learner identity--that is, English proficiency and…
This report continues the work of Krashen and Brown (2007), developing and evaluating a set of hypotheses for the development of academic proficiency. That article defined academic proficiency as having two components: academic language proficiency and knowledge of academic content.
With 2014 approaching as the deadline by which states must get all their students up to "proficient" levels on state tests, a study released last week by the U.S. Department of Education's top statistics agency suggests that some states may have lowered student-proficiency standards on such tests in recent years. For the 47-state study,…
Elbers, I.J.W.; Nijs, de W.C.M.
Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC  and is
Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter
The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…
Language proficiency among young South Africans is low. This is true not only of mother tongue speakers of English and Afrikaans, but also, and especially, of non-mother tongue speakers of English, among whom language proficiency levels raise serious concern. Some examples are given to illustrate the importance of ...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.98 Section 61.98... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Recreational Pilots § 61.98 Flight proficiency... and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation of this section that apply...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.187 Section 61.187... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.187 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who is applying for a...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.107 Section 61.107... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.107 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who applies for a private pilot certificate must receive and log ground and flight...
Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning.
The importance of autonomy learning is widely acknowledged in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Asian contexts. The present study attempted to report low proficiency level students’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The first part of the present study focused on exploring how learners perceived and experienced their autonomous vocabulary learning, with a questionnaire and group discussion applied to collect data. During the second part of the study, the data were discussed collabo...
Parker, Caroline E.; Louie, Josephine; O'Dwyer, Laura
Using assessment results for 5th and 8th grade English language learner students in New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont, the report finds that the English language domains of reading and writing (as measured by a proficiency assessment) are significant predictors of performance on reading, writing, and mathematics assessments and that the…
Parker, Caroline E.; Louie, Josephine; O'Dwyer, Laura
Using assessment results for 5th and 8th grade English language learner students in New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont, the report finds that the English language domains of reading and writing (as measured by a proficiency assessment) are significant predictors of performance on reading, writing, and mathematics assessments and that the…
Baron, Patricia A.; Papageorgiou, Spiros
The purpose of this study was to collect recommendations for minimum score requirements (cut scores) on the "TOEFL Junior"® English language proficiency test in order to guide decisions on the placement of learners into English as a second language (ESL) support classes. The TOEFL Junior test, intended primarily for students ages 11 and…
Mohammed Marajan Awad Adam
Full Text Available English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned, in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is because young language learners who are proficient in their first language can apply the learning techniques while acquiring the second language. This paper targets the teaching fraternity in the Arab world to help them understand how first language proficiency can aid second/foreign language acquisition.
Full Text Available The use of orthographic and phonological information in spoken word recognition was studied in a visual world task where L1 Finnish learners of L2 French (n = 64 and L1 French native speakers (n = 24 were asked to match spoken word forms with printed words while their eye movements were recorded. In Experiment 1, French target words were contrasted with competitors having a longer (base vs. bague or a shorter word initial phonological overlap (base vs. bain and an identical orthographic overlap. In Experiment 2, target words were contrasted with competitors of either longer (mince vs. mite or shorter word initial orthographic overlap (mince vs. mythe and of an identical phonological overlap. A general phonological effect was observed in the L2 listener group but not in the L1 control group. No general orthographic effects were observed in the L2 or L1 groups, but a significant effect of proficiency was observed for orthographic overlap over time: higher proficiency L2 listeners used also orthographic information in the matching task in a time-window from 400 to 700ms, whereas no such effect was observed for lower proficiency listeners. These results suggest that the activation of orthographic information in L2 spoken word recognition depends on proficiency in L2.
This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…
Grover, Kendra S.; Miller, Michael T.; Swearingen, Brent; Wood, Nancy
Self-directed learning is one of the preeminent theories in the field of adult education. This study explored how English as a Second Language learners directed their own learning outside of the formal classroom through the use of practices that potentially advance their English language proficiency. Results from a survey of over 400 ESL students…
Moore, Sarah Catherine K.
In program year 2006-2007, 46 percent of the adults enrolled in federally funded, state-administered adult education programs in the United States were enrolled in English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. These adult English language learners represent a wide range of ages, nationalities, native languages, and English proficiency levels. In…
Safari, Mahshad; Koosha, Mansour
Regarding the fundamental role of speaking in language skills, this study intended to investigate the effects of speaking portfolio as an alternative form of assessment for assessing Iranian EFL learners' speaking ability at the intermediate and advanced proficiency levels and also its impact on their attitudes. Accordingly, from the population of…
Banerjee, Rashida; Alsalman, Amani; Alqafari, Shehana
English language learners are often at risk for communication and language delays--crucial elements in the foundation of early literacy skills. Studies have shown that preschool children involved in sociodramatic play demonstrate greater proficiency and interest in language development and reading. The manuscript shares evidence-based strategies…
Nguyen, Ngan; Godwyll, Francis
This study employed the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL), version 7.0 (ESL/EFL) developed by Oxford (1990) to examine differences in language-learning strategy use. It focused on how learner factors such as gender, age, nationality, and proficiency level influence the choice of language-learning strategies. The participants were 75…
Qarajeh, Masoud; Abdolmanafi-Rokni, Seyed Jalal
The present study was set out to investigate the effect of social hubs on improving EFL learners' speaking skill. The participants of the study were 38 female and 26 male students between the age of 19 and 29. They were randomly assigned to two groups of experimental and control. Each group consisted of 32 participants. A language proficiency test…
This study examined the effect of a self-monitoring strategy on EFL online learners' academic performance and motivational beliefs. A total of 90 college freshmen participated in the study, and instruments used in the study included two general English proficiency tests, a course-based reading comprehension test, and a modified version of the…
Little is known about the curricular experiences schools provide English learner students (ELs) to meet the dual goals of attaining English language proficiency (ELP) and grade-level achievement. I introduce the concept of "Curricular Streams" to provide a more nuanced comparative analysis of four urban middle schools, focusing on: (a)…
Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.
In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…
Kartal, Galip; Uner, Seda
This study investigates the effects of conceptual metaphors on Turkish EFL learners' acquisition of phrasal verbs. The participants were 120 beginner, elementary, and pre-intermediate level students. The research follows a pre and post-test quasi-experimental research design. The students were assigned to proficiency levels according to their…
Xu, Lan; Wannaruk, Anchalee
Speech acts are the major concern of interlanguage pragmatists. The present study aimed to 1) examine the reliability and validity of an interlanguage pragmatic (ILP) competence test on speech acts in a Chinese EFL context, and 2) investigate EFL learners' variations of ILP competence by language proficiency. Altogether 390 students participated…
Li, Jia; Cummins, Jim; Deng, Qizhen
This study examined university undergraduate English language learners' (ELLs) perspectives on an intervention, Word Matters, that aimed to enhance functional academic vocabulary learning critical to their cognitive academic language proficiency development (Cummins, 1989), a challenge faced by many ELLs in English-medium universities. This…
August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Mazrum, Julie
This brief reviews previous research related to the development of science knowledge and academic language in English language learners as well as the role of English language proficiency, learning in a second language, and first language knowledge in science learning. It also describes two successful CREATE interventions that build academic and…
Vahdat, Sedigheh; Rasti Behbahani, Amin
This study explored the effect of video games as a new tool for Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language) vocabulary learning. To conduct the study, 40 intermediate EFL learners, both male and female, were chosen through a TOEFL proficiency test. The participants were divided into two groups (10 males and 10 females in each): a control group and…
Vadasy, Patricia F.; Sanders, Elizabeth A.
This study examined benefits of connecting meaning, speech, and print in vocabulary learning for kindergarten English learners. Students screened eligible with limited English proficiency were randomly assigned to two instruction conditions. Both groups received direct instruction in high frequency root words. One condition featured added…
This study investigates the potential use of the argument-counterargument structure in English L2 essays written by Indonesian EFL learners. It examines whether L2 proficiency affects the use of opposing views in their essays, and measures whether there is a correlation between the use of the rhetorical structure and the participants' overall…
This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…
This article considers whether the use of specific communication strategies can improve learners' English proficiency in communicative tasks. Japanese college students (n= 62) participated in a 12-week course of English lessons using a communicative approach with strategy training. To investigate the influence of specific strategy use, their…
López, Francesca; Iribarren, Jacqueline
In this article, we provide an empirically based framework for school leaders to support the replacement of separate means of providing services for English learners (ELs) with more inclusive learning supports. The framework encompasses evidence on cultivating language proficiency, ensuring access to a high-quality curriculum, and promoting…
Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita
This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…
Vanderwood, Michael L.; Tung, Catherine Y.; Checca, C. Jason
The predictive validity and accuracy of an oral reading fluency (ORF) measure for a statewide assessment in English language arts was examined for second-grade native English speakers (NESs) and English learners (ELs) with varying levels of English proficiency. In addition to comparing ELs with native English speakers, the impact of English…
Asgari, Azadeh; Bin Mustapha, Ghazali
This study aims to investigate the attrition rate of EFL concrete and abstract vocabulary among continuing and non-continuing Iranian female and male English language learners across different proficiency levels. They are students of a University and majored in different fields (between 20 and 25 years old). There was no treatment in this study…
Yavuz, Aysun; Höl, Devrim
The purpose of this study is to investigate the attributions of Turkish EFL learners on success and failure in learning English as a foreign language with different variables such as gender and level of English proficiency. To investigate the attributions of the participants and gather the relevant data, a questionnaire including 38 items and…
Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur A/P Karpal
As social network sites have become popular with university students, it is easier to understand how students employ social network sites seamlessly in their academic and personal lives. L2 learners often employ Facebook to improve their English language proficiency by communicating with their native and non-native English speakers. Facebook is…
Acosta Caballero, Karen Anelice
Reading comprehension of school-aged students is an important topic of research; however, research on the reading comprehension of adult foreign/second language learners whose first language is English is limited, especially studies investigating the reading comprehension strategies that readers of different proficiency levels use when they…
Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean
The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…
Ahour, Touran; Maleki, Saeideh Entezari
This study attempted to unveil the effect of metadiscourse instruction on the improvement of the speaking ability of Iranian EFL learners. After the administration of a language proficiency test, 34 homogeneous participants were assigned into the experimental and control groups. Then, the two groups were compared on their speaking ability. After…
The purpose of this study was to provide an insight into how former English learners' educational experiences allowed them to attain English language proficiency and meet grade level standards in English Language Arts. This study was informed by the theoretical frameworks of Albert Bandura's social learning theory, and Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural…
Ramirez, Bari N.
A quantitative, correlational prediction study was performed to determine the relationship between English language learner (ELL) use of electronic media and reading proficiency in a large urban middle school in Texas. The predictor variables were viewing television programs in English, viewing television programs in Spanish, using a computer for…
Christianson, Amy M.
The growing number of English language learners in U.S. schools has created urgency for changes to occur in public education to support this diverse student population. Leadership that promotes school-wide cultural proficiency provides the groundwork for change that is needed to occur in educational practices to ensure student success. This…
Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A.; Sprenger, Simone A.; Bresser, Moniek; Schmid, Monika S.
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2) learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient
Dockrell, Julie E.; Stuart, Morag; King, Diane
Background: A significant number of children now enter formal education in England with reduced levels of proficiency in oral language. Children who come from disadvantaged backgrounds and who are English language learners (ELL) are at risk of limited oral language skills in English which impacts on later educational achievement. Aims: This paper…
Rasekh, Abbass Eslami; Toluei, Bahareh
This study investigates the effect of Iranian EFL students' proficiency level on their ability in identifying paragraph boundaries of unparagraphed expository texts and in producing paragraph boundaries in their own L2 expository writings. Further, this study seeks the correlation between advanced and intermediate learners' ability to identify and…
This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) comfort levels in providing service delivery to English language learners (ELLs) and limited English proficient (LEP) students. Participants included 192 SLPs from the United States and Guam. Participants completed a brief, six-item questionnaire that investigated their perceptions regarding…
Cole, Jenny; Feng, Jay
Reaching proficient levels of literacy is a universal goal for all children in the elementary classroom. This objective is especially challenging for English language learners particularly in the domain of writing. Writing has been identified as one of the most essential skills because the world has become so text-oriented. Due to this change,…
Roessingh, Hetty; Field, Diane
Examines issues related to time, timing, and timetabling to discuss how the timetable can be constructed to support the development of English language proficiency in a 3-year plan leading to university entrance for academically competent English-as-a-Second-Language learners, using a semester system. (Author/VWL)
Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.
This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…
Zetlin, Andrea; Beltran, Dolores; Salcido, Patricia; Gonzalez, Teresa; Reyes, Teresa
Historically, neither a positive nor a supportive relationship existed between the population of students designated English language learners (ELLs) and the field of special education. Children's lack of English proficiency was often misinterpreted as a disability and they were referred for special education, whereas others who actually had a…
Hassan Al-Ahdal, Arif Ahmed Mohammed; Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali; Al-Awaid, Salmeen Abdulrahman Abdullah; Al-Mashaqba, Nisreen Juma'a Hamed
Arabic and English belong to two different linguistic families: resultantly, some Arabic speaking learners of English in both SL and FL situations have a major obstacle to overcome to be intelligible to other users, especially in the international context. Of the various skills one needs to acquire to become "proficient" in a language…
The "Common European Framework of Reference" (CEFR) is the most widespread reference tool for linking language tests, curricula, and national educational standards to levels of foreign language proficiency in Europe. In spite of this, little is known about how the CEFR levels (A1-C2) relate to empirical learner language(s). This article…
This particularistic qualitative case study design examined reading strategies, approaches, and resources teachers of ELL (English Language Learner) students in kindergarten through third grade use to support reading development and promote the home to school connection regarding literacy proficiency. The purpose of this study was to examine…
Costello, Jane; Crane, Daph
As the number, type, and use of technologies to support learning increases, so do the opportunities for using these technologies for feedback. Learner-centered feedback is a core to the teaching-learning process. It is related to assessment in describing how learners perform in their learning, their gain in knowledge, skills, and attitudes.…
Full Text Available The mastery of speaking skills in English has become a major requisite in engineering industry. Engineers are expected to possess speaking skills for executing their routine activities and career prospects. The article focuses on the experimental study conducted to improve English spoken proficiency of Indian engineering students using task-based approach. Tasks are activities that concentrates on the learners in providing the main context and focus for learning. Therefore, a task facilitates the learners to use language rather than to learn it. This article further explores the pivotal role played by the pedagogical intervention in enabling the learners to improve their speaking skill in L2. The participants of the study chosen for control and experimental group were first year civil engineering students comprising 38 in each group respectively. The vital tool used in the study is oral communicative tasks administered to the experimental group. The oral communicative tasks enabled the students to think and generate sentences on their own orally. The‘t’ Test was computed to compare the performance of the students in control and experiment groups.The results of the statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant level of improvement in the oral proficiency of the experimental group.
Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.
Mitkovska, Liljana; Buzarovska, Eleni; Kusevska, Marija
This paper examines the acquisition process of the English modal verbs for expressing obligation (must, have to, should and need to) by Macedonian learners across several proficiency levels (A1, A2, B1 and B2) using data from the Macedonian English Learner Corpus. We examine how they are used in the writings of learners at each level from formal, semantic and pragmatic perspective. The frequencies will show the order of occurrence of the uses of these modal verbs and the comparison with data ...
The concepts of learner autonomy and independence have assumed an increasingly important role in language learning. An attempt has been made in this article to show first, what is meant by learner autonomy in the context of language learning, and, then, how we can move towards its development among language learners. It will be argued that…
Oxford, Rebecca L.
This paper explores two general perspectives on autonomous learners: psychological and sociocultural. These perspectives introduce a range of theoretically grounded facets of autonomous learners, facets such as the self-regulated learner, the emotionally intelligent learner, the self-determined learner, the mediated learner, the socioculturally…
Rosenthal, Judith W.
Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.
Learner participation in South Africa was legislated in 1996 through the South African Schools Act, No. 84. Since then it has been a legal requirement to establish representative councils of learners (RCL) at secondary schools (with Grade 8 and higher) countrywide. I investigate the perspectives and experiences of ...
... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Commercial Pilots § 61.127 Flight proficiency. (a) General. A person who applies for a commercial pilot certificate must receive and log ground and...
In 2006, the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TriMet) secured grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration : (FTA) that enabled the agency to launch a creative and ambitious Limited English Proficiency (LEP) demonst...
Uchikoshi, Yuuko; Yang, Lu; Lohr, Brandi; Leung, Genevieve
This longitudinal study examined the role of oral proficiency, as measured with elicited narratives using a wordless picture book, Frog Where are You? (Meyer, 1969/1994), on English reading comprehension with a total of 102 English Language Learners (ELLs), including both Spanish and Cantonese speakers. Narrative samples were collected in the winter of first grade and reading skills were assessed on the same children one year later in second grade. Children were enrolled in either bilingual programs or mainstream programs. Multiple regression results show it was not the quantity and variety of words used in the narratives that predicted English reading comprehension one year later. Instead, the ability to produce a coherent oral narrative, in either the home language or English, explained a small variance in English reading comprehension for both English learner groups. These findings highlight the importance of examining narrative skills, especially as measured by narrative structure. Implications for parents and educators are discussed. PMID:28717774
Azar Mojoudi; Omind Tabatabaei
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and autonomy among Iranian intermediate and upper intermediate EFL learners. To this end, after conducting Oxford Placement Test (OPT), 84 Iranian EFL learners at both intermediate and upper intermediate levels of English language proficiency were selected. Then, a 28-item autonomy questionnaire and a 34-item self-efficacy questionnaire were administrated. In order to understand the relationship between self-effica...
Ellis, Susanna Maria; Kotze, Hendrik Nicolaas; Louw, Pieter Johannes; Strydom, Gert Lukas; Meyer, Charle du Plessis
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an adventure based experiential learning programme (AEP) in developing the life effectiveness of black high school learners. "Life Effectiveness" reflects the psychological and behavioural aspects of human functioning which determine the proficiency of a person in society. A total of eighty learners (forty boys and forty girls) aged between 12 and 17 years participated in this programme. They were categorized into an experimental (n = 40) a...
Dogan, Gizem; Mirici, Ismail Hakki
Learner autonomy has become a central ability to develop in learners for a fruitful language learning/teaching process in EFL classes. Particularly, in this world of knowledge, teaching learners how to access resources and how to use them for their learning needs has become increasingly important. Teachers' perception on learner autonomy is…
Full Text Available The issues influencing student engagement with high-stakes computer-based exams were investigated, drawing on feedback from two cohorts of international MA Education students encountering this assessment method for the first time. Qualitative data from surveys and focus groups on the students’ examination experience were analysed, leading to the identification of engagement issues in the delivery of high-stakes computer-based assessments.The exam combined short-answer open-response questions with multiple-choice-style items to assess knowledge and understanding of research methods. The findings suggest that engagement with computer-based testing depends, to a lesser extent, on students’ general levels of digital literacy and, to a greater extent, on their information technology (IT proficiency for assessment and their ability to adapt their test-taking strategies, including organisational and cognitive strategies, to the online assessment environment. The socialisation and preparation of students for computer-based testing therefore emerge as key responsibilities for instructors to address, with students requesting increased opportunities for practice and training to develop the IT skills and test-taking strategies necessary to succeed in computer-based examinations. These findings and their implications in terms of instructional responsibilities form the basis of a proposal for a framework for Learner Engagement with e-Assessment Practices.
In reality, especially in under-resourced areas such as the Eastern Cape, many learners with disabilities are not identified, with profound consequences for their ability to learn. Method. ... This project created greater awareness among learners, parents and teachers regarding abnormal VA and increased interaction
Karen L. Murphy
Full Text Available Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students from two online courses in the United States. Their learning experiences in both online discussions and on the course website were explored through semi-structured interviews. They also completed a background questionnaire that assessed three constructs that limit learner readiness and are likely to lead to online students' perceived information overload: inadequate prior knowledge, inadequate English proficiency, and lack of technical skills for participating in computer-mediated communications. The findings suggest that varied learner characteristics led some students to be more susceptible than others to information overload. Emerging data-driven risk factors were: lack of efficiency in reading from computer screens, visual and auditory learning preferences, and time constraints. Difficulties associated with students' perceptions of information overload are addressed and implications for course design are offered.
Gaul, David; Issartel, Johann
Fine motor skill proficiency is an essential component of numerous daily living activities such as dressing, feeding or playing. Poor fine motor skills can lead to difficulties in academic achievement, increased anxiety and poor self-esteem. Recent findings have shown that children's gross motor skill proficiency tends to fall below established developmental norms. A question remains: do fine motor skill proficiency levels also fall below developmental norms? The aim of this study was to examine the current level of fine motor skill in Irish children. Children (N=253) from 2nd, 4th and 6th grades (mean age=7.12, 9.11 and 11.02 respectively) completed the Fine Motor Composite of the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2nd Edition (BOT-2). Analysis revealed that only 2nd grade children met the expected level of fine motor skill proficiency. It was also found that despite children's raw scores improving with age, children's fine motor skill proficiency was not progressing at the expected rate given by normative data. This leads us to question the role and impact of modern society on fine motor skills development over the past number of decades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S; Frank, Reanne
We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Massey, Douglas S.; Frank, Reanne
We develop and test a conceptual model of English language acquisition and the strength of the latter in predicting social and cultural assimilation. We present evidence that the path to English proficiency begins with exposure to English in the home country and on prior U.S. trips. English proficiency, then, has direct links to the intermediate migration outcomes of occupational status in the U.S., the amount of time in the U.S. since the most recent trip, and the co-ethnic residential context in the U.S. In turn, pre-migration characteristics and the intermediate characteristics work in tandem with English proficiency to determine social assimilation in the U.S., while cultural assimilation is primarily determined by pre-migration habits. A shift in focus to English use is desirable in studies of immigrant integration. PMID:24576636
Full Text Available Problem Statement: This paper investigates the relationships between EFL learners' level of reading engagement and their conceptual knowledge from text and reading proficiency.Methods: In the first phase, non–modeling approach, the research questions were explored through traditional correlation and regression analyses.Findings and Results: The findings of this part show that reading engagement has a statistically significant relationship with reading proficiency and conceptual knowledge. Meanwhile, no consensus was fund between students' and their teachers' perspectives concerning the students' level of reading engagement; this provided the ground for the second phase of this research. In the second phase, modeling approach was employed to examine the relationship between QMRI, showing students’ level of reading engagement from their own perspectives, and REI, illustrating students' level of reading engagement from their teachers’ viewpoints, through structural equation modeling. Having analyzed the data through LISREL, the researchers found no significant relationship between QMRI and REI, confirming findings of the first phase.Conclusions and Recommendations: The results of this study might make the educators become increasingly interested in the role that reading engagement can play in the growth of academic achievement. It is also believed that reading engagement itself serves to increase the achievement differences among students.
Johnathon P. Ehsani
Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.
Cons, Andrea M.
This study explores the following research question: How do secondary English learners (ELs) and Re-designated fluent English proficient students (RFEPs) use academic words in analytical writing in comparison to native English speakers (NESs)? It highlights previously overlooked differences in academic word use in the writing of students who are…
Mollaei, Fatemeh; Taghinezhad, Ali; Sadighi, Firooz
It has been found that translation is an efficient means to teach/learn grammar, syntax, and lexis of a foreign language. Meanwhile, translation is good for beginners who do not still enjoy the critical level of proficiency in their target language for expression. This study was conducted to examine the teachers' and learners' perceptions of…
Rodriguez, Cathi Draper; Filler, John; Higgins, Kyle
Through this exploratory study the authors investigated the effects of primary language support delivered via computer on the English reading comprehension skills of English language learners. Participants were 28 First-grade students identified as Limited English Proficient. The primary language of all participants was Spanish. Students were…
The objectives of this study are (a) to determine if native speakers of Canadian French at different English proficiencies can use primary stress for recognizing English words and (b) to specify how the second language (L2) learners' (surface-level) knowledge of L2 stress placement influences their use of primary stress in L2 word recognition. Two…
Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.
In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German…
Varzaneh, Soheila Shafiee; Baharlooie, Roya
This study investigated the effect of virtual vs. traditional classroom instruction on creative thinking among Iranian High school EFL Learners. One-hundred and forty three female of high and low level of proficiency, who were selected randomly, were assigned to two VLI (N = 60) and TCI group (N = 60) based on their scores in OPT. Then, each group…
This study investigated the perceived use of conversation maintenance strategies during synchronous computer-mediated communication with native English speakers. I also correlated the relationships of the strategies used with students' speaking ability and comprehensive proficiency level. The research questions were: (1) how were the learners'…
Elementary teachers are challenged to maximize instructional time to cover standards in all content areas and to meet a wide variety of student needs including students who are not proficient in English. This action research looks at how one fourth-grade teacher improved achievement for English Language Learners by integrating social studies into…
Carlo, María S.; Barr, Christopher D.; August, Diane; Calderón, Margarita; Artzi, Lauren
This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy…
Poarch, G.J.; Hell, J.G. van
In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German–English bilinguals, German–English–Language
Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane; Farkas, George
Although English oral language proficiency in the primary grades is critical to the literacy development of English learners (ELs), we know little about how to foster these skills. This study examined a yearlong K-2 drama and creative movement intervention. A randomized experimental design (N = 5,240) was used to address two research questions:…
Naif, Ahmed H.; Saad, Noor Saazai Mat
Adult Arab learners of Finnish as second language (FSL) often encounter communication difficulty when dealing with official documents. They also cannot help their children in their school homework. FSL proficiency is an essential requirement to get an employment and to obtain the Finnish citizenship. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of…
Cavanaugh, Gary Scott
Research affirmed that instructional strategies that promote English Language Learners' (ELLs) Academic Language Proficiency (ALP) are essential in the primary grades for ELLs to succeed in school. This quantitative causal-comparative study relied on the premise of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory and addressed to what extent Balanced Math…
Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith
This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…
Full Text Available The importance of autonomy learning is widely acknowledged in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Asian contexts. The present study attempted to report low proficiency level students’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The first part of the present study focused on exploring how learners perceived and experienced their autonomous vocabulary learning, with a questionnaire and group discussion applied to collect data. During the second part of the study, the data were discussed collaboratively by six teachers to identify the different approaches utilized by learners. Priorities included setting weekly goals, self-planning and self-monitoring the process of learning vocabulary. Results also revealed that a weak ‘top-down’ approach in implementing learner autonomy is inadequate. Teachers need to provide scaffolding skills tailored to learners’ context-specific needs, for which a strong ‘bottom-up’ approach is more appropriate in supporting autonomous learning. In this case, classroom time should be allocated to demonstrate the strategies and teachers should work collaboratively to develop resources and materials for learners’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The present study also addressed the need for establishing an effective intervention for supporting learner autonomy. Keywords: learner autonomy, vocabulary learning, self-plan, self-monitor
Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Taekyu; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Rose, Adam J; Hanchate, Amresh D
Limited English proficiency (LEP) is associated with poor health status and worse outcomes. To examine disparities in hypertension between National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) respondents with LEP versus adequate English proficiency. Retrospective analysis of multi-year survey data. Adults 18 years of age and older who participated in the NHANES survey during the period 2003-2012. We defined participants with LEP as anyone who completed the NHANES survey in a language other than English or with the support of an interpreter. Using logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio for undiagnosed or uncontrolled hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) > 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > 90 mmHg) among LEP participants relative to those with adequate English proficiency. We adjusted for sociodemographic, acculturation-related, and hypertension-related variables. Fourteen percent (n = 3,269) of the participants had limited English proficiency: 12.4% (n = 2906) used a Spanish questionnaire and 1.6% (n = 363) used an interpreter to complete the survey in another language. Those with LEP had higher odds of elevated blood pressure on physical examination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.47 [1.07-2.03]). This finding persisted among participants using an interpreter (AOR = 1.88 [1.15-3.06]) but not among those using the Spanish questionnaire (AOR = 1.32 [0.98-1.80]). In a subgroup analysis, we found that the majority of uncontrolled hypertension was concentrated among individuals with a known diagnosis of hypertension (AOR = 1.80 [1.16-2.81]) rather than those with undiagnosed hypertension (AOR = 1.14 [0.74-1.75]). Interpreter use was associated with increased odds of uncontrolled hypertension, especially among patients who were not being medically managed for hypertension (AOR = 6.56 [1.30-33.12]). In a nationally representative sample, participants with LEP were more likely to have poorly
Moon, W. Jay
A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…
United Way of Saint Paul, MN.
This annotated bibliography lists computer software and other media materials that support acquisition of basic and literacy skills and familiarize adult learners with new technologies. It cites products chosen by five St. Paul (Minnesota) area United Way agencies for the Empowering Learners Project. Listings of computer software include…
Clarke, David F.
Contrasting traditional with present-day views of language learners, discussion focuses on aspects of the so-called communicative revolution. The present-day view includes negotiating the materials and seeing learners as knowers, testers, communicators, and evaluators. A suggested reading activity involves comparing two slightly differing texts.…
Roucek, Joseph S., Ed.
Papers on the slow learner treat physical defects and learning abilities, social and economic background as an obstacle to learning, the causes of dropouts and lapses in study, and the limitations and potential of the ungifted. The contribution interest in the slow learner has made to education is discussed; also discussed are problems of the…
MIDANIK, J. SYDNEY
A SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORT TO THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, TORONTO, CANADA, REVIEWS THE PRESENT PROGRAM FOR SLOW LEARNERS (IQ 59 TO 90) AND RECOMMENDS A NEW TYPE OF EXPERIMENTAL HIGH SCHOOL. THE PROBLEM OF SLOW LEARNERS, THE USE AND MEANING OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF LEARNING CAPACITIES AMONG STUDENTS IN SCHOOL ARE DISCUSSED. THE…
In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)
Baker, Herbert George; And Others
Tailored Response Testing (TRT) is a new type of test that has demonstrated its applicability to the evaluation of human performance in a wide variety of occupations and work settings. The Navy is using TRT to measure the technical proficiency of job incumbents in three of its jobs. The methodology holds great promise for testing aboard ships as…
Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others
A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…
Haas, Eric; Wilson, Glen; Cobb, Casey; Rallis, Sharon
Applying microeconomic theory to No Child Left Behind predicts that its use of significant consequences for schools that do not reach 100% proficiency on rigorous standardized tests by 2014 will likely prevent most, if not all schools, from providing a high-quality education for their students. The central problem is cost. Quality assurance models…
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight proficiency. 61.157 Section 61.157... CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Airline Transport Pilots § 61.157 Flight... and log ground and flight training from an authorized instructor on the areas of operation under this...
If we want to move children from struggling to read to being proficient readers, we must address the disparate ways that teachers respond to readers with varying abilities. Restorative practices, akin to restorative justice, build relationships, make connections, and foster a reader's sense of ownership and empowerment. What would happen if…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign language proficiency pay. 9901... Foreign Language Proficiency Pay (FLPP) if they are certified as proficient in a foreign language the... annual list of foreign languages necessary for national security interests and to establish overall...
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited English proficient. 300.27 Section 300.27... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.27 Limited English proficient. Limited English proficient has the meaning given the term in section 9101(25) of the ESEA. (Authority: 20...
Dixon, L. Quentin; Wu, Shuang; Daraghmeh, Ahlam
Three common assumptions concerning bilingual children's language proficiency are: (1) their proficiency in two languages is usually unbalanced; (2) low socioeconomic status (SES) indicates low proficiency in both languages; and (3) encouraging parents to speak some societal language at home will promote its development. Examining the vocabulary…
De Wet, Febe
Full Text Available This paper reports on the automatic assessment of oral proficiency for advanced second language speakers. A spoken dialogue system is used to guide students through an oral test and to record their answers. Indicators of oral proficiency...
Seyed Saber Alavi
Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the relationship between noticing of corrective feedback and L2 development considering the learners’ perspective on error correction. Specifically, it aimed to uncover the noticeability and effectiveness of recasts, prompts, a combination of the two, to determine a relationship between noticing of CF and learning of the past tense. The participants were four groups of college ESL learners (n = 40. Each group was assigned to a treatment condition, but the researcher taught the control group. CF was provided to learners in response to their mistakes in forming the past tense. While noticing of CF was assessed through immediate recall and questionnaire responses, learning outcomes were measured through picture description administered via pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test design. Learner beliefs about CF were probed by means of a 40-item questionnaire. The results indicated that the noticeability of CF is dependent on the grammatical target it addresses and that the feedback techniques that push learners to self-correct alone or in combination with target exemplars are more effective in. In relation to the learning outcomes, the overall past tense accuracy increased more than that for questions, but there were no significant differences between the groups. Finally, in relation to the beliefs about CF, the participants’ responses centered on the importance of oral CF, recasts as CF technique, prompts as CF technique, and affective consequences of CF, two of which mediated the noticeability of the supplied CF, but none impacted the learning outcomes.
Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G
In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eklund, Carina; Forslund, Ola; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Zhou, Tiequn
Accurate and internationally comparable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is essential both for evaluation of HPV vaccines and for effective monitoring and implementation of vaccination programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) HPV Laboratory Network (LabNet) regularly issues international proficiency studies. The 2010 HPV genotyping proficiency panel for HPV vaccinology contained 43 coded samples composed of purified plasmids of 16 HPV types (HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68a and 68b) and 3 coded extraction controls. Proficient typing was defined as detection in both single and multiple infections of 50 international units (IU) of HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 DNA and 500 genome equivalents (GE) for the other 14 HPV types. Ninety-eight laboratories worldwide submitted a total of 132 data sets. Twenty-four different HPV genotyping assay methods were used, with Linear Array being the most commonly used. Other major assays used were a line blot assay (Inno-LiPa), CLART, type-specific real-time PCR, PCR Luminex, and different microarray assays. Altogether, 72 data sets were proficient for detection of more than 1 type, and only 26 data sets proficiently detected all 16 HPV types. The major oncogenic HPV types, 16 and 18, were proficiently detected in 95.0% (114/120) and 87.0% (94/108) of data sets, respectively. Forty-six data sets reported multiple false-positive results and were considered nonproficient. A trend toward increased sensitivity of assays was seen for the 41 laboratories that participated in both 2008 and 2010. In conclusion, continued global proficiency studies will be required for establishing comparable and reliable HPV genotyping services for vaccinology worldwide. PMID:22535980
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of visual input enhancement on the vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL learners. One hundred and thirty-two EFL learners from elementary, intermediate and advanced proficiency levels were assigned to six groups, two groups at each proficiency level with one being an experimental and the other a control group. The study employed pretests, treatment reading texts, and posttests. T-test was used for the analysis of the data. The results revealed positive effects for visual input enhancement in the advanced level based on within group and between groups’ comparisons. However this positive effect was not found for the elementary and intermediate levels based on between groups’ comparisons. It was concluded that although visual input enhancement may have beneficial effects for elementary and intermediate levels, it is much more effective for the advanced EFL learners. This study may provide useful guiding principles for EFL teachers and syllabus designers.
This has been subject to misinterpretations at the ground level. In their research,. Bischoff and Phakoa (1999) found that learners were prohibited from discus- .... explained in terms of four basic concepts: action, reflection, communication .... qualitative interpretative methodology was seen as appropriate to capture de-.
Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A; Sprenger, Simone A; Bresser, Moniek; Schmid, Monika S
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2) learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient immersed Romance L2 learners of Dutch. We demonstrate that these late learners consistently fail to show native-like sensitivity to gender violations. This appears to be due to a combination of differences from the gender marking in their L1 and the relatively opaque Dutch gender system. We find that L2 use predicts the effect magnitude of non-finite verb violations, a relatively regular and transparent construction, but not that of gender agreement violations. There were no effects of age of acquisition, length of residence, proficiency or offline gender knowledge. Additionally, a within-subject comparison of stimulus modalities (written vs. auditory) shows that immersed learners may show some of the effects only in the auditory modality; in non-finite verb violations, an early native-like N400 was only present for auditory stimuli. However, modality failed to influence the response to gender. Taken together, the results confirm the persistent problems of Romance learners of Dutch with online gender processing and show that they cannot be overcome by reducing task demands related to the modality of stimulus presentation.
Sulafah Abdul Salam Alnamer
Full Text Available This study measures the extent to which Arabic-speaking EFL learners are aware of polysemy in English. It also investigates whether the English proficiency level of Arabic-speaking EFL learners plays a role in their ability to distinguish between the various meanings of English polysemous words, and whether they face problems when they encounter these words in unusual contexts (i.e. the contexts that employ the extended meanings of the target polysemous words. To these ends, a translation test in which the participants were asked to give full Arabic translation for fifteen English sentences was designed. The words open, run, and make were the target polysemous words in this study. The Results show that Arabic-speaking EFL learners have little awareness of polysemy in English, and their English proficiency level does play a role in their ability to distinguish between the different meanings of English polysemous words. It was also found that Arabic-speaking EFL learners have no problems guessing the primary meaning of the English polysemous words. However, they face difficulty guessing the extended meanings of polysemous words in unusual contexts. Moreover, some Arabic-speaking EFL learners can guess the extended meanings of the polysemous words they encounter in familiar contexts, or when they understand some cues provided to disambiguate these words. This study concludes with some pedagogical implications and recommendations for further studies.
Maye A. Alotaibi
Full Text Available This study aims to test the extent to which 80 Kuwaiti EFL learners are aware of prenominal adjective ordering system in English, particularly how it affects Kuwaiti EFL learners’ grasp on English grammar. In addition, it checks whether the English proficiency level of the participants plays a role in their answers on the test. Therefore, a prenominal adjective ordering test was used to measure the participants’ ability to produce the correct order of prenominal adjectives in English. This research instrument was chosen on the basis of the researchers’ belief that this type of test leads to uncovering the causes beyond the correct/wrong answers provided by the participants on the test. Following data analysis, the results reveal that Kuwaiti EFL learners may not be fully aware of the prenominal adjective ordering system in English (total mean=48.75%. The t-test shows that the English proficiency level of the participants plays a crucial role in the production of prenominal adjectives in English. In particular, there is a statistically significant difference between the answers of the advanced (65% and intermediate learners (32.5%. The number of correct answers provided by the advanced learners is higher than that provided by the intermediate learners. Regarding the types of error made by the participants, it has been argued that the most noticeable ones are due to first language (L1 negative transfer. Finally, the study concludes with some pedagogical implications and recommendations for further research.
Full Text Available Event-related brain potentials (ERPs can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2 learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient immersed Romance L2 learners of Dutch. We demonstrate that these late learners consistently fail to show native-like sensitivity to gender violations. This appears to be due to a combination of differences from the gender marking in their L1 and the relatively opaque Dutch gender system. We find that L2 use predicts the effect magnitude of non-finite verb violations, a relatively regular and transparent construction, but not that of gender agreement violations. There were no effects of age of acquisition, length of residence, proficiency or offline gender knowledge. Additionally, a within-subject comparison of stimulus modalities (written vs. auditory shows that immersed learners may show some of the effects only in the auditory modality; in non-finite verb violations, an early native-like N400 was only present for auditory stimuli. However, modality failed to influence the response to gender. Taken together, the results confirm the persistent problems of Romance learners of Dutch with online gender processing and show that they cannot be overcome by reducing task demands related to the modality of stimulus presentation.
Wang, Hsuan-Po; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Tsai, Ya-Hsun; Liao, Chen-Huei
In the era of globalization, the trend towards learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) has become increasingly popular worldwide. The increasing demand in learning CFL has raised the profile of the Chinese proficiency test (CPT). This study will analyze in depth the inadequacy of current CPT's utilizing the common European framework of…
Explores one student's personal experience of the evolution of distance learning in the United Kingdom between 1977 and 1997. Discusses changes in learning materials; differences in assessment strategies and learner support; increasing consumerism; changes in the nature of distance learners; and the increasing role of information and communication…
Zurca, Adrian D; Fisher, Kiondra R; Flor, Remigio J; Gonzalez-Marques, Catalina D; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; October, Tessie W
Health care disparities have been described for children of limited English-proficient (LEP) families compared with children of English-proficient (EP) families. Poor communication with the medical team may contribute to these worse health outcomes. Previous studies exploring communication in the PICU have excluded LEP families. We aimed to understand communication experiences and preferences in the 3 primary communication settings in the PICU. We also explored LEP families' views on interpreter use in the PICU. EP and Spanish-speaking LEP families of children admitted to the PICU of a large tertiary pediatric hospital completed surveys between 24 hours and 7 days of admission. A total of 161 of 184 families were surveyed (88% response rate); 52 were LEP and 109 EP. LEP families were less likely to understand the material discussed on rounds (odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.90), to report that PICU nurses spent enough time speaking with them (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05-0.41), and to report they could rely on their nurses for medical updates (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.25) controlling for covariates, such as education, insurance type, presence of a chronic condition, PICU length of stay, and mortality index. LEP families reported 53% of physicians and 41% of nurses used an interpreter "often." Physician and nurse communication with LEP families is suboptimal. Communication with LEP families may be improved with regular use of interpreters and an increased awareness of the added barrier of language proficiency. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hayes, S C; Farnill, D
Concern is often expressed about the English language proficiency (ELP) of students engaged in professional training. This report assesses the ELP of the 1990 and 1991 intakes into medicine at the University of Sydney. A quick screening test and individual in-depth tests were used in a two-stage design. Admission to the course is highly competitive and most students are selected from the top 0.75% of Higher School Certificate results but 15% and 19% of the year cohorts were found to be below average in ELP. English proficiency was found to be consistently correlated with first- and second-year university results. Initiatives taken to support students with language disadvantages and to ensure that graduates will be able to communicate effectively with patients are outlined.
Hooshang Khoshsima; Hassan Banaruee
This study aimed to investigate common writing errors among Persian EFL Learners. The focus of the study was to identify Persian interfering and developmental errors based on the four rubrics of sentence styles, mechanics, grammar and punctuations. To achieve this, 80 students and 3 teachers from Iran Language Institute were asked to participate in this study. The instruments for data collection were a proficiency test to test the level of their homogeneity, as well as a written test in which...
Refilwe Ramagoshi; Ina Joubert
Teachers need creative strategies and techniques when teaching idioms in Setswana. However, they do not know what idioms are nor are they aware that through idioms cultural heritage can be preserved and that idioms can be taught as part of imaginative language, especially in Grade 3. As a result, teachers and learners in Grade 3 Setswana classes lack the understanding of the role of idioms and language proficiency in using and writing idioms. The aim of this paper was to show how intervention...
長谷川, 哲子; ハセガワ, ノリコ; Noriko, HASEGAWA
This paper examines the problems in oral presentation skills of Japanese learners at the undergraduate level. To report the details of linguistic problems in oral presentation proficiency, some examples from an interview-based study are showed. In this study, the problems are divided into the following 3 types: (1) mistakes in word choice according to topic and situation, (2) breakdown caused by topic-level change, (3) inappropriateness in developing and finishing topic. Finally, a practical ...
Vuorio, Kristiina; Björklöf, Katarina; Kuosa, Harri; Jokipii, Reija; Järvinen, Marko; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Leivuori, Mirja; Niemelä, Maija; Väisänen, Ritva
The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) organized in 2014 the fourth virtual phytoplankton proficiency test based on filmed material. A total of 39 analysts from 27 organizations and eight countries took part the test. The test material represented phytoplankton that typically occurs in boreal lakes and in the northern Baltic Sea. The test included three components: 1) phytoplankton species identification test, 2) phytoplankton counting test and 3) phytoplankton measurement of cell dimens...
Sörqvist, Patrik; Hurtig, Anders; Ljung, Robert; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bleakley, Hoyt; Chin, Aimee
Are U.S. immigrants' English proficiency and social outcomes the result of their cultural preferences, or of more fundamental constraints? Using 2000 Census microdata, we relate immigrants' English proficiency, marriage, fertility and residential location variables to their age at arrival in the U.S., and in particular whether that age fell within the "critical period" of language acquisition. We interpret the differences between younger and older arrivers as effects of English-language skills and construct an instrumental variable for English-language skills. Two-stage-least-squares estimates suggest that English proficiency increases the likelihood of divorce and intermarriage. It decreases fertility and, for some, ethnic enclave residence. (JEL J24, J12, J13, J61).
San Miguel, Caroline; Rogan, Fran
The increase in nursing students for whom English is an additional language requires clinical facilitators to assess students' performance regarding clinical skills, nursing communication and English language. However, assessing language proficiency is a complex process that is often conflated with cultural norms and clinical skills, and facilitators may lack confidence in assessing English language. This paper discusses an evaluation of a set of guidelines developed in a large metropolitan Australian university to help clinical facilitators make decisions about students' English language proficiency. The study found that the guidelines were useful in helping facilitators assess English language. However, strategies to address identified language problems needed to be incorporated to enable the guidelines to also be used as a teaching tool. The study concludes that to be effective, such guidelines need embedding within a systematic approach that identifies and responds to students who may be underperforming due to a low level of English language proficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daskalovska, Nina; Gudeva, Liljana Koleva; Ivanovska, Biljana
There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...
The aim of this article is to suggest a theoretical framework than can assess to how people’s engagement in specific historical and social work practices are significant to their development, maintenance or transformation of a learner identity. Such a framework is crucial in order to grasp how di...... different groups have distinctive conditions for meeting the obligation of forming a proactive learner identity and engage in lifelong learning prevalent in both national and transnational policies on lifelong learning....
Full Text Available Recent years have seen increasing integration of language corpora into second language instruction. Arabic’s rich polysemy and multiglossic spectrum can complicate vocabulary development for learners. Corpora thus offer great potential as complementary tools for Arabic learners. This study examines two variants of a corpusbased exercise used with fourth-semester adult Arabic learners. Learners analyzed data for select Arabic vocabulary items in the online arabiCorpus. Students in both variant groups proved themselves adept at using the corpus, interpreting data, and articulating metalinguistic hypotheses about nuances of meaning.
Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi
This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.
Full Text Available The study delved into the effect of instructional video materials vs. authentic video materials on vocabulary learning of extrovert and introvert Iranian EFL learners. To this end, Nelson proficiency test was administered to one hundred eighty (n=180 language learners. Considering 1 standard deviation above and below the mean score, one hundred twenty three (n=123 language learners were selected for the study. These participants were distributed into 4 experimental groups (with 25 learners and a control group (with 23 learners. Researcher-made vocabulary pretest and posttest which were designed using the vocabularies from the movies were also administered to the participants. The findings of the study after three weeks of treatment revealed that both authentic video materials and instructional video materials can have positive effect on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL leaners. This effect, however, is not different among extrovert learners. It was also revealed that introvert EFL learners benefit more from authentic video materials. The findings of the study could be used by material developers or language teachers who may wish to use video materials in their classes. Keywords: Authentic video materials, Instructional video materials, Vocabulary learning, Introversion, Extroversion
Lenhard, Wolfgang; Schroeders, Ulrich; Lenhard, Alexandra
As reading and reading assessment become increasingly implemented on electronic devices, the question arises whether reading on screen is comparable with reading on paper. To examine potential differences, we studied reading processes on different proficiency and complexity levels. Specifically, we used data from the standardization sample of the…
With the trend toward globalization and the continual change of the ethnic composition of the U.S. population, there is increasing awareness in the U.S. that not every child is raised in an English-only family. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationships among heritage language proficiency, ethnic identity, and self-esteem in the…
Wooldridge, Vernon William
Increases in instructional technology investments in recent years have been discrepant with anticipated gains in math proficiency levels. Past researchers have attempted to explain the relationship between available educational technology and teacher-perceived benefits of technology-assisted instruction as a predictor of effective integration…
Ceccucci, Wendy; Tamarkin, Dawn; Jones, Kiku
Data Science courses are becoming more prevalent in recent years. Increasingly more universities are offering individual courses and majors in the field of Data Science. This study evaluates data science education as a means to become proficient in scientific literacy. The results demonstrate how the educational goals of a Data Science course meet…
Reni Dwi Pertiwi
Full Text Available English is now used as an international language, so that every person in order to communicate at the international level are required this language. To improving english proficiency, people used native speaker, course, story book, film game and etc. Games or better known as PC gaming is another alternative in improving the English proficiency. Beside this is fun, player required to read and listen the story game to finish the game. So that player can improve English proficiency while the player play game. In this paper, author present what game are fun and not boring also can improving English proficiency. The measuring improving English proficiency is observed from reading,writing, listening and grammar Keyword: English, Game, improving ,Proficiency
extent to which receptive knowledge of collocations of EFL learners varies across word frequency bands. ..... language through in-class reading and conversation tasks which totalled 75 hours. The .... 4 Readers are referred to Wray (2002) and Barfield and Gyllstad (2009) for more details on how to teach collocations.
Dong, Yanping; Wen, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomeng; Ji, Yifei
To locate the underlying cause of biological gender errors of oral English pronouns by proficient Chinese-English learners, two self-paced reading experiments were conducted to explore whether the reading time for each "he" or "she" that matched its antecedent was shorter than that in the corresponding mismatch situation, as…
Assessing speaking skills is regarded as a complex and hard process compared with the other language skills. Considering the idiosyncratic characteristics of EFL learners, oral proficiency assessment issue becomes even more important. Keeping this situation in mind, judgements and reliability of raters need to be consistent with each other. This…
Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.
This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. The study examined student and program characteristics that are related to English proficiency and content area achievement for English language learner (ELL) students in one urban district in Connecticut. Study authors found…
Tong, Fuhui; Luo, Wen; Irby, Beverly J.; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Rivera, Hector
We examined the direct impact of an ongoing, intensive, and structured professional development (PD) within an English-as-second-language (ESL) instructional intervention on (a) teachers' time allocation in cognitive--academic language proficiency (CALP) and (b) Spanish-speaking English language learners' (ELLs) CALP development from the second to…
There tends to be an increase in scholarly literature regarding the leisure and sport participation of high school learners. However, in the South African context there are many black high school learners within townships who might not have access to leisure/recreation and sport facilities. "Black gold" (based on ethnicity and ...
Despite increasing ethnic diversity globally, there has been little research into meeting the further education needs of these learners (Bidgood, Saebi, & May, 2006). In particular, the international literature provides scant understanding of how organizations go about meeting the literacy needs of adult English language learners (ELLs). It is…
While the use of mobile devices for language learning has sparked the interest of an increasing number of researchers in recent years (e.g., Aizawa & Kiernan, 2003; Thornton & Houser, 2005), our knowledge of learners' preferences for the mobile platform and their usage patterns remains limited. Are learners prepared to use mobile phones…
Torres, Kelly Moore; Turner, Jeannine E.
The number of heritage language learners in American universities is increasing each year. Similar to monolingual students, this subgroup of learners is required to complete university level "foreign language" coursework, which can be a source of anxiety. Particularly, this subgroup of learners may experience high levels of anxiety due…
Butler, Yuko Goto
Young learners (defined as children ages 5-12) of English as a foreign language are growing in number worldwide. At the policy level, foreign language (FL) programs for young learners are increasingly emphasizing the use of task-based language teaching (TBLT). In practice, however, designing and implementing tasks for young learners poses numerous…
Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi
Bilingual studies have shown that brain activities for first (L1) and second (L2) languages are influenced by L2 proficiency. Does proficiency with a second musical system (M2) influence bimusical brains in a manner similar to that of bilingual brains? Our magnetoencephalography study assessed the influence of M2 proficiency on the spatial, strength, and temporal properties of brain activity in a musical syntactic-processing task (i.e., tonal processing) involving first (M1) and second (M2) music systems. Two bimusical groups, differing in M2 proficiency (high, low), listened to melodies from both their M1 and M2 musical cultures. All melodies ended with a tonally consistent or inconsistent tone. In both groups, tonal deviations in both M1 and M2 elicited magnetic early right anterior negativities (mERANs) that were generated from brain areas around the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). We also analyzed the dipole locations, dipole strengths, and peak latencies of mERAN. Results revealed: (a) the distances between dipole locations for M1 and M2 were shorter in the M2 high-proficiency group than in the M2 low-proficiency group; (b) the dipole strengths were greater in the high than the low group; (c) the peak latencies of M2 were shorter in the high than low group. The dipole location results were consistent with those from bilingual studies in that the distances between the (left) IFG peak activations for L1 and L2 syntactic processing shortened as L2 proficiency increased. The parallel results for bimusicals and bilinguals suggest that the functional changes induced by proficiency in a second (linguistic or musical) system are defined by domain-general neural constraints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gustilo, Leah E.
The present study aimed at characterizing what skilled or more proficient ESL college writing is in the Philippine setting through a contrastive analysis of three groups of variables identified from previous studies: resources, processes, and performance of ESL writers. Based on Chenoweth and Hayes' (2001; 2003) framework, the resource level…
Chung, Jaesam; Reigeluth, Charles M.
Discussion of learner control in instructional management describes six learner control methods: (1) content control; (2) sequence control; (3) pace control; (4) display or strategy control; (5) internal processing control; and (6) advisor strategies. Relevant literature, both theoretical and empirical, is reviewed, and learner control and…
In this review article the discussion concentrates on the purpose of learner's dictionaries, viz. to improve the communicative competence of a foreign language learner, and on usage guidance in learner's dictionaries. It is pointed out that target users should be clearly identified and their needs assessed before the dictionary ...
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and autonomy among Iranian intermediate and upper intermediate EFL learners. To this end, after conducting Oxford Placement Test (OPT, 84 Iranian EFL learners at both intermediate and upper intermediate levels of English language proficiency were selected. Then, a 28-item autonomy questionnaire and a 34-item self-efficacy questionnaire were administrated. In order to understand the relationship between self-efficacy and autonomy among intermediate EFL learners which is the first aim of this study, a quantitative method of data analysis procedure was conducted which falls under the category of correlational research. To do so, Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used. To figure out the same relationship between the mentioned values among upper intermediate EFL learners, the same procedure was followed. The results of the second research question indicated that there is a somehow strong correlation between the mentioned values among upper intermediate EFL learners. In addition, it was found that the mean score of the two variables is rather stronger among upper intermediate learners than the intermediate ones. At last, the findings of this study indicated that there is not a significant difference between the obtained correlation coefficients of intermediate and upper intermediate learners. By being aware of the importance of self-efficacy and autonomy in the area of language learning, and also the positive association between these values, language experts, teachers, and many learners will be guided toward the right direction in their track of teaching and learning.
Peterson, Meredith; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Wilson, Jennifer; Rahn, Naomi L; Egan, Andrea; McComas, Jennifer
Proficiency in letter-sound correspondence is important for decoding connected text. This study examined the effects of an evidence-based intervention, incremental rehearsal (IR), on the letter-sound expression of three kindergarten English language learners (ELLs) performing below the district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Participants were native speakers of Hmong, Spanish, and Polish. A multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effects of IR on letter-sound expression. Visual analysis of the data showed an increase in level and trend when IR was introduced in each phase. Percentage of all non-overlapping data (PAND) ranged from 95% to 100%. All participants exceeded expected growth and reached the spring district benchmark for letter-sound fluency. Results suggest that IR is a promising intervention for increasing letter-sound expression for ELLs who evidence delays in acquiring letter sounds. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Msimanga, Audrey; Lelliott, Anthony
This paper discusses the nature of learner engagement with science content during small group discussions in which learners use their home languages. We observed that learners reverted to their home languages in small group discussions, yet very little is known about the dynamics of learner engagement when they use their home languages in classroom discussions in South Africa and elsewhere. We analysed transcripts of discussions by three small groups in a Grade 10 Chemistry class. Contrary to teachers' fears that learners may not engage meaningfully with science content when talking in their home languages, all three groups spent over 90% of discussion time on task. Learners made and supported claims, challenged each others' ideas and questioned each others' thinking. Although the levels of critique varied between the groups, there was evidence of negotiation of understandings of the concepts. We argue that use of learners' home languages for engagement with difficult concepts may be a legitimate resource for science teachers to create opportunities for learner conceptual understanding. Further research is needed to understand the dynamics of teacher and learner use of their languages in science lessons, the best teaching strategies to achieve this, how teacher educators may model these strategies without undermining the need by both parents and learners' for English language proficiency to access social goods.
Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.
In the accreditation process of a radioactivity measurements laboratory, according to ISO standard 17025, proficiency tests play a fundamental role. These PTs constitute an irreplaceable tool for the validation of measuring methods. In the case of Spain, ENAC, which is the Spanish accreditation national body, requires that the laboratory has to take part in a PT for each one of the accredited measuring methods in the period of time between two reassessments of the accreditation, what happens every 4-5 years. In specific areas of determination procedures, among which radioactive measurements could be included, the number of methods which can be accredited is very large. The purpose of the present work is to establish a classification into families of the different radioactivity measurement procedures, as well as to establish complementary actions that guarantee that carrying out periodically proficiency-tests on any of the included procedures in each family, every measurement procedure include in that family is controlled, complying with the criteria established by ENAC.
Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max
Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601
Fahad Saleh Suleiman Alfallaj
Full Text Available The trend in the Reading class in KSA has been what is called ‘Standards Based Proficiency’ as opposed to the more desirable ‘Real World Reading Requirements’. This is also where the greatest gap occurs. Whereas white collar jobs may require more reading, blue collar jobs may invariably involve reading of technical manuals and scripts where a single error can lead to disastrous results. Reading is a skill that is very much related to the real life language use by FL learners. Can this gap be closed in our educational institutions? The answer is yes as concluded by the current study that evaluates the role of Linguistics in empowering the teachers of EFL to successfully tackle the reading failure of the KSA EFL learners. Our results show that with basic training in the field teachers can bring about much change in the reading proficiency of the learners.
Diane L Gorgas
Full Text Available Audience: This innovation is designed for medical students through senior residents. Introduction: Regional anesthesia increases the EM physician’s ability to provide effective pain relief and to complete procedures within the Emergency Department (ED. Studies consistently demonstrate that emergency physicians undertreat pain when performing basic procedures such as suturing lacerations.1,2 Regional anesthesia allows for effective pain relief, while avoiding the risks associated with systemic analgesia/anesthesia or the tissue distortion of local anesthesia.3 Knowledge of the anatomy involved in various nerve blocks is crucial to the development of proper technique and successful performance of this skill. Three dimensional (3-D model simulation-based mastery of procedural skills has been demonstrated to decrease resident anxiety, improve success rates, and decrease complications during the resident’s transition into the clinical setting.5,6 Similarly, use of a 3-D head and neck model to practice application of facial regional anesthesia is hypothesized to improve provider confidence and competence which will in turn provide an improved patient experience. Objectives: In participating in the educational session associated with this task trainer, the learner will: 1 Identify landmarks for the following nerve blocks: Infraorbital, Supraorbital (V1, Mental, Periauricular 2 Demonstrate the appropriate technique for anesthetic injection for each of these nerve blocks 3 Map the distribution of regional anesthesia expected from each nerve block 4 Apply the indications and contraindications for each regional nerve block Method: This low-fidelity task trainer allows residents and medical students to practice various nerve blocks on the face in order to improve learner confidence and proficiency in performing facial regional anesthesia.
Full Text Available As the number, type, and use of technologies to support learning increases, so do the opportunities for using these technologies for feedback. Learner-centered feedback is a core to the teaching-learning process. It is related to assessment in describing how learners perform in their learning, their gain in knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Feedback, types of feedback, guidelines for effective learner-centered feedback, and feedback’s relationship to assessment are presented. Methods of providing feedback, for example, automated, audio scribe pens, digital audio, etc., and the related technologies are described. Technologies that allow instructors to make informed decisions about the use of various methods for feedback are discussed.
Yvonne C. Bain
Full Text Available Online learning, often supported through online discussion, is not only a popular means of supporting off-campus learners, but increasingly has a place within campus-based learning courses. Laurillard and others suggest that there are assumptions being made about learning through online discussion that have yet to be fully tested, and therefore there is a need to examine this area further. Tutors and learners may benefit from having a greater insight and understanding of how engaging in asynchronous online discussion presents opportunities for learning on an individual and a collective basis. This research study focused on learners' engagement with online discussion and their perceptions of how engaging in online discussion impacts on learning. This paper revisits learning through online discussion and proposes a framework, which emerges from the analysis of learners' experiences. A grounded theory approach was used in the collection and analysis of six learner case studies within a higher education setting, exploring learners' interactions in online discussion, and their perceptions of learning through online discussion. Insights into the learners' interactions were provided by the learners themselves through semi-structured interviews. The grounded approach to the analysis of the interviews enabled the learners' voices to be heard in terms of what they thought about learning through online discussion. The insight enabled through the depth of description from the learners and the examination of the online interactions led to the development of a framework for learning through online discussion. The framework raises the importance of articulation as a key process in learning whilst highlighting the opportunities for collaborative informed thinking by engaging with the ideas of others. The focus given to the learning process through the framework will be of interest to tutors and learners who use online asynchronous discussion environments for
Full Text Available Two areas of difficulty that almost all students might face while learning a second language are speaking and listening skills. Individuals’ perceptions about the underlying main causes of their lives’ events which is called Locus of Control (LOC, has a great role in their activities as well as the interactions between individuals and socio-cultural environments. This study aims at investigating the relationship between social cultural capital, LOC and oral proficiency (listening and speaking of Iranian EFL learners. It also aims at examining the relationship between social cultural capital and LOC (internal and external. To meet this end, Social Cultural Capital Questionnaire (Pishghadam, Noghani & Zabihi, 2011 and the Persian version of LOC questionnaire (Ghonsooly & Elahi, 2010 were administered to a sample of 100 upper intermediate EFL students from some language institutes in Mashhad, Iran. Both male (N=46 and female (N=54 students filled in two questionnaires. The participants’ Grand Point Averages (GPA of their FL Listening and Speaking exams also served as an index of their oral proficiency achievement. The results of the statistical analyses revealed a positive correlation between social cultural capital, LOC, and students’ oral proficiency. The findings also demonstrated a significant relationship between social cultural capital and LOC.
Tai, Sophie; Chen, Hao-Jan
Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has gained increasing acceptance since it provides learners with abundant resources. Most researches confirm the beneficial effect of CALL on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' cognitive, metacognitive, and affective developments. However, the diversity of students' intelligence is associated…
Santana, Josefina C.; García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena
This study explores different variables leading to proficiency in English as a second language. Level of English on a placement exam taken upon entering a private university in Mexico was correlated to several variables. Additionally, participants (N = 218) were asked their perception of their own proficiency. A linear regression and a one-factor…
Jacobus, Everett Franklin, Jr.
Based on research relating William Perry's scheme of cognitive development to foreign language proficiency, a developmental hypothesis concerning language ability is proposed. This approach suggests that lower developmental stages in the cognitive domain retard the achievement of communicative language proficiency, while higher developmental…
Jan 28, 2013 ... Five null hypotheses were formed and tested at 5% level of significance. Results show that numerical proficiency of students taught by experienced teachers were better than those taught by less experienced teachers. There was no significant difference in the numerical proficiency of male and female ...
Bobetsky, Victor V.
Do prospective music teachers with piano proficiency have an advantage in the job market? Can playing the piano well help practicing teachers achieve greater success in the classroom? In this article, the author stresses that piano proficiency is a necessary survival tool for music teachers regardless of their primary instrument or vocal specialty…
Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila
Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…
Shokouhi, Hussein; Angameh, Farzad
This paper is intended to investigate the interplay between proficiency and gender in the use of communication strategies. Sixty Iranian university male and female subjects studying English took part in the experiment and performed two tasks: word recognition and picture-story narration. The results indicate that proficiency had a more perceptible…
Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.
Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC  and is
Roever, Carsten; Pan, Yi-Ching
The General English Proficiency Test (GEPT) was developed in 1999, commissioned by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan. The purpose of the test is to provide individuals with a gauge of their English language proficiency and assist employers and educational institutions in selection and placement. Also, it aims to encourage the study of English…
Camara-Norman, Filisha; And Others
The restructuring of the Romance language program at Howard University to improve oral proficiency involved modification of goals, syllabi, classroom activities, and testing. Goals were adapted to American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)/Educational Testing Service (ETS) guidelines for oral proficiency. Assessment of French…
Background: One of the risks associated with low physical activity levels is the insufficient development of motor proficiency, which in turn has an impact on participation in physical activity and sport during adolescence. Objectives: To determine the relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity levels in ...
This paper examines the language dominance and oral bilingual proficiency of Tarahumara-Spanish speaking students from Chihuahua, Mexico, within the framework of Cummins' model of bilingual proficiency development. Cummins' model distinguishes between basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) and cognitive academic language proficiency…
Lowe, Pardee, Jr.
Describes principles for designing a proficiency-based course to prepare students for the ACTFL/ETS Advanced Plus/Superior level according to Interagency Language Roundtable guidelines. Proposes ways to combine grammatical and "functional/notional" syllabuses with a proficiency approach. Examines the implications of these principles for…
Whereas the Interagency Language Roundtable Language Skill Level Descriptions broke new ground for assessing proficiency in foreign languages, the need for user-oriented (rather than assessment-oriented) proficiency scales has led, especially in Europe, to the creation of scales consisting of positively formulated "can-do" statements,…
Bulger, Monica E.; Mayer, Richard E.; Metzger, Miriam J.
Proficiency in digital literacy refers to the ability to read and write using online sources, and includes the ability to select sources relevant to the task, synthesize information into a coherent message, and communicate the message with an audience. The present study examines the determinants of digital literacy proficiency by asking 150…
Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.
The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part
Richards, Jack C.
Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…
van Hell, Janet G.; Tanner, Darren
Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L2 proficiency modulate cross-language…
Moghtadi, Laleh; Koosha, Mansour; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza
The main concern of the present study was to investigate the probable correlation between the bilinguals' second language grammatical proficiency level and their third language grammatical proficiency level. The current study was implemented on selecting a total of 100 Iranian female high school students studying at second grade from two…
Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah
The intent of the present study was to examine the strength of the relationship between language proficiency in English and the 9 types of intelligences. As such, the objectives of this study were three-folded. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency among the…
Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.
Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument
Lamb, Terry Eric
Recent research in the fields of motivation and learner autonomy in language learning has begun to explore their relationships to the construct of identity. This article builds on this through the voices of a group of six learners of French or German in a secondary school in England, over a two-year period. These young learners initially reveal a…
We describe how graduate students categorize introductory mechanics problems based on the similarity of their solutions. Graduate students were asked at the end of a teaching assistant training class to categorize problems from their own perspective and from the perspective of typical introductory physics students whom they were teaching. We compare their categorizations with the categorizations by introductory physics students and physics faculty who categorized the same problems. The utility of categorization as a tool for teaching assistant training and faculty development workshops is discussed.
This paper addresses the problem of placing and teaching heritage speakers of immigrant languages in college-level foreign language programmes, drawing conclusions from research on heritage speakers of Russian. For pedagogical purposes, heritage speakers cannot be viewed either as native speakers of the target language or as foreign language…
Rafieyan, Vahid; Rafieyan, Ali; Rafieyan, Navid; Rafieyan, Saeid; Rafieyan, Parvaneh; Rafieyan, Mohamad
The very information structure of written communication depends not just on the writer's meaning and purpose but rather on the extent to which writer and reader share knowledge of pragmatic features of the language. To assess the actual effect of developing target language pragmatic competence through telecollaboration on improving English as…
Karakoç, Dilek; Köse, Gül Durmusoglu
This study is an attempt to clarify the incremental and multidimensional nature of foreign language vocabulary development and its relation to the participants' reading and writing performances and general language ability of English as a foreign language (EFL). With this principle aim, the current study investigated the relationship between…
Thomas et al. have defined transliteracy as "the ability to read, write and interact across a range of platforms, tools and media from signing and orality through handwriting, print, TV, radio and film, to digital social networks" (Transliteracy Research Group). The learner who is transliterate builds knowledge, communicates, and interacts across…
The article describes a work/study program for slow learners where the students spend a month at the Brooklyn Bureau's Department for the Handicapped, an agency where the physically and emotionally handicapped are given a comprehensive program of work training, job placement, homemaker training, and recreation. (Author/JB)
Trevor Greene, the 2013 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year, empowers staff members and students to be the best teachers and learners they can be and provides the community resources to support them. In this article, Greene, principal of Toppenish High School in Washington, shares his biggest motivator as a school leader and…
This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…
Full Text Available Employability of graduates is a concern in many countries, including Malaysia, and the high unemployment rate among graduates is often attributed to their lack of English proficiency and communication skills. These two distinctive elements are often collated, and it is important to find out which is more important to employers. The study examined the employers’ views on the importance of English proficiency and communication skill for graduates to be employed in the Malaysian private sector. The data were from semi-structured interviews conducted with 10 employers in the private sector who were in the position to recruit staff. The 21,433-word interview transcripts were analyzed. The results revealed that employers in the Malaysian private sector view language proficiency and communication skills as separate qualities. The employers are willing to consider employing candidates with average English proficiency if they have good communication skills, except for jobs which require more communication in English such as customer service and marketing. The results also revealed that good communication skills can increase employability and opportunities for career advancement. The findings highlight the communication skills that universities need to emphasize so that their graduates have the necessary skills to perform well in employment interviews and in their work.
Gouws, E.; Dicker, A-M.
To meet the demands of our highly technological and globally competitive society, it is becoming increasingly important for all learners in South Africa to obtain skills and knowledge in mathematics. However, South Africa performed the worst of all the countries who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS).…
Asunda, Paul A.
A changing education landscape, diverse learner needs and technological advancements make this the perfect time for online and distance learning. Distance learning is increasingly becoming a preferred means for individuals to gain access to education and job preparation opportunities; this meets the public's learning needs "and" that of an…
Coetzee-van Rooy, Susan
Kachru (1988) and Sridhar and Sridhar (1992) argue that the spread of English as a world language increases the types of context in which English is learnt today. The sociolinguistic realities of world Englishes learners today challenge the validity of some second-language acquisition theories. One of the theoretical limitations of existing…
Full Text Available Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL applications for improving the oral skills of low-proficient learners have to cope with non-native speech that is particularly challenging. Since unconstrained non-native ASR is still problematic, a possible solution is to elicit constrained responses from the learners. In this paper, we describe experiments aimed at selecting utterances from lists of responses. The first experiment on utterance selection indicates that the decoding process can be improved by optimizing the language model and the acoustic models, thus reducing the utterance error rate from 29–26% to 10–8%. Since giving feedback on incorrectly recognized utterances is confusing, we verify the correctness of the utterance before providing feedback. The results of the second experiment on utterance verification indicate that combining duration-related features with a likelihood ratio (LR yield an equal error rate (EER of 10.3%, which is significantly better than the EER for the other measures in isolation.
Ochoa, Salvador Hector; And Others
A study of the language proficiency assessment practices of 859 school psychologists, when working with bilingual or limited English proficient students, found that 62 percent of school psychologists conducted their own assessments and most often used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised or the Test de Vocabulario en Imagenes Peabody.…
Baker, Doris Luft; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Ortiz, Miriam; Correa, Vivian; Cole, Ron
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the vocabulary development and promising, evidence-based vocabulary interventions for English learners (ELs) from preschool through second grade. To achieve this purpose, we have taken six steps. First, we describe the elements of language development in the native language (L1) and a second language (L2) and how these elements relate to three phases of reading development (i.e., the prereading phase, the learning to read phase, and the reading to learn phase). We contend that in order for ELs to succeed in school, they need a strong language foundation prior to entering kindergarten. This language foundation needs to continue developing during the "learning to read" and "reading to learn" phases. Second, we describe the limitations of current practice in preschool for ELs related to vocabulary instruction and to family involvement to support children's language development. Third, we report curricular challenges faced by ELs in early elementary school, and we relate these challenges to the increase in reading and language demands outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Specific language activities that can help meet some of the demands are provided in a table. Fourth, we synthesize the research on evidence-based vocabulary instruction and intervention and discuss implications for practice with ELs. Fifth, we describe two intervention projects under development that have the potential to improve EL vocabulary and language proficiency in the early grades. We conclude with a summary of the chapter and provide additional resources on the topic.
Jiang, Jingyang; Ouyang, Jinghui; Liu, Haitao
Language is not only the representation of thinking, but also shapes thinking. Studies on bilinguals suggest that a foreign language plays an important and unconscious role in thinking. In this study, a software—Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count 2007—was used to investigate whether the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) can foster Chinese high school students’ English analytic thinking (EAT) through the analysis of their English writings with our self-built corpus. It was found that: (1) learning English can foster Chinese learners’ EAT. Chinese EFL learners’ ability of making distinctions, degree of cognitive complexity and degree of thinking activeness have all improved along with the increase of their English proficiency and their age; (2) there exist differences in Chinese EFL learners’ EAT and that of English native speakers, i. e. English native speakers are better in the ability of making distinctions and degree of thinking activeness. These findings suggest that the best EFL learners in high schools have gained native-like analytic thinking through six years’ English learning and are able to switch their cognitive styles as needed. PMID:27741270
Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R
This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language, cognitive, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills were followed through kindergarten. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Spanish-speaking preschoolers with greater initiative, self-control, and attachment and fewer behavior problems at age 4 were more successful in obtaining English proficiency by the end of kindergarten compared to those initially weaker in these skills, even after controlling for cognitive/language skills and demographic variables. Also, greater facility in Spanish at age 4 predicted the attainment of English proficiency. Social and behavioral skills and proficiency in Spanish are valuable resources for low-income English language learners during their transition to school.
Background The current paradigm of arthroscopic training lacks objective evaluation of technical ability and its adequacy is concerning given the accelerating complexity of the field. To combat insufficiencies, emphasis is shifting towards skill acquisition outside the operating room and sophisticated assessment tools. We reviewed (1) the validity of cadaver and surgical simulation in arthroscopic training, (2) the role of psychomotor analysis and arthroscopic technical ability, (3) what validated assessment tools are available to evaluate technical competency, and (4) the quantification of arthroscopic proficiency. Methods The Medline and Embase databases were searched for published articles in the English literature pertaining to arthroscopic competence, arthroscopic assessment and evaluation and objective measures of arthroscopic technical skill. Abstracts were independently evaluated and exclusion criteria included articles outside the scope of knee and shoulder arthroscopy as well as original articles about specific therapies, outcomes and diagnoses leaving 52 articles citied in this review. Results Simulated arthroscopic environments exhibit high levels of internal validity and consistency for simple arthroscopic tasks, however the ability to transfer complex skills to the operating room has not yet been established. Instrument and force trajectory data can discriminate between technical ability for basic arthroscopic parameters and may serve as useful adjuncts to more comprehensive techniques. There is a need for arthroscopic assessment tools for standardized evaluation and objective feedback of technical skills, yet few comprehensive instruments exist, especially for the shoulder. Opinion on the required arthroscopic experience to obtain proficiency remains guarded and few governing bodies specify absolute quantities. Conclusions Further validation is required to demonstrate the transfer of complex arthroscopic skills from simulated environments to the
Bradshaw, Michael; Tomany-Korman, Sandra; Flores, Glenn
adding more languages to pharmacy software. Approximately half of Milwaukee pharmacies never/only sometimes can provide non-English-language prescription labels or information packets, and approximately two thirds never/only sometimes can verbally communicate in non-English languages. One in 9 pharmacies that verbally communicate in non-English languages use patients' family members/friends to interpret. Almost half of the pharmacies are dissatisfied with their communication with patients who have limited English proficiency. Community pharmacies are less likely and pharmacies using telephone interpreting services are more likely to be able to verbally communicate in non-English languages. Study findings indicate that improvements in pharmacies' communication with patients who have limited English proficiency may result by increasing the quality and number of non-English languages in existing computer programs, hiring bilingual staff, and using telephone interpreting services when in-person interpreters are unavailable.
Oyoo, Samuel Ouma
Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT
Yeung, Susanna S; Chan, Carol K K
Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2 English reading among Hong Kong ESL kindergarteners. This study aims to investigate L1 and L2 phonological awareness and oral language proficiency as predictors of English reading among children with Chinese as L1. One hundred and sixty-one typically developing children with a mean age of 5.16 (SD=.35) selected from seven preschools in Hong Kong. Participants were assessed for English reading, English and Chinese phonological awareness at different levels, English oral language skills, and letter naming ability. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that both oral language proficiency and phonological awareness measures significantly predicted L2 word reading, when statistically controlled for age and general intelligence. Among various phonological awareness units, L2 phonemic awareness was the best predictor of L2 word reading. Cross-language transfer was shown with L1 phonological awareness at the tone level, uniquely predicting L2 word reading. The present findings show the important role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels (rime and phoneme) and oral language proficiency in the course of L2 reading development in Chinese ESL learners. The significant contribution of L1 tone awareness to L2 reading suggests that phonological sensitivity is a general competence that ESL children need to acquire in early years. The findings have significant implications for understanding L2 reading development and curriculum development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Bilingual speakers cannot suppress activation from their dominant language while naming pictures in a foreign and less dominant language. Previous research has revealed that this cross-langauge activation is manifested through phonological facilitation, semantic interference and between language competition. However, this research is based exclusively on highly proficient bilinguals. The present study investigates cross-linguistic activation in Swedish learners of Spanish, grouped according t...
Holmstrup, Michael; Jensen, Brock; Burkart, Rebecca; Levis, Malorie
This investigation was performed to determine how students in a health sciences program utilize and explain techniques within blood pressure measurement using a novel assessment, and changes associated with greater curricular exposure. An exploratory, qualitative and quantitative study was conducted using a 'Think Aloud' design with protocol analysis. Following familiarization, participants performed the task of measuring blood pressure on a reference subject while stating their thought processes. A trained practitioner recorded each participant's procedural proficiency using a standardized rubric. There were 112 participants in the study with varying levels of curricular exposure to blood pressure measurement. Four trends are noted. Specifically, a trend was observed wherein a marked increase in procedural proficiency with a plateau occurred (e.g. released cuff pressure 2-4 mmHg, 10%, 60%, 83%, 82%). Secondly, a trend was observed with improvement across groups (e.g. cuff placed snugly/smoothly on upper arm, 20%, 60%, 81%, and 91%). Other trends included a marked improvement with subsequent decrease, and an improvement without achieving proficiency (e.g. palpation of the brachial pulse, 5%, 90%, 81%, 68%, appropriate size cuff, 17%, 40%, 33%, 41%, respectively). Qualitatively, transcript interpretation resulted in a need for clarification in the way blood pressure procedure is instructed in the curriculum. The current investigation provides a snapshot of proficiency in blood pressure assessment across a curriculum and highlights considerations for best instructional practices, including the use of Think Aloud. Consequently, medical educators should use qualitative and quantitative assessments concurrently to determine achievement of blood pressure skill proficiency.
Paredes, Anghela Z; Idrees, Jay J; Beal, Eliza W; Chen, Qinyu; Cerier, Emily; Okunrintemi, Victor; Olsen, Griffin; Sun, Steven; Cloyd, Jordan M; Pawlik, Timothy M
The number of patients in the United States (US) who speak a language other than English is increasing. We evaluated the impact of English proficiency on self-reported patient-provider communication and shared decision-making. The 2013-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey database was utilized to identify respondents who spoke a language other than English. Patient-provider communication (PPC) and shared decision-making (SDM) scores from 4-12 were categorized as "poor" (4-7), "average" (8-11), and "optimal." The relationship between PPC, SDM, and English proficiency was analyzed. Among 13,880 respondents, most were white (n = 10,281, 75%), age 18-39 (n = 6,677, 48%), male (n = 7,275, 52%), middle income (n = 4,125, 30%), and born outside of the US (n = 9,125, 65%). English proficiency was rated as "very well" (n = 7,221, 52%), "well" (n = 2,378, 17%), "not well" (n = 2,820, 20%), or "not at all" (n = 1,463, 10%). On multivariable analysis, patients who rated their English as "well" (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.37-2.18) or "not well" (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10-2.14) were more likely to report "poor" PPC (both P English proficiency as "not well" (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04-1.65, P = .02). Decreased English proficiency was associated with worse self-reported patient-provider communication and shared decision-making. Attention to patients' language needs is critical to patient satisfaction and improved perception of care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study tends to explore the possible reforms to raise the proficiency level of the adult English as Foreign Language (EFL learners. With this end in view, it investigates non-native EFL teachers’ beliefs in relation to adult learners’ beliefs in teaching grammar to university students in the Saudi Arabian EFL context. It finds out the harmony and disharmony between the teachers at the giving end and the taught at the receiving end to create a culture of awareness and to build a better teaching-learning environment. The study tries to fill the existing research gap as no previous research has tried to find out the solution to the problem from this angle. The main data collection tools are two five-point Likert-scale questionnaires, administered to 70 non-native EFL teachers and their 80 adult students. Teachers and learners have been selected based on stratified random sampling. Quantitative data have been analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS. The major findings of the study are that there is discrepancy in the grammar teaching beliefs of the EFL teachers and the taught and there is a communication gap between them which result into low English proficiency level of the EFL adult learners. Eventually, pedagogical implications of the lack of harmony between the teachers’ teaching creeds and the learners’ learning demands/expectations are provided for effective grammar teaching and better EFL classroom environment. The study recommends a better communicative harmony in both the stakeholders to bring reforms in adult education in EFL context.
Full Text Available Playing digital games is undeniably a popular leisure activity, and digital gaming is also gaining academic attention and recognition for enhancing digital literacies and learning motivation. One tricky issue when exploring digital gaming in Asian contexts is the popularity of English and Japanese games. Though Chinese and Korean online games are readily available, many of the more popular commercial off-the-shelf (COTS digital games are in English and Japanese. Students in Hong Kong are required to take English as a foreign language, which resulted in a huge range of proficiency, but Japanese is not offered at public schools. So, most Hong Kong gamers are playing foreign language games. Yet language barriers do not diminish the market demand for foreign language digital games. This paper explores the phenomenon of digital gaming in foreign languages. Based on findings from an on-going research project with ten undergraduate video gamers (F=4, M=6, this paper argues that gamers exercise learner autonomy by managing their gaming both as leisure and learning experiences.
Johanna Enö Persson
Full Text Available Research on training in motivational interviewing (MI has shown eroding skills after workshops not followed by additional training input (supervision/coaching. There is a need for more research evaluating different types and lengths of post-workshop training with follow-up periods extending six months. This study is an extension of a previous evaluation of the level of proficiency in MI after workshop and four sessions of supervision among nurses in Swedish child health services.To explore the level of MI proficiency among nurses participating in an intervention to prevent childhood obesity (n = 33, after receiving five additional sessions of supervision including feedback on observed practice, as well as level of proficiency at follow-up.Level of proficiency was measured 4 and 12 months after completed supervision using recorded practice samples coded according to the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI Code. Potential predictors of outcome were investigated.Proficiency remained on the same levels after nine sessions of supervision as after four sessions, and was generally low. The percentage of nurses reaching the proficiency level ranged from 18.2 to 54.5% across indicators. MI-spirit had increased significantly at follow-up, and the rest of the indicators remained on the same levels. No predictors of outcome were found.Comprehensive training programs with prolonged post-workshop supervision and feedback on observed practice may help to sustain but not improve participants' proficiency in MI. Potential explanations to the results and suggestions for future research are discussed.
The first three chapters of the book offer relevant information on the new methodological approach, learner corpus profiling, and the exemplifying case, Romanian Learner English. The description of the Romanian Corpus of Learner English is also given special attention. The following three chapters include corpus-based frequency analyses of selected grammatical categories (articles, prepositions, genitives), combined with error analyses. In the concluding discussion, the book summarizes the features compiled as lexico-grammatical profiles.
Petersen, Karen Bjerg
language for adults. The research results indicate that teachers seem to compensate by trying to create virtual communities of learning. Learners, however, experience disembedded relations. Conversely, curriculum development, on tends to ‘exploit’ the conditions of disembedding social relations in e-learning......The outstanding British sociologist Anthony Giddens predicted e-learning environments by describing “modernity”. Giddens emphasised that modernity is inherently globalising, it creates ‘disembedded’ social relations and “tears space away from place by fostering relations between ‘absent’ others......, locationally distant”. The aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss how different positions in e-learning settings result in different answers to modernity. These settings can be applied to either teacher, learner or curriculum positions. The research was based on a qualitative longitudinal case study...
Full Text Available Different methods of language teaching have tried to help EFL learners to develop good language skills based on their various perspectives. Research findings have underscored the effect of using task types in promoting language skills in terms of accuracy in written discourse. Therefore, this study set out to investigate whether there is an evidence of correct use of simple past tense (Accuracy based on Task Complexity (Task type :Here-and now & There-and-then,Task Conditions (Gender: Male & Female, and Task Difficulty (Proficiency: Lower-intermediate & Intermediate. Sixty Iranian English learners in a language institute participated in the study and were assigned to four groups of lower-intermediate male, lower-intermediate female, intermediate male and intermediate female. Initial homogeneity of the groups was verified using two general proficiency tests; KET for lower-intermediate and PET for intermediate. All groups in here-and-now task type were asked to write a story using simple past based on a picture strip while for there-and-then task type the participants were supposed to write about their last birthday. The results from paired samples t-test, independent samples t-test and two-way ANOVA analysis of the written data revealed significant differences in performing task types, at different proficiency levels and interaction between them. The findings have significant pedagogical implications for EFL learners to understand the relationship among Task Complexity,Task Conditions, Task Difficulty and L2 written production leading to various degrees of Accuracy.
Sisson, Stephen D; Rastegar, Darius A; Hughes, Mark T; Bertram, Amanda K; Yeh, Hsin Chieh
Online medical education curricula offer new tools to teach and evaluate learners. The effect on educational outcomes of using learner feedback to guide curricular revision for online learning is unknown. In this study, qualitative analysis of learner feedback gathered from an online curriculum was used to identify themes of learner feedback, and changes to the online curriculum in response to this feedback were tracked. Learner satisfaction and knowledge gains were then compared from before and after implementation of learner feedback. 37,755 learners from 122 internal medicine residency training programs were studied, including 9437 postgraduate year (PGY)1 residents (24.4 % of learners), 9864 PGY2 residents (25.5 %), 9653 PGY3 residents (25.0 %), and 6605 attending physicians (17.0 %). Qualitative analysis of learner feedback on how to improve the curriculum showed that learners commented most on the overall quality of the educational content, followed by specific comments on the content. When learner feedback was incorporated into curricular revision, learner satisfaction with the instructive value of the curriculum (1 = not instructive; 5 = highly instructive) increased from 3.8 to 4.1 (p feedback on the factual content of a curriculum than on other areas such as interactivity or website design. Incorporating learner feedback into curricular revision was associated with improved educational outcomes. Online curricula should be designed to include a mechanism for learner feedback and that feedback should be used for future curricular revision.
Joseph D. Novak
Full Text Available The most important factor leading to empowerment of individuals is the ability and commitment to achieve high levels of meaningful learning. Meaningful learning requires integration of new concepts and propositions into the learnerʼs cognitive structure to achieve high levels of organized knowledge that can be represented as knowledge models. Concept mapping and new educational strategies can facilitate the process.
Pantelic, G., E-mail: email@example.com [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia); Vuletic, V. [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic, Deligradska 29, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrovic, R. [Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia, Autoput 3, 11070 Belgrade (Serbia)
This paper presents the statistical evaluation of results from the analysis of 8 radionuclides in water samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of gamma spectrometry Laboratories in Serbia organized in 2008. The water samples used in this proficiency test were prepared using certified radioactive solution containing gamma emitting radionuclides. This solution was diluted and used as a master solution for preparation of test samples. The overall performance evaluation showed that 64.7% of all reported results met the individual proficiency test criteria, where 26.5% of all reported results did not pass the overall PT acceptance criterion.
Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the strategies of successful English learners in speaking English. It is aimed to investigate the learning strategies used by successful English learners of SMAN 2 Surabaya to assist in converting controlled process into automatic one. Adopting qualitative descriptive analysis, this study consistently describes the phenomena. Notably, it is designed as a case study since the researcher is interested in describing some aspects of second language performance of the subjects as individuals. The researcher used in collecting the data is an interview and supported by the researcher as the observer of the observation conducted in the classroom. The subjects of this study are two successful English learners of eleventh grade senior high. Thus, the data got from the subjects derived from the observation and interview selected, simplified, and organized to draw the conclusion. Based on the results, successful English learners use both direct and indirect strategies in learning to speak English. In applying direct strategy they make use of compensation and cognitive strategy by switching their target language to his mother tongue, using resources for receiving and sending messages in the target language and use mime or gesture. Indirect strategy is applied by making use metacognitive, affective, and social strategy. They also do activities such as paying attention to the language learning tasks, delaying speech production to focus on listening to the target language, cooperating with peers, cooperating with proficient users of target language, seeking practice opportunities, making positive statements, taking risk wisely, and self monitoring, progressive relaxation and has deep breathing.
Khaliq, Farah; Anjana, Yumnam; Vaney, Neelam
Slow learners are individuals with low achievement and comparably low IQ scores. It may be a symptom reflecting a larger underlying problem in them. Sensory neural processing of visual information can be one of the contributory factors for their underachievement. The present study was undertaken to examine the integrity and function of visual pathway by means of Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Pattern reversal VEP was performed on seventeen slow learners. Fifteen age and sex matched children with good school performance and normal IQ were taken as controls. There was significant prolongation of N75 component of VEP in slow learners. The latencies of P100 and N145 were also increased but could not reach the level of significance. Our findings are suggestive of the presence of a weaker VEP response in slow learners indicative of a deficit early in the visual processing. There is some abnormality in the geniculate afferents to V1 which is consistent with a defect in the magnocellular pathway at the level of Visual Area 1 or earlier.
Dr. L. Kannan; Dr. P. V. Vijayaragavan; Dr. Pankaj. B. Shah; Dr. Suganathan. S; Dr. Praveena .P
... these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners...
Full Text Available Abstract As part of a larger study (Rahimi, 2004, this study investigates the use of language learning strategies by post-secondary level Persian EFL learners. Particular attention is paid to the variables affecting learners’ choice of strategies, and the relationship, if any, between these variables and learners’ patterns of strategy use. Data were gathered from 196 low-, mid- and high proficiency learners using such instruments as the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL; Oxford, 1990, and two questionnaires of attitude and motivation (adapted from Laine, 1988 and learning style (Soloman and Felder, 2001. The results of the study point to proficiency level and motivation as major predictors of the use of language learning strategies among this group of learners. Gender, on the other hand, is not found to have any effect while years of language study appear to negatively predict strategy use. The difference between learners’ use of the SILL’s six major strategy categories is found to be significant and indicates learners’ preference for metacognitive strategies.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present quasi-experimental study is to investigate the effect of storytelling technique on writing ability of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To this end, 40 female intermediate EFL learners with the age range of 14-16 attending Chabahar Maritime University High School were initially selected. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of a TOEFL (the Paper-Based Test proficiency test. Then they were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. A speaking test was administered to female subjects of both groups at the beginning of the study. The experimental group used storytelling technique two times a week while the control group was not trained on this technique. At the end of the study, a speaking test was administered to all subjects for examining their ability in speaking skill. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test were performed for data analysis. The results showed that storytelling technique had a significant effect on improving the speaking ability of intermediate EFL learners.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents a brief summary of a study which was carried out to investigate how employers representing major employment sectors in the Bangladeshi Industry view the skills and English proficiency level of the current employees. Opinions were also solicited on what skills are required for fresh recruits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employers representing the major employment sectors in Bangladeshi Industry. Results revealed the importance of English as an indispensible means of communication in the Bangladeshi corporate sector and showed that the business enterprises use extensive amounts of English. It also highlighted that the existent English proficiency of the employees was far below the required proficiency level. Recommendations were made to address the gap and prepare the youth to meet the demands of the global market. Keywords: English proficiency, competency, employability skills, global literacy skills
Full Text Available This study investigates Chinese Language Speaking Anxiety and its associated factors among college-level students who learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL in the U.S. Although the Speaking Anxiety scores of the participants were not high on average, but frequency analyses showed that quite a number of learners experienced high levels of anxiety when speaking Chinese. The results of ANOVA analyses indicated that gender had a significant effect on Speaking Anxiety, but proficiency level and the elective-required status did not. Correlation and multiple regression results showed that perceived difficulty level of the Chinese language, self-perceived language learning ability, and self-perceived achievement in Chinese classes were significant predictors of Speaking Anxiety and altogether accounted for 21.4% of the variance in Speaking Anxiety.
Full Text Available The acquisition of lexical knowledge in a second/foreign language is often investigated by means of vocabulary size tests which assess two aspects of the learners' competence: reception and production. Estimates of these two dimensions, as well as the (potential gap between them, have important pedagogical implications in that they indicate the degree to which the learners can comprehend or use the language autonomously. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the vocabulary size of three generations of B2-level L2 learners (CEFR, first-year students majoring in English at the Faculty of Philology and Arts in Kragujevac, Serbia, by means of Vocabulary Levels Tests (Laufer & Nation, 1999; Nation, 1990. The results of the statistical analyses show that the receptive vocabulary of Serbian L2 learners is much more developed than their productive vocabulary, and that the gap between lexical production and reception changes depending on the frequency of the lexemes and the proficiency level of L2 learners. The findings imply that, at the primary and secondary level of education, more attention should be paid to the development of productive lexical knowledge which is crucial not only for success in English degree courses but communication in English in general.
Full Text Available In recent years attention has been accorded to language learners’ affective factors and learning styles. Two of the significant learning styles are impulsivity and reflectivity which have not been studied as much as other styles such as introversion and extroversion. This study endeavored to find out whether or not impulsivity and reflectivity have any effect on reading comprehension of Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners. Seventy two language learners were selected from 4 intact classes out of 112 learners. Nelson proficiency test was given to the participants as homogeneity test. Next, Barrat’s (1995 impulsiveness questionnaire was given to the participants. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the participants formed 3 different groups, i.e., a reflective group (n=25, impulsive group (n=25 and a control group (n=22. The control group consisted of less impulsive and less reflective learners based on Barrat’s scale. An IELTS reading test (general module was administered to the participants. Based on the results of independent samples t-test, it was found that impulsivity and reflectivity do not have any effect on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. Pedagogical implications are discussed.
Full Text Available Theoretically framed within Vygotskyan sociocultural theory (SCT of mind, the present study investigated resurfacing of private speech markers by Iranian elementary female EFL learners in teacher-learner interactions. To this end, an elementary EFL class including 12 female learners and a same-sex teacher were selected as the participants of the study. As for the data, six 30-minute reading comprehension tasks with the interval of every two weeks were videotaped, while each participant was provided with a sensitive MP3 player to keep track of very low private speech markers. Instances of externalized private speech markers were coded and reports were generated for the patterns of private speech markers regarding their form and content. While a high number of literal translation, metalanguage, and switching to L1 mid-utterance were reported, the generated number of such private markers as self-directed questions, reading aloud, reviewing, and self-explanations in L2 was comparatively less which could be due to low L2 proficiency of the learners. The findings of the study, besides highlighting the importance of paying more attention to private speech as a mediating tool in cognitive regulation of learners in doing tasks in L2, suggest that teachers’ type of classroom practice is effective in production of private speech. Pedagogically speaking, the results suggest that instead of seeing L1 private speech markers as detrimental to L2 learning, they should be seen as signs of cognitive regulation when facing challenging tasks.
Seyed Mohammad Kazem Aghamir
Full Text Available Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees’ ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees’ performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees’ age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5 and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2% recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees’ age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.
Aghamir, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Behtash, Negar; Hamidi, Morteza; Farahmand, Hasan; Salavati, Alborz; Mortaz Hejri, Sara
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is a complicated procedure for urology trainees. This study was designed to investigate the effect of trainees' ages and previous experience, as well as the number of operated cases, on proficiency at PNL by using patient outcomes. A cross sectional observational study was designed during a five-year period. Trainees in PNL fellowship programs were included. At the end of the program, the trainees' performance in PNL was assessed regarding five competencies and scored 1-5. If the overall score was 4 or above, the trainee was considered as proficient. The trainees' age at the beginning of the program and the years passed from their residency graduation were asked and recorded. Also, the number of PNL cases operated by each trainee was obtained via their logbooks. The age, years passed from graduation, and number of operated cases were compared between two groups of proficient and non-proficient trainees. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the effect of aforementioned variables on the occurrence of the proficiency. Forty-two trainees were included in the study. The mean and standard deviation for the overall score were 3.40 (out of 5) and 0.67, respectively. Eleven trainees (26.2%) recognized as proficient in performing PNL. Univariate regression analysis indicated that each of three variables (age, years passed from graduation and number of operated cases) had statistically significant effect on proficiency. However, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that just the number of cases had significant effect on achieving proficiency. Although it might be assumed that trainees' age negatively correlates with their scores, in fact, it is their amount of practice that makes a difference. A certain number of cases is required to be operated by a trainee in order to reach the desired competency in PNL.
Full Text Available A not entirely unusual position among teachers is that they believe that they must first establish a peaceful classroom before they can begin to teach the subject. This research, shows how a proficient mathematics teacher teaches his subject and thereby creates a quiet and focused classroom and exerts effective leadership, just by teaching mathematics. The researchers observed a male mathematics teacher for almost half a year, i.e. one semester. The results of research present several patterns that the researchers saw during the observations of his teaching. The teacher showed an interest in each student’s mathematical thinking and expressed explicitly how students were expected to learn mathematics. He also directed students’ attention to mathematics and established a culture where all solutions were important in the teaching process. In the teaching process, he used multiple representations to motivate students and a lot of supportive expressions that made them feel that they were able to learn mathematics. He worked patiently to establish structures, and there was almost no disruptive behaviour. Students simply did not have time to interfere because they were so engaged in learning mathematics.
Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane
This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Roberts, Greg; Bryant, Diane
This study used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Kindergarten Class of 1998 –1999, to (a) estimate mathematics achievement trends through 5th grade in the population of students who are English-language proficient by the end of kindergarten, (b) compare trends across primary language groups within this English-language proficient group, (c) evaluate the effect of low socioeconomic status (SES) for English-language proficient students and within different primary language groups, and (d) estimate language-group trends in specific mathematics skill areas. The group of English-language proficient English-language learners (ELLs) was disaggregated into native Spanish speakers and native speakers of Asian languages, the 2 most prevalent groups of ELLs in the United States. Results of multilevel latent variable growth modeling suggest that primary language may be less salient than SES in explaining the mathematics achievement of English-language proficient ELLs. The study also found that mathematics-related school readiness is a key factor in explaining subsequent achievement differences and that the readiness gap is prevalent across the range of mathematics-related skills. PMID:21574702
Confrey, Jere; Gianopulos, Garron; McGowan, William; Shah, Meetal; Belcher, Michael
The paper describes how designers used the construct of learning trajectories to create a tool, Math-Mapper 6-8, to help scaffold curricula toward increased learner-centered coherence. It defines "learner-centered curricular coherence" as "an organizational means to promote a high likelihood that each learner traverses one of many…
Seifert, Susanne; Kulmhofer, Andrea; Paleczek, Lisa; Schwab, Susanne; Gasteiger-Klicpera, Barbara
The increasing number of second language learners in classrooms all around the world has required teachers to adapt their teaching methods and materials to the various learners' needs. Second language learners in particular need specific learning strategies, which not only aim at helping them understand the linguistic structure of the language of…
Junaidi Mistar, Alfan Zuhairini
Full Text Available The objectives of the present study are four-fold: (1 to identify the types of strategies to maintain proficiency used by teachers of English in Indonesia, (2 to know the intensity of use of the obtained strategy types, (3 to measure the inter-correlation in the use of the obtained strategy types, and (4 to investigate the effect of proficiency level on the use of maintaining strategies. The subjects were 93 teachers applying for S2 degree in 2010/2011 at the postgraduate program of the Islamic University of Malang. They were given two sets of instrument, a Likert-scale questionnaire of English proficiency maintaining strategies and a TOEFL test. Then, a factor analysis identified nine strategy categories, including language focusing, metacognitive and affective developing, reading and writing activating, language resource utilizing, cognitive processing, culture learning, social communicating, text analyzing, and radio listening strategies. These strategy types explained 63.84% of variances of maintaining strategies and they were used at high level of intensity. Moreover, the use of the nine strategy types were found to be inter-correlated with one another. Finally, no significant effect of proficiency level on strategy use was found, indicating that teachers with different level of proficiency reported using the same strategies of maintaining their proficiency.
Granfeldt, Jonas; Nugues, Pierre; Persson, Emil; Thulin, Jonas; Ågren, Malin; Schlyter, Suzanne
Abstract in Undetermined The importance of computer learner corpora for research in both second language acquisition and foreign language teaching is rapidly increasing. Computer learner corpora can provide us with data to describe the learner's interlanguage system at different points of its development and they can be used to create pedagogical tools. In this paper, we first present a new computer learner corpora in French. We then describe an analyzer called Direkt Profil, that we have dev...
Braden, Sarah; Wassell, Beth A.; Scantlebury, Kathryn; Grover, Alex
Increases in the number of English language learner (ELL) students in the United States has led to a significant need for research that explores teaching and learning for ELL students in science and other content-area classrooms. This qualitative study investigated middle-school ELL students' (N = 12) beliefs and practices surrounding science…
Wroblewski, Greggory J; Matsuo, Koji; Hirata, Keiko; Matsubara, Toshio; Harada, Kenichiro; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Shinoda, Koh
Data collected during a phonemic fluency task (or 'FAS test'), a standard component of neuropsychological batteries for assessment of cognitive deficits, may be language-dependent and may differ depending on second-language proficiency. The unique orthographic/phonological system of the task language, and the reported cognitive advantages inherent to bilinguals, may each influence the task's neural correlates. However, language background is not currently assessed in most studies testing phonemic fluency. Here, we used 52-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy in college-aged native-Japanese subjects to examine functional changes in oxygenated hemoglobin elicited during a phonemic fluency task performed in Japanese and in English. We found activity differences that were related to task language and second-language proficiency. Besides loci activated in the Japanese test, bilateral precentral channels were specifically recruited in the English test. Furthermore, the higher-proficiency group showed almost no increase in oxygenated hemoglobin in either language context, whereas participants with lower proficiency showed widespread increases for both contexts. We interpret precentral increases as the consequence of additional articulatory resource recruitment in a second-language context. As for the lack of such variation in the higher-proficiency group, it may reflect an advantage in nonverbal executive control in this group. Together, our results point to language background and proficiency as confounding variables in neuroimaging studies of phonemic fluency and that the adequacy of such measures in populations with varying language backgrounds needs to be considered in future studies.
Full Text Available In surveys of third language acquisition (TLA research, mixed results demonstrate that there is no consensus among researchers regarding the advantages and/or disadvantages of bilinguality on TLA. The main concern of the present study was, thus, to probe the probable differences between Persian monolingual and Azeri-Persian bilingual learners of English regarding their syntactic knowledge. It was an attempt to investigate whether they differ significantly in learning relative clauses. To carry out this study, a total of 200 female high school students studying at second grade were randomly selected from two educational districts of Tabriz and Shiraz in Iran. The participants were homogeneous in terms of English proficiency, sex, and age. They attended public high schools they were taught the same materials and had the same number of hours of instruction. A general proficiency test, a language history questionnaire, and two syntactic structure tasks were administered to both groups. Statistical analyses including t-tests and descriptive statistics revealed that monolinguals and bilinguals differ in the comprehension and production of English L3 relative clauses.
De Wet, Febe
Full Text Available . Results indicate that, both for segmentation as well as accuracy-based scores, the most simple scores correlate best with the humans’ opinion on the students’ proficiency. Combining different scores using multiple linear regression leads to marginally...
This action research project was designed to incorporate two vocabulary strategies in the 'classroom to increase student learning for English language learners in science. Introduction of key words prior to starting a new chapter and incorporating pictures into glossaries are the two strategies used during the project. Teacher generated chapter pre-assessments, post-assessments, and summative assessments results were used to determine the impact of the strategies on English language learners.
ブレンチメグ, ダンザンニャム; 馬場, 久志
In Mongolia, Japanese language learners are increasing in number, in recent years. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the different cognition about learning Japanese from the past learners.A questionnaire survey was completed by 277 university students in Mongolia. The results showed that many students have positive cognition about learning Japanese, but also they feel somewhat difficulty with learning. And they feel inconvenience due to the lack of good textbooks.These results s...
Full Text Available The present paper attempted to investigate whether there is any significant relationship between participants' brain laterality and L2 proficiency level. To carry out the experiment, 30 participants administered in the present study. Fifteen of them did not have any English language learning experience and were at the start of language learning, while the rest had attended L2 learning classes for about 2 years in a popular English language center, located in Bandar-e Anzali, Iran. Finally, the researchers concluded that the activity of the right hemisphere went up by the increase in language proficiency among bilinguals. Thereupon, the result of the paper was at variance with Albert and Obler's (1978 early work on hemispheric differentiation, which indicated that bilinguals were less hemispheric dominant than monolinguals.
Results of interviews, attitude scales, questionnaires, and school record reviews revealed that teachers (N=120) generally approved of the principle of integration of slow learners while viewing the practice as impractical and sometimes undesirable. Students were not particularly antagonistic to slow learners, and parents were generally satisfied…