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Sample records for professions pharmacist roles

  1. The changing roles of pharmacists in hospital and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    The changing roles of pharmacists in hospital and community pharmacy practice in Nigeria. The profession and ... pharmacist in hospitals and community pharmacies is changing from a focus on preparation, dispensing ... technology, as well as growing consumer expectations, it can be predicted that this momentum will ...

  2. Pharmacists on Facebook: online social networking and the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, T Joseph; Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    To provide a brief history of Facebook and online social networking and discuss how it has contributed and can contribute in the future to a paradigm change in social communications. When student pharmacists complete school and enter practice, they encounter enhanced expectations to act appropriately and professionally. Facebook expands the dilemma of separating private and public life--a challenge for individuals in all professions. From the standpoint of a professional association, Facebook provides a tremendous opportunity to reach out to members in an unprecedented way. Pharmacy organizations are beginning to use these new tools to increase communication and dissemination of information. The popularity of Facebook has brought the issue of online social networking to the forefront of professional and organizational discussions. The issues of privacy, identity protection, and e-professionalism are likely to reappear as pharmacists and student pharmacists continue to communicate via online networks. The potential exists for organizations to harness this organizational and communication power for their own interests. Further study is needed regarding the interaction between online social networking applications and the profession of pharmacy.

  3. Older patient, physician and pharmacist perspectives about community pharmacists' roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarn, Derjung M; Paterniti, Debora A; Wenger, Neil S; Williams, Bradley R; Chewning, Betty A

    2012-10-01

    To investigate older patient, physician and pharmacist perspectives about the role of pharmacists in pharmacist-patient interactions. Eight focus-group discussions were held in senior centres, community pharmacies and primary care physician offices. Participants were 42 patients aged 63 years and older, 17 primary care physicians and 13 community pharmacists. Qualitative analysis of the focus-group discussions was performed. Participants in all focus groups indicated that pharmacists are a good resource for basic information about medications. Physicians appreciated pharmacists' ability to identify drug interactions, yet did not comment on other specific aspects related to patient education and care. Physicians noted that pharmacists often were hindered by time constraints that impeded patient counselling. Both patient and pharmacist participants indicated that patients often asked pharmacists to expand upon, reinforce and explain physician-patient conversations about medications, as well as to evaluate medication appropriateness and physician treatment plans. These groups also noted that patients confided in pharmacists about medication-related problems before contacting physicians. Pharmacists identified several barriers to patient counselling, including lack of knowledge about medication indications and physician treatment plans. Community-based pharmacists may often be presented with opportunities to address questions that can affect patient medication use. Older patients, physicians and pharmacists all value greater pharmacist participation in patient care. Suboptimal information flow between physicians and pharmacists may hinder pharmacist interactions with patients and detract from patient medication management. Interventions to integrate pharmacists into the patient healthcare team could improve patient medication management. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Pharmacist's Role in Diabetes Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-19

    This podcast is for a professional audience and discusses the role pharmacists can play on the diabetes care team, through collaborative practice agreements and medication therapy management.  Created: 5/19/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  5. The pharmacist's role in promoting preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ibiary, Shareen Y; Raney, Erin C; Moos, Merry-K

    2014-01-01

    To review the pharmacist's role in preconception health. PubMed search using the terms preconception, immunizations, epilepsy, diabetes, depression, tobacco, asthma, hypertension, anticoagulation, pharmacist, pregnancy, and current national guidelines. Preconception health has become recognized as an important public health focus to improve pregnancy outcomes. Pharmacists have a unique role as accessible health care providers to optimize preconception health by screening women for tobacco use, appropriate immunizations, and current medication use. Counseling patients on preconception risk factors and adequate folic acid supplementation as well as providing recommendations for safe and effective management of chronic conditions are also critical and within the scope of practice for pharmacists. Pharmacists play an important role in medication screening, chronic disease state management, and preconception planning to aid women in preparing for healthy pregnancies.

  6. Physicians' views on the professional roles of pharmacists in patient care in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awalom, Merhawi Teklai; Kidane, Medhanie Elias; Abraha, Biruck Woldai

    2013-10-01

    A collaborative relationship between physicians and pharmacists is crucial in the patient oriented role of pharmacists. In order to get an optimal patient outcome, strong cooperation between pharmacists and physicians is necessary. It is evident that in patient-oriented activities of pharmacists, their roles should be appropriately perceived and welcomed by physicians. This survey, thus, aimed to explore the perception of Eritrean physicians towards the professional roles of pharmacists in patient care. The study was conducted in all hospitals in Asmara. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to the physicians working in Asmara hospitals. The instrument contained questions to evaluate the physicians' level of agreement using a 5-point Likert type scale. Opinions of physicians on the professional role of pharmacists. Out of the 55 questionnaires distributed 50 were completed and returned, giving a response rate of 90.91 %. Most of the physicians accepted the reprofessionalization of pharmacy profession (88 %); majority disagreed that pharmacists are using their full potential in patient care (60 %); physicians strongly agreed or agreed that they should accept pharmacists' recommendations on patients' medication (96 %). Generally the physicians appreciated the professional role of pharmacists in patient care. They agreed with the idea of re-professionalization of pharmacy into patient care. For conclusive evidence nationwide study is recommended.

  7. Nicotine dependence and role of pharmacist in nicotine addiction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi M. Sherif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There are about one billion smokers in the world and death toll is almost six million people in a year. By 2020, death will increase to more than 70% in some developing countries. The tobacco use is high and is varied from one country to another. Tobacco addiction inhibits any decrease in morbidity and mortality and nicotine dependence is assumed to be present if tolerance, withdrawal and compulsive desire to consume tobacco measures are satisfied. It is well-documented that environmental and genetic factors influence the possibility of nicotine addiction. Thus, action is needed to be taken to avoid this from happening.      Governments and administrators have to play a vital role in smoking control. People at large needs to be involved in the fight against tobacco.      Within society, health professionals as physicians and pharmacists have a leading role to play because they practice their profession in particular health-sector. Community pharmacists are in an ideal position as one of the most accessible health care professionals to fulfill fundamental role in public health as key providers of tobacco cessation support and prevention services. Pharmacists have a considerable knowledge of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, dosage and formulation of drugs used in smoking cessation therapy. Pharmacists have the opportunity to advice smokers to stop and some pharmacists with special training will be able to provide them with treatment. Media campaigns (pharmacy and non-pharmacy groups to encourage smoking cessation and discourage smoking initiation can be useful and effective. With any tobacco-use prevention program, it should always be remembered that long time is needed before success becomes effective and apparent.   .

  8. A newly developed assessment tool on collaborative role of doctor–pharmacist in patient medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Porwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Poor communication is one of the most important common factor contributing to medication errors. Despite their common history, there are many intellectual and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that eventually affects patient care and health outcomes. Objectives. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the coordination and teamwork between pharmacist and doctor to provide betterment in the care of the patient health. Material and methods . A questionnaire of 10 questions was developed each for the patient, pharmacist and doctor posted on District Hospital, Moradabad (U.P., India and data collected from the patient and medical professionals through questionnaire were analyzed for collaborative role of doctor-pharmacist with respect to patient care. The results were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 5. Results. The data obtained from the questionnaire highlights a significant effort between pharmacist and doctors. However, some patients often doubt in the skills of pharmacist for treatment outcome, but the majority of people responds positive to doctor-pharmacist role as they prove to be fruitful in removing medication errors. Conclusions . To facilitate the patient care, doctor-pharmacist alliance is necessary, desired and should be motivated as professed by the respondents. Collaboration is an important element of effective patient-focused health care delivery.

  9. Pharmacists' role in opioid overdose: Kentucky pharmacists' willingness to participate in naloxone dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Patricia R; Goodin, Amie; Troske, SuZanne; Strahl, Audra; Fallin, Amanda; Green, Traci C

    To assess pharmacists' willingness to initiate the dispensing of naloxone. As of 2015, Kentucky law permits certified pharmacists to dispense naloxone under a physician-approved protocol. Electronic survey (e-mail) gauging perception of pharmacists' role in opioid overdose and attitudes toward, and barriers to, naloxone dispensing. All Kentucky pharmacists with active licenses in 2015. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of pharmacist characteristics and attitudes on willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing, where the dependent variable was operationalized as a Likert-type question on a scale of 1 (not at all willing) to 6 (very willing). Of 4699 practicing Kentucky pharmacists, 1282 responded, of which 834 were community practitioners (response rate 27.3%). Pharmacists reported varying willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing, with 37.3% very willing (score 5 or 6) and 27.9% not willing (score 1 or 2). However, a majority of pharmacists reported willingness to dispense naloxone with a valid prescription (54.0%, score 5 or 6). Women pharmacists were 1.3 times more likely than men to be willing to initiate naloxone dispensing (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.6). Those who reported confidence in identifying individuals at risk for overdose were 1.2 times more likely to initiate dispensing, and those who reported confidence in ability to educate patients about overdose were 1.6 times more likely to express willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing (95% CIs, respectively, 1.0-1.3 and 1.4-1.8). Community pharmacists reported barriers to naloxone access at higher rates than pharmacists from other practice settings. Kentucky pharmacists are divided in their willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing; however, those who are confident in their ability to identify overdose risks are more willing. Increasing pharmacist confidence through appropriately designed education programs could facilitate pharmacist participation in naloxone

  10. Developing interprofessional communication skills for pharmacists to improve their ability to collaborate with other professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetsch, Karen; Rowett, Debra

    2016-07-01

    Successful communication between health professionals is a prerequisite for collaborative practice. Clinical pharmacists completed a learning and practice module introducing them to a framework for successful interprofessional communication (IPC) in the course of their postgraduate studies. A face-to-face discussion of a contemporary clinical topic with a health professional was then scheduled, mainly with junior doctors, in their practice setting. An exploratory case study methodology was employed to investigate pharmacists' written reflections on their experience applying their newly acquired IPC skills. Thematic analysis of reflections developed five categories relating to interprofessional collaboration, learning, and education. Themes describing pharmacists' preconceptions about the health professional and scheduled interprofessional encounter, how it allowed them to learn about doctors' and other health professionals' practice and build collaborative relationships were identified. Reflections also elaborated that applying the communication framework and strengthening of collaboration created opportunities for IPE, with added observations about these increasing potential impact on patient care and change of practice. Analysis of anonymous feedback provided by the health professionals yielded similar themes and was integrated for triangulation. Applying successful IPC skills in healthcare settings may increase interprofessional collaboration and create practice models which facilitate interprofessional learning in health profession programmes.

  11. Community pharmacists' role in benzodiazepine supply in Ireland: a questionnaire of pharmacists' views and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Cathal A; Ryder, Sheila A

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the views and experiences of community pharmacists in Ireland regarding their role in benzodiazepine supply and the potential for role expansion. A postal questionnaire was issued to a random, geographically stratified sample of community pharmacies in Ireland. The response rate was 37.6%. Pharmacists' awareness of the national source of benzodiazepine guidelines was low (26.6% previously aware). Benzodiazepine prescriptions were frequently encountered in practice and commonly for extended durations of 28 days. Pharmacists' involvement in roles extending beyond dispensing was limited. In the 6 months prior to the questionnaire, fewer than half of pharmacists reported having suggested discontinuation to a patient (43.7%) or having contacted a prescriber about a patient's benzodiazepine use (47.1%). Pharmacists acknowledged their potential to undertake a more extensive role in benzodiazepine supply and expressed willingness to do so in practice. This study adds to the limited body of existing literature regarding community pharmacists' role in benzodiazepine supply. The findings indicate the need to revisit existing benzodiazepine guidelines to improve pharmacists' awareness of them and to address long-term prescribing. The apparent lack of active pharmacist involvement in roles and activities extending beyond dispensing needs to be addressed. Given that most pharmacists encountered benzodiazepine prescriptions at least once daily in practice, they are well positioned to promote safe and appropriate benzodiazepine use. Sizeable proportions of pharmacists expressed willingness to expand upon their existing role and facilitate long-term patients in attempting discontinuation. Further research is needed to explore barriers and facilitators to pharmacists undertaking extended roles in benzodiazepine supply in greater detail. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for pharmacists. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of pharmacists with similar ...

  13. Collaborative prescribing: a qualitative exploration of a role for pharmacists in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Amanda; Crump, Keith; Lee, Monica; Li, Leigh; Patel, Ashna; Yang, Rachel; Zhao, Jenny; Jensen, Maree

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative prescribing has been proposed as an extension of practice for advanced pharmacist practitioners. A lack of research investigating how pharmacists might be most effective as prescribers in mental health was identified. To explore health professionals' and consumers' attitudes and beliefs that relate to the role of specialist mental health pharmacists working as collaborative prescribers within their advanced scope of practice in secondary care. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key informants in the New Zealand mental health sector. Participants were selected via a purposive sampling method, including health professionals (n=9) and consumers (n=3). NVivo software was used to analyze data, using a thematic analysis approach to develop a series of key themes from the interviews. Common themes were extracted, which were used to gather results and draw conclusions. The key findings include a widespread acknowledgment of the role of specialist pharmacists as collaborative prescribers in mental health and as integral members of the multidisciplinary team; however, consumers were unaware of pharmacists' role in secondary care. The role was seen to extend current practice particularly in medication management after assessment and diagnosis by a medical practitioner. Concerns regarding demonstrating competence, practitioner role/boundary confusion, insufficient training and workforce development, hesitancy by pharmacists to extend role, consumer awareness, and public perception of the traditional pharmacist role were identified. Solutions discussed included education by the profession; relationship building, training, and robust competency assessments; and a structured framework for implementing a collaborative prescribing model. This study suggests there was recognition and acceptance of the role that specialist pharmacist practitioners could play in contributing to the care of mental health consumers as collaborative prescribers; their medication

  14. Pharmacists' perceptions of their emerging general practice roles in UK primary care: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Jo; Sansom, Anna; Sims, Laura; Healey, Mark; Kingsland, Ellie; Campbell, John

    2017-09-01

    UK general practice is experiencing a workload crisis. Pharmacists are the third largest healthcare profession in the UK; however, their skills are a currently underutilised and potentially highly valuable resource for primary health care. This study forms part of the evaluation of an innovative training programme for pharmacists who are interested in extended roles in primary care, advocated by a UK collaborative '10-point GP workforce action plan'. To explore pharmacists' perceptions of primary care roles including the potential for greater integration of their profession into general practice. A qualitative interview study in UK primary care carried out between October 2015 and July 2016. Pharmacists were purposively sampled by level of experience, geographical location, and type of workplace. Two confidential semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted - one before and one after the training programme. A constant comparative, inductive approach to thematic analysis was used. Sixteen participants were interviewed. The themes related to: initial expectations of the general practice role, varying by participants' experience of primary care; the influence of the training course with respect to managing uncertainty, critical appraisal skills, and confidence for the role; and predictions for the future of this role. There is enthusiasm and willingness among pharmacists for new, extended roles in primary care, which could effectively relieve GP workload pressures. A definition of the role, with examples of the knowledge, skills, and attributes required, should be made available to pharmacists, primary care teams, and the public. Training should include clinical skills teaching, set in context through exposure to general practice, and delivered motivationally by primary care practitioners. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  15. Perceptions of Hospital Pharmacist's Role in Pakistan's Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate hospital pharmacists' perception of their current clinical role in Pakistan's healthcare system. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in a population that consisted of hospital pharmacists in Islamabad, Faisalabad and Lahore which are three cities in Punjab State, Pakistan. A sample of 116 ...

  16. Pharmacists' Role in Improving Diabetes Medication Management

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Today there are significant gaps between reaching the goal of “optimal medication therapy” and the current state of medication use in the United States. Pharmacists are highly accessible and well-trained—yet often underutilized—key health care professionals who can move us closer toward achieving better medication therapy outcomes for patients. Diabetes medication management programs led by pharmacists are described. This is consistent with the “medical home” concept of care that promotes pri...

  17. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): the pharmacist's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Thomas W F; Chant, Clarence; Tanzini, Rosemary; Wells, Janice

    2004-06-01

    After two outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from March-June 2003, we reviewed the unexpected role and responsibilities of pharmacists during these two crises, and present strategies for better crisis preparedness. Pharmacists were actively involved in battling the SARS crises. After conducting extensive literature searches and evaluations, pharmacists prepared administration and dosing guidelines for the two investigational drugs, ribavirin and interferon alfacon-1, that were being used to treat the syndrome. They provided direct patient care under modified conditions. They revised drug distribution procedures and developed new ones to meet more stringent infection-control standards. Collaborative teamwork with key stakeholders was important in accomplishing tasks in an efficient and timely manner. Regular communication with health care staff took place internally and externally. Education and updated information for pharmacists was crucial. Pharmacists can play a vital role during crises in the areas of drug distribution, drug information, and direct patient care. Collaborative teamwork and close communication are keys to success. Pharmacists must be proactive and take a leadership role in assuming pharmacy-related responsibilities. By evaluating what worked and what didn't, pharmacists can develop procedures for future crises requiring pharmacy support.

  18. To Study and Compare Perception of Health Care Professionals Regarding the Role of Pharmacist in Health Care System in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashfeen Akhtar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare team is mainly a triad of Physicians, Pharmacist & Nurses. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to help healthcare professionals understand more clearly the role of pharmacists within a health care team, especially inter-professional communication, pharmacists' responsibilities, and availability issues. A total of 200 samples were selected from 4 hospitals which include 100 samples of doctors and 100 of the nurses. Each sample is basically a questionnaire comprising of 23 questions. A total of two hundred questionnaires were distributed and one hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were returned resulting in the response rate of 88%. Pharmacists are being one of the major healthcare professional groups in the world after physicians and nurses are playing a very significant role in health care system. This understanding is a requirement for better communication and collaboration among the professions and for accomplishing the combined goal of better health care system.

  19. [The pharmacist should play an active role in family planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, M

    1983-01-01

    Although pharmacies now dispense primarily modern products originating in large multinational corporations, the community pharmacist has not been replaced by any ultramodern technological advance. Many thousand persons acquire family planning products in pharmacies. The pharmacist works many hours a day, is always available, and provides free advice to his clients. Pharmacists are consulted daily on numerous topics, especially on family planning. Many prsons in rural areas are without the services of a physician and rely on pharmacists all the more. Pharmacists could orient the public on family planning in general, help in choosing the most appropriate of available methods, and refer patients to physicians in case of problems. Participants at the recent International Conference on the Role of Retail Pharmacists in Family Planning, held in Alexandria, Egypt, concluded that pharmacists should cooperate with physicians and other health professionals to provide family planning services and should participate in elaboration of laws regulating the manufacture, storage, prices, and distribution of contraceptives. The prices of contraceptive supplies to the consumer could be reduced if taxes and import duties were removed, if supplies were produced locally, or if supplies were subsidized by some donor organization.

  20. Critical thinking and reflection exercises in a biochemistry course to improve prospective health professions students' attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Lon J; Cornell, Susan; Fjortoft, Nancy; Bjork, Bryan C; Chandar, Nalini; Green, Jacalyn M; La Salle, Sophie; Viselli, Susan M; Burdick, Paulette; Lynch, Sean M

    2013-10-14

    To determine the impact of performing critical-thinking and reflection assignments within interdisciplinary learning teams in a biochemistry course on pharmacy students' and prospective health professions students' collaboration scores. Pharmacy students and prospective medical, dental, and other health professions students enrolled in a sequence of 2 required biochemistry courses. They were randomly assigned to interdisciplinary learning teams in which they were required to complete case assignments, thinking and reflection exercises, and a team service-learning project. Students were asked to complete the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration prior to the first course, following the first course, and following the second course. The physician-pharmacist collaboration scores of prospective health professions students increased significantly (p<0.001). Having prospective health professions students work in teams with pharmacy students to think and reflect in and outside the classroom improves their attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration.

  1. Critical Thinking and Reflection Exercises in a Biochemistry Course to Improve Prospective Health Professions Students’ Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Susan; Fjortoft, Nancy; Bjork, Bryan C.; Chandar, Nalini; Green, Jacalyn M.; La Salle, Sophie; Viselli, Susan M.; Burdick, Paulette; Lynch, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of performing critical-thinking and reflection assignments within interdisciplinary learning teams in a biochemistry course on pharmacy students’ and prospective health professions students’ collaboration scores. Design. Pharmacy students and prospective medical, dental, and other health professions students enrolled in a sequence of 2 required biochemistry courses. They were randomly assigned to interdisciplinary learning teams in which they were required to complete case assignments, thinking and reflection exercises, and a team service-learning project. Assessment. Students were asked to complete the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration prior to the first course, following the first course, and following the second course. The physician-pharmacist collaboration scores of prospective health professions students increased significantly (p<0.001). Conclusions. Having prospective health professions students work in teams with pharmacy students to think and reflect in and outside the classroom improves their attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration. PMID:24159210

  2. Pharmacists' role in addressing opioid abuse, addiction, and diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the scope of the problem of opioid misuse; explore pharmacists' roles and responsibilities regarding opioid use; discuss existing laws, guidelines, and regulations governing opioid management; identify potential patient and practice management strategies to address opioid abuse; and disseminate leader insights on these issues. DATA SOURCES Information presented at a conference convened by the American Pharmacists Association (Pharmacists' Role in Addressing Opioid Abuse, Addiction, and Diversion; held November 15, 2012) and discussed in conference workgroups, as well as related information from the literature. SUMMARY Opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion has grown dramatically since the early 1990s and affects public health considerably. In 2011, more individuals died from drug overdoses than from motor vehicle accidents. Strategies are available that pharmacists can use to reduce the likelihood of opioid misuse, abuse, and diversion while minimizing the impact on legitimate pain management efforts. These strategies and tools can be used to support (1) the assessment of prescriptions that are presented for opioid medications, (2) the management of patients receiving opioids, and (3) follow-up options when misuse, abuse, or diversion has been identified. CONCLUSION Implementation of systems and processes that support pharmacist management of opioid-related issues under financially viable business models would create a number of opportunities to improve patient care.

  3. Attitudes of Iraqi society towards the role of community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasoul Wayyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aims of this study were to assess society’s use of community pharmacies; evaluate attitudes towards the role of the community pharmacist; and describe required pharmacist characteristics and future services.Study design: A cross-sectional survey with a stratified sampling technique.Methods: A self-administered, validated, questionnaire was distributed to 500 consumers in attendance at 50 community pharmacies in Baghdad, Iraq. Data were gathered from January to April 2012. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed to test for statistical differences among the study variables. Further analysis through the Chi-square test and logistic regression was completed to assess the predictors of society’s attitudes.Results: Twenty-six percent of respondents visited their community pharmacies at least once per week and an additional 65% reported visiting their pharmacy at least once per month. Fifty-five percent of respondents listed the community pharmacist as the first person they would contact in case of any drug-related problem. However, the pharmacist’s role was under-appreciated by the majority of respondents (79.8%. These attitudes varied significantly with regard to the demographic characteristics of respondents. Logistic regression analysis showed that gender and age were the influential predictors of favourable versus non-favourable attitudes towards the role of pharmacist.Conclusions: The use of community pharmacies in Iraq was characterized by frequent visits to purchase medicines. Selection of the pharmacy primarily depended on its location. Overall, an under-appreciation of the professional performance of pharmacists was predominant. Raising public awareness towards the important role of community pharmacists in providing public health is warranted.

  4. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Isaac

    Full Text Available Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy.Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software.Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients.This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future

  5. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Sami; Saini, Bandana; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients. This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future policies for the

  6. Pharmacists as Entrepreneurs or Employees: The Role of Locus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether locus of control distinguished between pharmacists who chose to become entrepreneurs and those who took up employee roles in pharmaceutical establishments. Methods: The enlarged version of Rotter's I-E scale designed to measure an individual's locus of control was used to survey a ...

  7. The role of pharmacists in diabetes management in Zanzibar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in public diabetes clinics, hospital and community pharmacies in vicinity of diabetes clinics in Dar es. Salaam and Zanzibar to investigate the role of pharmacists in management of diabetes and diabetic patients' care. Face to face interviews were conducted with patients ...

  8. The role of pharmacists in diabetes management in Zanzibar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in public diabetes clinics, hospital and community pharmacies in vicinity of diabetes clinics in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar to investigate the role of pharmacists in management of diabetes and diabetic patients' care. Face to face interviews were conducted with patients, ...

  9. The Role of the Clinical Pharmacist in the Identification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore patients' attitudes and knowledge about corticosteroids, investigate the reasons behind corticophobia (if any), explore the sources and validity of such beliefs, as well as investigate the role of the clinical pharmacist's intervention in minimizing corticophobia and improving patient compliance. Methods: ...

  10. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kapur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and
    interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy.
    Key findings: A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of
    which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It is observed that 46.7% consumers came for prescription
    medicines, 23.4% for over the counter medicines. Close to general physicians’ clinics and proximity to home
    were most important reasons given for visiting particular pharmacy. Majority of the consumers (n=56, 72.7%
    rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only 1(1.3% rated it as not useful at all and 2 (2.6%
    consumers did not respond. Among consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that pharmacist has a good balance
    between health and business matter and 35.7% were in opinion that pharmacist is more concerned with making
    money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist is also interested in the health of his/her customers. The pharmacists
    were ranked at the top with 28(36.4% by the consumers and favoured pharmacy as the most convenient
    place to get advice about staying healthy.
    Conclusion: Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that pharmacist is concerned with the
    health of the consumers, though he/she is also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware
    about the difference between pharmacist and doctor, most of them consider

  11. Role of the pharmacist in reducing healthcare costs: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kieran Dalton, Stephen Byrne Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Global healthcare expenditure is escalating at an unsustainable rate. Money spent on medicines and managing medication-related problems continues to grow. The high prevalence of medication errors and inappropriate prescribing is a major issue within healthcare systems, and can often contribute to adverse drug events, many of which are preventable. As a result, there is a huge opportunity for pharmacists to have a significant impact on reducing healthcare costs, as they have the expertise to detect, resolve, and prevent medication errors and medication-related problems. The development of clinical pharmacy practice in recent decades has resulted in an increased number of pharmacists working in clinically advanced roles worldwide. Pharmacist-provided services and clinical interventions have been shown to reduce the risk of potential adverse drug events and improve patient outcomes, and the majority of published studies show that these pharmacist activities are cost-effective or have a good cost:benefit ratio. This review demonstrates that pharmacists can contribute to substantial healthcare savings across a variety of settings. However, there is a paucity of evidence in the literature highlighting the specific aspects of pharmacists’ work which are the most effective and cost-effective. Future high-quality economic evaluations with robust methodologies and study design are required to investigate what pharmacist services have significant clinical benefits to patients and substantiate the greatest cost savings for healthcare budgets. Keywords: pharmacoeconomics, pharmaceutical care, clinical pharmacy, cost-effectiveness, economic evaluation

  12. [Links between profession and family in the community of Lithuanian pharmacists at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiene, Vilma

    2005-01-01

    Little research has been carried out in the sphere of the relations between a pharmaceutical career and family in the historiography of pharmacy history. A peculiar influence of family on the choice of the pharmaceutical way of life came into existence in the period of Lithuanian national revival at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. This article aims to reveal the relations between a Lithuanian family and pharmaceutical career, to analyze the influence of political, social, economic factors on these relations. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th the resistance of Lithuanian peasants against Russification, Polonification manifested in their objective to form Lithuanian intelligentsia. Priestly seminaries became the major centre for preparing new Lithuanian intelligentsia. It was prestigious to become a priest. Moreover, this profession guaranteed material wealth. Young people often left the seminary and started their work in pharmacies where they got a shelter and small 5 rubles earning of a pharmacy apprentice. Such runaways from parents settled in the university cities of czarist Russia and had a purpose to become self-dependent (i.e. to get education) without parents' support. The choice of a woman-pharmacist career, however, was greatly influenced by the profession of her husband. Some educated Lithuanian pharmacists encouraged their wives to choose the same specialty as theirs but such occasions were rare. Sometimes it happened so that pharmacists married, but there were only few Lithuanian women-pharmacists or assistants of pharmacists, and in the period of Lithuanian national revival the point of view on ethnically mixed families was negative. This article discusses about the career of women-pharmacists and the influence of family on the choice of a profession, as well as Lithuanian point of view on ethnically mixed families of pharmacists.

  13. Naloxone for opioid overdose prevention: pharmacists' role in community-based practice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Abby M; Wermeling, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    Deaths related to opioid overdose have increased in the past decade. Community-based pharmacy practitioners have worked toward overcoming logistic and cultural barriers to make naloxone distribution for overdose prevention a standard and accepted practice. To describe outpatient naloxone dispensing practices, including methods by which practitioners implement dispensing programs, prescribing patterns that include targeted patient populations, barriers to successful implementation, and methods for patient education. Interviews were conducted with providers to obtain insight into the practice of dispensing naloxone. Practitioners were based in community pharmacies or clinics in large metropolitan cities across the country. It was found that 33% of participating pharmacists practice in a community-pharmacy setting, and 67% practice within an outpatient clinic-based location. Dispensing naloxone begins by identifying patient groups that would benefit from access to the antidote. These include licit users of high-dose prescription opioids (50%) or injection drug users and abusers of prescription medications (83%). Patients were identified through prescription records or provider screening tools. Dispensing naloxone required a provider's prescription in 5 of the 6 locations identified. Only 1 pharmacy was able to exercise pharmacist prescriptive authority within their practice. Outpatient administration of intramuscular and intranasal naloxone represents a means of preventing opioid-related deaths. Pharmacists can play a vital role in contacting providers, provision of products, education of patients and providers, and dissemination of information throughout the community. Preventing opioid overdose-related deaths should become a major focus of the pharmacy profession.

  14. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal–known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists’ perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists’ views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Results Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients. Discussion This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which

  15. The role of pharmacists and emergency contraception: Are pharmacists' perceptions of emergency contraception predictive of their dispensing practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R; Daley, Ellen M; Baldwin, Julie; Kromrey, Jeff; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Perrin, Kay

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacists can play a critical role in the access to emergency contraception (EC). We assessed if knowledge and attitudes were predictive of EC dispensing among a statewide sample of Florida pharmacists, who have legal authority to refuse to dispense medications. In 2008, surveys were mailed to a random sample of 1264 pharmacists registered with the Florida Board of Pharmacy. Data from 272 pharmacists (22% response rate) were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-six percent of respondents incorrectly answered that EC causes birth defects, and 46% replied that it causes abortion. Only 22% said that EC can be purchased in advance of need. Many felt uncomfortable dispensing to adolescents (61%) and men (58%). Knowledge about EC was the most important predictor of dispensing [odds ratio (OR)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.03]. In particular, pharmacists who reported that EC does not act as an abortifacient were more likely to dispense it (OR=4.64, 95% CI 2.15-10.00). Correct information about EC was the most important predictor of pharmacists' dispensing EC. To expand availability of EC, pharmacists will have to become better informed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Doctors' perception and expectations of the role of the pharmacist in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty eight percent of the doctors appeared comfortable with pharmacists playing patient-centred roles. A majority (84.5 %, n=299; p=0.022) expected pharmacists to take personal responsibility for resolving any drug-related problem. Furthermore, 76 % of them considered pharmacists as knowledgeable drug therapy ...

  17. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  18. Defining a Profession: The Role of Knowledge and Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Saks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the importance of resurrecting the debate about how to define a profession. The drive to define a profession is traced back to the taxonomic approach – encompassing the work of trait and functionalist writers – in which professions were seen as possessing unique and positive characteristics, including distinctive knowledge and expertise. A range of critical challenges to this approach are then considered, particularly as they relate to the role of knowledge and expertise in defining a profession, covering interactionism, Marxism, Foucauldianism and discourse analysis. However, the most effective challenge to the taxonomic approach is considered to be the neo-Weberian perspective based on a less broadly assumptive and more analytically useful definition of a profession centered on exclusionary closure. With reference to case studies, the relative merits of neo-Weberianism compared to taxonomic and other approaches are examined in relation to the role of knowledge and expertise and delineating professional boundaries.

  19. Self-medication and the advisory role of pharmacists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K Suleiman

    2013-01-01

    Results and Conclusions: The overall response rate was 78.9%. The majority of participants 67.2% were found to visit the pharmacy specifically to purchase OTC medication. Surprisingly, only 12.9% were asked the pharmacist for advice. According to the participants, the reasons that did not encourage them to ask advice from pharmacists were found - 58.2% felt shy and reluctant, 32.9% lack of confidentiality, 25.3% the pharmacist is impatient, 22.7% queues inside the pharmacy, and 14.2% did not trust the pharmacists. The current study revealed that the majority of patients tend to self-medicate and did not ask the pharmacist for advice when they purchased OTC medicines. Effort should be made to raise public awareness with regards to the advisory role of pharmacists and discrete facilities should be provided that encourage patients to ask for advice from the pharmacist.

  20. Role of the pharmacist in preventing distribution of counterfeit medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Walter G; Carroll, Wesley A; Kennedy, Daniel; Levine, Donald; Moné, Michael A; Ried, L Douglas; Shepherd, Marv; Yelvigi, Mukund

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of the counterfeit medication problem and recommendations of a joint American Pharmacists Association (APhA) Academy of Pharmaceutical Research and Science and APhA Academy of Pharmacy Practice and Management taskforce. SciFinder and PubMed were searched from 1980 to March 2011 using the following keywords: counterfeit drug product, counterfeit medications, drug product authentication, drug product verification, and track-and-trace. Publications, presentations, and websites of organizations that research the counterfeit medication problem in the United States and other countries were reviewed. A representative from the security division of a pharmaceutical manufacturer and a representative from a supplier of anticounterfeiting technologies gave presentations to the taskforce. The taskforce recommends that pharmacists (1) purchase medications from known, reliable sources; (2) warn patients of the dangers of purchasing medications over the Internet; (3) confirm with distributors that products were purchased from manufacturers or other reliable sources; (4) monitor counterfeit product alerts; (5) examine products for suspicious appearance; (6) work with the pharmaceutical industry, distributors, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to close gaps in the supply chain, especially for drugs in short supply; (7) use scanning technology in the pharmacy as part of a prescription verification process; (8) educate themselves, coworkers, and patients about the risks of counterfeit medications; and (9) report suspicious medications to FDA, the distributor, and the manufacturer. The consequence of a patient receiving a counterfeit medication in the United States could be catastrophic, and pharmacists must play an active role in preventing such an event from occurring.

  1. Renal nurses' views of the potential role of pharmacists in outpatient dialysis centres: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Teresa M; Moles, Rebekah; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the differences in the views of Australian and Portuguese renal nurses on the provision of clinical pharmacy services in outpatient dialysis centres. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Australian and Portuguese renal nurses. The interviews were recorded and thematically content-analysed. Three main themes were identified: nurses' opinions towards pharmacists' current role; nurses' opinions towards pharmacists' future role; and future clinical pharmacy services to be provided. While Australian nurses appeared to be aware of pharmacists' competencies and viewed a role for pharmacists within the team, Portuguese nurses showed low expectations of pharmacists and regarded them as external to the team. Previous or lack of exposure to pharmacists' clinical skills and the existence of health policies that promote interprofessional collaboration appear to influence nurses' views. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Optimizing identification and management of COPD patients - reviewing the role of the community pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Thys; van Boven, Job F M; Maguire, Terence; Goyal, Pankaj; Altman, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to propose key steps for community pharmacist integration into a patient care pathway for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. A literature search was conducted to identify publications focusing on the role of the community pharmacist in identification and management of COPD. The literature search highlighted evidence supporting an important role for pharmacists at each of the four key steps in the patient care pathway for COPD management. Step 1 (primary prevention): pharmacists are ideally placed to provide information on disease awareness and risk prevention campaigns, and to encourage lifestyle interventions, including smoking cessation. Step 2 (early detection/case finding): pharmacists are often the first point of contact between the patient and the healthcare system and can therefore play an important role in the early identification of patients with COPD. Step 3 (management and ongoing support): pharmacists can assist patients by providing advice and education on dosage, inhaler technique, treatment expectations and the importance of adherence, and by supporting self-management, including recognition and treatment of COPD exacerbations. Step 4 (review and follow-up): pharmacists can play an important role in monitoring adherence and ongoing inhaler technique in patients with COPD. In summary, pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a vital role in all key stages of an integrated COPD patient care pathway from early disease detection to the support of management plans, including advice and counselling regarding medications, inhaler technique and treatment adherence. Areas requiring additional consideration include pharmacist training, increasing awareness of the pharmacist role, administration and reimbursement, and increasing physician-pharmacist collaboration. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Physician perceptions of pharmacist roles in a primary care setting in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Pharmacists are uniquely trained to provide guidance to patients in the selection of appropriate non-prescription therapy. Physicians in Qatar may not always recognize how pharmacists function in assuring safe medication use. Both these health professional groups come from heterogeneous training and experiences before migrating to the country and these backgrounds could influence collaborative patient care. Qatar Petroleum (QP, the largest private employer in the country, has developed a pharmacist-guided medication consulting service at their primary care clinics, but physician comfort with pharmacists recommending drug therapy is currently unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize physician perceptions of pharmacists and their roles in a primary care patient setting in Qatar. Methods This cross-sectional survey was developed following a comprehensive literature review and administered in English and Arabic. Consenting QP physicians were asked questions to assess experiences, comfort and expectations of pharmacist roles and abilities to provide medication-related advice and recommend and monitor therapies. Results The median age of the 62 (77.5% physicians who responded was between 40 and 50 years old and almost two-third were men (64.5%. Fourteen different nationalities were represented. Physicians were more comfortable with pharmacist activities closely linked to drug products than responsibilities associated with monitoring and optimization of patient outcomes. Medication education (96.6% and drug knowledge (90% were practically unanimously recognized as abilities expected of pharmacists, but consultative roles, such as assisting in drug regimen design were less acknowledged. They proposed pharmacist spend more time with physicians attending joint meetings or education events to help advance acceptance of pharmacists in patient-centered care at this site. Conclusions Physicians had low comfort and

  4. Pharmacist involvement with immunizations: a decade of professional advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Grabenstein, John D; Foster, Stephan L; Rothholz, Mitchel C

    2006-01-01

    To review achievements in pharmacist-administered immunizations, emphasizing the period 1995 to 2004. Published articles identified through PubMed (1995-2004) using the search terms pharmacist, pharmacy, and vaccine, immunization, or shots. Additional sources were identified from personal bibliographies collected by the authors during this decade, as well as the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. The later two sources resulted in manuscripts of primarily historical significance. More than 300 manuscripts were identified. The authors selected 15 studies that most clearly document the effect of pharmacist-administered immunizations for review. By the authors. While pharmacists have been involved with vaccines dating back to the mid-1800s and the distribution of smallpox vaccine, only 10 years have passed since pharmacists began routinely immunizing patients in their communities as a standard practice activity. The Washington State Pharmacists Association initiated the first ongoing formalized training of pharmacists in vaccine administration in 1994. On November 1, 1996, the American Pharmaceutical (now Pharmacists) Association (APhA) began its nationally recognized training program for pharmacists, Pharmacy-Based Immunization DELIVERY: A National Certificate Program for Pharmacists. By 2004, an estimated 15,000 pharmacists and student pharmacists had been formally trained through recognized programs as vaccine experts, and the practice of pharmacist-administered immunizations, particularly for adult patients, has become routinely accepted as an important role of the pharmacist. Arguably, few initiatives have done more to move the pharmacy profession forward in direct patient care than the pharmacist-administered immunization movement. Pharmacists have made significant strides in immunizations over the past decade. Limited activities in the hospital sector have been particularly well documented, as have the perceptions of patients regarding acceptance of

  5. Doctors' Perception and Expectations of the Role of the Pharmacist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Only 50 % of the doctors thought that pharmacists apply their drug knowledge in practice while 11 % indicated that pharmacists routinely counselled their patients. Conclusion: The .... reason for their interaction was to check on the availability of a medicine in the pharmacy. (83.3 %), medicine alternatives (61.9 %), side.

  6. The Role of the Pharmacist in Animal Health Care: Case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this cross-sectional study, the role of pharmacists in animal health care, particularly in the distribution of veterinary medicines in community pharmacies in Dar es Salaam was investigated. Using a semi-structured questionnaire a total of 260 pharmacists were interviewed. The study revealed that majority of the ...

  7. Optimizing identification and management of COPD patients - reviewing the role of the community pharmacist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Thys; van Boven, Job F. M.; Maguire, Terence; Goyal, Pankaj; Altman, Pablo

    The aim of this paper was to propose key steps for community pharmacist integration into a patient care pathway for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. A literature search was conducted to identify publications focusing on the role of the community pharmacist in identification

  8. From "retailers" to health care providers: Transforming the role of community pharmacists in chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Courtin, Emilie; Naci, Huseyin; Benrimoj, Shalom; Bouvy, Marcel; Farris, Karen; Noyce, Peter; Sketris, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    Community pharmacists are the third largest healthcare professional group in the world after physicians and nurses. Despite their considerable training, community pharmacists are the only health professionals who are not primarily rewarded for delivering health care and hence are under-utilized as public health professionals. An emerging consensus among academics, professional organizations, and policymakers is that community pharmacists, who work outside of hospital settings, should adopt an expanded role in order to contribute to the safe, effective, and efficient use of drugs-particularly when caring for people with multiple chronic conditions. Community pharmacists could help to improve health by reducing drug-related adverse events and promoting better medication adherence, which in turn may help in reducing unnecessary provider visits, hospitalizations, and readmissions while strengthening integrated primary care delivery across the health system. This paper reviews recent strategies to expand the role of community pharmacists in Australia, Canada, England, the Netherlands, Scotland, and the United States. The developments achieved or under way in these countries carry lessons for policymakers world-wide, where progress thus far in expanding the role of community pharmacists has been more limited. Future policies should focus on effectively integrating community pharmacists into primary care; developing a shared vision for different levels of pharmacist services; and devising new incentive mechanisms for improving quality and outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The evolving role of the community pharmacist in chronic disease management - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Pradeep P; Molina, Joseph A D; Cheah, Jason; Chan, Soo Chung; Lim, Boon Peng

    2010-11-01

    We appraised the roles and responsibilities assigned to community pharmacists internationally and in Singapore. A systematic search of international peer-reviewed literature was undertaken using Medline. Grey literature was identified through generic search engines. The search period was from 1 January 1991 to 30 July 2009. The search criteria were English language manuscripts and search terms "community pharmacist", "community pharmacy", "disease management" and "roles" as a major heading. Boolean operators were used to combine the search terms. Identified abstracts were independently reviewed and the findings were presented as a narrative summary. Overall, we reviewed 115 articles on an abstract level and retrieved 45 of those as full text articles for background information review and inclusion into the evidence report. Of the articles included in the review, 32% were from United Kingdom (UK). Literature highlights the multi-faceted role of the community pharmacist in disease management. Community pharmacists were involved in the management of asthma, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, depression, hypertension, osteoporosis and palliative care either alone or in the disease management team. Evidence of effectiveness for community pharmacy/ community pharmacist interventions exists for lipid, diabetes, and hypertension management and for preventive services such as weight management, osteoporosis prevention and fl u immunisation services. Majority of the community pharmacists in Singapore play the traditional role of dispensing. Attempts by the private community pharmacies to provide some professional services were not successful due to lack of funding. Factors found to impede the growth of community pharmacists are insufficient integration of community pharmacist input into healthcare pathways, poor relationship among pharmacists and physicians, lack of access to patient information, time constraints and inadequate compensation. Evidence from

  10. The Role of Motivation in Continuing Education for Pharmacists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin a Tsoi, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals, including pharmacists, need to continuously update their knowledge and are, therefore, expected to participate in Continuing Education (CE) and Continuous Professional Development (CPD) activities on a regular basis. Lack of intrinsic (or autonomous) motivation appears to

  11. THE ROLE OF THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION ETHICS CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timea FÜLÖP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the particular importance that should be given to ethical principles in the accounting profession and the increasing interest of promoting them in our country as a consequence of numerous international financial scandals and the worldwide crisis that we still live. In their analysis, the authors have made a qualitative study which focuses on the issue of the code of ethics of the accounting profession. The research results show that although respecting the ethical code should remove conflicts of interest, they still occur. Following this study, the authors concluded that the role of compliance with the code of ethics of the professional accountant is essential.

  12. Roles and responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to natural health products: key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Welsh, Sandy; Bajcar, Jana

    2010-03-01

    Although many pharmacies sell natural health products (NHPs), there is no clear definition as to the roles and responsibilities (if any) of pharmacists with respect to these products. The purpose of this study was to explore pharmacy and stakeholder leaders' perceptions of pharmacists' professional NHP roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy leaders (n=17) and stakeholder (n=18) leaders representing consumers, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, conventional health care practitioners, and industry across Canada. All participants believed a main NHP responsibility for pharmacists was in safety monitoring, although a one challenge identified in the interviews was pharmacists' general lack of NHP knowledge; however, stakeholder leaders did not expect pharmacists to be experts, but should have a basic level of knowledge about NHPs. Participants described pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities for NHPs as similar to those for over-the-counter drugs; more awareness of existing NHP-related pharmacy policies is needed, and pharmacy owners/managers should provide additional training to ensure front-line pharmacists have appropriate knowledge of NHPs sold in the pharmacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A qualitative study exploring public perceptions on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayes IK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of community pharmacists is very important due to their access to primary care patients and expertise. For this reason, the interaction level between pharmacists and patients should be optimized to ensure enhanced delivery of pharmacy services. Objective: To gauge perceptions and expectations of the public on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE. Methods: Twenty five individuals were invited to participate in 4 separate focus group discussions. Individuals came from different racial groups and socio-economic backgrounds. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Using thematic analysis, two reviewers coded all transcripts to identify emerging themes. Appropriate measures were taken to ensure study rigor and validity. Results: All facilitators and barriers that were identified were grouped into 5 distinct themes. The pharmacist as a healthcare professional in the public mind was the most prominent theme that was discussed in all 4 focus groups. Other themes identified were, in decreasing order of prevalence, psychological perceptions towards pharmacists, important determinants of a pharmacist, the pharmacy as a unique healthcare provider, and control over pharmacies by health authorities. Conclusions: This study provided insight into the way that the public looks at the role of community pharmacists in Dubai. Determinants that influence their perception are the media, health authorities, pharmacist’s knowledge level, attire, nationality, age, and pharmacy location.

  14. New Roles for Pharmacists in Community Mental Health Care: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rubio-Valera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicines are a major treatment modality for many mental illnesses, and with the growing burden of mental disorders worldwide pharmacists are ideally positioned to play a greater role in supporting people with a mental illness. This narrative review aims to describe the evidence for pharmacist-delivered services in mental health care and address the barriers and facilitators to increasing the uptake of pharmacist services as part of the broader mental health care team. This narrative review is divided into three main sections: (1 the role of the pharmacist in mental health care in multidisciplinary teams and in supporting early detection of mental illness; (2 the pharmacists’ role in supporting quality use of medicines in medication review, strategies to improve medication adherence and antipsychotic polypharmacy, and shared decision making; and (3 barriers and facilitators to the implementation of mental health pharmacy services with a focus on organizational culture and mental health stigma. In the first section, the review presents new roles for pharmacists within multidisciplinary teams, such as in case conferencing or collaborative drug therapy management; and new roles that would benefit from increased pharmacist involvement, such as the early detection of mental health conditions, development of care plans and follow up of people with mental health problems. The second section describes the impact of medication review services and other pharmacist-led interventions designed to reduce inappropriate use of psychotropic medicines and improve medication adherence. Other new potential roles discussed include the management of antipsychotic polypharmacy and involvement in patient-centered care. Finally, barriers related to pharmacists’ attitudes, stigma and skills in the care of patients with mental health problems and barriers affecting pharmacist-physician collaboration are described, along with strategies to reduce mental health stigma.

  15. Pharmacists as Entrepreneurs or Employees: The Role of Locus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    Methods: The enlarged version of Rotter's I-E scale designed to measure an individual's locus of ..... Research Instrument: The instrument used to .... qualified pharmacists who chose to become entrepreneurs and those who chose employee status in organisations. Those who showed more locus of control internality are ...

  16. Medical Oncology Pharmacy: A New Role for the Clinical Pharmacist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carl R.; Hickman, Mary Johne

    1977-01-01

    The University of Tennessee has established a training program for clinical pharmacists dealing with cancer chemotherapy patients. Health-care settings are described in which these individuals can contribute as unique health-care team members in oncology. (Author/LBH)

  17. The role of a community pharmacist in diabetes education | Berg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pharmacist is one of few medical professionals in the world to whom a patient or anyone else can go for a consultation or advice without an appointment. They are easily accessed and knowledgeable about a myriad of aspects concerning patients and their medication. It is thus of the utmost importance to take these skills ...

  18. The Role of a Psychiatric Pharmacist in College Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Charles F.; Webber, Donna; Kurland, Michael; Holmes, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Published evidence indicates there is a growing prevalence of psychiatric illnesses on college campuses, and that approximately one quarter of students may be taking psychotropic medications. But attracting and retaining experienced mental health care professionals to college health settings is a challenging task. The psychiatric pharmacist is one…

  19. Avoiding Treatment Interruptions: What Role Do Australian Community Pharmacists Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Hasn Abukres

    Full Text Available To explore the reported practice of Australian community pharmacists when dealing with medication supply requests in absence of a valid prescription.Self-administered questionnaire was posted to 1490 randomly selected community pharmacies across all Australian states and territories. This sample was estimated to be a 20% of all Australian community pharmacies.Three hundred eighty five pharmacists participated in the study (response rate achieved was 27.9% (there were 111 undelivered questionnaires. Respondents indicated that they were more likely to provide medications to regular customers without a valid prescription compared to non-regular customers (p<0.0001. However, supply was also influenced by the type of prescription and the medication requested. In the case of type of prescription (Standard, Authority or Private this relates to the complexity/probability of obtaining a valid prescription from the prescriber at a later date (i.e. supply with an anticipated prescription. Decisions to supply and/or not supply related to medication type were more complex. For some cases, including medication with potential for abuse, the practice and/or the method of supply varied significantly according to age and gender of the pharmacist, and pharmacy location (p<0.05.Although being a regular customer does not guarantee a supply, results of this study reinforce the importance for patients having a regular pharmacy, where pharmacists were more likely to continue medication supply in cases of patients presenting without a valid prescription. We would suggest, more flexible legislation should be implemented to allow pharmacists to continue supplying of medication when obtaining a prescription is not practical.

  20. The role of the pharmacist in patient-centered medical home practices: current perspectives

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    Lewis NJW

    2014-06-01

    , payer reimbursement, and allocation of PCMH incentives and bonus funds. There is growing support for pharmacist integration into PCMHs; however, more convincing cost-effectiveness data, as well as performance measures requiring the unique skills of pharmacists, may be needed before pharmacist-provided PCMH services become more widely adopted. Given the continued evolution of the PCMH model of care, ongoing opportunities exist for pharmacists to create an optimal care model that is suitable for PCMHs and rewarding for their profession.Keywords: pharmacy practice, multidisciplinary care, advanced practice, pharmaceutical care

  1. Piloting the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care multidisciplinary team: an Australian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Box Margaret

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the home is the most common setting for the provision of palliative care in Australia, a common problem encountered here is the inability of patient/carers to manage medications, which can lead to misadventure and hospitalisation. This can be averted through detection and resolution of drug related problems (DRPs by a pharmacist; however, they are rarely included as members of the palliative care team. The aim of this study was to pilot a model of care that supports the role of a pharmacist in a community palliative care team. A component of the study was to develop a cost-effective model for continuing the inclusion of a pharmacist within a community palliative care service. Methods The study was undertaken (February March 2009-June 2010 in three phases. Development (Phase 1 involved a literature review; scoping the pharmacist's role; creating tools for recording DRPs and interventions, a communication and education strategy, a care pathway and evidence based patient information. These were then implemented in Phase 2. Evaluation (Phase 3 of the impact of the pharmacist's role from the perspectives of team members was undertaken using an online survey and focus group. Impact on clinical outcomes was determined by the number of patients screened to assess their risk of medication misadventure, as well as the number of medication reviews and interventions performed to resolve DRPs. Results The pharmacist screened most patients (88.4%, 373/422 referred to the palliative care service to assess their risk of medication misadventure, and undertook 52 home visits. Medication reviews were commonly conducted at the majority of home visits (88%, 46/52, and a variety of DRPs (113 were detected at this point, the most common being "patient requests drug information" (25%, 28/113 and "condition not adequately treated" (22%, 25/113. The pharmacist made 120 recommendations in relation to her interventions. Fifty percent of online

  2. A global perspective of the roles of the pharmacist in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzaniak, Natalia; Bajorek, Beata

    2017-04-01

    To describe pharmacist practice and roles performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) worldwide and to map these findings along the medicines management pathway (MMP). Quasi-systematic review. Google Scholar, Medline/PubMed and Embase were searched utilising the selected MeSH terms. Thirty sources of information were reviewed. Overall, pharmacist practice in the NICU involves a wide-range of roles, with the most commonly reported involving patient medication chart review, therapeutic drug monitoring and the provision of medication information. Studies highlight that pharmacist contribution to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) regimens and patient medication chart review is beneficial to patient outcomes. Roles beyond the regular scope of practice included involvement in immunisation programmes and research. Most of the data were collected from the USA (13 of 30), followed by the UK (6 of 30) and reports from other countries. The American, British, South African and Australian articles have reported very similar roles, with a pharmacist firmly integrated into the overall structure of the NICU team. The literature identifies that there is insufficient evidence to describe what roles are currently performed in NICUs worldwide. This is due to the lack of recently published articles leading to a large gap in knowledge in understanding what contemporary pharmaceutical services in the NICU comprise. Further research is required to address these gaps in knowledge, and identify the impact of the pharmacist's role on neonatal patient outcomes as well as to determine how to better resource NICUs to access pharmacy services. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Role of Leadership in Transforming the Profession of Quantity Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ofori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is facing a period of change. The roles ofthe professions involved in the industry in general, and of quantitysurveyors in particular, are also changing. There are opportunitiesfor surveyors to seize the initiative to broaden their involvement inprojects, and attain strategic positions within the industry. However,they will have to improve upon their skill sets and their knowledgebases. Senior quantity surveyors interviewed in Singapore sharedtheir views on the challenges facing the construction industry,and their profession. They suggested that the quantity surveyingprofession would only be able to address the pressing issues itfaces if it pays more attention to innovation and the development ofits people. It should be able to attract and retain talent. Knowledgemanagement will be of critical importance. This will be enabled andfacilitated by knowledge leadership.

  4. Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, Matthew J; Fass, Jennifer A; Maniscalco-Feichtl, Maria; Abu-Shraie, Nada A

    2007-05-15

    The pharmacology, therapeutic uses, safety, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions of medical marijuana are reviewed, and the legal issues related to its use and the implications of medical marijuana for the pharmacist are presented. Marijuana contains more than 460 active chemicals and over 60 unique cannabinoids. The legal landscape surrounding marijuana is surprisingly complex and unsettled. In the United States, 11 states and several municipalities have legalized medical marijuana. Another state provides legislation that allows patients to claim a defense of medical necessity. Nevertheless, patients using medical marijuana may never interact with a pharmacist. Marijuana is a Schedule I controlled substance and its use is illegal under federal law. Marijuana has a number of purported therapeutic uses with a broad range of supporting evidence. There are five general indications for medical marijuana: (1) severe nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy or other causes, (2) weight loss associated with debilitating illnesses, including HIV infection and cancer, (3) spasticity secondary to neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, (4) pain syndromes, and (5) other uses, such as for glaucoma. Marijuana is associated with adverse psychiatric, cardiovascular, respiratory, and immunologic events. Moreover, marijuana may interact with a number of prescription drugs and concomitant disease states. Several states have legalized the use of marijuana for chronic and debilitating medication conditions. Pharmacists need to understand the complex legal framework surrounding this issue so that they can protect themselves and better serve their patients.

  5. Evaluating the impact of pharmacist health education on the perceptions of the pharmacist's role among women living in a homeless shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Laura; Buckley, Kelsey; Nguyen, Sarah; Kohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of pharmacist-provided educational seminars on the participant's perception of the pharmacist's role in providing women's health education. Secondary objectives include the participant's level of perceived benefit from the information provided during each presentation, as well as determining characteristics of participants who are interested in attending seminars. This is a prospective study conducted within a homeless women's shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. Pharmacists and pharmacy students provided 10 monthly educational seminars on topics related to women's health. Participants completed a pre- and post-seminar survey regarding their perceptions of the presentations and pharmacists. Fifty-six participants attended at least one of 10 seminars from January to November 2014. The average age was 46 years old, taking approximately 3 medications, and 66% completed a high school degree or lower. Prior to the presentations, 30% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would seek advice from a pharmacist on the topic presented, which increased significantly to 82% of participants after the presentation (ppresented prior to the presentation, and this increased significantly to 77% after the presentation (p=0.001). After attending the educational session, 70% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would make changes to their health, and that they would attend an additional session. The participants noted their increased learning about the topic, the clarity of visual aids and presentation, and knowledge of the presenters as the best parts of the presentation. Pharmacist's participation in providing educational seminars in the homeless women's population increases the participant's knowledge and perception of the pharmacist's role within the population. Future studies can further investigate an evolving role of pharmacists in optimizing healthcare in the homeless population.

  6. Approach to the role of the pharmacist in health related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafur Valderrama E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve health related quality of life (HRQoL is a main objective of pharmaceutical care. The aim of the present study was to identify the knowledge, attitude and performance of community pharmacists on the assessment and the use of HRQoL tools. The study was an observational based on an emailed survey during March to May 2005. A questionnaire focused on quality of life and pharmacy practice was sent to the pharmacists included in Pharmaceutical Care Center (CAF-STADA, a total of 1601. Literature on HRQoL and pharmacy practice and specifically MOS SF-36was sent to the pharmacists surveyed: then, a link to a webpage containing a validated questionnaire to gather their opinions. Results showed that, although pharmacists are not much aware HRQoL, they are show a very positive attitude to use tools for evaluate patients’ HRQoL. They recognize their need for supplementary education and training. Additionally, pharmacists state to be subjectively assessing HRQoL in their patients, without documenting it. These results demonstrate the potential role of the pharmacist in assessing HRQoL. This assessment could be included in pharmacotherapy follow-up, in order to assess the outcomes on quality of life, as stated in original definition of pharmaceutical care.

  7. The Role of Pharmacists in Preventing Falls among America's Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karani, Mamta V; Haddad, Yara; Lee, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older and can lead to significant costs, injuries, functional decline, and reduced quality of life. While certain medications are known to increase fall risk, medication use is a modifiable risk factor. Pharmacists have specialized training in medication management and can play an important role in fall prevention. Working in a patient-centered team-based approach, pharmacists can collaborate with the primary care providers to reduce fall risk. They can screen for fall risk, review and optimize medication therapy, recommend vitamin D, and educate patients and caregivers about ways to prevent falls. To help health-care providers implement fall prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries (STEADI) initiative. Based on the established clinical guidelines, STEADI provides members of the health-care team, including pharmacists, with the tools and resources they need to manage their older patients' fall risk. These tools are being adapted to specifically advance the roles of pharmacists in reviewing medications, identifying those that increase fall risk, and communicating those risks with patients' primary care providers. Through a multidisciplinary approach, pharmacists along with other members of the health-care team can better meet the needs of America's growing older adult population and reduce falls.

  8. THE ROLE OF PHARMACISTS IN PREVENTING FALLS AMONG AMERICA’S OLDER ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta V Karani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 and older and can lead to significant costs, injuries, functional decline, and reduced quality of life. While certain medications are known to increase fall risk, medication use is a modifiable risk factor. Pharmacists have specialized training in medication management and can play an important role in fall prevention. Working in a patient centered team-based approach, pharmacists can collaborate with primary care providers to reduce fall risk. They can screen for fall risk, review and optimize medication therapy, recommend vitamin D, and educate patients and caregivers about ways to prevent falls. To help health care providers implement fall prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC developed the STEADI (Stopping Elderly Accidents, Death and Injuries initiative. Based on established clinical guidelines, STEADI provides members of the health care team, including pharmacists, with the tools and resources they need to manage their older patients’ fall risk. These tools are being adapted to specifically advance the roles of pharmacists in: reviewing medications, identifying those that increase fall risk, and communicating those risks with patients’ primary care providers. Through a multidisciplinary approach, pharmacists along with other members of the health care team can better meet the needs of America’s growing older adult population and reduce falls.

  9. Translating clinical guidelines into clinical practice: role of the pharmacist in type 2 diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Scott

    2009-01-01

    To examine the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE)/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) diabetes guidelines and identify key areas for increased pharmacist involvement to allow more effective implementation of target glycemic goals. Guidelines issued by ADA and ACE/AACE; PubMed searches were performed to identify additional data. Free text searches were performed to identify recent (2000-2008) therapy reviews in the management of type 2 diabetes, as well as articles on specific issues such as telemedicine, self-measurement of blood glucose, and overcoming barriers to treatment. To explore the role of insulin in managing type 2 diabetes, clinical trials involving insulins and insulin analogs in type 2 diabetes were identified using a PubMed search with the Mesh terms insulin or analogs and derivatives plus diabetes mellitus, type 2 and restricted to those published after 2000. The pharmacist's role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was explored in PubMed using the Mesh terms pharmacists[Majr] and diabetes mellitus, type 2/therapy, and free text searches were also performed using the terms patient education, pharmacist, and type 2 diabetes. By the author. The increasing burden of type 2 diabetes highlights the need for tight glycemic control in line with current guidelines and the timely introduction of insulin. Pharmacists have a crucial role in achieving these goals, as they are ideally placed to educate patients about the acceptability of treatment, the importance of self-management, the availability of new technologies and delivery devices, and the need for treatment intensification to achieve glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) targets. Pharmacists play a crucial role in helping patients with type 2 diabetes achieve the A1C targets recommended by ADA and ACE/AACE and thereby improve their long-term health.

  10. 'Pharmacists have been left out of the loop': exploring the role of pharmacists in the management of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Leah

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to portray and critically analyse the role played by pharmacists in the management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The data used for this article originate in secondary and primary sources. They were collected by means of a documentary analysis of all relevant documents of significance as well as exploratory telephone interviews conducted with a systematic random sample of community pharmacies in Greater Johannesburg in 2004 and 2010. It is clear from the original strategic framework that the government envisaged pharmacists playing a significant role in the various facets of the epidemic. Following these intentions, the South African Pharmacy Council and the Pharmaceutical Society of South Africa embarked on a process of establishing AIDS Resource Centres in pharmacies. However, although in some areas pharmacists are contributing to the management of HIV/AIDS, the overall scenario revealed is that of lack of willingness to go for additional training and/or to invest in restructuring the pharmacy to 'accommodate' the activities of an 'AIDS Resource Centre' without the prospects of adequate financial gains. In a parallel process, the original, more meaningful role for pharmacists in the management of HIV/AIDS has not been featured in recent professional and governmental documentation. The reality on the ground is that of a missed opportunity as the pharmacists have not risen to the challenge and they remain on the margins, and not at the centre, of those professionals managing HIV/AIDS in South Africa. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Pharmacists' roles in oncology pharmacy services: Results of a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Lisa M; Harris, Christy S; Chan, Alexandre; Fahrenbruch, Rebecca J; Labdi, Bonnie A; Mohs, Jocelyn E; Norris, Leann B; Perkins, Janelle; Vela, Cory M

    2017-04-01

    Background Oncology pharmacists are capable of providing medication therapy management (MTM) because of their level of training, practice experiences, and responsibilities. Very little data exist about their current practice, including changing roles in the multidisciplinary team, overall impact, and effects in the education of patients and healthcare professionals. Methods A 70-item survey about oncology pharmacists' activities in oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) was deployed using a web survey tool (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA), targeting pharmacist members of American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Hematology/Oncology Practice and Research Network (PRN). The objective of this study was to determine oncology pharmacists' activities in areas of oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and CPAs. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to the ACCP Hematology/Oncology PRN membership. Investigational Review Board approval was obtained. Results Of the 795 members who were sent the survey, 81 members (10%) responded; 33 respondents (47%) are involved with an oral chemotherapy program; with 42% measuring outcomes of programs. Only six pharmacists (19%) have published or presented their data. A total of 28 (35%) respondents provide MTM services, with almost half (43%) of these MTM services being dictated by CPAs. A small fraction of these pharmacists (21.4%) reported conducting quality assurance evaluations of their MTM services and three pharmacists (10.7%) reported publishing their results. Those pharmacists practicing under CPAs ( n = 28) were surveyed as to activities included in their CPA. The most common activities included adjusting medication, ordering, interpreting, and monitoring lab tests, developing therapeutic plans and educating patients. Reimbursement for providing these services was uncommon: MTM (4%), oral chemotherapy program (6%), and CPA services (11%). Reported obstacles to reimbursement included lack of

  12. Smoking cessation counseling in Qatar: community pharmacists' attitudes, role perceptions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al Nakeeb, Reem Raad; Al-Qudah, Raja'a Ali

    2012-08-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem in Qatar. The potential for community pharmacists to offer smoking cessation counseling in this country can be high. To determine the current smoking cessation practices of community pharmacists in Qatar, to examine their attitudes about tobacco use and smoking cessation, to evaluate their perceptions about performing professional roles with respect to smoking cessation and to assess their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling in the pharmacy setting in Qatar. Community pharmacies in Qatar. The objectives were addressed in a cross sectional survey of community pharmacists in Qatar from June 2010 to October 2010. A phone call was made to all community pharmacists in Qatar (318 pharmacists) inviting them to participate. Consenting pharmacists anonymously completed the survey either online or as paper using fax. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) Version 18. Qatar community pharmacists' smoking cessation practices, their attitudes toward tobacco use, smoking cessation and smoking cessation counseling and their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling. Over 5 months, we collected 127 surveys (40 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents reported that they always or most of the time asked their patients if they smoke. When the patients' smoking status was identified, advising quitting and assessing readiness to quit were always or most of the time performed by 66 and 52 % of respondents respectively. Only 15 % always or most of the time arranged follow-up with smokers and 22 % always or most of the time made smoking cessation referrals. Most respondents (>80 %) agreed that smoking could cause adverse health effects and that smoking cessation could decrease the risk of these effects. In addition, the majority (>80 %) believed that smoking cessation counseling was an important activity and was an efficient use of their time. The top two perceived barriers for smoking

  13. Neonatal parenteral nutrition: Review of the pharmacist role as a prescriber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Mohamed H; Al-Hindi, Mohammed Y; Alrayees, Meshari M

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the continuous quest to improve the care of the neonates especially the critically ill premature infants, the extended role of pharmacists in the process of parenteral nutrition order writing and effective participation in decision-making especially in the neonatal population is increasingly important. This review aims to present results from the literature review of available evidence on the pharmacist role in neonatal parenteral nutrition therapy. Key medical, clinical, and review databases were searched; relevant articles were retrieved and evaluated. A total of 19 papers out of 7127 searched papers met the criteria for inclusion, discussing the review topic. The main focus of the selected papers was on parenteral nutrition practice as related to the pharmacy practice. The overall quality of studies was mixed. Overall, the review presents the up-to-date status of the most recent analysis being undertaken on the topic of pharmacist involvement in the parenteral nutrition order writing practices and more specific in the neonatal population over the period from 1979 to 2013. The overall impression is that the practice of pharmacist writing neonatal parenteral nutrition orders already exists, but still limited if compared with the practice of pharmacist writing adult parenteral nutrition orders which is much more established in many countries. There was no single clinical study evaluating this practice, as we were able to retrieve only two surveys, which make it difficult to evaluate the pharmacist role in this area. Nevertheless, despite the wide variation in literature types, characteristics and quality, there are consistent patterns across all the reviewed literatures that competencies of the pharmacist in this field are well represented, which make it very important to carry out good quality clinical studies in this field. Finally, we are currently conducting a prospective clinical study to evaluate the impact of clinical pharmacist as a

  14. What role do pharmacists play in mediating antibiotic use in hospitals? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Alex; Broom, Jennifer; Kirby, Emma; Plage, Stefanie; Adams, Jon

    2015-11-03

    To understand Australian hospital pharmacists' accounts of antibiotic use, and the potential role of pharmacy in antibiotic optimisation within a tertiary hospital setting. Qualitative study, utilising semistructured interviews with 19 pharmacists in two hospitals in Queensland, Australia in 2014. Data was analysed using the framework approach and supported by NVivo10 qualitative data analysis software. The results demonstrate that (1) pharmacists' attitudes are ambivalent towards the significance of antibiotic resistance with optimising antibiotic use perceived as low priority; (2) pharmacists' current capacity to influence antibiotic decision-making is limited by the prescribing power of doctors and the perception of antibiotic use as a medical responsibility; and, (3) interprofessional and organisational barriers exist that prevent change in the hospital setting including medical hierarchies, limited contact with senior doctors and resource constraints resulting in insufficient pharmacy staffing to foster collaborative relationships and facilitate the uptake of their advice. While pharmacy is playing an increasingly important role in enhanced antibiotic governance and is a vital component of antimicrobial stewardship in Australia, role-based limitations, interprofessional dynamics and organisational/resource constraints in hospitals, if not urgently addressed, will continue to significantly limit the ability of pharmacy to influence antibiotic prescribing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Positioning pharmacists' roles in primary health care: a discourse analysis of the compensation plan in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine A; Breault, Rene R; Hicks, Deborah; Schindel, Theresa J

    2017-11-23

    A comprehensive Compensation Plan for pharmacy services delivered by community pharmacists was implemented in Alberta, Canada in July 2012. Services covered by the Compensation Plan include care planning services, prescribing services such as adapting prescriptions, and administering a drug or publicly-funded vaccine by injection. Understanding how the Compensation Plan was framed and communicated provides insight into the roles of pharmacists and the potential influence of language on the implementation of services covered by the Compensation Plan by Albertan pharmacists. The objective of this study is to examine the positioning of pharmacists' roles in documents used to communicate the Compensation Plan to Albertan pharmacists and other audiences. Publicly available documents related to the Compensation Plan, such as news releases or reports, published between January 2012 and December 2015 were obtained from websites such as the Government of Alberta, Alberta Blue Cross, the Alberta College of Pharmacists, the Alberta Pharmacists' Association, and the Blueprint for Pharmacy. Searches of the Canadian Newsstand database and Google identified additional documents. Discourse analysis was performed using social positioning theory to explore how pharmacists' roles were constructed in communications about the Compensation Plan. In total, 65 publicly available documents were included in the analysis. The Compensation Plan was put forward as a framework for payment for professional services and formal legitimization of pharmacists' changing professional roles. The discourse associated with the Compensation Plan positioned pharmacists' roles as: (1) expanding to include services such as medication management for chronic diseases, (2) contributing to primary health care by providing access to services such as prescription renewals and immunizations, and (3) collaborating with other health care team members. Pharmacists' changing roles were positioned in alignment with the

  16. Role of community pharmacists in asthma – Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade of coordinated research efforts, in various aspects of asthma care, has culminated in the implementation trial of the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a comprehensive disease management model. There has been research investigating asthma medication adherence through data mining, ways in which usual asthma care can be improved. Our research has focused on self-management education, inhaler technique interventions, spirometry trials, interprofessional models of care, and regional trials addressing the particular needs of rural communities. We have determined that inhaler technique education is a necessity and should be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. We have identified this effectiveness of health promotion and health education, conducted within and outside the confines of the pharmacy, in public for a and settings such as schools, and established that this outreach role is particularly well received and increases the opportunity for people with asthma to engage in their asthma management. Our research has identified that asthma patients have needs which pharmacists delivering specialized models of care, can address. There is a lot of evidence for the effectiveness of asthma care by pharmacists, the future must involve integration of this role into primary care.

  17. Patterns and attitudes of self-medication practices and possible role of community pharmacists in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramahi, Rowa'

    2013-07-01

    This research aims to describe the extent of self-medication, assess possible factors associated with it, identify patients' reasons for self-medication and their attitudes towards the role of pharmacists in self-care so that future interventions can be documented and planned. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted. Questionnaires were distributed randomly to 565 persons from all over the West Bank. The questionnaire covered self-medication purchases and experience with minor illnesses. From 565 people approached. 400 (70.8%) agreed to participate in the study Self-medication was reported by 87.0% (n = 348) of cases interviewed, among them 224 (56.0%) used at least one medication without consulting a doctor in the previous month. Analgesics were the most common class used in self-medication by 317 (79.2%) respondents, followed by flu medications (233, 45.3%), and antibiotics (132, 33.0%). The majority reported that they selected medications based on selfdecision and previous use (233, 58.2%). Advice received from pharmacists was another important factor in 216 (54.0%). The most common reasons for self-medication were: their ailments being minor (341, 85.2%) and they had this medical problem before 198 (49.5%). Among 397 respondents, 335 (84.4%) either strongly agreed or agreed that the community pharmacists play an important role in providing advice - when needed - for self-medication. Self-medication practices have been common among people in Palestine. There has been a high rate of using antibiotics without prescription, which requires suitable regulations and interventions to solve this problem. The results have shown a positive attitude towards the role of pharmacists in self-care. Community pharmacists have the potential to make a huge impact in ensuring that medicines are used appropriately.

  18. An evolving role of clinical pharmacists in managing diabetes: Evidence from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhabib, Samia; Aldraimly, Maha; Alfarhan, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a rapidly growing disease world-wide that is estimated to be present in 6.6% of the international population and projected to be increased by 7.8% in 2030. Treating diabetic patients is multifaceted in all aspects and they require objectives and optimum information in order to obtain the maximum benefits of their treatment and avoid complications. Pharmacists are increasingly considered as a part of the health care system. Hence, the aim of this review is to address and summarize the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists in managing diabetic patients. This is a narrative review of the evidence from the literature in order to answer the present question of what is the evidence of the role of clinical pharmacists in managing diabetic patients. We searched five databases including: the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, TRIP, and Science Direct. We will also try to look for other potentially eligible trials or ancillary publications by searching the reference lists of retrieved included trials, (systematic) reviews, meta-analyses and health technology assessment reports. Outcomes included short-term and long-term measures. Final search revealed nine studies. They were heterogeneous in terms of interventions, participants, settings and outcomes. Studies varied in their quality and/or reporting of their findings conducted in several settings. Majority of the studies were conducted in Western countries, one in Hong Kong and one in South India. In majority of the studies, pharmacists' role was mainly to specify all drug-related problems including poor drug compliance and side effects and communicating these to the physician. We found that those who received the pharmacist care had a statistically significant reduction in coronary heart disease, blood pressure, HA1c, quality of life and lipid profile. Our review demonstrated the important role of clinical pharmacists in managing diabetic patients at diverse settings worldwide. There is an urgent need

  19. [Role of pharmacists during serious natural disasters: report from Ishinomaki, the disaster-struck city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    On August 31, 2011, five months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Miyagi prefecture reported 9357 dead and 2288 missing citizens, whereas Ishinomaki reported 4753 dead and 1302 missing citizens. A total of 12 pharmacists in Miyagi prefecture had lost their lives. Many medical institutions at the time were rendered out of service due to damage. Ishinomaki Red Cross had to serve as headquarters of disaster medicine management for the area. The government of Miyagi and Miyagi Pharmacist Association signed a contract regarding the provision of medical and/or other related tasks. Nevertheless, the contract was not fully applied given the impact of the tsunami, which caused chaos in telecommunication, traffic, and even the functions of the government. Given the nature of the disaster, medical teams equipped only with emergency equipment could not offer appropriate response to the needs of patients with chronicle diseases. "Personal medicine logbook" and pharmacists were keys to relief works during the disaster. Pharmacists played a critical role not only for self-medication by distributing over the counter (OTC) drugs, but also in hygiene management of the shelter. Apart from the establishment of an adoptive management system for large-scale natural disasters, a coordinated system for disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), Japanese Red Cross (JRC), Self-Defense Force (SDF), and other relief work organizations was imperative.

  20. Preventing drug-related adverse events following hospital discharge: the role of the pharmacist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholls J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Justine Nicholls,1 Craig MacKenzie,1 Rhiannon Braund2 1Dunedin Hospital Pharmacy, 2School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Abstract: Transition of care (ToC points, and in particular hospital admission and discharge, can be associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events (ADEs and other drug-related problems (DRPs. The growing recognition of the pharmacist as an expert in medication management, patient education and communication makes them well placed to intervene. There is evidence to indicate that the inclusion of pharmacists in the health care team at ToC points reduces ADEs and DRPs and improves patient outcomes. The objectives of this paper are to outline the following using current literature: 1 the increased risk of medication-related problems at ToC points; 2 to highlight some strategies that have been successful in reducing these problems; and 3 to illustrate how the role of the pharmacist across all facets of care can contribute to the reduction of ADEs, particularly for patients at ToC points. Keywords: pharmacist, adverse drug events, drug-related problems, transitions of care, hospital discharge

  1. Emerging roles and competencies of district and sub-district pharmacists: a case study from Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Hazel; Lehmann, Uta; Butler, Nadine

    2015-11-24

    District and sub-district pharmacist positions were created during health sector reform in South Africa. High prevalence of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and increasing chronic non-communicable diseases have drawn attention to their pivotal roles in improving accessibility and appropriate use of medicines at the primary level. This research describes new roles and related competencies of district and sub-district pharmacists in Cape Town. Between 2008 and 2011, the author (HB) conducted participatory action research in Cape Town Metro District, an urban district in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, partnering with pharmacists and managers of the two government primary health care (PHC) providers. The two providers function independently delivering complementary PHC services across the entire geographic area, with one provider employing district pharmacists and the other sub-district pharmacists. After an initiation phase, the research evolved into a series of iterative cycles of action and reflection, each providing increasing understanding of district and sub-district pharmacists' roles and competencies. Data was generated through workshops, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with pharmacists and managers which were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was carried out iteratively during the 4-year engagement and triangulated with document reviews and published literature. Five main roles for district and sub-district pharmacists were identified: district/sub-district management; planning, co-ordination and monitoring of pharmaceuticals; information and advice; quality assurance and clinical governance; and research (district pharmacists)/dispensing at clinics (sub-district pharmacists). Although the roles looked similar, there were important differences, reflecting the differing governance and leadership models and services of each provider. Five competency clusters were identified: professional pharmacy practice; health system and public health

  2. High School Students' Gender Role Perceptions Regarding Various Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    This survey study aims to determine the gender role perceptions of high school students regarding several professions. 724 female (56.9%) and 548 male (43.1%) formed the sample of a total of 1272 high school students. The "Gender Role Perceptions regarding Various Professions Questionnaire" was used to determine the gender role…

  3. Pharmacists' perspectives about their role in care of patients with diabetes observing Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansour, Hadi A; Chaar, Betty; Saini, Bandana

    Diabetes is a common chronic condition amongst Australians. Ongoing management requires adherence to medication and diet regimens. Religious practices such as fasting, such as the Ramadan fast observed by Muslims can impact medication use and diabetes control. Pharmacists as medication experts have a key role in helping people observing religious practices, to maintain optimal control over their medication regimen. This study aimed to explore the perspective of Australian community pharmacists about professional services for patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) who may opt for observing the Ramadan fast. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with a purposive convenient sample of pharmacists practicing in areas of ethnic diversity in Sydney were undertaken. Interview data were thematically analyzed using a constructivist paradigm. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews (57% male participants) were conducted during June-August 2015, and the analysis of verbatim transcripts established several themes. Although most participants encountered fasting patients, and were willing to engage in diabetes services for them, our analyses indicated reactive counseling, lack of perceived need for counseling patients or delegation of patient care in a few instances as well as organizational issues as a practice barrier. Some participants highlighted the need for training and skills development in this area and cited other organizational barriers such as time, infrastructure and patient expectations/attitudes that might impede service provision. Key themes related to patients included: experiencing adverse outcomes of fasting on diabetes, varying levels of self-efficacy, help seeking behaviors and negative attitudes to pharmacist involvement. Pharmacists encounter patients with chronic conditions who observe religious fasts that may interrupt established medication regimens. Proactive counseling about medication use in these instances is offered only by some pharmacists

  4. Public perception on the role of community pharmacists in self-medication and self-care in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Joyce H; Wong, Fiona Y; Chan, Frank W; Wong, Eliza L; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2011-11-25

    The choices for self-medication in Hong Kong are much diversified, including western and Chinese medicines and food supplements. This study was to examine Hong Kong public knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding self-medication, self-care and the role of pharmacists in self-care. A cross-sectional phone survey was conducted, inviting people aged 18 or older to complete a 37-item questionnaire that was developed based on the Thematic Household surveys in Hong Kong, findings of the health prorfessional focus group discussions on pharmacist-led patient self management and literature. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from residential phone directories. Trained interviewers invited eligible persons to participate using the "last birthday method". Associations of demographic characteristics with knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on self-medication, self-care and role of pharmacists, and spending on over-the-counter (OTC) products were analysed statistically. A total of 1, 560 phone calls were successfully made and 1, 104 respondents completed the survey which indicated a response rate of 70.8%. 63.1% had adequate knowledge on using OTC products. Those who had no formal education/had attended primary education (OR = 3.19, 95%CI 1.78-5.72; p self-medication. People with chronic disease also tended to spend more than HKD100 on western (OR = 3.58, 95%CI 1.58-8.09; p = 0.002) and Chinese OTC products (OR = 2.94, 95%CI 1.08-7.95; p = 0.034). 94.6% believed that patients with chronic illnesses should self-manage their diseases. 68% agreed that they would consult a pharmacist before using OTC product but only 45% agreed that pharmacists could play a leading role in self-care. Most common reasons against pharmacist consultation on self-medication and self-care were uncertainty over the role of pharmacists and low acceptance level of pharmacists. The majority of respondents supported patients with chronic illness to self-manage their diseases but less than half agreed

  5. Physicians' perceptions, attitudes and expectations regarding the role of hospital-based pharmacists in the West Bank, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Maher R; Alayasa, Kawther S; Alshahed, Qusai N; Hawwa, Ahmed F

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the perceptions, expectations and experiences of physicians with regard to hospital-based pharmacists in the West Bank, Palestine. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 250 physicians practising in four general hospitals in the West Bank, Palestine. The main sections of the questionnaire comprised a series of statements pertaining to physicians' perceptions, expectations and experiences with pharmacists. One hundred and fifty seven questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate, 62.8%). The majority of respondents were most comfortable with pharmacists detecting and preventing prescription errors (76.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 69.5-81.2%) and patient education (57.9%; CI 51.2-63.4%) but they were not comfortable with pharmacists suggesting the use of prescription medications to patients (56.7%; CI 49.8-62.4%). Most physicians (62.4%; CI 56.8-69.1%) expected the pharmacist to educate their patients about the safe and appropriate use of their medication. However, approximately one-third (31.7%; CI 26.0-39.6%) did not expect pharmacists to be available for consultation during rounds. Physicians' experiences with pharmacists were less favourable; whereas 77% (CI 70.2-81.5%) of the physicians agreed that pharmacists were always a reliable source of information, only 11.5% (CI 6.2-16.4%) agreed that pharmacists appeared to be willing to take responsibility for solving any drug-related problems. The present study showed that hospital physicians are more likely to accept traditional pharmacy services than newer clinical services for hospital-based pharmacists in the West Bank, Palestine. Pharmacists should therefore interact more positively and more frequently with physicians. This will close the gap between the physicians' commonly held perceptions of what they expect pharmacists to do and what pharmacists can actually do, and gain support for an extended role of hospital-based pharmacists in future patient therapy management.

  6. The pharmacist and the management of arterial hypertension: the role of blood pressure monitoring and telemonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omboni, Stefano; Sala, Elisa

    2015-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials have documented that a team of health care professionals which includes a physician, a nurse and a community pharmacist may improve the benefit and adherence of anti-hypertensive therapy. If such a health care model relies on blood pressure telemonitoring, it can promote a stronger relationship between health care professionals and patients, and further improve BP control of hypertension. The major benefit of this collaborative approach is to center the patient's management in a tailored way, providing comprehensive and preventive care based on health information technologies. In this review, the authors summarize recent clinical studies that evaluate the role of the community pharmacist in BP measurements, and in hypertension screening and control. The authors also describe the advantages of using blood pressure telemonitoring in home and ambulatory settings to evaluate potential alternatives to primary care in hypertension management.

  7. Supporting self management of type 2 diabetes: is there a role for the community pharmacist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhippayom T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Teerapon Dhippayom,1 Ines Krass21Pharmaceutical Care Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Evidence supports the efficacy of pharmacy services in type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, little is known about consumer perspectives on the role of community pharmacists in diabetes care. The objectives of this study were to identify potential unmet needs and explore preferences for pharmacist-delivered support for T2D.Methods: A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted in Sydney, Australia. Patients with T2D who were members of the Australian Diabetes Council in Sydney, Australia, were recruited through a survey on medication use in T2D. Five focus groups with a total of 32 consumers with T2D were recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed.Results: The key themes were 1 the experiences of diabetes services received, 2 the potential to deliver self-management services, and 3 the suggested role of pharmacist in supporting diabetes management. Gaps in understanding and some degree of nonadherence to self-management signaled a potential for self-management support delivered by pharmacists. However, consumers still perceive that the main role of pharmacists in diabetes care centers on drug management services, with some enhancements to support adherence and continuity of supply. Barriers to diabetes care services included time constraints and a perceived lack of interest by pharmacists.Conclusion: Given the unmet needs in diabetes self-management, opportunities exist for pharmacists to be involved in diabetes care. The challenge is for pharmacists to upgrade their diabetes knowledge and skills, organize their workflow, and become proactive in delivering diabetes care support.Keywords: diabetes care, community pharmacy, community pharmacist, self-management, preference

  8. Patient perceptions of pharmacist roles in guiding self-medication of over-the-counter therapy in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Wilbur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kerry Wilbur1, Samah El Salam1, Ebrahim Mohammadi21Qatar University College of Pharmacy, Doha, Qatar; 2Qatar Petroleum Medical Services, Doha, QatarBackground: Self-care, including self-medication with over-the-counter (OTC drugs, facilitates the public’s increased willingness to assume greater responsibility for their own health. Direct consultation with pharmacists provides efficient professional guidance for safe and appropriate OTC use.Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize patient perceptions of pharmacists and use of nonprescription therapy in an ambulatory care population in Qatar. Methods: Patients having prescriptions filled at one organization’s private medical clinics during two distinct two-week periods were invited to participate in a short verbal questionnaire. Awareness of pharmacist roles in guiding OTC drug selection was assessed, as were patient preferences for OTC indications. Attitudes towards pharmacist and nurse drug knowledge and comfort with direct dispensing were also evaluated.Results: Five hundred seventy patients participated representing 29 countries. Most respondents were men (92.1% with mean age of 38.3 years. Almost 1 in 7 did not know medical complaints could be assessed by a pharmacist (15.3% and 1 in 5 (21.9% were unaware pharmacists could directly supply OTC therapy. The majority (85.3% would be interested in this service. In general, respondents were more comfortable with medication and related advice supplied by pharmacists as opposed to nursing professionals.Conclusion: Patients were familiar with the roles of pharmacists as they pertain to selfmedication with OTC therapy and described the desire to use such a service within this Qatar ambulatory health care setting.Keywords: patient, self-medication, over-the-counter, pharmacist, Qatar

  9. Irrational use of antibiotics and role of the pharmacist: an insight from a qualitative study in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwani, A; Wattal, C; Joshi, P C; Holloway, K

    2012-06-01

    The overall volume of antibiotic consumption in the community is one of the foremost causes of antimicrobial resistance. In developing countries like India, pharmacists often dispense 'prescription-only' drugs, like antibiotics, to patients who do not have a prescription. Not much data is available regarding detailed information on behaviour of antibiotic use by community pharmacists which is of particular significance to develop a suitable and sustainable intervention programme to promote rational use of antibiotics. A qualitative study was conducted to understand the dispensing practices and behaviour of community pharmacists to develop policy interventions that would improve the use of antibiotics at the community level. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held for five municipal wards of Delhi with retail pharmacists, public sector pharmacists and the office bearers of pharmacists' associations. Data on antibiotic use and resistance were collected earlier from these five wards. FGDs (n = 3 with 40 pharmacists) were analysed through grounded theory. Four broad themes identified were as follows: prescribing and dispensing behaviour; commercial interests; advisory role; and intervention strategies for rational use of antibiotics. FGDs with pharmacists working in the public sector revealed that, besides the factors listed above, overstock and near-expiry, and under-supply of antibiotics promoted antibiotic misuse. Suggestions for interventions from pharmacists were the following: (i) education to increase awareness of rational use and resistance to antibiotics; (ii) involving pharmacists as partners for creating awareness among communities for rational use and resistance to antibiotics; (iii) developing an easy return policy for near-expiry antibiotics in public sector facilities; and (iv) motivating and showing appreciation for community pharmacists who participate in intervention programmes. Inappropriate antibiotic dispensing and use owing to commercial

  10. Assessing students' knowledge regarding the roles and responsibilities of a pharmacist with focus on care transitions through simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag-Bolos, Erini S; Miranda, Aimon C; Gelot, Shyam R; Dharia, Sheetal P; Shaeer, Kristy M

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of a pharmacist-focused transitions of care (TOC) simulation on students' perceptions and knowledge of pharmacist roles in the healthcare continuum. Educational Activity and Setting: Two simulations, highlighting pharmacist roles in various practice settings, were conducted within the Pharmaceutical Skills courses in the third-year doctor of pharmacy curriculum. Patient cases were built utilizing electronic medical records (EMR). Students' knowledge was assessed before and after the simulations regarding pharmacist involvement in medication reconciliation, reduction in patient readmissions, reduction of inappropriate medication use, roles and communication on an interprofessional team, and involvement with health information technology (HIT) during care transitions. Fifty-one third-year pharmacy students were anonymously evaluated prior to and following the simulation to assess changes in knowledge and perceptions during the fall semester. Thirty-two (62.7%) students completed the pre-simulation and 21 (41.2%) students completed the post-simulation assessments, respectively. In the spring semester, 40 (80%) students completed the pre-simulation and 23 (46%) students finished the post-simulation assessments. Students predominately had community pharmacy work experience (n=28, 55%). Overall, students enjoyed the variety of pharmacist-led encounters throughout the simulation and assessments demonstrated an increase in knowledge after the simulations. TOC simulations enhance students' understanding of the significant impact that pharmacists have in ensuring continuity of care as members of an interdisciplinary team. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Defining Health Profession Regulators' Roles in the Canadian Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Joshua; Ahmed, Humayun; Brown, Adalsteinn D

    2017-01-01

    Health professions regulation today faces a myriad of challenges, due to both the perceived performance of regulatory colleges, how health systems have evolved, and even larger political and economic shifts such as the renegotiation of NAFTA. In this issue of Healthcare Papers, Wilkie and Tzountzouris (2017) describe the work of the College of Medical Laboratory Technologists of Ontario (CMLTO) to redefine professionalism in the context of these challenges. Their paper, and the comments of the responding authors in this issue highlight that there, is an overarching perception that health regulatory structures - across a range of professions - are not working as effectively as they should. Across this issue of Healthcare Papers, attention is drawn to the fact that more can be done to improve both the function and perception of professional regulatory bodies. However, each paper presents a different approach to how improvements in function and perception are possible.

  12. Women in male-dominated professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, K W

    1982-12-01

    The problems faced by women pharmacists are discussed in relation to the literature on women in male-dominated fields. Subconscious stereotypes preclude the occurrence of true equality for women pharmacists in many hospitals. Some people have predicted that the clinical pharmacist role will be primarily filled by men since men are perceived to have the time commitment, aggressiveness, and rapport with physicians that is considered necessary for that role. Women in health professions are perceived to be dedicated to service and not self-interest, and people expect them to drop out of the labor force to raise families, thus obviating the need for promotions and salary increases. Research has shown that women in male-dominated fields place more importance on success values than do women in other fields. Fear of success, defined as anxiety about doing well when competing with men, can be a problem for women, particularly if they have a strong affiliative need. It is important that women in male-dominated professions become actively involved in professional organizations to facilitate their gaining a professional identity. In addition, these women need to be encouraged to seek out managerial positions and to be given a clearer understanding that being a manager can be combined with family and household responsibilities. People can eliminate stereotypes from their thinking only if, after they admit the stereotypes exist, they make a conscious effort to not treat women pharmacists on the basis of what women pharmacists have done in the past.

  13. Healthcare managers' construction of the manager role in relation to the medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knorring, Mia; Alexanderson, Kristina; Eliasson, Miriam A

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how healthcare managers construct the manager role in relation to the medical profession in their organisations. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 18 of Sweden's 20 healthcare chief executive officers (CEOs) and 20 clinical department managers (CDMs) were interviewed about their views on management of physicians. Interviews were performed in the context of one aspect of healthcare management; i.e., management of physicians' sickness certification practice. A discourse analysis approach was used for data analysis. Findings - Few managers used a management-based discourse to construct the manager role. Instead, a profession-based discourse dominated and managers frequently used the attributes "physician" or "non-physician" to categorise themselves or other managers in their managerial roles. Some managers, both CEOs and CDMs, shifted between the management- and profession-based discourses, resulting in a kind of "yes, but […]" approach to management in the organisations. The dominating profession-based discourse served to reproduce the power and status of physicians within the organisation, thereby rendering the manager role weaker than the medical profession for both physician and non-physician managers. Research limitations/implications - Further studies are needed to explore the impact of gender, managerial level, and basic profession on how managers construct the manager role in relation to physicians. Practical implications - The results suggest that there is a need to address the organisational conditions for managers' role taking in healthcare organisations. Originality/value - Despite the general strengthening of the manager position in healthcare through political reforms during the last decades, this study shows that a profession-based discourse clearly dominated in how the managers constructed the manager role in relation to the medical profession on the workplace level in their organisations.

  14. Expanding state laws and a growing role for pharmacists in vaccination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Cason D; Penn, Matthew S

    2017-08-11

    Gaps in vaccination coverage leave populations vulnerable to illnesses. Since the 1990s, there has been a growing movement to improve vaccination access by giving pharmacists the authority to administer vaccines according to state laws. Understanding the variation of pharmacist vaccination laws over time is critical to understanding the effect of improving access to vaccination services. We identified relevant statutes and regulations with the use of Westlaw legal databases. A 4-stage coding process identified 220 legal variables of pharmacist vaccination authority. Each jurisdiction's laws were coded against these 220 legal variables. The resulting legal dataset was then evaluated to determine whether jurisdictions expanded or restricted pharmacist vaccination authorities over time. From 1971 to 2016, jurisdictions made 627 changes to statutes and regulations relating to pharmacist vaccination authority. There were 85 expansions, 3 restrictions, and 22 regulatory clarifications. Eight changes were deemed to be unclear, and 479 changes did not substantively alter the scope of pharmacist vaccination authority. Collectively, the laws in 50 states and DC paint a clear picture: the scope of pharmacists' vaccination authority is expanding. Jurisdictions are allowing pharmacists to administer more vaccines to younger patients with less direct prescriber oversight. This clear expansion of pharmacist vaccination authority stands in contrast to the reservations expressed by some physician groups for pharmacists as vaccination providers. However, laws in some states still do not permit pharmacists to vaccinate according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  15. Addressing the Issue of Chronic, Inappropriate Benzodiazepine Use: How Can Pharmacists Play a Role?

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    Helen C. Gallagher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescribing guidelines do not recommend the long-term use of benzodiazepines since their effectiveness with chronic use is out-weighed by risks including dependence, memory and cognitive impairment, hip fractures and traffic accidents. Despite these guidelines, historical data points to an increasing proportion of inappropriate, repeat prescribing of benzodiazepines in Ireland and elsewhere, with up to 33% of patients who use these drugs doing so long-term. The typical long-term benzodiazepine user is an older, socio-economically disadvantaged patient who has been prescribed these medicines by their general practitioner (GP and dispensed them by their community pharmacist. Misuse of benzodiazepines in nursing homes and psychiatric institutions is also of concern, with one Irish study indicating that almost half of all admissions to a psychiatric hospital were prescribed these drugs, usually despite a lack of clear clinical need. Discontinuation of benzodiazepines has proven to be of benefit, as it is followed by improvements in cognitive and psychomotor function, particularly in elderly patients. It is obvious that an inter-professional effort, focusing on the primary care setting, is required to address benzodiazepine misuse and to ensure appropriate pharmaceutical care. Pharmacists must be an integral part of this inter-professional effort, not least because they are uniquely positioned as the health professional with most frequent patient contact. There is already some supporting evidence that pharmacists’ involvement in interventions to reduce benzodiazepine use can have positive effects on patient outcomes. Here, this evidence is reviewed and the potential for pharmacists to play an expanded role in ensuring the appropriate use of benzodiazepines is discussed.

  16. Black and minority ethnic pharmacists' treatment in the UK: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seston, E M; Fegan, T; Hassell, K; Schafheutle, E I

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacists from black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds represent a significant proportion of the United Kingdom (UK) pharmacy profession. While there is evidence that BME doctors may be discriminated against in employment and regulatory practices, little is known about the treatment of BME pharmacists. To identify published evidence on the disproportionate treatment in employment and regulatory practices of BME pharmacists in the UK. Evidence was sought in four specific domains: recruitment (into the profession); progression; retention (within sector and profession) and regulation. The following databases were searched: Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, SIGLE and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were: English language only, published between 1993 and 2014 and reporting UK-based findings. The search strategy identified 11 pertinent items; 6 peer-reviewed articles, 2 published reports, 2 conference papers and one PhD thesis. In employment practices, there was some evidence that BME pharmacists are over-represented among owners and under-represented amongst senior management in the community sector. BME pharmacists reported more difficulties in getting their first job. BME pharmacists were over-represented in disciplinary processes but there was no evidence of disproportionate treatment in the outcomes of inquiries. Only a small number of studies have been published in this area, and the evidence of disproportionate treatment of BME pharmacists is equivocal. Further research is needed to better understand the role of ethnicity in recruitment, retention, progression and regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Addressing the global need for public health clinical pharmacists through student pharmacist education: a focus on developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Miranda G; Maposa, Prosper; Steeb, David R; Duncan, Gregory

    2017-12-01

    It is time for pharmacists to begin advancing their roles in public health and play a more integral part in public health initiatives. Within developed nations, the profession has demonstrated its value in advancing preventive care; however, the same cannot be said for pharmacists worldwide. Emphasis on training public health pharmacists should also be on developing nations, where the need for preventive care is highly unmet. To ensure all graduating pharmacists are prepared to engage in public health activities, education in this field must be provided during their main years of pharmacy school. In conclusion, public health education should be incorporated into pharmacy curriculae within developing nations so all pharmacy graduates are prepared to engage in public health activities.

  18. Pharmacists' training, perceived roles, and actions associated with dispensing controlled substance prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Marc L; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Shepherd, Marv D; Strassels, Scott A; Novak, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    To examine situations that prompt pharmacists to access a prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) database and management of opioid abuse/addiction; assess pharmacists' actions when abuse is suspected; describe pharmacists' tasks when dispensing controlled substance prescriptions (CSPs); and their continuing pharmacy education (CPE). DESIGN Cross-sectional mail survey of 1,000 randomly selected pharmacists. Texas from February 2012 to April 2012. 1,000 Texas community pharmacists. Mail survey instrument. Prompts to use a PDMP and pharmacists' views actions, and related CPE programs. RESULTS The usable response rate was 26.2%. Pharmacists were more supportive of mandated PDMP use by physicians than by pharmacists (mean ± SD 4.1 ± 1.2 versus 3.2 ± 1.5; P mistakes (68.1%) or the patient requests an early refill (66.3%). Bivariate statistics showed that men pharmacists, those with BSPharm degrees, and pharmacists ≥50 years of age reported a greater number of CPE hours related to prescription opioid abuse and pain management. An analysis of variance showed that pharmacy owners reported significantly more (P CPE compared with manager and staff pharmacists. Older pharmacists with a BSPharm degree may be more willing to provide counseling to patients with opioid addiction based on their work experience and additional CPE related to controlled substances. As PDMP use becomes more prevalent, pharmacists should be prepared to interact and counsel patients identified with aberrant controlled prescription drug use and properly deliver pain management care. Additionally, schools of pharmacy curricula must prepare new pharmacists to prevent abuse and diversion, as well as intervene when aberrant use is identified.

  19. Role of the pharmacist in parenteral nutrition therapy: challenges and opportunities to implement pharmaceutical care in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoue MG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pharmacists can provide beneficial pharmaceutical care services to patients receiving Parenteral Nutrition (PN therapy by working within Nutrition Support Teams (NSTs. Objective: This study was designed to explore pharmacists’ role in PN therapy in hospitals of Kuwait, sources of PN-related information, opinions on NSTs, perceptions about the barriers to pharmaceutical care implementation and views on how to enhance their practices. Methods: Data were collected via face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the senior Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN pharmacists at all the hospitals which provide TPN preparation services (six governmental hospitals and one private hospital in Kuwait. Descriptive statistics were used to describe pharmacists’ demographic details and practice site characteristics. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The pharmacists mainly performed technical tasks such as TPN compounding with minimal role in providing direct patient care. They used multiple different sources of TPN-related information to guide their practice. They reported positive and negative experiences with physicians depending on their practice environment. None of the hospitals had a functional NST. However, pharmacists expressed preference to work within NSTs due to the potential benefits of enhanced communication and knowledge exchange among practitioners and to improve service. Pharmacists perceived several barriers to providing pharmaceutical care including lack of reliable sources of TPN-related information, lack of a standard operating procedure for TPN across hospitals, insufficient staff, time constraints and poor communication between TPN pharmacists. To overcome these barriers, they recommended fostering pharmacists’ education on TPN, establishing national standards for TPN practices, provision of pharmacy staff, development of NSTs, enhancing TPN pharmacists

  20. Pharmacist professionals in the prevention of drug abuse: updating roles, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arantes Wagner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to prepare and provide resources to pharmacists and other healthcare professionals, enabling them to carry out a critical analysis on drug abuse, acquiring knowledge in several areas that effectively contribute to their personal development in this professional field. Professionals play a crucial role in the reduction and prevention of substances abuse, since they are able to advise patient about illicit drugs, psychotropic medicines and alcohol abuse. There is an urgent need to specialize pharmacists to act in the national public health service and contribute to actions aimed at the surrounding community.Esse artigo tem o intuito de preparar e fornecer subsídios a farmacêuticos e outros profissionais de saúde a realizarem uma análise crítica sobre o abuso de drogas adquirindo conhecimento em diversas áreas que contribuam para o seu próprio desenvolvimento nesse campo de atuação. O profissional é fundamental na redução e prevenção ao abuso de substâncias, pois é capaz de aconselhar pacientes sobre o abuso de drogas ilícitas, medicamentos psicotrópicos e álcool. Há urgência na especialização de farmacêuticos para atuarem na saúde pública nacional contribuindo nas ações dirigidas à comunidade.

  1. A vidcasting project to promote the pharmacist's role in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seena L; Van Amburgh, Jenny A

    2010-08-10

    To develop, implement, and assess an Internet-based vidcasting project to promote the pharmacist's role in public health. This was a collaborative effort for 2 different courses taught at 2 different schools of pharmacy. Faculty members created a special instructional design for students to follow in planning, producing, and publishing video public service announcements on the Internet. Formative and summative assessments, including course examinations, a grading rubric, student survey, and focus group, were implemented to evaluate student learning and public reaction. Students believed Internet video public service announcements served as a useful reference for patients and professionals, aided in promoting disease prevention and wellness initiatives, positively impacted patient-provider relationships, and increased awareness regarding significance and financial impact of disease burden. Producing a public health information video and vidcasting it on the Internet increased pharmacy students' self-esteem, respect for peers, creative and critical-thinking abilities, and understanding of the need for and importance of pharmacists providing accurate public health information.

  2. The perceptions of pharmacists in Victoria, Australia on pharmacogenetics and its implications

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    McMahon T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore how well Victorian pharmacists perceived they understood pharmacogenetics, their perceived capacity to counsel a patient about such testing, how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession, and to investigate the ways in which Victorian pharmacists would like to be educated about pharmacogenetics.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was dispatched to 800 Victorian pharmacists. The participants were randomly selected and the survey was anonymous. The survey contained questions about where the pharmacists worked, the pharmacists’ perceived knowledge of pharmacogenetics, how well they believed they would be able to counsel patients about pharmacogenetic testing, how they thought pharmacists should be educated on the topic and how they believed pharmacogenetics would impact upon their profession.Results: 291 surveys were returned (36% response rate. Results suggest that Victorian pharmacists generally perceived they had a poor understanding of pharmacogenetics and that those who have more recently graduated from tertiary education had a better perceived understanding than those who have been in the workforce for longer. Most pharmacists indicated that they did not believe that they could counsel a patient adequately about the results of a pharmacogenetic test. Regarding education about pharmacogenetics, participants suggested that this would be best delivered during tertiary studies, and as seminars and workshops forming part of their continuing professional development. Although some pharmacists were unsure how pharmacogenetics would affect their profession, many believed it would have a major impact upon their role as a pharmacist and lead to improved patient care. Some concerns about the implementation of pharmacogenetics were noted, including economic and ethical issues.Conclusion: This study highlights the need for further research across the pharmacy profession in Australia on the

  3. Is there a role for pharmacists in multidisciplinary health-care teams at community outreach events for the homeless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincent; Patounas, Marea; Dornbusch, Debbie; Tran, Hung; Watson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness is a significant public health problem. It is well-documented that people experiencing homelessness exhibit more serious illnesses and have poorer health than the general population. The provision of services and interventions by health-care professionals, including pharmacists, may make a simple yet important contribution to improved health outcomes in those experiencing homelessness, but evidence of roles and interventions is limited and variable. In Australia, the Queensland University of Technology Health Clinic connects with the homeless community by taking part in community outreach events. This paper provides details of one such event, as well as the roles, interventions and experiences of pharmacists. Participation and inclusion of pharmacists in a multidisciplinary health-care team approach at homeless outreach events should be supported and encouraged.

  4. Exploring consumer and pharmacist views on the professional role of the pharmacist with respect to natural health products: a study of focus groups

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    Heschuk Shirley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural health products (NHPs such as herbs, vitamins and homeopathic medicines, are currently available for sale in most Canadian pharmacies. However, most pharmacists report that they have limited knowledge about these products which have been regulated in Canada as a specific sub-category of drugs. In this paper, consumers' and practicing pharmacists' perceptions of pharmacists' professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs are examined. Methods A total of 16 focus groups were conducted with consumers (n = 50 and pharmacists (n = 47 from four different cities across Canada (Vancouver, Edmonton, Toronto, and Halifax. Results In this paper, we illustrate the ways in which pharmacists' professional responsibilities are impacted by changing consumer needs. Many consumers in the study utilized a wide range of information resources that may or may not have included pharmacists. Nevertheless, the majority of consumers and pharmacists agreed that pharmacists should be knowledgeable about NHPs and felt that pharmacists should be able to manage drug-NHPs interactions as well as identify and evaluate the variety of information available to help consumers make informed decisions. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that consumers' expectations and behaviour significantly impact pharmacists' perceptions of their professional responsibilities with respect to NHPs.

  5. The Role of Ambulatory Care Pharmacists in an HIV Multidisciplinary Team within a Free and Bilingual Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Fugit, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the role and integration of ambulatory care pharmacists in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV clinic within a free and bilingual clinic with regards to types of interventions made during the patient-pharmacist visit. Design: Retrospective, single-centered, chart review. Setting: Free, bilingual clinic in Richmond, VA. Participants: Thirty-two adult patients with diagnosed HIV receiving care in the clinic between June 30, 2010 and January 26, 2011. Main Outcome Measure: Types of interventions documented during the patient-pharmacist visit, categorized as medication review, patient education, or adherence monitoring. Results: Total of 32 patients accounted for 55 patient-pharmacist visits and 296 interventions. The most common interventions were medication review (66.9%, patient education (23.3%, and adherence monitoring (9.8%. Post-hoc analysis suggests Hispanic patients are more likely to be diagnosed with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS (P = 0.01, have current or history of opportunistic infection (OI (P=0.01, and have current or history of OI prophylaxis (P = 0.03. Adherence monitoring was less common amongst the non-Hispanics (7.1% compared to the Hispanic sub-population (16.5%, (P = 0.04. Conclusion: The role of ambulatory care pharmacists in a free and bilingual clinic goes beyond adherence monitoring. Pharmacists can be a valuable part of the patient care team by providing medication review and patient education for HIV and other co-morbidities within free clinics. Further research is warranted to assess outcomes and to further explore the underlying barriers to early HIV diagnosis and adherence within the Hispanic population.

  6. The Role of Ambulatory Care Pharmacists in an HIV Multidisciplinary Team within a Free and Bilingual Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha S Vanmali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the role and integration of ambulatory care pharmacists in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV clinic within a free and bilingual clinic with regards to types of interventions made during the patient-pharmacist visit. Design: Retrospective, single-centered, chart review. Setting: Free, bilingual clinic in Richmond, VA. Participants: Thirty-two adult patients with diagnosed HIV receiving care in the clinic between June 30, 2010 and January 26, 2011. Main Outcome Measure: Types of interventions documented during the patient-pharmacist visit, categorized as medication review, patient education, or adherence monitoring. Results: Total of 32 patients accounted for 55 patient-pharmacist visits and 296 interventions. The most common interventions were medication review (66.9%, patient education (23.3%, and adherence monitoring (9.8%. Post-hoc analysis suggests Hispanic patients are more likely to be diagnosed with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS (P = 0.01, have current or history of opportunistic infection (OI (P=0.01, and have current or history of OI prophylaxis (P = 0.03. Adherence monitoring was less common amongst the non-Hispanics (7.1% compared to the Hispanic sub-population (16.5%, (P = 0.04. Conclusion: The role of ambulatory care pharmacists in a free and bilingual clinic goes beyond adherence monitoring. Pharmacists can be a valuable part of the patient care team by providing medication review and patient education for HIV and other co-morbidities within free clinics. Further research is warranted to assess outcomes and to further explore the underlying barriers to early HIV diagnosis and adherence within the Hispanic population.   Type: Original Research

  7. Seven star pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Galea, Gauden

    2007-01-01

    The seven star pharmacist is care-giver, decision-maker, communicator, manager, life-long-learner, teacher and leader.1 Implicit in these roles is that of health promoter. The pharmacist’s continuing relationship with the client, the community-based practice, and multiple entry points for counselling make the pharmacist a leader in health care.

  8. Role of the Pharmacist in Medication Therapy Management Services in Patients With Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Menezes, Megan

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to review and summarize clinical trial data, updated guidelines, and expert opinions on the recommendations for drug holidays in patients being treated for osteoporosis. Three unique PubMed searches using the terms osteoporosis drug holiday, osteoporosis discontinuation, and osteoporosis extension produced 149 articles, of which 16 with relevance to postmenopausal osteoporosis and treatment discontinuation were selected. A separate search of 6 national societies with interest in the treatment of osteoporosis produced 2 guideline statements with specific mention of therapy duration. No pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis should be considered indefinite. After 3 to 5 years of therapy, a comprehensive patient assessment of individualized risk for fracture should occur. In patients who are at mild to moderate risk for fracture after initial treatment, therapy with a bisphosphonate may be discontinued, whereas patients who remain at high risk for fracture should continue therapy. Although discontinuation with bisphosphonate agents may be appropriate due to mechanism of action and expected residual effects, which may last several years after discontinuation, discontinuation of shorter-acting agents (nonbisphosphonate agents) will result in a rapid reversal of therapeutic benefits and may not be appropriate. Patients who undergo a drug holiday should be monitored and reassessed for re-initiation of therapy. Caution should be employed by readers generalizing results to male patients with osteoporosis as pivotal trial data are limited to postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Pharmacists play a crucial role in ensuring that patients achieve optimal therapeutic outcomes. This achievement is partly accomplished through medication-adherence monitoring and education. Most chronic disease states require that patients remain on therapy, even when asymptomatic, for an indefinite period to meet and maintain therapeutic goals. To improve health-related outcomes

  9. Pharmacist Contributions to the U.S. Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The overall goal for this study was to conduct a segment analysis of the pharmacist workforce during 2009 based upon time spent in medication providing and in patient care services. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from the 2009 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey in which a random sample of 3,000 pharmacists was selected. Cluster analysis was used for identifying pharmacist segments and descriptive statistics were used for describing and comparing segments.Results: Of the 2,667 surveys that were presumed to be delivered to a pharmacist, 1,395 were returned yielding a 52.3% overall response rate. Of these, 1,200 responses were usable for cluster analysis. Findings from this study revealed five segments ofpharmacists: (1 Medication Providers, (2 Medication Providers who also Provide Patient Care, (3 Other Activity Pharmacists, (4 Patient Care Providers Who also Provide Medication, and (5 Patient Care Providers. The results showed that, in 2009, 41% of U.S. pharmacists were devoted wholly to medication providing (Medication Providers. Forty-three percent of pharmacists contributed significantly to patient care service provision (Medication Providers who also Provide Patient Care, Patient Care Providers who also Provide Medication, and Patient Care Providers and the remaining 16% (Other Activity Pharmacists contributed most of their time to business / organization management, research, education, and other health-system improvement activities. Conclusions: Based on the findings, we propose that the pharmacy profession currently has, and will continue to build, capacity for contributing to the U.S. health care system in new roles for which they have been identified. However, as shifts in professional roles occur, a great deal of capacity is required related to new service provision. Resources are scarce, so an understanding of the most appropriate timing for making such changes can lead to cost-effective use of limited

  10. Who do you think you are? Pharmacists' perceptions of their professional identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvey, Rebecca; Hassell, Karen; Hall, Jason

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pharmacists' perceptions of their professional identity, both in terms of how they see themselves and how they think others view their profession. A qualitative study was undertaken, using group and individual interviews with pharmacists employed in the community, hospital and primary care sectors of the profession in England. The data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using the framework method. Forty-three pharmacists took part in interviews. A number of elements help determine the professional identities of pharmacists, including attributes (knowledge and skills), personal traits (aptitudes, demeanour) and orientations (preferences) relating to pharmacists' work. The study identified the presence of nine identities for pharmacists: the scientist, the medicines adviser, the clinical practitioner, the social carer, the medicines maker, the medicines supplier, the manager, the business person and the unremarkable character. While the scientist was the strongest professional identity to emerge it nevertheless seemed to overlap and compete with other professional identities, such as that of the medicines maker. The relatively high number of identities may reflect some degree of role ambiguity and lack of clear direction and ownership of what makes pharmacists unique, but also suggests a flexible view of their role. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Addiction Counseling Accreditation: CACREP's Role in Solidifying the Counseling Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Culbreth, Jack R.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs' (CACREP) role in furthering the specialty of addiction counseling. After sharing a brief history and the role of counselor certification and licensure, the authors share the process whereby CACREP developed the first set of…

  12. Role of community pharmacists in the detection of potentially inappropriate benzodiazepines prescriptions for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urru, Silvana Anna Maria; Pasina, Luca; Minghetti, Paola; Giua, Corrado

    2015-12-01

    The appropriate management of chronic insomnia is crucial and prescribing of hypnotic drugs is common. Regular and prolonged use of hypnotics should be avoided because of the risk of tolerance to effects, dependence and an increased risk of adverse events. In 2012, updated Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication in older adults suggested to avoid all benzodiazepines in older adults to treat insomnia. In addition, successful discontinuation may result in improvements on cognitive and psychomotor function, particularly in older people. To investigate the appropriateness of benzodiazepines prescription for insomnia and explore the role that community pharmacists can have in identifying signals of potential inappropriate drug prescriptions. Community pharmacies in Italy. This is an observational study conducted in 8 community pharmacies. Each pharmacist was asked to interview a sample of patients with the prescriptions of at least one benzodiazepine and to complete a minimum data set collecting information about socio-demographic characteristics, drug indication, duration of drug prescription, number of hypnotic-drugs, previous attempt to drug-discontinuation, preference of patients about benzodiazepine withdrawal and modality of drug tapering. Main outcome measure Indications, treatment duration, dosage and drug discontinuation attempts and modalities. A total of 181 participants were interviewed. About half of respondents (n = 81) reported to be treated for insomnia and 62 % were elderly (mean age 68, range 27-93). Fifty-two patients (64 %) were on long term treatment (>3 years) while for thirteen patients (16 %) duration of treatment was comprised between 1 and 3 years. Thirty-three patients were in favour of benzodiazepine-discontinuation but in all cases discontinuation was unsuccessful. Use of community pharmacy survey data allowed us to obtain information about incorrect management of insomnia and inappropriate benzodiazepines prescriptions

  13. Role of community pharmacists in providing oral health advice in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Al-Saleh

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Community pharmacists are approached frequently for oral healthcare advices. Majority of them had no oral health training. Almost all of them were willing to provide oral health information in the community. It is essential to provide continuous oral health education to the pharmacists to better serve oral health needs of the community.

  14. The roles of community pharmacists in cardiovascular disease prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence in the international literature forpharmacist involvement in the prevention and managementof cardiovascular disease (CVD conditions in primary care.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed thesignificant clinical benefits of pharmacist interventions for arange of CVD conditions and risk factors. Evidence generatedin research studies of Australian community pharmacistinvolvement in CVD prevention and management issummarised in this article.Commonwealth funding through the Community PharmacyAgreements has facilitated research to establish the feasibilityand effectiveness of new models of primary care involvingcommunity pharmacists. Australian community pharmacistshave been shown to effect positive clinical, humanistic andeconomic outcomes in patients with CVD conditions.Improvements in blood pressure, lipid levels, medicationadherence and CVD risk have been demonstrated usingdifferent study designs. Satisfaction for GPs, pharmacists andconsumers has also been reported. Perceived ‘turf’encroachment, expertise of the pharmacist, space, time andremuneration are challenges to the implementation of diseasemanagement services involving community pharmacists.

  15. Public's perception and satisfaction on the roles and services provided by pharmacists - Cross sectional survey in Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jimmy; Al Shukili, Marwa Nasser; Jimmy, Beena

    2015-11-01

    An important factor that will help in advancement of the pharmacy services in any country would be to understand the public needs, expectation and satisfaction. There are limited published studies conducted in Sultanate of Oman regarding the perception and satisfaction of public on the role and services provided by pharmacists. The present study was conducted to assess the perception and satisfaction of general public in Sultanate of Oman on the roles, and services received from the pharmacists. The survey was conducted among public in the Governorates of A'Dahera and Muscat in Oman during 2013. The questionnaire had items to assess two aspects: perception on the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists and satisfaction on the services provided. The responses to the questions marked in a five point Likert scale were assessed using a scoring scheme. Accordingly, the median perception, and satisfaction score and median total score for the participants were estimated. The median scores of the participants were related with the demographics of the participants and frequency of visit to pharmacy. A total of 390 completed questionnaires were obtained. The median total score of the participants based on all the questions was 79 (Inter Quartile Range (IQR), 12) which represents a moderate score. The median perception and satisfaction scores were 44 (IQR 5) and 34 (IQR 7) which represent a good and moderate score, respectively. Perception of the participants differed based on employment status, frequency of visit to pharmacy and governorate represented by participants while satisfaction was influenced by educational qualification and frequency of visit to pharmacy. Public had a good perception regarding the roles of the pharmacists while they were only moderately satisfied with the services provided. Steps have to be taken to improve the services and relationship of pharmacists, and thereby improve the satisfaction of the customers. An extended study in a broader

  16. Personality and Attitude towards Teaching Profession: Mediating Role of Self Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstüner, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine the correlation between the five factor personality traits of pre-service teachers and their attitudes towards the teaching profession and to test the mediating role of the pre-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. The study population included pre-service teachers that attended the…

  17. [The role of the pharmacist in the management of the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihira, Kenji

    2012-03-01

    Pharmacy services have traditionally consisted of dispensing, provision of drug information and inventory management practices. Pharmacist's impact on the implementation of medication safety standards, drug therapy optimization, and other clinical interventions has been adequately reviewed in settings of general wards and considered as standard practice; however, these activities in the operating room have not become the standard practice. In this article, we reviewed the clinical interventions by pharmacists working in the operating room. The five main duties or obligations required of the pharmacists are appropriate drug management, achieving medical economic benefits, mixing injectable drugs, risk management, and provision of drug information. The major information provided to physicians and nurses is on usage, dosage, stability, incompatibility, pharmacological effects and adverse effects. Physicians and nurses require the drug information provided by the pharmacist in the operating room. Furthermore, their requirement for the stationing of pharmacist is extremely high. It is suggested that these services might be quite important in optimizing drug therapy and preventing adverse effects. Additionally, pharmacist can contribute on rational use of drug, safety management, reduction of works of other medical staff, and also the medical economics through pharmaceutical care in operating room as well as in general wards. It is suggested that stationing pharmacists in the operating room might be indispensable for hospital administration in view of the medication safety and cost reduction.

  18. Role of the community pharmacist in emergency contraception counseling and delivery in the United States: current trends and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafie S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sally Rafie,1 Rebecca H Stone,2 Tracey A Wilkinson,3 Laura M Borgelt,4,5 Shareen Y El-Ibiary,6 Denise Ragland7 1Department of Pharmacy, UC San Diego Health, San Diego, CA, 2Department of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy, University of Georgia, College of Pharmacy, Athens, GA, 3Children’s Health Services Research, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 5Department of Family Medicine, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, 6Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, 7Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA Abstract: Women and couples continue to experience unintended pregnancies at high rates. In the US, 45% of all pregnancies are either mistimed or unwanted. Mishaps with contraceptives, such as condom breakage, missed pills, incorrect timing of patch or vaginal ring application, contraceptive nonuse, forced intercourse, and other circumstances, place women at risk of unintended pregnancy. There is a critical role for emergency contraception (EC in preventing those pregnancies. There are currently three methods of EC available in the US. Levonorgestrel EC pills have been available with a prescription for over 15 years and over-the-counter since 2013. In 2010, ulipristal acetate EC pills became available with a prescription. Finally, the copper intrauterine device remains the most effective form of EC. Use of EC is increasing over time, due to wider availability and accessibility of EC methods. One strategy to expand access for both prescription and nonprescription EC products is to include pharmacies as a point of access and allow pharmacist prescribing. In eight states, pharmacists are able to prescribe and provide EC directly to women: levonorgestrel EC in eight states and ulipristal

  19. Psychiatry and terrorism: the profession's role in disaster response planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Siegel, Everett R; Heitt, Michael C; Kaminsky, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    While America wages the "war" on terrorism and endeavors to protect the physical safety of its citizens, it is imperative to plan for the population's mental health needs in future terrorist/disaster scenarios. The importance of psychiatry's potential role in preparing the community for the psychological impact of terrorism is underscored against the historical backdrop of the field being "carved out" from the organization, delivery, and financing of health services in our society. A practical framework is offered for designing an organization's mental health disaster plan, including recommendations for strategic infrastructure and tactical response capabilities. Finally, the unique features of clinical practice with disaster victims are noted, including intra-clinician conflicts between professional/community interests and personal/family obligations during acute disaster events.

  20. The role of clinical decision support in pharmacist response to drug-interaction alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Steinmetz Pater, Karen; Corman, Shelby

    2015-01-01

    With over 100,000 different types of drug-drug interactions health care professionals rely heavily on automated drug-interaction alerts. Substantial variance in drug-interaction alerts yields opportunities for the use of clinical decision support (CDS) as a potential benefit to pharmacists. The purpose of this research was to determine whether decision support during dispensing impacts pharmacist response to drug-interaction alerts. A brief survey was administered to pharmacists in the community consisting of three patient cases, each containing three drug-drug interactions of varying severity. For each interaction, pharmacists were asked how they would respond, one group of pharmacists was randomly assigned to receive CDS while the other group did not. There were no significant differences in pharmacist response to alerts between the two groups. The control group did appear to be more likely to consult a drug reference, but this difference was not significant. While this study did not demonstrate a significant difference, drug-interaction alerts are still an area where improvements could be made. Advancements have the potential to reduce risk to patients and limit unnecessary hospital admissions. This study suggests that this level of clinical decision support has limited impact, but may prove beneficial by reducing the need to consult additional references. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  2. The importance of pharmacist providing patient education in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Mia; Williams, Felecia

    2015-02-01

    The world's increasing diversity requires health care professionals to adjust delivery methods of teaching to accommodate different cultural values and beliefs. The ability to communicate effectively across languages and various cultural practices directly affects patient education outcomes. Pharmacist should be aware of varying modalities and considerations when counseling a patient diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy. In more recent years, the medical profession has seen an increase in patient outcomes due to using the multidisciplinary team approach and has benefited by implementing Medication Therapy Management (MTM) programs at various institutions. For the clinical pharmacist, this would mean documentation for these services should be precise and accurate based on the specific patients needs. There are several factors involved in the care and therapy of the patient with cancer. Clinical oncology pharmacist should be aware of the ever-changing role in oncology and be able to implement new practices at their facility for better patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The Role of Government and Lobbying in the Creation of a Health Profession: The Legal Foundations of Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The state and federal governments, along with private industry, play an important role in the development of a health profession. State governments establish training standards through licensure laws, and state programs dictate employment and payment opportunities. The federal government unifies a profession through recognition in national health…

  4. How physician and community pharmacist perceptions of the community pharmacist role in Australian primary care influence the quality of collaborative chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Allison; Pettigrew, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists (CPs) have been changing their role to focus on patient-centred services to improve the quality of chronic disease management (CDM) in primary care. However, CPs have not been readily included in collaborative CDM with other primary care professionals such as physicians. There is little understanding of the CP role change and whether it affects the utilisation of CPs in primary care collaborative CDM. To explore physician and CP perceptions of the CP's role in Australian primary care and how these perceptions may influence the quality of physician/CP CDM programmes. Data were collected from physicians and CPs using semi-structured interviews. A qualitative methodology utilising thematic analysis was employed during data analysis. Qualitative methodology trustworthiness techniques, negative case analysis and member checking were utilised to substantiate the resultant themes. A total of 22 physicians and 22 CPs were interviewed. Strong themes emerged regarding the participant perceptions of the CP's CDM role in primary care. The majority of interviewed physicians perceived that CPs did not have the appropriate CDM knowledge to complement physician knowledge to provide improved CDM compared with what they could provide on their own. Most of the interviewed CPs expressed a willingness and capability to undertake CDM; however, they were struggling to provide sustainable CDM in the business setting within which they function in the primary care environment. Role theory was selected as it provided the optimum explanation of the resultant themes. First, physician lack of confidence in the appropriateness of CP CDM knowledge causes physicians to be confused about the role CPs would undertake in a collaborative CDM that would benefit the physicians and their patients. Thus, by increasing physician awareness of CP CDM knowledge, physicians may see CPs as suitable CDM collaborators. Second, CPs are experiencing role conflict and stress in trying to change

  5. [The Role of Nursing Education in the Advancement of the Nursing Profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Yeh, Mei

    2017-02-01

    The present article discusses the role of nursing education in the advancement of the nursing profession in the context of the three facets of knowledge: generation, dissemination, and application. Nursing is an applied science and the application of knowledge in practice is the ultimate goal of the nursing profession. The reform of the healthcare delivery model requires that nurses acquire and utilize evidence-based clinical knowledge, critical thinking, effective communication, and team collaboration skills in order to ensure the quality of patient care and safety. Therefore, baccalaureate education has become the minimal requirement for pre-licensure nursing education. Schools of nursing are responsible to cultivate competent nurses to respond to the demands on the nursing workforce from the healthcare system. Attaining a master's education in nursing helps cultivate Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) to further expand the roles and functions of the nursing profession in order to promote the quality of care in clinical practice. Nursing faculty and scholars of higher education institutions generate nursing knowledge and develop professional scholarship through research. Attaining a doctoral education in nursing cultivates faculties and scholars who will continually generate and disseminate nursing knowledge into the future.

  6. Safety learning among young newly employed in three trades – the role of the profession?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grytnes, Regine; Dyreborg, Johnny; Jørgensen, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    is not achieved through information and campaigns alone; it also involves practical training and mentorship at the specific work place. In this paper an analysis of how induction practices relates to safety learning in three different trades is pursued focusing especially on the role of the professions...... in relation to safety learning. Theoretical perspective Formalized safety induction practices are defined by canonical as well as non-canonical elements, such as formalized training courses and practical job training. Learning safe practice is understood as an activity, as a form of 'knowing...... and aesthetic practice (Gherardi & Perrotta, 2010). In this paper the term 'profession' covers both skilled and unskilled work. Methods This paper is based on comparative case analysis of induction practices for young workers in elderly care, the metal industry and retail (grocery stores/ supermarkets). Each...

  7. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  8. Role of the pharmacist in achieving performance measures to improve the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesh, Paul P; Trujillo, Toby C; Finks, Shannon W

    2013-06-01

    Current prescribing practices for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis and treatment are suboptimal, particularly regarding the use of appropriate prophylaxis in accordance with evidence-based guidelines. Failure to prevent avoidable VTE is associated with a substantial clinical and economic burden, due not only to the initial event, but also to VTE recurrence and long-term sequelae. Quality improvement initiatives such as the Surgical Care Improvement Project, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the National Quality Forum, and The Joint Commission have developed performance measures to address the shortfall and improve adherence with best-practice recommendations. Several studies have highlighted the benefits of pharmacist-led anticoagulation services for reducing the occurrence of VTE and bleeding complications while reducing excess hospitalization and health care costs. By assuming responsibility for anticoagulation management, pharmacists can ensure that at-risk patients receive the correct drug at the correct dose for the correct duration, from initial presentation to outpatient follow-up. Increasing continuity of care in this manner will ultimately improve patient outcomes and reduce costs. Pharmacists can also play a key role in helping hospitals achieve performance measures by aiding in the development and implementation of local VTE guidelines, policies, and other quality improvement initiatives; by helping to establish critical pathways with protocols; and by providing valuable education for other health care professionals and patients alike. Pharmacists are in an ideal position to facilitate achievement of VTE-related performance measures and can thus substantially contribute to the much-needed improvement in current VTE prevention and care. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  9. Glycemic control in the infectious diseases ward; role of clinical pharmacist interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsaei, Shadi; Karimzadeh, Iman; Elyasi, Sepideh; Hatamkhani, Shima; Khalili, Hossein

    2014-04-15

    Hyperglycemia is one of the most frequent metabolic complications in hospitalized patients. Increased risk of infection following hyperglycemia has been reported in hospitalized patients and infections may also cause insulin resistance which complicates the control of blood glucose level. In this study the impact of the clinical pharmacist interventions on the glycemic control in patients admitted to infectious diseases ward has been evaluated. We conducted a prospective, pre-post interventional study among patients with hyperglycemia. The clinical pharmacist-led multidisciplinary team managed the glycemic profile of patients according to an established insulin protocol commonly used in internal wards. Clinical pharmacists reviewed patients' medical charts for proper insulin administration, evaluated nurses' technique for insulin injection and blood glucose measurement, and educated patients about symptoms of hypoglycemia and the importance of adherence to different aspects of their glycemic management. The percentage of controlled random blood sugar increased from 13.8% in the pre-intervention to 22.3% in the post-intervention group (p value fasting blood sugars in the post-intervention group was non-significantly higher than in the pre-intervention group. Pharmacists and additional health care providers from other departments such as nursing and dietary departments need to be devoted to glycemic control service. Collaborative practice agreement between physicians is necessary to promote this service and help to increase the use of such services in different settings for diabetes control.

  10. Pharmacists' advancing roles in drug and disease management: a review of states' legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Alicia G; Thomason, Angela R

    2009-01-01

    To determine which states in the United States have provisions in place for pharmacist participation in drug and disease management programs and/or collaborative practice agreements and to provide comparison and discussion regarding such provisions. A secondary endpoint was the requirements of certification, credentialing, and registration with the specific state's rules and regulations. Information was gathered from states' statutes, rules, and regulations. Acquisition of each state's laws was achieved through various forms of electronic media. Data were accessed from January to March 2008. 19 states (38%) had specific provisions for disease management, 33 (66%) had provisions for drug therapy management, and 37 (74%) had provisions for collaborative practice. A total of 11 states (22%) specified that pharmacists receive specialized training to participate in such endeavors. Board approval or notification for collaborative practice agreements was required in 16 states (32%). With varying degrees of autonomy and restriction, pharmacists in certain states have the ability to develop disease management and/or collaborative practice programs. For pharmacists to take advantage of these new direct patient care opportunities, knowing the rules and requirements of their state's legislation is essential.

  11. Views of general practitioners and pharmacists on the role of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses were grouped into two categories, dispensing and advice and testing and treatment. Both groups agreed about the dispensing and advice category. Of the general practitioners surveyed, 95.5% agreed that pharmacists should counsel patients on the correct use of medications and 100% agreed that the ...

  12. Role of the pharmacist in delivering point-of-care therapy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-four (85%) recommendations were accepted. Vitamin K and amiodarone influenced INR readings. Thirty-six patients (60%) were discharged with stable INR values, 25% due to recommendations made by the pharmacist. Eight (13%) were discharged with unstable INR's with recommendations not followed or too early ...

  13. Relationship between performance barriers and pharmacist competency towards the implementation of an expanded public health pharmacy role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathialagan, Amuthaganesh; Nagalinggam, Preesha; Mathialagan, Saravanabavan; Kirby, Brian P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between performance barriers and competency, and implementation of an expanded public health role for community pharmacists. A validated questionnaire was utilised for this study whereby three variables of the study (performance barriers, competency and public health role) were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed to target respondents of registered community pharmacies in five states (Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Perak and Penang) in Malaysia. The data were analysed utilising the principles of structural equation modelling. There were 191 completed and usable responses received, which represented a 66.7% response rate. This study showed perceived competency had a direct relationship with delivering a general public health role. A perceived lack of competency was shown to be a barrier to fulfilling a public health role. However, other factors, such as design of premises, IT infrastructure and pay, were not viewed as barriers to carrying out a public health role. Perceived competency is an obstacle for community pharmacists to undertake a public health role in Malaysia. Adequate training programmes in pharmaceutical public health have to be put in place to address this concern and this should therefore be a priority. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Working Definitions of the Roles and an Organizational Structure in Health Professions Education Scholarship: Initiating an International Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varpio, L.; Gruppen, L.; Hu, W.; O'Brien, B.; Cate, O. Ten; Humphrey-Murto, S.; Irby, D.M.; Vleuten, C. van der; Hamstra, S.J.; Durning, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    PROBLEM: Health professions education scholarship (HPES) is an important and growing field of inquiry. Problematically, consistent use of terminology regarding the individual roles and organizational structures that are active in this field are lacking. This inconsistency impedes the transferability

  15. Factors Influencing Participation in Continuing Professional Development : A Focus on Motivation Among Pharmacists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; de Boer, Anthonius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Croiset, Gerda; Koster, Andries S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070975558; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The interest in continuing education (CE) for pharmacists has increased because of patient safety issues, advancing science and the quick changes in the profession. Therefore, contemporary pharmaceutical care requires an effective and sustainable system for pharmacists to maintain and

  16. The role of clinical pharmacist to improve medication administration through enteral feeding tubes by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin; Badri, Shirinsadat; Eftekharzadeh, Seyedeh-Zahra; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Khalili, Hossein

    2012-10-01

    As a common practice, medications are given in addition to nutrients through enteral catheters especially in critically ill patients. Nurses are primarily responsible to administer medications in this manner. The correct drug delivery via enteral tubes requires special skills. This study was designed to evaluate effectiveness of clinical pharmacist-led educational program in progressing nurses' knowledge and practice regarding medications delivery via enteral catheters. This study has been performed in two teaching hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This is a case-control, interventional study. At first, a knowledge and practice questionnaire regarding drug administration trough enteral feeding tube by intensivist nurses was prepared. This questionnaire was filled by each nurse at pre-intervention phase of the study. Then, the clinical pharmacists provided educational programs including preparing evidence-based booklet and classes for case group nurses. Nurses in case and control groups were evaluated again after 3 months. At pre- and post-intervention phases nurses were observed regarding their practice to administer drugs via enteral tubes as well. Mean scores of knowledge and practice questions as well as percent of nurses with correct answers were compared between pre- and post-intervention phases in case and control groups. The mean scores of knowledge and practice questions significantly increased in the case group but decreased or remained unchanged in the control group. In contrast to control group, the percent of nurses with correct answers to each domain of knowledge and practice questions increased significantly in the case group. This study showed that nurses did not have sufficient baseline knowledge about rules of drug administration via enteral feeding tubes; however, integrated educational program by clinical pharmacists that focus on promoting correct administration of drugs via enteral feeding catheters significantly

  17. Consumer, physician, and payer perspectives on primary care medication management services with a shared resource pharmacists network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marie; Cannon-Breland, Michelle L; Spiggle, Susan

    2014-01-01

    care and/or prevented adverse drug events, and the services were cost neutral (at a minimum). It was difficult for most consumers and physicians to envision pharmacists practicing in non-dispensing roles. The pharmacy profession must disseminate the existing body of evidence on pharmacists as care providers of medication management services and the related impact on clinical outcomes, patient safety, and cost savings to external audiences. Without such, new pharmacist practice models may have limited acceptance by consumers, primary care physicians, and payers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. What is the role of the pharmacist?: physicians' and nurses' perspectives in community and hospital settings of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niurka María Dupotey Varela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to understand the perceptions and expectations of the other health care professionals about pharmacists' role in primary health care centers and hospitals in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, applying a self-administered questionnaire to health care professionals. The sample included 763 professionals (40.9% physicians and 59.1 % nurses from hospitals and primary health care clinics, chosen by random stratified sampling,. The most common activity performed by pharmacists was the distribution of medications or the drug supply management (51.5% and adverse drug reactions reporting (29.4%, activities performed daily by pharmacists. Pharmaceutical care practice was considered as poor by the professionals, and only 15.6% of them have collaborated in these programs in the past. For nurses and physicians, interprofessional communication occurs sometimes (56.9% and never (25.8%. Pharmacists' integration into the health team was considered as fair (50.7%. A total of 70.1% perceived the pharmacist as a drug expert and 60.1% as a professional who provides medication counseling. The main expectations these health care professionals expressed were that pharmacists provide more education about medication (97.4% and improve their interprofessional communication techniques in order to communicate more effectively with the other members of the health care team (96.6%.O presente trabalho analisa o papel do farmacêutico na atenção primária de saúde e em hospitais, na percepção de profissionais da saúde na província de Santiago de Cuba. Um estudo descritivo transversal foi conduzido, através da aplicação de um questionário autoadministrado a uma amostra de 763 profissionais de atenção primária e hospitalar, 40,9% de médicos e 59,1% de enfermeiros. As funções farmacêuticas mais reconhecidas pelos profissionais desta amostra foram o fornecimento e distribuição de medicamentos

  19. What role could community pharmacists in Malaysia play in diabetes self-management education and support? The views of individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Lyn; Wong, Pei Se; Tan, Ming Yeong; Sheridan, Janie

    2017-06-02

    This study explored the experiences and views of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on their diabetes self-management and potential roles for community pharmacists in diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) in Malaysia. A qualitative study, using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews, was conducted with patients with T2D attending a primary care health clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed inductively. Fourteen participants with T2D were interviewed. Data were coded into five main themes: experience and perception of diabetes self-management, constraints of the current healthcare system, perception of the community pharmacist and community pharmacies, perceived roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care, and challenges in utilising community pharmacies to provide DSME/S. There were misconceptions about diabetes management that may be attributed to a lack of knowledge. Although participants described potential roles for community pharmacists in education, medication review and continuity of care, these roles were mostly non-clinically oriented. Participants were not confident about community pharmacists making recommendations and changes to the prescribed treatment regimens. While participants recognised the advantages of convenience of a community pharmacy-based diabetes care service, they raised concerns over the retail nature and the community pharmacy environment for providing such services. This study highlighted the need to improve the care provision for people with T2D. Participants with T2D identified potential, but limited roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care. Participants expressed concerns that need to be addressed if effective diabetes care is to be provided from community pharmacies in Malaysia. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Improving the working relationship between doctors and pharmacists: is inter-professional education the answer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Ruth M

    2012-05-01

    Despite their common history, there are many cultural, attitudinal and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that ultimately influence patient care and health outcomes. While poor communication between doctors and pharmacists is a major cause of medical errors, it is clear that effective, deliberate doctor-pharmacist collaboration within certain clinical settings significantly improves patient care. This may be particularly true for those patients with chronic illnesses and\\/or requiring regular medication reviews. Moreover, in hospitals, clinical and antibiotic pharmacists are successfully influencing prescribing and infection control policy. Under the new Irish Pharmacy Act (2007), pharmacists are legally obliged to provide pharmaceutical care to their patients, thus fulfilling a more patient-centred role than their traditional \\'dispensing\\' one. However, meeting this obligation relies on the existence of good doctor-pharmacist working relationships, such that inter-disciplinary teamwork in monitoring patients becomes the norm in all healthcare settings. As discussed here, efforts to improve these relationships must focus on the strategic introduction of agreed changes in working practices between the two professions and on educational aspects of pharmaceutical care. For example, standardized education of doctors\\/medical students such that they learn to prescribe in an optimal manner and ongoing inter-professional education of doctors and pharmacists in therapeutics, are likely to be of paramount importance. Here, insights into the types of factors that help or hinder the improvement of these working relationships and the importance of education and agreed working practices in defining the separate but inter-dependent professions of pharmacy and medicine are reviewed and discussed.

  1. Eliciting comprehensive medication histories in the emergency department: the role of the pharmacist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crook M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Committee guidelines call for a detailed medication history to be taken at the first point of admission to hospital. Accurate medication histories are vital in optimising health outcomes and have been shown to reduce mortality rates. This study aimed to examine the accuracy of medication histories taken in the Emergency Department of the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Medication histories recorded by medical staff were compared to those elicited by a pharmacy researcher. The study, conducted over a six-week period, included 100 patients over the age of 70, who took five or more regular medications, had three or more clinical co-morbidities and/or had been discharged from hospital in three months prior to the study. Following patient interviews, the researcher contacted the patient’s pharmacist and GP for confirmation and completion of the medication history. Out of the 1152 medications recorded as being used by the 100 patients, discrepancies were found for 966 medications (83.9%. There were 563 (48.9% complete omissions of medications. The most common discrepancies were incomplete or omitted dosage and frequency information. Discrepancies were mostly medications that treated dermatological and ear, nose and throat disorders but approximately 29% were used to treat cardiovascular disorders. This study provides support for the presence of an Emergency Department pharmacist who can compile a comprehensive and accurate medication history to enhance medication management along the continuum of care. It is recommended that the patient’s community pharmacy and GP be contacted for clarification and confirmation of the medication history.

  2. Motivation for the teaching profession

    OpenAIRE

    Křížová, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    Anotace: The thesis "The motivation for the teaching profession" dealt with fundamental problems of motivation to the teaching profession. In the theoretical part, we have focused on general characteristics of terms that pertain to the teaching profession, particularly the theory of the teaching profession, the choice of the teaching profession, the phase of the teaching profession, teacher typology, the role of teacher training and professionalization of teachers, but also washed into the te...

  3. Identification of the role of the sports pharmacist with a model for the prediction of athletes' actions to cope with sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takumi; Horio, Ikuo; Aoki, Ryouta; Yamashita, Noboru; Tanaka, Mamoru; Izushi, Fumio; Miyauchi, Yoshirou; Araki, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Japan Anti-Doping Agency (JADA) established Sports Pharmacist-a system for certified pharmacists. There are many over-the-counter drugs that contain prohibited substances in Japan, and they are easily available. In Japan, most doping violations are committed when athletes unintentionally take prohibited substances. Therefore, the Sports Pharmacist has a vital role in promoting the prevention of doping. In the present study, surveys involving a total of 350 athletes, (including 260 representatives of Ehime Prefecture in the National Athletic Meets and 90 college students who participated in the intercollegiate athletics Shikoku area meets), on awareness regarding doping and medical drugs were conducted. Using correspondence and logistic regression analyses, the results were examined to develop a model for the prediction of athletes' actions to cope with sickness based on changes in their awareness of anti-doping, and the relationship between them was also analyzed. The survey results suggested that attitudes towards doping were strongly influenced by gender, rather than the athletic ability and whether or not a doping test is scheduled. Their behavior and criteria for the selection of drugs to address sickness were strongly correlated with awareness of anti-doping. Therefore, athletes with an increased awareness of anti-doping are expected to consult a pharmacist prior to using medicine. The Sports Pharmacist should further promote environmental development, such as activities to improve awareness of doping among young athletes and the establishment of medical drug consultation services for athletes (female athletes in particular).

  4. Bridging the gap: the role of pharmacists in managing the drug supply cycle within non-governmental organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorta-Linaza, Rocio

    2009-10-01

    Access to essential medicines remains one of the biggest problems that developing countries are facing in health care systems. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are implementing health programmes on the ground in areas affected by natural disasters or conflict. A vital component of these health programmes is the drug supply system. Based on a field research conducted in Pakistan 2007 and a field work experience in Afghanistan within an international NGO-Merlin-this paper analysed the four functions of the Drug Supply Cycle (Selection, Procurement, Distribution and Use) focusing attention on the importance in management support systems once the emergency phase is over. It shows the core role that the pharmacist plays within NGOs as a member of the health staff with the ability to improve the management of the Drug Supply Cycle. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. PERCEPTION OF PHARMACY STUDENTS AT PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN MALAYSIA TOWARDS THE ROLES OF PHARMACISTS IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nahlah E Ismail; Nur S Mohd Ismail; Wan N Wan Mahmood; Aishah Adam; Mohamed A Ahmad Hassali; Asrul A Shafie; Mohamad H Nik Mohamed; Shaharuddin Mohd; Eddy Yusuf; Ibrahim Abdullah; Zainun Kasim; Benny Efendie; Mirza R Baig

    2012-01-01

    Opportune careers in the pharmaceutical industries have given pharmacists vital responsibilities in making remarkable contributions to the development and delivery of medications to patients worldwide...

  6. Hospital pharmacists' roles and attitudes in providing information on the safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phueanpinit, Pacharaporn; Jarernsiripornkul, Narumol; Pongwecharak, Juraporn; Krska, Janet

    2014-12-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for patients to manage pain and inflammation, especially in older adults. Failure to cope with some adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of NSAIDs could lead to more serious symptoms, therefore, providing useful information about medicine is an important step in protecting patients from developing serious ADRs. The pharmacy service should be a frequent source of medicine information for patients, however in Thailand, little is known about pharmacists' provision of safety information to patients for management and prevention of these ADRs. Aims of this study were to determine Thai hospital pharmacists' roles in providing drug safety information and to assess their attitudes towards the importance of giving drug safety education to patients. All government hospitals in north-eastern Thailand. This study was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 761 pharmacists in 287 hospitals in north-eastern Thailand were selected by stratified random sampling. Self-administered questionnaires were sent by post, with two reminders. Proportion of hospital pharmacists providing ADR information on NSAIDs to patients, factors affecting this provision, and pharmacist attitudes towards drug safety education for patients. The response rate was 54.8% (N = 417), the majority of respondents worked in community hospitals (57.2%). A total of 347 pharmacists (83.6%) had informed patients about ADRs, although less than half had informed patients about ADR monitoring and management (36.6% and 44.1% respectively). The proportion of time spent in direct patient contact, type of hospital, and other routine work were associated with the frequency of drug safety information provision. Pharmacists had moderately good attitudinal scores towards drug safety education (62.2 ± 5.4), with significantly higher scores found in those who provided most ADR information to patients (60.3 ± 5.2 vs. 62.6 ± 5.4, P = 0.002). The majority (82.2%) agreed that

  7. Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Samuel B; Lapidus, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to "Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics," a 2004 survey of informatics programs. An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country. Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved. Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs. Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself.

  8. Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Samuel B.; Lapidus, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to “Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics,” a 2004 survey of informatics programs. Methods: An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country. Results: Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved. Conclusions: Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs. Implications: Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself. PMID:25552939

  9. Patient self-management and pharmacist-led patient self-management in Hong Kong: a focus group study from different healthcare professionals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona Y Y; Chan, Frank W K; You, Joyce H S; Wong, Eliza L Y; Yeoh, E K

    2011-05-24

    Patient self-management is a key approach to manage non-communicable diseases. A pharmacist-led approach in patient self-management means collaborative care between pharmacists and patients. However, the development of both patient self-management and role of pharmacists is limited in Hong Kong. The objectives of this study are to understand the perspectives of physicians, pharmacists, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners, and dispensers on self-management of patients with chronic conditions, in addition to exploring the possibilities of developing pharmacist-led patient self-management in Hong Kong. Participants were invited through the University as well as professional networks. Fifty-one participants comprised of physicians, pharmacists, TCM practitioners and dispensers participated in homogenous focus group discussions. Perspectives in patient self-management and pharmacist-led patient self-management were discussed. The discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed accordingly. The majority of the participants were in support of patients with stable chronic diseases engaging in self-management. Medication compliance, monitoring of disease parameters and complications, lifestyle modification and identifying situations to seek help from health professionals were generally agreed to be covered in patient self-management. All pharmacists believed that they had extended roles in addition to drug management but the other three professionals believed that pharmacists were drug experts only and could only play an assisting role. Physicians, TCM practitioners, and dispensers were concerned that pharmacist-led patient self-management could be hindered, due to unfamiliarity with the pharmacy profession, the perception of insufficient training in disease management, and lack of trust of patients. An effective chronic disease management model should involve patients in stable condition to participate in self-management in order to prevent health

  10. Why don't patients take their drugs? The role of communication, context and culture in patient adherence and the work of the pharmacist in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Watermeyer, Jennifer; Evans, Melanie

    2011-06-01

    This study examined facilitators and barriers to adherence in four South African antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic sites and explored context and communication factors in relation to the role of the pharmacist. Data were collected from interviews and narratives of patients and health professionals around the issues of adherence and qualitatively analysed using principles of Thematic Content Analysis. Findings confirm the complex interplay between illness, communication, sociocultural, economic, context and systemic issues. Analysis suggests adherence is multifaceted and reinforces the critical role of communication factors in achieving concordance between patient and pharmacist. Successful treatment of HIV/AIDS depends on pharmacists and healthcare teams understanding contextual and interactional factors which play a role in adherence. The findings reinforce the importance of embedding a patient-centred approach in the training and everyday practice of pharmacists. The value of qualitative methods in understanding barriers to adherence and the potential value of the cultural broker in intercultural settings is discussed. Some suggestions are made as to how adherence counselling can be made relevant and effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The pharmacist's role in overdose: Using mapping technologies to analyze naloxone and pharmacy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Allison; Ethun, Laken; Fawcett, Jaime Allen; Rickard-Aasen, Sherry; Williams, Karl; Kearney, Shannon M; Pringle, Janice L

    To present preliminary research using geographic information system (GIS) mapping as a tool that can be integrated into pharmacy practice to increase access to and utilization of pharmacy-based interventions, including the distribution of naloxone. Overdose death data was collected from medical examiner reports in an online database, and pharmacies carrying and distributing naloxone were determined by ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) in Allegheny County, PA. The distribution of overdose death rates was analyzed in relation to naloxone-carrying pharmacies and all licensed pharmacies in the county with the use of GIS mapping. Eighty-seven ZCTAs were included. Of 322 active licensed pharmacies, 28 pharmacies were confirmed to carry and distribute naloxone. The number of overdose deaths in ZCTAs that have naloxone-distributing pharmacies was significantly higher than the average number of deaths in all ZCTAs in Allegheny County: 7.38 deaths versus 4.84 deaths, respectively (P = 0.021). This report illustrates the value of GIS mapping in monitoring the impact of overdose death prevention efforts, including the availability of naloxone in pharmacies. Analysis of these data over the next 5 years will provide valuable information on the potential impact of naloxone-distributing pharmacies on overdose rates, which, in turn, will inform pharmacists and pharmacy organizations on the value of carrying naloxone in pharmacies and inform local communities of its availability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Pharmacists' perceptions of professionalism on social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Schaefer, Marion; Chaar, Betty; Aslani, Parisa

    Social networking sites (SNS) are a new venue for communication, and health care professionals, like the general population, are using them extensively. However, their behavior on SNS may influence public perceptions about their professionalism. This study explored how pharmacists separate professional and personal information and activities on SNS, their perceptions of professional behavior on SNS, and opinions on guidelines in this area. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with international practising pharmacists (n = 31) recruited from a range of countries (n = 9). Initially, pharmacists known to the research team were invited, and thereafter, participants were recruited using a snowballing technique. The interviews lasted from 30 to 120 min. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. A majority of participants mixed professional and personal information and activities on SNS, and about one third adopted a separation strategy where professional information and activities were clearly separated from personal ones (e.g. two different SNS accounts, or one particular SNS for professional use and another platform for personal purposes). Most participants expressed concern over how pharmacists present themselves and behave in SNS when they reported (un)professional behaviors of peers they had observed. Examples of perceived unprofessional behaviors included revealing details of personal life and activities; open complaints about the pharmacy sector, co-workers, physicians, and patients; inappropriate description of pharmacists' roles and activities; and breaches of patient confidentiality. Positive professional behaviors, such as expression of compassion for patients, examples of effective patient management, promotion of pharmacists' role, and correction of misleading health information being spread online were also observed. There was no consensus on having professional social media guidelines. Some preferred

  13. Public’s perception and satisfaction on the roles and services provided by pharmacists – Cross sectional survey in Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jimmy; Al Shukili, Marwa Nasser; Jimmy, Beena

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: An important factor that will help in advancement of the pharmacy services in any country would be to understand the public needs, expectation and satisfaction. There are limited published studies conducted in Sultanate of Oman regarding the perception and satisfaction of public on the role and services provided by pharmacists. The present study was conducted to assess the perception and satisfaction of general public in Sultanate of Oman on the roles, and services received from the pharmacists. Methods: The survey was conducted among public in the Governorates of A’Dahera and Muscat in Oman during 2013. The questionnaire had items to assess two aspects: perception on the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists and satisfaction on the services provided. The responses to the questions marked in a five point Likert scale were assessed using a scoring scheme. Accordingly, the median perception, and satisfaction score and median total score for the participants were estimated. The median scores of the participants were related with the demographics of the participants and frequency of visit to pharmacy. Results: A total of 390 completed questionnaires were obtained. The median total score of the participants based on all the questions was 79 (Inter Quartile Range (IQR), 12) which represents a moderate score. The median perception and satisfaction scores were 44 (IQR 5) and 34 (IQR 7) which represent a good and moderate score, respectively. Perception of the participants differed based on employment status, frequency of visit to pharmacy and governorate represented by participants while satisfaction was influenced by educational qualification and frequency of visit to pharmacy. Conclusions: Public had a good perception regarding the roles of the pharmacists while they were only moderately satisfied with the services provided. Steps have to be taken to improve the services and relationship of pharmacists, and thereby improve the

  14. Evaluating the impact of pharmacist health education on the perceptions of the pharmacist’s role among women living in a homeless shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the impact of pharmacist-provided educational seminars on the participant’s perception of the pharmacist’s role in providing women’s health education. Secondary objectives include the participant’s level of perceived benefit from the information provided during each presentation, as well as determining characteristics of participants who are interested in attending seminars. Methods: This is a prospective study conducted within a homeless women’s shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. Pharmacists and pharmacy students provided 10 monthly educational seminars on topics related to women’s health. Participants completed a pre- and post-seminar survey regarding their perceptions of the presentations and pharmacists. Results: Fifty-six participants attended at least one of 10 seminars from January to November 2014. The average age was 46 years old, taking approximately 3 medications, and 66% completed a high school degree or lower. Prior to the presentations, 30% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would seek advice from a pharmacist on the topic presented, which increased significantly to 82% of participants after the presentation (p<0.001. Similarly, 55% of participants rated themselves as agreeing or strongly agreeing with being knowledgeable on the topic presented prior to the presentation, and this increased significantly to 77% after the presentation (p=0.001. After attending the educational session, 70% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that they would make changes to their health, and that they would attend an additional session. The participants noted their increased learning about the topic, the clarity of visual aids and presentation, and knowledge of the presenters as the best parts of the presentation. Conclusion: Pharmacist’s participation in providing educational seminars in the homeless women’s population increases the participant’s knowledge and perception of the pharmacist

  15. Hospital-based health technology assessment for innovative medical devices in university hospitals and the role of hospital pharmacists: learning from international experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Nicolas; Lelong, Anne-Sophie; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith

    2013-04-01

    Several models of hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) have been developed worldwide, for the introduction of innovative medical devices and support evidence-based decision making in hospitals. Two such models, the HTA unit and mini-HTA models, are widespread in university hospitals and involve various stakeholders. The purpose of this work was to highlight the potential role of hospital pharmacists in hospital-based HTA activities. We searched for articles, reviews, and letters relating to hospital-based HTA, as defined by the Hospital-Based Health Technology Assessment Worldwide Survey published by the Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Society, in the Health Technology Assessment database, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and hospital pharmacy journals. The number of university hospitals performing hospital-based HTA has increased since the 2008 Hospital-Based Health Technology Assessment Worldwide Survey. Our own experience and international findings show that hospital pharmacists already contribute to hospital-based HTA activities and have developed study interpretation skills and a knowledge of medical devices. Promoting multidisciplinary approaches is one of the key success factors in hospital-based HTA. Hospital pharmacists occupy a position between hospital managers, clinicians, health economists, biomedical engineers, and patients and can provide a new perspective. In the future, hospital pharmacists are likely to become increasingly involved in hospital-based HTA activities.

  16. Collaboration and Teamwork in the Health Professions: Rethinking the Role of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichbaum, Quentin

    2017-11-14

    Whereas the business professions have long recognized that conflict can be a source of learning and innovation, the health professions still tend to view conflict negatively as being disruptive, inefficient, and unprofessional. As a consequence, the health professions tend to avoid conflict or resolve it quickly. This neglect to appreciate conflict's positive attributes appears to be driven in part by (1) individuals' fears about being negatively perceived and the potential negative consequences in an organization of being implicated in conflict, (2) constrained views and approaches to professionalism and to evaluation and assessment, and (3) lingering autocracies and hierarchies of power that view conflict as a disruptive threat.The author describes changing perspectives on collaboration and teamwork in the health professions, discusses how the health professions have neglected to appreciate the positive attributes of conflict, and presents three alternative approaches to more effectively integrating conflict into collaboration and teamwork in the health professions. These three approaches are (1) cultivating psychological safety on teams to make space for safe interpersonal risk taking, (2) viewing conflict as a source of expansive learning and innovation (via models such as activity theory), and (3) democratizing hierarchies of power through health humanities education ideally by advancing the health humanities to the core of the curriculum.The author suggests that understanding conflict's inevitability and its innovative potential, and integrating it into collaboration and teamwork, may have a reassuring and emancipating impact on individuals and teams. This may ultimately improve performance in health care organizations.

  17. Beyond vulnerability: how the dual role of patient-health care provider can inform health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Paula; Kuper, Ayelet

    2017-04-29

    In order to prepare fully competent health care professionals, health professions education must be concerned with the relational space between patients and providers. Compassion and compassionate care are fundamental elements of this relational space. Traditionally, health professions educators and leaders have gone to two narrative sources when attempting to better under constructs of compassion: patients or providers. Rarely have there been explorations of the perspectives of those who consider themselves as both patients and providers. In this study, we interviewed nineteen health care providers who self-disclosed as having had a substantive patient experience in the health care system. We engaged with these participants to better understand their experience of having these dual roles. Anchored in Foucault's concepts of subjectivity and Goffman's symbolic interactionism, the interviews in this study reveal practices of moving between the two roles of patient and provider. Through this exploration, we consider how it is that providers who have been patients understand themselves to be more compassionate whilst in their provider roles. Rather than describing compassion as a learnable behaviour or an innate virtue, we theoretically engage with one proposed mechanism of how compassion is produced. In particular, we highlight the role of critical reflexivity as an underexplored construct in the enactment of compassion. We discuss these findings in light of their implications for health professions education.

  18. How far is too far? Exploring the perceptions of the professions on their current and future roles in emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J; Crouch, R

    2008-06-01

    How far is too far? Recent government policy and demographic growth have led to role changes within the professions in emergency care. Healthcare professionals have extended and expanded their scopes of practice to include duties outside their traditional role boundary. Nurses in particular are able to see and treat patients more independently. These expanded roles mean there is growing overlap between professional roles and responsibilities and one wonders-how far is too far? Where should role expansion cease? The aim of this research was to explore the perceptions of the professions on their current and future roles in emergency care. A qualitative design, utilising semistructured interviews was employed. Eight respondents, including doctors and nurses of all grades, were purposefully sampled from an emergency department within a large UK teaching hospital. Content analysis revealed five key themes: role boundaries; driving forces; managing risk; training and future professional roles. Of genuine concern to the respondents was the lack of standardisation within the expansion of healthcare roles. In terms of "how far is too far", the respondents believed that greater clarification of training and scope of practice is required, enabling clinical roles to develop more consistently.

  19. Integrating or disintegrating effects of customised care: the role of professions beyond NPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liff, Roy; Andersson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the integrating and disintegrating effects of professional actions in customised care. Using a qualitative case study, the authors examine the work practices and cultures of three Swedish child and adolescent psychiatric care units (CAP) charged with providing customised care in collaboration with other organisations. The authors conducted 62 interviews, made 11 half-day observations, and shadowed employees for two days. The social embeddedness of action is crucial to understanding the professions' integrating/disintegrating activities. In the internal social context of CAP, the professions adapt to productivity-enhancing new public management (NPM) principles, resulting in integrating effects between the different professions and administrative management in the CAP units. However, CAP exercises professional dominance over the cooperating organisations. Thus, in the external social context, CAP's resistance to customised care principles exacerbates the disintegration problems among the different organisations. The study concludes that, contrary to findings in many other studies, neither the professional logic nor NPM/customised care reforms determine the actions of professionals. In this case, the institutionalisation of some NPM methods blocks the adoption of customised care practices. Contrary to the widely accepted idea that resource restriction is a main source of conflict between management and the professions, the professions accept and adapt to resource restrictions, even at the expense of de-emphasising the practices of customised care. Thus, since professionals choose different operational strategies depending on the social context, the success of a normative reform measure may depend in part on its social context.

  20. The Role of the EMTC for development and recognition of the music therapy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Lerner, Adrienne; Suvini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    , and therefore the training of students, continuing education and research. This leads to a further demand for recognition of music therapy as a profession and for regulation, registration and governmental recognition. Looking back over the past 60 years, we are able to define some common paths of development......The rapid development of music therapy in Europe is reflected in the increasing number of trained professionals, music therapy positions and research publications. A development of the discipline implies increased requirements regarding the skills and competences of music therapy clinicians...... in relation to the music therapy profession throughout the European countries. With this as a starting point, as well as our own engagement in the European Music Therapy Confederation (EMTC) for more than a decade, we will explore the innate complexity of the profession and formulate our views for the future...

  1. Consumer-pharmacist interactions around complementary medicines: agreement between pharmacist and consumer expectations, satisfaction and pharmacist influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Sophia; Calabretto, Jean-Pierre; Sorich, Michael

    2013-12-01

    To explore pharmacist-consumer interactions around the use of complementary medicines (CMs), with specific focus on consumer expectations, perceptions and satisfaction. Twenty pharmacists and 20 healthcare consumers were recruited across 16 metropolitan community pharmacies in Adelaide, Australia, from June to August 2011. Semi-structured interviews containing comparable questions for both study groups were used. Data was transcribed and analysed with the aid of AutoMap®. There was high consumer satisfaction with pharmacists as CM providers, which was in agreement with pharmacist's perceptions of consumer satisfaction. However, this was against a background of low consumer expectations and pharmacists' dissatisfaction with their own role in the interaction. Consumers often perceived pharmacy-stocked CMs to be more effective and safer compared to those in supermarkets or health food shops, but this perception was not shared by pharmacists. Pharmacists believed they had significant influence around recommendation and use of CMs, whereas consumers perceived a more limited influence. Both pharmacists and consumers shared similar perceptions of CM safety and similar expectations regarding business influence and professional pressures on information provision. Behind a perception of high satisfaction, consumers have low expectations of pharmacists around provision of CM-related information. Further work is required to improve pharmacists' knowledge and confidence around CM use and to address barriers such as the tension between potentially competing business pressures and professional responsibilities. © 2013 The Authors. IJPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Destination, future intentions and views on practice of British-based pharmacists 5 and 10 years after qualifying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, Karen

    2006-06-01

    to intend working abroad. Part-time work patterns are implemented fairly quickly after qualifying, particularly among the women pharmacists. Given that female students account for over 60% of all intake onto pharmacy courses current supply problems will continue if work patterns continue along this trajectory. The ability of the profession to meet current, never mind extended roles, is thus called into question.

  3. An examination of pharmacists' labor supply and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Mott, David A; Doucette, William R

    2011-12-01

    For the last decade, there has been a shortage of pharmacists for most of the United States. This shortage is in part because of demand-side phenomena (eg, increasing prescription drug use, increases in the complexity of drug regimens, and an aging population). However, there also may be supply-side causes. Although the number of pharmacy school graduates has increased, most graduates are women, many of whom may choose to work part-time. Because of the change in sex composition of the workforce, some researchers conclude that pharmacist shortages will be even more critical in the future. The goals of this article are to model pharmacists' decisions to work, estimate pharmacists' wages, and identify influences on the number of hours worked by pharmacists in the United States. Pharmacist labor supply is examined using a static, 3-step, empirical labor supply model that estimates the decision to work, hourly wages, and number of hours worked for U.S. pharmacists. Pharmacists have high starting wages but flat wage trajectories. Although many pharmacists are working part-time, this is true for women and men. Income effects do not dominate substitution effects, even at the high level of compensation found here. Results indicate that previous predictions brought about by the changing sex composition of the pharmacist labor force might not come to pass, and additional pharmacists may be attracted to the profession by higher wages and flexible schedules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Motivational Factors in the Development of Profession as a Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ishtiaq; Inamullah, Hafiz; Naseer-Ud-Din, Muhammad; Naz, Falak; Butt, Muhammad Naeem

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the motivational factors in selecting a teaching profession by the teachers. A random sampling technique was used for the selection of the sample consisting of 27 girls' schools of District Kohat as the sample. A structured questionnaire was developed in closed format on the basis of factors…

  5. The Roles of School Psychology Associations in Promoting the Profession, Professionals, and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.

    2014-01-01

    Professions are strong only to the extent they are represented by active and effective professional associations. Professional associations are strong only to the extent that they are composed of active and effective professionals. This article highlights the belief that the contributions of capable, creative, and committed colleagues who provide…

  6. EVALUATING THE ROLE OF THE REGULATORS OF THE EXTERNAL AUDIT PROFESSION IN ACHIEVING THE AUDIT QUALITY IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedaa Abd Almajid Sabbar Alaraji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The profession of quality auditing can have direct or indirect effects on the performance of accountants and auditors. Both particular research and professional recommendations provided evidence on measuring and evaluating service performance of audit profession by taking into account the relationship between quality and accountant performance. Applied research was developed in Republic of Iraq to reveal the function of bodies that regulate external audit for achieving the required level of audit quality and for identifying the obstacles that prevent the compliance with International Auditing Standards. Research focuses on the role of these bodies in order to achieve the quality of audit by implementing a quality control system. Its benefits reduce chances of criticisms and weaknesses, improving the auditing environment in Iraq.

  7. Factors Influencing Participation in Continuing Professional Development: A Focus on Motivation Among Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; de Boer, Anthonius; Croiset, Gerda; Koster, Andries S; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-01

    The interest in continuing education (CE) for pharmacists has increased because of patient safety issues, advancing science and the quick changes in the profession. Therefore, contemporary pharmaceutical care requires an effective and sustainable system for pharmacists to maintain and improve competencies. Although motivation plays an important role both as a facilitator (desire to learn) and a barrier (lack of motivation), there is little investigated about this specific factor. The aim of the study was to explore what factors influence pharmacists' participation in CE with a focus on motivation. The theoretical framework was self-determination theory (SDT), which describes autonomous motivation (AM) representing motivation from an internal locus of causality, controlled motivation (CM) originating from an external locus of causality, and relative autonomous motivation (RAM) that measures the AM in an individual after correcting for the CM. The relationship between pharmacists' characteristics, especially their motivation (AM, CM and RAM) in CE, and their participation in CE activities was explored using the AMS-questionnaire and the Dutch online portfolio system. RAM was positively correlated with CE participation of pharmacists and explained 7.8% of the variance. The correlations between the independent variables AM and CM and CE hours were negative (-0.301 and -0.476, respectively). Other factors influencing CE participation were pharmacy school (6.8%), traineeship (10.9%), and work experience (7.8%). Pharmacists participated for 27.0 hours on average in CE during 11 months and preferred face-to-face-learning (85.5%) above e-learning (13.8%). Our findings show a positive relationship between RAM and CE participation. The current CE system is probably not conducive to stimulation of AM. Further research is needed to understand the factors that stimulate pharmacists' motivation and participation in CE.

  8. The Roles of Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacy in Providing Healthcare Services to the People

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Haroon Sarwar; Muhammad Farhan Sarwar; Muhammad TaimoorKhalid; Muhammad Sarwar

    2015-01-01

    Article describes a brief outline explaining the profession of Pharmacy, Clinical Pharmacy and the important role of a Pharmacist. This profession, therefore, requires a complex and well developed set of competencies to explore one of the most health and financially rewarding careers. Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs. This is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and it aims to ensure the safe and effective use of Pharmace...

  9. "I haven't even phoned my doctor yet." The advice giving role of the pharmacist during consultations for medication review with patients aged 80 or more: qualitative discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Charlotte; Holland, Richard; Harvey, Ian; Henwood, Karen

    2007-05-26

    To explore the advice giving role of pharmacists during consultation for medication review with patients aged 80 or more. Discourse analysis. Participants' homes. Subsample of consultations within a large randomised trial of home medication review among patients aged 80 or more who had been admitted to hospital. Extent to which advice given by pharmacists was accepted and acknowledged by patients. Pharmacists found many opportunities to offer advice, information, and instruction. These advice giving modes were rarely initiated by the patients and were given despite a no problem response and deliberate displays of competence and knowledge by patients. Advice was often resisted or rejected and created interactional difficulties and awkward moments during the consultations. The advice giving role of pharmacists during consultations with patients aged 80 or more has the potential to undermine and threaten the patients' assumed competence, integrity, and self governance. Caution is needed in assuming that commonsense interventions necessarily lead to health gain.

  10. The librarian's role in an enrichment program for high school students interested in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Beverly; Burnham, Judy; Wright, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Librarians from the University of South Alabama Biomedical Library partnered to participate in a program that targets minority students interested in health care with instruction in information literacy. Librarians participate in the summer enrichment programs designed to encourage minority students to enter health care professions by enhancing their preparation. The curriculum developed by the Biomedical Library librarians is focused on developing information searching skills. Students indicated that the library segment helped them in their library research efforts and helped them make more effective use of available resources. Librarians involved report a sense of self-satisfaction as the program allows them to contribute to promoting greater diversity in health care professions. Participating in the summer enrichment program has been beneficial to the students and librarians.

  11. From dispensing to disposal: the role of student pharmacists in medication disposal and the implementation of a take-back program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Winnett, Misty D; Davis, Courtney S; Yokley, Stephanie G; Franks, Andrea S

    2010-01-01

    To decrease the amount of pharmaceuticals present in our community's water supply, reduce the accidental and intentional ingestion of pharmaceuticals, and increase awareness of proper medication disposal. Knoxville, TN, from November 2008 to November 2009. Medication and thermometer collection events were held at various community retail establishments. Community officials and students collaborated to plan advertising, implementation, and appropriate medication and thermometer disposal. Event volunteers set up easily accessible tents and tables in high-traffic areas to collect unused medications, mercury thermometers, and recyclable medication bottles. Student pharmacists worked cooperatively with community partners to collect unused medications and exchange thermometers. Pounds of recyclables collected, pounds of medications collected, and number of thermometers exchanged. The events increased community awareness of appropriate medication disposal and pharmacists' roles in safe use of medications. From November 2008 to November 2009, more than 1,100 pounds of unwanted medications were collected through events and the drop box. Additionally, more than 470 pounds of recyclable packaging material was collected and 535 mercury thermometers exchanged. Student pharmacists can partner with community officials and businesses to provide safe and appropriate medication and mercury thermometer disposal.

  12. Use of social network analysis in maternity care to identify the profession most suited for case manager role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenen, Carola J M; van Duijnhoven, Noortje T L; Faber, Marjan J; Koetsenruijter, Jan; Kremer, Jan A M; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A

    2017-02-01

    To improve Dutch maternity care, professionals start working in interdisciplinary patient-centred networks, which includes the patients as a member. The introduction of the case manager is expected to work positively on both the individual and the network level. However, case management is new in Dutch maternity care. The present study aims to define the profession that would be most suitable to fulfil the role of case manager. The maternal care network in the Nijmegen region was determined by using Social Network Analysis (SNA). SNA is a quantitative methodology that measures and analyses patient-related connections between different professionals working in a network. To identify the case manager we focused on the position, reach, and connections in the network of the maternal care professionals. Maternity healthcare professionals in a single region of the Netherlands with an average of 4,500 births/year. The participants were 214 individual healthcare workers from eight different professions. The total network showed 3948 connections between 214 maternity healthcare professionals with a density of 0.08. Each profession had some central individuals in the network. The 52 community-based midwives were responsible for 51% of all measured connections. The youth health doctors and nurses were mostly situated on the periphery and less connected. The betweenness centrality had the highest score in obstetricians and community-based midwives. Only the community-based midwives had connections with all other groups of professions. Almost all professionals in the network could reach other professionals in two steps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the elderly: role of the pharmacist in a multidisciplinary health care team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Samuel GrossmanDepartment of Veterans Affairs, New York Harbor Healthcare System, New York, NY, USA; Diabetes Care On-The-Go Inc, Brooklyn, NY, USA; Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA; Arnold and Marie Schwartz College of Pharmacy of Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY, USA; Garden State Association of Diabetes Educators, Edison, NJ, USAAbstract: Intensive glycemic control using insulin therapy may be appropriate for many healthy older adults to reduce premature mortality and morbidity, improve quality of life, and reduce health care costs. However, frail elderly people are more prone to develop complications from hypoglycemia, such as confusion and dementia. Overall, older persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD than from intermittent hyperglycemia; therefore, diabetes management should always include CVD prevention and treatment in this patient population. Pharmacists can provide a comprehensive medication review with subsequent recommendations to individualize therapy based on medical and cognitive status. As part of the patient’s health care team, pharmacists can provide continuity of care and communication with other members of the patient’s health care team. In addition, pharmacists can act as educators and patient advocates and establish patient-specific goals to increase medication effectiveness, adherence to a medication regimen, and minimize the likelihood of adverse events.Keywords: glycemic control, hyperglycemia, continuity of care, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, elderly, type 2 diabetes, pharmacist

  14. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  15. Pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... as a health care profession, as well as what it means when we view pharmaceutical policy in the context of the health sector labour market, is discussed. The authors also discuss how factors external to the profession are affecting its purpose and realm of practice, including the current trend...

  16. A qualitative study on pharmacists' perception on integrating pharmacists into private general practitioner's clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Pui S; Nissen, Lisa; Freeman, Christopher; Wong, Pei S; Mak, Vivienne

    2017-01-01

    Private general practitioners in Malaysia largely operates as solo practices - prescribing and supplying medications to patients directly from their clinics, thus posing risk of medication-related problems to consumers. A pharmacy practice reform that integrates pharmacists into primary healthcare clinics can be a potential initiative to promote quality use of medication. This model of care is a novel approach in Malaysia and research in the local context is required, especially from the perspectives of pharmacists. To explore pharmacists' views in integrating pharmacists into private GP clinics in Malaysia. A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit community and hospital pharmacists from urban areas in Malaysia to participate either in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. A total of 2 focus groups and 4 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using NVivo 10. Four major themes were identified: (1) Limited potential to expand pharmacists' roles, (2) Concerns about non-pharmacists dispensing medicines in private GP clinics, (3) Lack of trust from consumers and private GPs, (4) Cost implications. Participants felt that there was a limited role for pharmacists in private GP clinics. This was because the medication supply role is currently undertaken in private GP clinics without the need of pharmacists. The perceived lack of trust from consumers and private GPs towards pharmacists arises from the belief that healthcare is the GPs' responsibility. This suggests that there is a need for increased public and GP awareness towards the capabilities of pharmacists' in medication management. Participants were concerned about an increase in cost to private GP visits if pharmacists were to be integrated. Nevertheless, some participants perceived the integration as a means to reduce medical costs through improved quality use of medicines. Findings from the study

  17. Pharmacist-Physician Collaboration at a Family Medicine Residency Program: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Hager

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In response to transforming healthcare and pursuit of the Triple Aim, many health systems have added team members to expand the capabilities and effectiveness of the team to facilitate these aims. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and perceptions of pharmacist-physician collaboration among family medicine residents (FMR, family medicine faculty (FMF, and pharmacist faculty and residents in a practice where clinical pharmacy services were relatively new. Understanding the nuances of pharmacist-physician interactions will provide insight into how to improve FMR education to prepare learners for patient-centered, team-based practice. Methods: An exploratory descriptive qualitative study design was used to articulate perceptions of professional roles and team-based care in an interprofessional family medicine community-based clinical practice. Five, 60-minute focus groups were conducted in a clinical training setting that focuses on preparing family medicine physicians for collaborative rural primary care practice. Results: Twenty-one FMRs, eight FMF, and six clinical pharmacists participated. Three themes emerged from the focus groups and were consistent across the groups: 1 roles of pharmacists recognized by physicians in different settings, 2 benefits to collaboration, and 3 keys to successful pharmacist-physician collaboration which include a developing the relationship, b optimizing communication, c creating beneficial clinical workflow, d clarifying roles and responsibilities, and e increasing opportunities for meaningful interactions. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that by co-locating physicians and pharmacists in the same environment, and providing a basic structure for collaboration, a collaborative working relationship can be initiated. Practices looking to have more effective collaborative working relationships should strive to increase the frequency of interactions of the professions, help the

  18. Physicians' and Pharmacists' Experience and Expectations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dispensing” and “identification and prevention of prescription errors” were currently the top responsibilities of pharmacists. It was anticipated by the physicians that pharmacists would remain focused on “medication dispensing” but should put in more effort. Pharmacists, on the other hand, would like to develop their role in ...

  19. Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, Lynnae; Sanborn, Michael; Alexander, Emily

    2008-11-15

    Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists at three institutions are described. The demand for pharmacists and health care in general continues to increase, yet significant material changes are occurring in the pharmacy work force. These changing demographics, coupled with historical vacancy rates and turnover trends for pharmacy staff, require an increased emphasis on workplace changes that can improve staff recruitment and retention. At William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, creative pharmacist work schedules and roles are now mainstays to the recruitment and retention of staff. The major challenge that such scheduling presents is the 8 hours needed to prepare a six-week schedule. Baylor Medical Center at Grapevine in Dallas, Texas, has a total of 45 pharmacy employees, and slightly less than half of the 24.5 full-time-equivalent staff work full-time, with most preferring to work one, two, or three days per week. As long as the coverage needs of the facility are met, Envision Telepharmacy in Alpine, Texas, allows almost any scheduling arrangement preferred by individual pharmacists or the pharmacist group covering the facility. Staffing involves a great variety of shift lengths and intervals, with shifts ranging from 2 to 10 hours. Pharmacy leaders must be increasingly aware of opportunities to provide staff with unique scheduling and operational enhancements that can provide for a better work-life balance. Compressed workweeks, job-sharing, and team scheduling were the most common types of alternative work schedules implemented at three different institutions.

  20. Work expectations and organizational attachment of hospital pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J E; Smith, S N

    1987-05-01

    Measures of expectations, organizational attachment, and job satisfaction were studied among hospital pharmacists. Pharmacists in 42 Chicago-area hospitals were asked to respond to 18 closed-ended statements designed to measure job and profession satisfaction and the degree to which the respondents' expectations of their work and profession had been met. From the sample of 529 pharmacists, 217 (41%) usable responses were received. Pharmacists generally agreed that their expectations toward work, salary, department standards, and use of professional abilities had been met. However, it was found that younger pharmacists and those performing primarily staff duties had lower ratings for met expectations and satisfaction than did their counterparts. Measures of expectations and satisfaction with current jobs consistently outranked similar measures of opinions toward the profession. Organizational attachment appeared to be highly correlated with age and with tenure of employment; younger pharmacists and those with one to seven years of concurrent employment were more predisposed to leaving the organization. It was noted in particular that the factors exerting a strong influence to leave the organization involved management-related activities and responsibilities. Managers can encourage organizational attachment by providing promotion opportunities and leadership in the structure and facilitation of job duties and by responding to individual needs.

  1. Awareness and knowledge of autism among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Jariwala, Krutika

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, the prevalence of autism has increased tremendously in the United States. The prevalence of autism is now higher than the combined prevalence of juvenile diabetes, pediatric cancer, and pediatric AIDS. As health care professionals with a high visibility in a community, pharmacists are likely to encounter more and more families having a child affected by this disorder. The purpose of this study was to assess pharmacists' awareness and knowledge of autism. The study aimed to assess pharmacists' familiarity with autism symptoms, treatment medications, and community resources devoted to this disorder. Further, pharmacists' knowledge of common myths associated with autism, etiology, prognosis, and treatment were assessed. Using a cross-sectional design, an online survey of pharmacists registered in the state of Mississippi (MS) was conducted, using the Qualtrics software program. Descriptive analysis of study items was conducted. A total of 147 usable responses (5.8%) were received. The results indicated gaps in pharmacists' awareness and knowledge of autism. Approximately, 23% of pharmacists did not know that autism is a developmental disorder, and 32% did not believe that genetics has a major role in autism etiology. More than 18% believed that vaccines can cause autism. Most (>90%) felt that they could benefit from autism continuing education (CE). Policy makers and autism agencies should consider providing educational interventions or CE programs to increase pharmacists' awareness and knowledge of autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Working Definitions of the Roles and an Organizational Structure in Health Professions Education Scholarship: Initiating an International Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpio, Lara; Gruppen, Larry; Hu, Wendy; O'Brien, Bridget; Ten Cate, Olle; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Irby, David M; van der Vleuten, Cees; Hamstra, Stanley J; Durning, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Health professions education scholarship (HPES) is an important and growing field of inquiry. Problematically, consistent use of terminology regarding the individual roles and organizational structures that are active in this field are lacking. This inconsistency impedes the transferability of current and future findings related to the roles and organizational structures of HPES. Based on data collected during interviews with HPES leaders in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and the Netherlands, the authors constructed working definitions for some of the professional roles and an organizational structure that support HPES. All authors reviewed the definitions to ensure relevance across multiple countries. The authors define and offer illustrative examples of three professional roles in HPES (clinician educator, HPES research scientist, and HPES administrative leader) and an organizational structure that can support HPES participation (HPES unit). These working definitions are foundational and not all-encompassing and, thus, are offered as stimulus for international dialogue and understanding. With these working definitions, scholars and administrative leaders can examine HPES roles and organizational structures across and between national contexts to decide how lessons learned in other contexts can be applied to their local contexts. Although rigorously constructed, these definitions need to be vetted by the international HPES community. The authors argue that these definitions are sufficiently transferable to support such scholarly investigation and debate.

  3. Biosimilars: Practical Considerations for Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, James G; Popovian, Robert; Jacobs, Ira; Hurst, Susan; Shane, Lesley G

    2017-07-01

    To review the scientific and regulatory aspects of biosimilar development and practical considerations for the use of biosimilars that are relevant to pharmacists. Literature searches of PubMed and congress abstracts for publications pertaining to biosimilars were conducted from January 2016 to January 2017. Individual drug company web pages and governmental, regulatory, and other agency websites were also reviewed. Published articles, regulatory guidelines, and other sources covering biologic/biosimilar development and approval, reporting results of biosimilar studies or survey research, and/or identifying biosimilars in development or approved for use in Europe or the United States were reviewed and included. Biologic therapies have revolutionized the treatment of serious diseases, including hematological or autoimmune disorders and cancers. A biosimilar is highly similar to a licensed biologic (ie, reference or originator) and has no clinically meaningful differences in safety, purity, and potency. Unlike small-molecule drugs, biologics are large, complex proteins that cannot be exactly replicated, so the concept of a generic equivalent cannot be applied to biologics. Regulatory agencies have provided a framework for biosimilar approval, but there are many practical considerations for pharmacists, including interchangeability, substitution, naming, indication extrapolation, product labeling, therapeutic drug monitoring, manufacturer attributes, logistics of product use, and reimbursement. Pharmacists will play a key role in managing the introduction of biosimilars into health care systems. Understanding the principles of biosimilar development and evolving regulatory guidelines relevant to their use will allow pharmacists to make informed decisions regarding formulary inclusion and educate patients and other health care providers about biosimilars.

  4. Pharmacist provision of primary health care: a modified Delphi validation of pharmacists' competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennie-Kaulbach Natalie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacists have expanded their roles and responsibilities as a result of primary health care reform. There is currently no consensus on the core competencies for pharmacists working in these evolving practices. The aim of this study was to develop and validate competencies for pharmacists' effective performance in these roles, and in so doing, document the perceived contribution of pharmacists providing collaborative primary health care services. Methods Using a modified Delphi process including assessing perception of the frequency and criticality of performing tasks, we validated competencies important to primary health care pharmacists practising across Canada. Results Ten key informants contributed to competency drafting; thirty-three expert pharmacists replied to a second round survey. The final primary health care pharmacist competencies consisted of 34 elements and 153 sub-elements organized in seven CanMeds-based domains. Highest importance rankings were allocated to the domains of care provider and professional, followed by communicator and collaborator, with the lower importance rankings relatively equally distributed across the manager, advocate and scholar domains. Conclusions Expert pharmacists working in primary health care estimated their most important responsibilities to be related to direct patient care. Competencies that underlie and are required for successful fulfillment of these patient care responsibilities, such as those related to communication, collaboration and professionalism were also highly ranked. These ranked competencies can be used to help pharmacists understand their potential roles in these evolving practices, to help other health care professionals learn about pharmacists' contributions to primary health care, to establish standards and performance indicators, and to prioritize supports and education to maximize effectiveness in this role.

  5. Drug-related problems identification in general internal medicine: The impact and role of the clinical pharmacist and pharmacologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Bertrand; Bonnabry, Pascal; Perrier, Arnaud; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules; Samer, Caroline Flora

    2015-07-01

    Patients admitted to general internal medicine wards might receive a large number of drugs and be at risk for drug-related problems (DRPs) associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to detect suboptimal drug use in internal medicine by a pharmacotherapy evaluation, to suggest treatment optimizations and to assess the acceptance and satisfaction of the prescribers. This was a 6-month prospective study conducted in two internal medicine wards. Physician rounds were attended by a pharmacist and a pharmacologist. An assessment grid was used to detect the DRPs in electronic prescriptions 24h in advance. One of the following interventions was selected, depending on the relevance and complexity of the DRPs: no intervention, verbal advice of treatment optimization, or written consultation. The acceptance rate and satisfaction of prescribers were measured. In total, 145 patients were included, and 383 DRPs were identified (mean: 2.6 DRPs per patient). The most frequent DRPs were drug interactions (21%), untreated indications (18%), overdosages (16%) and drugs used without a valid indication (10%). The drugs or drug classes most frequently involved were tramadol, antidepressants, acenocoumarol, calcium-vitamin D, statins, aspirin, proton pump inhibitors and paracetamol. The following interventions were selected: no intervention (51%), verbal advice of treatment optimization (42%), and written consultation (7%). The acceptance rate of prescribers was 84% and their satisfaction was high. Pharmacotherapy expertise during medical rounds was useful and well accepted by prescribers. Because of the modest allocation of pharmacists and pharmacologists in Swiss hospitals, complementary strategies would be required. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. When Two Different Worlds Encouter: The Role of a Partner in the Life of a Women Occupying Academic Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Očenášková

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a socially current topic of partnership satisfaction of women working in academic professions. The research project from 2013 focused on a deeper examination of subjective experiences of women working at Czech state universities and colleges. The presented part of the research provides an insight into women's perceptions of their partners' attitudes to their profession and their partners' roles regarding the harmony of their personal and professional life. The core of the research is qualitative methodology which allowed us to analyze obtained answers in more detail and obtain new and discovered research knowledge about partnership relations of a specific category of women. The main method for data collection was a semi-structured interview. Medical history questionnaires and observation were also used. The research sample of the population consisted of 32 women in young and middle adulthood who have dedicated themselves to academic careers at state universities (n=28 and at research institutes (n=4 in the Czech Republic for at least three (3 years (at the positions of assistant and associate professor and who have been in a permanent partner relationship for at least three years. Teaching, research and publishing is also a part of their active profession. Most research female participants (n=28 assess their partners' attitude toward their profession as a positive one; they mentioned such things as respect, mutual understanding and friendship. In all cases (n=32, partners help to deal with their professional and personal life requirements on several levels. The partner's role has a psychologically supportive meaning for the participants, since the partner provides psychological support, an opportunity to share and a sense of safety and security. He also boosts her confidence and self-esteem in her professional life. For thirty (30 women, their partner is a natural support. The mentally instrumental role of their partner

  7. Trends in full-time pharmacists' labor market characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Y C

    2000-01-01

    To provide a historical overview of the pharmacy profession for the past 30 years, using trends in full-time pharmacists' labor market characteristics. A retrospective longitudinal sample of pharmacists from 1968 to 1996 was constructed from the March Current Population Survey data. A three-period centered moving average method was used to describe the labor market trends over time. Pharmacists' labor market was characterized by age, sex, race, education, geographic distribution, salary, working hours, and wage. The dominant age group among full-time pharmacists was 36-45 in the late 1960s and early 1970s, 26-35 between the mid-1970's and early 1990's, and 36-45 in the mid-1990's. Historically, a significant proportion of full-time pharmacists were white men, holding bachelor's degrees. The number of pharmacists has been highest in the South and lowest in the West. In general, pharmacists' annual salary and wage rates have grown steadily, whereas average hours worked per week have decreased from 50 hours to less than 45. Findings suggest a growing trend of three demographic groups: aged 36-45, women, and nonwhite. In addition, an increasing proportion of pharmacists holding "higher than bachelor" degrees was observed. The distribution of pharmacists was highest in the South and lowest in the West. The Midwest has the highest pharmacist/population ratio, the South the lowest. On average, full-time pharmacists in the 1990s work 40-45 hours per week, have an annual salary higher than $55,000 (in 1996 dollars), and an hourly wage rate above $25.

  8. A Qualitative Analysis of the Perception of Academic Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role and perception of academic pharmacists regarding their role in the healthcare ... the role of the academic pharmacist and current ... The curriculum has no standard; no practical application. When students go in field they are well aware of theory but have little or no practical knowledge.”(AP1) ...

  9. The role of health services research in the renaissance of the dental profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grembowski, D

    1997-01-01

    Health services research may play a critical role in achieving the recommendations of the IOM study. Toward this end, the field of health services research is defined. Applications of health services research to health outcomes, patient care, and other IOM directives are reviewed. Alternative approaches to building the capacities of dental schools to conduct health services research are presented.

  10. Regulation of pharmacists: a comparative law and economics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philipsen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of pharmacists from an economic perspective, focusing on licensing, price and fee regulation, advertising restrictions and rules on exercise of the profession, and restrictions on business structure. A comparative overview is presented of the most common forms of

  11. The politics of choice: roles of the medical profession under Nazi rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekisch, K; McDonald, J H

    1989-06-01

    In 1933, when Adolf Hitler took power, the German medical community was faced with intense crisis and change. Because social processes become more clearly defined in times of crisis, the days of Nazi rule offer an excellent opportunity to examine health care and moral issues. This article describes historical events that illustrate physicians' and medical students' role in the political process. In addition, we detail four types of responses made by physicians and students: flight, conformism, individual resistance, and group resistance. We conclude that if the role of physicians is to aid and protect patients against disease or experimentation on humans, then he or she must maintain heightened political awareness in order to deal with social crises before they overwhelm any response.

  12. Inside a contested profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann-Jacobsen, Emilie Tinne

    Journalism is a contested profession. Normative assumptions based on its connection to democracy infuses a variety of expectations as to what journalists should and should not do. These norms have made it particularly difficult to discuss and study journalism in non-Western or non-democratic coun......Journalism is a contested profession. Normative assumptions based on its connection to democracy infuses a variety of expectations as to what journalists should and should not do. These norms have made it particularly difficult to discuss and study journalism in non-Western or non......-democratic countries where the profession has often been defined as a Western “other” – as what it is not. This dissertation takes another approach and investigates journalism in Southeast Asia from the bottom-up leaving room for journalists’ own interpretations and understandings of their profession. Through...... fields. It furthermore discusses how, and to what extent, similarities between Singapore and Vietnam reflect a particular Southeast Asian model of journalism. A combination of Bourdieu’s field theory and role theory is applied to scrutinise structures of the journalistic profession on micro, mezzo...

  13. Healthcare and the Roles of the Medical Profession in the Big Data Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    The accumulation of large amounts of healthcare information is in progress, and society is about to enter the Health Big Data era by linking such data. Medical professionals' daily tasks in clinical practice have become more complicated due to information overload, accelerated technological development, and the expansion of conceptual frameworks for medical care. Further, their responsibilities are more challenging and their workload is consistently increasing. As medical professionals enter the Health Big Data era, we need to reevaluate the fundamental significance and role of medicine and investigate ways to utilize this available information and technology. For example, a data analysis on diabetes patients has already shed light on the status of accessibility to physicians and the treatment response rate. In time, large amounts of health data will help find solutions including new effective treatment that could not be discovered by conventional means. Despite the vastness of accumulated data and analyses, their interpretation is necessarily conducted by attending physicians who communicate these findings to patients face to face; this task cannot be replaced by technology. As medical professionals, we must take the initiative to evaluate the framework of medicine in the Health Big Data era, study the ideal approach for clinical practitioners within this framework, and spread awareness to the public about our framework and approach while implementing them.

  14. Healthcare and the Roles of the Medical Profession in the Big Data Era*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAMOTO, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of large amounts of healthcare information is in progress, and society is about to enter the Health Big Data era by linking such data. Medical professionals’ daily tasks in clinical practice have become more complicated due to information overload, accelerated technological development, and the expansion of conceptual frameworks for medical care. Further, their responsibilities are more challenging and their workload is consistently increasing. As medical professionals enter the Health Big Data era, we need to reevaluate the fundamental significance and role of medicine and investigate ways to utilize this available information and technology. For example, a data analysis on diabetes patients has already shed light on the status of accessibility to physicians and the treatment response rate. In time, large amounts of health data will help find solutions including new effective treatment that could not be discovered by conventional means. Despite the vastness of accumulated data and analyses, their interpretation is necessarily conducted by attending physicians who communicate these findings to patients face to face; this task cannot be replaced by technology. As medical professionals, we must take the initiative to evaluate the framework of medicine in the Health Big Data era, study the ideal approach for clinical practitioners within this framework, and spread awareness to the public about our framework and approach while implementing them. PMID:28299246

  15. Understanding community pharmacist perceptions and knowledge about HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy in a Mountain West state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, Elizabeth J; Lian, Nadia; Kuykendall, William

    2016-01-01

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) therapy is prescribed to HIV-negative individuals who are at high risk of contracting the virus to reduce the risk of transmission. Adherence to therapy is essential for optimal treatment outcome, and community pharmacists have an important role in achieving this through patient counseling. The objectives of this study were to measure pharmacists' actual knowledge about HIV PrEP therapy, perceptions about their HIV PrEP therapy knowledge, and intention to counsel patients about PrEP therapy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among community pharmacists in Utah to measure their actual knowledge and perceptions of knowledge about PrEP therapy based on the basic information from the Centers for Disease Control website. In addition, the pharmacist's intention to counsel patients on PrEP therapy was measured with the use of the validated Godin 12-item tool. Descriptive analyses and t tests identified characteristics based on gender, degree earned, and years of practice in pharmacy. Regression analysis determined significant predictors of the intention to counsel. There were 251 responses (75% PharmD, 61% male, 42% >10 years' experience as a pharmacist). An exploratory factor analysis of the Godin 12-item tool demonstrated 4 domains: beliefs about capabilities, social influence, moral norms, and intention to counsel patients. There was no difference in the intention to counsel based on gender. Pharmacists with a PharmD and less than 10 years of experience had significantly higher knowledge and intention to counsel. The actual knowledge score of the respondents was significantly higher than their perceptions of their knowledge. Multiple regression results showed that the beliefs about capabilities and social influence were significant predictors of intention to counsel. Educating community pharmacists on PrEP therapy using pharmacists who are considered to be opinion leaders in the pharmacy profession can affect the social influence

  16. An Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Iranian Pharmacists through Various Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi Moghadam, Mohamad Javad; Peiravian, Farzad; Naderi, Azadeh; Rajabzadeh, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacists and pharmaceutical services are among the most important resources and programs in providing health for a society. Pharmacists as the key players in presenting health services, greatly impact on the health of a society and if they suffer low job satisfaction, their dissatisfaction may relatively threaten health in a society. This study was conducted to determine Iranian pharmacists' job satisfaction and additionally, some causes of dissatisfaction among pharmacists have been diagnosed. A job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and reliability tests were done by some experts in field of pharmacy practice. A sample of 700 pharmacists was selected among ten leading provinces of the country and questionnaires were distributed at the continuing pharmacy education conferences. Three essential factors named "Endogenous Satisfaction", "Exogenous Satisfaction" and "Current Sense of Being Pharmacists" was considered as the main job satisfaction factors. Generally low scores of exogenous and endogenous job satisfaction were concluded among pharmacists while most of them were highly satisfied with being pharmacist. Male pharmacists were more satisfied than their female colleagues and a positive relationship between age and work experience with exogenous job satisfaction was found. Low levels of job satisfaction which were found among Iranian pharmacists could be considered as a deficiency of health system in Iran. Fortunately, inherent interest in the pharmacy profession found among Iranian pharmacists is an optimistic point at which policy-makers could develop their modifying policies. Health policy-makers must endeavor to take other steps to issue solutions for this current problem.

  17. Exploratory study of community pharmacists' perceptions about new or transferred prescription incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Marc; Nemlekar, Poorva; Brown, Carolyn M; Cantu, Roxanne

    2012-01-01

    To assess community pharmacists' perceptions of new or transferred prescription incentives on quality of care, pharmacy practice (e.g., workload), and patient base. Cross-sectional study. Texas from March through August 2010. Texas community pharmacists. In-person and online surveys. Pharmacists' perceptions of the impact of new or transferred prescription incentives on pharmacy practice and patient care. 74 usable surveys were analyzed. Most pharmacists (74%) worked for employers who participated in prescription incentive promotions (e.g., $10 gift cards). Regarding quality of care, pharmacists perceived patients as being less likely to receive thorough drug interaction screenings (4.0 ± 1.4 [mean ± SD]) and reported medication-related problems "sometimes to very often" (3.0 ± 0.9) as a result of transferring prescriptions. Pharmacists also reported that patients commonly fill prescriptions regardless of medical necessity in order to receive incentives (4.1 ± 1.0). With respect to pharmacy practice, the majority believed that prescription incentives devalue the profession (4.3 ± 1.1) and should be eliminated (4.4 ± 1.0). Pharmacists were not inclined to believe that incentives were effective in attracting new patients and retaining their business (2.0 ± 1.0). Pharmacists believed that prescription incentives are ineffective tools for increasing patient base and may lead to lower quality of care for patients. Pharmacists view prescription incentives as devaluing the profession of pharmacy and exposing patients to medication-related problems.

  18. [What does "pharmacognosy" mean for pharmacists?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Pharmacists consider pharmacognosy to be a part of Kampo-related education. However, actually, pharmacists cannot generally apply pharmacognosy to their work in clinical settings because they do not have sufficient opportunities to learn about the relationship between pharmacognosy and Kampo in the Faculty of Pharmacy. Meanwhile, in the Faculty of Medicine, education in Kampo has spread at an accelerated rate since the amendment of the medical education core curriculum in 2001, leading to the present condition of 73 out of a total of 80 Faculties of Medicine in Japan already having adopted Kampo as a part of that curriculum. However, clinical education is often focused on, while items of pharmacognosy are hardly mentioned; therefore, pharmacognosy remains not as important in medical education. It is thus often very difficult for pharmacists who have only learned Kampo based on pharmacognosy to understand the prescription of a physician who has received Kampo education, and this remains a considerable problem for pharmacists who are required to explain how to take a drug to a patient in clinical practice. What role does pharmacognosy have to play to bridge the gap between such physicians and pharmacists? Here, I would like to describe what I believe is necessary regarding pharmacognosy education in the future, both from the perspectives of pharmacists and physicians who prescribe Kampo medicine.

  19. Self-medication and non-prescription drug counseling: Illustrating profession uncertainty within Turkish pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Sozen-Sahne, Bilge; Ulutas-Deniz, Elif; Yegenoglu, Selen

    2017-09-29

    Recommending effective minor ailment treatments and using non-prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medicines is a pharmacist's duty. Although common in most European countries, self-medication counseling practices may differ from country to country. This study explored Turkish community pharmacists' attitudes concerning the present self-medication market, professional responsibilities toward patients' self-care, and the usefulness of e-learning for patients' counseling education. The study was comprised of three phases: initially, a document content analysis searched for relevant OTC regulatory and/or practice frameworks; secondly, qualitative individual interviews on self-medication with purposively selected Turkish community pharmacists were performed; finally, a focus group with practitioners and continuing education experts was conducted to deepen previous results. A thematic data analysis, based on the attitudinal theory, was conducted, supported by MAXQDA v12 software. Sixteen documental sources allowed the extraction of three initial main themes: self-medication, classification of medicines and pharmacists' role. Individual interviews outlined four themes that informed the focus group discussion, which produced four new themes. Themes and their codes reflected dissimilar practitioners' cognitions towards OTCs, OTC usage and self-medication, particularly if compared to other European conceptualizations. Contradictory feelings towards the value of OTCs for professional development, e.g., patient counseling influenced by profit-based expectations, were identified. Turkish community pharmacists and their minor ailments treatment competences have yet to thrive as a relevant professional intervention. There are risks of missing the best pharmacy practice standards, thus losing their contribution to rational self-care. Besides weakening the societal recognition of the profession to help individuals' everyday health decisions and well-being, there might be a

  20. The Role of the medical profession and its support system in the promotion of peace and the prevention of nuclear war

    OpenAIRE

    Soedibjo Sardadi, Soedibjo Sardadi

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author describes the present development of the war machine, and its actual and potential impact on medicine. The effects of nuclear explosion are briefly discussed and the possible roles of the medical profession is brought forth in facing the current global political situation. The ethical and moral foundation of medicine is emphasized in carrying out the professional social responsibility to preserve the comprehensive health of mankind. Key Words: prevention of nuclear...

  1. Patients' Assessment of Pharmacists' Medication Counseling in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    professional responsibilities [12]. The pivotal role of pharmacists in reducing the incidence of both medication-related errors and drug- related illness in general is noted in literature. [13]. Patient counseling is an important part of pharmacists' professional services [14]. By providing information to consumers with prescriptions ...

  2. Hospital and Community Pharmacists' Perceptions of Which Competences Are Important for Their Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Sandulovici, Roxana; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith A; van Schravendijk, Chris; Frontini, Roberto; Price, Richard; Bates, Ian; De Paepe, Kristien

    2016-06-15

    The objective of the PHAR-QA (Quality assurance in European pharmacy education and training) project was to investigate how competence-based learning could be applied to a healthcare, sectoral profession such as pharmacy. This is the first study on evaluation of competences from the pharmacists' perspective using an improved Delphi method with a large number of respondents from all over Europe. This paper looks at the way in which hospital pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European hospital pharmacists (n = 152) ranked 68 competences for pharmacy practice of two types (personal and patient care), arranged into 13 clusters. Results were compared to those obtained from community pharmacists (n = 258). Generally, hospital and community pharmacists rank competences in a similar way. Nevertheless, differences can be detected. The higher focus of hospital pharmacists on knowledge of the different areas of science as well as on laboratory tests reflects the idea of a hospital pharmacy specialisation. The difference is also visible in the field of drug production. This is a necessary competence in hospitals with requests for drugs for rare diseases, as well as paediatric and oncologic drugs. Hospital pharmacists give entrepreneurship a lower score, but cost-effectiveness a higher one than community pharmacists. This reflects the reality of pharmacy practice where community pharmacists have to act as entrepreneurs, and hospital pharmacists are managers staying within drug budgets. The results are discussed in the light of a "hospital pharmacy" specialisation.

  3. ACCP Clinical Pharmacist Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saseen, Joseph J; Ripley, Toni L; Bondi, Deborah; Burke, John M; Cohen, Lawrence J; McBane, Sarah; McConnell, Karen J; Sackey, Bryan; Sanoski, Cynthia; Simonyan, Anahit; Taylor, Jodi; Vande Griend, Joseph P

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) is to advance human health by extending the frontiers of clinical pharmacy. Consistent with this mission and its core values, ACCP is committed to ensuring that clinical pharmacists possess the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to deliver comprehensive medication management (CMM) in team-based, direct patient care environments. These components form the basis for the core competencies of a clinical pharmacist and reflect the competencies of other direct patient care providers. This paper is an update to a previous ACCP document and includes the expectation that clinical pharmacists be competent in six essential domains: direct patient care, pharmacotherapy knowledge, systems-based care and population health, communication, professionalism, and continuing professional development. Although these domains align with the competencies of physician providers, they are specifically designed to better reflect the clinical pharmacy expertise required to provide CMM in patient-centered, team-based settings. Clinical pharmacists must be prepared to complete the education and training needed to achieve these competencies and must commit to ongoing efforts to maintain competence through ongoing professional development. Collaboration among stakeholders will be needed to ensure that these competencies guide clinical pharmacists' professional development and evaluation by educational institutions, postgraduate training programs, professional societies, and employers. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  4. Examining Students' Feelings and Perceptions of Accounting Profession in a Developing Country: The Role of Gender and Student Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbawuni, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the preconceived notions accounting students in Ghana have about the accounting profession and whether these perceptions are influenced by gender and student category (graduates and undergraduates). This study was a cross-sectional survey of 516 undergraduate and 78 graduate accounting students from a public university in…

  5. Clinical Pharmacists as Educators in Family Medicine Residency Programs: A CERA Study of Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Jennie B; Lounsbery, Jody L; D'Amico, Frank; Dickerson, Lori M; Franko, John; Nagle, John; Seehusen, Dean A; Wilson, Stephen A

    2016-03-01

    The clinical pharmacist's role within family medicine residency programs (FMRPs) is well established. However, there is limited information regarding perceptions of program directors (PDs) about clinical pharmacy educators. The study objectives were (1) to estimate the prevalence of clinical pharmacists within FMRPs and (2) to determine barriers and motivations for incorporation of clinical pharmacists as educators. The Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) distributed an electronic survey to PDs. Questions addressed formalized pharmacotherapy education, clinical pharmacists in educator roles, and barriers and benefits of clinical pharmacists in FMRPs. The overall response rate was 50% (224/451). Seventy-six percent (170/224) of the responding PDs reported that clinical pharmacists provide pharmacotherapy education in their FMRPs, and 57% (97/170) consider clinical pharmacists as faculty members. In programs with clinical pharmacists, 72% (83/116) of PDs reported having a systematic approach for teaching pharmacotherapy versus 22% (21/95) in programs without. In programs without clinical pharmacists, the top barrier to incorporation was limited ability to bill for clinical services 48% (43/89) versus 29% (32/112) in programs with clinical pharmacists. In both programs with and without clinical pharmacists, the top benefit of having clinical pharmacists was providing a collaborative approach to pharmacotherapy education for residents (35% and 36%, respectively). Less than half of FMRPs incorporate clinical pharmacists as faculty members. Despite providing collaborative approaches to pharmacotherapy education, their limited ability to bill for services is a major barrier.

  6. Professing faith, professing medicine: Physicians and the call to evangelize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochanski, Philip G

    2014-02-01

    THE HIPPOCRATIC OATH TRADITIONALLY ESTABLISHES MEDICINE AS A PROFESSION: A career, or vocation based on the professing of an oath regarding personal and public behavior. For Catholic physicians, the commitments of the Oath of Hippocrates take on new meaning when seen in light of the promises made at Baptism and renewed every Easter. This paper, originally an address to medical students, considers the role of Catholic physicians as evangelizers, those who spread the message and values of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

  7. advancing the frontiers of pharmacy profession to new horizons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Thoithi

    There are several outlets for veterinary products and these include pet shops, agrovet shops, pharmacies and veterinary clinics. The veterinarian just like pharmacist, dentist and medical practitioner is a proud professional and resents intrusion of non-veterinarians in his profession. Unfortunately, a pharmacy dealing with ...

  8. Job role quality and intention to leave current facility and to leave profession of direct care workers in Japanese residential facilities for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Imai, Hisato

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine job role quality relating to intention to leave current facility and to leave profession among direct care workers in residential facilities for elderly in Japan. Direct care workers completed a paper questionnaire on October 2009. From 746 facilities in three prefectures (Tokyo, Shizuoka, and Yamagata) 6428 direct care workers with complete data were included in the analyses. The Job Role Quality (JRQ) scale was translated into Japanese language to assess job role quality. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that intention to leave current facility was primarily associated with job role quality: poor skill discretion, high job demand, and poor relationship with supervisor. Intention to leave profession was primarily associated with poor skill discretion. The results of the present study imply the strategies to direct care worker retention for each facility and policy efforts. Each facility can implement specific strategies such as enhanced variety of work and opportunity for use of skills, adequate job allocation, and improvement of supervisor-employee relationship in work place. Policy efforts should enhance broader career opportunities in care working such as advanced specialization and authorized medical practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Clinical Pharmacists in Early Detection, Reporting and Prevention of Medication Errors in a Medical Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Hassani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug utilization evaluation (DUE is an effective process in order to identifying variability in drug use and subsequent application of effective interventions for improving  patient outcomes. In this study, appropriate uses of drugs were evaluated by pharmacy service.Methods: A prospective, interventional study was designed for determining frequency and type of clinical pharmacists’ interventions and medication errors occurred in the infectious disease ward of Loghman hospital, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran during 8 months. Results: During the 8 months of the study period, 498 errors were detected among 419 patients that admitted to infectious disease ward of Loghman hospital. Most common errors were related to DVT prophylaxis, SUP and vancomycin monitoring. Discussion: Our result showed that clinical pharmacy interventions can have an important role in reducing adverse drug events and their activities can be effective for reducing of medication error.

  10. For a new profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Blezza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline the cultural and institutional context and the fundamental features of a new profession, the “psychopedagogical operator in the school”, an articulation of the teaching function that can become an autonomous profession with its own epistemological, operating and methodology status. We’re also discussing the role of the University regarding the social and intellectual professions, and we summarize the cultural background designing operating principles of immediate employability.   Per una nuova figura professionale In questo saggio si delineano il contesto culturale ed istituzionale e i tratti fondamentali di una nuova professione, quella dell’operatore psicopedagogico della scuola, un’articolazione della funzione docente che può diventare una professione autonoma con un proprio statuto epistemologico, d’esercizio e di metodologia. Discutendo anche del ruolo dell’Università riguardo alle professioni sociali ed intellettuali, si sintetizza il retroterra culturale traendone principi operativi di immediata fruibilità. Parole Chiave: Pedagogia, psicologia, psicopedagogia, scuola. insegnamento

  11. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M

    1999-01-01

    New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly...

  12. A systematic review in select countries of the role of the pharmacist in consultations and sales of non-prescription medicines in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eikenhorst, Linda; Salema, Nde-Eshimuni; Anderson, Claire

    Much has been studied in regard to non-prescription medicines (NPMs), but the impact of greater emphasis toward patient self-selection of such agents is still not well understood, and evidence in the literature might be equivocal. The aim was to examine whether or not pharmacist interventions are important in the sale of NPMs and to summarize the evidence of pharmacists' contribution in maintaining patient safety and improving the quality of consultations involving NPMs. Seven online databases were searched to identify the literature on studies conducted within the UK and in countries comparable to the UK reporting on consultations and selling of NPMs published between 1980 and 2013. All study designs except for quantitative surveys were eligible for inclusion into the review. The data extraction and quality assessment were performed according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. The data extracted from the studies were analyzed and presented qualitatively. Eighty-three studies from an original 12,879 citations were included in this review. Just under half of the studies were published between 2000 and 2009 (n = 38; 46%). Thirty-three (44%) of the studies were conducted in the UK. The review showed that in terms of the contribution of community pharmacy staff in consultations for NPMs, non-pharmacist staff dealt with a large proportion of the consultations and pharmacists were usually involved in the consultation through referral from non-pharmacist staff member. Counseling was not consistently offered to everyone. Where counseling was provided it was not always of sufficient quality. Consultations were performed much better when symptoms were presented compared to when people made a direct product request. Pharmacists were reported to conduct better consultations than non-pharmacist staff. There was evidence to suggest that where counseling was appropriately provided this afforded the person a safe environment to utilize their

  13. Opinions of pharmacists and herbalists on herbal medicine use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-22

    Jan 22, 2017 ... side effects and interactions between HMs and conventional drugs have been ... and many consumers believe that pharmacists ... perceived roles of herbalists and community .... The pharmacy average daily sales were.

  14. The role of community pharmacists in patient counseling and health education: a survey of their knowledge and level of involvement in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Haile, Kaleab Taye; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Ayele, Asnakew Achaw

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the knowledge and level of involvement of community pharmacists in the provision of patient counseling and health education services for patients with DM and perceived barriers that limit the delivery of such services. A self-administered questionnaire based-survey was undertaken from January to March, 2017 with 412 pharmacists working in community pharmacies in six cities of Amhara regional state of Ethiopia: Debre Markos, Gondar, Dessie, Bahir Dar, Woldya, and Debre Birhan. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Student's t -test were employed to examine different variables. Community pharmacists were found to have poor knowledge and low level of involvement, with an overall mean score of 11.54 and 2.06, respectively. A significant number of community pharmacists never practiced promoting smoking cessation (45.2%), counseling on good foot care techniques (33.7%), and counseling on the potential impact of over-the-counter and herbal drugs on DM management (34%). On the other hand, describing the right time to administer antidiabetic medications (46%) and counseling on suitable administration, handling, and storage of insulin (33.7%) were done more frequently. The main reported barriers to the delivery of these services were lack of knowledge or clinical skills, lack of access to additional training programs, and lack of personnel or resources. The present study revealed a poor knowledge and low level of involvement in counseling and health education services for patients with DM. Lack of knowledge or clinical skills was the most commonly reported barrier for providing such services. In order to better integrate community pharmacies into future public health programs and optimize the contribution of pharmacists, interventions should focus on overcoming the identified barriers.

  15. Differences in prescribing between GPs: impact of the cooperation with pharmacists and impact of visits from pharmaceutical industry representatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijrers, P.E.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Sijbrandij, J.; Janknegt, R.; Knottnerus, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Community pharmacists, pharmaceutical industry and differences in prescribing between GPs. OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of the pharmacists and pharmaceutical industry representatives. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 1434 GPs in The Netherlands in 2001. Prescribing

  16. Do pharmacists have a right to refuse to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, B D

    1992-01-01

    Some pharmacists opposed to abortion on moral ground are concerned by having to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs like mifepristone (RU-486). The issue of the right of pharmacists to refuse to fill such prescriptions depends on the model of the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship. The libertarian model of pharmacy practice holds that physicians, pharmacists, and patients are bound only by the contract that they freely negotiate with one another, thus the pharmacist has no moral obligation to fill a prescription for mifepristone unless he or she has expressly contracted to do so. The American Pharmaceutical Association's 1981 Code of Ethics does not specify what a pharmacist ought to do in particular circumstances. The right to refuse is strongly supported by the principles of nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. These are principles of the libertarian model of the pharmacist-patient relationship but are also present in the guild or societal models stressing the duty to avoid harming others. Justification for pharmacists right of refusal appeals to their autonomy rights as members of the moral community rather than the profession of pharmacy. Since the professional right to autonomy is not absolute, moral consideration circumscribe it: it is difficult to argue that a pharmacist who believes that homosexuality is immoral has the right to refuse to fill a prescription for AZT. Even if a person who presents such a prescription is homosexual there is no causal relationship between filling a prescription for AZT and participating in a homosexual act. At the opposite end the libertarians reject the notion of even a basic right to health care. A woman in the above situation would not have a right to the abortifacient drug, so a pharmacist has no duty to dispense it. According to the technician model of professionalism, the pharmacist's personal values do not matter, so a pharmacist has a duty to provide the service.

  17. Challenges in the management of chronic noncommunicable diseases by Indonesian community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Hanni P; Aslani, Parisa; Krass, Ines

    2015-01-01

    We explored factors influencing Indonesian primary care pharmacists' practice in chronic noncommunicable disease management and proposed a model illustrating relationships among factors. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with pharmacists working in community health centers (Puskesmas, n=5) and community pharmacies (apotek, n=15) in East Java Province. We interviewed participating pharmacists using Bahasa Indonesia to explore facilitators and barriers to their practice in chronic disease management. We audiorecorded all interviews, transcribed ad verbatim, translated into English and analyzed the data using an approach informed by "grounded-theory". We extracted five emergent themes/factors: pharmacists' attitudes, Puskesmas/apotek environment, pharmacy education, pharmacy professional associations, and the government. Respondents believed that primary care pharmacists have limited roles in chronic disease management. An unfavourable working environment and perceptions of pharmacists' inadequate knowledge and skills were reported by many as barriers to pharmacy practice. Limited professional standards, guidelines, leadership and government regulations coupled with low expectations of pharmacists among patients and doctors also contributed to their lack of involvement in chronic disease management. We present the interplay of these factors in our model. Pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, skills and their working environment appeared to influence pharmacists' contribution in chronic disease management. To develop pharmacists' involvement in chronic disease management, support from pharmacy educators, pharmacy owners, professional associations, the government and other stakeholders is required. Our findings highlight a need for systematic coordination between pharmacists and stakeholders to improve primary care pharmacists' practice in Indonesia to achieve continuity of care.

  18. Pharmacists' Scope of Practice: Supports for Canadians with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Kerry; Edmunds, Kirsten; Guirguis, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacists' role in Canada has significantly advanced over the past decade, resulting in increasing access to primary care services. This study aimed to characterize pharmacists' expanded scope of practice as it relates to providing services to Canadians with diabetes. This environmental scan characterized services that could be useful to Canadians with diabetes in each of the provinces (excluding the territories): immunizations, medication prescribing, ordering and interpreting laboratory tests, and medication reviews. Researchers also collected information on pharmacists' access to health information. Data were collected from regulatory authorities in each province, from pharmacy stakeholders and through a web search. Pharmacists' scope of practice varies widely across the Canadian provinces. Three provinces have medication-review programs focused specifically on diabetes, and many people with diabetes can access publicly funded medication reviews. Other than in Quebec, pharmacists can provide influenza (publicly funded) and pneumococcal vaccinations (publicly funded in British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba). All pharmacists in Canadian provinces can renew prescriptions to ensure continuity of therapy. Pharmacists have varying levels of other prescriptive authority. Pharmacists in all provinces (except Ontario) can access provincial prescription information; in 4 provinces, they can access laboratory results, and in 3 provinces, they can order and interpret laboratory results, such as glycated hemoglobin levels. Canadians with diabetes can expect to receive influenza vaccines and have medications renewed at their pharmacies. Many patients with diabetes qualify for a publicly funded medication review, and some provinces allow pharmacists to order and interpret laboratory results. This expanded scope provides greater opportunities for pharmacists to help support patients with diabetes in conjunction with other health-care team members. Copyright © 2017

  19. Characterization of pharmacists' interventions in asthma management: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Gonzalez, Carmen; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Rotta, Inajara; Correr, Cassyano J; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Garcia-Cardenas, Victoria

    2018-02-10

    Pharmacists have adopted an active role in asthma management. This review aimed to analyze the intervention dose, understood as the "amount of program delivered," and core components of the intervention provided by pharmacists in asthma management. A literature search was conducted in December 2016 using PubMed. A 2-stage approach was used. At the first stage, systematic reviews of pharmacists' interventions in asthma management were identified. At the second stage, primary studies included in the systematic reviews were selected. The DEPICT-2 (Descriptive Elements of Pharmacist Intervention Characterization Tool) was used for data extraction. In addition GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines were used as a reference to classify the interventions' core components. Thirty-one studies were included. In most of the studies, the pharmacist-patient intervention occurred at the community pharmacy setting (n = 22). The most common core components used in pharmacists' interventions were the provision of drug information and patient counseling (n = 27). Pharmacists' interventions frequently were targeted at assessing and improving the use of patient's inhaler technique (n = 27). Educational materials and written action plans were the materials most commonly used in the interventions (n = 20). The duration (n = 13) and the frequency (n = 16) of the intervention were the most frequent information about the intervention dose measure reported. Pharmacists' interventions in asthma management are complex. Structured educational programs and patient counseling appear to be the most frequent core components of pharmacists' interventions. Interventions were focused on providing information about the condition and on inhaler technique assessment and training. However, most studies failed to report the intervention dose sufficiently to be reproduced. The reporting of this indicator is crucial to ensure the reproducibility of the interventions assessed and their

  20. Compounding training in pharmacy education in Singapore: Perceptions of final year undergraduate pharmacy students and compounding pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Teng Choo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the importance of compounding training in today’s pharmacy education in Singapore, this study examined the perception of final year National University of Singapore (NUS pharmacy undergraduates on compounding training in pharmacy education and their awareness of compounding services in Singapore in relation to compounding pharmacists’ perception, practice and role of pharmacy compounding in Singapore. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between November 2013 and January 2014. It comprised of a questionnaire survey conducted on 134 final year pharmacy undergraduates, and face-to-face interviews conducted on 7 retail compounding pharmacists. Questionnaire responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, while the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by thematic coding. Results: Less than 40% of final year pharmacy undergraduates were aware of compounding activities and compounding pharmacies in Singapore. Nonetheless, majority agreed that compounding should be included in the pharmacy curriculum (83.6% as it is an important part of pharmacy education (78.3% and pharmacy profession (61.2%. All the interviewed compounding pharmacists felt that compounding in pharmacy education has provided them with the basics to build on knowledge and skills at work. Compounded medications were also viewed as necessary by 71.4% of the pharmacists in fulfilling the needs of certain patient populations. Conclusion: Compounding training is necessary in pharmacy education. Pharmacy compounding has evolved from its traditional role into a professional speciality of customizing medications to meet different patient needs today. Hence, knowledge and skills in pharmacy compounding remain a relevant foundation for practising pharmacists to enhance pharmaceutical care at work.

  1. Professing faith, professing medicine: Physicians and the call to evangelize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochanski, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    The Hippocratic Oath traditionally establishes medicine as a profession: A career, or vocation based on the professing of an oath regarding personal and public behavior. For Catholic physicians, the commitments of the Oath of Hippocrates take on new meaning when seen in light of the promises made at Baptism and renewed every Easter. This paper, originally an address to medical students, considers the role of Catholic physicians as evangelizers, those who spread the message and values of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. PMID:24899735

  2. Pharmacists' considerations when serving Amish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y; Manuel, Aimée M; Wood, Bruce D

    2009-01-01

    To introduce historical and sociocultural influences on health and health care decisions that should be considered by pharmacists and other health professionals when serving Amish patients and to describe the roles of pharmacists in working with Amish populations, as an example of culturally and linguistically appropriate care. Community independent pharmacy in Arthur, IL, from 1991 to 2008. Reflections of a pharmacist-owner whose community practice serves a sizeable Amish population. The Old Order Amish are a religious group that values health and actively participates in its health care decisions. The Amish possess a strong sense of community responsibility and often seek advice of friends, family, and community in health care decisions. Their explanatory models of health and illness differ, in some respects, from the larger American society. The Amish are open to the use of folk medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and conventional care when deemed necessary. They are receptive to health care information and explanations of options from trusted sources and use increased self-care modalities, including herbal remedies. Knowledge of salient cultural differences is important, but care should be given to avoid stereotyping patients because Amish rules and customs differ across districts. Culturally competent pharmacist care should be individualized based on patient needs and in consideration of aspects of differences in Amish cultures and districts. When serving Amish patients, special consideration should be given to addressing potential barriers to health care use, such as unique dialects, affordability issues for largely cash-paying customers, lower prenatal care use, and lower vaccination rates. Enhanced awareness and sensitivity to Amish lifestyles and beliefs can lessen misconceptions and minimize barriers that interfere with optimal provision of patient-centered pharmacy care and services. By working through established community norms, building

  3. Intersectoral collaboration between the medical and veterinary professions in low-resource societies: The role of research and training institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotty, Tanguy; Thys, Eric; Conrad, Patricia; Godfroid, Jacques; Craig, Philip; Zinsstag, Jakob; Meheus, Filip; Boukary, Abdou Razac; Badé, Mallam Abdou; Sahibi, Hamid; Filali, Hind; Hendrickx, Saskia; Pissang, Cyrille; Van Herp, Michel; van der Roost, Dirk; Thys, Séverine; Hendrickx, David; Claes, Marleen; Demeulenaere, Tine; van Mierlo, Joep; Dehoux, Jean-Paul; Boelaert, Marleen

    2013-05-01

    Neglected zoonoses continue to significantly affect human health in low-resource countries. A symposium was organised in Antwerp, Belgium, on 5 November 2010 to evaluate how intersectoral collaboration among educational and research institutions could improve the situation. Brucellosis and echinococcosis were presented as models for intersectoral collaboration. Low-resource societies face evident knowledge gaps on disease distribution, transmission within and across species and impact on human and animal health, precluding the development of integrated control strategies. While veterinarians have been the main driver of the One Health initiative, the medical profession does not seem to be fully aware of how veterinary science can contribute to human public health. It was postulated that transdisciplinarity could help fill knowledge gaps and that encouraging such transdisciplinarity should start with undergraduate students. Furthermore, intersectoral collaboration on zoonoses should not ignore the social sciences (e.g. assessment of indigenous knowledge and perception; participatory surveillance), which can contribute to a better understanding of the transmission of diseases and improve communities' participation in disease control activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interdisciplinary medication decision making by pharmacists in pediatric hospital settings: An ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ellie; Kinney, Sharon; Weiner, Carlye; Newall, Fiona; Williams, Allison; Cranswick, Noel; Wong, Ian; Borrott, Narelle; Manias, Elizabeth

    2017-03-22

    Children are particularly vulnerable to experiencing medication incidents in hospitals. Making sound medication decisions is therefore of paramount importance. Prior research has principally described pharmacists' role in reducing medication errors. There is a dearth of information about pharmacists' interactions with pediatric hospital staff across disciplines in resolving medication issues. The aim of this study was to examine interdisciplinary medication decision making by pharmacists in pediatric hospital settings. An ethnographic design was undertaken comprising observations, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Audio-recorded data were analyzed thematically. The study was conducted in three wards of an Australian pediatric tertiary teaching hospital, comprising general surgical, gastroenterology, endocrinology, neurology, adolescent and rehabilitation settings. Pharmacists, registered nurses and doctors were recruited from diverse clinical wards following information sessions. Pharmacists were central to complex pediatric medication decision making, intervening about dosage, administration, drug interactions and authorities. Pharmacists proactively contacted doctors and nurses about prescribing issues; conversely, staff routinely approached pharmacists for medication advice. Pharmacists were perceived as medication experts, their extensive knowledge valued in resolving complex issues: when off-label medications were prescribed, when protocols were absent or ambiguous, where tension existed between protocol adherence and patient safety, and where patients on multiple medications were at risk of medication error. Pharmacists had strong relationships with doctors and nurses, which had a bearing on pharmacists' input in interventions. Furthermore, pharmacists identified prescribing errors through strategies, such as case note review and medication reconciliation, although the lack of emergency department pharmacists and limited after-hours staffing posed

  5. The Information Professions: Knowledge, Memory, Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Along with leading to growth in the numbers of people doing information work, the increasing role of information in our contemporary society has led to an explosion of new information professions as well. The labels for these fields can be confusing and overlapping, and what does and does not constitute an information profession has…

  6. Improving the Working Relationship between Doctors and Pharmacists: Is Inter-Professional Education the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ruth M.; Gallagher, Helen C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their common history, there are many cultural, attitudinal and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that ultimately influence patient care and health outcomes. While poor communication between doctors and pharmacists is a major cause of medical errors, it is clear that effective, deliberate…

  7. Development of an ambulatory palliative care pharmacist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atayee, Rabia Samady; Best, Brookie M; Daniels, Charles E

    2008-10-01

    The roles of a pharmacist in hospice and inpatient palliative care settings have been described. However, no reports of a palliative care pharmacist in an ambulatory care setting have been published. Our objective was to establish a model for incorporating an outpatient clinical pharmacist as part of a multidisciplinary palliative care team. A palliative care pharmacist based out of a retail pharmacy was incorporated as part of a consultative ambulatory palliative care service (known as the Doris A. Howell Service) at the University of California, San Diego Moores Cancer Center. The pharmacist completed all legal requirements to prescribe under a collaborative practice agreement in California (including National Provider Identifier [NPI] and US Drug Enforcement Agency [DEA] US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) registration). From November 2006 through August 2007, the palliative care pharmacist consulted 29 new patients (the average age of patients was 49; range, 20-78 years) who had 114 clinic visits. The most common reason for referral to the palliative care pharmacist was for pain management (27/29; 93%). During the 114 patient clinic visits, 98% (112/114) of the palliative care pharmacist medication recommendations were accepted by the primary care oncologist. Physicians completed a satisfaction survey and reported that the top three useful activities of the Howell Service were: additional time spent with patients without physician present (90.9%), pain and symptom management (81.8%), and psychosocial support (72.7%). This is the first report of a palliative care pharmacist in a retail-based ambulatory care setting. Initial results demonstrate the success of this pilot program.

  8. Learning to prescribe – pharmacists' experiences of supplementary prescribing training in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson Allen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of non-medical prescribing for professions such as pharmacy and nursing in recent years offers additional responsibilities and opportunities but attendant training issues. In the UK and in contrast to some international models, becoming a non-medical prescriber involves the completion of an accredited training course offered by many higher education institutions, where the skills and knowledge necessary for prescribing are learnt. Aims: to explore pharmacists' perceptions and experiences of learning to prescribe on supplementary prescribing (SP courses, particularly in relation to inter-professional learning, course content and subsequent use of prescribing in practice. Methods A postal questionnaire survey was sent to all 808 SP registered pharmacists in England in April 2007, exploring demographic, training, prescribing, safety culture and general perceptions of SP. Results After one follow-up, 411 (51% of pharmacists responded. 82% agreed SP training was useful, 58% agreed courses provided appropriate knowledge and 62% agreed that the necessary prescribing skills were gained. Clinical examination, consultation skills training and practical experience with doctors were valued highly; pharmacology training and some aspects of course delivery were criticised. Mixed views on inter-professional learning were reported – insights into other professions being valued but knowledge and skills differences considered problematic. 67% believed SP and recent independent prescribing (IP should be taught together, with more diagnostic training wanted; few pharmacists trained in IP, but many were training or intending to train. There was no association between pharmacists' attitudes towards prescribing training and when they undertook training between 2004 and 2007 but earlier cohorts were more likely to be using supplementary prescribing in practice. Conclusion Pharmacists appeared to value their SP training and

  9. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    New legislation went into effect in Iceland in March 1996 making it the first Nordic country to liberate their drug distribution system. The term liberalization implies the abolishment of the professional monopoly in that ownership was not tied to the pharmacy profession anymore. Focus group...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly...... technical skills. This account of the changes in the drug distribution system in Iceland highlights some of the implications for pharmacists internationally....

  10. Perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacists toward professional ethics and ethical dilemmas in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković Rodríguez, Jadranka; Juričić, Živka

    2017-05-22

    Formal training in pharmacy ethics is relatively new in Croatia, and the professional code of ethics is more than 20 years old. Very little is known about how practicing pharmacists implement ethical considerations and relevant professional guidelines in their work. This study aimed to provide the first description of the perceptions and attitudes of Croatian community pharmacists toward ethics in pharmacy practice, how often they face certain ethical dilemmas and how they resolve them. A cross-sectional survey of 252 community pharmacists, including community pharmacists and pre-licensing trainees, was conducted in Zagreb, Croatia. This group accounts for 18% of licensed pharmacists in Croatia. The survey questions included four sections: general sociodemographic information, multiple-choice questions, pre-defined ethical scenarios, and ethical scenarios filled in by respondents. More than half of pharmacists (62.7%) face ethical dilemmas in everyday work. Nearly all (94.4%) are familiar with the current professional code of ethics in Croatia, but only 47.6% think that the code reflects the changes that the pharmacy profession faces today. Most pharmacists (83.3%) solve ethical dilemmas on their own, while nearly the same proportion (75.4%) think that they are not adequately trained to deal with ethical dilemmas. The pre-defined ethical scenarios experienced by the largest proportion of pharmacists are being asked to dispense a drug to someone other than the patient (93.3%), an unnecessary over-the-counter medicine (84.3%), a generic medicine clinically equivalent to the prescribed one (79.4%), or hormonal contraception over the counter (70.4%). The results demonstrate a need to improve formal pharmacy ethics education and training in how to assess ethical issues and make appropriate decisions, which implies the need for stronger collaboration between pharmacists and their professional association. Our results also highlight an urgent need to revise and update the

  11. Clinical skill development for community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, D J; Murphy, C M; Carter, B L

    1996-09-01

    The importance of establishing clinical pharmacy services in the community cannot be understated in light of current challenges to the traditional dispensing role as the primary service of the community pharmacist. Advancements in automated dispensing technology and declining prescription fee reimbursement are rapidly forcing pharmacists to seek alternative sources of revenue. Providing pharmaceutical care is a viable option to increase customer loyalty job satisfaction, and reimbursement. To support the development of clinical services, academic institutions are forming partnerships with individual community practitioners to overcome perceived educational and training barriers. The authors describe the design and development of two unique clinical skill development programs at the University of Illinois at Chicago. This paper also outlines the patient focused services that the participants have established upon completing the training. These programs successfully enhanced participants' therapeutic knowledge base and facilitated development of the clinical skills necessary for direct patient care.

  12. Multidisciplinary members' perspectives on a pharmacist joining a rheumatology practice team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Kerry; Kur, Jason

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacist participation in chronic disease management benefits patients in many ambulatory settings. We explored the attitudes and perceptions among multidisciplinary members of a rheumatology team towards the skills and responsibilities of a pharmacist joining their practice. The physicians, nurse, physiotherapist and staff of a rheumatology clinic were invited to participate in focus group and semistructured interviews. Practice members also completed an inventory of perceived health professional roles in the medication use process. Discussions with 2 physicians, a nurse, physiotherapist and 1 office administrator were conducted. Concepts related to 3 key themes included positively viewed pharmacist roles broadly related to activities that encompass provision of medication-related services for the patients, the providers and the practice. Examples of such care included educational tasks related to therapies (rheumatological and otherwise) and maintenance of accurate drug histories. These findings were reflected in high scores for perceived pharmacist roles in education and medication review responsibilities using the Medication Use Processes Matrix instrument. Most members were not comfortable with pharmacists conducting physical assessments and emphasized the need for a team member who could adapt to variations in workflow preferences across rheumatologists in the practice. Perceived pharmacist roles expressed by existing rheumatology team members were largely consistent with the scope of pharmacist knowledge, skills and responsibilities in primary care. Overall, existing multidisciplinary staff exhibited favourable attitudes towards a pharmacist joining their practice setting. Data from this job analysis exercise were used to inform the development of a job description for a rheumatology clinical pharmacist.

  13. Regulation of Pharmacists: A Comparative Law and Economics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels J. Philipsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the regulation of pharmacists from an economic perspective, focusing on licensing, price and fee regulation, advertising restrictions and rules on exercise of the profession, and restrictions on business structure. A comparative overview is presented of the most common forms of regulation of pharmacists that are found today in the EU (and to some extent Canada, China and the US and to investigate whether there is an economic rationale for these rules. Despite the rather strict regulatory frameworks found in all of these jurisdictions, in various countries there is a discussion on how to improve or increase the level of pharmaceutical care. The author suggests in that respect that changes in the reimbursement system may provide a better solution than stricter entry or conduct requirements.

  14. Application of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model in predicting pharmacists' intention to use personal digital assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Anandaroop; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Sherer, Jeff T; Wallace, David; Sikri, Samir

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate pharmacists' behavioral intention to use personal digital assistants (PDAs) in their profession, by means of the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (ETAM). Prospective cross-sectional study. Hospital and community pharmacies in Houston, TX, in 2004. Convenience sample of 295 practicing pharmacists. A prevalidated survey containing 30 items, evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale (1, strongly disagree, to 5, strongly agree), which measured the ETAM variables. Predictors of intention to use PDA for pharmacists owning the device. Among the surveyed population, 49% of pharmacists owned PDAs. Overall, the ETAM constructs showed fairly good reliability. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the ETAM explained 69% of the variance in intention to use PDAs for pharmacists owning the device. Result demonstrability (beta = 0.53), subjective norm (beta = 0.25), and voluntariness (beta = -0.10) were significant (P ETAM proved useful in predicting pharmacists' behavior in using PDAs. With improvements in technology, PDAs be an effective tool for pharmacists in providing better patient care.

  15. A computer literacy skills profile of pharmacists residing in two counties of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter; Rutter, Paul M

    2008-12-01

    Pharmacy is an information intensive profession and a pharmacist has to be proficient in health care information management. The advance in information technology and the use of computers to access, retrieve and analyse this information is increasingly important. Yet little is known about pharmacists' computer literacy or information technology skills. To gain a better understanding of pharmacists' basic computer skills and their ability to use standard software. Self-administered postal survey to 747 registered pharmacists residing in two counties of England. A total of 386 (52%) pharmacists responded after two mailings. Most responding pharmacists used computers at work and at home. They believed their basic computing skills to be high, although acknowledged that they were skill deficient in using certain software packages. Internet use at work was low (43%) as too was awareness and use of online medical databases; this was reflected in online medical database training being identified as of greatest need. Pharmacists were confident in operating computer systems but identified a training need for particular software applications. Of concern is the limited knowledge they possessed and access they had on medical databases.

  16. How are pharmacists in Ontario adapting to practice change? Results of a qualitative analysis using Kotter's change management model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Beatriz; Gregory, Paul A M; Austin, Zubin

    2017-01-01

    The pace of practice change in community pharmacy over the past decade has been significant, yet there is little evidence documenting implementation of change in the profession. Kotter's change management model was selected as a theoretical framework for this exploratory qualitative study. Community pharmacists were interviewed using a semistructured protocol based on Kotter's model. Data were analyzed and coded using a constant-comparative iterative method aligned with the stages of change management outlined by Kotter. Twelve community pharmacists were interviewed. Three key themes emerged: 1) the profession has successfully established the urgency to, and created a climate conducive for, change; 2) the profession has been less successful in engaging and enabling the profession to actually implement change; and 3) legislative changes (for example, expansion of pharmacists' scope of practice) may have occurred prematurely, prior to other earlier stages of the change process being consolidated. As noted by most participants, allowing change is not implementing change: pharmacists reported feeling underprepared and lacking confidence to actually make change in their practices and believe that more emphasis on practical, specific implementation tactics is needed. Change management is complex and time and resource intensive. There is a need to provide personalized, detailed, context-specific implementation strategies to pharmacists to allow them to take full advantage of expanded scope of practice.

  17. Effectiveness of a community based nurse-pharmacist managed pain clinic: A mixed-methods study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, MA; Alldred, DP; Briggs, M; Marczewski, K; Closs, SJ

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is predominantly managed in primary care, although often ineffectively. There is growing evidence to support the potential role of nurses and pharmacists in the effective management of chronic pain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pain clinic jointly managed by a nurse and pharmacist. DESIGN: A mixed-methods design consisting of qualitative interviews embedded within a quasi-experimental study. SETTINGS: A community-based nurse-pharmacist led pain clini...

  18. The pharmacists' awareness, knowledge and attitude about childhood autism in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luleci, Nimet Emel; Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Karavus, Melda; Karavus, Ahmet; Sanver, Furkan Fatih; Ozgur, Fatih; Celik, Mehmethan; Celik, Samed Cihad

    2016-12-01

    Background Being one of the key players in healthcare, pharmacists could have an important role in the early detection and care of children with autism, by familiarizing themselves with autism-related resources and helping families to find relevant professional resources. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of pharmacists about autism, and their knowledge and attitude towards autism. Setting İstanbul Province of Turkey. Method This descriptive study was carried out in pharmacists working in Istanbul Province of Turkey in 7 municipalities out of 39. One hundred forty-one out of 150 pharmacists who agreed to participate in our study were interviewed with the help of questionnaires. Main outcome measure Knowledge about childhood ASD and the social characteristics thereoff amongst pharmacists. Results Minimum 33.4 and maximum 73.1 % of the pharmacists gave correct answers to each question. Furthermore pharmacists' knowledge about causative factors of childhood ASD proved to be lacking and they tend to believe in outdated theories. The percentage of pharmacists believing that autism holds social stigma in this community was 66.0 %. Conclusion Pharmacists' knowledge regarding ASD needs to be improved. Enhancing their awareness, especially about basic social characteristics of childhood ASD will help pharmacists direct families of children with ASD to responsible health authorities.

  19. Pharmacists' experiences and attitudes regarding generic drugs and generic substitution: two sides of the coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Erika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2012-12-01

    Generic drug substitution reduces costs for medicines, but the downsides include unintentional double medication, confusion and anxiety among patients. Information from pharmacists affects patients' experiences of substitution with generic drugs. The aim of this study was to explore experiences and attitudes to generic substitution among Swedish community pharmacists. An interview guide was developed. Semi-structured interviews with community pharmacists were conducted and transcribed verbatim. Analysis was inductive; extracts from the transcripts were compared and combined to form themes and subcategories. Pharmacists from a heterogeneous convenience sample of pharmacies were interviewed until data saturation had been achieved. Sixteen pharmacists were interviewed. Three main themes and twelve subcategories were identified, with the main themes being the role of the pharmacist, pharmacists' concerns regarding patients, and the generic drug. Pharmacists found it positive that generic substitution decreases the costs for pharmaceuticals but also emphasized that the switch can confuse and worry patients, which could result in less benefit from treatment. Respondents claimed that generic substitution has changed the focus in the pharmacist-patient meeting towards economics and regulations. According to the interviewed pharmacists generic substitution is not primarily an issue of generic versus brand-name products, but concerns above all the challenges that the switch implies for patients and pharmacists. To prevent known confusion and concerns among patients it is important that community pharmacists acquire the necessary tools and knowledge to manage this situation; pharmacists themselves as well as pharmacy owners and authorities share responsibility for this. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. The role of international health movement in the development of the Dietitian and Nutricionist profession in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María Trescastro-López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the first world war and the subsequent post-war period, hunger and malnutrition became such severe problems that Governments and international agencies were spurred into action. Between 1920 and 1930, a new culture of nutrition emerged in the global arena. Nutrition and dietetics began to receive careful consideration and national and international policies on nutrition started to take shape. During the interwar period, many countries created food hygiene services and launched national institutes of nutrition, and it was within these welfare and research scenarios that the first steps were taken towards professionalization of the role of dietitian and nutritionist, since the community approach taken to nutritional problems highlighted the need for trained professionals to apply knowledge of nutrition. This circumstance favored the creation of a professional role linked to a collective approach to the problem of malnutrition whilst maintaining its roots in the field of inpatient care and clinical nutrition. Nutrition attained its distinct professional identity above all in the context of public health.

  1. Expressing and negotiating face in community pharmacist-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Muna S; Spiers, Judith A; Guirguis, Lisa M

    2017-11-01

    A collaborative patient-pharmacist interaction is fundamental to greater patient satisfaction with pharmacy care and improved medication adherence. Effective pharmacist-patient communication occurs when both pharmacist and patient are able to successfully attend to not only the typical tasks and goals of the interaction but also basic face needs that underlie all social interaction; autonomy, competence or esteem, and fellowship. Addressing face needs occurs through conventional and strategic communication strategies that respond to the emerging needs throughout an interaction. Pharmacist-patient interactions are not just about transfer of information and medications. Both parties assess the situation, the others' intentions within the context of their own goals and this influences how they choose to act throughout the interaction. Face-work Theory provides a framework to understand these interaction processes in pharmacist-patient communication. The aim of this study was to determine face needs, threats and the strategic communication strategies used to address these within community pharmacist-patient interactions. This exploratory descriptive study drew upon principles of ethology to first describe naturally occurring behaviour and then to interpret this behaviour within the context of Face-work theory. Twenty-five audio-recorded community pharmacist-patient interactions were collected and analyzed. The average length of these interactions was 3:67 min with a range of 0.39 s-9:35 min. Multiple face needs for both pharmacist and patient were evident in most interactions. Autonomy, competence and fellowship face needs were negotiated in the following contexts: participative relationships, concordant role expectations, sensitive topics, and negotiating expertise and knowledge. Competence face needs for both parties were the most dominant need found in negotiating role expectations. The most common communication strategies used to support face were solidarity

  2. Using personal strengths with intention in pharmacy: implications for pharmacists, managers, and leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Andrew P; Janke, Kristin K; Sorensen, Todd D

    2010-02-01

    The importance of allowing individuals to use their strengths in a work environment has been articulated through research focused on general audiences as well as by thought leaders within pharmacy. In particular, the work of Gallup has described how organizations that foster an environment in which employees frequently use their strengths achieve increased productivity, customer and employee satisfaction, and improved success at meeting goals. Despite acknowledging the importance of such an environment, little has been articulated in the pharmacy literature regarding how pharmacists can identify and apply their unique strengths within their profession. To provide an overview of the concept of individual strengths, the value of utilizing strengths in the profession, and the authors' experiences facilitating an awareness of this concept with student pharmacists, pharmacy residents, and pharmacists. Discovery and application of strengths has become a foundational theme in leadership development activities at the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy. The learning process begins with building awareness and identifying individual talents using the Clifton StrengthsFinder Profile and reflecting on previous use of these talents. Throughout the activities, participants are encouraged to examine how professional experiences that correlate with their talents intersect and affect their knowledge and skills. Finally, participants are encouraged to utilize and maximize their talents in a team environment. Experience has been gained delivering this educational process to 225 student pharmacists, 39 ambulatory care residents, and 22 practicing pharmacists. Participants have viewed this program favorably and articulated that utilization and growth of strengths is valuable to their career. In order to achieve our potential as a profession, it is critical to identify and apply the strengths that individual pharmacists bring to their practice settings. The identification

  3. The impact of the internet on the practice of general practitioners and community pharmacists in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McCaw

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions Both professions used the internet regularly as a source of health-related information and both had to deal with 'internet-informed', (or sometimes misinformed patients. Community pharmacists were more likely to feel challenged by these patients and GPs sometimes had to deal with unnecessarily worried patients or patients with unrealistic expectations. Both professions will have to change working practices to accommodate the impact of the internet. This will have significant future training implications.

  4. Founding of the Association of Physician Assistant Programs and the Organization's Central Role in the Development of the Physician Assistant Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Alfred M; Piemme, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    The Physician Assistant Education Association (PAEA) (formerly Association of Physician Assistant Programs [APAP]) was founded in 1972 by early PA program leaders to encourage collaboration and discussion among program leaders and faculty on a wide range of issues of mutual concern. This article addresses the founding of the organization, which continues to represent PA programs today. It addresses the important accomplishments of APAP during the 1972-1974 period and describes in detail the essential contributions of APAP and its leaders in developing the PA profession. Included are discussions of "the Role of the Registry of Physicians' Associates," which was incorporated into APAP; the sponsorship of "the First National Conference on New Health Practitioners" in collaboration with AAPA; the "Launching a Joint National Office" for APAP and AAPA in Washington, DC, in 1973; and "Places at the Table," which reviews the successful efforts of APAP leaders to gain inclusion of AAPA and APAP in the Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs for Assistants to the Primary Physician (JRC-PA) for accrediting qualified programs, the contribution of APAP leaders to the development of the first Certification Examination for the Assistant to the Primary Care Physician by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) in 1973, leadership in the founding of the National Commission on the Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA) in 1974, and collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) in developing interdisciplinary education and training. It concludes with a summation of the legacy of APAP (PAEA's) formative years.

  5. Being Successful in a Creative Profession: The Role of Innovative Cognitive Style, Self-Regulation, and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeftink, Flora; Van Eerde, Wendelien; Rutte, Christel G; Bertrand, J Will M

    2012-03-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test a model that proposes that innovative cognitive style and self-regulation (setting priorities, planning work activities, and monitoring time and task progress) are related to the self-reported success of architects. We investigated two aspects of the success: as designers and as business people. To this end, we examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in these relationships. DATA/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: We collected data using a web-based survey among 276 architects in the Netherlands. These were architects that either managed and/or owned a company, including freelance architects. FINDINGS: Innovative cognitive style was related directly and indirectly, via design self-efficacy, to the self-rating of being a successful designer. Self-regulation, via self-efficacy, was indirectly related to being a successful designer, and directly related to being a successful businessperson. In addition, design success was related to success as a businessperson. IMPLICATIONS: This study shows that self-regulation at work is related to self-rated success in design and business. We regard self-regulation to be a form of actively managing work tasks, identified as an increasingly important type of behavior at work. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study is one of the first to investigate the self-regulation of creative professionals that included both design and business aspects. We focused on three aspects of self-regulation, and tested our model using structural equation modeling.

  6. [Characteristics of systematic reviews about the impact of pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, C; Guérin, A; Bussières, J-F

    2014-11-01

    The pharmacists' role is varied and numerous articles evaluate the outcomes of pharmaceutical interventions. The main objectives of this study were to establish the characteristics of systematic reviews about pharmacists' interventions that were published in the last five years. A literature search was performed on Pubmed for French and English articles published between 01-01-2008 and 31-05-2013. Systematic reviews that presented the role, the interventions and the impact of pharmacists were selected by two research assistants. A total of 46 systematic reviews was identified, amongst which one third (n=15/46, 33 %) were meta-analyses. A quarter of systematic reviews did not evaluate the quality of included articles (n=13/46, 28 %). Twelve themes were identified. A median [min-max] of 16 [2-298] articles was included per systematic review. The most frequent pharmaceutical activities were patient counseling (n=41 systematic reviews), patient chart review (n=29), pharmacotherapy evaluation (n=27) and recommendations (n=26). The least frequent activities were teaching others than patients (n=12) and medical rounds participation (n=7). Many elements can influence the completion of pharmacy practice research projects; however, there exists no link between the presence of systematic reviews and the importance of pharmacists in a given healthcare program. This study presents the characteristics of 46 systematic reviews about pharmacists interventions published since 2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. An evaluation of pharmacists' knowledge of women's issues in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, James W; Casey, Jynel; Long, Lucretia

    2009-01-01

    Although epilepsy affects men and women equally, there are many women's health issues in epilepsy. These issues challenge both the woman with epilepsy and the many health care professionals involved in her care. As antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) play a major role in the treatment of epilepsy, pharmacists can serve an important function in the health care of patients with this chronic disease. The goal of this educational project was to assess pharmacists' knowledge of women's issues in epilepsy using the Knowledge of Women's Issues and Epilepsy II (KOWIE-II) questionnaire. In this cross-sectional study we used the valid and reliable KOWIE-II questionnaire, a 10-item questionnaire on women's issues in general as well as pregnancy-related issues. A random sample of pharmacists registered in Ohio either were sent the KOWIE-II questionnaire or completed it prior to a live seminar. Demographic and practice-related data were collected. A percentage correct score was calculated per pharmacist. Our sample consisted of 152 completed surveys. On the questionnaire, the overall average correct score was 60.3%. Nearly 75% of pharmacists had a correct score for the statement inquiring about the drug interaction between enzyme-inducing AEDs and contraceptives. Slightly less than 70% knew of the issue of AED-induced bone loss. Almost one-third (32.2%) of the respondents answered incorrectly when asked about the frequency of sexual dysfunction in women with epilepsy, though an even higher percentage chose "don't know." Most of the pharmacists (69.1%) stated "don't know" when asked about the relationship between hormones and seizure control. More than 70% correctly answered four of the six pregnancy-related statements (folic acid=77.0%, healthy babies=82.9%, continued AED adherence during pregnancy=86.8%, choice of AED during pregnancy=71.1%). Fewer pharmacists knew about vitamin K supplementation (57.9%), and even fewer answered the question on breastfeeding correctly (33

  8. Community pharmacists' attitudes towards medicines use reviews and factors affecting the numbers performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Asam; Boardman, Helen

    2008-10-01

    Medicines use review and prescription intervention ('MUR services') is the first advanced service within the NHS community pharmacy contract and is a structured review that is undertaken by a pharmacists with patients on multiple medicines. The objective of this study was to investigate factors that influence the number of Medicines use reviews (MURs) performed by community pharmacists and to explore community pharmacists' attitudes towards the service. Setting This study was conducted with pharmacists who were employed by one UK community pharmacy chain. A questionnaire was developed to investigate factors that influence the number of MURs performed and pharmacists' attitudes towards MURs. It consisted of a series of attitudinal statements together with brief demographic data. Questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 280 pharmacists accredited to provide the service during April and May 2006. Factors affecting the number of MURs performed and community pharmacists' attitudes towards MURs. Sixty per cent (167/280) of pharmacists returned a completed questionnaire. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents had not performed any MURs, 43% had conducted one to 14 reviews and 31% had conducted 15 or more. Job title affected the number of reviews performed; respondents categorised as 'Store based' pharmacists performed significantly more MURs than those working as 'Locums' but not significantly more than 'Managing' pharmacists. Pharmacists reporting access to an accredited consultation area performed significantly more MURs than those who did not. Those working more than 20 h per week performed significantly more MURs than those working less. Gender, time since qualification, the pharmacy size and those having or currently undertaking a clinical diploma were not found to be associated with the number of MURs performed. Most respondents reported that MURs were an opportunity for pharmacist to use their professional skills in an extended role and patients would benefit

  9. Patients' and physicians' satisfaction with a pharmacist managed anticoagulation program in a family medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lisa; Young, Stephanie; Twells, Laurie; Dillon, Carla; Hawboldt, John

    2015-06-09

    A pharmacist managed anticoagulation service was initiated in a multi-physician family medicine clinic in December 2006. In order to determine the patient and physician satisfaction with the service, a study was designed to describe the patients' satisfaction with the warfarin education and management they received from the pharmacist, and to describe the physicians' satisfaction with the level of care provided by the pharmacist for patients taking warfarin. A self-administered survey was completed by both eligible patients receiving warfarin and physicians prescribing warfarin between December 2006 and May 2008. The patient survey collected information on patient demographics, satisfaction with warfarin education and daily warfarin management. The physician survey collected data about the satisfaction with patient education and daily anticoagulation management by the pharmacist. Seventy-six of 94 (81%) patients completed the survey. Fifty-nine percent were male with a mean age of 65 years (range 24-90). Ninety-six percent agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist did a good job teaching the importance of warfarin adherence, the necessity of INR testing and the risks of bleeding. Eighty-five percent agreed/strongly agreed the risk of blood clots was well explained, 79% felt the pharmacist did a good job teaching about dietary considerations and 77% agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist explained when to see a doctor. All patients felt the pharmacist gave clear instructions on warfarin dosing and INR testing. Four of nine physicians (44%) completed the survey. All agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist was competent in the care provided, were confident in the care their patients received, would like the pharmacist to continue the service, and would recommend this program to other clinics. Patients and family physicians were satisfied with the pharmacist managed anticoagulation program and recommended continuation of the program. These results support the role of the

  10. Professions and their Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John

    2005-01-01

    PROFESSIONS AND THEIR IDENTITIES: HOW TO EXPLORE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG (SEMI-)PROFESSIONS This article explores conditions for discussing what it means to be professional among teachers, pre-school teachers, nurses and social workers. From an epistemological point of view it explores how...... analytical strategies can frame in sufficiently complex ways what it means to be a professional today. It is assumed that at least four main issues must be dealt with in order to conduct a satisfactory analysis of professions and their identities. Firstly, it is of fundamental strategic importance that one...

  11. Future of profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a doctor in today's time is a tough experience in many parts of the world. Many young people motivated by the traditional image of profession and desire for service opted for this vocation without anticipating today's challenging environment. Bad press, violence against doctors, tough employment conditions, unemployment, and lack of societal respect have become common phenomenon across the world. It is indeed time to introspect. The institution of medical profession is rapidly transforming not necessarily only under the influence of rapidly changing technology. The presented viewpoint is an analysis on impact of changing global political scenario on the future of medical profession.

  12. Pharmacists' views on and experiences with bowel cancer screening kits in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Nataly; Basdew, Kamlika; Kammona, Ala; Shen, Amy; Taylor, Caragh; McIntosh, Timothy R; Barnes, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    To explore the views of New Zealand pharmacists on bowel cancer screening, particularly with regards to faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kits, self-perceived knowledge on FOBT kits and barriers, motivators and experiences with selling and counselling consumers with respect to FOBT kits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face to face or by telephone with 20 community pharmacists in the Auckland region. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and data were coded and analysed using NVivo software to identify key themes. Participant pharmacists believed that they were well placed to provide advice on FOBT kits to consumers. Barriers to selling the kits included cost and perceived lack of test sensitivity of the kits, poor consumer demand, pharmacists' lack of training and information, and a belief that selling FOBT kits was outside the pharmacists' scope of practice. Motivators to selling the kits included customer convenience, ease of use, confidence in the kits and embracing new roles for pharmacists. Pharmacists were concerned that use of the kits may increase the burden on the public health system through customer anxiety over test results; however, they agreed that there was a need for bowel cancer screening and awareness and that people concerned about bowel cancer should make visiting their general practitioner a priority. Pharmacists' views were mixed. Pharmacists' training and competence with respect to the provision of bowel cancer kits, and how a bowel cancer screening service can be developed to optimise public health outcomes, need to be addressed. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. A role for pharmacists in community-based post-discharge warfarin management: protocol for the 'the role of community pharmacy in post hospital management of patients initiated on warfarin' study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereznicki Luke RE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shorter periods of hospitalisation and increasing warfarin use have placed stress on community-based healthcare services to care for patients taking warfarin after hospital discharge, a high-risk period for these patients. A previous randomised controlled trial demonstrated that a post-discharge service of 4 home visits and point-of-care (POC International Normalised Ratio (INR testing by a trained pharmacist improved patients' outcomes. The current study aims to modify this previously trialled service model to implement and then evaluate a sustainable program to enable the smooth transition of patients taking warfarin from the hospital to community setting. Methods/Design The service will be trialled in 8 sites across 3 Australian states using a prospective, controlled cohort study design. Patients discharged from hospital taking warfarin will receive 2 or 3 home visits by a trained 'home medicines review (HMR-accredited' pharmacist in their 8 to 10 days after hospital discharge. Visits will involve a HMR, comprehensive warfarin education, and POC INR monitoring in collaboration with patients' general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists. Patient outcomes will be compared to those in a control, or 'usual care', group. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of patients experiencing a major bleeding event in the 90 days after discharge. Secondary outcome measures will include combined major bleeding and thromboembolic events, death, cessation of warfarin therapy, INR control at 8 days post-discharge and unplanned hospital readmissions from any cause. Stakeholder satisfaction will be assessed using structured postal questionnaire mailed to patients, GPs, community pharmacists and accredited pharmacists at the completion of their study involvement. Discussion This study design incorporates several aspects of prior interventions that have been demonstrated to improve warfarin management, including POC INR

  14. Evaluation of Community Pharmacists' Involvement in Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, December 2002; 1 (2): 67-74 ... Key words: Benin City, Community pharmacists, primary health care. .... to assess the quality of the community pharmacists' involvement in. PHC. Methods. Setting.

  15. Discriminatory Attitudes of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students and pharmacists (n = 523) to assess discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA was conducted using a self completed questionnaire. Correlation and ... were contributory. Keywords: Discrimination, HIV/AIDS, Pharmacists, Perception, Professionalism, Stigmatization.

  16. Continued Professional Education of Bulgarian Pharmacists: Second Registration Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuing professional education prepares the pharmacists for the requirements of the changed role of pharmacists in the society. Different approaches to continuous professional education ranging from lectures to peer-mentoring work shops and web tools have been developed throughout the last 25 years. The goal of the current analysis is to systematize the trends in accredited education events for pharmacists by the Quality Committee of the BPhU during 2010-2013. This study is a retrospective database analysis. The information concerning the accredited forms of continuing education of pharmacists as well as other activities related to continuing education was extracted from the official protocols, issued by the Quality Commission of the Bulgarian Pharmaceutical Union (BPhU. The continuing postgraduate education of pharmacists in Bulgaria is developing with new elements which allow competence development through individual forms of self-development such as publication activities, delivering presentations, individual training, etc. In the educational programs accredited during the second registration period, still prevailed the short courses, with focus on the new medicinal products.

  17. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The main factors identified were pharmacist expertise, pharmacist – physician collaboration, and trust ... learner, and teacher” [1]. Over the years ..... The impact of the cooperation with pharmacists and impact of visits from pharmaceutical industry representatives. Family. Practice 2005; 22(6): 624–630. 13. Delirrad ...

  18. Patient, family physician and community pharmacist perspectives on expanded pharmacy scope of practice: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Maoliosa; King-Shier, Kathryn; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Al Hamarneh, Yazid N.; Jones, Charlotte A.; Manns, Braden; Tonelli, Marcello; Tink, Wendy; Scott-Douglas, Nairne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The RxEACH trial was a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of community pharmacy-based case finding and intervention in patients at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Community-dwelling patients with poorly controlled risk factors were identified and their CV risk reduced through patient education, prescribing and follow-up by their pharmacist. Perspectives of patients, family physicians and community pharmacists were obtained regarding pharmacists' identification and management of patients at high risk for CV events, to identify strategies to facilitate implementation of the pharmacist's expanded role in routine patient care. Methods: We used a qualitative methodology (individual semistructured interviews) with conventional qualitative content analysis to describe perceptions about community pharmacists' care of patients at high risk for CV events. Perceptions were categorized into macro (structure), meso (institution) and micro (practice) health system levels, based on a conceptual framework of care for optimizing scopes of practice. Results: We interviewed 48 participants (14 patients, 13 family physicians and 21 community pharmacists). Patients were supportive of the expanded scope of practice of pharmacists. All participant groups emphasized the importance of communication, ability to share patient information, trust and better understanding of the roles, responsibilities, accountabilities and liabilities of the pharmacist within their expanded role. Interpretation: Despite support from patients and changes to delivery of care in primary care settings, ongoing efforts are needed to understand how to best harmonize family physician and community pharmacist roles across the health system. This will require collaboration and input from professional associations, regulatory bodies, pharmacists, family physicians and patients. PMID:28401136

  19. Practice Nurses and Pharmacists: A Perspective on the Expectation and Experience of Nurses for Future Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Nabeel Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To explore the nurses’ expectations and experience about pharmacists in private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 in five private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A convenient sample of nurses (n=377 were enrolled in this study. Data was obtained through a previously validated questionnaire. Responses were statistically analyzed using SPSSv.17. Results: Questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 63.6% of which 20 were unusable (n=240. Out of the remaining 220, 24.1% (n=53 responded that they never or rarely interacted with a pharmacist. Respondents who expect pharmacists to collaborate with nurses to solve drug related problems were 45% (n=99. Nurses’ experience of pharmacists was not substantial as only 44.5% (n=98 respondents consider pharmacists as a reliable source of clinical drug information. Conclusion: The role of pharmacists is not well appreciated among nurses in Pakistan. Hence, pharmacists must bridge the observed gap and use a more strategic and consistent approach to build a more positive image in line with other healthcare professionals and in providing patient-centred pharmaceutical care. This research would impress upon the pharmacists the need to redefine their role in the healthcare settings.

  20. Generating demand for pharmacist-provided medication therapy management: identifying patient-preferred marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gladys M; Snyder, Margie E; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Smith, Randall B; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2009-01-01

    To identify effective strategies for marketing pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services to patients in a self-insured employer setting. Qualitative study. University of Pittsburgh during March through May 2008. 26 university employees taking at least one chronic medication. Three focus group sessions were conducted using a semistructured topic guide to facilitate the discussion. Employees' perceived medication-related needs, perceived benefits of pharmacist-provided MTM, potential barriers for employee participation in MTM, and effective strategies for marketing MTM. Participants reported concerns with timing of doses, medication costs, access, and ensuring adherence. Participants generally felt positively toward pharmacists; however, the level of reported patient contact with pharmacists varied among participants. Some participants questioned pharmacists' education and qualifications for this enhanced role in patient care. Perceived benefits of MTM noted by participants included the opportunity to obtain personalized information about their medications and the potential for improved communication among their health providers. Barriers to patient participation were out-of-pocket costs and lack of time for MTM visits. Participants suggested use of alternative words to describe MTM and marketing approaches that involve personal contact. Pharmacists should emphasize parts of MTM that patients feel are most beneficial (i.e., provision of a personal medication record) and use patient-friendly language to describe MTM when marketing their practice. Patients will need greater exposure to the concept of MTM and the pharmacists' role in order to correctly describe and assign value to this type of pharmacist patient care practice.

  1. Perspectives of the surgeons, anaesthetists, and pharmacists on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operative pain is best managed by a multi-disciplinary team approach. An extensive review of the literature indicated that little is known about the roles of surgeons, anaesthetists, and pharmacists regarding post-operative pain management in Ghana. Therefore, this study was undertaken in order to fully understand ...

  2. Evaluation of the Perception of Community Pharmacists Regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Evaluation of the Perception of Community Pharmacists. Regarding their Role in Pakistan's Healthcare System: A. Qualitative Approach. Saira Azhar1, Mohamed A Hassali*2, Asia Taha3, Shujaat Ali Khan1, Ghulam. Murtaza1 and Izhar Hussain1. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences ...

  3. Towards collaborative integration of pharmacists and nurses into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include monitoring therapy for appropriateness, provid- ing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consultation services, in-service training of young doctors, collaborative research into new methods of persuasive interventions, and measuring consumption. To highlight the indispensable role of pharmacists in ...

  4. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...

  5. Rational and experiential decision-making preferences of third-year student pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C; Williams, Charlene R; Shepherd, Greene

    2014-08-15

    To examine the rational (systematic and rule-based) and experiential (fast and intuitive) decision-making preferences of student pharmacists, and to compare these preferences to the preferences of other health professionals and student populations. The Rational-Experiential Inventory (REI-40), a validated psychometric tool, was administered electronically to 114 third-year (P3) student pharmacists. Student demographics and preadmission data were collected. The REI-40 results were compared with student demographics and admissions data to identify possible correlations between these factors. Mean REI-40 rational scores were higher than experiential scores. Rational scores for younger students were significantly higher than students aged 30 years and older (pweak. Student pharmacists favored rational decision making over experiential decision making, which was similar to results of studies done of other health professions.

  6. Expanding Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Include Immunization in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth O'Reilly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 December 2010 An Act to Amend Chapter 36 of the Acts of 2001, the Pharmacy Act (Bill 7 received Royal Assent in Nova Scotia, including an amendment that enabled an expanded scope of pharmacy practice. Expanding pharmacists' scope of practice came about from recommendations by various federal and provincial government bodies as an attempt to improve accessibility to health care and decrease costs. In 2013, pharmacists in Nova Scotia began administering the influenza vaccine as part of the publicly funded program in attempts to improve vaccine coverage rates. Preliminary evaluation in Nova Scotia has shown an increase in influenza vaccination coverage. Although pharmacist administration of influenza vaccination may improve vaccination coverage and reduce demand on physician time, there may be tension created among the professions, which needs to be addressed and managed.

  7. A cross-sectional survey on the attitudes and interests of rural population towards expanded pharmacist prescribing in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Arief, Mohammad; Ahmad, Akram; Malik, Sadiqa; Gogoi, Lakhya Jyoti; Kalita, Manabendra; Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p < 0.05). Conclusions Most participants had positive attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing and were interested in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services.

  8. Leadership development of student pharmacists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bradley-Baker, Lynette R; Murphy, Nanci L

    2013-01-01

    ... this process. The AACP 2008-2009 Argus Commission examined issues related to building a sustainable system of leadership development for pharmacy, and student pharmacists were a focus in their report.1 One of the proposed policy statements from that report, "curricular modifications should occur such that competencies for leading change in pharm...

  9. Ethical responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Popattia, Amber; Winch, Sarah; La Caze, Adam

    2018-01-08

    The widespread sale of complementary medicines in community pharmacy raises important questions regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines. This study reviews the academic literature that explores a pharmacist's responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Embase, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Philosopher's index databases were searched for articles written in English and published between 1995 and 2017. Empirical studies discussing pharmacists' practices or perceptions, consumers' expectations and normative studies discussing ethical perspectives or proposing ethical frameworks related to pharmacists' responsibilities in selling complementary medicines were included in the review. Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies discussing the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines had an empirical focus. Pharmacists and consumers identified counselling and ensuring safe use of complementary medicines as the primary responsibilities of pharmacists. No formal ethical framework is explicitly employed to describe the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. To the degree any ethical framework is employed, a number of papers implicitly rely on principlism. The studies discussing the ethical perspectives of selling complementary medicines mainly describe the ethical conflict between a pharmacist's business and health professional role. No attempt is made to provide guidance on appropriate ways to resolve the conflict. There is a lack of explicit normative advice in the existing literature regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. This review identifies the need to develop a detailed practice-specific ethical framework to guide pharmacists regarding their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. New professions in librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Bottazzo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on how information-communication and network computer technology effects changes in library operation and presents new possibilities in the development and differentiation of the librarian profession. At the time of the introduction of the Internet, numerous experts were convinced that the decline of librarianship, as a profession, was only a question of time. According to such opinions, users were supposed to search and obtain information on their own and purchase books through electronic bookstores. The reality turned out to be just the opposite. Nowadays, librarians are required to make more and more complex inquiries, to provide rapid, high-quality and non-stop services, to supply documents directly by computer or onto the working table. Moreover, librarians must follow the rapid development of the profession and participate in permanent and polyvalent training. The introduction of the digitalisation of materials and the future development of libraries require that librarians familiarize themselves with complex hypertext protocols, graphic design, and marketing. Moreover, librarians are obliged to accept any change brought about during the process of technological development. Therefore, in the developed world, new professions are being established and relating to the provision of aggregate information in form of various services and products. Those professions do not only imply universal information providers but trained experts with regard to individual fields of interest.

  11. The Role of Total Quality Management in Developing the Concept of Social Responsibility to Protect Public Interest in Associations of Liberal Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Gh. Popescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the part of the results of a questionnaire-based research, carried out at the level of associations of liberal professions members of the Liberal Professions Union of Romania (LPUR. It was rated the implementation of the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM among the 14 member associations of professions and were identified LPUR most important success factors of TQM that can help increase the social responsibility to the public interest associations of members of liberal professions. The research was conducted from April 18 to May 31, 2017 at the headquarters of the professional associations shall LPUR at a representative sample of 100 employees from 130 thereof. They identified 58 strengths confirming a high level of implementation of TQM principles and 28 issues that require improvement. It was identified good results about „activities and general working conditions” and „Quality Control”. At the same time were discovered gaps on the „flexibility of the organization” and in „Identifying and capitalizing expectations in meetings with members”. On the one hand, based on the results analysed, it was determined that „Exigency examinations access to employment” and “Using professional standards” are the factors with the greatest impact on increasing social responsibility and the public interest and, on the other hand “the openness of associations - free competition” has the lowest impact.

  12. Hospital pharmacists' and patients' views about what constitutes effective communication between pharmacists and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Bernadette A M; Watson, Bernadette M; Barras, Michael A; Cottrell, William N

    2017-12-06

    The study's objective was to explore hospital pharmacists' and patients' views about what constitutes effective communication exchanges between pharmacists and patients. This was a novel theory-based qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to elicit patients' and pharmacists' perspectives. Pharmacists providing clinical pharmacy services in either inpatient or outpatient settings were recruited first. Eligible patients had been admitted to a study pharmacist's practice area and were prescribed three or more medications to manage a chronic disease(s). Following each pharmacist-patient medication counselling session, semi-structured interviews were held separately with patients and pharmacists. Participants were asked questions intended to explore their views about what constitutes an effective pharmacist-patient conversation. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim, analysed using a process of inductive thematic analysis and then mapped to Communication Accommodation Theory strategies. Observational notes and reflexive note taking were conducted throughout. Twelve pharmacists each engaged four individual patients for a total of 48 pharmacist-patient conversations (resulting in 48 separate interviews with pharmacists and patients). An overall shared goal was the assurance of patients' confidence in managing their medications at home. Themes included shared colloquialisms/slang, well-explained information, engagement, established rapport and empowerment. Participants provided rich exemplars for each of the themes. Pharmacists and patients provided valuable insights about what makes pharmacist-patient interactions effective. Patient-identified preferences for pharmacist-patient exchanges may help guide pharmacy students and practitioners to engage patients in effective conversations. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Do pharmacists use social media for patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Schaefer, Marion; Chaar, Betty; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-04-01

    Background Social media are frequently used by consumers and healthcare professionals. However, it is not clear how pharmacists use social media as part of their daily professional practice. Objective This study investigated the role social media play in pharmacy practice, particularly in patient care and how pharmacists interact online with patients and laypeople. Setting Face-to-face, telephone, or Skype interviews with practising pharmacists (n = 31) from nine countries. Method In-depth semi-structured interviews; audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Main outcome measure Two themes related to the use of social media for patient care: social media and pharmacy practice, and pharmacists' online interactions with customers and the public. Results Most participants were community pharmacists. They did not provide individualized services to consumers via social media, despite most of them working in a pharmacy with a Facebook page. No participant "friended" consumers on Facebook as it was perceived to blur the boundary between professional and personal relationships. However, they occasionally provided advice and general health information on social media to friends and followers, and more commonly corrected misleading health information spread on Facebook. Short YouTube videos were used to support patient counselling in community pharmacy. Conclusions Participants recognized the potential social media has for health. However, its use to support patient care and deliver pharmacy services was very incipient. Pharmacists as medicine experts are well equipped to contribute to improvements in social media medicines-related information, learn from consumers' online activities, and design new ways of delivering care to communities and individuals.

  14. Valjevo’s medical doctor Jovan Siber and pharmacist Klaudije Prikelmajer: A historical illustration of the role of immigrants from Slavonia to the development of health care in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivošejev Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a short period of the late 1860s, three significant new institutions were founded in Valjevo: the hospital (1867, the grammar school (1869 and the pharmacy (1870. In the early stages of development of all three institutions, a big role was played by immigrants from Slavonia: medical doctor Jovan Sieber, pharmacist Klaudije Prikelmajer, and professor Đuro Kozarac. This paper aims to clarify the connections between these individuals that caused their relocation from the territories of the Habsburg Monarchy to Serbia and Valjevo, as well as to resolve the confusion caused by imprecise family memories and written chronicles that have been collected. Moreover, this paper additionally focuses on the origins of the Sieber family, which included Jovan Sieber, and the later arrival of other members of the family to Valjevo. Another member of the family was Jovan’s nephew Dr. Stevan Sieber, father of Dr. Đorđe Sieber, who went on to become a general in the Medical Corps of the Royal Yugoslav Army.

  15. A profession termed Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández Areal, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New technologies can foster the impression that journalism, as a profession will become extinct probably in a short term. Anybody can have access to any information sources as well as to transmit – through Internet- all sorts of messages at an unusual speed, and this fact seems to support the idea that no technical training will be needed in the future not even an specific cultural background will be required, much less an university degree or qualification that ensures a responsible and appropriate practice of the modern social communication. The Federation of Journalists Associations in Spain (FAPE in its Draft of the Professional Statute is in favor of a graduated or qualified profession at an university level, and its Commission for Complaints has been developing a successful work regarding the professional self-regulation and self-control for the benefit of society. Therefore, there are good reasons for being optimist. Journalism, as a profession, is not going to disappear, and maybe it is time to consider it, really, as an academic qualified profession.

  16. Teaching as a Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    The image of the schools and the teaching profession according to the media is usually negative. The negative picture is one reflecting the social problems of society and the failure of schools to educate, that is, drop-outs, teenage pregnancies, substance abuse, guns, knives, and attacks on students and teachers. Occasionally, the positive…

  17. Professions, paradoxes and organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Jacobsen, Alice

    This paper empirically investigates organizational change in the making as it is constructed in the interaction between managers and professions in a school setting. The empirical basis is three Danish upper secondary schools, all in the process of translating a school reform into practice. Using...

  18. Elevating pharmacists' scope of practice through a health-system clinical privileging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Trisha A; Hennenfent, Joel A; Lewin, John J; Nesbit, Todd W; Weber, Robert

    2016-09-15

    The privileging of pharmacists for clinical activities and the impact that privileging has on enhancing the scope of pharmacy practice in health systems are reviewed. Health-system pharmacists or pharmacy leaders must gain a thorough understanding of the credentialing and privileging process as they broaden their scope of practice. Clinical privileging affords an expanded scope of practice that is recognized at the institutional level and formally elevates the pharmacist to that of a nonphysician provider. The installation of privileging processes is expected to take many months to complete for individual institutions and should begin now in anticipation of provider status. Model institutions, including Truman Medical Centers, Johns Hopkins Hospital, and The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, are highlighted in this article and provide their individual approach to clinical privileging that can be applied to other institutions. The development and evaluation of these programs have given valuable insight into how this individual approach translates to health systems across the country and how the pharmacy profession can continue to unite to convey the value of pharmacists in improving patient care. In preparation for the potential approval of pharmacist provider status across the United States, it is essential that pharmacists are privileged by the medical staff at their respective institution. Clinical privileges must be strategically developed with a focus on cost and quality aims and meeting the needs of patients. Implementation and maintenance of high-performing pharmacy privileging programs require both successful leadership and management skills and an understanding of the interprofessional nature of healthcare. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and delivery of a pharmacist training program to increase naloxone access in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Emma; Hart, Steve; Freeman, Patricia R

    role pharmacists can play in public health and overdose death prevention. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Community pharmacist-led clinical services: physician's understanding, perceptions and readiness to collaborate in a Midwestern state in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Cameron; Unni, Elizabeth; Montuoro, Jaime; Ogborn, Diane B

    2017-12-07

    Many pharmacists are actively enhancing their role in the delivery of health care by offering a variety of pharmacist-led clinical services. The delivery of these services within community pharmacies can contribute to overcoming the cost and accessibility challenges currently facing U.S. health care, especially when pharmacist-physician collaborative efforts are utilized. The study purpose was to identify general and family practice physicians' awareness of pharmacists' delivery of clinical services, uncover their perceived barriers to collaboration with community pharmacists, and collect their input on how to overcome such barriers in order to better understand how pharmacist-led clinical services can be integrated, improved and more widely utilized as a healthcare delivery mechanism. Semi-structured interviews were performed at the physicians' place of practice to assess (1) family practice and internal medicine physicians' knowledge of pharmacists' education, clinical training, and role in the healthcare team; (2) their perceptions and barriers towards pharmacist-delivered clinical services and physician-pharmacist collaboration; and (3) their recommendations to improve physician-pharmacist collaboration. The data were analysed qualitatively to identify and categorize themes. Thirteen physicians were interviewed. While nearly all physicians were aware of pharmacists' level of education, most were not aware of the level of clinical training pharmacists receive. Only half of the physicians were able to provide a definition or example of collaborative practice agreements, although most recognized value and benefit when the definition and examples were provided to them. The commonly perceived barriers for collaboration were concern over loss of communication, hesitancy to relinquish control and lack of confidence in pharmacists' clinical judgement. The study results emphasize the need to develop strategies to improve collaborative relationships between physicians

  1. TRENDS IN VOCATIONAL TRAINING OF PHARMACISTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Reva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the article there has been substantiated the practicality of analysing trends emerging in the contemporary vocational training system of pharmacists-to-be in higher medical education in Ukraine, which resulted from the requirements of the state to train competitive specialists in pharmacy in the labor market and from the demands of society in ensuring efficient and effective pharmacotherapy along with prevention of the population from the diseases. Methods: In the article there have been used theoretical methods – the method of theoretical and comparative analysis to do the review of the works of scientists on the development of pharmaceutical education in Ukraine for the period of formation and development of its sovereignty; the synthesis method for grouping trends occurring in the modern pharmaceutical industry of Ukraine, which, at present, are the reflection in modelling educational process of vocational training of pharmacists in the domestic higher educational institutions. Results: While doing the synthesis of information sources on the development of pharmaceutical education in Ukraine for the period of establishment and development of its sovereignty, there have been specified, substantiated and characterised the leading trends in the development of modern pharmaceutical industry of Ukraine, which, at present, are the reflected in modelling the educational process of vocational training of pharmacists in the domestic higher educational institutions. In the opinion of the author of the article those trends are as follows: 1 strengthening the moral principles of training for the pharmaceutical industry of Ukraine, which are based on ethics to follow in a pharmacist profession, in a communicative interaction with people needing advice of specialists-pharmacists; 2 orientation to European standards of pharmacy, which are based on high standards of customer service, an increase of social responsibility to society for the

  2. Introducing a checking technician allows pharmacists to spend more time on patient focused activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Patti; Norris, Pauline; Braund, Rhiannon

    2017-05-11

    Internationally there is an increasing focus on the clinical and cognitive services that pharmacists can provide. Lack of time has been identified as a barrier to pharmacists increasing their clinical activities. Within the pharmacy workplace there are many tasks that can only be performed by a pharmacist. The final accuracy check of a dispensed prescription is currently the sole responsibility of pharmacists in New Zealand. This takes up a significant amount of time during a pharmacist's work day. The introduction of a checking technician role has been suggested to allow pharmacists more time to do more patient focused work. To investigate the amount of time pharmacy staff spend on specific activities and to establish whether the introduction of a checking technician into twelve pilot sites increased the amount of time that the pharmacists could spend on patient focused activities. This study utilised a self-reported work sampling technique in twelve pilot sites, selected from both the hospital and community settings. Work sampling using an electronic device was conducted at two time-points (before the implementation of a Pharmacy Accuracy Checking Technician (PACT) role and when the PACT was in place). Data was collected at 10 min intervals for the period of five days, a working week. Tasks were grouped into patient focused, dispensing and personal activities. The introduction of the PACT into the pilot sites saw a mean increase of 19% in pharmacists' patient focused activities and a mean 20% decrease in dispensing activities. The introduction of a checking technician role into New Zealand pharmacies demonstrated the potential to provide pharmacists with more time to spend on patient focused activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Quality indicators of pharmacists' services in community pharmacies in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Hipólito Júnior

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pharmacists and their pharmacies have been evolving in their roles as health promoters in Brazil. Some examples are the recent legislation reaffirming the role of Brazilian pharmacies as health institutions, rather than having only a commercial profile, giving greater clarity to pharmacists about their roles as health care providers. This evolution came with the recognition that is already seen in other developed countries, confirming the need for the pharmacist as a health promoter, and not simply a dispenser of drugs in society. This study has obtained the profile and activities of community pharmacists, as well as the quality indicators of private community pharmacies throughout the State of Paraná through the application of an online survey sent to pharmacists in the state. Out of all pharmacists surveyed, 533 were part of the final analysis, being the pharmacists to complete the survey in full. Participants were mostly female (69.4% and were, on average, 35.2 ± 9.2 years old. Of these, 60% worked in pharmacy chains and just 37% of all pharmacist respondents were issuing the Declaration of Pharmaceutical Services. The current study showed that many pharmaceutical services are not adopted by pharmacies as these services bring no significant financial reward. Regarding the structure, the Paraná State showed that pharmacies present a good overall structure. The kind of pharmacy (chain or independent influenced the pharmaceutical services provided and the available structure, where the independent pharmacies provide a wider range of services and have better structure. This study was able to identify the profile and behaviors of pharmacists and also the quality indicators of pharmacies in Paraná State.

  4. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  5. Confusing brand names: Nightmare of medical profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Amit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: India has more than 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers. Consequently, there is a flood of brand names to choose from. We conducted this study to analyse and sort out the multitudinous brand names thronging the Indian market, and identified those that could create a possible confusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Recent issues of drug formularies like Indian Drug Review, Drug Index, and Monthly Index of Medical Specialities-India were checked and all the brand names given were included. Some other brand names that are available with the pharmacists but are not included in these indexes were also included in the study for analysis. OBSERVATIONS: Potentially confusing brand names were sorted out and categorised according to the severity of damage they can cause if misinterpreted by the pharmacist or the patient. Subgroups were made according to the brand name, the generic name, and the manufacturers of the drug. CONCLUSION: Several brand names are strikingly identical, similar looking (orthographic, or similar sounding (phonological. Preventing this possible confusion is not the work of any one person involved. We describe the role of prescribing doctors, dispensing pharmacists, consumer patients, and the manufacturing companies to prevent "wrong prescribing" due to similarities in brand names.

  6. Confusing brand names: nightmare of medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataboli, P V; Garg, A

    2005-01-01

    India has more than 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers. Consequently, there is a flood of brand names to choose from. We conducted this study to analyse and sort out the multitudinous brand names thronging the Indian market, and identified those that could create a possible confusion. Recent issues of drug formularies like Indian Drug Review, Drug Index, and Monthly Index of Medical Specialities-India were checked and all the brand names given were included. Some other brand names that are available with the pharmacists but are not included in these indexes were also included in the study for analysis. Potentially confusing brand names were sorted out and categorised according to the severity of damage they can cause if misinterpreted by the pharmacist or the patient. Subgroups were made according to the brand name, the generic name, and the manufacturers of the drug. Several brand names are strikingly identical, similar looking (orthographic), or similar sounding (phonological). Preventing this possible confusion is not the work of any one person involved. We describe the role of prescribing doctors, dispensing pharmacists, consumer patients, and the manufacturing companies to prevent "wrong prescribing" due to similarities in brand names.

  7. Developing the profession of radiography: Making use of oral history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Sola [School of Radiography, Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Studies, University of Wales, Bangor, Archimedes Centre, Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rdsa01@bangor.ac.uk; Iphofen, Ron [Faculty of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Studies, University of Wales, Bangor, Archimedes Centre, Technology Park, Wrexham LL13 7YP (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper is based on ongoing research into the profession of radiography using the oral history method. Knowledge of radiographic practice as a profession has in the past been based on what is written or learnt from other professions both within and beyond the field of health care. The profession has experienced substantial technological and sociological changes both in training and in practice over the past few decades and these look set to continue into the immediate future. Evidence-based practice is invoked as a quality measure on all health professions, and part of the body of knowledge which forms the evidence base of practice development involves an understanding of how the profession has responded to change and what this might mean for the further changes it is likely to meet. This paper explores the potential role of oral history research as a tool for the development of knowledge about the practice of radiography.

  8. Professional Use of Social Media by Pharmacists: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy Frank; Schaefer, Marion; Chaar, Betty B; Aslani, Parisa

    2016-09-23

    Social media is frequently used by consumers and health care professionals; however, our knowledge about its use in a professional capacity by pharmacists is limited. Our aim was to investigate the professional use of social media by pharmacists. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with practicing pharmacists (N=31) from nine countries. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Wikipedia, YouTube, and Facebook were the main social media platforms used. Professional use of social media included networking with peers, discussion of health and professional topics, accessing and sharing health and professional information, job searching, and professional promotion. Wikipedia was the participants' first choice when seeking information about unfamiliar topics, or topics that were difficult to search for. Very few pharmacy-related contributions to Wikipedia were reported. YouTube, a video-sharing platform, was used for self-education. University lectures, "how-to" footage, and professionally made videos were commonly watched. No professional contribution was made to YouTube. Facebook, a general social networking site, was used for professional networking, promotion of achievements, and job advertisements. It also afforded engagement in professional discussions and information sharing among peers. Participants used social media in a professional capacity, specifically for accessing and sharing health and professional information among peers. Pharmacists, as medicines experts, should take a leading role in contributing to health information dissemination in these user-friendly virtual environments, to reach not only other health care professionals but also health consumers.

  9. Community pharmacists and Colleges of Pharmacy: the Ohio partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Marc A; Mauro, Vincent F; Cable, Gerald L; Rudnicki, Barbara M; Wall, Andrea L; Murphy, Christine C; Makarich, Joseph A; Kahaleh, Abir A

    2005-01-01

    To develop pharmacist practice standards, pharmacy preceptor standards, and objectives for students completing advanced practice community pharmacy rotations. Ohio. Pharmacy schools and community pharmacies that serve as advanced practice rotation sites. Developed standards for preceptors and objectives for student experiences. Focus groups that included both community pharmacists and pharmacy faculty collaborated on defining key standards for advanced community pharmacy rotations. Not applicable. Three main documents were produced in this initiative, and these are provided as appendices to this article. Professional and patient care guidelines for preceptors define minimum standards for these role models. Expectations of pharmacists as preceptors provide insights for managing this student-teacher relationship, which is fundamentally different from the more common employer-employee and coworker relationships found in pharmacies of all types. Objectives for student experiences during advanced practice community pharmacy rotations present core expectations in clinical, dispensing, patient education, wellness, and drug information areas. Through this collaboration, Ohio colleges of pharmacy developed a partnership with practitioners in community settings that should enhance the Ohio experiential educational program for student pharmacists. Use of the established guidelines will help educators and practitioners achieve their shared vision for advanced practice community pharmacy rotations and promote high-quality patient care.

  10. Kald eller profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jette Møller; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    and journals, all addressing the issue «Nurses and vocation». The discourse analysis shows that the idea of the need for the nurse to have a sense of vocation both can be grounded in a religious understanding of vocation and in what is called common human obligations. These understandings are voiced from......    VOCATION OR PROFESSION - DIFFERENT UNDERSTANDINGS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOCATION AND NURSING Different understandings of whether nursing should be based on the caregiver's sense of vocation are investigated through a discourse analysis including a full years articles published in papers...... different positions in society holding both journalists, academic nurses and members of the church, but are not shared with the nurses working in the clinical area, who want nursing to be a profession and find the demands on the nurse's motivation for being a nurse a hindrance for this purpose....

  11. Ledelse som profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Kurt Klaudi

    2008-01-01

    Ledelse professionaliseres i disse år gennem bevidst lederudvikling og lederuddannelse. Det er en nødvendig forudsætning for at gennemføre omfattende reformer og omorganisering. At gøre ledelse til en profession ændrer også på forestillingerne om muligheder for at gøre ledelsesmæssig karriere....

  12. Rebalancing the Military Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    Secondly, the institution must develop the officers with a depth of skill and knowledge to ensure the successful application of violence , which is the...society that created the profession demands “the management of violence be utilized only for socially approved purposes.”21 Huntington‟s final... vicarious experience through the study of the past enabled him “to see familiar patterns of activity and to develop more quickly potential solutions to

  13. A qualitative study of community pharmacists' opinions on the provision of osteoporosis disease state management services in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik, Jah; Lai, Pauline Siew Mei; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Emmerton, Lynne

    2016-08-30

    Osteoporosis has significant impact on healthcare costs and quality of life. Amongst the models for collaborative disease state management services published internationally, there is sparse evidence regarding the role of community pharmacists in the provision of osteoporosis care. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore community pharmacists' opinions (including the barriers and facilitators) and scope of osteoporosis disease state management services by community pharmacists in Malaysia, informing a vision for developing these services. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups discussions were conducted with community pharmacists from October 2013 to July 2014. Three trained researchers interviewed the participants. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed thematically using an interpretative description approach. Nineteen community pharmacists with 1-23 years of experience were recruited (in depth interviews: n = 9; focus group discussions: n = 10). These participants reflected on their experience with osteoporosis-related enquiries, which included medication counseling, bone density screening and referral of at-risk patients. Key barriers were the lack of numerous factors: public awareness of osteoporosis, accurate osteoporosis screening tools for community pharmacists, pharmacists' knowledge on osteoporosis disease and medications, time to counsel patients about bone health, collaboration between pharmacists and doctors, and support from the government and professional body. The pharmacists wanted more continuing education on osteoporosis, osteoporosis awareness campaigns, a simple, unbiased osteoporosis education material, and inter-professional collaboration practices with doctors, and pharmacists' reimbursement for osteoporosis care. The involvement of community pharmacists in the provision of osteoporosis disease state management was minimal. Only ad-hoc counseling on osteoporosis prevention was

  14. Feminism and women's health professions in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tracey L; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Historically, prevailing gender ideologies were an important element in both the exclusionary strategies employed by male occupational groups and the countervailing responses by female groups. The way in which evolving gender ideologies, and feminism in particular, influence the continuing struggle for greater status and recognition by female professions, however, remains to be fully explored. In this paper, we examine the impact and the role of feminism and feminist ideologies within three female professional projects: nursing, dental hygiene and midwifery in Ontario. We argue that feminism provides an ideology of opposition that enables leaders in these professions to battle against professional inequalities by laying bare the gender inequalities that underlie them. Framing their struggles in feminist terms, female professions also seek recognition for the uniquely female contribution they make to the health care division of labour. At the same time, there exists a tension between ideals of feminism and ideals of professionalism, that has the potential to undermine female professional projects.

  15. Patient outcomes following an intervention involving community pharmacists in the management of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Judith; Taylor, Susan; Grabham, Anita; Stanford, Pamela

    2006-12-01

    Documentation and evaluation of patient outcomes in a pilot study into the role of rural community pharmacists in the management of depression. Parallel groups design with a control and intervention group. Thirty-two community pharmacies in rural and remote New South Wales, Australia. One hundred and six patient participants, mean age of 46 years, predominantly female, not currently employed, recruited by participating pharmacists. Intervention pharmacists were given video-conference training on the nature and management of depression by a psychiatrist, psychologist and general practitioner and asked to dispense medication with extra advice and support. Control pharmacists were asked to provide usual care. Adherence by self-report, K10, Drug Attitude Index. The results indicated that adherence to medications was high in both groups (95% versus 96%) and that both groups had improved significantly in wellbeing (a reduction K10 score of 4 (control) versus 4.7 (intervention)). No significant change was found in attitude to drug treatment once baseline scores were controlled for. Because both groups improved in wellbeing it is not possible to claim that the training provided to the intervention pharmacists was responsible for the success. However, the improvements gained in such a short time (two months) suggest that the involvement of pharmacists has had a beneficial rather than negative effect. Further research into the most appropriate ways in which to integrate the skills of pharmacists into a model of mental health care delivery in rural communities is recommended.

  16. Geriatric Polypharmacy: Pharmacist as Key Facilitator in Assessing for Falls Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Michelle A; Shelton, Penny S

    2017-05-01

    This article highlights the significant health impact of falls among older adults. An emphasis is placed on the vital role of the pharmacist, regardless of practice setting, in assessing and reducing falls risk for this growing population. In addition, the importance of a stepwise comprehensive approach to falls assessment by pharmacists in collaboration with other clinicians is elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Evolution of the Dental Assisting Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, Connie; Breen, Carolyn; McMahon, Kim; Gagliardi, Lorraine; Miyasaki, Cara; Landsberg, Katherine; Reed, Constance

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this article are to describe the dental assistant's role in the dental delivery system; assess the educational structure of the dental assisting profession; and project factors likely to impact the future role of the dental assistant. The article summarizes the current status and trends of the dental assisting profession including general responsibilities, credentialing, and regulation. An overview of the workforce and parameters of employment is provided with a description of the broad scope of practice, education, and licensure options, which vary by state. Existing academic models and enrollment trends in accredited dental programs are included, as are the strengths and weaknesses of the current educational system. Multiple factors may impact the future of this profession. To address the anticipated increase in the demand for and responsibilities of dental assistants, curricular revisions will be needed to prepare for implementation of interprofessional care models in which dental assistants will play a vital role. Well-educated dental assistants will be needed to support viable models of dental care and wellness in the U.S. Enhanced career opportunities and varied employment environments may increase job satisfaction and practice longevity. As protection of the public is of the utmost importance in the dental profession, this evolving dental clinician must be formally educated in all aspects of clinical practice and be permitted to perform delegated patient care, as legally allowed by their states. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century."

  18. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched for articles published in English between 2001 and 2010. Titles and abstracts were screened by one researcher according to the inclusion criteria. Papers were included if they assessed pharmacy staff or consumer attitudes towards pharmaceutical public health. Full papers identified for inclusion were assessed by a second researcher and data were extracted by one researcher. Results From the 5628 papers identified, 63 studies in 67 papers were included. Pharmacy staff: Most pharmacists viewed public health services as important and part of their role but secondary to medicine related roles. Pharmacists' confidence in providing public health services was on the whole average to low. Time was consistently identified as a barrier to providing public health services. Lack of an adequate counselling space, lack of demand and expectation of a negative reaction from customers were also reported by some pharmacists as barriers. A need for further training was identified in relation to a number of public health services. Consumers: Most pharmacy users had never been offered public health services by their pharmacist and did not expect to be offered. Consumers viewed pharmacists as appropriate providers of public health advice but had mixed views on the pharmacists' ability to do this. Satisfaction was found to be high in those that had experienced pharmaceutical public health Conclusions There has been little change in customer and pharmacist attitudes since reviews

  19. Assessment of the pharmacist workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Health workers are recognized as the cornerstone for the success of the health sector programs. In this regard, proper planning of the development of health workers including pharmacists based on evidence is critical. Aim: To assess the pharmacist workforce in Ethiopia. Method: A national facility ...

  20. Assessment of Pharmacists Workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Health workers are recognized as the cornerstone for the success of the health sector programs. In this regard, proper planning of the development of health workers including pharmacists based on evidence is critical. Aim: To assess pharmacists work force in Ethiopia. Method: A national facility ...

  1. Job sharing for women pharmacists in academia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kelly C; Finks, Shannon W

    2009-01-01

    ... unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity...

  2. Job Sharing for Women Pharmacists in Academia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly C Rogers; Shannon W Finks

    2009-01-01

    ... unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity...

  3. Assessment of the Knowledge of Community Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The study was carried out to assess the knowledge of community pharmacists who sell herbal/phytopharmaceutical formulations in pharmacy retail outlets. Method: Questionnaires were administered to the pharmacists to gather information on phytopharmaceuticals regarding their use, side effects, potential ...

  4. Evaluation of Community Pharmacists' Involvement in Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the involvement of community pharmacists in primary health care; determine extent of the pharmacists' participation in curative and preventive services, as well as partially assess quality of the involvement. Methods: A 27-item self-completion questionnaire with 0.92 reliability was administered to 110 ...

  5. Training pharmacists to deliver a complex information technology intervention (PINCER) using the principles of educational outreach and root cause analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Stacey; Rodgers, Sarah; Howard, Rachel; Morris, Caroline J; Avery, Anthony J

    2014-02-01

    To describe the training undertaken by pharmacists employed in a pharmacist-led information technology-based intervention study to reduce medication errors in primary care (PINCER Trial), evaluate pharmacists' assessment of the training, and the time implications of undertaking the training. Six pharmacists received training, which included training on root cause analysis and educational outreach, to enable them to deliver the PINCER Trial intervention. This was evaluated using self-report questionnaires at the end of each training session. The time taken to complete each session was recorded. Data from the evaluation forms were entered onto a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, independently checked and the summary of results further verified. Frequencies were calculated for responses to the three-point Likert scale questions. Free-text comments from the evaluation forms and pharmacists' diaries were analysed thematically. All six pharmacists received 22 h of training over five sessions. In four out of the five sessions, the pharmacists who completed an evaluation form (27 out of 30 were completed) stated they were satisfied or very satisfied with the various elements of the training package. Analysis of free-text comments and the pharmacists' diaries showed that the principles of root cause analysis and educational outreach were viewed as useful tools to help pharmacists conduct pharmaceutical interventions in both the study and other pharmacy roles that they undertook. The opportunity to undertake role play was a valuable part of the training received. Findings presented in this paper suggest that providing the PINCER pharmacists with training in root cause analysis and educational outreach contributed to the successful delivery of PINCER interventions and could potentially be utilised by other pharmacists based in general practice to deliver pharmaceutical interventions to improve patient safety. © 2013 The Authors. IJPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Renal pharmacists' perceptions and current practices of assessing medication adherence in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Saurav; Banks, Colin; Jose, Matthew D; Castelino, Ronald L; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R

    2017-12-06

    Background Medication nonadherence is a major problem in chronic kidney failure patients undergoing dialysis. Pharmacists play a vital role in improving medication-related patient outcomes, reducing drug-related problems, and improving medication adherence. However, little is known about how pharmacists assess medication adherence in dialysis patients. Objective To measure pharmacists' perceptions, current practices, and barriers to assessing adherence in dialysis patients. Setting Australian renal-specialised pharmacists. Method An online survey was conducted between March and May 2016. Survey included five psychometric scales measuring perceived prevalence, contributors, effective methods, barriers, and confidence to assess adherence on a 10-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree; 10 = strongly agree). Current practices were identified using a 4-point graded response (1 = do not practice; 4 = practice for all). Perception scores, scale reliability, and responses to current practices questionnaire. Results 41 pharmacists completed the survey (response rate, 91.1%). The majority (91.9%, n = 34; median = 8.0) agreed patients were nonadherent to medication. Time constraints (43.8%, n = 14) and hospital support (31.3%, n = 10) were perceived as barriers to assessment. Objective blood monitoring was frequently used to determine nonadherence (57.1%, n = 16), whereas subjective interviews were rarely conducted (27.6%, n = 8). Though all pharmacists support the presence of dedicated pharmacist for assessing adherence (100.0%, n = 33), only 24.2% were actually performing this function. Conclusion Pharmacists were rarely assigned for adherence assessment in dialysis settings. Established self-report methods were under-utilised compared to objective methods. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of pharmacists' involvement in facilitating adherence promotion and early identification of medication-related issues in dialysis patients.

  7. Pharmacists counselling of pregnant women: Web-based, comparative study between Serbia and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odalović, Marina; Milanković, Silje; Holst, Lone; Nordeng, Hedvig; Heitmann, Kristine; Tasić, Ljiljana

    2016-09-01

    To describe, compare and evaluate whether pharmacists in two European countries, Serbia and Norway, give appropriate counselling for common ailments in pregnancy. A cross sectional, web-based study. A study was conducted among Serbian and Norwegian pharmacists during two four-month study periods in 2012 respectively 2014. Participants were recruited through postal and electronic invitation facilitated by several pharmacy chains. Participation in the study was anonymous and voluntary. Pharmacists were presented with the questionnaire that included five scenarios (back pain, heavy legs, nausea, cold and constipation in pregnancy) and were asked to give their advice about use of medicines, supplements (e.g. herbal products, vitamins, minerals), non-pharmacological treatment and referral to physician in each condition. In total, 276 pharmacists, 119 in Serbia and 157 in Norway, accepted to participate in the study. Recommendation about medicines use ranged from 32% (heavy legs) to 71% (back pain) in Serbia and from 3% (heavy legs) to 92% (constipation) in Norway. Several pharmacists' recommendations on medicines and supplements use were inappropriate. Recommendation about non-pharmacological treatments ranged from 11% (nausea) to 50% (heavy legs) in Serbia and from 12% (constipation) to 63% (cold) in Norway. Approximately 12% of the Norwegian and Serbian pharmacists offered referral to a physician as only advice for nausea in pregnancy, indicating a lack of confidence in or knowledge about this common ailment in pregnancy. Large differences in counselling of pregnant women by pharmacists in Serbia and Norway were observed. Enhancement of pharmacists' knowledge about treatment of common ailments in pregnancy is needed and will enhance pharmacists' role in improving maternal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Theoretical exploration of Tennessee community pharmacists' perceptions regarding opioid pain reliever abuse communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M; Lopez, Nicolas C; Alamian, Arsham; Pack, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Community pharmacists are a key intervention point in efforts to prevent and mitigate the impact of prescription drug abuse and misuse (PDA/M); yet pharmacists' perceptions regarding PDA/M have been explored only briefly in the literature. 1) To explore Tennessee community pharmacists' perceptions regarding opioid pain reliever (OPR) prescribing, dispensing and abuse; 2) to explore community pharmacists' self-efficacy beliefs regarding PDA/M-specific communication; and 3) to evaluate perceived barriers to engaging patients in PDA/M-specific communication. A 55-item survey instrument was developed using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) as a theoretical framework. Questionnaires were mailed to a stratified sample of 2000 licensed Tennessee pharmacists using the Tailored Design Method of survey administration during October and November, 2012. A response rate of 40% was obtained. A majority of pharmacists (87.5%) perceived OPR abuse to be a problem in their practice settings. On average, a little more than half (53%) of prescriptions issued for OPRs were estimated to be for patients with one or more legitimate medical reasons justifying the medication(s). A small fraction of pharmacists (13%) reported having addiction treatment facility information in their practice settings, and only a small percent reported strong self-efficacy beliefs regarding PDA/M patient communication. Job-related time constraints were perceived as the primary barrier to engaging in PDA/M communication. Community pharmacists in Tennessee are aware of PDA/M by patients receiving opioid prescriptions and value their role in communicating with these patients but indicate their ability to do so effectively is hindered by a lack of confidence, training, and time. Further research to identify and test methods for facilitating PDA/M communication by pharmacists is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of the information seeking behaviour of hospital pharmacists: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostagiolas, Petros A; Aggelopoulou, Vasiliki A; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-12-01

    Hospital pharmacists need access to high-quality information in order to constantly update their knowledge and improve their skills. In their modern role, they are expected to address three types of challenges: scientific, organizational and administrative, thus having an increased need for adequate information and library services. This study investigates the information-seeking behaviour of public hospital pharmacists providing evidence from Greece that could be used to encourage the development of effective information hospital services and study the links between the information seeking behaviour of hospital pharmacists and their modern scientific and professional role. An empirical research was conducted between January and February 2010 with the development and distribution of a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled in and returned by 88 public hospital pharmacists from a total of 286 working in all Greek public hospitals, providing a response rate of 31%. The hospital pharmacists in Greece are in search of scientific information and, more particularly, pharmaceutical information (e.g., drug indications, storage, dosage and prices). The Internet and the National Organization of Medicines are their main information sources, while the lack of time and organized information are the main obstacles they have to face when seeking information. The modern professional role of hospital pharmacists as invaluable contributors to efficient and safer healthcare services may be further supported through the development of specialized libraries and information services within Greek public hospitals. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  10. Profession and professionalisation in medical radiation science as an emergent profession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jenny [RMIT University, Medical Radiations, School of Medical Sciences, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)], E-mail: jenny.sim@rmit.edu.au; Radloff, Alex [Central Queensland University, Rockhampton Campus, Bruce Highway, North Rockhampton, Queensland 4702 (Australia)], E-mail: pvcas@cqu.edu.au

    2009-08-15

    Purpose: Deregulation, reduced operating costs, new ways of organising the professional workforce, increasing competition within the healthcare sector and increasing consumer expectations are factors that challenge any health profession. This paper, which forms part of the first author's doctoral study on continuing professional development in medical radiation science, details the journey of medical radiation science as a profession in Australia. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges confronting practitioners in their struggle to be recognised as a profession in its own right. Findings: The challenges facing medical radiation science practitioners included low professional self-esteem and apathy, which adversely affects their willingness and ability to continue learning and to assume increasing work responsibilities which are essential attributes of a health professional. Low self-esteem and apathy are also preventing practitioners from venturing beyond their comfort zone of daily workplace practices. This ultimately impacts on their ability to advance clinical practice in response to a constantly changing health care system. Conclusion: Despite the current difficulties confronting the profession, it is possible for practitioners to assume a more proactive role in moving the profession forward. As part of the solution to improving practitioners' low self-esteem and to rekindling their enthusiasm for the profession, the authors propose that continuing professional development programs should go beyond simply assisting practitioners in advancing clinical competence. They should also aim to empower practitioners to develop their reflective skills. Reflection is now widely promoted in healthcare professions as one of the means of enhancing clinical practice and improving healthcare delivery. To this end, educational designers should incorporate reflection into professional development programs as both a learning goal and a strategy. Helping

  11. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  12. Doctors' and nurses' perceptions of a ward-based pharmacist in rural northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölander, Maria; Gustafsson, Maria; Gallego, Gisselle

    2017-08-01

    Background This project is part of the prospective quasi experimental proof-of-concept investigation of clinical pharmacist intervention study to reduce drug-related problems among people admitted to a ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Objective To explore doctors' and nurses' perceptions and expectations of having a ward-based pharmacist providing clinical pharmacy services. Setting Medical ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Method Eighteen face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of doctors and nurses working on the ward where the clinical pharmacy service was due to be implemented. Semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Main outcome measure Perceptions and expectations of nurses and doctors. Results Doctors and nurses had limited experience of working with pharmacists. Most had a vague idea of what pharmacists can contribute within a ward setting. Participants, mainly nurses, suggested inventory and drug distribution roles, but few were aware of the pharmacists' skills and clinical competence. Different views were expressed on whether the new clinical pharmacy service would have an impact on workload. However, most participants took a positive view of having a ward-based pharmacist. Conclusion This study provided an opportunity to explore doctors' and nurses' expectations of the role of clinical pharmacists before a clinical pharmacy service was implemented. To successfully implement a clinical pharmacy service, roles, clinical competence and responsibilities should be clearly described. Furthermore, it is important to focus on collaborative working relationships between doctors, nurses and pharmacists.

  13. Development of an expert professional curriculum for antimicrobial pharmacists in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Jacqueline; Gilchrist, Mark; Wickens, Hayley

    2015-05-01

    The role of antimicrobial pharmacists has changed considerably over the past 15 years. We describe here the development and ratification of a new expert professional curriculum to guide the training and development of antimicrobial specialist pharmacists. The curriculum has been developed by the UK Clinical Pharmacy Association Pharmacy Infection Network and endorsed by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society as a tool to support pharmacists in meeting the requirements for joining the Royal Pharmaceutical Society Faculty. This new resource has also been endorsed by PHE, the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group and the BSAC, and will support antimicrobial pharmacists in delivery of antimicrobial stewardship, which will in turn help the fight against antimicrobial resistance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Certification of sterile equipment and facilities: what pharmacists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanze, Amanda; Rudner, Shara

    2014-01-01

    Although it is common knowledge that all sterile compounding pharmacies must have their equipment and facilities certified and calibrated every six months, it is not as clear what is expected of pharmacists. There is currently a disconnect between the certification companies and the pharmacists. As pharmacists, we look to the certification companies as the experts and rely upon them accordingly. The certification companies look upon the pharmacy to know which testing is required. It is the role of the pharmacist to know which tests are necessary and how they are to be interpreted correctly. The end goal of certification testing is to prove that the standards listed in United States Pharmacopeia Chapter are met. Testing requirements can vary from state to state. A few of the most commonly required sterile certification and calibration tests will be discussed in this article.

  15. The Shrinking of Formalized Nutrition Education in Health Professions Curricula and Postgraduate Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Gordon S

    2017-02-01

    The quantity of formalized nutrition education is shrinking in curricula of health professions, such as physicians, nurses, dietitians, and pharmacists. The current nutrition education being taught in U.S. schools of healthcare professionals does not appropriately prepare students for identification of patients at nutrition risk or management of undernourished hospitalized patients with specialized nutrition therapies. In U.S. schools of pharmacy, parenteral nutrition is considered a highly specialized and advanced practice so little time is devoted to this area and more attention is focused on chronic disease state management (ie, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure). Nutrition support fellowships for physicians and nutrition support residency programs for pharmacists have dwindled in number over the years so that only a handful of these healthcare professionals are produced each year from the remaining formalized programs. Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dietitians can positively affect patient care, but each profession must first determine how best to integrate basic and applied nutrition concepts into their professional curricula and training programs. There must also be consensus among the healthcare professions as to the depth of nutrition education and the stage of training at which these integrations should occur. Only by having these crucial conversations among all disciplines will we be able to develop new strategies to expand nutrition education in the training of future medical practitioners.

  16. Incorporating a pharmacist into an interprofessional team providing transgender care under a medical home model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Cheyenne; Colip, Leslie; Sharon, Nathaniel; Conklin, Jessica

    2017-02-01

    A pharmacist's role in providing care to transgender and gender-nonconforming (TGNC) patients within a medical home model of care is described. A comprehensive transgender services clinic was established in February 2015 in New Mexico. Clinic services are provided under an "informed consent" model of care, as opposed to the traditional "gatekeeper" approach. The clinic's interprofessional team consists of a clinical pharmacist, a psychiatrist, a nurse practitioner, an endocrinologist, a diabetes educator, a massage therapist, a nurse, a nutritionist, and medical assistants. The clinical pharmacist has served in the following roles: (1) assessing health literacy and tailoring the consent process to the patient's literacy level, (2) initiating in-depth discussion of the medical risks and benefits of cross-sex hormone therapy (HT), as well as HT alternatives, (3) discussing typical timelines for physical outcomes of HT, (4) discussing a patient's expectations and goals for csHT, (5) discussing the different HT formulations and helping to determine which formulation is best suited to meeting patient's goals, (6) helping the team obtain prior authorizations for csHT, and (7) managing risk reduction strategies such as smoking cessation and weight loss. Involvement of a pharmacist in the clinic has improved care access and quality for TGNC patients in the southwestern United States. A pharmacist in an interprofessional team staffing a clinic for TGNC people has assumed multiple responsibilities and helped improve patient care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gap analysis: assessing the value perception of consultant pharmacist services and the performance of consultant pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    To understand the importance of services provided by consultant pharmacists and to assess perception of their performance of services. Cross-sectional; nursing facility team. Random e-mail survey of consultant pharmacists; phone survey of team members. 233 consultant pharmacists (practicing in a nursing facility); 540 team members (practicing in a nursing facility, interacting with > or = 1 consultant pharmacist): 120 medical directors, 210 directors of nursing, 210 administrators. Consultant pharmacists, directors of nursing, medical directors, and administrators rating importance/performance of 21 services. Gap between teams' ratings of importance and consultant pharmacists' performance is assessed to categorize services. Importance/performance ranked on five-point scale. Mean scores used for gap analysis to cluster services into four categories. Per combined group, six services categorized as "Keep It Up" (important, good performance), consensus with individual groups, except discrepancy with medical directors, for one service. Six services each categorized as "Improve" (important, large gap) and "Improve Second" (lower importance, large gap), with varied responses by individual groups. Three different services were categorized into "Don't Worry," with consensus within individual groups. Consensus from all groups found 5 of 21 services are important and performed well by consultant pharmacists, indicating to maintain performance of services. For three services, consultant pharmacists do not need to worry about their performance. Thirteen services require improvement in consultant pharmacists' performance; various groups differ on extent of improvement needed. Results can serve as benchmark comparisons with results obtained by consultant pharmacists in their own facilities.

  18. Exploring pharmacists' perceived job alternatives: Results from the 2014 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanasarot, Sirikan; Gaither, Caroline A; Schommer, Jon C; Doucette, William R; Kreling, David H; Mott, David A

    To examine the association between pharmacists' demographics, practice variables, worklife attitudes (e.g., work environment stress, control in the work environment, professional commitment, work-home conflict, and organizational commitment), and their perceived job alternatives. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A representative nationwide sample of licensed pharmacists in the United States, 2014. A total of 1574 practicing pharmacists. A previously validated Likert-type scale was used to measure perceived job alternatives. Pharmacists reported their perception on how easy it would be to find a better job with the use of 17 common organizational characteristics. The higher the score, the easier they perceived it would be to find a new job. The perceived job alternatives scale manifested 4 constructs: environmental conditions, professional opportunities, compensation, and coworkers. Multivariate regression analysis showed that organizational commitment was the most influential worklife attitude and was negatively associated with all constructs except better compensation. The higher professional commitment and environmental stress, the easier pharmacists perceive it would be to find a new job with better environmental conditions, such as better professional treatment by management. Younger pharmacists indicated higher perceived levels of ease in finding a job with better environmental conditions and professional opportunities. Male pharmacists also reported a higher perceived level of ease in finding an alternate job with better professional opportunities. White pharmacists perceived it would be easier to find a new job with better environmental aspects and compensation. No statistical significance was observed in perceived job alternatives among pharmacists practicing in different primary work settings after adjusting for other variables. Demographics and worklife attitudes were found to affect perceived availability of job alternatives. Organizational commitment

  19. Identifying medication-related needs of HIV patients: foundation for community pharmacist-based services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardlee Kauffman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients living with HIV/AIDS have complex medication regimens. Pharmacists within community pharmacy settings can have a role managing patients living with HIV/AIDS. Patients' perspectives surrounding implementation about community pharmacist-based services is needed as limited information is available. Objective: To identify medication-related needs of HIV-infected patients who receive prescriptions from a community pharmacy. To determine patient perspectives and knowledge of community pharmacist-based services. Methods: A qualitative research study involving in-depth, semi-structured interviews with patients was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: HIV positive men and women at least 18 years of age who receive care at a HIV clinic, currently take medication(s and use a community pharmacy for all prescription fills. Patients were recruited from one urban and one rural health center. Patients answered questions about their perceptions and knowledge about the role and value of pharmacy services and completed a demographic survey. The recordings of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and were analyzed using principles of Grounded Theory. Results: Twenty-nine interviews were conducted: 15 participants from the urban site and 14 from the rural site. Five main themes emerged including: patients experience ongoing and varying medication-related needs; patients desire a pharmacist who is caring, knowledgeable and integrated with health care providers; patients expect ready access to drug therapy; patients value an individualized patient encounter, and patients need to be informed that a pharmacist-service exists. Conclusion: Patients with HIV value individualized and personal encounters with pharmacists at time intervals that are convenient for the patient. Patients felt that a one-on-one encounter with a pharmacist would be most valuable when initiating or modifying medication therapy. These patient perspectives can be useful for

  20. Hospital and community pharmacists' perception of the scope, barriers and challenges of pharmacy practice-based research in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakeye, Titilayo O; Adisa, Rasaq; Olukotun, Rashidat T; Morawo, Paul K

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate perception, extent of involvement and barriers to pharmacy practice-based research among community and hospital pharmacists in Ibadan, Oyo state, southwestern Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out among 65 hospital and 86 community pharmacists with at least five-year post-qualification experience, using pre-tested questionnaire. Socio-demographic information, extent of involvement, relevance and scope, as well as barriers to pharmacy practice-based research were explored. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used for evaluating ranked variables at p95.0%) in each practice category agreed that pharmacy practice-based research is essential to pharmacy profession. Greater than 90.0% agreed that pharmacy practice-based research may help in identifying gaps to improve practice. Thirty-five (40.7%) community and 36(55.4%) hospital pharmacist participants had previously involved in practice-based research. Seventy-seven (89.5%) community and 55(84.3%) hospital pharmacists agreed that acquisition of additional research-oriented training is essential for effective conduct of pharmacy practice-based research. More than one-half in each category agreed that inadequate financial commitment and lack of access to patient's data are major barriers to pharmacy practice-based research. Community and hospital pharmacists agreed that pharmacy practice based research is essential to pharmacy profession, especially in identifying areas of focus to improve practice. Necessity for acquiring additional training in research, financial constraints and lack of access to patient's data were identified as barriers to pharmacy practice-based research. Thus, there is a need to continually stimulate pharmacists' interest in research so as to enhance professional competence and promote healthcare development.

  1. Patient attitudes toward community pharmacist attire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfar, Nile M; Zapantis, Antonia; Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Clauson, Kevin A; Beckey, Cherylyn

    2013-08-01

    The white coat has symbolized professionalism, while representing provider-patient fiduciary relationship. Although well described in the literature for physicians, few studies examine the impact of pharmacist attire on patients' opinions regarding professionalism and trust. Therefore, understanding patient perceptions regarding pharmacist's attire and its influence on comfort, confidence, trust, and professionalism may provide guidance on ways to enhance the quality of the provider-patient relationship. A 43-item Likert-type questionnaire was administered to 347 adults in a community pharmacy setting to determine preferences about the pharmacist's attire, accessories, and body art incorporating 8 photographs depicting a male pharmacist in various degrees of dress formality (ie, casual to professional). Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and analyze the data. Survey respondents reported it was desirable/strongly desirable that pharmacists be dressed in a shirt and tie, dress shoes, white coat, and name tag (mean 4.21-4.72), whereas they should not be dressed in jeans, casual shoes, or have visible body art (mean 2.17-2.78). Over 86% of the respondents felt that a pharmacist with a white coat instilled feelings of comfort, confidence, trust, and professionalism. In a community pharmacy setting, a pharmacist wearing a white coat appears to be the mainstay in displaying professionalism and inspiring trust in adult patients.

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  3. Implementation of a pharmacist career ladder program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Mojdeh S; Tichy, Eric M; Yazdi, Marina

    2016-10-01

    The implementation and outcomes of a pharmacist career ladder program (PCLP) at a tertiary care, academic medical center are described. A PCLP was developed at Yale-New Haven Hospital to guide career development, motivate staff to perform beyond their daily tasks and responsibilities, and recognize and retain high performers through professional advancement. The PCLP advancement criteria include specific requirements for excellence in five categories: level of training and experience, pharmacy practice, drug information, education and scholarship, and leadership. The PCLP is designed with four distinct tiers: clinical pharmacist, clinical pharmacist II, clinical pharmacy specialist, and clinical pharmacy specialist II. The specific criteria are increasingly challenging to achieve when moving up the ladder. Pharmacists may apply voluntarily each year for advancement. A PCLP review committee consisting of pharmacist peers and managers meets annually to discuss and vote on career advancement decisions. Since PCLP implementation, we have observed an increasing success rate for advancement (50% in 2013, 85% in 2014, and 100% in 2015) and a considerable increase in pharmacist participation in clinical and process improvement projects, as well as intervention and medication-use variance documentation. The implementation of a PCLP at a tertiary care, academic medical center provided an opportunity for frontline pharmacists to advance professionally and increased their participation and leadership in clinical and process improvement projects and drug-use policy and medication safety initiatives; the program also increased the number of pharmacists with specialty board certification and peer-reviewed publications. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility of providing interventions for injection drug users in pharmacy settings: a case study among San Francisco pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Valerie J; Lutnick, Alexandra; Kral, Alex H

    2014-01-01

    In addition to syringe exchange programs, pharmacies are important venues where injection drug users (IDUs) can access non-prescription syringes and other prevention interventions. This study assessed the feasibility of providing a range of interventions for IDUs in pharmacy settings. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 participants (policy makers, owner/managers, dispensing pharmacists, and pharmacy staff) from independent and chain/retail pharmacies in San Francisco, California, USA. The highest level of support was for a coupon syringe program and educational materials. Several overarching themes illustrate challenges to implementing pharmacy-based preventive interventions: time, space, sufficient staff, pharmacist training, legal considerations, pharmacist attitudes toward IDUs, and cost and reimbursement issues. This study provides concrete examples of the types of preventive services that pharmacists support and consider feasible, and illustrates that pharmacists welcome the opportunity to broaden their role as critical partners in public health matters related to injection drug use.

  5. Cross-cultural communication and co-ethnic social networks: perspectives and practices of independent community pharmacists in urban Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Despite the role of the pharmacist in the delivery of community health care, anthropological research placing them at the center of enquiry has been limited. In this article, I explore the experience of independent community pharmacists in hyperdiverse, urban communities. Research was conducted in East and South-East London, combining participant observation within pharmacies and active interviews with pharmacists. Pharmacists' narratives highlighted a sense of closeness to the lifeworld concerns of customers. They identified their ability to use cultural capital to build relationships through the delivery of successful cross-cultural care and by acting as brokers or patrons within co-ethnic social networks. Pharmacists position themselves as communication 'experts,' employ multilingual staff, and stock less commonly available products to provide a 'specialist' service for customers in hyperdiverse communities. I suggest that the pharmacy is a neglected space, and demonstrate how the autonomy afforded by independent practice provides a flexible and inclusive approach.

  6. Community pharmacists in England's opinions on skill mix and delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Emma; Bullock, Alison; Allan, Margaret; Hodson, Karen

    2017-12-06

    Following the 2005 contractual framework amendment, the expanding role of community pharmacy team members required a shift in entrenched views on roles and duties. This study aimed to report on community pharmacists' opinions on skill mix and explore how they can be addressed so that skill mix may be optimised. An invitation to complete an online questionnaire was distributed via email, marked for the attention of the lead pharmacist. Following a low response, a paper-based questionnaire was sent to all community pharmacies in England (n = 11,816). Questions elicited data about the respondent, the pharmacy (including staffing profile) and opinions on skill mix. A total of 1154 returns were received, representing a 10% response rate. Of these, most were pharmacy chains (76%; n = 877), with 5-9 staff (54%; n = 600); commonly open 40-49 hours (42%; n = 487), dispensing skill mix, three factors were identified by principal-components factor analysis: 'working well', 'feeling the pressure' and 'open to development'. Characteristics associated with 'working well': pharmacy owners, single businesses, with pharmacy technician(s), dispensing fewer prescriptions and open shorter hours. Characteristics associated with 'feeling the pressure': pharmacy chains, open longer hours, large numbers of prescriptions and relief pharmacists. Characteristics associated with 'open to development': recently qualified, second pharmacists, working longer hours, chains and dispensing lower numbers of prescriptions. Although limited by a low response, results suggest being in a position to influence (more experienced, business owners) may be associated with more positive opinions. Further training (including about legalities and leadership) could contribute to optimising skill mix in community pharmacies. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. A SINGULARLY UNFEMININE PROFESSION

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Mary K Gaillard back to CERN to present her book and talk diversity - In 1981 Mary K Gaillard became the first woman on the physics faculty at the University of California at Berkeley. Her career as a theoretical physicist spanned the period from the inception — in the late 1960s and early 1970s — of what is now known as the Standard Model of particle physics and its experimental confirmation, culminating with the discovery of the Higgs particle in 2012. Her book A Singularly Unfeminine Profession recounts Gaillard's experiences as a woman in a very male-dominated field, while tracing the development of the Standard Model as she witnessed it and participated in it.

  8. Transitioning Pharmacogenomics into the Clinical Setting: Training Future Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Amber; Benton, Cristina S; Scolaro, Kelly L; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Bradley, Courtney L; Suzuki, Oscar T; Wang, Nan; Wiltshire, Tim

    2016-01-01

    had received genotyping. Student pharmacists understanding of the risks and benefits of using personal genome testing services significantly increased (55.3 vs. 86.8%, p = 0.001) along with agreement that personal genomics would likely play an important role in their future career (47.4 vs. 76.3%, p = 0.01), particularly among students who participated in genotyping. The educational intervention, including personal genotyping, was feasible, and positively enhanced students' reflections, and attitudes toward pharmacogenomics in a professional pharmacy program.

  9. Transitioning pharmacogenomics into the clinical setting: training future pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Frick

    2016-08-01

    student had received genotyping. Student pharmacists understanding of the risks and benefits of using personal genome testing services significantly increased (55.3% vs. 86.8%, p=0.001 along with agreement that personal genomics would likely play an important role in their future career (47.4% versus 76.3%, p=0.01, particularly among students who participated in genotyping. The educational intervention, including personal genotyping, was feasible and positively enhanced students’ reflections and attitudes towards pharmacogenomics in a professional pharmacy program.

  10. MODEL OF TEACHING PROFESSION SPECIFIC BILATERAL TRANSLATION

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    Yana Fabrychna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the author’s interpretation of the process of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teacher of English in the Master’s program. The goal of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation development is to determine the logical sequence of educational activities of the teacher as the organizer of the educational process and students as its members. English and Ukrainian texts on methods of foreign languages and cultures teaching are defined as the object of study. Learning activities aimed at the development of student teachers of English profession specific competence in bilateral translation and Translation Proficiency Language Portfolio for Student Teachers of English are suggested as teaching tools. The realization of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teachers of English in the Master’s program is suggested within the module topics of the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language»: Globalization; Localization; Education; Work; The role of new communication technologies in personal and professional development. We believe that the amount of time needed for efficient functioning of the model is 48 academic hours, which was determined by calculating the total number of academic hours allotted for the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language» in Ukrainian universities. Peculiarities of the model realization as well as learning goals and content of class activities and home self-study work of students are outlined.

  11. The role of Clinical Pharmacists in the improvement of a pharmacovigilance system: A review of the reported adverse drug reactions during 2004-2010 in Mazandaran Province of Iran

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    Elham Azhdari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following establishment of Iranian Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR Monitoring Center in 1997, ADR committees were established in all hospitals of Mazandaran Province of Iran. Clinical pharmacists from Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences have been involved with these committees since 2007. The aim of this study was to compare the results of the pharmacovigilance system before and after active involvement of clinical pharmacists. Methods: This study included Yellow Cards filled out by healthcare providers in Mazandaran Province during 2004-2010. Frequency of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs, route of administration, reporters, number of reports in each years and damaged organs were focuses. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software. P Results: A total of 793 yellow cards were completed during 2004 – 2010. Only 38 ADRs (4.8% were related to 2004-2007. Most of the reports generated by Nurses (49.3% followed by Pharmacists and Physicians (P Conclusion: Clinical pharmacists’ intervention regarding establishing ADR committees in the hospitals improved the output of the pharmacovigilance system, although under-reporting is still a major drawback of spontaneous reporting. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, Adverse Drug Reaction, Mazandaran, Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems

  12. The Professions and Societal Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, William K.

    1980-01-01

    Strain in the profession of pharmacy over conflicts between basic and natural science perspectives is attributed to several factors: the many facets of the profession, divergent interests, political uncertainty, social change, members' aspirations, and curriculum studies. Greater use of computers is encouraged. (MSE)

  13. Pharmacists as immunizers: a survey of community pharmacists' willingness to administer adult immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas; Gorman Corsten, Erin; Kiberd, Mathew; Bowles, Susan; Isenor, Jennifer; Slayter, Kathryn; McNeil, Shelly

    2015-04-01

    Adult immunization rates worldwide fall below desired targets. Pharmacists are highly accessible healthcare providers with the potential to increase immunization rates among adults by administering vaccines in their practice setting. To determine the attitudes of community-based Canadian pharmacists with respect to expanding their scope of practice to include administration of immunizations. An internet-based survey was emailed to community pharmacists across Canada. The survey was piloted through focus groups for qualitative feedback, tested for content validity, and test-retest reliability prior to dissemination. There were 495 responses to the survey. The majority (88 %) agreed that pharmacists as immunizers would increase public access, improve rates (84 %), and be acceptable to the public (72 %). However, only 68 % agreed that pharmacists should be permitted to immunize. The majority of respondents (90 %) agreed that certification in vaccine administration should be required for pharmacists to administer vaccines. Pharmacists identified education, reimbursement, and negative interactions with other providers as barriers to pharmacists administering vaccines. Canadian pharmacists are willing to expand their scope of practice to include immunization. However, implementation requires professional development and certification in vaccine administration.

  14. Pharmacists providing care in the outpatient setting through telemedicine models: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littauer, Sydney L; Dixon, Dave L; Mishra, Vimal K; Sisson, Evan M; Salgado, Teresa M

    2017-01-01

    Telemedicine refers to the delivery of clinical services using technology that allows two-way, real time, interactive communication between the patient and the clinician at a distant site. Commonly, telemedicine is used to improve access to general and specialty care for patients in rural areas. This review aims to provide an overview of existing telemedicine models involving the delivery of care by pharmacists via telemedicine (including telemonitoring and video, but excluding follow-up telephone calls) and to highlight the main areas of chronic-disease management where these models have been applied. Studies within the areas of hypertension, diabetes, asthma, anticoagulation and depression were identified, but only two randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size demonstrating the positive impact of telemonitoring combined with pharmacist care in hypertension were identified. The evidence for the impact of pharmacist-based telemedicine models is sparse and weak, with the studies conducted presenting serious threats to internal and external validity. Therefore, no definitive conclusions about the impact of pharmacist-led telemedicine models can be made at this time. In the Unites States, the increasing shortage of primary care providers and specialists represents an opportunity for pharmacists to assume a more prominent role managing patients with chronic disease in the ambulatory care setting. However, lack of reimbursement may pose a barrier to the provision of care by pharmacists using telemedicine.

  15. Pharmacists providing care in the outpatient setting through telemedicine models: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littauer SL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine refers to the delivery of clinical services using technology that allows two-way, real time, interactive communication between the patient and the clinician at a distant site. Commonly, telemedicine is used to improve access to general and specialty care for patients in rural areas. This review aims to provide an overview of existing telemedicine models involving the delivery of care by pharmacists via telemedicine (including telemonitoring and video, but excluding follow-up telephone calls and to highlight the main areas of chronic-disease management where these models have been applied. Studies within the areas of hypertension, diabetes, asthma, anticoagulation and depression were identified, but only two randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size demonstrating the positive impact of telemonitoring combined with pharmacist care in hypertension were identified. The evidence for the impact of pharmacist-based telemedicine models is sparse and weak, with the studies conducted presenting serious threats to internal and external validity. Therefore, no definitive conclusions about the impact of pharmacist-led telemedicine models can be made at this time. In the Unites States, the increasing shortage of primary care providers and specialists represents an opportunity for pharmacists to assume a more prominent role managing patients with chronic disease in the ambulatory care setting. However, lack of reimbursement may pose a barrier to the provision of care by pharmacists using telemedicine.

  16. Public perceptions of pharmacist expanded scope of practice services in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrea C; Boyle, Todd A; Morrison, Bobbi; Barker, James R; Zwicker, Bev; Mahaffey, Tom; Murphy, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Community pharmacists have been transitioning from traditional dispensing roles toward a much broader scope of practice. The objective of this research was to explore public perceptions of expanded scope of practice (ESOP) services as they relate to pharmacy and pharmacist characteristics. The Survey on New Services Offered by Nova Scotia Pharmacists was developed and deployed using in-pharmacy intercept surveys and online public surveys in Nova Scotia. The survey focused on 4 key ESOP elements/services: 1) prescribing for minor ailments (ambulatory conditions), 2) injections and vaccinations, 3) prescription renewals and 4) medication reviews. Data were analyzed using comparisons between groups (multivariate analysis of variance) and principal component analysis. A total of 385 surveys were obtained from the public regarding their perceptions and use of ESOP services (online n = 237, in-pharmacy intercept n = 148). A number of significant differences were found on the basis of respondent sex, age and the location of survey deployment. Overall, public perceptions of pharmacists' knowledge and skills in providing ESOP services are positive. A pharmacist's ability to communicate, protect confidentiality and provide quality information regarding medications is important to the public. Respondents who already have a good relationship with their pharmacist are more likely to see value in ESOP services. Future public education strategies should focus on factors positively affecting the public's perceptions of ESOP services and should encourage public use of these services through intentional patient education of the benefits of ESOP services and strengthening of the patient-provider relationship.

  17. Involvement of Pharmacists in Medical Care in Emergency and Critical Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Toru; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Emergency and critical care centers provide multidisciplinary therapy for critically ill patients by centralizing the expertise and technology of many medical professionals. Because the patients' conditions vary, different drug treatments are administered along with surgery. Therefore, the role of pharmacists is important. Critically ill patients who receive high-level invasive treatment undergo physiological changes differing from their normal condition along with variable therapeutic effects and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacists are responsible for recommending the appropriate drug therapy using their knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Further, pharmacists need to determine the general condition of patients by understanding vital signs, blood gas analysis results, etc. It is therefore necessary to conduct consultations with physicians and nurses. The knowledge required for emergency medical treatment is not provided during systematic training in pharmaceutical education, meaning that pharmacists acquire it in the clinical setting through trial and error. To disseminate the knowledge of emergency medical care to pharmacy students, emergency care training has been started in a few facilities. I believe that medical facilities and universities need to conduct joint educational sessions on emergency medical care. Moreover, compared with other medical fields, there are fewer studies on emergency medical care. Research-oriented pharmacists must resolve this issue. This review introduces the work conducted by pharmacists for clinical student education and clinical research at the Emergency and Critical Care Center of Nihon University Itabashi Hospital and discusses future prospects.

  18. Predicting pharmacists' adjustment of medication regimens in Ramadan using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed E K; Chewning, Betty

    2015-01-01

    During Ramadan, many Muslim patients may choose to abstain from food, drink and oral medications from dawn to sunset. This study explored the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model in predicting community pharmacists' Medication Regimen Adjustment (MRA) behavior for patients during Ramadan. A sample of pharmacists was drawn from a recent list of community pharmacies in the Alexandria governorate. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was completed by community pharmacists to determine their attitudes and behaviors regarding adjustment of medication regimens around Ramadan. Multiple linear regression was used to predict MRA as a function of the TPB constructs and four other factors - "pharmacist initiation of the conversation on MRA," "number of hours worked," "age," and "religion" of pharmacist. Two hundred seventy-seven (92.9%) of the 298 approached pharmacists participated. While 94.2% reported performing one or more kinds of MRA around Ramadan for at least one patient, the majority of these were for a small percentage of patients. The most common MRA was changing the frequency of taking the medication followed by the dose of the medication, the dosage form of the medication and the medication itself. Statistically significant predictors of MRA in the final model included patient social pressure (PSP) (β = 0.274, P behavioral capability (PBC) (β = 0.217, P behavior. Pharmacists may be open to a larger MRA role than they are currently performing. There is a need to prepare pharmacists who are frequently requested to adjust patients' medication regimens to make sure they provide a safe transition for fasting patients into and out of Ramadan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physician-pharmacist collaborative care in dyslipidemia management: the perception of clinicians and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Lyne; Hudon, Eveline; Goudreau, Johanne; Bélanger, Danielle; Villeneuve, Julie; Perreault, Sylvie; Blais, Lucie; Lamarre, Diane

    2011-09-01

    Collaborative practices allow physicians and pharmacists to comanage pharmacotherapy to maximize the benefits of medication regimens. The Trial to Evaluate an Ambulatory primary care Management program for patients with dyslipidemia (TEAM) study compared the efficacy of a physician-pharmacist collaborative primary care (PPCC) intervention, where pharmacists requested laboratory tests and adjusted medication dosage, to the usual care (UC) for patients under treatment with lipid-lowering medication. In a qualitative study nested within the TEAM study, the perceptions of physicians, pharmacists, and patients regarding the PPCC model, interprofessional collaboration, and the clinicians' willingness to implement the model in their practice were explored. In the area of Montreal (Quebec, Canada), TEAM study participants assigned to the PPCC group were invited to participate. Individual semistructured interviews with physicians (n=7) and 2 six-member focus groups with pharmacists (n=12) and patients (n=12) were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The vast majority of participants reported PPCC was more structured and systematic than the UC they had received previously, wherein physicians prescribe and adjust pharmacotherapy and pharmacists provide the counseling and dispense medications. Many patients felt they received better follow-up and reported being reassured and well informed, making them more inclined to care for themselves better. These feelings were attributed largely to the pharmacists' accessibility and ability to communicate with them easily. Given the physician shortage, physicians perceived interprofessional collaboration as almost inevitable. They considered PPCC to be safe and effective. However, obstacles were also identified. Physicians were concerned that it might alter their special relationship with patients and threaten their overall medical follow-up. Pharmacists felt enthusiastic about their new role, but found PPCC time consuming and

  20. Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists towards Antimicrobial Stewardship in the State of Selangor, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    Full Text Available Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship.A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March-April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data.A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8% believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%. Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%, a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2% rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p 10 years held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05.The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and improve their perception and

  1. Has Technical Communication Arrived as a Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle, Kathy; Williams, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the design and technology components of technical communication by investigating how practitioners imagine their work and the profession, specifically with respect to technology. In short, we wanted to interrogate the duality of “core design skills” and “technology skills” by asking practitioners to reflect both on the definition of technical communication and on the role technology plays in their work. We wanted to weigh claims that communication and rhetorical skills a...

  2. Monaldo Viganti from Pesaro, pharmacist in medieval Dubrovnik

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    Pekić Radmilo B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The business community from Italian cities had an important role in the development and the prosperity of medieval Dubrovnik. One of the most distinguished foreigners in Dubrovnik was the pharmacist Monaldo Viganti whose activity, based on published and unpublished materials in the Dubrovnik Archives, shown in this -paper from 30-80s of the 15th century. In addition to running pharmacy, he especially excelled in managing loan services by financing -Dubrovnik cloth producers and merchants. Viganti was a full citizen of Dubrovnik and afterwards Antunini, he intensively traded on the Apenine Peninsula and inside the Balkans. He often did business associated with other merchants. After his arrival in Dubrovnik his closest collaborator was Paolo Tomazi, pharmacist married to Viganti's sister. Later he became a member of numerous trade associations. He started his family in Dubrovnik and his heirs kept on his tradition and became prominent pharmacists in Dubrovnik. Monaldo was a link, which contributed, the prosperity of Dubrovnik and through trade activities connected Apenine and Balkan Peninsula.

  3. Desired professional development pathways for clinical pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shord, Stacy S; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Badowski, Melissa; Banderas, Julie; Burton, Michael E; Chapleau, Christopher A; Gallagher, Jason C; Matsuura, Gregory; Parli, Sara E; Yunker, Nancy

    2013-04-01

    The 2012 American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Certification Affairs Committee was charged with developing guidelines for the desired professional development pathways for clinical pharmacists. This document summarizes recommendations for postgraduate education and training for graduates of U.S. schools and colleges of pharmacy and describes the preferred pathways for achieving, demonstrating, and maintaining competence as clinical pharmacists. After initial licensure within the state or jurisdiction in which the pharmacist intends to practice, completion of an accredited PGY1 pharmacy residency is recommended to further develop the knowledge and skills needed to optimize medication therapy outcomes. An accredited PGY2 pharmacy residency should be completed if a pharmacist wishes to seek employment in a specific therapeutic area or practice setting, if such a residency exists. Clinical pharmacists intending to conduct advanced research that is competitive for federal funding are encouraged to complete a fellowship or graduate education. Initial certification by the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) or other appropriate sponsoring organizations should be completed in the desired primary therapeutic area or practice setting within 2 years after accepting a position within the desired specific therapeutic area or practice setting. Clinical pharmacists subsequently will need to meet the requirements to maintain pharmacist licensure and board certification. Traineeships, practice-based activities, and certificate programs can be used to obtain additional knowledge and skills that support professional growth. Pharmacists are strongly encouraged to adopt a lifelong, systematic process for professional development and work with ACCP and other professional organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of innovative strategies to assess core practice competencies. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  4. Polypharmacy in pediatric patients and opportunities for pharmacists' involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horace AE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alexis E Horace, Fahamina Ahmed School of Pharmacy, College of Health and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USA Abstract: Rates of chronic conditions among pediatrics have been steadily increasing and medications used to treat these conditions have also shown a proportional increase. Most clinical trials focus on the safety of solitary medications in adult patients. However, data from these trials are often times extrapolated for use in pediatric patients who have different pharmacokinetic processes and physical profiles. As research increases and more drugs become available for pediatric use, the issue of polypharmacy becomes more of a concern. Polypharmacy is defined as the practice of administering or using multiple medications concurrently for the treatment of one to several medical disorders. With the increased rates of diagnosed complex disease states as prescribed mediations in pediatric patients, the prevalence and effect of polypharmacy in this patient population is largely a mystery. Polypharmacy falls within the realm of expertise of specialized pharmacists who can undertake medication therapy management services, medical chart reviews, and other services in pediatrics. Pharmacists have the time and knowledge to undertake pertinent interventions when managing polypharmacy and can play a major positive role in preventing adverse events. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on pediatric polypharmacy and provide insight into opportunities for pharmacists to help with management of polypharmacy. Information on adverse events, efficacy, and long-term outcomes with regard to growth and development of children subject to polypharmacy has yet to be published, leaving this realm of patient safety ripe for research. Keywords: polypharmacy, pediatrics, pharmacists, involvement

  5. Impact of a health literacy assignment on student pharmacist learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aleda M H; Noureldin, Marwa; Plake, Kimberly S

    2013-01-01

    The average American adult reads at the 8th grade level while most written health information materials, including medication guides, are written at the 12th grade level. To assist students with health literacy-sensitive communication, pharmacy schools should incorporate educational activities addressing health literacy competencies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of a health literacy assignment on student pharmacists' perceptions of: 1) learning about health literacy; 2) ability to write health literacy level-appropriate patient education material; and 3) the use of these skills in future pharmacy practice. Third professional year student pharmacists were asked to rewrite a patient medication information sheet at the 5th grade reading level, altering it from the 12th grade level. Following assignment completion, students responded to a 4-item open-ended questionnaire on what they learned from the activity, what information components were the most difficult to rewrite and reason for the difficulty, key strategies to accomplish the assignment, and their perception of the impact this assignment had on their future practice. Content analysis of the reflections was performed using QSR NVivo to identify themes grounded in the students' responses. Reflections were completed in 2009 (n = 159) and 2010 (n = 144), for a total of 303 completed reflections. Predominant themes included greater understanding about the challenges, importance, and methods of health literacy level-appropriate communication and greater awareness of the role of pharmacists in presenting information clearly to patients. Students indicated the activity increased their understanding of the complexity of patient information, the educational needs of patients, and the importance of providing information that is understandable. Student pharmacists learned methods of effective communication with patients and should be better prepared to communicate in a health literacy

  6. Professional Use of Social Media by Pharmacists: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy Frank; Schaefer, Marion; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media is frequently used by consumers and health care professionals; however, our knowledge about its use in a professional capacity by pharmacists is limited. Objective Our aim was to investigate the professional use of social media by pharmacists. Methods In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with practicing pharmacists (N=31) from nine countries. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Results Wikipedia, YouTube, and Facebook were the main social media platforms used. Professional use of social media included networking with peers, discussion of health and professional topics, accessing and sharing health and professional information, job searching, and professional promotion. Wikipedia was the participants’ first choice when seeking information about unfamiliar topics, or topics that were difficult to search for. Very few pharmacy-related contributions to Wikipedia were reported. YouTube, a video-sharing platform, was used for self-education. University lectures, “how-to” footage, and professionally made videos were commonly watched. No professional contribution was made to YouTube. Facebook, a general social networking site, was used for professional networking, promotion of achievements, and job advertisements. It also afforded engagement in professional discussions and information sharing among peers. Conclusions Participants used social media in a professional capacity, specifically for accessing and sharing health and professional information among peers. Pharmacists, as medicines experts, should take a leading role in contributing to health information dissemination in these user-friendly virtual environments, to reach not only other health care professionals but also health consumers. PMID:27663570

  7. Pharmacists' wages and salaries: The part-time versus full-time dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Popovici, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant growth in part-time work among pharmacy personnel. If preferences and outlooks of part-time and full-time workers differ, job-related incentives may not have the same effect on both groups; different management practices may be necessary to cope with rapidly evolving workforces. To compare wage-and-salary responses to the number of hours worked, human-capital stock, and job-related preferences between full-time and part-time pharmacists. The analysis focused on the pharmacist workforce because, unlike other professions, remuneration is fairly linear with respect to the amount of time worked. Data were collected from a self-reported survey of licensed pharmacists in southern Florida (U.S. State). The sample consisted of 979 full-time and 254 part-time respondents. Using ordinary least squares, a model estimated, separately for full-time and part-time pharmacists, annual wage-and-salary earnings as functions of average workweek, human-capital stock, and job-related preferences. Practitioners working less than 36 h/week were driven almost exclusively by pay, whereas practitioners working 36 h or more exhibited a more comprehensive approach to their work experience that included variables beyond monetary remuneration. Managing part-time pharmacists calls for emphasis on wage-and-salary issues. Job-security and gender- and children-related concerns, such as flexibility, should be oriented toward full-time practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure moral distress in community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Jayne L; Gallagher, Cathal T

    2017-02-01

    Background Pharmacists work within a highly-regulated occupational sphere, and are bound by strict legal frameworks and codes of professional conduct. This regulatory environment creates the potential for moral distress to occur due to the limitations it places on acting in congruence with moral judgements. Very little research regarding this phenomenon has been undertaken in pharmacy: thus, prominent research gaps have arisen for the development of a robust tool to measure and quantify moral distress experienced in the profession. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure moral distress in community pharmacists. Setting Community pharmacies in the United Kingdom. Method This study adopted a three-phase exploratory sequential mixed-method design. Three semi-structured focus groups were then conducted to allow pharmacists to identify and explore scenarios that cause moral distress. Each of the identified scenarios were developed into a statement, which was paired with twin seven-point Likert scales to measure the frequency and intensity of the distress, respectively. Content validity, reliability, and construct validity were all tested, and the questionnaire was refined. Main outcome measure The successful development of the valid instrument for use in the United Kingdom. Results This research has led to the development of a valid and reliable instrument to measure moral distress in community pharmacists in the UK. The questionnaire has already been distributed to a large sample of community pharmacists. Conclusion Results from this distribution will be used to inform the formulation of coping strategies for dealing with moral distress.

  9. The Regulation of Food Science and Technology Professions in Europe

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    Rui Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of a profession is justified when it improves consumer protection and public health. Higher education food science and technology (FST degrees, widely offered in many universities in Europe open to a wide range of jobs in the food sectors where the employees could cover different positions, roles and carry out diverse activities dealing with the food production and the quality and safety of the food products. This work reviews the state of the art of the FST regulated professions requiring higher education qualifications in the European countries. The research was carried out by collecting specific information on regulated professions by contacting unions, professional associations, public servant categories/professions, and by visiting national and EU websites.  The data collected for each regulated profession were: country, training/education required, date of implementation of regulation, professional training (if required, capability test (if required and acts required by law to be signed by a regulated professional. Only professions that required a higher education diploma were included in this search. Few countries were found to have a regulated profession in FST, in particular: Food Engineering (Turkey, Food Technologist (Greece, Iceland, Italy and Slovenia, and Oenologist (Italy, Portugal and Spain. FST regulated professions in Europe are thus scarce and have a rather limited history. The Food Technologist in Italy and the Food Engineer in Turkey were found to be the only completely regulated professions found in Europe. Food and professional regulation have been evolved over the years and raised the debate on the regulation of FST professions. Academia as well as other policymakers has to further contribute to this discussion to keep high the standards for quality of education and training of the qualified workforce and professionals in the food sector.

  10. Knowledge on Alzheimer's Disease among Public Hospitals and Health Clinics Pharmacists in the State of Selangor, Malaysia

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    Thimarul Huda Mat Nuri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD has increased with the fast growing of aging population, thereby posing great challenges to provision of care for AD patients. Pharmacists play a vital role in the management of AD; this includes recognizing early symptoms of AD, providing medication counseling to AD patients and their caretakers, and identifying potential adverse drug reactions. A comprehensive understanding of the disease progression, as well as the pharmacological therapy, is essential to provide effective care to AD patients. The level of knowledge about AD among the pharmacists, however, remains unknown. Hence, this study aimed to assess the knowledge on AD among the pharmacists in public hospitals and health clinics and its correlates. A clear picture of the characteristics associated with different levels of knowledge could facilitate the targeted re-training of pharmacists. The 30-item validated Alzheimer disease knowledge scale (ADKS tool was pilot-tested and used in this cross-sectional study. All pharmacists, from nine public hospitals and seven public health clinics in the State of Selangor, Malaysia, were invited to participate in this cross-sectional survey. The ADKS score was computed and compared across demographics characteristics. A total of 445 pharmacists responded to the survey. These pharmacists had a moderate overall score in ADKS; nevertheless, high scores were recorded in the domains of treatment management and care giving. No difference in AD knowledge was found among pharmacists worked in public hospitals and health clinics, except for the domain of care giving (p = 0.033. Ethnicity and age group were independent predictors of ADKS score in the current study. The pharmacists in the current study had moderate AD knowledge. On-going education and training programme on AD, in particular the domains other than treatment management and care giving, should be provided to the pharmacists to ensure delivery of quality

  11. [Moral dilemmas of the pharmacist--ways of coping with ethical problems in light of case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazumi

    2009-07-01

    Pharmacological education in Japan has focused less on the cultivation of medical care providers than on fostering personnel who could develop and manufacture medical products. Pharmacists who passed the national board were able to take part in providing medical treatment even if they lacked the knowledge or capabilities required in a clinical setting. Given both this educational background and the systematic problem that there was no division of labor in the pharmacological field, and given that they operated in a work environment where there was almost no opportunity for direct contact with patients, pharmacists for many years lacked self-awareness as persons who handle medical products that can affect human lives, and failed to take full account of their role as administrators of these products. However, there has been a significant change in the role of pharmacists and in the environment in which they operate since the pharmacist discipline was first established. Whereas in the past the job of pharmacists was simply to deal with the materials of medical products, the job has changed to involve dealing directly with patients. Currently, most pharmacists are engaged in work that provides direct support to people. Ethical behavior is demanded in clinical situations that involve people's interaction with one another. The need is urgent, therefore, for us to apply an understanding of ethical theory and conduct systematic case method-based ethical education to cultivate an ethical outlook among pharmacological students and pharmacists.

  12. A qualitative study on pharmacists’ perception on integrating pharmacists into private general practitioner’s clinics in Malaysia

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    Saw PS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Private general practitioners in Malaysia largely operates as solo practices – prescribing and supplying medications to patients directly from their clinics, thus posing risk of medication-related problems to consumers. A pharmacy practice reform that integrates pharmacists into primary healthcare clinics can be a potential initiative to promote quality use of medication. This model of care is a novel approach in Malaysia and research in the local context is required, especially from the perspectives of pharmacists. Objective: To explore pharmacists’ views in integrating pharmacists into private GP clinics in Malaysia. Methods: A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit community and hospital pharmacists from urban areas in Malaysia to participate either in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. A total of 2 focus groups and 4 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed using NVivo 10. Results: Four major themes were identified: (1 Limited potential to expand pharmacists’ roles, (2 Concerns about non-pharmacists dispensing medicines in private GP clinics, (3 Lack of trust from consumers and private GPs, (4 Cost implications. Participants felt that there was a limited role for pharmacists in private GP clinics. This was because the medication supply role is currently undertaken in private GP clinics without the need of pharmacists. The perceived lack of trust from consumers and private GPs towards pharmacists arises from the belief that healthcare is the GPs’ responsibility. This suggests that there is a need for increased public and GP awareness towards the capabilities of pharmacists’ in medication management. Participants were concerned about an increase in cost to private GP visits if pharmacists were to be integrated. Nevertheless, some participants perceived the integration as a means to reduce medical costs

  13. Quality engineering as a profession.

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    Kolb, Rachel R.; Hoover, Marcey L.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of time, the profession of quality engineering has witnessed significant change, from its original emphasis on quality control and inspection to a more contemporary focus on upholding quality processes throughout the organization and its product realization activities. This paper describes the profession of quality engineering, exploring how todays quality engineers and quality professionals are certified individuals committed to upholding quality processes and principles while working with different dimensions of product development. It also discusses the future of the quality engineering profession and the future of the quality movement as a whole.

  14. Integration of Community Pharmacists in Transition of Care (TOC) Services: Current Trends and Pharmacist Perceptions.

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    Zeleznikar, Elizabeth A; Kroehl, Miranda E; Perica, Katharine M; Thompson, Angela M; Trinkley, Katy E

    2017-01-01

    Barriers exist for patients transitioning from one health-care setting to another, or to home, and health-care systems are falling short of meeting patient needs during this time. Community pharmacist incorporation poses a solution to the current communication breakdown and high rates of medication errors during transitions of care (TOC). The purpose of this study was to determine community pharmacists' involvement in and perceptions of TOC services. Cross-sectional study using electronic surveys nationwide to pharmacists employed by a community pharmacy chain. Of 7236 pharmacists surveyed, 546 (7.5%) responded. Only 33 (6%) pharmacists reported their pharmacy participates in TOC services. Most pharmacists (81.5%) reported receiving discharge medication lists. The most common reported barrier to TOC participation is lack of electronic integration with surrounding hospitals (51.1%). Most pharmacists agreed that (1) it is valuable to receive discharge medication lists (83.3%), (2) receiving discharge medication lists is beneficial for patients' health (89.1%), (3) discharge medication list receipt improves medication safety (88.8%). Most pharmacists reported receiving discharge medication lists and reported discharge medication lists are beneficial, but less than half purposefully used medication lists. To close TOC gaps, health-care providers must collaborate to overcome barriers for successful TOC services.

  15. Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Care for Dyslipidemia Patients: Knowledge and Skills of Community Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Julie; Lamarre, Diane; Lussier, Marie-Therese; Vanier, Marie-Claude; Genest, Jacques; Blais, Lucie; Hudon, Eveline; Perreault, Sylvie; Berbiche, Djamal; Lalonde, Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In a physician-pharmacist collaborative-care (PPCC) intervention, community pharmacists were responsible for initiating lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy and adjusting the medication dosage. They attended a 1-day interactive workshop supported by a treatment protocol and clinical and communication tools. Afterwards, changes in…

  16. Pharmacists' perceptions of advancing public health priorities through medication therapy management

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    Casserlie LM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public health priorities can be addressed by pharmacists through channels such as medication therapy management (MTM to optimize patient and population outcomes. However, no studies have specifically assessed pharmacists’ perceptions of addressing public health priorities through MTM. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess pharmacists’ opinions regarding the feasibility and appropriateness of addressing seven areas of public health priority through MTM services to impact public health in direct patient care settings. Methods: An anonymous 37-question electronic survey was conducted to evaluate Ohio pharmacists’ opinions of advancing seven public health priorities identified from Healthy People 2020 (family planning, preconception care, smoking cessation, immunizations, nutrition/biometric wellness assessments, point-of-care testing, fall prevention through MTM activities; to identify potential barriers; and to collect demographic information. The cross-sectional survey was sent to a random sample of 500 pharmacists registered with the Ohio State Board of Pharmacy. Results: Seventy-six pharmacists responded to the survey, resulting in a 16% response rate. On average, it took respondents 5-10 minutes to complete the survey. The majority of respondents thought that each of the seven public health priorities were “important” or “very important” to patient health; the most commonly identified areas included smoking cessation, immunizations, and fall prevention (97.5%. When asked to indicate which of the seven areas they thought they could potentially have a role to provide services through MTM, on average pharmacists picked 4 of the priority areas. Only 6.6% indicated there was no role for pharmacists to provide MTM services for any of the listed categories. Staffing, time, and reimbursement represented the most commonly perceived barriers for pharmacists in providing MTM services. Fifty-seven percent indicated

  17. Medication safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among community pharmacists in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Aline; Hallit, Souheil; Ramia, Elsy; Salameh, Pascale

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of a national post-marketing surveillance program depends directly on the active participation of all health professionals. There is no current comprehensive and active pharmacovigilance program available in Lebanon. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Lebanon with respect to potential pharmacovigilance and adverse-drug-reaction reporting in Lebanon. A cross-sectional descriptive study, using a self-administered KAP questionnaire and conducted between March and July 2016, included 1857 pharmacists practicing in community settings. Statistical analysis included χ 2 test for dichotomous or multinomial qualitative variables, and Wilcoxon test for quantitative variables with non-homogeneous variances or non-normal distribution. The majority of responders had good knowledge concerning the concept and purpose of pharmacovigilance as well as adverse drug reactions (how to report these/the importance of reporting adverse events/the definition of an adverse event and pharmacovigilance). Concerning community pharmacists' attitudes and practice towards pharmacovigilance, the majority described having a positive attitude towards their role in adverse drug reaction reporting and this activity was even seen as one of their core duties. The questionnaire revealed a lack of practice and training regarding pharmacovigilance. Nonetheless, the pharmacists agreed on the Order of Pharmacists in Lebanon and the Ministry of Health's role in promoting this practice and helping them be more involved in reporting adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The pharmacists thought that they are well positioned regarding patient-safety practice in their pharmacies and the results were not statistically different between pharmacy employers and employees. Lebanese pharmacists have the required knowledge and positive attitude to start reporting ADRs, were aware of ADRs occurring with various medicines post-marketing, yet were currently not

  18. The history of the nurse anesthesia profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, William T; Desai, Sukumar P

    2016-05-01

    Despite the fact that anesthesia was discovered in the United States, we believe that both physicians and nurses are largely unaware of many aspects of the development of the nurse anesthetist profession. A shortage of suitable anesthetists and the reluctance of physicians to provide anesthetics in the second half of the 19th century encouraged nurses to take on this role. We trace the origins of the nurse anesthetist profession and provide biographical information about its pioneers, including Catherine Lawrence, Sister Mary Bernard Sheridan, Alice Magaw, Agatha Cobourg Hodgins, and Helen Lamb. We comment on the role of the nuns and the effect of the support and encouragement of senior surgeons on the development of the specialty. We note the major effect of World Wars I and II on the training and recruitment of nurse anesthetists. We provide information on difficulties faced by nurse anesthetists and how these were overcome. Next, we examine how members of the profession organized, developed training programs, and formalized credentialing and licensing procedures. We conclude by examining the current state of nurse anesthesia practice in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics associated with support of in-pharmacy vaccination among ESAP-registered pharmacies: pharmacists' role in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Blaney, Shannon; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Turner, Alezandria K; Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M

    2011-02-01

    New York State (NYS) passed legislation authorizing pharmacists to administer immunizations in 2008. Racial/socioeconomic disparities persist in vaccination rates and vaccine-preventable diseases such as influenza. Many NYS pharmacies participate in the Expanded Syringe Access Program (ESAP), which allows provision of non-prescription syringes to help prevent transmission of HIV, and are uniquely positioned to offer vaccination services to low-income communities. To understand individual and neighborhood characteristics of pharmacy staff support for in-pharmacy vaccination, we combined census tract data with baseline pharmacy data from the Pharmacies as Resources Making Links to Community Services (PHARM-Link) study among ESAP-registered pharmacies. The sample consists of 437 pharmacists, non-pharmacist owners, and technicians enrolled from 103 eligible New York City pharmacies. Using multilevel analysis, pharmacy staff who expressed support of in-pharmacy vaccination services were 69% more likely to support in-pharmacy HIV testing services (OR, 1.69; 95% CI 1.39-2.04). While pharmacy staff who worked in neighborhoods with a high percent of minority residents were less likely to express support of in-pharmacy vaccination, those in neighborhoods with a high percent of foreign-born residents were marginally more likely to express support of in-pharmacy vaccination. While educational campaigns around the importance of vaccination access may be needed among some pharmacy staff and minority community residents, we have provided evidence supporting scale-up of vaccination efforts in pharmacies located in foreign-born/immigrant communities which has potential to reduce disparities in vaccination rates and preventable influenza-related mortality.

  20. Integrating a pharmacist into the general practice environment: opinions of pharmacist’s, general practitioner’s, health care consumer’s, and practice manager’s

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    Freeman Christopher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacists are viewed as highly trained yet underutilised and there is growing support to extend the role of the pharmacist within the primary health care sector. The integration of a pharmacist into a general practice medical centre is not a new concept however is a novel approach in Australia and evidence supporting this role is currently limited. This study aimed to describe the opinions of local stakeholders in South-East Queensland on the integration of a pharmacist into the Australian general practice environment. Methods A sample of general practitioners, health care consumers, pharmacists and practice managers in South-East Queensland were invited to participate in focus groups or semi-structured interviews. Seeding questions common to all sessions were used to facilitate discussion. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Leximancer software was used to qualitatively analyse responses. Results A total of 58 participants took part in five focus groups and eighteen semi-structured interviews. Concepts relating to six themes based on the seeding questions were identified. These included positively viewed roles such as medication reviews and prescribing, negatively viewed roles such as dispensing and diagnosing, barriers to pharmacist integration such as medical culture and remuneration, facilitators to pharmacist integration such as remuneration and training, benefits of integration such as access to the patient’s medical file, and potential funding models. Conclusions These findings and future research may aid the development of a new model of integrated primary health care services involving pharmacist practitioners.

  1. Clinical librarianship in the UK: temporary trend or permanent profession? Part I: a review of the role of the clinical librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Sally J E; Harrison, Janet

    2004-09-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part series of articles presenting the role of the clinical librarian (CL) in the UK today. It situates the CL concept historically, and specifically reports the findings from a study in 2002 (Skinner, The Role of the Clinical Librarian in the UK. MSc Dissertation. Loughborough University: Department of Information Science). The impetus for the 2002 study was the awareness of an increase in job advertisements within the NHS for roles seeking to enhance the practice of evidence-based medicine, which included elements of clinical librarianship. Therefore the research was undertaken to establish whether this increase was coincidental, or the beginning of a new professional role for librarians. A content analysis of CL job advertisements, examining job titles and duties was undertaken. Twenty-three advertisements were scrutinized, and these results are presented here. As a complementary investigation, a postal questionnaire was sent to a sample of practising CLs in the UK. Several duties can be classified as core to the role of the CL. However there is a great diversity of duties attached to this core, reflecting an absence of nationally accepted practice. Further work was necessary to assess current practice and how clinical librarianship can continue to grow at local and national levels. This is addressed in Part Two of this series.

  2. Overview of a pharmacist anticoagulation certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Julienne K; Edwards, Rebecca; Brewer, Andrew; Miller, Cathey; Bray, Bryan; Groce, James B

    2017-07-01

    To describe the design of an ongoing anticoagulation certificate program and annual renewal update for pharmacists. Components of the anticoagulation certificate program include home study, pre- and posttest, live sessions, case discussions with evaluation and presentation, an implementation plan, and survey information (program evaluation and use in practice). Clinical reasoning skills were assessed through case work-up and evaluation prior to live presentation. An annual renewal program requires pharmacists to complete home study and case evaluations. A total of 361 pharmacists completed the anticoagulation certificate program between 2002 and 2015. Most (62%) practiced in ambulatory care and 38% in inpatient care settings (8% in both). In the past four years, 71% were working in or starting anticoagulation clinics in ambulatory and inpatient settings. In their evaluations of the program, an average of 90% of participants agreed or strongly agreed the lecture material was relevant and objectives were met. Pharmacists are able to apply knowledge and skills in management of anticoagulation. This structured practice-based continuing education program was intended to enhance pharmacy practice and has achieved that goal. The certificate program in anticoagulation was relevant to pharmacists who attended the program. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Woman's Profession and Female Role--The Development of Sex-specific Structures of Education and of the Labor Market before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Vera

    1989-01-01

    Examines the intrusion of female employees into the traditionally male domain of office work from 1860 to 1914. Shows that sex-specific segregation was supported by a lack of training facilities for girls and by fact that these facilities supported the dominant sex-role structure. Focuses on the development of vocational schools for girls.…

  4. Does the presence of a pharmacist in primary care clinics improve diabetes medication adherence?

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    Kocarnik Beverly Mielke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs are an essential element of therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes, OHA adherence is often suboptimal. Pharmacists are increasingly being integrated into primary care as part of the move towards a patient-centered medical home and may have a positive influence on medication use. We examined whether the presence of pharmacists in primary care clinics was associated with higher OHA adherence. Methods This retrospective cohort study analyzed 280,603 diabetes patients in 196 primary care clinics within the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Pharmacists presence, number of pharmacist full-time equivalents (FTEs, and the degree to which pharmacy services are perceived as a bottleneck in each clinic were obtained from the 2007 VA Clinical Practice Organizational Survey—Primary Care Director Module. Patient-level adherence to OHAs using medication possession ratios (MPRs were constructed using refill data from administrative pharmacy databases after adjusting for patient characteristics. Clinic-level OHA adherence was measured as the proportion of patients with MPR >= 80%. We analyzed associations between pharmacy measures and clinic-level adherence using linear regression. Results We found no significant association between pharmacist presence and clinic-level OHA adherence. However, adherence was lower in clinics where pharmacy services were perceived as a bottleneck. Conclusions Pharmacist presence, regardless of the amount of FTE, was not associated with OHA medication adherence in primary care clinics. The exact role of pharmacists in clinics needs closer examination in order to determine how to most effectively use these resources to improve patient-centered outcomes including medication adherence.

  5. Engaging community pharmacists in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: protocol for the Pharmacist Assessment of Adherence, Risk and Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease (PAART CVD pilot study

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    Mc Namara Kevin P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death globally. Community pharmacist intervention studies have demonstrated clinical effectiveness for improving several leading individual CVD risk factors. Primary prevention strategies increasingly emphasise the need for consideration of overall cardiovascular risk and concurrent management of multiple risk factors. It is therefore important to demonstrate the feasibility of multiple risk factor management by community pharmacists to ensure continued currency of their role. Methods/Design This study will be a longitudinal pre- and post-test pilot study with a single cohort of up to 100 patients in ten pharmacies. Patients aged 50-74 years with no history of heart disease or diabetes, and taking antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medicines, will be approached for participation. Assessment of cardiovascular risk, medicines use and health behaviours will be undertaken by a research assistant at baseline and following the intervention (6 months. Validated interview scales will be used where available. Baseline data will be used by accredited medicines management pharmacists to generate a report for the treating community pharmacist. This report will highlight individual patients' overall CVD risk and individual risk factors, as well as identifying modifiable health behaviours for risk improvement and suggesting treatment and behavioural goals. The treating community pharmacist will use this information to finalise and implement a treatment plan in conjunction with the patient and their doctor. Community pharmacists will facilitate patient improvements in lifestyle, medicines adherence, and medicines management over the course of five counselling sessions with monthly intervals. The primary outcome will be the change to average overall cardiovascular risk, assessed using the Framingham risk equation. Discussion This study will assess the feasibility of implementing holistic

  6. An Investigation of Job Stress and Job Burnout in Iranian Clinical Pharmacist

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    Armaghan Eslami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is an important element of organization ineffectiveness and since it leads to sickness, eventually it reduces quality and quantity of health care, lead to expansion of it costs and low job satisfaction. Stress comes along with consequences, one of this reactions which comes along with horrible effects is job burnout. Health care are more exposed for job burnout. We examined the relationship between job stress and job burnout in Iranian clinical pharmacist.Methods: Sample was 50 of men and women of clinical pharmacist. Parker and De cotiis  scale (1983 and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, 1981 were used to asses clinical pharmacist stress and burnout. Data were analyzed by applying regression method.Results: Results indicated that there is strong relationship between stress and burnout and its three dimensions. The result also indicated that stress have the highest impact on emotional exhaustion and the least on the depersonalization.Conclusion: Burnout is a result of stress in human services career. Human service needs are vary from other professions since in these jobs in order to fulfill the clients’ needs, employees should use themselves as the required technology, and in return they do not receive gratitude or appreciation.

  7. Comparative assessment of low back pain and its determinants among Iranian male general dentists and pharmacists

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    Omid Aminian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Regarding the diversity of reported low- back pain among dentists in different countries and lack of control group in most of the previous studies, the purpose of this study was to compare low- back pain and related risk factors between male general dentists and pharmacists to determine the relation between dentistry and development of low back pain.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 261 male dentists were compared with 193 male pharmacists as a control group with Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (low back section. Subjects were at least one year in clinical practice after becoming qualified and did not suffer from connective tissue diseases and history of a traumatic event causing fracture in spinal column. The data were analyzed by Chi- square, T-test and logistic regression analyses.   Results: The prevalence of low back pain in the past 12 months was 54.8% in male dentists and 36.3% in male pharmacists (P=.001. Logistic regression analyses, adjustmenting for occupation, age, body mass index (BMI, smoking, working years and working hours per week, revealed that there was a significant association between being a dentist and having low- back pain (OR=2.54, P=0.001.   Conclusion: Dentistry as a profession in male gender is associated with low back pain, independent of age, body mass index (BMI, smoking, working years and working hours per week.

  8. Work engagement in health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Joost W; Mastenbroek, Nicole J J M; Scheepers, Renée A; Jaarsma, A Debbie C

    2017-11-01

    Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better clinical teachers; consider engaged residents, who report committing fewer medical errors than less engaged peers. Many topics in health professions education can benefit from explicitly including work engagement as an intended outcome such as faculty development programs, feedback provision and teacher recognition. In addition, interventions aimed at strengthening resources could provide teachers with a solid foundation for well-being and performance in all their work roles. Work engagement is conceptually linked to burnout. An important model that underlies both burnout and work engagement literature is the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. This model can be used to describe relationships between work characteristics, personal characteristics and well-being and performance at work. We explain how using this model helps identifying aspects of teaching that foster well-being and how it paves the way for interventions which aim to increase teacher's well-being and performance.

  9. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia

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    Emmerton Lynne M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of community pharmacists in disease state management has been mooted for some years. Despite a number of trials of disease state management services, there is scant literature into the engagement of, and with, pharmacists in such trials. This paper reports pharmacists’ feedback as providers of a Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a trial coordinated across four academic research centres in Australia in 2009. We also propose recommendations for optimal involvement of pharmacists in academic research. Methods Feedback about the pharmacists’ experiences was sought via their participation in either a focus group or telephone interview (for those unable to attend their scheduled focus group at one of three time points. A semi-structured interview guide focused discussion on the pharmacists’ training to provide the asthma service, their interactions with health professionals and patients as per the service protocol, and the future for this type of service. Focus groups were facilitated by two researchers, and the individual interviews were shared between three researchers, with data transcribed verbatim and analysed manually. Results Of 93 pharmacists who provided the PAMS, 25 were involved in a focus group and seven via telephone interview. All pharmacists approached agreed to provide feedback. In general, the pharmacists engaged with both the service and research components, and embraced their roles as innovators in the trial of a new service. Some experienced challenges in the recruitment of patients into the service and the amount of research-related documentation, and collaborative patient-centred relationships with GPs require further attention. Specific service components, such as the spirometry, were well received by the pharmacists and their patients. Professional rewards included satisfaction from their enhanced practice, and pharmacists largely envisaged a future for the service. Conclusions The

  10. Know Your Numbers: Creation and implementation of a novel community health mobile application (app) by student pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michelle; Nguyen, Vi; Vishwanath, Soumya; Wolfe, Courtney; Patel, Sweta

    2017-12-14

    A free mobile application (app), Know Your Numbers (KYN), was developed by student pharmacists to assist underserved community members to track their health numbers. The study objectives included creating a health app, implementing a pilot program, and analyzing the frequency of app use and perceptions of community members toward their health numbers, pharmacists, and health apps. Student pharmacists recruited participants at the community clinics and health fairs organized in underserved communities of the Atlanta metropolitan area. This study used a pre- and post-survey study design to compare perceptions before and after use of a health app. Eligible participants completed a 22-item pre-survey that assessed understanding of their health numbers, previous health app use, and perceptions of pharmacists. Frequency of app use and change in perceptions of community members toward health numbers, pharmacists, and health apps before and after enrolling in KYN were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed rank tests for matched pre- and post-surveys. Thirty-three participants were enrolled for 56 days. African American participants (93.9%) earned less than $25,000 annually (56.7%). On average, participants had 3.98 interactions per week. Before using the mobile health app, 84.8% of users felt comfortable using a health app, but only 9% used one regularly. The post-survey response rate was 27.2% (n = 9). More participants agreed that a health app helped them to meet their health goals after the program (24.4% to 100%; P = 0.0006). More than 90% of participants agreed in both surveys that it is important to check their health numbers regularly and that they trust pharmacists to provide accurate information. KYN is a novel mobile tool that promotes chronic disease self-management and the profession of pharmacy. These findings support the benefits of mobile health app's usability and its ability to assist in achieving personal health goals

  11. Biosimilars: Implications for health-system pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Steven D; Stevenson, James G; Hoffman, James M

    2013-11-15

    An update on scientific and regulatory challenges in the rapidly evolving field of biosimilar product development is presented. The U.S. market for biosimilar products (i.e., highly similar "follow-on" versions of approved biological drugs) is expected to expand with establishment of an expedited-approval pathway for biosimilars similar to that implemented in European Union countries eight years ago. In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published draft guidance clarifying the requirements of the biosimilars approval pathway; although no biosimilar has yet been approved via that pathway, FDA is engaged in ongoing meetings with a number of potential applicants. Due to molecular differences between innovator products and biosimilar versions, biosimilars are highly sensitive to manufacturing changes that can potentially have important safety and efficacy implications. Establishing the interchangeability of biosimilar and innovator drugs may be difficult at first, and it is possible that some biosimilars might not carry all the same indications for which the reference drug is approved. Pharmaceutical cost savings attained through the use of biosimilars are expected to average 20-30%. With several top-selling biologicals likely to lose patent exclusivity by 2020, health systems should prepare for the availability of new biosimilars by addressing formulary management and therapeutic interchange issues, pharmacovigilance and patient safety concerns, and related financial and operational issues. Over the coming years, biosimilars will present opportunities for health care organizations to manage the growth of pharmaceutical expenditures. Pharmacists can play a key role in preparing health systems for projected rapid expansion in the use of biosimilars and associated medication-use policy challenges.

  12. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine. PMID:25949219

  13. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine.

  14. The importance the pharmacist for rational use of drugs in children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Cristina dos Santos Moreira Borges

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medication use without orientation can cause damage, especially among children and teenagers. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends actions to encourage the rational drug use and the Pharmacist is pointed as an important health educator. The goal was to identify the profile of medication use in children and adolescents and discuss the role of pharmacists to promote the rational drug use. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in three schools in the urban area of Extrema-MG, Brazil. The study included 525 children and adolescents between 0 and 18 years who completed a questionnaire about drug use with their parents or guardians. Children and adolescents who participated in the study, 58.5% reported using drugs in the last 6 months. Most understood the indications of the drugs used. The main causes for the purchase of non-prescription drugs were headache, colds and flu, sore throat and cough. Only a small proportion (7.0% said they do not use "drugs" without prescription. Most have heard about the rational use of medicines (57.5% and seeks the help of the pharmacist for the purchase of OTC drugs ever (57.3% or sometimes (25.1%. The importance of the pharmacist to rational drug use was confirmed by the usage profile observed. Only a minority used only with prescription drugs and most calls for help from the pharmacist to buy non-prescription medicines.

  15. THE IMPORTANCE THE PHARMACIST FOR RATIONAL USE OF DRUGS IN CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Cristina dos Santos Moreira Borges

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Medication use without orientation can cause damage, especially among children and teenagers. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends actions to encourage the rational drug use and the Pharmacist is pointed as an important health educator. The goal was to identify the profile of medication use in children and adolescents and discuss the role of pharmacists to promote the rational drug use. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in three schools in the urban area of Extrema-MG, Brazil. The study included 525 children and adolescents between 0 and 18 years who completed a questionnaire about drug use with their parents or guardians. Children and adolescents who participated in the study, 58.5% reported using drugs in the last 6 months. Most understood the indications of the drugs used. The main causes for the purchase of non-prescription drugs were headache, colds and flu, sore throat and cough. Only a small proportion (7.0% said they do not use "drugs" without prescription. Most have heard about the rational use of medicines (57.5% and seeks the help of the pharmacist for the purchase of OTC drugs ever (57.3% or sometimes (25.1%. The importance of the pharmacist to rational drug use was confirmed by the usage profile observed. Only a minority used only with prescription drugs and most calls for help from the pharmacist to buy nonprescription medicines.

  16. Determinants affecting quality of life: implications for pharmacist counseling for patients with breast cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takashi; Iwase, Satoru; Koinuma, Masayoshi; Onodera, Yuki; Takeuchi, Hironori; Umeda, Megumi; Matsunaga, Tadaharu; Unezaki, Sakae; Nagumo, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    Although pharmacist counseling assumes an important role in the clinical setting, oncology pharmacy practitioners worldwide currently lack adequate guidance. This study aimed to identify the determinants and causal relationships that affect quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer patients before adjuvant systemic therapy for improving pharmacist counseling and guidance. This study analyzed 93 postoperative patients with breast cancer before pharmacist counseling for adjuvant systemic therapy. Patients were asked to complete questionnaires to assess QOL (the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 [EORTC QLQ-C30] and its breast cancer module [EORTC QLQ-BR23]) before pharmacist counseling. We analyzed factors affecting QOL by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis and evaluated causal association using path analysis. In the multiple linear regression model using variables selected by stepwise analysis, the factors affecting global health status (GHS)/QOL included fatigue, emotional functioning, systemic therapy side effects, future perspectives, and appetite loss. In the path analysis model, GHS/QOL were strongly influenced by fatigue directly; and emotional functioning, directly and indirectly via other factors. Our results indicated that fatigue and emotional functioning are strong factors affecting QOL. These factors may be able to predict poor QOL before initiating adjuvant systemic therapy. Thus, our findings suggest that these factors may be potentially useful for pharmacist counseling at the beginning of adjuvant systemic therapy.

  17. Knowledge and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease by managing community pharmacists: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerafa, Natalie; Scerri, Charles

    2016-12-01

    Background Managing community pharmacists can play a leading role in supporting community dwelling individuals with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers. Objective The main purpose of this study was to assess knowledge of managing community pharmacists towards Alzheimer's disease and its pharmacological management. Setting Community pharmacies in the Maltese islands. Method A nationwide survey was conducted with full-time managing community pharmacists in possession of a tertiary education degree in pharmacy studies. The level of knowledge was investigated using the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale and the Alzheimer's Disease Pharmacotherapy Measure. Participants were also asked to rate a number of statements related to disease management. Results Maltese managing community pharmacists (57 % response rate) had inadequate knowledge on risk factors, caregiving issues and pharmacological management of Alzheimer's disease. Age and number of years working in a community pharmacy setting were found to be negatively correlated with increased knowledge. Conclusion The findings highlight the need of providing training and continued educational support to managing community pharmacists in order to provide quality advice to individuals with dementia and their caregivers in the community.

  18. Self - care strategies among risky profession workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Vasková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking care of oneself is crucial for maintaining one´s psychical and physical health. In the context of risky profession this topic can play an even more important role, because it can be the source of necessary information for improvement of coping capacity when one is confronted with crisis situations. The aim of the present study is to identify the most common forms of self-care among selected risky professions. In the second part is the attention focused on the comparison of the specificities of risky to non-risky professions in self-care. Methods: For data collection Self-regulation Self-care Questionnaire by authors Hricová and Lovaš (in press is used. The sample consists of two groups. In the first one participated 156 respondents, who worked in risky professions - namely police officers (60 at the age between 22 to 55 years (average age is 36.88, SD=9.49, fire fighters (46 at the age between 22 to 62 years (average age is 35.13, SD=8.31 and paramedics (50 at the age between 25 to 55 years (average age is 40.3, SD=6.62. 76.2% of the sample are men, 19.0% are women and 4,8% didn´t state their gender. The second sample consists of 161 participants who work in administrative, industry production or IT sphere. They were at the age between 23 to 61 years (average age is 38.01, SD=10.45. 74% of the sample are men and 21.7% are women. Results and discussion: Results confirmed the dominance of psychological self-care above physical among risky professions. To the forefront gets the need to live meaningful life, to fully use one´s skills and to be satisfied with one´s life and decisions. All this needs can be assigned to the necessity of sense, which could be seen as a result of everyday contact with critical and life threaten situations. Equally important sphere of self-care is the necessity of high-quality relationships, which doesn´t mean only relationships with family or friends. It is important to highlight also relationships with

  19. Pharmacists' liability: what my pharmacy law professor did not cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Mike; Seamon, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes a practicing pharmacist's take on the liability of pharmacists in current pharmacy practice. The author, who feels that compounding pharmacists should be held to the same standards as other healthcare providers in civil litigations, provides a look at what he considers "entrapment" by way of legal double standards between independent pharmacy and big pharma.

  20. The perceptions of Zimbabwean Pharmacists of their overall job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacists in industry had the greatest job satisfaction while those in large chain retail pharmacies had the lowest. Owners were more satisfied with their jobs than non-supervisor pharmacists. There was no significant difference in job satisfaction by gender and marital status. We conclude that although pharmacists in ...

  1. Physicians' and Pharmacists' Experience and Expectations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both professionals indicated that “medication dispensing” and “identification and prevention of prescription errors” were currently the top responsibilities of pharmacists. It was anticipated by the physicians that pharmacists would remain focused on “medication dispensing” but should put in more effort. Pharmacists, on the ...

  2. Prescribe to Prevent: Overdose Prevention and Naloxone Rescue Kits for Prescribers and Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jamie K; Bratberg, Jeffrey P; Davis, Corey S; Green, Traci C; Walley, Alexander Y

    2016-01-01

    In March of 2015, the United States Department of Health and Human Services identified 3 priority areas to reduce opioid use disorders and overdose, which are as follows: opioid-prescribing practices; expanded use and distribution of naloxone; and expansion of medication-assisted treatment. In this narrative review of overdose prevention and the role of prescribers and pharmacists in distributing naloxone, we address these priority areas and present a clinical scenario within the review involving a pharmacist, a patient with chronic pain and anxiety, and a primary care physician. We also discuss current laws related to naloxone prescribing and dispensing. This review was adapted from the Prescribe to Prevent online continuing medical education module created for prescribers and pharmacists (http://www.opioidprescribing.com/naloxone_module_1-landing).

  3. Supporting adherence to oral anticancer agents: clinical practice and clues to improve care provided by physicians, nurse practitioners, nurses and pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Lonneke; Boons, Christel C L M; Verbrugghe, Mathieu; van den Bemt, Bart J F; Van Hecke, Ann; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G

    2017-02-10

    Healthcare provider (HCP) activities and attitudes towards patients strongly influence medication adherence. The aim of this study was to assess current clinical practices to support patients in adhering to treatment with oral anticancer agents (OACA) and to explore clues to improve the management of medication adherence. A cross-sectional, observational study among HCPs in (haemato-)oncology settings in Belgium and the Netherlands was conducted in 2014 using a composite questionnaire. A total of 47 care activities were listed and categorised into eight domains. HCPs were also asked about their perceptions of adherence management on the items: insight into adherence, patients' communication, capability to influence, knowledge of consequences and insight into causes. Validated questionnaires were used to assess beliefs about medication (BMQ) and shared decision making (SDM-Q-doc). In total, 208 HCPs (29% male) participated; 107 from 51 Dutch and 101 from 26 Belgian hospitals. Though a wide range of activities were reported, certain domains concerning medication adherence management received less attention. Activities related to patient knowledge and adverse event management were reported most frequently, whereas activities aimed at patient's self-efficacy and medication adherence during ongoing use were frequently missed. The care provided differed between professions and by country. Belgian physicians reported more activities than Dutch physicians, whereas Dutch nurses and pharmacists reported more activities than Belgian colleagues. The perceptions of medication adherence management were related to the level of care provided by HCPs. SDM and BMQ outcomes were not related to the care provided. Enhancing the awareness and perceptions of medication adherence management of HCPs is likely to have a positive effect on care quality. Care can be improved by addressing medication adherence more directly e.g., by questioning patients about (expected) barriers and discussing

  4. [Hospital pharmacists' perception of pharmacovigilance in Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, L; Lebel, D; Bussières, J-F

    2016-03-01

    To assess the pharmacovigilance perception of Quebec's hospital pharmacists. Cross-sectional study. A questionnaire with 16 questions was developed in order to assess respondents' perception of their ability to practice pharmacovigilance, factors that can influence adverse drug reactions reporting and measures to increase reporting rate. The online questionnaire was sent to hospital pharmacist from Quebec in April 2014. The results were presented in the form of descriptive data. A total of 179/252 (71%) hospital pharmacists responded. More than 90% of respondents considered that they were able to practice all activities related to pharmacovigilance. During one year of practice, 98% of respondents faced at least one serious or unexpected adverse drug reaction and 77% notified at least one adverse drug reaction to Health Canada. The factors encouraging more than 89% of respondents to notify were: the severity, the rapidity of onset, the visibility of the reaction, the fact that the adverse drug reaction was unexpected or due to a recent marketed drug. More than 69% of respondents considered the overwork as the principal obstacle to the notification. The majority of respondents supported the implementation of 13/14 measures in order to increase reporting rate. Hospital pharmacists from Quebec presented a favorable ability to practice pharmacovigilance. Analysis of their perception of pharmacovigilance helped to identify improvements, such as the implementation of a pharmacovigilance coordinator in the health center. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of the pharmacist workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases in developing countries is ... public universities offering a degree program in pharmacy (15, 16). In many countries, pharmacists are the most ..... Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Association for funding this project. We are also very grateful to the study participants ...

  6. Discriminatory Attitudes of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey of pharmacy students and pharmacists (n = 523) to assess discriminatory ... assessing discriminatory attitudes among ..... saliva cause HIV?(No). 67.1 63. 5. 65. 1. 63. 6. 75. 2. 64. 7. 68. 8. 72. 9. 79. 4. 91. 2. 85. 2. 90. 0. 70.4. Note: Responses in parenthesis represent correct answers.

  7. Osteoporosis Amongst Jordanians: Effect of Pharmacist- Directed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to ... specifically females, and to evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-assisted educational intervention on their disease knowledge. EXPERIMENTAL. Study design. This is a single blinded, ... Non-parametric statistical tests were used accordingly.

  8. Assessment of professional responsibilities of pharmacists towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall response rate was 86.4%. Responsibilities towards the use of vitamins/mineral supplements, nutraceuticals and herbal supplements were accepted by 85.4%, 47.5% and 24.1% of the pharmacists, respectively. The responsibilities that have most support were that of “knowledge” and “counseling” (p<0.001, ...

  9. Community pharmacists' understanding, attitudes, practice and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the knowledge, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers of community pharmacists regarding provision of pharmaceutical care as well as provide recommendations on how to advance the service during the early stage of development in Macao. Methods: A questionnaire comprising 10 items was used ...

  10. Assessment of the Knowledge of Community Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    ingredients such as Gingko biloba or ginseng of any origin. A survey of herbal remedies sold in those pharmacies was collected from the pharmacies. The most common ten of these were chosen for the study. The knowledge base of the community pharmacists on the uses, contraindications and potential drug–herb.

  11. Antibiotics: Pharmacists Can Make the Difference

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    In this podcast, a pharmacist counsels a frustrated father about appropriate antibiotic use and symptomatic relief options for his son's cold.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  12. Leadership in Architectural Research: Between Academia and the Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed a notable expansion of architectural research activities, with respect to both subject and methodology. This expansion can be mostly credited to an increase in government and private funding of primarily academic research initiatives. More recently, however, a noticeable increase in research activities within the architectural profession makes it possible to argue that it is the profession itself that is now taking leadership in the development of contemporary research agendas. This growing significance of architectural research, in both academia and the profession,is ultimately a response to the diverse challenges facing the profession; most notably, the issue of environmental sustainability, but also including the rapid pace of technological change, the increase ddiversity of users, and the growing complexity of architectural projects. Engaging research is an essential factor in facing these challenges as well as taking full advantage of the opportunities they offer. For this research to be most effective, however, a greater perspective and a clearer definition of its role and the goals it can aspire to, in both academia and the profession, are needed; and most importantly, the question becomes, how do we foster a more integrated research culture between academia and the profession?

  13. Task transfer: another pressure for evolution of the medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Weyden, Martin B

    2006-07-03

    Since the 1960s, Australian society and the medical profession have undergone enormous change. Our society has moved from a relatively homogeneous and conservative community, supported by limited government services, to one that is multicultural, focused on the individual and consumerism, and supported by extensive government programs, with health care a top public and political priority. A defining feature of contemporary society is its mistrust of institutions, professionals, public servants and politicians. The medical profession has changed from a cohesive entity, valuing generalism and with limited specialisation, to one splintered by ultra-specialisation and competing professional agendas. The medical workforce shortage and efforts to maintain the safety and quality of health services are putting acute pressure on the profession. Task transfer or role substitution of medical services is mooted as a potential solution to this pressure. This has the potential to drastically transform the profession. How task transfer will evolve and change medicine depends on the vision and leadership of the profession and a flexible pragmatism that safeguards quality and safety and places patient priorities above those of the profession.

  14. Why Hospital Pharmacists Have Failed to Manage Antimalarial Drugs Stock-Outs in Pakistan? A Qualitative Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeeha Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of hospital pharmacists towards drug management and reasons underlying stock-outs of antimalarial drugs in Pakistan. Methods. A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of hospital pharmacists regarding drug management and irrational use of antimalarial drugs in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital and Rawalpindi (twin city. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital pharmacists using indepth interview guides at a place and time convenient for the respondents. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, were evaluated by thematic content analysis and by other authors’ analysis. Results. Most of the respondents were of the view that financial constraints, inappropriate drug management, and inadequate funding were the factors contributing toward the problem of antimalarial drug stock-outs in healthcare facilities of Pakistan. The pharmacists anticipated that prescribing by nonproprietary names, training of health professionals, accepted role of hospital pharmacist in drug management, implementation of essential drug list and standard treatment guidelines for malaria in the healthcare system can minimize the problem of drug stock outs in healthcare system of Pakistan. Conclusion. The current study showed that all the respondents in the two cities agreed that hospital pharmacist has failed to play an effective role in efficient management of anti-malarial drugs stock-outs.

  15. An analysis of present dental professions in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordell, Sven; Unell, Lennart; Söderfeldt, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Dentistry in Sweden is predicted to have a shortage of dentists in the future and the division of labour within dentistry will be a more debated question. In order to forecast the effects of such a shortage the professional status of the involved groups must be made clearer. The objective of this paper is to analyse the emergence and present professional status of clinical dental professions in Sweden. The study was conducted on the basis of theories on professions, and their roles in organizations was analysed. The results were applied on the historical emergence, establishment and consolidation of clinical dental professions in Sweden. The results show that a large sector of salaried dentists has not diminished the professional status of the Swedish dentists. Professional ambitions such as many clinical subspecialties and a strong element of research have not been restrained by the public health ambitions in the Public Dental Health Service (PDHS). Presently, other dental professions are dental hygienists, dental technicians and dental nurses. Of these the only other licensed group, the dental hygienists, are an emerging profession. They have an uphill struggle to obtain a full professional status, mainly because their knowledge domains are neither specific nor exclusive to their group. Development of a common core curriculum on a clearly academic level would enhance their professional status. Dental technicians and nurses are lacking fundamental traits as professions. There appears to be little need for additional groups of clinical professions besides dentists and dental hygienists in Swedish dentistry. In conclusion,this analysis provided better understanding of the present status of the Swedish dental professions, to prepare for future restructuring of the dental care system. Further work will be needed to understand the impact of professional traits on the management of groups of professionals.

  16. Pharmacist provider status legislation: Projections and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    To compare legislation at the federal level that would recognize pharmacists as health care providers under Medicare Part B with similar state-level efforts in an attempt to identify the strengths and weaknesses of these options and forecast outcomes. The current primary care provider shortage poses a significant threat to public health in the United States. The effort to achieve federal provider status for pharmacists, currently in the form of identical bills introduced in January 2015 into the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate as the Pharmacy and Medically Underserved Areas Enhancement Act (H.R. 592 and S. 314), would amend the Social Security Act to recognize pharmacists as health care providers in sections of Medicare Part B that specify coverage and reimbursement. This action has budgetary implications owing to the compensation that would accrue to pharmacists caring for Medicare beneficiaries. Passage of these bills into law could improve public health by sustainably increasing access to pharmacists' patient care services in medically underserved areas. In this article, the legislation's strengths and weaknesses are analyzed. The resulting information may be used to forecast the bills' fate as well as plan strategies to help support their success. Comparison of the bills with existing, state-level efforts is used as a framework for such policy analysis. While the current political climate benefits the bills in the U.S. Congress, established legislative precedents suggest that parts of H.R. 592/S. 314, specifically those regarding compensation mechanisms, may require negotiated amendment to improve their chances of success.

  17. Health care consumers’ perspectives on pharmacist integration into private general practitioner clinics in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw PS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pui San Saw,1 Lisa M Nissen,2,3 Christopher Freeman,2,4 Pei Se Wong,3 Vivienne Mak5 1School of Postgraduate Studies and Research, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2School of Clinical Sciences, Queensland University Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; 5School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Pharmacists are considered medication experts but are underutilized and exist mainly at the periphery of the Malaysian primary health care team. Private general practitioners (GPs in Malaysia are granted rights under the Poison Act 1952 to prescribe and dispense medications at their primary care clinics. As most consumers obtain their medications from their GPs, community pharmacists’ involvement in ensuring safe use of medicines is limited. The integration of a pharmacist into private GP clinics has the potential to contribute to quality use of medicines. This study aims to explore health care consumers’ views on the integration of pharmacists within private GP clinics in Malaysia.Methods: A purposive sample of health care consumers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were invited to participate in focus groups and semi-structured interviews. Sessions were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 10. Results: A total of 24 health care consumers participated in two focus groups and six semi-structured interviews. Four major themes were identified: 1 pharmacists’ role viewed mainly as supplying medications, 2 readiness to accept pharmacists in private GP clinics, 3 willingness to pay for pharmacy services, and 4 concerns about GPs’ resistance to pharmacist integration. Consumers felt that a pharmacist integrated into a private GP clinic could offer potential benefits such as to provide trustworthy

  18. Model Standards Advance the Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Staff Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Leadership by teachers is essential to serving the needs of students, schools, and the teaching profession. To that end, the Teacher Leadership Exploratory Consortium has developed Teacher Leader Model Standards to codify, promote, and support teacher leadership as a vehicle to transform schools for the needs of the 21st century. The Teacher…

  19. Toward a Youth Work Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in the professionalization of the youth work field in Australia and the United States. In this article I draw on relevant literature from the sociology of professions to explore the appeal of professionalization for youth work. The interest in professionalism is examined along with the strategies youth work practitioners…

  20. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  1. Florida Health Professions Education Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, Tallahassee.

    This report presents the results of a review of health professions education in Florida and the social and economic forces affecting the supply and demand for health professionals in the state. Individual sections focus on medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, public health, nursing, physician assistantship, physical therapy,…

  2. Knowledge of folic acid and counseling practices among Ohio community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues CR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine knowledge of folic acid use for neural tube defect (NTD prevention and counseling practices among community pharmacists registered in Ohio.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n=500 of community pharmacists registered with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy and practicing in Ohio. A survey previously used by researchers to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among samples of other healthcare provider groups in the United States was adapted with permission for this study. The final tool consisted of 28 questions evaluating the knowledge, counseling practices, and demographics of respondents. The cover letter did not reveal the emphasis on folic acid, and surveys were completed anonymously. The university institutional review board deemed the study exempt.Results: Of the 122 pharmacists who completed the survey, 116 (95.1% knew that folic acid prevents some birth defects. Twenty-eight (22.9% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss multivitamins with women of childbearing potential, and 19 (15.6% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss folic acid supplements. Some gaps in knowledge specific to folic acid were revealed. While 63.1% of pharmacists selected the recommended dose of folic acid intake for most women of childbearing potential, 13.1% could identify the dose recommended for women who have had a previous NTD-affected pregnancy. Respondents identified continuing education programs, pharmacy journals/magazines, and the Internet as preferred avenues to obtain additional information about folic acid and NTD.Conclusion: This study represents the first systematic evaluation of folic acid knowledge and counseling practices among a sample of pharmacists in the United States. As highly accessible healthcare professionals, community pharmacists can fulfill a vital public health role by counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid intake. Educational

  3. The effect of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation on medication adherence: an instrumental variable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu NY

    2008-12-01

    on the roles of pharmacists and regulatory changes in professional scope of practice.

  4. Effects of pharmaceutical care intervention by clinical pharmacists in renal transplant clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Chan, A L F; Chen, M T; Liao, C H; Tian, Y F

    2008-09-01

    Renal transplantation is an established treatment for end-stage renal disease. Most renal transplant patients take multiple medications for a long period of time to maintain immunosuppression as well as to treat concomitant chronic diseases. Since some medications prescribed for these patients have narrow therapeutic ranges, optimal pharmacotherapy is vital. However, pharmacists can qualify the role in assisting patients and physicians to solve and reduce drug-related problems. The purpose of this trial was to investigate the effects on treatment outcomes by clinical pharmacists joining renal transplant clinics to provide pharmaceutical care. We enrolled 37 renal transplant patients who visited the renal transplant clinic in our medical center from May 2005 through August 2006. The responsibility of the clinical pharmacist was to interview patients, review medication regimens, and make therapeutic recommendations for 3 hours every Tuesday morning. According to potential clinical impacts, pharmacist recommendations were divided into 6 scales, evaluating physician acceptance of pharmacist recommendations and impact on treatment outcomes. Fifty-five pharmacotherapy recommendations were made for the 37 renal transplant patients during the trial period, of which 81.8% were classified as clinically significant. The drug classes most commonly involved were cardiovascular medications, immunosuppressants, and antimetabolites (32.6%, 23.9%, and 26.1%, respectively). Physician acceptance rates of recommendation types and drug classes were 96.0% and 97.1%, respectively. Among the cases in which the recommendations were accepted, 94.2% of patients showed improved conditions. We concluded that clinical pharmacists joined to renal transplant clinics provide pharmaceutical care with a positive potential impact on physician prescriptions and patient outcomes.

  5. A survey on the awareness and attitude of pharmacists and doctors towards the application of pharmacogenomics and its challenges in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elewa, Hazem; Alkhiyami, Dania; Alsahan, Dima; Abdel-Aziz, Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Pharmacists are expected to play an important role in applying pharmacogenomics discoveries to patient care. Despite the increased attention to genetic research in Qatar, clinicians' attitudes towards the application of pharmacogenomics are not yet explored. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness and attitude of pharmacists compared with doctors towards pharmacogenomics and its implications by submitting an electronic-based survey to all pharmacists and doctors currently working in a large medical corporation in Qatar. A cross-sectional survey instrument was developed based on literature review. Eligible participants were pharmacists and doctors currently practicing in Hamad Medical Corporation hospitals in Qatar. The survey comprised questions on demographic and professional characteristics. It also evaluated the awareness, attitudes and challenges towards pharmacogenomics and its application. We collected 202 surveys, 108 (53.2%) of which were pharmacists and the remaining 94 (46.5%) were doctors. The overall participants' mean total awareness score percentage was low (39% ± 22) and there were no difference between the mean score achieved by pharmacists and doctors. Pharmacists had significantly more positive attitudes than doctors towards: (i) taking the responsibility of applying pharmacogenomics to drug therapy selection, dosing and monitoring; (ii) perceiving a positive role of pharmacogenomics testing on the control of drug expenditure; and (iii) their willingness to participate in pharmacogenomics-related training sessions. Both pharmacists and doctors perceived lack of knowledge and guidelines as major challenges towards the application of pharmacogenomics in Qatar. Despite doctors' and pharmacists' low level of awareness towards pharmacogenomics, they both have positive attitudes towards the clinical implications of pharmacogenomics. Pharmacists are more motivated to learn about pharmacogenomics and are more willing to take initiatives in

  6. Internet images of the speech pathology profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicole

    2017-06-05

    group of people into the profession in the future. What is known about the topic? To date, research has not considered the promotional profile of allied health professionals on the Internet. There has been a lack of consideration of whether the way in which the professions are promoted may affect clients accessing allied health services or people entering careers. What does this paper add? This paper raises awareness of the lack of promotion of a diverse workforce in speech pathology and considers how this may affect changing the professional demographics in the future. It also provides a starting point for documentation in the form of a baseline for tracking future changes. It allows consideration of the fact that when designing health promotional and educational materials, it is crucial that diversity is displayed in the professional role, the client role and the setting in order to provide information and education to the general public about the health services provided. What are the implications for practitioners? The presentation of narrow demographics of both the professional and client may potentially affect people considering speech pathology as a future career. The appearance of narrow client demographics and diagnosis groups may also deter people from accessing services. For example, if the demonstrated images do not show older people accessing speech pathology services, then this may suggest that services are only for children. The results from the present case example are transferrable to other health professions with similar professional demographic profiles (e.g. occupational therapy). Consideration of the need to display a diverse client profile is relevant to all health and medical services, and demonstrates steps towards inclusiveness and increasing engagement of clients who may be currently less likely to access health services (including people who are Aboriginal or from a culturally and linguistically diverse background).

  7. 'Like doing a jigsaw with half the parts missing': community pharmacists and the management of cancer pain in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Imogen; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Closs, S Jose; Bennett, Michael I

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to explore and describe community pharmacists' current and potential place in the cancer pain pathway. Objectives were to describe pharmacists' role in advising patients and their carers on optimum use of opioid drugs for pain relief, identify elements of medicines management that could be modified and identify opportunities for improved communication with patients and other professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 community pharmacists in three areas of England. Data were analysed using the Framework method. Pharmacists had no reliable method to identify patients with cancer and no access to disease stage and treatment plan information. There was little evidence of any routine communication with other professionals about patient care. Contact with patients was limited. Access to palliative care medicines could be problematic for patients and medicines use reviews (MURs) were rarely done. Interview data suggested variable levels of knowledge about optimal opioid use in cancer pain or awareness of patients' priorities. For some pharmacists, proactive involvement appeared to be inhibited by fear of discussing emotional and wider social aspects and accounts showed that a wide range of issues and concerns were raised by family members, indicating considerable unmet need. Pharmacists tended to assume information had already been provided by others and felt isolated from other care team members. Many felt that their potential contribution to cancer pain management was constrained but aspired to do more. There is significant scope for improving access to and interaction with, community pharmacists by people with cancer pain and their families. Finding ways to embed pharmacists within palliative care teams could provide a starting point for a greater contribution to cancer pain management. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. African Journal of Health Professions Education: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Health Professions Education: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Health Professions Education: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Archives: African Journal of Health Professions Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 21 of 21 ... Archives: African Journal of Health Professions Education. Journal Home > Archives: African Journal of Health Professions Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  11. [Pharmacy, pharmacists and society--pharmaceutical science and practice with philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tsuneji

    2003-03-01

    In Japanese pharmaceutical community, there seems to be a lack of "Science of Science" and "Research on Research" which are to utilize unit sciences and research for the benefit of human being. In other words, pharmaceutical people in Japan should have much more pharmaceutical philosophy. The late Professor Komei Miyaki, founder Editor-in-Chief of FARUMASHIA, the monthly membership magazine of Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, under whom I worked as one of editorial board members, taught me that scientists should have their own philosophy of their sciences. Such a pharmaceutical philosophy as mentioned above should be established on the basis of complete separation of medical profession between doctors and pharmacists, which form the most important and necessary issue in safety assurance for patients with the complete zero defect (ZD action), as there is a long history for that in Europe since the separation was completed by King Friedrich II in 1240. Therefore, we have to learn the social status of European/American pharmacist practitioners who are the great No. 1 among all the professions. European pharmacists guarantee the safety of every chemical used for human body and pets, such as medicines, cosmetics, foods, tooth stuffs and so on. Regarding the pharmaceutical sciences in Japan also there seems to be a lack of pharmaceutical philosophy, as pharmaceutical scientists have no identity in research object that may be similar to basic scientists who are non-pharmacy graduates. Japanese sciences generally have developed along the lines of the Western model, reaching the current high level. We now not only should receive profits from the outside but also should embark on a mission to support pharmaceutical sciences throughout the world, especially Asian courtiers. At the present, we do not seem to be fulfilling our mission to do that, even though general activity includes significant international exchange. We have to make much more effort for international

  12. [Euthanasia and/or medically assisted suicide: Reflection on the new responsibility of the hospital pharmacist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissinot, L; Benamou, M; Léglise, P; Mancret, R-C; Huchon-Bécel, D

    2014-03-01

    Concern about euthanasia and medically assisted suicide is currently growing around the world and particularly in France. Though not authorized at present in France, the role of hospital pharmacist in this issue needs to be discussed. This article aims to gather medical and legal literature of European Union member states on these issues and particularly in France. To propose a practical thinking on the possible role of hospital pharmacist. Among European Union, euthanasia and/or assisted suicide have already been introduced in some member states' laws. In France, Leonetti law currently sets the legal framework for the management of end of life. To address the society's demand on these issues, French President F. Hollande made two ethics committees responsible for working on it. Both were mainly against euthanasia and assisted suicide. Though a bit forgotten in this debate, hospital pharmacist needs to be associated in the thinking, as the main "drug-keeper". Indeed, guidelines are necessary to outline and ensure a safe drug use, complying with professional ethics, if lethal doses are voluntarily prescribed. Pharmaceutical work is in constant evolution and is addressing new issues still unanswered, including assisted suicide and euthanasia. French pharmaceutical authorities should seize upon them, in order to guarantee pharmaceutical ethics. These practices, if authorized by law, should remain exceptional, and law strictly enforced. The pharmacist could be one of these "lawkeepers". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Ideal and actual involvement of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laliberté Marie-Claude

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increased interest is observed in broadening community pharmacists' role in public health. To date, little information has been gathered in Canada on community pharmacists' perceptions of their role in health promotion and prevention; however, such data are essential to the development of public-health programs in community pharmacy. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to explore the perceptions of community pharmacists in urban and semi-urban areas regarding their ideal and actual levels of involvement in providing health-promotion and prevention services and the barriers to such involvement. Methods Using a five-step modified Dillman's tailored design method, a questionnaire with 28 multiple-choice or open-ended questions (11 pages plus a cover letter was mailed to a random sample of 1,250 pharmacists out of 1,887 community pharmacists practicing in Montreal (Quebec, Canada and surrounding areas. It included questions on pharmacists' ideal level of involvement in providing health-promotion and preventive services; which services were actually offered in their pharmacy, the employees involved, the frequency, and duration of the services; the barriers to the provision of these services in community pharmacy; their opinion regarding the most appropriate health professionals to provide them; and the characteristics of pharmacists, pharmacies and their clientele. Results In all, 571 out of 1,234 (46.3% eligible community pharmacists completed and returned the questionnaire. Most believed they should be very involved in health promotion and prevention, particularly in smoking cessation (84.3%; screening for hypertension (81.8%, diabetes (76.0% and dyslipidemia (56.9%; and sexual health (61.7% to 89.1%; however, fewer respondents reported actually being very involved in providing such services (5.7% [lifestyle, including smoking cessation], 44.5%, 34.8%, 6.5% and 19.3%, respectively. The main barriers to the

  14. Pharmacist-patient communication about medication regimen adjustment during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed E K; Chewning, Betty

    2016-12-01

    During Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn to sunset while abstaining from food and drink. Although Muslim patients may be aware of their religious exemption from fasting, many patients still choose not to take that exemption and fast. This study examines pharmacists' initiation and timing of communication about medication regimen adjustment (MRA) with patients related to Ramadan. Predictors for initiating this communication with patients were also explored. A probability sample of community pharmacists in Alexandria, Egypt was surveyed. The self-administered instrument covered timing and likelihood of initiating discussion about MRA. Using ordered logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' initiation of the conversation on MRA during Ramadan. Ninety-three percent of the 298 approached pharmacists completed surveys. Only 16% of the pharmacists reported that they themselves usually initiated the conversation on MRA. Pharmacists' initiation of these conversations was associated with pharmacists' perceived importance of MRA on pharmacy revenue odds ratio ((OR) = 1.24, CI = 1.03-1.48). Eighty percent of the responding pharmacists reported the MRA conversation for chronic conditions started either 1-3 days before, or during the first week of Ramadan. These results suggest considerable pharmacist patient communication gaps regarding medication use during Ramadan. It is especially important for pharmacists and other health professionals to initiate communication with Muslim patients early enough to identify how best to help patients transition safely into and out of Ramadan as they fast. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. How Do Pharmacists Develop into Advanced Level Practitioners? Learning from the Experiences of Critical Care Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Ruth E; Bradbury, Helen; Bourne, Richard S

    2017-07-07

    The national UK standards for critical care highlight the need for clinical pharmacists to practise at an advanced level (equivalent to Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Great Britain, Faculty Advanced Stage II (MFRPSII)) and above. Currently the UK is unable to meet the workforce capacity requirements set out in the national standards in terms of numbers of pharmacist working at advanced level and above. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies, barriers and challenges to achieving Advanced Level Practice (ALP) by learning from the experiences of advanced level critical care pharmacists within the UK. Eight participants were recruited to complete semi-structured interviews on their views and experiences of ALP. The interviews were analysed thematically and three overarching themes were identified; support, work-based learning and reflective practice. The results of this study highlight that to increase the number of MFRPSII level practitioners within critical care support for their ALP development is required. This support involves developing face-to-face access to expert critical care pharmacists within a national training programme. Additionally, chief pharmacists need to implement drivers including in house mentorship and peer review programmes and the need to align job descriptions and appraisals to the Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Great Britain, Advanced Practice Framework (APF).

  16. Drug-related problems identified by clinical pharmacist's students and pharmacist's interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajje, A H; Atoui, F; Awada, S; Rachidi, S; Zein, S; Salameh, P

    2012-05-01

    Drug-related problems constitute a major public health problem, because of their consequences on morbidity, mortality and cost. A 6-month prospective study was conducted, including hospitalized patients in the internal medicine ward of the University Hospital of Beirut, in order to identify drug-related problems by clinical pharmacist's students participating in routine medical rounds, to assess the characteristics of patients presenting these drug-related problems and to analyze pharmacist's interventions. Ninety patients presenting drug-related problems were identified. Thirty-two percent were hydro-electrolytic problems and 24% gastrointestinal. Cardiovascular drugs were the most frequently implicated (44%), followed by anticoagulants (17%) and corticosteroids (14%). The most commonly identified drug-related problems were drug interactions (37%), overdosage (28%), non-conformity to guidelines or contra-indications (23%), underdosage (10%) and improper administration (2%). The clinical pharmacist's interventions consisted of dose adjustment (38%), addition drugs (31%), changes in drugs (29%) and optimization of administration (2%). To decrease the risk of drug-related problems, drug treatment requires physicians to abide by prescribing recommendations, notably in elderly patients, as well as pharmacists' effective intervention at all levels. Routine participation of clinical pharmacists in clinical medical rounds facilitates the identification of drug-related problems and may prevent their occurrence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasello Anthony C

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use

  18. A Predominately Female Accounting Profession: Lessons from the Past and Other Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the accounting profession is in the process of transitioning from a male dominated profession to a predominantly female one. Other professions that have undergone this switch experienced declines in the status of the profession and the salaries. So, although women have not yet gained equal access to all levels of the accounting…

  19. Impact of Pharmacist Counselling on Clozapine Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Ní Dhubhlaing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is the only antipsychotic with evidence for efficacy in treatment of resistant schizophrenia but it carries a high side effect burden. Patient information is provided but may be poorly retained. This study aims to examine the impact of pharmacist counselling upon patient knowledge of clozapine. Outpatients, aged 18 years and over, attending St. Patrick’s University Hospital, Dublin, participated in this study between June and August 2015. The intervention consisted of pharmacist counselling on two occasions one month apart. Knowledge was assessed using a 28-point checklist devised from the currently available clozapine patient information sources, at baseline and after each counselling session. Ethics approval was obtained. Twenty-five participants (40% female; mean age 45.1 years, SD 9.82; 64% unemployed, 28% smokers showed an improvement in knowledge scores of clozapine from baseline to postcounselling on each occasion with an overall improvement in knowledge score, from baseline to postcounselling at one month, of 39.43%; p<0.001. This study adds to the evidence that interventions involving pharmacist counselling can improve patient knowledge, whilst the specific knowledge gained relating to recognition of side effects may help patients towards more empowerment regarding their treatment.

  20. Virtual Pharmacist: A Platform for Pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ronghai; Leung, Ross Ka-Kit; Chen, Yao; Pan, Yidan; Tong, Yin; Li, Zhoufang; Ning, Luwen; Ling, Xuefeng B; He, Jiankui

    2015-01-01

    We present Virtual Pharmacist, a web-based platform that takes common types of high-throughput data, namely microarray SNP genotyping data, FASTQ and Variant Call Format (VCF) files as inputs, and reports potential drug responses in terms of efficacy, dosage and toxicity at one glance. Batch submission facilitates multivariate analysis or data mining of targeted groups. Individual analysis consists of a report that is readily comprehensible to patients and practioners who have basic knowledge in pharmacology, a table that summarizes variants and potential affected drug response according to the US Food and Drug Administration pharmacogenomic biomarker labeled drug list and PharmGKB, and visualization of a gene-drug-target network. Group analysis provides the distribution of the variants and potential affected drug response of a target group, a sample-gene variant count table, and a sample-drug count table. Our analysis of genomes from the 1000 Genome Project underlines the potentially differential drug responses among different human populations. Even within the same population, the findings from Watson's genome highlight the importance of personalized medicine. Virtual Pharmacist can be accessed freely at http://www.sustc-genome.org.cn/vp or installed as a local web server. The codes and documentation are available at the GitHub repository (https://github.com/VirtualPharmacist/vp). Administrators can download the source codes to customize access settings for further development.

  1. Job sharing for women pharmacists in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kelly C; Finks, Shannon W

    2009-11-12

    The pharmacist shortage, increasing numbers of female pharmacy graduates, more pharmacy schools requiring faculty members, and a lower percentage of female faculty in academia are reasons to develop unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity. Such partnerships have worked for other professionals but have not been widely adopted in pharmacy academia. Job sharing can benefit the employer through retention of experienced employees who collectively offer a wider range of skills than a single employee. Benefits to the employee include balanced work and family lives with the ability to maintain their knowledge and skills by remaining in the workforce. We discuss the additional benefits of job-sharing as well as our experience in a non-tenure track job-sharing position at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy.

  2. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O. Gubbins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74% participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse’s family commitment, work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule, and job and career satisfaction. Married participants’ mean age was 48 (SD = 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74% completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males (p = 0.02 but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment (p < 0.01, when controlled for age, gender, number of dependents, work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  3. Evaluation of pharmacist continuing professional development portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofade, Toyin S; Hedrick, John N; Dedrick, Stephen C; Caiola, Stephen M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a random continuing professional development (CPD) portfolio audit to assess the portfolios of pharmacists who completed CPD training in the state of North Carolina and reported adopting it in place of the annual 15-hour continuing education (CE) requirement when applying for re-licensure. The NC Board of Pharmacy (NCBOP) staff randomly selected 30 pharmacists to provide CPD portfolio documentation to the Board electronically or in paper format. This documentation included their completed learning plan, a learning activity worksheet for each completed activity, and the Accreditation Council on Pharmacy Education (ACPE) universal activity number for the CPD training program attended. The Task Force used a multicomponent audit tool to assess each portfolio. Eighty percent of portfolios had at least 15 hours of learning reported. Portfolio assessments indicated an average of 5 learning objectives per individual. Based on the scale of 1 to 5, the Measurable and Specific sections of the objectives scored the lowest with an average score of 3 on both sections. An overall assessment of "adequate" or "comprehensive" was noted for 60% of the portfolios. Pharmacists completing CPD training are capable of following the CPD process with some potential challenges in documentation. Information submitted to the board of pharmacy is considered sufficient for license renewal purposes.

  4. Biokinetics – the development of a health profession from physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This milestone in the history of Biokinetics occurred after a long process of deliberations with other role players in the health profession. In some cases serious resistance against this new discipline existed – not only from other disciplines but also among scientists in the field of exercise science. Since this historical event the ...

  5. Understanding New Hybrid Professions: Bourdieu, "Illusio" and the Case of Public Service Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Helen; Guéry, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Public spending reductions across the advanced capitalist world are creating new professions that have a "hybrid" status and/or role. However, research on professional learning has paid little attention to them. This qualitative study of one such profession, public service interpreting (PSI), addresses that lacuna. The paper focuses on…

  6. Social circumstances and teaching profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beara Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers, as an element of the educational system, are considered to be the most important factor for improving the quality of work in schools. At the same time, schools and teachers, as well as the entire educational system, are functioning in the framework of broader social conditions that may be perceived as favorable and unfavorable for particular aspects of their job and profession. The paper examined teachers' perceptions of the social circumstances in which they work and professionally develop, as well as their temporal satisfaction of their profession and professional development. Temporal satisfaction involves cognitive evaluation of professional area of life through the prism of time (past, present, future. Examined was the interrelationship between these factors, as well as correlations with certain socio-demographic variables: length of employment, age, gender, initial education and type of school in which they are employed. Results indicate that teachers generally perceive social conditions as unfavorable to their professional development, being more satisfied with the past, than with the present and future professional aspects of life. Professional satisfaction was significantly correlated with the perception of social circumstances. Significant differences were established in the temporal satisfaction and perception of social conditions in relation to sex. Teachers in secondary vocational schools are more satisfied with their profession compared to teachers in gymnasiums and primary schools.

  7. Challenges and opportunities for nutrition education and training in the health care professions: intraprofessional and interprofessional call to action1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Mirtallo, Jay M; Tobin, Brian W; Hark, Lisa; Van Horn, Linda; Palmer, Carole A

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and applying nutrition knowledge and skills to all aspects of health care are extremely important, and all health care professions need basic training to effectively assess dietary intake and provide appropriate guidance, counseling, and treatment to their patients. With obesity rates at an all-time high and the increasing prevalence of diabetes projected to cost the Federal government billions of dollars, the need for interprofessional nutrition education is paramount. Physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, dentists, dental hygienists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech and language pathologists, and others can positively affect patient care by synchronizing and reinforcing the importance of nutrition across all specialty areas. Although nutrition is a critical component of acute and chronic disease management, as well as health and wellness across the health care professions, each profession must reevaluate its individual nutrition-related professional competencies before the establishment of meaningful interprofessional collaborative nutrition competencies. This article discusses gaps in nutrition education and training within individual health professions (ie, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, and dietetics) and offers suggestions for educators, clinicians, researchers, and key stakeholders on how to build further capacity within the individual professions for basic and applied nutrition education. This “gaps methodology” can be applied to all health professions, including physician assistants, physical therapists, speech and language pathologists, and occupational therapists. PMID:24646823

  8. Professional use of social media by pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arden R; Pearson, Glen J

    2015-01-01

    A recent trend among health care professionals is the use of social media for professional purposes. These rapidly expanding media allow for timely and efficient access to health information, but they also carry the potential for increased liability. There is a paucity of research detailing how health care professionals, specifically pharmacists, use social media. To characterize the use of social media by pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta and to identify independent determinants of and perceived barriers to using social media for professional purposes. Data for this mixed-methods study were collected by an online survey in March and April 2014. Alberta pharmacists were invited to participate via e-mail distributed by 2 professional organizations. The survey had 273 respondents. Of these, 226 (82.8%) stated that they had a social media account for either personal or professional purposes, and 138 (61.1%) of these reported using social media for professional purposes, although most respondents used social media predominantly for personal reasons. The most commonly reported social media applications were Facebook and Twitter, accessed primarily via smartphones. Of the 273 respondents, 206 (75.5%) had a Facebook account, and 101 (49.0%) of these used Facebook to some extent for professional purposes. Twitter users (104 [38.1%] of respondents) had a higher rate of professional utilization (57/104 [54.8%]). The most commonly identified barrier to using social media for professional purposes was concern over liability. Positive predictors of use of social media for professional purposes included younger age and fewer years of professional experience. Participants perceived the most beneficial aspect of social media (in professional terms) as connecting with pharmacist colleagues. More than 80% of pharmacists in Alberta reported that they had a social media account, and over half of them reported using their accounts for professional purposes. Although

  9. Groundwater Profession in Transition: Discovery toAdaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2005-04-04

    Over the past century and half, groundwater has played an important role in the economic prosperity of the United States. The groundwater profession which has contributed to this prosperity has grown through the contributions of the U.S. and State Geological Surveys,academia, and industry. A century ago, the energies of the profession were channeled towards discovering new sources of groundwater in a largely unexplored land, and exploiting the resources for maximum economic benefit. Experience has since revealed that groundwater systems are finite, and are intimately linked to surface water bodies and the biosphere. A consequence is that aggressive exploitation of groundwater can lead to unacceptable environmental degradation and social cost. At present, the groundwater profession is in a state of transition from one of discovery and exploitation, to one of balancing resource development with avoiding unacceptable damage to the environment. This paper outlines the history of the groundwater profession in the United States since the late nineteenth century, and speculates on what may lie ahead in the near future, as the profession makes the transition from discovering new sources of groundwater to one of better understanding and adapting to nature's constraints.

  10. Development and evaluation of a pharmacogenomics educational program for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formea, Christine M; Nicholson, Wayne T; McCullough, Kristen B; Berg, Kevin D; Berg, Melody L; Cunningham, Julie L; Merten, Julianna A; Ou, Narith N; Stollings, Joanna L

    2013-02-12

    Objectives. To evaluate hospital and outpatient pharmacists' pharmacogenomics knowledge before and 2 months after participating in a targeted, case-based pharmacogenomics continuing education program.Design. As part of a continuing education program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), pharmacists were provided with a fundamental pharmacogenomics education program.Evaluation. An 11-question, multiple-choice, electronic survey instrument was distributed to 272 eligible pharmacists at a single campus of a large, academic healthcare system. Pharmacists improved their pharmacogenomics test scores by 0.7 questions (pretest average 46%; posttest average 53%, p=0.0003).Conclusions. Although pharmacists demonstrated improvement, overall retention of educational goals and objectives was marginal. These results suggest that the complex topic of pharmacogenomics requires a large educational effort in order to increase pharmacists' knowledge and comfort level with this emerging therapeutic opportunity.

  11. How can pharmacists develop patient-pharmacist communication skills? A realist review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Aisling; Strawbridge, Judith; Kelleher, Caroline; Mertens, Fien; Pype, Peter; Deveugele, Myriam; Pawlikowska, Teresa

    2017-01-23

    Good patient-pharmacist communication improves health outcomes. There is, however, room for improving pharmacists' communication skills. These develop through complex interactions during undergraduate pharmacy education, practice-based learning and continuing professional development. Research is needed to determine how best to approach teaching patient-pharmacist communication. The aim of the research is to understand how educational interventions develop patient-pharmacist interpersonal communication skills produce their effects. A realist review approach will be used to synthesise the literature to make sense of the complexities of educational interventions. Our review will iteratively progress through the various stages of clarifying scope, locating existing theories, searching for evidence, appraisal of papers, data extraction and synthesis. A scoping review revealed a number of substantive theories, which will be used to build an initial programme theory. This will be explored through available published evidence, which we will find by searching databases such as Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, ERIC, Scopus and Web of Science. Judgements will be made on the relevance and rigour of the retrieved literature and will be taken into consideration during analysis and synthesis. Synthesis, testing and refinement of the theories will describe and explain the links between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes of educational interventions for communication development in pharmacy. The realist review will provide an analysis of what works when, for whom, how and why, for educational interventions for interpersonal patient-pharmacist communication development. We will also explore barriers to successful communications training and acknowledge any limitations. Ultimately, we plan to provide pharmacy educators with evidence for how best to incorporate educational interventions for communications skills development into pharmacy curricula and for life-long learning opportunities

  12. El farmacéutico y la salud pública The pharmacist and the public health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión sobre los principales conceptos de salud pública y su importancia para el desarrollo de la salud en Cuba; se presentan aspectos importantes del desarrollo y evolución de esta categoría, y se argumenta el porque se plantea a la salud como una ciencia integradora y su función en la búsqueda constante de un incremento de la mejora en la calidad de vida. Se realiza una breve descripción de los antecedentes y el desarrollo de la profesión farmacéutica en Cuba; se discute cuál es la función de este profesional en el sistema de salud y la importancia de su ubicación en el logro del trabajo como parte de un equipo de salud al analizarlo como educador y promotor de saludA review on the main public health concepts and their importance for the healthcare development in Cuba was made; important aspects of the evolution and development of this category were presented. The reasons why health is considered a comprehensive science and its function in the permanent search for a better quality of life were provided. Also, a brief description of the background and development of the pharmacist profession in Cuba was made. The role of this professional in the health care system and the importance of his/her participation in a health team as educator and health promoter were debated

  13. Physicians' perceptions of communication with and responsibilities of pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranelli, P L; Biss, J

    2000-01-01

    To understand physicians' perceptions of (1) their communication with pharmacists, (2) pharmacists' professional duties, and (3) the degree of responsibility with which pharmacists perform these tasks. Structured interviews with convenience sample of physicians in phase 1; written survey mailed to convenience sample of physicians in phase 2. Six physicians in Wyoming in phase 1, and 313 primary care physicians who were members of the Wyoming Medical Society in phase 2. Physicians' attitudes and experiences related to their interactions with pharmacists and their perceptions about pharmacists' responsibilities. Usable surveys were returned by 176 physicians (response rate = 59.1%). Age ranged from 27 to 86 years (mean +/- SD = 43.5 +/- 10.4 years), 79.5% were men, and 50.6% were in family practice. Almost 25% had personal contact with pharmacists regarding patients' medications four or more times daily, but 20.6% rarely had this type of contact. Pharmacists contacted physicians' offices regarding prescription refills frequently, with 28.7% reporting 10 or more contacts daily. For 79.2% of respondents, an office nurse had the most contact with pharmacists. Respondents were most comfortable with pharmacists' responsibilities of catching prescription errors (88.0%), providing patient education (65.1%), suggesting nonprescription medications (63.4%), and suggesting prescription medications to physicians (52.0%). Respondent's age was negatively correlated with three functions related to pharmacotherapeutic regimens: designing regimens, monitoring effects of failed regimens, and monitoring outcomes. The most common negative experiences with pharmacists involved pharmacists' scaring the patient, dispensing unauthorized refills, and making inappropriate comments in the presence of patients. Future research with a larger, more representative sample of physicians will help explain this dynamic relationship. These preliminary results should be useful in training future

  14. The integration of information and communication technology into community pharmacists practice in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Lluch, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The study aims to identify community pharmacists' (CPs) utilization of information and communication technology (ICT); to develop and characterize a typology of CPs' utilization of ICT and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies. An online survey of the 7649 members of the Pharmacist Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit modelling were undertaken. Multivariate analysis of the CPs' responses to the survey (648) revealed two profiles of adoption of ICT. The first profile (40.75%) represents those CPs who place high emphasis on ICT within their practice. This group is therefore referred to as 'integrated CPs'. The second profile (59.25%) represents those CPs who make less use of ICT and so are consequently labelled 'non-integrated CPs'. Statistical modelling was used to identify variables that were important in predisposing CPs to integrate ICT with their work. From the analysis it is evident that responses to questions relating to 'recommend patients going on line for health information'; 'patients discuss or share their Internet health information findings'; 'emphasis on the Internet for communication and dissemination' and 'Pharmacists Professional Association information' play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an 'integrated CP'. The integration of ICT within CPs' practices cannot be adequately understood and appreciated without examining how CPs are making use of ICT within their own practice, their organizational context and the nature of the pharmacists-client relationship.

  15. Counterfeit drug demand: perceptions of policy makers and community pharmacists in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadl, Abubakr A; Hassali, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M

    2013-01-01

    The counterfeit drug trade has become widespread and has developed into a substantial threat to both the public's health and the pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this study was to seek insights into the determining factors of counterfeit drug purchases among health policy makers and community pharmacists in a developing country. In-depth qualitative interviews with Sudanese policy makers and community pharmacists were undertaken in 2 Sudanese states, namely Khartoum and Gadaref. A semistructured interview guide was developed by incorporating information from existing literature. A purposive sample of knowledgeable policy makers and community pharmacists was interviewed. Thematic content analysis of the interviews identified 8 major themes: understanding the term "counterfeit drug," presence of counterfeit drugs in the Sudanese market, vulnerability to counterfeit drugs, price-quality inference, awareness of societal consequences of counterfeit drugs, subjective social norms, difference in vulnerability according to demographic characteristics, and education pertaining to counterfeit drugs. Unaffordability of medicines and desperate need were emphasized by both policy makers and community pharmacists as major influencing factors that increased consumers' vulnerability to counterfeit drugs. This study concluded that high prices and the unaffordability of medicines have a major role in increasing vulnerability to counterfeit drugs, in addition to lack of knowledge about counterfeiting and the implications of use of these products. Because very limited studies have been conducted in developing countries to explore perceptions about counterfeit drugs, the present study provides information from which policy makers and key stakeholders in the supply chain can benefit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacist-Led Home Medicines Review and Residential Medication Management Review: The Australian Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Timothy F

    2016-03-01

    Older people are often prescribed multiple medicines and have a high prevalence of polypharmacy. Polypharmacy is associated with an increased risk of inappropriate use of medicines and drug-related problems. As experts in pharmacotherapy, pharmacists are well placed to review complex medication regimens and identify causes of drug-related problems and recommend solutions to prevent or resolve them. Involvement in medication review services represents a major philosophical shift and paradigm change in the way pharmacists practice, in that the focus is shifted away from the dispensing of prescription medicines to the provision of a professional service for a patient, in collaboration with their general practitioner (GP). In Australia, there are two established medication review programs: Home Medicines Review (HMR) and Residential Medication Management Review (RMMR). The objectives of this article were to describe the process of government-funded medication review services in Australia and to evaluate the contribution of pharmacists to HMR and RMMR, using evidence-based measures, such as the Drug Burden Index (DBI) and the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). This review found that there is good evidence to support the role of pharmacists in delivering medication review services across different settings. Although the positive impact of such services has been demonstrated using a variety of validated measures (DBI, MAI), there remains a need to also evaluate actual clinical outcomes and/or patient-reported outcomes.

  17. Evaluation of patient safety culture among Malaysian retail pharmacists: results of a self-reported survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandy, Palanisamy; Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Wei, Tan Tyng; Loon, Tan Wee; Yee, Lim Chong

    2016-01-01

    Patient safety is a major public health issue, and the knowledge, skills, and experience of health professionals are very much essential for improving patient safety. Patient safety and medication error are very much associated. Pharmacists play a significant role in patient safety. The function of pharmacists in the medication use process is very different from medical and nursing colleagues. Medication dispensing accuracy is a vital element to ensure the safety and quality of medication use. To evaluate the attitude and perception of the pharmacist toward patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. A Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was used to assess patient safety culture, developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the convenience sampling method was adopted. The overall positive response rate ranged from 31.20% to 87.43%, and the average positive response rate was found to be 67%. Among all the eleven domains pertaining to patient safety culture, the scores of "staff training and skills" were less. Communication openness, and patient counseling are common, but not practiced regularly in the Malaysian retail pharmacy setup compared with those in USA. The overall perception of patient safety of an acceptable level in the current retail pharmacy setup. The study revealed that staff training, skills, communication in patient counseling, and communication across shifts and about mistakes are less in current retail pharmacy setup. The overall perception of patient safety should be improved by educating the pharmacists about the significance and essential of patient safety.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions of Pharmacists and Pharmacy Students towards Pharmacogenomics in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzoriana, Nyasha; Gavi, Samuel; Nembaware, Victoria; Dhoro, Milcah; Matimba, Alice

    2017-06-30

    The potential of pharmacogenomics (PGx) to positively impact health outcomes and quality of healthcare is well-established. However, the application of available evidence into clinical practice is still limited due to limited knowledge among healthcare professionals, including pharmacists. As a start towards building capacity for PGx education, we assessed knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about PGx among practising pharmacists and pharmacy students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacists and undergraduate pharmacy students selected using a convenient sampling method-a 37-question survey instrument was used to obtain information regarding PGx among the participants. Out of a total of 131 participants, 56% of respondents showed fair-to-good PGx knowledge. Respondents' self-reported assessment indicated that 88% had average and above knowledge scores in PGx. Practising pharmacists in Zimbabwe have positive attitudes towards PGx and would support its application to improve treatments. However, there were concerns about security and discrimination when genomics data is used by those who do not understand its meaning. Participants agreed that they would play a leading role in PGx testing if provided with appropriate training. The interest in PGx is challenged by their limited knowledge and understanding of genetics, suggesting a need to update curricula for pharmacy students and for continuing health education programmes.

  19. Community pharmacists' knowledge of diabetes management during Ramadan in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed E K; Chewning, Betty

    2014-12-01

    Although Muslim diabetic patients may be aware of their religious exemption from fasting, many still fast and adjust their medication regimens accordingly. Pharmacists have a significant potential to identify and prevent harm from medication misuse in Ramadan. This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge regarding management of diabetes during Ramadan. It also explores pharmacists' willingness to attend a 1 day workshop on medication regimen adjustment during Ramadan. Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered survey was conducted among a random sample of community pharmacists. The survey included three knowledge questions relevant to counseling diabetic patients during Ramadan. Questions covered the recommended timing and dosing for metformin and insulin as well as the safe blood glucose range required for diabetic patients to safely continue their fast. Using logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' willingness to attend a workshop on the adjustment of medication regimens during Ramadan. Content analysis was used to analyze pharmacists' answers to the question concerning what they would like the workshop to cover. Pharmacists' aggregate scores for all three diabetes management knowledge questions and pharmacists' willingness to attend a workshop on the adjustment of medication regimens during Ramadan. Ninety three percent of the 298 approached pharmacists agreed to participate. Forty three pharmacists (15.9%) did not know the correct answer to any question, 118(43.7%) 24 answered one correctly, 86 (31.9%) answered two correctly and only 23 (8.5%) answered all 25 three correctly. Confidence in therapeutic knowledge regarding medication regimen 26 adjustment during Ramadan was not associated with the pharmacists' knowledge of diabetes management during Ramadan. One hundred seventy five (63.6%) pharmacists wanted to attend a workshop on adjusting medication regimens

  20. Interprofessional communication between community pharmacists and general practitioners: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenborn, Marina; Haefeli, Walter E; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Seidling, Hanna M

    2017-06-01

    Background While collaboration between community pharmacists (CPs) and general practitioners (GPs) is essential to provide comprehensive patient care, their communication often is scarce and hampered by multiple barriers. Objective We aimed to assess both professions' perceptions of interprofessional communication with regard to content and methods of communication as a basis to subsequently develop best-practice recommendations for information exchange. Setting Ambulatory care setting in Germany. Method CPs and GPs shared their experience in focus groups and in-depth interviews which were conducted using a semi-structured interview guideline. Transcribed recordings were assessed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. Main outcome measure Specification of existing barriers, CPs'/GPs' general perceptions of interprofessional communication and similarities and differences regarding prioritization of specific information items and how to best communicate with each other. Results Four focus groups and fourteen interviews were conducted. Seven internal (e.g. professions were not personally known to one another) and nine external barriers (e.g. mutual accessibility) were identified. Ten organizational, eight medication-related, and four patient-related information items were identified requiring interprofessional communication. Their relevance varied between the professions, e.g. CPs rated organizational issues higher than GPs. Both professions indicated communication via phone to be the most frequently used method of communication. Conclusion CPs and GPs opinions often differ. However, communication between CPs and GPs is perceived as crucial suggesting that a future concept has to offer standardized recommendations, while leaving CPs and GPs room to adjust it to their individual needs.

  1. A Randomized Prospective Study on Outcomes of an Empathy Intervention among Second-year Student Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Julie T; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of a single, 3-day intervention on empathy levels as measured by the validated Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS). Methods. Forty second-year student pharmacists were recruited to participate in a non-blinded prospective study. Subjects were randomized to an intervention group (n=20) or control group (n=20) and completed the JSE-HPS at baseline, 7 days postintervention, and 90 days postintervention. The intervention group consisted of a 3-day simulation, each day including a designated activity with loss of dominant hand usage, vision, and speech. Results. The 3-day simulation increased empathy levels in the intervention group compared to the control group 7 days postintervention (p=0.035). However, there were no effects on empathy levels 90 days postintervention (p=0.38). Conclusion. Empathy scores increased but were not sustained in the long-term with a 3-day empathy intervention. PMID:25861099

  2. Shaping the midwifery profession in Nepal - Uncovering actors' connections using a Complex Adaptive Systems framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogren, Malin Upper; Berg, Marie; Edgren, Lars; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Wigert, Helena

    2016-12-01

    To explore how actors connect in a system aiming at promoting the establishment of a midwifery profession in Nepal. A qualitative explorative study based on the framework of Complex Adaptive Systems. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 key people representing eight different organisations (actors) promoting the development of the midwifery profession. The actors' connections can be described with a complex set of facilitators for and barriers to promoting the establishment of a midwifery profession. The identified facilitators for this establishment in Nepal are (1) a common goal and (2) a desire to collaborate, whilst the barriers are (1) different political interests and priorities, (2) competing interests of the nursing profession and societal views, (3) divergent academic opinions on a midwifery profession, and (4) insufficient communication. The results also showed that Nepalese society cannot distinguish between nursing and midwifery and that the public support for a midwifery profession was hence minimal. The move of midwifery from an occupation to a profession in Nepal is an on-going, challenging process. The study indicates the importance of understanding the motivations of, and barriers perceived by, actors that can promote or obstruct the establishment of the midwifery profession. It also points to the importance of informing the wider public about the role and responsibility of an autonomous midwifery profession. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical pharmacists as medication therapy experts in diabetic clinics in Saudi Arabia – Not just a perception but a need

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz A. Makeen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacist’s role is expanding from medication dispensing to patient care. There are several newer horizons in which clinical pharmacists have a vital role to play such as diabetic care, handling asthma patients, pain management, anti-coagulation therapy and in hyperlipidemia. Among these, the disorder that is perceived to reach epidemic proportions globally is diabetes mellitus. In the Arab world, particularly in countries like Saudi Arabia, the number affected and the cost incurred in the management of diabetes are relatively high. Apart from adding to the economic burden, the complications arising due to a lag in identification and management are manifold. In developed countries, several practicing hospitals and clinics have inducted clinical pharmacists as vital members of the healthcare team. With profound knowledge about medications, clinical pharmacists are inclined to stay abreast with recent developments in research and latest guidelines, thus supporting physicians in evidence based practice. Clinical pharmacists through Medication Therapy Management can render services by guiding, identifying and monitoring drug related issues faced by the patients. This can contribute in reducing the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and improving the quality of life. To keep pace with the growing prevalence of diabetes in the kingdom, clinical pharmacists need to undergo specialized training in high risk areas. Health regulating bodies should be keen in adopting provisions of inducting them in discrete specialties which can also help in trimming heathcare expenditure.

  4. Impact of a fictional reading intervention on empathy development in student pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karin L; Zweber, Ann; Irwin, Adriane N

    2017-05-01

    Determine the impact of a short longitudinal literary fiction intervention on empathy development in student pharmacists as measured by the Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Health Profession Students (JSE-HPS) version. Twenty-one student pharmacists were randomized to an intervention consisting of reading short excerpts of literary fiction over eight weeks (n=11) or a control group not participating in the intervention (n=10). Both groups completed the JSE-HPS at baseline and completion of the literary intervention. Categorical data were compared using a chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and continuous data were compared using paired or independent t-tests for within and across group comparisons respectively. JSE-HPS scores increased in the intervention group (112.1±10.7 to 116.1±7.4; p=0.201) while they decreased in the control group (118.7±12.6 to 113.0±15.9; p=0.188). Changes across groups were not statistically significant (p=0.061). Students randomized to an eight-week literature intervention demonstrated a non-statistically significant increase in empathy as measured by the JSE-HPS questionnaire. Similar increases were not observed in students randomized to a control group. As a result, this intervention may represent a novel way to foster empathy in student pharmacists using an intervention requiring few resources. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes, ideally across multiple institutions, in order to validate the effectiveness of this intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The White Coat and Medical Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Joshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available White coat has been an identifying symbol for doctors; however certain other professions also use it. Additional purpose of this coat besides identification was to protect the doctor from acquired infections. Disputes arose about this attire, regarding effect of climatic conditions such as environmental temperature, humidity, personal attributions, patients and parent's opinion and also probably, as an agent which is said to be harboring various pathogenic organisms. Some studies or research work which has been carried out says that these organisms might play a role in nosocomial infections whereas, other studies refute it. Professional bodies have set up norms regarding place of wearing, hygiene and laundering about this apparel. In conclusion depending upon the conditions it can be inferred that at certain places, wearing of this apparel should be compulsory, whereas at other places it can be individualized. Various issues related to white coat are being discussed in this article

  6. 'Genericism' in Danish welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Verner

    and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge......Our paper is based on an ongoing research project about ‘genericism’ in Danish professional education. We critically discuss the concept of 'generic skills' and argue that the ability to act professionally and reflective, even in changing contexts, should foremost be based on extensive knowledge...

  7. Pharmacists' response to anaphylaxis in the community (PRAC): a randomised, simulated patient study of pharmacist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Sandra M; Delfante, Brock; de Klerk, Sarah; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2014-07-09

    To evaluate how community pharmacists manage patients with anaphylaxis. A randomised, cross-sectional, simulated patient study of community pharmacist practice. 300 metropolitan pharmacies located in Perth Australia, randomised to three groups of 100 pharmacies. Each group corresponded to a different epinephrine autoinjector: original EpiPen, new-look EpiPen or Anapen. 300 pharmacies were visited with 271 simulated patient visits included in the final analysis (88=original EpiPen, 92=new-look EpiPen, 91=Anapen). Primary anaphylaxis preparedness (readiness to treat acute anaphylaxis). Secondary anaphylaxis engagement (willingness to engage the patient in a discussion about their anaphylaxis). Simulated patients approached pharmacists, using a standardised scenario, for assistance with epinephrine autoinjector use and advice about the use of antihistamines in anaphylaxis. Scores for each outcome were obtained based on the number of predefined statements addressed by the pharmacist during the consultation (maximum score=5 for preparedness and 8 for engagement). The mean anaphylaxis preparedness score was 2.39 points (SD 1.17). Scores for new-look EpiPen were significantly higher than for original EpiPen and Anapen (2.75 vs 2.38 points, p=0.027; 2.75 vs 2.03 points, pEpiPen were similar to original EpiPen and Anapen (3.11 vs 3.32 points; 3.11 vs 2.90 points, both p=0.42). Engagement was associated with preparedness. For each additional engagement point, preparedness increased by 7% (0.357 points; 95% CI 0.291 to 0.424; p<0.001). Pharmacists demonstrated reasonable knowledge of anaphylaxis symptoms and emergency care, but had poor epinephrine autoinjector technique and rarely discussed anaphylaxis action plans. Pharmacists who had a more comprehensive discussion about anaphylaxis with patients, were more prepared for anaphylaxis emergencies. Future research should evaluate the nature and significance of errors in pharmacists' autoinjector technique. Published by the BMJ

  8. Views, attitudes and self-assessed training needs of Scottish community pharmacists to public health practice and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, David E; McHattie, Lorna W; Diack, H Lesley; McCaig, Dorothy J; Stewart, Derek C

    2008-12-01

    To assess the education and training needs of community pharmacists to support the delivery of an expanded public health role. Setting Community pharmacy in Scotland. Two focus groups of community pharmacists (n = 4 in each) in geographically distinct regions of Scotland explored issues of public health function, competencies and education and training. Findings from thematic analysis were used to develop a draft postal questionnaire. Following piloting, pharmacist managers from a random sample of 500 community pharmacies in Scotland were contacted by telephone to ascertain the number of pharmacists working in each pharmacy in the following 14-day period. A survey pack containing questionnaires for each identified pharmacist working in the study period was sent by post to the pharmacist manager in each pharmacy. The questionnaire contained items on: demographics; views and attitudes towards: public health; competencies for public health practitioners; and education and training needs. One postal reminder was sent 2 weeks later. Main themes identified from focus group discussions; questionnaire response rate; views and attitudes towards public health competencies and education and training. Four hundred and fifteen managers agreed to participate, providing 904 potential participants. The response rate was 25% (223/904). Most (n = 179, 80%) were aware of the term 'pharmaceutical public health'. While a majority saw the importance of public health to their practice (n = 177, 79%) agreeing/strongly agreeing, they were less comfortable with the term 'specialist'. Respondents viewed competencies relating to health promotion (n = 192, 86%) more relevant than surveillance (n = 70, 31%), risk management (n = 29, 13%) and strategic developments (n = 12, 5%). Responses indicated a desire for education and training with more than half (n = 121, 54%) agreeing/strongly agreeing that they had a need now, with 69% (n = 153) expressing a future need. Results should be interpreted

  9. Pharmacists' knowledge of issues in pharmacotherapy of epilepsy using antiepileptic drugs: A cross-sectional study in Palestinian pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Atrash, Ahlam; Jebril, Aman; Khalaf, Areen; Shaheen, Eman; Tahboosh, Hala

    2017-02-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are mainstay in controlling epileptic seizures. As experts in medications, pharmacists should be able to ensure accuracy of dosing regimens, explain adverse effects, and screen for and alert people with epilepsy (PWE) and their physicians to possible drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of issues in pharmacotherapy of epilepsy using AEDs. This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted in the Palestinian pharmacy practice. A 10-item case-based questionnaire was used to determine actions taken by pharmacists in theoretical situations in pharmacotherapy of epilepsy. Demographic and practice details of the study participants were also collected. Scores were calculated as percentage of correct answers for each participant. The number of participants was 394. The majority (approximately 75%) identified themselves as community pharmacists. The median score was 33.4% with an IQR of 33.3. Pharmacists who received training on epilepsy and AEDs during their pharmacy degree program were 4.78-fold (95% C.I. of 1.82-12.60) more likely to score ≥50% in the test than those who did not receive training on epilepsy and AEDs. Despite gaps in knowledge, pharmacists tended to perform the necessary action in cases of adverse effects and aggravated seizures associated with AEDs. Pharmacists can play a crucial role in providing essential information on AEDs to patients and prescribers. There are many knowledge gaps that need to be filled. Specifically designed pedagogic and/or training interventions might be helpful in filling these gaps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of the Career Explorers program on high school students' perceptions of the pharmacy profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, Sarah M; Stensland, Sheri L; Warholak, Terri L; Mattingly, Lisa

    2008-06-15

    To determine the effect of a 5-week Career Explorers Program (CEP) on high school students' perceptions of pharmacists' characteristics, duties, and training. A 16-item survey instrument with attitudinal, frequency, and relative quantity response options was completed by all CEP students on the first and last day of the program. The survey assessed students' attitudes concerning pharmacist characteristics, duties, and training. All students who participated in the CEP in 2003 completed the survey instrument (n = 50). Seventy percent of respondents' answers to the attitudinal subscale questions significantly changed from preassessment to postassessment. A 5-week CEP provided high school students with more realistic perceptions of pharmacists' roles, duties, and training before the students entered the pharmacy program.

  11. Informing the homeopathic practice for Turkish pharmacists: reviewing the example of Portuguese community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Arslan, Miray; Şar, Sevgi

    2017-05-01

    Alternative and complementary therapy systems, such as homeopathy, have long been used around the world. Since 1995 homeopathy has been officially recognized in Europe as a system of medicine or a medical specialty. Portuguese community pharmacists have long-standing experience with homeopathic products. By contrast, healthcare professionals in Turkey are less experienced with homeopathic practice although there is a new regulatory setting in place. There are a limited number of studies addressing pharmacists' role within the homeopathic system. To investigate the attitudes (knowledge, feelings and behaviour) of experienced Portuguese pharmacy practitioners who deal with homeopathy, and thus to inform Turkish pharmacy practice and policy on homeopathy-related success factors. A qualitative cross-sectional design was followed, using semi-structured and face-to-face individual interviews with purposively selected Portuguese pharmacists experienced with homeopathic medicines. Audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and the transcriptions imported into QSR NVivo v10 software for qualitative coding and analysis. Using a thematic content approach, the extracted codes were grouped and indexed by recurrent themes through a reflective procedure and constant comparison. Six general themes emerged, the most relevant being participants' feelings of gratitude for the ability to work in homeopathy; other themes were a helpful regulatory body, clear practice boundaries, scientific support and product quality assurance. Specialized homeopathic education was considered the most important factor for success. This was related to patients' positive perceptions and acceptance, suggesting an increase in public awareness through the pharmacy network. Portuguese pharmacists' attitudes towards their homeopathic practices highlighted the key elements for success in a field that is usually distant from traditional pharmaceutical education and practice. The present findings provide

  12. Challenges in the management of chronic noncommunicable diseases by Indonesian community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspitasari HP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We explored factors influencing Indonesian primary care pharmacists’ practice in chronic noncommunicable disease management and proposed a model illustrating relationships among factors. Methods: We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews with pharmacists working in community health centers (Puskesmas, n=5 and community pharmacies (apotek, n=15 in East Java Province. We interviewed participating pharmacists using Bahasa Indonesia to explore facilitators and barriers to their practice in chronic disease management. We audiorecorded all interviews, transcribed ad verbatim, translated into English and analyzed the data using an approach informed by “grounded-theory”. Results: We extracted five emergent themes/factors: pharmacists’ attitudes, Puskesmas/apotek environment, pharmacy education, pharmacy professional associations, and the government. Respondents believed that primary care pharmacists have limited roles in chronic disease management. An unfavourable working environment and perceptions of pharmacists’ inadequate knowledge and skills were reported by many as barriers to pharmacy practice. Limited professional standards, guidelines, leadership and government regulations coupled with low expectations of pharmacists among patients and doctors also contributed to their lack of involvement in chronic disease management. We present the interplay of these factors in our model. Conclusion: Pharmacists’ attitudes, knowledge, skills and their working environment appeared to influence pharmacists’ contribution in chronic disease management. To develop pharmacists’ involvement in chronic disease management, support from pharmacy educators, pharmacy owners, professional associations, the government and other stakeholders is required. Our findings highlight a need for systematic coordination between pharmacists and stakeholders to improve primary care pharmacists’ practice in Indonesia to achieve continuity of care.

  13. Giving “Best Advice”: Proposing a Framework of Community Pharmacist Professional Judgement Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicely Roche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacy is often portrayed as a marriage of professional and business roles in a commercial domain, thereby creating a need for, and value in, pursuing the development of professional competencies for use in the community pharmacy business. In context, professional judgement is the application of knowledge, skills and attitudes (competencies which, when applied to situations where there is no one or obvious right or wrong way to proceed, gives a patient a better likelihood of a favourable outcome than if a lay-person had made the decision. The challenge for community pharmacists is that professional judgement formation is influenced by professional, commercial and personal criteria with inherent interconnected challenges. In community pharmacy practice in the Republic of Ireland (ROI, this challenge is compounded by the fact that advice is normally provided in an environment where the pharmacist provides professional advice “for free” and then may offer to sell the patient a product or service based on that advice, an activity which amounts to a commercial transaction. While there is currently no evidence to confirm whether or not these professional judgement influences are resolved successfully, their very existence poses a risk that their resolution “in the wrong way” could compromise patient outcomes or professional standing following the delivery of pharmacy services. It is therefore apparent that a community pharmacist requires skills in identifying and analysing professional/commercial/personal influences in order to appreciate the criteria which may affect both parties’ (patient and pharmacist decision making. By contemplating the interaction between the pharmacist’s professional competencies and the individual influences on that pharmacist, we can consider the enhancement of professional competencies that underpin the “best” advice being offered to the patient, regardless of whether that advice is offered in

  14. Mental health pharmacists views on shared decision-making for antipsychotics in serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Mediha; Bradley, Eleanor; Holmes, Nikki; Sud, Dolly; Maidment, Ian D

    2016-10-01

    Background People diagnosed with serious mental illnesses (SMIs) such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder are frequently treated with antipsychotics. National guidance advises the use of shared decision-making (SDM) in antipsychotic prescribing. There is currently little data on the opinions of health professionals on the role of SDM. Objective To explore the views and experiences of UK mental health pharmacists regarding the use of SDM in antipsychotic prescribing in people diagnosed with SMI. Setting The study was conducted by interviewing secondary care mental health pharmacists in the UK to obtain qualitative data. Methods Semi-structured interviews were recorded. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted using the method of constant comparison. Main outcome measure Themes evolving from mental health pharmacists on SDM in relation to antipsychotic prescribing in people with SMI. Results Thirteen mental health pharmacists were interviewed. SDM was perceived to be linked to positive clinical outcomes including adherence, service user satisfaction and improved therapeutic relations. Despite more prescribers and service users supporting SDM, it was not seen as being practised as widely as it could be; this was attributed to a number of barriers, most predominantly issues surrounding service user's lacking capacity to engage in SDM and time pressures on clinical staff. The need for greater effort to work around the issues, engage service users and adopt a more inter-professional approach was conveyed. Conclusion The mental health pharmacists support SDM for antipsychotic prescribing, believing that it improves outcomes. However, barriers are seen to limit implementation. More research is needed into overcoming the barriers and measuring the benefits of SDM, along with exploring a more inter-professional approach to SDM.

  15. Evaluation of an Initiative for Fostering Provider-Pharmacist Team Management of Hypertension in Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Doucette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 Conduct team building activities for provider-community pharmacist teams in small communities and 2 Determine the impact of the team approach on practitioner-reported consequences and 3 Identify obstacles to the team approach and ways to overcome them. Methods: Eleven provider-pharmacist teams were recruited in rural/micropolitan communities in Iowa. The teams participated in team building sessions facilitated by the project leaders, to discuss the team approach. Decisions included patient identification, practitioner roles, and communications. Most pharmacists conducted blood pressure (BP checks in the pharmacy and assessed the anti-hypertensive medications. If the BP was not at goal, the pharmacist worked with the patient and provider to make improvements. Teams followed their strategies for 3-5 months. Data were collected from pharmacy logs and on-line surveys of team members before and after the team period. Results: Using a multi-case approach, 4 cases were classified as Worked-Well, 5 as Limited-Success, and 2 as No-Team-Care. The Worked-Well teams provided an average of 26.5 BP visits per team, while the Limited-Success teams averaged 6.8 BP visits. The Worked-Well teams established and used a system to support the team approach. The Limited-Success teams either didn't fully establish their team system, or used it sparingly. The No-Team-Care cases did not provide any team care. Conclusions: Factors supporting success were: positive provider-pharmacist relations, established team system, commitment to team care, and patient willingness to participate. While this program had some success, potential improvements were identified: more follow-up after the team building session, additional patient materials, and guidance for practice changes.   Type: Case Study

  16. Demonstration of epinephrine autoinjectors (EpiPen and Anapen) by pharmacists in a randomised, simulated patient assessment: acceptable, but room for improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Salter, Sandra M; Loh, Richard; Sanfilippo, Frank M.; Clifford, Rhonda M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Successful treatment of anaphylaxis in the community relies on early and correct use of epinephrine autoinjectors. Community pharmacists supply these devices and have a crucial role teaching patients how to use them. Supply of epinephrine autoinjectors in Australia increased 70-fold in the past decade. New EpiPen and Anapen autoinjectors were launched in Australia in 2011 and 2012, with the potential to cause confusion. However there is no information about how pharmacists demonstr...

  17. Evaluation of a Danish pharmacist student-physician medication review collaboration model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2014-01-01

    of students to re-negotiate roles and tasks, and did therefore not entirely ensure role specification. Developing mutual professional interdependence through students being recognized by physicians to contribute to improved patient outcomes was also limited. Conclusion Some challenges to fruitful...... collaboration were identified. Solutions to these challenges include students and their pharmacist supervisors to find ways to present their collaborative needs to physicians and for students to illustrate more explicitly the benefits patient achieve if physicians implement the recommendations of students....... "Medisam" was launched in 2009 at the University of Copenhagen with the aim of "developing, implementing and evaluating a collaboration model for HMRs and medicine reconciliations in Denmark". The Medisam programme involves patients, pharmacy internship students, the (pharmacist) supervisor of the pharmacy...

  18. Effect of pharmacist intervention on improving antidepressant medication adherence and depression symptomology: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdean, Kevin C; Heuer, Albert J; Scott Parrott, J

    2017-05-22

    Depression is a widespread disease with effective pharmacological treatments, but low medication adherence. Pharmacists play a key role in supporting medication adherence in patients with depression given their accessibility to patients. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the impact of pharmacist interventions on adherence to antidepressants and clinical symptomology among adult outpatients with depressive disorders. A systematic review of controlled trials (both randomized and non-randomized) was conducted. Studies were obtained through a search of PubMed, Academic Search Premier, and Cochrane Library databases. Studies which included a pharmacist intervention to improve medication adherence in outpatients age 17 and above with a depressive disorder diagnosis and antidepressant treatment were included. Twelve publications met inclusion criteria, representing a total of 15,087 subjects: 1379 (9%) intervention and 13,708 (91%) control. The interventions in each selected publication included some level of in-person counseling and education to promote antidepressant adherence. The pooled odds ratio for medication adherence at 6 months was 2.50 (95% CI 1.62 to 3.86). There were no significant differences noted in subgroup meta-analyses except study location (US, Middle East or Europe) and setting. Only one of the identified studies reported statistically significant impacts of the pharmacist intervention on patient depression symptoms. The findings suggest that pharmacist interventions can enhance patient adherence to antidepressant medication in adult outpatients. However, this review failed to demonstrate a positive effect of these interventions on clinical symptoms. Additional longitudinal research is recommended to investigate the multidimensional relationships between pharmacist interventions, patient adherence, and clinical outcomes. Pharmacists play a key role in supporting medication adherence in patients with depression given their

  19. A scenario-planning approach to human resources for health: the case of community pharmacists in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, João; Cavaco, Afonso; Velez Lapão, Luís

    2014-10-13

    Health workforce planning is especially important in a setting of political, social, and economic uncertainty. Portuguese community pharmacists are experiencing such conditions as well as increasing patient empowerment, shortage of primary care physicians, and primary health care reforms. This study aims to design three future scenarios for Portuguese community pharmacists, recognizing the changing environment as an opportunity to develop the role that community pharmacists may play in the Portuguese health system. The community pharmacist scenario design followed a three-stage approach. The first stage comprised thinking of relevant questions to be addressed and definition of the scenarios horizon. The second stage comprised two face-to-face, scenario-building workshops, for which 10 experts from practice and academic settings were invited. Academic and professional experience was the main selection criteria. The first workshop was meant for context analysis and design of draft scenarios, while the second was aimed at scenario analysis and validation. The final scenarios were built merging workshops' information with data collected from scientific literature followed by team consensus. The final stage involved scenario development carried by the authors alone, developing the narratives behind each scenario. Analysis allowed the identification of critical factors expected to have particular influence in 2020 for Portuguese community pharmacists, leading to two critical uncertainties: the "Legislative environment" and "Ability to innovate and develop services". Three final scenarios were built, namely "Pharmacy-Mall", "e-Pharmacist", and "Reorganize or Die". These scenarios provide possible trends for market needs, pharmacist workforce numbers, and expected qualifications to be developed by future professionals. In all scenarios it is clear that the future advance of Portuguese community pharmacists will depend on pharmaceutical services provision beyond medicine

  20. Using pharmacists to improve risk stratification and management of stage 3A chronic kidney disease: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Evans, Michael; Yule, Christina; Bohn, Larissa; Young, Amanda; Lewis, Meredith; Graboski, Elisabeth; Gerdy, Bethany; Ehmann, William; Brady, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leah; Antunes, Natacha; Green, Jamie; Snyder, Susan; Kirchner, H Lester; Grams, Morgan; Perkins, Robert

    2016-11-08

    Measurement of albuminuria to stratify risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not done universally in the primary care setting despite recommendation in KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines. Pharmacist medication therapy management (MTM) may be helpful in improving CKD risk stratification and management. We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial using seven primary care clinic sites in the Geisinger Health System to evaluate the feasibility of pharmacist MTM in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and uncontrolled blood pressure (≥150/85 mmHg). In the three pharmacist MTM sites, pharmacists were instructed to follow a protocol aimed to improve adherence to KDIGO guidelines on testing for proteinuria and lipids, and statin and blood pressure medical therapy. In the four control clinics, patients received usual care. The primary outcome was proteinuria screening over a follow-up of 1 year. A telephone survey was administered to physicians, pharmacists, and patients in the pharmacist MTM arm at the end of the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between pharmacist MTM (n = 24) and control (n = 23) patients, although pharmacist MTM patients tended to be younger (64 vs. 71 y; p = 0.06) and less likely to have diabetes (17 % vs. 35 %; p = 0.2) or baseline proteinuria screening (41.7 % vs. 60.9 %, p = 0.2). Mean eGFR was 54 ml/min/1.73 m 2 in both groups. The pharmacist MTM intervention did not significantly improve total proteinuria screening at the population level (OR 2.6, 95 % CI: 0.5-14.0; p = 0.3). However, it tended to increase screening of previously unscreened patients (78.6 % in the pharmacist MTM group compared to 33.3 % in the control group; OR 7.3, 95 % CI: 0.96-56.3; p = 0.05). In general, the intervention was well-received by patients, pharmacists, and providers, who agreed that pharmacists could play an important role in CKD

  1. Museum profession: competences of modern museum professional

    OpenAIRE

    Kalvaitytė, Giedrė

    2009-01-01

    The object of master work – museum profession. The purpose of master work – to analyze museum profession, giving special attention to modern museum professional, his/her competences, skills. For the attainment of this purpose there are set the following goals: to analyze the conception, development and work model of public museum; to analyze the conception, development of museum profession and set the main factors, which condition the complexion of modern museum professional; to prove the imp...

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