WorldWideScience

Sample records for professionals trade secrecy

  1. 40 CFR 350.7 - Substantiating claims of trade secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... factors which influence the cost of determining the identity of the chemical claimed as trade secret by... manufacturing process, identify the activity where the chemical is used.) (ii) Has your company or facility...

  2. [Healthcare Provider Professional Secrecy: an Issue for Public Health Democracy somewhere between Immanence and Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautier, Silvère

    2017-09-01

    For a long time considered as total and absolute, healthcare professional secrecy is today difficult to reconcile with care practices. Lots of paradoxes question its preservation in favour of general interest and public order against the protection of private interest within an individualistic normative society. Exploring this interrogation, the article's objective is to initiate an ethical discussion from a professional caregiver secrecy's historical and sociological evolution perspective. Thus, with the help of theoretical understandings, especially those by Michel Foucault, medical secrecy is considered a defense of rationality specific to populations' government. This conceptualization finds arguments through social collective norms attached to an alienating biopower at the expense of secrecy integrated as an individualistic and immanent social norm. However, beyond the well-known debate on the absolute necessity for change, evolution… the distance from the Socratic and Hippocratic principles engage people and society in real democratic decisions about Health. Also, health professionals, patients, usgers and society must consider the limits that would lead to medical confidentiality.

  3. ETHIC AND SECRECY ON THE CORPORATE ENVIRONMENT AND THE SECRETARIAT PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Whitaker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on theoretical and field research, aims at showing the importance of preserving confidentiality on a daily basis in the context of an "ethical company”. It reports how this practice besides solidifying the image of the organization can also guarantee the existence of a high level of trust and respect between the participants emphasizing the importance of secretarial professionals in that mission. Besides being a regulated profession, which has a code of ethics with explicit determinations about the importance of confidentiality, secrecy is one of the attributes required for the job. The secretaries are aware and convinced of the necessity of secrecy not only in the exercise of their profession, but in their private lives, considering that private interests should not outweigh the public interest.

  4. 40 CFR 350.5 - Assertion of claims of trade secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the specific chemical identity of an extremely hazardous substance under sections 303 (d)(2) and (d)(3... (d)(3), the submitter may claim as trade secret the specific chemical identity of any chemical... local emergency planning committee, with the chemical identity or identities claimed trade secret...

  5. Helping professionals and Border Force secrecy: effective asylum-seeker healthcare requires independence from callous policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael

    2016-02-01

    To examine the Australian Border Force Act (BFA) and its context, its implications for asylum-seeker healthcare and professionals, and contemporary and historical parallels. Prolonged immigration detention and policies aiming to deter irregular migration cause maritime asylum-seekers undeniable, well-publicised harms and (notwithstanding claims about preventing drownings) show reckless indifference and calculated cruelty. Service personnel may be harmed. Such policies misuse helping professionals to underwrite state abuses and promote public numbing and indifference, resembling other state abuses in the 'war on terror' and (with qualification) historical counterparts, e.g. Nazi Germany. Human service practitioners and organisations recently denounced the BFA that forbids disclosure about these matters.Continuing asylum-seeker healthcare balances the likelihood of effective care and monitoring with lending credibility to abuses. Boycotting it might sacrifice scrutiny and care, fail to compel professionals and affect temporary overseas workers. Entirely transferring healthcare from immigration to Federal and/or State health departments, with resources augmented to adequate standard, would strengthen clinical independence and quality, minimise healthcare's being securitised and politicised, and uphold ethical codes. Such measures will not resolve detention's problems, but coupled with independent auditing, would expose and moderate detention's worst effects, promoting changes in national conversation and policy-making. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  6. Secrecy and misguided policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossin, A.D. [Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford, California (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The atomic bomb was born in secrecy. After the war, scientists and statesmen committed themselves to develop the promise of nuclear energy without the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The most obvious tool available to them was secrecy. But secrecy was not the sword that could easily be beaten into the plowshare. It proved to be a double-edged sword. It could not stop the spread of basic scientific information, and it turned out to be a weapon for marketing information to promote political aims. It served that purpose in promoting President Carter policy to stop reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  7. [Experts according to Art. 80, Paragraph IV, Law No. 354, 26 July 1975, and the obligation to professional secrecy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, N

    1981-01-01

    The multiplicity of advertising "concerns" acts, with a more prominent emphasis in recent times, as the necessary condition for an increasing deterioration of professional reserve to the level of a merely formal statement. Especially as regards the medical profession, as broadly understood, the institution of "specialist categories" directly tied to "public bodies" and to "agencies", private or public, responsible for or helping to effect, the "monitoring" of special characteristics peculiar to the most intimate sphere of subjectivity, remarkable "deviations" can be observed as against the anamnestic (having to do with case histories--trans.), analytic, and clearly therapeutic safeguarding that, to the contrary, ought to receive an inviolable defense on the part of the Italian regulatory system--executive, in the sense of rigorous constitutional provisions. To emphasize the deep erosion of professional reserve, demonstrable to the highest degree by the present levels of penal doctrine and jurisprudence as specifically regards criminal cases sanctioned by art. 622 of the penal code, is therefore equivalent to the bringing into focus of a general social and regulatory problem, one that is obviously expanding, as regards its importance and its capacity to "alarm", within the sphere of the observation of personality and of institutionalized treatment as prescribed by the law of 26 July 1975, no. 354, bearing the title "Penitentiary Organization". The need for establishing a climate of "confidentiality"--confirmed by a number of papers on criminology and "penitentiary technique"--among the convicts, and "therapy", is therefore included within the considerably larger theme of the rights of the condemned person, of his assent to being subjected to "resocializing operations", as well as of the guarantee of not having to undergo further negative consequences, beyond his state of restricted freedom, whether on the legal plane or on the plane of his psycho-physical integrity

  8. Secrecy, Betrayal and Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Siegel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years numerous secret transgressions and crimes have been revealed in the media. Whistleblowers reveal clandestine agreements between managers and directors of large companies; criminals (pentiti make deals with criminal justice officials; cyclists and athletes make public confessions about drug use; victims of sexual abuse come forward with their testimonies.  In this paper, I try to analyze why attitudes about secrecy have changed in the last couple of decades and how and why so many secrets have been revealed, either by individuals who are complicit (whistleblowers or cyclists, by victims (of child abuse by the Catholic clergy and by outsiders (WikiLeaks activists. In addition, some suggestions on the methods of criminological research in closed and isolated groups which consider such information leaks a form of betrayal are provided.

  9. 22 CFR 41.59 - Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Professionals under the North American Free Trade Agreement. (a) Requirements for classification as a NAFTA... NAFTA Professional to the alien or official confirmation of such petition approval, or DHS confirmation... United States requiring employment of a person in a professional capacity consistent with NAFTA Chapter...

  10. A dynamic view on secrecy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Brenda; Broekhuizen, Thijs L. J.; de Faria, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The current study provides a literature review on secrecy as mechanism for appropriating value from innovation. It synthesizes previous findings into a framework that can explain the advantages of exercising secrecy versus patenting. It also examines the management lifecycle of secrecy.

  11. Bringing Secrecy into the Open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings into focus the concept of organizational secrecy, defined as the ongoing formal and informal social processes of intentional concealment of information from actors by actors in organizations. It is argued that existing literature on the topic is fragmented and predominantly...

  12. About a competence and professional trade of specialists in the field of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobyanin F.I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation of concepts «competence» and «professional trade» is examined. More than 200 sources are studied. The necessity of account for training of athletic personnels of professional fitness and value of professional trade becomes firmly established as to the ultimate goal of forming of specialist in the field of physical culture. Negative tendencies are exposed in maintenance of preparation of specialists and higher professional athletic education in the higher institutes. Culturological and acmeological approach is offered for further strategy of perfection of professional pedagogical preparation of specialists. The stages of forming of specialist are presented on the basis of application of this approach. A necessity is marked at training of personnels oriented on the exposure of features of professional fitness of young people to the professions in the field of physical culture, its initial state and dynamics.

  13. Rationalities in Trade Union Practices: A Discourse Analytic Perspective on The Strategies of Three Danish Trade Unions for Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Buch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this paper is to analyze the discursive practices of three Danish trade unions for professional and managerial staff as found in their strategy and position papers. Using discourse analytic methods, the paper analyzes, discusses, and compares the strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation clarifies the discursive premises of the unions and it shows how these premises restrain and afford their agendas. The overall purpose of the paper is to investigate and describe the dominant logics and rationalities that shape the documents and to point to their limits and bounds. Through an archaeological investigation, the paper critically examines the implicit and tacit naturalizations made in the documents and reveals the ideological presuppositions of the discursive practices of the authors. The paper documents how “strategic management” has become an integral part of Danish trade unions practices and the paper sets out to discuss this trend in relation to the general neo-liberal decentering of the “social” and promotion of “community” as the locus of governance. Through examples from the practices of the Danish trade unions for professionals, the paper substantiates how new technologies of governance and the subjectification of union members as “customers” tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of “political actors” to “service providers” in the advanced liberal societies.

  14. The End of Bank Secrecy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    During the financial crisis, G20 countries compelled tax havens to sign bilateral treaties providing for exchange of bank information. Policymakers have celebrated this global initiative as the end of bank secrecy. Exploiting a unique panel dataset, our study is the first attempt to assess how...... the treaties affected bank deposits in tax havens. Rather than repatriating funds, our results suggest that tax evaders shifted deposits to havens not covered by a treaty with their home country. The crackdown thus caused a relocation of deposits at the benefit of the least compliant havens. We discuss...

  15. 19 CFR 10.36 - Commercial travelers' samples; professional equipment and tools of trade; theatrical effects and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commercial travelers' samples; professional equipment and tools of trade; theatrical effects and other... extension. (d) The privilege of clearance of commercial travelers' samples or professional equipment, tools... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial travelers' samples; professional...

  16. Statistical secrecy and multibit commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Pedersen, Torben P.; Pfitzmann, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    We present and compare definitions of "statistically hiding" protocols, and we propose a novel statistically hiding commitment scheme. Informally, a protocol statistically hides a secret if a computationally unlimited adversary who conducts the protocol with the owner of the secret learns almost...... nothing about it. One definition is based on the L1-norm distance between probability distributions, the other on information theory. We prove that the two definitions are essentially equivalent. We also show that statistical counterparts of definitions of computational secrecy are essentially equivalent...... to our main definitions. Commitment schemes are an important cryptologic primitive. Their purpose is to commit one party to a certain value, while hiding this value from the other party until some later time. We present a statistically hiding commitment scheme allowing commitment to many bits...

  17. Is secrecy a barrier for intelligence studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck BULINGE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles aims to highlight the issues, challenges and constraints of intelligence studies considering the notion of cryptic space, understood as a “secret space of communication within which the individual is exempt from the requirements and constraints of secrecy “(Bulinge, 2002. This article aims to highlight two ways for social research in the field of intelligence. In particular, we will show that the multiple dimensions of information can be addressed by researchers without prejudice to the constraints related to the preservation of secrecy. In other words, secrecy as a part of intelligence is not a barrier for intelligence studies.

  18. ARQ Secrecy: From Theory to Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Omar, Yara; Gamal, Hesham El

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by our earlier work on Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ) secrecy, we propose a simple, yet efficient, security overlay protocol to existing 802.11 networks. Our work targets networks secured by the Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol because of its widespread use and vulnerability to a multitude of security threats. By exploiting the existing ARQ protocol in the 802.11 standard, our proposed opportunistic secrecy scheme is shown to defend against all known passive WEP attacks. Moreover, our implementation on the madwifi-ng driver is used to establish the achievability of a vanishing secrecy outage probability in several realistic scenarios.

  19. Cultural Aspects of Secrecy in Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradell-Lopez, Enric; Cavaller, Victor

    The main objective of this paper is to provide greater understanding of the nature of secrecy in firms. It presents an effort to develop some links between management of the secrecy and its relationship with culture. Using measures from Hofstede's work, we have linked some dimensions of national culture with CIS 3 UE survey database. The results show that some attributes of the culture as Masculinity and Uncertainty Avoidance have impact on the tendency of the firms for not to patent and maintain secrecy of their innovations.

  20. Mental illness stigma, secrecy and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, N; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Kilian, R; Müller, M; Rodgers, S; Xu, Z; Rössler, W; Rüsch, N

    2017-02-01

    Whether the public stigma associated with mental illness negatively affects an individual, largely depends on whether the person has been labelled 'mentally ill'. For labelled individuals concealing mental illness is a common strategy to cope with mental illness stigma, despite secrecy's potential negative consequences. In addition, initial evidence points to a link between stigma and suicidality, but quantitative data from community samples are lacking. Based on previous literature about mental illness stigma and suicidality, as well as about the potential influence of labelling processes and secrecy, a theory-driven model linking perceived mental illness stigma and suicidal ideation by a mediation of secrecy and hopelessness was established. This model was tested separately among labelled and unlabelled persons using data derived from a Swiss cross-sectional population-based study. A large community sample of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms was examined by interviews and self-report, collecting information on perceived stigma, secrecy, hopelessness and suicidal ideation. Participants who had ever used mental health services were considered as labelled 'mentally ill'. A descriptive analysis, stratified logistic regression models and a path analysis testing a three-path mediation effect were conducted. While no significant differences between labelled and unlabelled participants were observed regarding perceived stigma and secrecy, labelled individuals reported significantly higher frequencies of suicidal ideation and feelings of hopelessness. More perceived stigma was associated with suicidal ideation among labelled, but not among unlabelled individuals. In the path analysis, this link was mediated by increased secrecy and hopelessness. Results from this study indicate that among persons labelled 'mentally ill', mental illness stigma is a contributor to suicidal ideation. One explanation for this association is the relation perceived stigma has with

  1. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  2. Secrecy and Physicists: Intersections of Science and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftergood, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Physicists have been proponents as well as critics of government secrecy affecting their work. Enrico Fermi once wrote (in Physics Today) that ``Contrary to perhaps what is the most common belief about secrecy, secrecy was not started by generals, was not started by security officers, but was started by physicists.'' Yet Edward Teller, Frederick Seitz and others argued that secrecy in science and technology could profitably be reduced by 90% or more. Secrecy in physics is of course most pronounced in research related to nuclear weapons development. Though this is a longstanding concern it is still not a settled one. Disputes over nuclear weapons-related secrecy continue to resonate today as researchers and authors challenge the boundaries of official disclosure regarding the nuclear weapons enterprise. This paper will survey the current landscape of secrecy in science, and will discuss recent controversies involving publication of nuclear weapons physics, the infrastructure of nuclear research, and the prospects for secrecy reform. )

  3. Secrecy Gain: a Wiretap Lattice Code Design

    OpenAIRE

    Belfiore, Jean-Claude; Oggier, Frédérique

    2010-01-01

    We propose the notion of secrecy gain as a code design criterion for wiretap lattice codes to be used over an additive white Gaussian noise channel. Our analysis relies on the error probabilites of both the legitimate user and the eavesdropper. We focus on geometrical properties of lattices, described by their theta series, to characterize good wiretap codes.

  4. Silence and Memories of War: An Autoethnographic Exploration of Family Secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C

    2017-03-01

    A personal journey and a scientific challenge, this is an autoethnographic study about my own family's secrecy. I knew my grandfather had been a German prisoner of war during World War II. We all knew. But nobody talked about it. Then one day I decided I wanted to do systematic research on the issue of family secrecy around my grandfather's war experiences. Researching one's own family can be called autoethnography. It could be said that autoethnography is an approach to research that aims to describe and systemically analyze (graphy) personal experience (auto) to understand social and cultural phenomena (ethno). This scientific approach is quite new in the field of family therapy. This study has been an important personal quest, but it also led to important reflections on silences in families, on my own professional development, and on methodological issues concerning autoethnographical research. For one thing, it highlights some of the positive aspects of family secrecy and silences, and invites us-when confronted with family secrecy in clinical practice-to carefully consider the potential destructive and life-giving aspects of the silence. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  5. New public management and policies of secrecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise DEMAILLY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crossing a survey of literature in sociology of health and her own inquiries in the field of mental health, the author studies the historical change in policies of secrecy in health domains and specifically, in modern democracies, practical aporias opposing rights and duties to and towards secrecy, rights and duty to and towards transparency. The paper describes weakening of medical secret regarding legitimization of standards of transparency, coordination and evaluation supported by the New Public Management (NPM. Two forms of resistance against technocratic enforcement to publicizing are suggested. The first of these forms is the historical exception, nowadays vilified as out of date, of psychoanalysis bound to strict secret of the singular interview and building there a space for emancipation, preventing any governance of behavior by healthiness. The second one: some intentional and paradoxical break of secret can result in symbolic reversal against domination and shame.

  6. The relations between secrecy, rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; Van Assen, Marcel A L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two attachment-related variables on secrecy: rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness. We hypothesized that rejection sensitivity is positively associated with secrecy, and autonomy-connectedness negatively with rejection sensitivity and secrecy. These hypotheses were generally corroborated in a sample of 303 university students. Moreover, we found that autonomy-connectedness at least partly explained the association between rejection sensitivity and secrecy. Self-awareness was negatively related to secrecy, suggesting that being aware of what one needs and thinks and being able to realize one's needs in social interactions reduce the tendency to keep secrets. In addition, interesting gender effects were found suggesting that men have a higher tendency to have secrets than women after controlling for the effects of autonomy-connectedness and rejection sensitivity. Our findings deepen the insight into possible reasons behind established associations between rejection sensitivity and secrecy, and may have clinical implications.

  7. Circles of Confidence in Correspondence: Modeling Confidentiality and Secrecy in Knowledge Exchange Networks of Letters and Drawings in the Early Modern Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Charles; Weingart, Scott B; Spelt, Nils; Nellen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Science in the early modern world depended on openness in scholarly communication. On the other hand, a web of commercial, political, and religious conflicts required broad measures of secrecy and confidentiality; similar measures were integral to scholarly rivalries and plagiarism. This paper analyzes confidentiality and secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchange via letters and drawings. We argue that existing approaches to understanding knowledge exchange in early modern Europe--which focus on the Republic of Letters as a unified entity of corresponding scholars--can be improved upon by analyzing multilayered networks of communication. We describe a data model to analyze circles of confidence and cultures of secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchanges. Finally, we discuss the outcomes of a first experiment focusing on the question of how personal and professional/official relationships interact with confidentiality and secrecy, based on a case study of the correspondence of Hugo Grotius.

  8. Child abuse: does disclosing the fact have implications for medical secrecy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenendaal, E

    1993-01-01

    Violence in family relationships has a long history. In what form and how often it occurs may vary with the social environment. Public interest in these matters is still growing. When medical professionals are confronted with child abuse, they have to treat such knowledge confidentially. In this respect, medical secrecy is a major handicap to recording the number of cases of child abuse and to organizing efficient assistance. The Netherlands has tackled the dilemma by instituting the so-called Confidential Medical Centres dedicated to helping abused children. In this way, cases of child abuse can be pinpointed more efficiently and treated with more care, and the child's interests are allowed to prevail above medical secrecy.

  9. (Re-)reading medical trade catalogs: the uses of professional advertising in British medical practice, 1870-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how medical practitioners read, used, and experienced medical trade catalogs in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Britain. Reader responses to the catalog, a book-like publication promoting medical tools, appliances, and pharmaceuticals, have been chronically understudied, as have professional reading practices within medicine more generally. Yet, evidence suggests that clinicians frequently used the catalog and did so in three main ways: to order medical products, to acquire new information about these products, and to display their own product endorsements and product designs. The seemingly widespread nature of these practices demonstrates an individual and collective professional desire to improve medical practice and highlights the importance of studying professional reading practices in the cultural history of medicine.

  10. Secrecy, Simultaneous Discovery, and the Theory of Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weart, Spencer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the simultaneous discovery of the four-factor formula in various countries, the influence of secrecy in preventing the sharing of discovery, and the resultant direction in the development of nuclear reactor theory. (SL)

  11. On the Secrecy Capacity of MISO Visible Light Communication Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Arfaoui, Mohamed Amine

    2017-02-07

    We study the secrecy capacity of the multiple- input single-output (MISO) Gaussian wiretap visible light communication (VLC) channel. We study a typical VLC scenario with one transmitter, one legitimate receiver, and one eavesdropper. Specifically, we compute the achievable secrecy rate for various input signaling distributions, including the truncated generalized normal (TGN) and uniform distributions. The transmitter is equipped with multiple light sources, while the legitimate and unauthorized receivers are each equipped with a single photodetector. We analyze the achievable secrecy rates via transmit beamforming and artificial noise. In addition, both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming are considered. In the former case, the location of the eavesdropper is assumed to be known, whereas in the latter case, the location of the eavesdropper is unknown. Our numerical results show that the secrecy rate achieved by the TGN distribution is significantly improved as compared to those achieved by the truncated Gaussian and uniform distributions, for both zero-forcing beamforming and robust beamforming. We also derive an upper bound on the achievable secrecy capacity that we used to assess the closeness of the achievable secrecy rates to the derived bound.

  12. Feedback-Based Collaborative Secrecy Encoding over Binary Symmetric Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Amariucai, George

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a feedback scheme for transmitting secret messages between two legitimate parties, over an eavesdropped communication link. Relative to Wyner's traditional encoding scheme \\cite{wyner1}, our feedback-based encoding often yields larger rate-equivocation regions and achievable secrecy rates. More importantly, by exploiting the channel randomness inherent in the feedback channels, our scheme achieves a strictly positive secrecy rate even when the eavesdropper's channel is less noisy than the legitimate receiver's channel. All channels are modeled as binary and symmetric (BSC). We demonstrate the versatility of our feedback-based encoding method by using it in three different configurations: the stand-alone configuration, the mixed configuration (when it combines with Wyner's scheme \\cite{wyner1}), and the reversed configuration. Depending on the channel conditions, significant improvements over Wyner's secrecy capacity can be observed in all configurations.

  13. On Secrecy Performance of Mixed RF-FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-07-05

    In this work, we study the secrecy performance of a mixed radio frequency-free space optical (RF-FSO) transmission systems. All RF links experience Nakagami-m fading and the FSO link experiences the Gamma-Gamma fading. The effect of pointing error and two types of detection techniques (i.e., heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection) are considered. We derive closed-form expressions for lower bound of the secrecy outage probability (SOP) and exact average secrecy capacity (ASC). Furthermore, by utilizing the expansion of Meijer\\'s G-function, asymptotic results for SOP and ASC are derived when the electrical signal-to-noise ratio of the FSO link tends to infinity. Numerical and Monte-Carlo simulation results are provided to verify the accuracy of our proposed results.

  14. THE RIGHT TO SECRECY OF COMMUNICATIONS - SITUATIONS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Karovska-Andonovska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the basic elements of the right to secrecy of communications are presented. We analyzed the treatment of this fundamental right in international documents on human rights and in the constitutions of modern democracies. Also, we established the scope of protection of the confidentiality of certain types of communication. Moreover, we have identified the parts of the process of speech and written communication whose secrecy is protected in accordance with international standards. Special attention is devoted to the contemporary challenges facing the respect the secrecy of communications. In this regard, we analyzed the impact of the expansion of modern communication technologies on the confidentiality of communication. As a special challenge we analyzed the application of new methods for dealing with security threats on a national and global level, which among other things include interception of communications to collect information and evidence of involvement in criminal activities.

  15. Information Secrecy And Public-Key Cryptography | Mekuria | Zede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject and need of information secrecy with emphasis to the choice of fully using an already established public channel is to be discussed. Related histories and current achievements made in the area of information hiding, notable persons who changed the course of its progress from ancient times to this last ...

  16. Keeping Government Secrecy Safe: Beyond Whack-a-Mole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of secrecy as a mechanism for not providing government information, on the one hand, and the commitment to openness of government, on the other, reflect certain historical understandings of the relationship between a government, citizens, officials and information. Within democratic

  17. Keeping secrets from friends: Exploring the effects of friendship quality, loneliness and self-esteem on secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsano, Paola; Musetti, Alessandro; Caricati, Luca; Magnani, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    The tendency to keep secrets in adolescents has been studied in particular in their relationships with their parents and associated with psychosocial disadvantages. The current study focused on peer relationships and investigated the effects of friendship quality, loneliness in a multidimensional perspective, and self-esteem on secrecy from friends. Italian adolescents (N = 457; 47% male; 100% white) aged between 13 and 19 years (M = 16.11; SD = 1.53) reported their secrecy from friends, peer and parent-related loneliness, aversion and affinity for aloneness, their self-esteem and the quality of their relationships with their friends. The results showed that peer-related loneliness, affinity for aloneness and self-esteem in particular affect keeping secrets from friends, independent of the participant's gender. Moreover, peer-related loneliness and affinity for aloneness mediated the relationship between self-esteem and secrecy. The data were discussed in the light of adolescence developmental tasks. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-03

    States or to the advantage of a foreign government." His wife, Rosario , was also indicted for conspiracy under a separate provision of the Act, 18...sentenced to life imprisonment without parole and Rosario Ames to a five-year term. 151 Edgar and Schmidt, citing Morrison, The Protection of...professionals who assisted with secretarial and other administrative duties: Althea Castellano , Karen D. Smith, Deborah Seals, and Mary L. Lark. In addition to

  19. RFID Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Munilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RFID ownership transfer protocols (OTPs transfer tag ownership rights. Recently, there has been considerable interest in such protocols; however, guaranteeing privacy for symmetric-key settings without trusted third parties (TTPs is a challenge still unresolved. In this paper, we address this issue and show that it can be solved by using channels with positive secrecy capacity. We implement these channels with noisy tags and provide practical values, thus proving that perfect secrecy is theoretically possible. We then define a communication model that captures spatiotemporal events and describe a first example of symmetric-key based OTP that: (i is formally secure in the proposed communication model and (ii achieves privacy with a noisy tag wiretap channel without TTPs.

  20. THE RIGHT TO VOTE AND BREACH OF VOTING SECRECY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Florin GEAMĂNU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is meant to be a brief overview of the legal provisions concerning the right to vote, encompassing both the national provisions and the international standards. The scientific approach also includes the fixation of the standards in the field of the right to vote, as defined in the European Court of Human Rights case-law. Due attention will be granted to the provisions on the breach of voting secrecy, provided for in the current Criminal Code, which entered into force on the 1st of February 2014, as this piece of legislation regulates in a unified way the offence, applicable for any type of elections performed in Romania. The paper will focus, also, on the legislation of some European states, in order to assess the compatibility of the offence of breach of voting secrecy with similar offences in the legislation of other countries. To close with, the study will give some conclusions regarding the importance of the criminal punishment of the offence of breach of voting secrecy, as well as the conformity of this particular offence with the internationals standards.

  1. Secrecy Capacity Analysis over α−μ Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-02-15

    In this work, we study the secrecy capacity of the classic Wyner’s model over the α − μ fading channels, where α and μ specify the nonlinearity and clustering of fading channels, respectively. The average secrecy capacity (ASC) is derived in closed-form by using the extended generalized bivariate Fox’s Hfunction (EGBFHF). Moreover, the asymptotic analysis of ASC in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is conducted. The asymptotic results unveil that the ASC follows the scaling law of Θ(ln p), where p stands for the ratio between the average powers of main channels and eavesdropping channels. Moreover, the ASC can be enhanced by increasing the transmit SNR, while there exists a ceiling of ASC as the SNRs at both sides are improved simultaneously. The accuracy of the analytical results is validated by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results show that rigorous fading channels are beneficial to the secrecy performance, that is, serious nonlinearity (small α) and sparse clustering (small μ) will lead to the improvement of ASC.

  2. Secrecy Capacity of a Class of Orthogonal Relay Eavesdropper Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaneet Aggarwal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The secrecy capacity of relay channels with orthogonal components is studied in the presence of an additional passive eavesdropper node. The relay and destination receive signals from the source on two orthogonal channels such that the destination also receives transmissions from the relay on its channel. The eavesdropper can overhear either one or both of the orthogonal channels. Inner and outer bounds on the secrecy capacity are developed for both the discrete memoryless and the Gaussian channel models. For the discrete memoryless case, the secrecy capacity is shown to be achieved by a partial decode-and-forward (PDF scheme when the eavesdropper can overhear only one of the two orthogonal channels. Two new outer bounds are presented for the Gaussian model using recent capacity results for a Gaussian multiantenna point-to-point channel with a multiantenna eavesdropper. The outer bounds are shown to be tight for two subclasses of channels. The first subclass is one in which the source and relay are clustered, and the eavesdropper receives signals only on the channel from the source and the relay to the destination, for which the PDF strategy is optimal. The second is a subclass in which the source does not transmit to the relay, for which a noise-forwarding strategy is optimal.

  3. How much is Banking Secrecy worth? The case of Swiss Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    We use an early episode of negotiations between Switzerland and the European Union to investigate the value of banking secrecy for four Swiss banks: two universal banks and two private banks. We nd that the value of banking secrecy to private banks is large, accounting for at least 8 to 14% of their market value. Perhaps surprisingly, banking secrecy appears to account for only a very small fraction of the market value of the universal banks.

  4. Secrecy and Democracy: The Conflict between American Ideals and American Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    secrecy begins1 — Hannah Arendt , The Burden of our Time) INTRODUCTION The United States was born in secrecy. In 1787, the Constitutional Convention...secrecy and transparency, privacy and publicity, that undermines 1Hannah Arendt , The Burden of our Time (London: Secker and Warburg, 1951), 386...from the government in order to assuage suspicions about legitimacy and credibility. 86Hannah Arendt , “Lying In Politics: Reflections on the Pentagon

  5. Children's Disclosure and Secrecy: Links to Maternal Parenting Characteristics and Children's Coping Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…

  6. The mediating role of secrecy in the development of psychopathology in sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Clasien De Schipper, J; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Visser, Margreet M

    2015-08-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychopathology, limited research examined mechanisms through which CSA leads to psychopathology in children. It is generally assumed that CSA is associated with secrecy among children, to our knowledge this assumption has not yet been empirically tested. This gap in our understanding of the aftermath of CSA is surprising in light of abundant evidence linking secrecy to psychopathology among children. The current study examined whether, as compared to children who have not experienced CSA, CSA victims have a greater tendency for secrecy as reported by mothers and children, and whether psychopathology in CSA victims may be explained by their tendency to keep secrets. Sixty-three non-offending mothers and their sexually abused children (68.3% female; M age=10.89) and 48 mothers and their non-abused children (62.5% female; M age=11.17) completed questionnaires on secrecy and psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Mothers of abused children perceived higher levels of secrecy and psychopathology in their children as compared to mothers of non-abused children. There were no differences in child-reported secrecy between abused and non-abused children. Mediation analyses revealed that mother-reported secrecy mediated the association between CSA and psychopathology. These findings suggest that secrecy is a potential mechanism underlying psychopathology associated with CSA, which has important implications for treatment of abused children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Heterogeneity and Secrecy on the Capacity of Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuming; Yu, Li; Liu, Zuhao; Zheng, Jun

    2015-12-10

    This paper investigates the achievable secrecy throughput of an inhomogeneous wireless sensor network. We consider the impact of topology heterogeneity and the secrecy constraint on the throughput. For the topology heterogeneity, by virtue of percolation theory, a set of connected highways and information pipelines is established; while for the secrecy constraint, the concept of secrecy zone is adopted to ensure secrecy transmission. The secrecy zone means there is no eavesdropper around the legitimate node. The results demonstrate that, if the eavesdropper's intensity is λ(e)= o((log n)(-(3δ-4)/(δ-2))), a per-node secrecy rate of Ω [formula: see text] can be achieved on the highways, where δ is the exponent of heterogeneity, n and n(v) represent the number of nodes and clusters in the network, respectively. It is also shown that, with the density of the eavesdropper λ(e) = o((log(n Φ ̲ ))(-2)), the per-node secrecy rate of Ω (√(Φ ̲ /n)) can be obtained in the information pipelines, where Φ ̲ denotes the minimum node density in the network.

  8. Impact of Heterogeneity and Secrecy on theCapacity of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuming Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the achievable secrecy throughput of an inhomogeneous wireless sensor network. We consider the impact of topology heterogeneity and the secrecy constraint on the throughput. For the topology heterogeneity, by virtue of percolation theory, a set of connected highways and information pipelines is established; while for the secrecy constraint, the concept of secrecy zone is adopted to ensure secrecy transmission. The secrecy zone means there is no eavesdropper around the legitimate node. The results demonstrate that, if the eavesdropper’s intensity is λe= o log n - 3 δ - 4 δ - 2 , a per-node secrecy rate of Ω 1 n 1 - v ( 1 - v log n can be achieved on the highways, where δ is the exponent of heterogeneity, n and n v represent the number of nodes and clusters in the network, respectively. It is also shown that, with the density of the eavesdropper λ e = o log n Φ ̲ - 2 , the per-node secrecy rate of Ω Φ ̲ n can be obtained in the information pipelines, where Φ ̲ denotes the minimum node density in the network.

  9. 12 CFR 741.214 - Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. 741.214 Section 741.214 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... Unions § 741.214 Report of crime or catastrophic act and Bank Secrecy Act compliance. Any credit union...

  10. 75 FR 79440 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Representatives--Banking (2 vacancies). Industry Representatives--Securities/Futures (1 vacancy). Organizations... Bank Secrecy Act, 31 CFR part 103 et seq. (future 31 CFR part 1000 et seq.) or Section 6050I of the... its involvement with the Bank Secrecy Act, 31 CFR part 103 et seq. (future 31 CFR part 1000 et seq...

  11. Secrecy, ostentation, and the illustration of exotic animals in sixteenth-century Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Palmira Fontes

    2009-01-01

    During the first decades of the sixteenth century, several animals described and viewed as exotic by the Europeans were regularly shipped from India to Lisbon. This paper addresses the relevance of these 'new' animals to knowledge and visual representations of the natural world. It discusses their cultural and scientific meaning in Portuguese travel literature of the period as well as printed illustrations, charts and tapestries. This paper suggests that Portugal did not make the most of its unique position in bringing news and animals from Asia. This was either because secrecy associated with trade and military interests hindered the diffusion of illustrations presented in Portuguese travel literature or because the illustrations commissioned by the nobility were represented on expensive media such as parchments and tapestries and remained treasured possessions. However, the essay also proposes that the Portuguese contributed to a new sense of the experience and meaning of nature and that they were crucial mediators in access to new knowledge and new ways of representing the natural world during this period.

  12. Secrecy vs. the need for ecological information: challenges to environmental activism in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, T

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the lessons learned from the Nikitin case study in Russia. The Nikitin case involves the analysis of sources of radioactive contamination in several Russian counties and in the Russian Northern Fleet. Norway was interested in the issue due to proximity to the storage sites. The issue involved national security and environmental protection. It was learned that mixing national security issues with environmental issues offers dangerous and multiple challenges. Environmental groups must build relationships with a wide audience. International security policy must include the issues of globalization of trade and the spread of environmental problems into the global commons (oceans and atmosphere). The risk of an environmentally dangerous accident as a consequence of Cold War activities is greater than the risk of nuclear war. Secrecy in military affairs is not justified when there is inadequate storage of nuclear weapons and contaminated materials. In Russia, the concern is great due to their economic transition and shortages of funds for even the most basic needs, which excludes nuclear waste clean up. The Bellona Foundation studied the extent of nuclear pollution from military nuclear reactors in the Kola peninsula of northwest Russia, in 1994 and 1996. Russian security police arrested one of the report authors for alleged national security violations. A valuable lesson learned was that local Russian environmental groups needed international support. The military nuclear complex poses an enormous hazard. Limiting inspections is an unacceptable national security risk. The new Russian law on state secrets is too broad.

  13. The effect on turnout of campaign mobilization messages addressing ballot secrecy concerns: A replication experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Alan S; Huber, Gregory A; Fang, Albert H; Reardon, Catlan E

    2017-01-01

    Given the persistence of public doubts about the integrity of ballot secrecy, which depress turnout, two prior experiments have shown precise evidence that both official governmental and unofficial mobilization campaigns providing assurances about ballot secrecy increase turnout among recently registered nonvoters. To assess whether these findings replicate in other political settings, we describe a replication experiment where a non-governmental, non-partisan mobilization campaign sent similar treatment mailings containing assurances about ballot secrecy protections to recently registered nonvoters during the 2014 general election in Mississippi. We find that sending this mailer has no effect on turnout rates in this setting, which is characterized by an unusually low baseline turnout rate. These results are consistent with past research concluding that nonpartisan Get Out The Vote (GOTV) mail has very weak effects among very low turnout propensity registrants, and suggest that there are heterogeneous effects of ballot secrecy treatments associated with subjects' characteristics and the electoral context.

  14. Big yellow taxi, or, unhealthy terms of trade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    International trade agreements, including the General Agreement on Trade in Services, are central elements of globalization. These agreements are likely to have significant implications for population health in rich nations such as Australia as well as in the developing world. But the technical language of the legal agreements and the comparative secrecy of the negotiations and approval procedures make it difficult for most people to be adequately informed about them. Australian public health academics and practitioners must become better informed and more pro-active in their approach to 'free trade' if Australia's public health infrastructure is to be protected from potential legal erosion.

  15. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  16. On the ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel under imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-11-01

    The ergodic secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel is known when the main channel (between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) state information (CSI) is perfect at the transmitter and the coherence period is sufficiently large to enable random coding arguments in each block. In a fast fading scenario, when the codeword length spans many coherence periods, the secrecy capacity is still not known. In this paper, we present a framework that characterizes this secrecy capacity under imperfect main channel estimation at the transmitter. Inner and outer bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate is a simple on-off scheme using a Gaussian input. The upper bound is obtained using an appropriate correlation scheme of the main and the eavesdropper channels. The upper and the lower bounds coincide with recently derived ones in the perfect main CSI extreme. Furthermore, the lower bound matches the upper bound in no main CSI extreme, where the secrecy capacity is equal to zero. Numerical results are provided for independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. On the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with imperfect main channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-10-01

    We study the secrecy capacity of fast fading channels under imperfect main channel (between the transmitter and the legitimate receiver) estimation at the transmitter. Lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity are derived for a class of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) fading channels. The achievable rate follows from a standard wiretap code in which a simple on-off power control is employed along with a Gaussian input. The upper bound is obtained using an appropriate correlation scheme of the main and eavesdropper channels and is the best known upper bound so far. The upper and lower bounds coincide with recently derived ones in case of perfect main CSI. Furthermore, the upper bound is tight in case of no main CSI, where the secrecy capacity is equal to zero. Asymptotic analysis at high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is also given. At high SNR, we show that the capacity is bounded by providing upper and lower bounds that depend on the channel estimation error. At low SNR, however, we prove that the secrecy capacity is asymptotically equal to the capacity of the main channel as if there were no secrecy constraint. Numerical results are provided for i.i.d. Rayleigh fading channels.

  18. On the Secrecy Capacity Region of the Block-Fading BCC with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2017-02-07

    In this work, we examine the secrecy capacity region of the block-fading broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCC) when the transmitter has limited knowledge of the channel. In particular, we consider a two-user communication system where the transmitter has one common message to be transmitted to both users and one confidential message intended to only one of them. The confidential message has to be kept secret from the other user to whom the information is not intended. The transmitter is not aware of the channel state information (CSI) of neither channel and is only provided by limited CSI feedback sent at the beginning of each fading block. Assuming an error-free feedback link, we characterize the secrecy capacity region of this channel and show that even with a 1-bit CSI feedback, a positive secrecy rate can still be achieved. Then, we look at the case where the feedback link is not error- free and is rather a binary erasure channel (BEC). In the latter case, we provide an achievable secrecy rate region and show that as long as the erasure event is not a probability 1 event, the transmitter can still transmit the confidential information with a positive secrecy rate.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Restatement of Torts Section 757, Comment b

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims Pt. 350, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 350—Restatement of..., communicate it to employees involved in its use. He may likewise communicate it to others pledged to secrecy...

  20. Conflict, famine and the arms trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, F

    1995-01-01

    Armed conflict has had horrendous humanitarian effects, causing 22 million deaths, over 80 per cent of them civilian, since 1945 and resulting today in 19 million refugees and 24 million displaced persons. War results in economic collapse, and high levels of military spending decrease regional stability. Benefits to the producers are limited or negative and developed countries should diversify away from arms production. There is a need for greater awareness in the developed countries, an end to the secrecy besetting the arms trade, and restructuring of the industry. A Code of Conduct governing arms exports is proposed.

  1. Secrecy performance analysis of SIMO underlay cognitive radio systems with outdated CSI

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-06-13

    This study investigates the secrecy outage performance of a single-input multiple-output underlay cognitive radio network (CRN) with outdated channel state information (CSI). The confidential messages are transmitted from transmitter to the destination, while a multi-antenna eavesdropper exists. The maximal ratio combining and selection combining schemes are utilised at the receivers to improve the quality of the received signal-to-noise ratio. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of secrecy outage probability are derived, and simulation results are provided to verify the authors\\' proposed analytical results. The results reveal that imperfect CSI of main channels deteriorates the secrecy outage performance while that of eavesdropping and interfering channels has contrary effect, and only a unity diversity order can be obtained in underlay CRNs with imperfect CSI.

  2. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with limited CSI feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2016-10-27

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of secure broadcasting over block-fading channels with limited channel knowledge at the transmitter. More particularly, we analyze the effect of having imperfect channel state information (CSI) via a finite rate feedback on the throughput of a broadcast channel where the transmission is intended for multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper. First, we partially characterize the ergodic secrecy capacity of the system when the source broadcasts the same information to all the receivers, i.e., common message transmission. Then, we look at the independent messages case, where the transmitter broadcasts multiple independent messages to the legitimate receivers. For this case, we present lower and upper bounds on the ergodic secrecy sum-capacity. In both scenarios, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback links becomes large, hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  3. On the Secrecy Capacity of the Multiple-Antenna Wiretap Channel with Limited CSI Feedback

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2015-12-01

    We study the ergodic secrecy capacity of a block fading wiretap channel when there are multiple antennas at the transmitter, the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. We consider that the receivers are aware of their respective channel matrices while the transmitter is only provided by a B-bits feedback of the main channel state information. The feedback bits are sent by the legitimate receiver, at the beginning of each fading block, over an error free public link with limited capacity. Assuming an average transmit power constraint, we provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity. Then, we present a framework to design the optimal codebooks for feedback and transmission. In addition, we show that the proposed lower and upper bounds coincide asymptotically as the capacity of the feedback link becomes large; hence, fully characterizing the secrecy capacity in this case.

  4. On the secrecy capacity of the broadcast wiretap channel with imperfect channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Hyadi, Amal

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we consider secure broadcasting over fast fading channels. Assuming imperfect main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, we first provide an upper and a lower bounds on the ergodic secrecy capacity when a common message is broadcasted to multiple legitimate receivers in the presence of one eavesdropper. For this case, we show that the secrecy rate is limited by the legitimate receiver having, on average, the worst main channel link. Then, we present an expression for the achievable secrecy sum-rate when each legitimate receiver is interested in an independent message. The special cases of high SNR, perfect and no-main CSI are also analyzed. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the obtained results for the case of independent but not necessarily identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels.

  5. Improved achievable secrecy rate of visible light communication with cooperative jamming

    KAUST Repository

    Zaid, Hajar

    2016-02-25

    In this paper we study the problem of securing a visible light communication (VLC) link against passive eavesdropping, with the help of a (friendly) jammer. Differently from radio frequency (RF) communications, VLC imposes a peak amplitude constraint on the input distribution which renders Gaussian inputs not admissible. We provide an achievable secrecy rate that improves upon a recently established one in a concurrent work by Mostafa and Lampe. Our scheme follows from both the secrecy capacity result by Wyner and the artificial noise scheme by Goel and Negi, but using truncated Gaussian input distributions instead of uniform ones. Via numerical results, we show that our secrecy rate outperforms the concurrent rate in different settings. © 2015 IEEE.

  6. Efecto directo del PH sobre la secreción de hormona paratiroidea

    OpenAIRE

    López Villalba, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Debido a los diversos efectos que las alteraciones del equilibrio ácido-base (acidosis y alcalosis) ejercen sobre el metabolismo mineral, no se ha establecido aún si los cambios en el pH del medio interno afectan directamente la secreción de PTH. Los objetivos de esta tesis han sido determinar si la acidosis y alcalosis agudas: 1, Afectan directamente a la secreción de PTH 2, Modifican la respuesta de PTH a la hipocalcemia 3, Alteran el metabolismos de la PTH 4, producen efectos sobre la PTH ...

  7. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading...

  8. Distributed Matching Algorithms: Maximizing Secrecy in the Presence of Untrusted Relay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a secrecy sum-rate maximization based matching algorithm between primary transmitters and secondary cooperative jammers in the presence of an eavesdropper. More explicitly, we consider an untrusted relay scenario, where the relay is a potential eavesdropper. We first show the achievable secrecy regions employing a friendly jammer in a cooperative scenario with employing an untrusted relay. Then, we provide results for the secrecy regions for two scenarios, where in the first case we consider no direct transmission between the source and the destination, while in the second case we include a source to destination direct link in our communication system. Furthermore, a friendly jammer helps to send a noise signal during the first phase of the cooperative transmission, for securing the information transmitted from the source. In our matching algorithm, the selected cooperative jammer or the secondary user, is rewarded with the spectrum allocation for a fraction of time slot from the source which is the primary user. The Conventional Distributed Algorithm (CDA and the Pragmatic Distributed Algorithm (PDA, which were originally designed for maximising the user’s sum rate, are modified and adapted for maximizing the secrecy sum-rate for the primary user. Instead of assuming perfect modulation and/or perfect channel coding, we have also investigated our proposed schemes when practical channel coding and modulation schemes are invoked.

  9. The Mediating Role of Secrecy in The Development of Psychopathology in Sexually Abused Children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delft, I.; Finkenauer, C.; de Schipper, J.C.; Lamers, F.; Visser, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychopathology, limited research examined mechanisms through which CSA leads to psychopathology in children. It is generally assumed that CSA is associated with secrecy among children, to our knowledge this assumption has not yet been empirically

  10. 75 FR 19241 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... 31 CFR Part 103 RIN 1506-AA93 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining Mutual Funds as Financial Institutions. AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... systems currently in place, the size of the mutual fund complex, and how the mutual fund shares are...

  11. 76 FR 18365 - Fair Credit Reporting Act and Bank Secrecy Act Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the finding and a brief statement... and comment procedures prescribed by the APA are unnecessary because the final rule makes technical..., and the FFIEC Bank Secrecy Act/Anti-Money Laundering Examination Manual. (iii) Compliance. Failure to...

  12. A Sketch of Modern Cryptology-The Art and Science of Secrecy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 9. A Sketch of Modern Cryptology - The Art and Science of Secrecy Systems. Palash Sarkar. General Article Volume 5 Issue 9 September 2000 pp 22-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. What mom and dad don't know can hurt you: adolescent disclosure to and secrecy from parents about type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Peter; Berg, Cynthia A; Hughes, Amy E; Pham, Phung; Wiebe, Deborah J

    2013-03-01

    To examine how adolescent disclosure to and secrecy from parents were related to parental knowledge of diabetes management behaviors, and to adolescent adherence, metabolic control, and depressive symptoms. A total of 183 adolescents with type 1 diabetes reported on disclosure to and secrecy from parents regarding diabetes management, adherence behaviors, depressive symptoms, and perceptions of parental knowledge. Mothers and fathers reported on their own knowledge. Adolescent disclosure was associated with all reporters' perceptions of knowledge. Secrecy from both parents moderated the relationship between disclosure and adherence, and secrecy from fathers moderated the relationship between disclosure to fathers and glycosylated hemoglobin level. In all cases, disclosure was associated with better diabetes management only when secrecy was low. Finally, higher secrecy related to greater adolescent depressive symptoms. Disclosure to parents appears to be an important component of how parents get their knowledge about adolescents' diabetes management, but may be most beneficial for diabetes management when it occurs together with low secrecy.

  14. Secrecy in the collection and mediation practices of two World Wars objects: lessons from a shared survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie DA LAGE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on secrecy, observed through the collection and mediation practices of two World Wars objects. The first part of this article examines secrecy through the prism of a survey conducted, on the one hand, by the collector to uncover the secret of the object, and, on the other hand, by us to uncover the secret of its collection. The second part of this contribution focuses on secrecy in the mediation practices of collectors and on the process of revelation and concealment of certain aspects of the exhibits, characterizing those practices. Some reflections on the communication of the results of our personal research are also presented.

  15. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  16. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  17. The future of the banking secrecy for Swiss taxpayers in the light of the evolution of the international financial standards

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Alix; Matile, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Swiss banking secrecy used to be a quirk of Swiss law that went largely untouched until recent times. Recently through high profile, year-long pressure by governments the world over, this secrecy, which had shielded account owners from declaring their financial assets and thus, taxable income, was partly dismantled. This oddity in Swiss law was always a hot button issue for many governments around the world, and lately came to the forefront of discussion for change in front of the Swiss gover...

  18. Interference Neutralization vs Clean Relaying in Cognitive Radio Networks with Secrecy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsun Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study cognitive radio networks with secrecy constraints on the primary transmission. In particular we consider several transmission schemes for the secondary transmitter, namely interference neutralization (IN and cooperative jamming with and without clean relaying (CR. We derive and analyze the achievable secondary rate performance of the schemes. Furthermore we thoroughly investigate the advantages and shortcomings of these schemes through numerical simulations in a geometric model where we highlight the impact of the users’ locations and show the important difference in all schemes depending on the topology. Our results show that the secondary transmitter can successfully adapt its transmission scheme (and parameters, i.e., either IN or CR, depending on its location to maximize its rate while insuring perfect secrecy of the primary transmission.

  19. On the Secrecy Degrees of Freedom with Full-Duplex Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    and the delay reduction of full duplex communication are somewhat limited in realistic network settings, leading researchers to study other possible applications of full duplex communication which can provide significantly higher gains over half duplex communication. Physical layer security is an example...... of such an application. The potential of full duplex nodes in improving the physical layer security of a communication link is investigated in this contribution. We specifically derive the information theoretic secrecy degrees of freedom measure for a pair of nodes communicating in full duplex mode. Moreover, closed...... form expressions for the instantaneous and ergodic throughput gain of full duplex communication over conventional half duplex is derived. The secrecy degrees of freedom with full duplex is shown to be two as opposed to that of zero in half duplex mode....

  20. Cooperative jamming power control to enhance secrecy communications of AF Relaying systems for Rayleigh fading channel

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate secrecy communications in two-hop wireless relaying networks which consist of one source, one amplify-and-forward (AF) relay, one legitimate destination, and one eavesdropper. To prevent the eavesdropper from intercepting the source message, we make the destination send the intended noise to the AF relay during the first phase. This is referred to as cooperative jamming. According to the channel information at the destination, we address two types of jamming power allocation; (i) rate-optimal power allocation and (ii) outage-optimal power allocation. More specifically, without the instantaneous channel knowledge for the eavesdropper side, the outage probability of the secrecy rate is minimized with respect to the intended noise power level. We show that the outage-optimal allocation gives almost the same outage probability as the rateoptimal one. In addition, the jamming power consumption can be significantly reduced compared to the fixed and rate-optimal power allocation methods. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Secrecy Performance Analysis of Cognitive Sensor Radio Networks with an EH-Based Eavesdropper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aiwei; Liang, Tao; Li, Bolun

    2017-05-04

    Security and privacy are crucial for cognitive sensor radio networks (CSRNs) due to the possible eavesdropping between secondary sensors and the secondary fusion center. Motivated by this observation, we investigate the physical layer security performance of CSRNs with an external energy harvesting (EH)-based eavesdropper. Considering the underlay working paradigm of CSRNs, the transmit power of the secondary sensor node must be adjusted to guarantee the quality-of-service ( Q o S ) of the primary user. Hence, two different interference power constraint scenarios are studied in this paper. To give an intuitive insight into the secrecy performance of the considered wiretap scenarios, we have derived the closed-form analytical expressions of secrecy outage probability for both of the considered cases. Monte Carlo simulation results are also performed to verify the theoretical analysis derived, and show the effect of various parameters on the system performance.

  2. Secrecy Dimming Capacity in Multi-LED PAM-Based Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Wook Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, mobile cloud computing (MCC has gained a lot of interest for researchers building the next-generation mobile applications. Because unauthorized access may cause serious problems, security and privacy with MCC have become significant issues. This paper addresses the secrecy dimming capacity of secure transmission in MCC over visible light communication (VLC channels. By obtaining the entropy-maximizing symbol probability of multiple light emitting diode- (LED- based pulse amplitude modulation (PAM, mathematical analysis of the secrecy dimming capacity of VLC was derived. Simulation results show that the secure transmission ability of multi-LED-based VLC is determined according to the number of activated LEDs and target dimming level. This can be a guideline for practical VLC-based mobile network designers intending to secure wireless transmission and to decide on the number of activated LEDs at target dimming level to operate.

  3. Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Carsten; Riezman, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the most significant recent developments in the theory of trade agreements. The paper offers an integrated approach to evaluating trade agreements, and uses the approach to present results on preferential and multilateral trade agreements. The paper identifies also several questions for further research.

  4. EU Institutional Politics of Secrecy and Transparency in Foreign Affairs: A Commentary

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Emily

    2017-01-01

    International diplomacy has long been regarded as the domain of an elite hand-picked few, instructed and groomed in something considered an art form. Both the secrecy and the pomp have their rational place. Political interventions from regime change through to more standard economic and social challenges cue both subtle and dramatic shifts in relationships and alignments and diplomats must rightly handle such situations with great delicacy. Premature or too much public disclosure about diplom...

  5. EU Institutional Politics of Secrecy and Transparency in Foreign Affairs (Editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Vigjilenca; Adriaensen, Johan

    2017-01-01

    This thematic issue shows how the interplays of secrecy and transparency have been a salient driver of institutional politics in EU foreign affairs. It offers a critical reading of the most recent developments in EU’s international negotiations, an analysis of case law and empirical insights on public and institutional access to information. The Issue provides an interdisciplinary understanding of how information flows affect and are affect by the EU’s institutional balance through synergisin...

  6. An Optimal Joint User Association and Power Allocation Algorithm for Secrecy Information Transmission in Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, heterogeneous radio access technologies have experienced rapid development and gradually achieved effective coordination and integration, resulting in heterogeneous networks (HetNets. In this paper, we consider the downlink secure transmission of HetNets where the information transmission from base stations (BSs to legitimate users is subject to the interception of eavesdroppers. In particular, we stress the problem of joint user association and power allocation of the BSs. To achieve data transmission in a secure and energy efficient manner, we introduce the concept of secrecy energy efficiency which is defined as the ratio of the secrecy transmission rate and power consumption of the BSs and formulate the problem of joint user association and power allocation as an optimization problem which maximizes the joint secrecy energy efficiency of all the BSs under the power constraint of the BSs and the minimum data rate constraint of user equipment (UE. By equivalently transforming the optimization problem into two subproblems, that is, power allocation subproblem and user association subproblem of the BSs, and applying iterative method and Kuhn-Munkres (K-M algorithm to solve the two subproblems, respectively, the optimal user association and power allocation strategies can be obtained. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms previously proposed algorithms.

  7. An Ethical Analysis of Regulating Insider Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, P. J.; Liedekerke, L.

    Although there seems to be a broad consensus to prohibit insider trading among supervising authorities and market professionals, the debate on insider trading has not settled definitively. We introduce a distinction between insider trading and market manipulation on the one hand and corporate

  8. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  9. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  10. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  11. On self-boundary: a study of the development of the concept of secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, R; Orlay, W

    1988-12-01

    The child's developing concept of a 'boundary' between an inner world of 'self' and an outer world 'non-self' is central to a number of systems of psychodynamic theory. The notion of boundary is also essential to Piaget. Despite the evident importance of the subject, there have been few attempts to discover the age at which this concept emerges. This study of 40 urban Australian children uses the development of the concept of secrecy as a marker. Most children attained this concept during the fifth year of life.

  12. The End of Bank Secrecy? An Evaluation of the G20 Tax Haven Crackdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels; Zucman, Gabriel

    During the ¿nancial crisis, G20 countries compelled tax havens to sign bilateral treaties providing for exchange of bank information. Policymakers have celebrated this global initiative as the end of bank secrecy. Exploiting a unique panel dataset, we study how the treaties a¿ected bank deposits...... in tax havens. Most tax evaders, our results suggest, did not respond to the treaties. A minority responded by transferring deposits to havens not covered by a treaty. Overall, the G20 tax haven crackdown caused a modest relocation of deposits between havens but no signi¿cant repatriation of funds...

  13. On the secrecy capacity of the MISO wiretap channel under imperfect channel estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2014-12-01

    We consider a wiretap channel consisting of a source with multiple antennas, a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper with a single antenna each. The channels between the source and the receivers undergo fast fading. We assume that the transmitter, in addition to the statistics of both channels, is only aware of a noisy version of the CSI to the legitimate receiver referred to as main channel. The legitimate receiver is aware of both its instantaneous channel gain and the transmitter\\'s estimate of the main channel. On the other hand, the eavesdropper\\'s receiver, in addition to its instantaneous channel realization, is aware of the actual main CSI and the transmitter\\'s estimate as well. While the capacity of this channel is still open even with perfect CSI at the transmitter, we provide in this paper upper and lower bounds on the secrecy capacity. The upper bound is tighter than the one corresponding to perfect main CSI and the gap between the two upper bounds is characterized in function of the channel estimation error variance, at high-SNR. Furthermore, we show that our upper and lower bounds coincide in the case of no main CSI providing a trivial secrecy capacity.

  14. Key Generation Using External Source Excitation: Capacity, Reliability, and Secrecy Exponent

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Tzu-Han; Sayeed, Akbar M

    2011-01-01

    We study the fundamental limits to secret key generation from an excited distributed source (EDS). In an EDS a pair of terminals observe dependent sources of randomness excited by a pre-arranged signal. We first determine the secret key capacity for such systems with one-way public messaging. We then characterize a tradeoff between the secret key rate and exponential bounds on the probability of key agreement failure and on the secrecy of the key generated. We find that there is a fundamental tradeoff between reliability and secrecy. We then explore this framework within the context of reciprocal wireless channels. In this setting, the users transmit pre-arranged excitation signals to each other. When the fading is Rayleigh, the observations of the users are jointly Gaussian sources. We show that an on-off excitation signal with an SNR-dependent duty cycle achieves the secret key capacity of this system. Furthermore, we characterize a fundamental metric -- minimum energy per key bit for reliable key generatio...

  15. Origen e importancia de la fosfolipasa A2 de secreción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda C Valdés Rodríguez

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Las fosfolipasas A2 son una familia de enzimas que hidrolizan el enlace éster sn-2 de los glicerofosfolípidos liberando ácidos grasos, principalmente el ácido araquidónico y lisofosfolípidos. Las fosfolipasas A2 de secreción son producidas por numerosas células bajo la acción de diferentes estímulos como la interleucina-1, el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y los lipopolisacáridos, los cuales provocan su acumulación en los líquidos inflamatorios y en el plasma de pacientes con diversas enfermedades inflamatorias. Recientemente se propuso que las fosfolipasas de secreción actúan preferencialmente sobre microvesículas emitidas por las células cuyas membranas han perdido la asimetría fosfolipídica.Phospholipases A2 form a family of enzymes that hydrolizes the ester sn-2 binding of the glycerophospholipids and release fatty acids mainly araachidonic acid and lisophospholipids. Secretory phospholipids A2 are produced by a number of cells activated by various stimuli like interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factorµ and lipopolysaccharides that cause the accumulation of secretory phospholipases A2 into inflammatory fluids and plasma of patients suffering from several inflammatory diseases. It was recently pointed out that secretory phospholipases preferably act upon microvesicles from cells whose membranes have lost their phospholipid asymmetry.

  16. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  17. On Secrecy Outage of Relay Selection in Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, Hongjiang

    2017-10-02

    In this paper, the secrecy outage performance of an underlay cognitive decode-and-forward relay network over independent but not necessarily identical distributed (i.n.i.d) Nakagami-m fading channels is investigated, in which the secondary user transmitter communicates with the secondary destination via relays, and an eavesdropper attempts to overhear the information. Based on whether the channel state information (CSI) of the wiretap links is available or not, we analyze the secrecy outage performance with optimal relay selection (ORS) and suboptimal relay selection (SRS) schemes, and multiple relays combining scheme (MRC) scheme is considered for comparison purpose. The exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions for the secrecy outage probability with three different relay selection schemes are derived and verified by Monte-Carlo simulations. The numerical results illustrate that ORS scheme always outperforms SRS and MRC schemes, and SRS scheme is better than MRC scheme in the lower fading parameters scenario. Furthermore, through asymptotic analysis, we find that these three different schemes achieve the same secrecy diversity order, which is determined by the number of the relays, and the fading parameters of the links among the relays and the destination.

  18. 75 FR 8844 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Reports of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... 91st Cong. 2d Sess. 12 (1970). \\2\\ See Tax Haven Banks and U.S. Tax Compliance, Staff Report, Permanent...); Tax Haven Abuses: The Enablers, the Tools and Secrecy, Staff Report, Permanent Subcommittee on... source of their income or location of their assets.\\10\\ \\10\\ See Tax Haven Banks and U.S. Tax Compliance...

  19. Quantifying immediate price impact of trades based on the k-shell decomposition of stock trading networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Xu, Hai-Chuan; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-10-01

    Traders in a stock market exchange stock shares and form a stock trading network. Trades at different positions of the stock trading network may contain different information. We construct stock trading networks based on the limit order book data and classify traders into k classes using the k-shell decomposition method. We investigate the influences of trading behaviors on the price impact by comparing a closed national market (A-shares) with an international market (B-shares), individuals and institutions, partially filled and filled trades, buyer-initiated and seller-initiated trades, and trades at different positions of a trading network. Institutional traders professionally use some trading strategies to reduce the price impact and individuals at the same positions in the trading network have a higher price impact than institutions. We also find that trades in the core have higher price impacts than those in the peripheral shell.

  20. Fear Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Ardia, David

    2003-01-01

    Our trading strategy is inspired from the paper "implied volatility indices as leading indicators of stock index returns?", Giot (2002,[3]). It uses stylized facts observed in stock markets: the so called "leverage effect", the clustering and the mean-reverting behaviour of the implied volatility. Based on S&P100 and VIX data, we show that abnormally high levels of volatility can be used as a trading signals for long traders. A bootstrap procedure confirms the significant returns for the 1986...

  1. Mechanisms of Secrets and Secrecy in «El secretario confuso» by Jacinto Cordeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Insúa Cereceda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the mechanism of secrets and secrecy in El secretario confuso (1634, comedy by Jacinto Cordeiro; he is a playwright that belongs to the group of lusitan authors that write in Spanish during the Dual Monarchy period (1580-1640. This work, that can be included in the secretario subtype of comedia palatina genre —based on the infatuation between a noble lady and her secretary— shows thematic and structural coincidences with the main comedies of this moda­lity —El perro del hortelano by Lope de Vega and El vergonzoso en palacio by Tirso de Molina—, but providing new variations to this corpus focussed on the communicational dynamics of remaining silent, concealing and declaring love between the different characters.

  2. The Application of Simulated Experimental Teaching in International Trade Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Chen, Wen

    2009-01-01

    International Trade Practice is a professional basic course for specialty of International Economy and Trade. As the core of International Trade Practice, it is extremely related to foreign affairs and needs much practical experience. This paper puts forward some suggestions on how to improve the performance of teaching in order to educate the…

  3. Beamforming and Antenna Grouping Design for the Multi-Antenna Relay with Energy Harvesting to Improve Secrecy Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Lei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The physical security strategy in the wireless network with a single-antenna eavesdropper is studied. The information transmits from a single-antenna source to a single-antenna destination, and an energy-limited multi-antenna relay is employed to forward information. The antennas of the relay are divided into two groups. One group receives and forwards information, and the other converts the received signal into energy. Beamforming is used by the relay to prevent the eavesdropper from intercepting confidential information. For the purpose of maximizing the secrecy rate, antenna grouping and beamforming vectors are designed. A low complexity scheme of antenna grouping is presented. The simulation results show that the secrecy rate can be significantly improved by arranging part of the antennas for energy harvesting, and part for forwarding and optimizing the beamforming vector at the relay. The antenna grouping scheme significantly reduces the computational complexity at the cost of acceptable performance loss.

  4. Microsociology of Secrecy in The Secret Life of Words, or Isabel Coixet reads José Luis Pardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Gallego Dueñas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sociology of Secrecy points out the ability of secrets to join people regardless the word originally means “separation”. Mostly, secrets are shown as destructive faults we should confess. “The Secret Life of Words” (2005 by Isabel Coixet is a movie which depicts how secrets are shared as intimacy, building a bubble made of words. In fact this is the specific sense of intimacy according to José Luis Pardo. It is not loneliness or isolation, is not the duty of expliciting inner information about us. Intimacy is not the denotative meaning of the words, but their connotation, what words “smuggle” between two people: the secret life of words. Finally, keeping in mind the strong implication of secrecy in Social Space-Time, we will try to outline several useful analysis elements through this film.

  5. Prevalencia de microorganismos asociados a secreción genital femenina, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Di Bartolomeo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Hay un aumento significativo de pacientes con Secreción Genital Femenina, en el Sector Público del gran Buenos Aires. Fue necesario actualizar la prevalencia de los microorganismos asociados a los efectos de revisar el apoyo necesario de laboratorio y ajustar las medidas de prevención y control. MÉTODOS: Se incorporan a este estudio, la totalidad de los casos atendidos (1997-1998: 84 adolescentes (15 a 19 años y 784 adultas (20 a 60 años sintomáticas. El protocolo incluye (secreción vaginal y endocervical detección de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp y vaginosis bacteriana. Aplicando métodos específicos directos y cultivo, Chlamydia trachomatis (detección de antígeno, Ureaplasma urealitycum y Mycoplasma hominis (cultivos fueron estudiados en parte de la población total. RESULTADOS: El aumento de la demanda de consulta fue continuo desde 1997 y aumentó 2.10 veces del primero al último semestre de 1998. En las mujeres adultas se encontró: vaginosis bacteriana, 23,8%; Candida spp 17,8%; S. agalactiae 5,6%; T. vaginalis 2,4%. En 50,3% no se detecto ninguno. En adolescentes se detectó: vaginosis bacteriana, 17,8%; Candida spp 29,7%; S. agalactiae 3,6%, T. vaginalis 2,4%: En 46,4% de los casos el resultado fue negativo. En el grupo de mujeres adultas sintomáticas, no en la totalidad, se detectó: C. trachomatis (7/400 1,76%, U. urealyticum (209/340 61,4% y M. hominis (45/272 16,5%. CONCLUSIONES: El aumento significativo de consultas se debe a problemas sociales en la población, no al aumento de ninguna patología en especial. Impacta como problema clínico concreto la prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana y Candida spp. Llama la atención, la nula incidencia de N. gonorrhoeae y la baja circulación de T. Vaginalis y C. trachomatis, en este tipo de población. La prevalencia de U. urealyticum y M. hominis es alta, pero su real participación en la patología genital de

  6. Secreción de prolactina en hombres nativos de las grandes alturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Solís J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar el efecto de la hipoxia crónica sobre la secreción de prolactina. Diseño: Estudio comparativo. Institución: Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza, Lima, Perú. Participantes: Hombres jóvenes nativos de Lima y Cerro de Pasco. Intervenciones: Se estudió en forma dinámica tres grupos de hombres jóvenes normales de edad (X24a y estado nutricional comparable, nativos de diferentes altitudes: 150 m.s.n.m. (Lima, N=10, 3 000 m.s.n.m. (Tarma, N= 10, 4 200 m.s.n.m. (Cerro de Pasco, n=11; y tres pacientes con mal de montaña crónico (MMC nativos de Cerro de Pasco; todos clínicamente eutiroideos y sin bocio. En cada sujeto se determinó por RIA los niveles séricos basales de PRL y su respuesta. Principales medidas de resultados: Diferencia de niveles séricos de prolactina y su respuesta máxima a la hormona liberadora de tirotropina en sujetos a nivel del mar y en la altura. Resultados: Los niveles séricos basales de prolactina (PRL y su respuesta máxima a la hormona liberadora de tirotropina (TRH fueron significativamente menores en los nativos de altura en comparación con los del nivel del mar. La causa subyacente sería la hipoxia crónica, pudiendo estar implicados un incremento de la actividad dopaminérgica del sistema túbero - infundibular o una alteración a nivel del receptor o posreceptor del lactotrofo en los nativos de altura. Este hecho puede ser un mecanismo de adaptación para la conservación de la fertilidad en los hombres nativos de las grandes alturas. El escaso número de pacientes con mal de montaña crónico no permitió obtener resultados concluyentes, pero se observó persistencia de la menor secreción de prolactina, con una respuesta más tardía a la TRH. Se requiere más investigaciones en pacientes con MMC, para definir estas observaciones. Conclusiones: Los niveles séricos basales de prolactina y su respuesta máxima a la hormona liberadora de tirotropina fueron

  7. THE OBLIGATIONS OF COMMERCIAL PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial professionals have some obligations under the law, aimed both at defending public interests and the interests of third parties who enter into contracts with traders and commercial credit, and at defending the interests of professionals themselves, by creating an appropriate legal framework for the activities they perform. The main obligations of traders are the following: fulfilling Trade Register advertising formalities; exercising trade within the limits of legitimate competition; and the organization and bookkeeping of commercial companies. This paper aims at elaborating on the three listed obligations, mainly referring to commercial professionals, as they carry out professional activities that are centered on obtaining profit.

  8. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-04-28

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme.

  9. Employment of Professionals under NAFTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabetsos, Andrew P.

    1995-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provides Canadian and Mexican professionals with an option not available to citizens of other countries: Trade NAFTA, or "TN" status, which provides authorization for business persons. Discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of this status with that of the more conventional H-1B…

  10. 75 FR 3967 - Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group; Solicitation of Application for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... discretion on all membership decisions. The Director may consider prior years' applications when making... evaluated on the information provided through this application process. Applications should consist of: Name...) Industry Trade Groups--Casino (1 vacancy) Industry Trade Groups--Money Services Businesses (1 vacancy...

  11. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  12. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  13. Secrecy, empowerment and protection: positioning PrEP in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Eliza; Mansoor, Leila; MacQueen, Kate; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2017-11-01

    The release of World Health Organisation guidelines recommending the prophylactic use of daily Truvada(®) for all populations at high risk of acquiring HIV opens the way for implementation of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The impact of new prevention technologies is, however, dependent on demand creation strategies such as user awareness, acceptability and access, which in turn are influenced by sociocultural and gender norms. This study was conducted in three locations in KwaZulu-Natal, urban, rural and peri-urban, with six participatory workshops. Knowledge, desirable features of a product and demand positioning for PrEP were assessed using a participatory action media research process which included art-based activities and group discussion using a semi-structured interview schedule. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The key themes that emerged in relation to product adoption were: ability to maintain secrecy of product use; the need for agency with personal choices around HIV prevention; and an increased desire for HIV protection. Findings reaffirm the influence of user engagement in understanding the sociocultural dynamics that influence demand creation for PrEP adoption.

  14. Enhancing Secrecy With Multiantenna Transmission in Millimeter Wave Vehicular Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2017-03-14

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) vehicular communication systems will provide an abundance of bandwidth for the exchange of raw sensor data and support driver-assisted and safety-related functionalities. Lack of secure communication links, however, may lead to abuses and attacks that jeopardize the efficiency of transportation systems and the physical safety of drivers. In this paper, we propose two physical layer (PHY) security techniques for vehicular mmWave communication systems. The first technique uses multiple antennas with a single radio-frequency (RF) chain to transmit information symbols to a target receiver and noise-like signals in nonreceiver directions. The second technique uses multiple antennas with a few RF chains to transmit information symbols to a target receiver and opportunistically inject artificial noise in controlled directions, thereby reducing interference in vehicular environments. Theoretical and numerical results show that the proposed techniques provide higher secrecy rate when compared to traditional PHY security techniques that require digital or more complex antenna architectures.

  15. A new jamming technique for secrecy in multi-antenna wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Omar

    2010-06-01

    We consider the problem of secure wireless communication in the presence of an eavesdropper when the transmitter has multiple antennas, using a variation of the recently proposed artificial noise technique. Under this technique, the transmitter sends a pseudo-noise jamming signal to selectively degrade the link to the eavesdropper without affecting the desired receiver. The previous work in the literature focuses on ideal Gaussian signaling for both the desired signal and the noise signal. The main contribution of this paper is to show that the Gaussian signaling model has important limitations and propose an alternative "induced fading" jamming technique that takes some of these limitations into account. Specifically we show that under the Gaussian noise scheme, the eavesdropper is able to recover the desired signal with very low bit error rates when the transmitter is constrained to use constant envelope signaling. Furthermore, we show that an eavesdropper with multiple antennas is able to use simple, blind constant-envelope algorithms to completely remove the Gaussian artificial noise signal and thus defeat the secrecy scheme. We propose an alternative scheme that induces artificial fading in the channel to the eavesdropper, and show that it outperforms the Gaussian noise scheme in the sense of causing higher bit error rates at the eavesdropper and is also more resistant to constant modulus-type algorithms. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Graham A. Davis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  17. Costs and benefits of secrecy: the dilemma experienced by adolescents seropositive for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galano, Eliana; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Succi, Regina Célia; de Souza Marques, Heloisa Helena; Della Negra, Marinella; da Silva, Mariliza Henrique; do Carmo, Fabiana Bononi; Gouvea, Aida de Fátima Barbosa; Delmas, Philippe; Côté, José; Machado, Daisy Maria

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the experiences of the first generation of adolescents who acquired HIV through vertical transmission when disclosing their diagnosis to friends and romantic partners. The study sample was selected by convenience, with 20 patients (13-20 years old) participating in a qualitative investigation using individual interviews (language: Portuguese; duration: 45 minutes). The participants were followed in specialized clinics for the treatment of pediatric AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. The results suggest that families who live with HIV tend to keep it a secret, and such behavior is learned and accepted unquestioningly as natural. Respect for privacy and the fear of rejection, coupled with the belief that information about their disease will be spread, are the main beliefs with which participants justify their secrecy. In terms of romantic relationships, adolescents were aware that their HIV status should at some point be shared with current or future sexual partners. However, the decision to reveal an HIV diagnosis in romantic relationships is permeated by anxieties, uncertainties about the right time, and fear of abandonment. In any case, telling the truth requires trust, guarantees of the other's love, and, in some cases, probing romantic partners beforehand to learn their perceptions about the disease. Participants who had experiences disclosing their HIV status shared positive and negative results, including emotional support, acceptance, and understanding, along with ostracism, discrimination, and abandonment by family members. The findings of this paper reinforce the challenges of revealing an HIV diagnosis to third parties. It requires understanding the meaning and importance of the secret for each patient, along with the conflict between the right to confidentiality and the responsibility of treating others exposed to the disease. All these aspects should be discussed extensively with this population and incorporated into clinical practice.

  18. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  19. Energy trading in the focus of European regulation projects. How REMIT, MiFID II, MiFIR, MAD II and EMIR will professionalize, regulate and endanger energy trading; Energiehandel im Fokus europaeischer Regulierungsvorhaben. Wie REMIT, MiFID II, MiFIR, MAD II und EMIR den Energiehandel professionalisieren, regulieren und gefaehrden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslarczyk, Michael [DLA Piper, Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Many market partners fear that new European standards and initiatives to control energy trading activities will endanger the freedom of the markets. The contribution outlines the specifications of REMIT and also goes into the other European initiatives. (orig.)

  20. Free trade or just trade? The World Trade Organisation, human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author assesses these claims from a human rights perspective and explores the relationship between trade, human rights and development. The article sketches the history and functions of the WTO, discusses the linkages between trade liberalisation, human rights and development, and assesses the human rights ...

  1. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  2. Expanding Trade within Africa: The Impact of Trade Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Njinkeu, Dominique; S. Wilson, John; Powo Fosso, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on intra-African trade. The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade d...

  3. English for International Trade: China Enters the WTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jixian; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Zheng

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a survey into the impact of China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) on business professionals and college English instruction. Individuals in business and trading companies from the five cities in Ahejiang province were polled on issues related to the learning and teaching of English with reference to China's entry into…

  4. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based...... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....

  5. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....

  6. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  7. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    of the current rules of WTO that reinforce the disadvantages faced by developing economies. This essay deals with these unfair trade rules and disadvantages inherent in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system by .... also expand their exports given the comparative advantage they have in respect of those national ...

  8. 'I think it will eventually be done away with': Attitudes among healthcare professionals towards the current system of animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignon, Andrée

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a study of attitudes to the current system of animal experimentation (for the production of health interventions) among 52 UK healthcare professionals. These healthcare professionals participated in three separate focus groups (of 18, 17 and 17 participants) and were invited to respond to the question 'what is your opinion about the current system of animal testing?' The study focused specifically on their views of the current system (rather than their views of animal testing in general). The healthcare professionals were critical of the current system, particularly with regard to regulation, secrecy, validity, unnecessary suffering and welfare. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. 29 CFR 541.301 - Learned professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... executive chefs and sous chefs, who have attained a four-year specialized academic degree in a culinary arts... recognized professional status as distinguished from the mechanical arts or skilled trades where in some...

  10. Professional Bodies Can Benefit your Career

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2009-01-01

    Membership of the major professional bodies and trade associations is crucial towards relationship building, active membership and interaction enables hospitality people to build friendships, business networks and opportunities which bring numerous benefits

  11. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    Italy. LL.M (Business Law) Addis Ababa .... section identifies the main trade facilitation challenges in Ethiopia that are mostly within customs law. ... Various international and regional organizations define trade facilitation according to their mandate ...

  12. Trade and insecure resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garfinkel, Michelle R; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    .... Depending on world prices, free trade can intensify arming to such an extent that the additional security costs it brings swamp the traditional gains from trade and thus render autarky more desirable...

  13. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  14. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  15. Stochastic Trade Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Riccaboni; Stefano Schiavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a simple network model to describe the dynamic of the intensive and extensive margin of international trade flows. The result is achieved by means of the combination of two mechanisms of proportional growth: the first (discrete) determines the formation of trade links, the second (continuous) governs trade intensity. We show that our setup is able to simultaneously match a large number of empirical regularities, such as the fraction of zero trade flows across pairs of coun...

  16. On the finite-SNR diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of zero-forcing transmit scheme under secrecy constraint

    KAUST Repository

    Rezki, Zouheir

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we address the finite Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wiretap channel, where a Zero-Forcing (ZF) transmit scheme, that intends to send the secret information in the orthogonal space of the eavesdropper channel, is used. First, we introduce the secret multiplexing gain at finite-SNR that generalizes the definition at high-SNR. Then, we provide upper and lower bounds on the outage probability under secrecy constraint, from which secret diversity gain estimates of ZF are derived. Through asymptotic analysis, we show that the upper bound underestimates the secret diversity gain, whereas the lower bound is tight at high-SNR, and thus its related diversity gain estimate is equal to the actual asymptotic secret diversity gain of the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wiretap channel. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Biological warfare warriors, secrecy and pure science in the Cold War: how to understand dialogue and the classifications of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a case study from the Cold War to reflect on the meaning at the time of the term 'Pure Science'. In 1961, four senior scientists from Britain's biological warfare centre at Porton Down visited Moscow both attending an International Congress and visiting Russian microbiological and biochemical laboratories. The reports of the British scientists in talking about a limited range of topics encountered in the Soviet Union expressed qualities of openness, sociologists of the time associated with pure science. The paper reflects on the discourses of "Pure Science", secrecy and security in the Cold War. Using Bakhtin's approach, I suggest the cordial communication between scientists from opposing sides can be seen in terms of the performance, or speaking, of one language among several at their disposal. Pure science was the language they were allowed to share outside their institutions, and indeed political blocs.

  18. A Stiff Man-Child Walking: Derrida’s Economy of Secrecy and Faulkner’s “Barn Burning”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wainwright

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Working from Jacques Derrida’s contentions about secrecy and authorial responsibility, and paying brief but specific attention to Charles Baudelaire’s “La fausse monnaie” (1869, as suggested by Derridean concerns over capitalist economics, this article studies the manner in which the inviolable and conditional secrets of William Faulkner’s “Barn Burning” (1938 reveal the poststructural tendencies avant la lettre of this leading American modernist.  While Faulkner scholars have focused on the ambivalent language and metaphors deployed in this short story, they have not formerly traced the manner in which “Barn Burning” incites a sense of deconstructive criticism, and have thereby failed to acknowledge Faulkner’s attendant authorial irresponsibility.  This article redresses this critical imbalance.

  19. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....

  20. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  1. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  2. 15 CFR 28.300 - Professional and technical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional and technical services. 28.300 Section 28.300 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Other Than Own Employees § 28.300 Professional and technical services. (a...

  3. External trade development in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Český statistický úřad

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the external trade development of the CR in total (turnover, export, import, trade balance). Main factors, which influence the external trade development. Territorial structure (by main blocks and selected countries) and commodity structure (by SITC, rev. 4) of the external trade. Comparisons of the CR external trade development with the external trade development of the other member states of the EU.

  4. Potential Impact of TPP Trade Agreement on US Bilateral Agricultural Trade: Trade Creation or Trade Diversion?

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua

    2015-01-01

    Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement is a trade agreement U.S is negotiating with 11 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) to reduce or eliminate tariffs on U.S. products exported to the TPP countries. With TPP, U.S expects to expand its trade with members of the partnership; resulting in GDP growth. However, there exist large concerns about the potential negative ...

  5. Analysis of Probability of Non-zero Secrecy Capacity for Multi-hop Networks in Presence of Hardware Impairments over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-T. Phu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate probability of non-zero secrecy capacity of multi-hop relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels in presence of hardware impairments. In the considered protocol, a source attempts to transmit its data to a destination by using multi-hop randomize-and-forward (RF strategy. The data transmitted by the source and relays are overheard by an eavesdropper. For performance evaluation, we derive exact expressions of probability of non-zero secrecy capacity (PoNSC, which are expressed by sums of infinite series of exponential functions and exponential integral functions. We then perform Monte Carlo simulations to verify the theoretical analysis.

  6. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  7. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  8. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  9. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  10. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  11. Essays on asset trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieler, T.

    2014-01-01

    The overreaching methodology of my Ph.D. thesis is to substitute noise traders with rational traders. I do so by considering liquidity asymmetry between informed trader and uninformed traders. Liquidity asymmetry creates a motive for trade. Under this new setup, I study the impact of asset trade on

  12. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  13. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  14. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  15. Secrecy in Wireless Information and Power Transfer for One-Way and Two-Way Untrusted Relaying with Friendly Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An untrusted relay system combined with a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT scheme is considered in one-way and two-way relaying transmission strategies. In the system, two source nodes can only communicate with each other via an untrusted energy harvesting relay node, which sends the message by using its harvested energy from the source nodes. Specifically, we classify the intermediate relay as an eavesdropper into two modes: active eavesdropper and nonactive eavesdropper, depending on whether it has sufficient energy of its own to transmit the message or not. Under a simplified three-node fading wiretap channel setup, the transmit power allocation and power splitting ratio are jointly optimized to minimize the outage probability in the delay-sensitive case and to maximize the average rate in the delay-insensitive case, subject to the average and peak total power constraints. Applying the dual-decomposition method, the optimization problem can be efficiently solved in the delay-sensitive scenario. Moreover, an iterative algorithm is proposed to derive the solution to maximize the average rate in the delay-insensitive scenario. Numerical results demonstrate the performance of system outage probability in the two modes versus different rates and how efficiently the secrecy rate is improved compared with traditional schemes.

  16. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  17. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research......History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  18. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research......History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  19. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-15

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  20. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  1. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  2. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  3. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes....... By locating trading disputes in a political analysis of policy implementation, it is argued that it is difficult to establish conceptually how the WTO dispute settlement system could have authority separate from and above the conventional international politics of trade policy relations. Instead, the article...... argues that case outcomes should be expected to be largely the product of domestic political institutions and policy processes, and how these intersect with developments in the WTO dispute settlement system. Brief studies of the Australian government's dispute settlement strategy and two high-profile WTO...

  4. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  5. Let's Talk Trade Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Thomas; Olson, Mary W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes strategies that use trade books to teach science to primary students. Strategies include (1) developing concepts and vocabulary; (2) using concrete manipulatives to reinforce learning; (3) encouraging retelling; (4) developing class summaries; and (5) developing visual imagery. (MDH)

  6. Secrecy inhibits support: A grounded theory of community perspectives of women suffering from obstetric fistula, in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, T; Wakasiaka, S; McGowan, L; Moraa, M; Omari, J; Khisa, W

    2016-11-01

    this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta. Interviews took place either in the home, place of work, or hospital. the core category (central concept) is 'secrecy hinders support'. This was supported by three themes: 'keeping fistula hidden', 'treatment being a lottery' and 'multiple barriers to support.' These themes represent the complexities around exposure of individual fistula sufferers and the impact that lack of information and women's status can have on treatment. Keeping fistula secret reinforces uncertainties around fistula, which in itself fuels myths and ignorance regarding causes and treatments. Lack of openness, at an individual level, prevents support being sought or offered. A multi-layered strategy is required to support women with fistula. At a societal level, the status of women in LMIC countries needs elevation to a level that provides equity in health services. At a national level, laws need to protect vulnerable women from mistreatment as a direct result of fistula. Furthermore, resources should be available to ensure provision of timely management, as part of routine services. At community level, awareness and education is required to actively engage members to support women locally. Peer support before and after fistula repair may be beneficial, but requires further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  8. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  9. Emissions trading: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietenberg, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Evolution of Emissions Trading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Evolution of Design Features...

  10. Trade Union Cooperation in the EU: Views Among Swedish Trade Unions and Their Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Furåker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article compares views among Swedish trade unions with those of their members regarding cross-national union cooperation in Europe or the EU. Data are derived from two different surveys, one among trade unions in 2010–2011 and the other among employees in 2006. It turns out that trade unions are generally more affirmative than their members to transnational union cooperation. In the employee survey, differences appear between members of the three peak-level organizations—the LO (manual workers, the TCO (white-collar workers, and Saco (professionals. However, controlling for education, these differences cannot be verified statistically. Higher education—which above all Saco members have—is linked to more positive attitudes toward transnational union cooperation. The gap between the organizations and their affiliates concerning engagement in European issues appears to be larger in the LO than in Saco, with the TCO somewhere in the middle.

  11. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  12. How fair is fair trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost based and economies of scale models. It is found that whether or not fair trade is superior to free trade or protectionism is highly dependent on a number of characteristics of the products to which fa...

  13. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Clausing, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  14. Do Trade Agreements Stimulate International Trade Differently? Evidence from 296 Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Tristan; Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In a seminal paper, Rose (2004) found that the assumed positive impact of the WTO on international trade was questionable. This finding has been scrutinized and modified in subsequent research, using different datasets, econometric methods and separating the WTO from other forms of trade agreements. A key characteristic of this literature is the rather simplistic way in which trade agreements are treated whereby all trade agreements are lumped together. Trade agreements come, however, in many...

  15. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... to tourism are demonstrated: the general price competitiveness of the destination, tourism infrastructure and the provision of safety. The econometric models also confirm the relevance of other conventional explanatory factors of trade in services such as GDP per capita and internet usage. The last part...

  16. Union Learning Representatives: Facilitating Professional Development for Scottish Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Alex; O'Brien, Jim

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, teachers' professional associations and labor organizations, notably in the form of trade unions have historically been involved in education and training in the workplace. Recently, in the United Kingdom this activity has gained greater credence and importance due to the emergence of trade union learning representatives who…

  17. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  18. Free Trade and Protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Benoni DIMULESCU

    2008-01-01

    One of the most interesting debates in economics is about free trade and protectionism. The arguments in favor of both directions are described by the analysis of free trade case and protectionism case. These are based on the economists’ thoughts that, on a side, the state should not intervene in international flow of goods and services and, on another side, it should be created a system of tariffs, quotas and export subsidies in order to protect the national economy of each state in report w...

  19. A Tale of Two Paranoids: A Critical Analysis of the Use of the Paranoid Style and Public Secrecy by Donald Trump and Viktor Orbán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Timmer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, a rising tide of right-wing populism across the globe has inspired a renewed push toward nationalism. Capitalizing on an increasingly chaotic public sphere, leaders are stoking fear in their constituents such that their radical ideologies and hardline policy decisions may be enacted. This article offers a comparative study of two leaders exploiting the vulnerabilities of their respective citizenries: United States President Donald Trump and Hungarian Prime Minister Victor Orbán. Drawing from and reimagining Richard Hofstadter’s germane essay, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” we argue that both represent a new manifestation of the paranoid style as it enables (and is enabled by “public secrecy.” By controlling the media and redirecting collective attention by way of rhetorical sleight of hand, the two are able to sow disorder and confusion such that their secrecy may persist out in the open. Despite using similar issues to promulgate fear and paranoia, most prominently the refugee and immigration crises, and their similar end goals, the two must nonetheless engage in different discursive strategies that reflect the distinct cultures and histories of their respective countries.

  20. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  1. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  2. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  3. Learning with Trade Unionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooton, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that the study of trade unions be included in the school curriculum. Argues that learning about relationships between unions and management through interviews, observations, and simulations can enhance the overall approach to teaching about controversial topics. Gives examples of some attempts to do this in schools. (TW)

  4. Trading health for money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Persson, Roger

    2017-01-01

    subjectivity. The analysis draws on interviews with 32 Danish construction workers as well as brief observations. The article shows how ‘trading health for money’ becomes a mode for maintaining positive social, occupational and masculine identity among construction workers. Furthermore, it shows how the agency...

  5. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  6. Intra-industry trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”.

  7. Applied International Trade Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); H.P. Bowen (Harry); A. Hollander (Abraham)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe book was written with two objectives in mind. First, to give students, practioners and researchers a text that encompasses the important theoretical and applied developments in the field and bringst to the fore those questions, left unanswered by traditional trade models, which the

  8. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  9. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  10. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    Aryanization is associated with Nazi Germany's policies to exclude Jews in the Germany from the economy in the pre-war years, but I will show it was a global policy from 1937. The utopian goal of international Aryanization was the total removal of Jews who traded with Germany anywhere in the world...

  11. Professional Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    True professionals develop and create together a better future by their human endeavors in synergy. They must operate comfortably in two cultures--the industrial culture which is disappearing, and the superindustrial or cyberculture which is emerging. (CT)

  12. PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process which Romanian commercial law underwent has affected both the term of ‘trader’, by redefining it, and the classification of professional categories. Currently, the term of ‘professional’ is conveyed by a descriptive listing of the categories of persons it comprises: traders, entrepreneurs, business operators, as well as any other person authorized to carry out economic or professional activities.

  13. Delay and Secrecy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Toole, Andrew A.

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. Aggregate data from the OECD show a broad shift in the institutional financing structure that supports academic research from public to private sponsorship. This paper...

  14. Delay and Secrecy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Toole, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. Aggregate data from the OECD show a broad shift in the institutional financing structure that supports academic research from public to private sponsorship. This article...

  15. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... international economic system, and the obvious concomitant administrative inadequacies that profusely characterized GATT, another body known as the. World Trade Organization (WTO) came into existence in 1995, to officiate as the recognized international organization on trade and trade relations. The.

  16. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  17. Extracting geography from trade data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuke; Wu, Tianhao; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding international trade is a fundamental problem in economics-one standard approach is via what is commonly called the "gravity equation", which predicts the total amount of trade Fi j between two countries i and j as

  18. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  19. Trade Liberalization and Trade Tax Revenues in African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Longoni, E

    2009-01-01

    We empirically investigate the e®ect of trade liberalization on trade tax revenues applying panel-data methods to a large sample of African countries from the period 1970-2000. The goal of this paper is to determine whether controlling for macroeconomic features of African economies and taking into account the existence of political constraints that might either support or weaken the power of the trade reform, a change in trade policy has a positive or negative e®ect on trade tax revenues. We...

  20. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  1. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... are to regain power. Third, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries, unions are building external coalitions with other social movements, including across borders, to compensate for the loss of power resources that were tied to national collective bargaining and policy-making. Research has shown that unions, even...

  2. The Carbon Trading Game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Roger [Environmental Policy and Management Group, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    In response to the Kyoto Protocol, an international market for carbon dioxide tradable permits is likely to be created. Two of the key issues involved are explaining the concepts of tradable permits to industrialists, policy-makers and the man on the street, and anticipating how the market will evolve. A simple game of the market for carbon dioxide tradable permits has been developed and used that can help deal with both issues. As a pedagogical tool, this game benefits from simplicity (just a few pieces of paper are needed) and enables students to grasp the concepts and remember them through the intensity and fun of a trading 'pit'. The experiences also provide substantial insights into the evolution of the carbon dioxide permit market, particularly related to the evolution of trade volume, permit prices and country strategies.

  3. Counterfeit-Product Trade.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene M; Shapiro, Carl

    1988-01-01

    We analyze a two-country model of trade in both legitimate and counterfeit products. Domestic firms own trademarks and establish reputations for delivering high-quality products in a steady-state equilibrium. Foreign suppliers export legitimate low-quality merchandise and counterfeits of domestic brand-name goods. Heterogeneous home consumers either purchase low-quality imports or buy brand-name products, rationally expecting some degree of counterfeiting of the latter. We characterize a coun...

  4. Counterfeit Product Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene

    1986-01-01

    We analyze a two-country model of trade in both legitimate and counterfeit products. Domestic firms own trademarks and establish reputations for delivering high-quality products in a steady-state equilibrium. Foreign suppliers export legitimate low-quality merchandise and counterfeits of domestic brand-name goods. Heterogeneous home consumers either purchase low-quality imports or buy brand-name products, rationally expecting some degree of counterfeiting of the latter. We characterize a coun...

  5. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  6. Caracterización físico-química y actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés E Pereira P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El caracol gigante africano Achatina fulica es reconocido como una plaga que afecta la biodiversidad, la Salud Pública y la productividad. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que su secreción mucosa tiene propiedades cosméticas, cicatrizantes y antimicrobianas. Objetivo: Determinar las características físico-químicas y evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana de la secreción mucosa de Achatina fulica. Metodología: Se hicieron pruebas bioquímicas para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de glúcidos, proteínas y lípidos. Se determinó el contenido de Calcio, Potasio, cloruros, Sodio y Magnesio. Se midieron los parámetros de conductividad eléctrica, potencial óxido-reducción, saturación de oxígeno, oxígeno total disuelto, pH, sólidos disueltos totales. Se realizó un ensayo de actividad antibacteriana por la técnica de microdilución en caldo. Resultados: Se encontraron glúcidos en concentraciones de 582 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 62.1 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas, y proteínas en concentraciones de 836 μg/mL en la fracción soluble y de 1413 μg/mL en la fracción de mucinas. Se observó actividad antimicrobiana frente a las tres cepas ensayadas. Streptococcus agalactiae alcanzó un MIC90 a una concentración de 3,6 mg/mL con la fracción de mucinas; Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina tuvo un MIC50 de 3,3 mg/mL y Escherichia coli un MIC 70 de 3.8 mg/mL. Conclusiones: Se reportan por primera vez las características físicas y los oligoelementos presente en la secreción de Achatina fulica. La actividad antibacteriana obtenida frente a cepas Gram positivas y Gram negativas plantea la necesidad de realizar estudios para purificar las moléculas con dicha actividad, conocer los mecanismos de acción y establecer la inocuidad, entre otros.

  7. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  8. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  9. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...... outcome from all three are likely to be cumulative and generate very large gains to Africa. The overall results from especially time-in-transit costs support the current emphasis on projects such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) infrastructural supports to Africa. In addition, the World Bank...

  10. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  11. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...... demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show...

  12. Aid for trade and the political economy of trade liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmann, Georg; Hoekstra, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Aid for Trade (AfT) initiative has gained much popularity since its launch at the World Trade Organization's Ministerial Conference in 2005, and there are ongoing discussions on its effectiveness and potential to improve the integration of developing countries into the world economy. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing AfT in a political economy context. We find that the delivery of AfT is a precondition for trade reform in developing countries, as well as for trade liberali...

  13. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  14. Trade policy and public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health.

  15. Being Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the professio......The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the...... professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation...... ‘storyline’, c.f. Bronwyn Davies and the empirical material consists of observations and interviews in the theoretical periods and in the traineeships....

  16. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  17. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Moraga-Gonzalez, José Luis; Viaene, Jean-Marie

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity. These elements are embedded in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation and international trade. First, we show that trade liberalization in transition economies reduces the output of lo...

  18. Trade facilitation: a conceptual review

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With falling tariff levels, it is probably not surprising that the non-tariff area and trade facilitation, in particular, are receiving growing attention. Apart from the World Trade Organization (WTO), trade facilitation is a subject of substance within a wide range of international organizations including several United Nations (UN)-type bodies, the World Customs Organization (WCO) as well as those concerned with economic development, supply chain security, and sector-specific issues such as...

  19. IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Ditescu

    2012-01-01

    Trade and globalization have brought many benefits to countries and their citizens because they allow countries access to more efficient production, increased labor productivity, supported extending the knowledge and new technologies planetary scale, and rich assortment of products to which population access. Also, through the multilateral trading system has been a significant reduction of customs protectionism, have mitigated the effects of non-tariff barriers, trade policy measures have bec...

  20. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  1. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  2. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  3. To the Question of Trade Facilitation Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Aminat A. Bishenova

    2017-01-01

    In the present article issues of trade facilitation in the context of current trends in global trade (paperless trade, digital economy) are discussed and view is focused on tools that regulate trade facilitation mechanisms. In the conclusion author emphasizes that the trade facilitation policy should take into account not only current realities, but also the prospects for the development of international trade in order to timely and adequately respond to the challenges of global trade.

  4. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  5. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  6. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

  8. FREE TRADE OR FAIR TRADE? AN ENQUIRY INTO THE CAUSES OF FAILURE IN RECENT TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaeddin, Mehdi

    2001-01-01

    Trade policy is at a crossroads. So is trade diplomacy. The failure of the “traditional import substitution” policies of the 1950s–1970s has been followed by the failure of trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s by developing countries. In particular, the deadlock in the negotiations during the recent meetings of WTO has demonstrated the severe differences among various groups of member countries. Focusing on frictions between developing countries and industrial economies in the particul...

  9. Professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  10. Professional C++

    CERN Document Server

    Gregoire, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Master complex C++ programming with this helpful, in-depth resource From game programming to major commercial software applications, C++ is the language of choice. It is also one of the most difficult programming languages to master. While most competing books are geared toward beginners, Professional C++, Third Edition, shows experienced developers how to master the latest release of C++, explaining little known features with detailed code examples users can plug into their own codes. More advanced language features and programming techniques are presented in this newest edition of the book,

  11. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2). (b...

  12. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a good...

  13. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  14. Modelling Trade and Trust across Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Meijer, S.A.; Verwaart, D.

    2006-01-01

    Misunderstandings arise in international trade due to difference in cultural background of trade partners. Trust and the role it plays in trade are influenced by culture. Considering that trade always invloves working on the relationship with the trade partner, understanding the behaviour of the

  15. Trade Effects of Geographical Indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution addresses the effects of geographical indications on intra-EU and international trade. Trade is hampered by the exclusiveness of indications like “Protected Designations of Origin or Protected Geographical Indications”, which at the same time is necessary to protect their value. As

  16. Trade preferences for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Bruin, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report draws on a body of existing literature to assess the impact of trade preferences granted by the European Union on trade and welfare in developing countries. It is argued that the Everything But Arms amendment to the EU preference scheme will have limited effect on export potential and

  17. The Readability of Trade Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Alison; Wagner, Graham

    A 1982 study assessed the comparative reading comprehension levels and writing ability performance of Trades Certification Board (TCB) apprentices in five trades in New Zealand. Test data were collected for 1,389 apprentices and a comparison group of 361 secondary school students. The cloze procedure format was adopted for assessing apprentices'…

  18. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  19. Trading strategies of corporate insiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, O.; Maug, E.; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We test two complementary theories of optimal trading strategies by analyzing the transaction patterns of corporate insiders. According to information-based theories, investors trade faster if they compete with others for exploiting the same information, while liquidity-based theories predict the

  20. Improving U.S. Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  1. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    and cognitive frames that they bring to bear and negotiate with other participants. They make actors aware of a ‘mutual correspondence’ in their interpretation of the goods in which they deal and of the social situations in which engage for the sake of such trade. Trade fairs both configure fields and make...

  2. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  3. International trade and currency unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This short article critically reviews the existing empirical literature on the potential trade benefi ts of currency unions and, more in particular, the EMU. Joining a currency union decreases transaction and information costs associated with international trade. From the existing literature two

  4. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  5. The Characteristics of Informed Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Hadiye; Easley, David; Hvidkjær, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the linkage of microstructure, accounting, and asset pricing. We determine the relationship between firm characteristics as captured by accounting and market data and a firm's probability of private information-based trade (PIN) as estimated from trade data. This allows us...

  6. Lumpy countries, urbanization, and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Lumpiness of production factors within a country might overturn the Heckscher-Ohlin (HO) model's predictions for the factor content of trade. Trade patterns, as predicted by this model, can both be magnified or reversed by uneven concentration of production factors within a country. Cities are the

  7. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  8. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  10. Professional socialisation: an influence on professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of values, attitudes, skills and knowledge pertaining to a profession. This article reviews the definition and conceptualisation of professional socialisation through anticipatory and formal professional socialisation processes. It describes the core elements of professional ...

  11. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  12. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  13. Wildlife trade and global disease emergence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James

    2005-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife...

  14. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  15. Extracting Geography from Trade Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity equation has been successful in establishing a connection between the amount of trade between two countries, their respective gross domestic products and "distance" (a complex notion including geographical, historical, linguistic and sociological components). We take the inverse route and show that it is possible to construct a meaningful 'distance' without any external information simply from knowing the bilateral trade volumes between countries. The main tool is a non-standard interpretation of trade flows data as a set of high-dimensional points and the use of mathematical tools to perform dimensionality reduction. This may have further applications for problems in long-term economic analysis, cartel detection and others.

  16. The Labor Law of Distance with Professionalism and Unemployment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Lima Mendes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study will consider of professionalism to the Brazilian socioeconomic scenario, relating it to unemployment, professional qualification, salary, educational opportunity, demonstrated throw statistical data, as well as the representation of the professions and the legitimacy of trade unions and social groups to represents. These elements grounded an analysis of the Individual Labour law in relation to work and employment relationship; capitalism, productive restructuring, globalization, new technologies and Easing. Address the ethical question of the autonomy of the professional group, the self-monitoring and self-punishment, which reflect not only the defense of the professional group, but also in consumer protection or contractor.

  17. Do "sperm trading" simultaneous hermaphrodites always trade sperm?

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Anthes; Michiels, Nico K.

    2005-01-01

    Sperm trading can be a mechanism to solve the conflict over sex roles in hermaphrodites with copulation, sperm competition, and sperm digestion. If present, sperm donation depends on sperm receipt, resulting in conditional reciprocal inseminations. Conditional reciprocity can involve three traded commodities: penis intromissions on a yes-or-no basis, intromission durations (indicating ejaculate size), or sperm transfer. If present, animals that refuse to donate (cheaters) should be deserted b...

  18. Do baseline requirements hinder trades in water quality trading programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Ghosh, Gaurav S.; Shortle, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are promoting point/nonpoint trading as a way of reducing the costs of meeting water quality goals while giving nonpoint sources a larger role in meeting those goals. Farms can create offsets or credits in a point/nonpoint trading program by implementing management practices such as conservation tillage, nutrient management, and buffer strips. To be eligible to sell credits, farmers must first comply with baseline requ...

  19. Distributive trade\\'s significance in national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper analyzes a significance of distributive trade in contemporary national economies of select European countries (10 from the point of view of employment, gross value-added creation, supply chain establishment, and international expansion. A cause for the paper is a dissatisfactory level of economic development of certain transitional countries on one side and the high distributive trade shares (especially in the number of employees and in the GDP on the other side. Methods: Distributive trade's significance for a country is analyzed entirely and segmental. The data collected by Eurostat and Deloitte are analyzed and depicted graphically via usual statistical methods (relative numbers, indices and shares, tabulation and graphical depictions. Results: The results of the research conducted should confirm a thesis on distributive trade's significance based on its shares in the economic structure; however, as an integrator in the value-creating chains, distributive trade has different significance for certain national economies, for the large-sized companies and groups (especially the retailing ones are also expanded internationally, along with their supply chains. Conclusions: Distributive trade does not have an equal significance for the economic development in all countries. Equally, all the divisions within distributive trade do not have equal significance for the overall country's economy, as well as for a launch of its economic development. Nevertheless, it should be necessary to analyze concentration and internationalization in detail for the sake of an evaluation of distributive trade's significance as an integrator in value-creating chains. In that respect, some transitional countries observed do lag behind.

  20. The global trade and public health nexus: the role of WHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley

    2003-01-01

    The globalization of the world economy and changing trade relations have major public health implications. The trading community's foremost concern has been to minimize the perceived interference by health issues with freer trade. The exploration of how trade liberalization is affecting determinants of health is well underway and has attracted worldwide attention. Importantly, the professional community has engaged trade-related organizations to ensure proper representation of public health interests. The UN's World Health Organization (WHO) is mandated "to act as the directing and coordinating authority on international health work." This responsibility obligates it to address major trends that impinge on human health. The article suggests areas of study to strengthen the WHO's role and urges that it reevaluate its traditional focus on working with the health ministries of its member states. In many ways, public health is still playing "catch up" with powerful vested interests. New tools and strategies are needed.

  1. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  2. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  3. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  4. Japanese for Tourism and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarberg, F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the desirability of Japanese as a second language for Australians in tourism and trade industries. Initial instruction using Roman alphabet followed by job training in Japan is recommended. (RM)

  5. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  6. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND FAIR TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jelovac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present different theoretical views and positions on social entrepreneurship, fair trade, buying consumer behaviour and ethical consumerism. The Fair Trade, which is well recognized throughout the world, is an example of good practice of social entrepreneurship. Similarly, globalization processes, the pressure of large corporations, the rapid transmission of information, more and more developed ethical consumer behaviour is clearly contributed to both, the successful development of fair trade and social entrepreneurships. In the empirical part we reviewed and confirmed three of three sets of hypotheses through the quantitative research in Slovenia on sample of 253 respondents. Through the results of our study we also recognized the existence of opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurships in Slovenia. In the discussion and conclusion of the article listed are recommendations for further exploration of ethical consumerism, the development of social entrepreneurship and rising the profile of Fair Trade in Slovenia.

  7. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  8. Does mood affect trading behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaustia, Markku; Rantapuska, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We test whether investor mood affects trading with data on all stock market transactions in Finland, utilizing variation in daylight and local weather. We find some evidence that environmental mood variables (local weather, length of day, daylight saving and lunar phase) affect investors’ direction of trade and volume. The effect magnitudes are roughly comparable to those of classical seasonals, such as the Monday effect. The statistical significance of the mood variables is weak in many case...

  9. Rational Expectation Can Preclude Trades

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuhisa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Ryuichiro

    2003-01-01

    We consider a pure exchange economy under uncertainty in which the traders have the non-partition structure of information. They willing to trade the amounts of state-contingent commodities and they know their own expectations. Common knowledge of these conditions among all the traders can preclude trade if the initial endowments allocation is ex-ante Pareto optimal. Furthermore we introduce rational expectations equilibrium under the non-partition information, and prove the existence theorem...

  10. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice ver...

  11. Autarkic Indeterminacy and Trade Determinacy

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Sim; Kong-Weng Ho

    2005-01-01

    Most existing evidences for indeterminacy are obtained from analyzing models that do not consider trade. This paper considers an extension of Nishimura and Shimomura (Journal of Economic Theory, 2002) Heckscher-Ohlin framework by removing sector-specific externalities in one country while maintaining all other assumptions previously made by the authors. We show that even though indeterminacy arises under autarky, it can be eliminated when trade takes place with another country exhibiting sadd...

  12. Trade Policy and Risk Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeffer, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the influence of trade policy on the investment decisions of a rep- resentative individual. In particular, the increased uncertainty of future income is con- sidered in the investment behaviour of individuals. The optimal portfolio-decision of a representative working individual is analysed in comparison to a non-working shareholder. The paper finds an important influence from trade policy on the saving and investment behaviour of a working individual. Yet the optimal deman...

  13. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data. Finally, we notice that our model's sorting pattern is in line with recent evidence when the wage difference across countries is not too big....

  14. Heterogeneous Workers, Trade, and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Heiland, Inga; Kohler, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the narrative of variety-induced gains from trade in differentiated goods needs revision. If producing differentiated varieties of a good requires differentiated skills and if the work force is heterogeneous in these skills, then firms are likely to have monopsony power. We show that trade then has adverse labor market effects: It increases the monopsony power of firms and worsens the average quality of matches between firms and workers. We also show that international migration...

  15. ASEAN - China Free Trade Area : A quantitative study of Trade diversion and Trade creation effects on ASEAN - China trade flows

    OpenAIRE

    Duong Xuan, Vinh

    2011-01-01

    The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China have a long history of trading with each other. They are economic partners as well as competitors for many years. In order to push their economic relationship to a higher level, in November 2002, ASEAN and China signed the initial framework agreement, determined on establishing the ASEAN - China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) among the eleven countries by 2010 for the ASEAN-6 (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)...

  16. A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON CHINA TRADE GROWTH: APPLICATION OF A NEW INDEX OF BILATERAL TRADE INTENSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Edmonds; Yao Li

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes China’s trade relationships using a new trade intensity index, which incorporates gravity model estimation, to compare observed trade levels with levels would be expected to prevail given the economic, geographic, and cultural characteristics of the trading partners. The index is calculated to study China’s bilateral trade intensity, and uses Japan as a comparative case. Standard trade intensity index measures suggest China trades at a very intensive level with countries i...

  17. Investment characteristics, stock characteristics and portfolio diversification of finance professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariqul Islam Khan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates if Malaysian finance professionals' investment characteristics and stock characteristics' preferences affect their portfolio diversification, and whether the effects of these predictors vary across professionals' gender, income and experience. Employing a survey and ordinal regression models, the findings demonstrate that investment characteristics such as active trading, usage of internet and telephone, and saving for retirement objective are likely to improve diversification, whereas diversification worsens with the spending less time on researching investment. With respect to stock's characteristics, trading volume and return on asset are related to better diversification, whereas profit margin and return on equity are related to least diversification. The predictors are found to vary across professionals' gender, income and experience. The results suggest that finance professionals need to consider spending more time on researching investment and stock's characteristics in portfolio composition.

  18. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit

  19. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a... manufacturers in trading. These credits must be used in the same averaging set as generated. (b) Credits for...

  20. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading... engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits banked...

  1. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal... associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging in... association. (c) Limitations. A trade association or a separate segregated fund established by a trade...

  2. BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ONLINE TRADING VERSUS TRADITIONAL TRADING. EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN ONLINE TRADING

    OpenAIRE

    Petric (Iancu) Ioana Ancuta

    2015-01-01

    In terms of marketing, online trading is a new distribution channel and trading platforms are products of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Internet shortens the connection between the investor and the products they wish to purchase (shares, futures, CFDs, government securities, bonds, etc.), and in some cases it no longer needs a security broker. Increasing use of the Internet and increasing competitiveness between Investment and Financial Services Companies do the latter, to seek...

  3. Multi-Period Trading via Convex Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Stephen; Busseti, Enzo; Diamond, Steve

    2017-01-01

    We consider a basic model of multi-period trading, which can be used to evaluate the performance of a trading strategy. We describe a framework for single-period optimization, where the trades in each period are found by solving a convex optimization problem that trades off expected return, risk......, transaction cost and holding cost such as the borrowing cost for shorting assets. We then describe a multi-period version of the trading method, where optimization is used to plan a sequence of trades, with only the first one executed, using estimates of future quantities that are unknown when the trades...

  4. Commodity Trading and Illicit Financial Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonnier, Gilles; Zweynert de Cadena, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Commodity trading has come under increasing scrutiny as a conduit for illicit financial flows out of resource-rich developing countries, through trade mispricing and abusive transfer pricing. Assessing whether, and to what extent, commodity trading is subject to trade mispricing is of the essence to measure this phenomenon and evaluate the impact of corrective policies. This paper focuses on the world’s largest commodity trading hub, Switzerland. We will examine existing methodological approa...

  5. Use of technical analysis in FOREX trading

    OpenAIRE

    Vítovec, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The paper reacts to tremendous increase in popularity of FX trading among retail investors in recent years, caused mainly by easy accessibility through numerous online trading platforms and dramatic fall in trading costs. One of the accompanying trends along with increasing trading speed is a departure from fundamental analysis and shift towards more technical approach. In reaction to that, the paper aims to review the most popular technical trading rules and puts the findings in contrast wit...

  6. Trade Patterns in Japan's Machinery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi Sasaki; Yuko Koga

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes trade patterns in Japan's machinery sector using disaggregated data of export and import commodities. It is found that the vertical intra-industry trade--the two-way trade of products differentiated by quality--with Asian countries expanded in the 1990s. According to the results of the empirical study, this trade pattern is closely related to differences in the capital/labor ratio between Japan and its trading partners, and to Japan's foreign direct investments. It suggest...

  7. Is the Classification of International Trade in Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade Usable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Lüthje, Teit

    2001-01-01

    Abstract On the basis of OECD trade statistics at SITC 5 digit level for the period 1961-1999 we show the classification of international trade in (a) inter-industry trade and (b) horizontal intra-industry and (c) vertical intra-industry trade used in the empirical trade literature to be non stab...

  8. The World Trade Organization and organic food trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the global food regulation regime and its institutions, focussing upon the way in which these address organic food trade. While the WTO agreements have rules for scientifically based policy measures adopted to protect human, animal or plant health or life, there is some...... disagreement on whether the WTO's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (addresses food labelling) covers production standards based on ethical values such as those defining organic food standards. Another problem is that two sets of international standards for organic food exist—the Codex Alimentarius...... to these private organisations. It is concluded that this current state of affairs entails that organic food standards can potentially be used by governments as technical barriers to trade to protect their domestic organic producers from international competition. In the concluding section, the potential...

  9. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  10. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Mike; Munilla, Jorge; Ortiz, Andrés; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-07-04

    The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT), and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I) to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II) to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of "simulatenous" presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP) are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  11. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Burmester

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT, and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of “simulatenous” presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  12. Young Dutch people's experiences of trading sex: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Walle, Robert; Picavet, Charles; van Berlo, Willy; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with young Dutch men and women aged 14 to 24. Participants came from diverse backgrounds in terms of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Experiences of trading sex differed in terms of the motivation to trade sex, the presence or absence of coercion, and the availability of other options for earning money. Participants' feelings about their experiences varied. For most participants, the sex itself was unpleasant and required considerable emotion management. Still, some felt adequately compensated by the reward or felt trading sex was preferable to other jobs. Gender played an important role, with feelings of disgust or shame reported especially by female participants, whereas male participants reported more positive experiences. Interactions involving coercion or financial dependence on trading sex generally had a negative emotional impact. Participants stressed the differences between their own experiences and professional prostitution.

  13. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction......, the lightness of "talk" and the carnival-like setting of fairs make them a site where disorder might be created that in turn can lead to change of field and market...

  14. Unsustainable colletion and unfair trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The trade in medicinal plants for herbal remedies is large and probably increasing. The trade has attracted the attention of scientists and development planners interested in the impact on plant populations and the potential to improve rural livelihoods through community based management...... and conservation. This has resulted in a large number of publications and development activities, ranging from small NGO projects to new government policies. Through a review of 119 references from Nepal, 4 common assumptions regarding the medicinal plant collection and trade have been identified: I...... logically flawed argumentation. It is argued that the assumptions are leading to misguided conservation efforts, and an inclusive approach to conservation of commercial central Himalayan medicinal plant species is briefly outlined. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available...

  15. Intraday Trading of Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Edlund, Kristian; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of a wind power producer participating in a short-term electricity market that allows for the continuous, but potentially illiquid, intraday trading of energy. Considering the realistic case of a wind farm operating in the western Danish price area of Nord Pool......, we build a simple but effective algorithm for the wind power producer to fully benefit from the Elbas intraday market. We then investigate the sensitivity of the obtained benefits to the maximum volume of energy the wind power producer is willing to trade in the intraday market, the ultimate aim...... of the trade (either to decrease energy imbalances or to increase profits) and to the installed capacity of the wind farm. Our numerical results reveal that the wind power producer can substantially increase his revenues by partaking in the intraday market but with diminishing returns to scale—a result that we...

  16. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice versa, therefore, comlementarity in international trade between the Northeast Asian countries with the index of trade conformity (ITC. The ITC analysis yielded the following implications. Korea's imports from Japan are much more likely to increase than those from China, in a potential sense. Potentially speaking, Korea's exports to the two other countries will increase relatively, somewhat more for Korea's exports to Japan than to China. Looking at it another way, in terms of potential, Korea's exports to China are much more likely to increase than are China's exports to Korea. The overall aggregate trade structures (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice versa of Japan and Korea are quite similar, therefore complementary, and Japan's exports to Korea are potentially a little more likely to increase than are Korea's exports to Japan. We also try to identify some commodities which are expected to increase bilateral trade between Korea and China or Japan. For example, Korea's exports to Japan have the potential to increase in apparel, bags, and textile articles; fish and meat; arts for office machines; miscellaneous manufactured goods; aluminum, copper; miscellaneous chemical products; and watches and clocks. It was possible to identify even more complementary relationships between the countries as the product classification was disaggregated further.

  17. Trade, Technology Diffusion and Misallocation : Trade Partner Matters (Replaces CentER DP 2011-125)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curuk, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper suggests that contingent on the productivity level of the trade partner; international trade may create resource misallocation in less productive countries. It theoretically shows how the interaction between technology diffusion induced by trade and cross sectoral heterogeneity

  18. English for International Trade Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Štĕpánka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law at Masaryk University in Brno, the Czech Re- public, offers several fields of studies, one of them being the three-year Bachelor’s degree programme of International Trade Law. This programme includes two semesters of English for specific purposes which the students take in their first year of studies. However, as the programme is offered as a part time study, there are only 10 lessons of English taught within two days per semester. Preparing a course which would develop the students’ language abilities and skills in the international trade law environment appears to be rather challenging under such conditions.

  19. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...... productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  20. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...

  1. Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira KURMANALIEVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

  2. Sunshine Trading: Flashes of Trading Intent at the NASDAQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe use the introduction and the subsequent removal of the flash order facility (an actionable indication of interest, IOI) from the NASDAQ as a natural experiment to investigate the impact of voluntary disclosure of trading intent on market quality. We find that flash orders

  3. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... findings reveal that the global trade configuration is imbalanced favouring nations of the North to the detriment of ... Mercantilist theory, the theory of Absolute advantage, Comparative. Advantage theory, Factor ... This has changed the culture of international businesses and serves as a medium for other ...

  4. Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

  5. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  6. Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nations of the North to the detriment of Southern nations, with Nigeria among the worst hit. As we bid farewell to the first decade of the twenty-first century, there has been a gradual shift in the balance of economic power as countries like Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC nations) have emerged as trade superpowers.

  7. Do we really know that trade agreements increase trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, T.

    This study surveys the empirical literature in which the gravity equation has been used to study the effect of economic integration agreements (EIAs) on international trade flows. We show that most studies either focus on improving the methodology to assess regionalism’s overall impact, or on a

  8. Trade Policies toward Developing Countries: The Multilateral Trade Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lorenzo L., Ed.; Benedick, Gerald R., Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a 1977 conference about aspects of international trade negotiations of importance to developing countries. Participants included staff from Washington-based international organizations, various United States departments, Congressional staff, and students of the Foreign Service Institute. Transcripts of three addresses…

  9. Broadening the benefits of trade: The Latin American trade network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... Competitors and their national governments argued that this practice gave Latin American companies an unfair competitive advantage. To offset this "subsidy," foreign governments frequently imposed a countervailing duty or tax on imports. This issue was finally dealt with during the Uruguay Round of trade ...

  10. Trends in Practitioner Training for the Renewable Energy Trades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Latham, NY (United States); Laflin, Kirk [Partnership for Environmental Technology Education, South Portland, ME (United States)

    2006-07-01

    As workforce development becomes more of a critical component for an expanding renewable energy economy, new training opportunities are on the increase for practitioners interested in either getting into the renewable energy trades or upgrading their professional skills. This paper will report on the new trends in training and show how the instruction has become more highly developed. In many cases, curricula are now designed to provide teaching that leads to defined workplace knowledge, skills, and abilities. Private and academic training programs are becoming accredited specifically to renewable energy standards. Community colleges and technical schools are responding to local jobs by offering more and more renewable energy trades courses. And classes are expanding from 3 to 5 day workshops to semester-long courses resulting in one-year certificate and two-year associate degree programs at Community Colleges.

  11. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent social democratic parties still benefit from the support of union members at the polls. Not only are social democratic parties confronted with new competitors in the party systems, but also the union confederations of the socialist labour movement...... are in some countries losing their dominant position due to the rise of separate professional confederations. It is argued in the article that the effect of union membership on voting choice is conditioned by the structure of the trade union movement. The support of union members for social democracy...... still enjoy important support from trade union members, but at the same time are under fierce competition from bourgeois and green parties among members of white-collar confederations. This reinforces the challenges for social democracy to build new voters’ coalitions in post-industrial societies....

  12. Glucemia, insulinemia y secreción de insulina en ratas prepúberes hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas Glycemia, insulinemia and insulin secretion in prepubescent rats receiving high doses of androgens and strogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Álvarez Álvarez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una sobredosis de enantato de testosterona y de benzoato de estradiol en ratas machos prepúberes, sobre el comportamiento de la glucemia y la insulinemia in vivo, durante una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Adicionalmente se exploró, in vitro, la capacidad de secreción de insulina estimulada por glucosa de los islotes de Langerhans de estas ratas hiperandrogenizadas e hiperestrogenizadas. Se encontró que la hiperandrogenización se acompañaba de un deterioro de la sensibilidad a la insulina, con hiperinsulinemia, que no se corresponde con un aumento de la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans. Sin embargo, se comprobó que la hiperestrogenización no indujo cambios en los perfiles de glucemia, ni de insulinemia, ni en la capacidad de secreción de insulina de los islotes de Langerhans de este grupo de ratas hiperestrogenizadas.The effect of an overdose of testosterone heptanoate and estradiol in male prepubescent rats on the behavior of glycemia and insulinemia was studied in vivo during a glucose tolerance test. The capacity of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose from the islets of Langerhans of these rats that were administered a high dose of androgens and estrogens was explored in vitro. It was found that the high level of circulating androgens was accompanied by a deterioration of sensitivity to insulin with hyperinsulinemia that does not correspond to an increase of the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans. However, it was demonstrated that the high level of circulating estrogens did not produce changes either in the glycemia and insulinemia profiles or in the insulin secreting capacity of the islets of Langerhans in this group of rats that received an elevated dose of estrogens.

  13. Evaluating your professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Steven; Neve, Hilary; Leung, Yee

    2016-11-02

    What does being professional look like? Does it mean that you do the 'right' thing, even when no-one is looking? How do you evaluate your professionalism knowledge, values and behaviour? How do you identify and address underperformance in professionalism? How can you transfer your professionalism to different circumstances?

  14. Trade union politics of Ukrainian social democratic party for its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Begej

    2015-03-01

    Attention is drawn to the understanding of the organic interdependence of the social democratic and professional movement theorists in different directions left (Karl Marx , Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Otto Bauer, Julian Bachinski, Vladimir Lewinski, Anton czernecki, differences in the views of these leaders on this issue, which requires predominance in the context of the activities of trade unions and leftist parties of modern Ukraine.

  15. Australian Apprentice & Trainee Statistics: Electrical and Electronics Trades, 1995 to 1999. Australian Vocational Education & Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Statistics regarding Australians participating in apprenticeships and traineeships in the electrical and electronics trades in 1995-1999 were reviewed to provide an indication of where skill shortages may be occurring or will likely occur in relation to the following occupations: electrical engineering associate professional; electronics…

  16. 75 FR 58361 - U.S. Franchise Trade Mission to India Mumbai, Hyderabad, and New Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... April 10-15, 2011. The mission will be led by a senior official and will focus on assisting U.S... India's rapid economic growth. Education and training services, professional services, and hospitality... Assistance Center Kristin Houston, Senior International Trade Specialist & CS Global Franchise Team Leader...

  17. Clonación y caracterización de CaSEC14 : un gen inmplicado en la ruta de secreción de proteínas en "Candida albicans"

    OpenAIRE

    Monteoliva Díaz, Lucía

    1997-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos fundamentales de nuestro grupo de investigación es la identificación de distintas funciones celulares de la célula fúngica que puedan utilizarse en el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos antifungicos. En este trabajo se ha clonado y caracterizado el gen casec14 de la levadura patógena oportunista candida albicans, implicado en la ruta de secreción de proteínas. Dicho gen codifica una proteína, casec14p, que presenta una secuencia con elevada homologa (67%) con otras proteínas s...

  18. BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ONLINE TRADING VERSUS TRADITIONAL TRADING. EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN ONLINE TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petric (Iancu Ioana Ancuta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In terms of marketing, online trading is a new distribution channel and trading platforms are products of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Internet shortens the connection between the investor and the products they wish to purchase (shares, futures, CFDs, government securities, bonds, etc., and in some cases it no longer needs a security broker. Increasing use of the Internet and increasing competitiveness between Investment and Financial Services Companies do the latter, to seek new distribution channels to specific products. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent the investor education level affects the decision to move from traditional trading to online trading and the benefits and disadvantages of these types of transactions. To whom should the Investment and Financial Services Companies guide their marketing campaign to attract more investors for online platforms? The work presented is part of a larger project that will be part of author thesis, studying other factors that influence the decision to move from traditional to online trading: cost factor, time factor, psychological and social attributes of investors, yield portfolios and technological capacities of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Starting from the idea that with the increase of experience in stock investments the investors will want to make their own decisions, Investment and Financial Services Companies should provide new products. Compared to competitors, an Investment and Financial Services Company must innovate, and information technology currently offers the tools for innovation facilities. At the same time, the existence and development of the Internet has made the transaction without assistance or with minimal human intervention possible (Voss, 2000. The difference is in the knowledge about stock market, the speed the transaction orders arrive in the stock market, direct access to multiple markets, transaction costs and the level

  19. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity.

  20. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  1. Towards trusted trade-lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.; Hofman, W.; Zomer, G.; Tan, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Customs administrations are exploring system-based approaches to regulatory supervision, taking the entire set of controls in a process into account. In addition to Trusted Traders, which are recognized by a certification process, customs are considering to identify so called Trusted Trade Lanes:

  2. Fair trade : meer dan verkopen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, P.

    2016-01-01

    Wie aan fair trade denkt, denkt aan de keurmerkkoffie in de schappen van de supermarkt. Maar sinds het ontstaan van de beweging voor eerlijke handel in de jaren 1960 ging het steeds om meer dan kopen en verkopen. Politieke campagnes, boycotacties, het verspreiden van informatie en inzamelingen waren

  3. Non-Preferential Trading Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    , that unambiguouslyincrease the welfare of these countries while leaving the welfare ofnon-members unaltered. In terms of economic policy implications, our resultsshow that there exist regional, MFN-consistent arrangements that leadto Pareto improvements in world welfare.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Trading clubs, non...

  4. Emissions trading under market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, P.

    2013-08-15

    In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the effects of uncertain permit price on the firms choice of emission intensive and clean inputs in an multi-input production process. We also assess the risk aversion factors of some Finnish heat and power producers. Second, we study imperfect competition in output and permit markets with a two-stage model, where output decision is made before permit trades. The emphasis is on the strategic interaction between firms and on the efficiency increasing regulation. Third, we turn back to uncertainty and analyse the welfare difference between emissions trading and emission tax, when some of the firms may be noncompliant. The main finding is that welfare is greater with emission tax than with emissions trading, when at least one firm is noncompliant. Finally, we extend some existing models of permit banking and borrowing to encompass also noncompliant behavior of firms. Here, we analyse the incentives of compliant firms to become noncompliant at some point in time and also the time paths of the choice variables. (orig.)

  5. Price floors for emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Peter John, E-mail: Peter.J.Wood@anu.edu.a [Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Jotzo, Frank, E-mail: frank.jotzo@anu.edu.a [Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Price floors in greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes can guarantee minimum abatement efforts if prices are lower than expected, and they can help manage cost uncertainty, possibly as complements to price ceilings. Provisions for price floors are found in several recent legislative proposals for emissions trading. Implementation however has potential pitfalls. Possible mechanisms are government commitments to buy back permits, a reserve price at auction, or an extra fee or tax on acquittal of emissions permits. Our analysis of these alternatives shows that the fee approach has budgetary advantages and is more compatible with international permit trading than the alternatives. It can also be used to implement more general hybrid approaches to emissions pricing. - Research highlights: {yields} Price floors for emissions trading schemes guarantee a minimum carbon price. {yields} Price floors mean that emissions can be less than specified by the ETS cap. {yields} We examine how price floors can relate to different policy objectives. {yields} We compare different mechanisms for implementing a price floor. {yields} We find that a mechanism where there is an extra tax or fee has advantages.

  6. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2017-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  7. [Falsified medicines in parallel trade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenfuß, Heide

    2017-11-01

    The number of falsified medicines on the German market has distinctly increased over the past few years. In particular, stolen pharmaceutical products, a form of falsified medicines, have increasingly been introduced into the legal supply chain via parallel trading. The reasons why parallel trading serves as a gateway for falsified medicines are most likely the complex supply chains and routes of transport. It is hardly possible for national authorities to trace the history of a medicinal product that was bought and sold by several intermediaries in different EU member states. In addition, the heterogeneous outward appearance of imported and relabelled pharmaceutical products facilitates the introduction of illegal products onto the market. Official batch release at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut offers the possibility of checking some aspects that might provide an indication of a falsified medicine. In some circumstances, this may allow the identification of falsified medicines before they come onto the German market. However, this control is only possible for biomedicinal products that have not received a waiver regarding official batch release. For improved control of parallel trade, better networking among the EU member states would be beneficial. European-wide regulations, e. g., for disclosure of the complete supply chain, would help to minimise the risks of parallel trading and hinder the marketing of falsified medicines.

  8. Global Trade and Indian Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2015-01-01

    -British Western partners, which could support their struggle for industrial self-reliance. This particular alignment of interests facilitated cooperation and shows that the so-called European experience is more diverse than research has shown so far. The analysis highlights global trading networks beyond...

  9. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  10. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  11. Orion Flight Performance Design Trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark C.; Straube, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of the Orion pre-PDR design effort has focused on balancing mass with performance. High level performance metrics include abort success rates, lunar surface coverage, landing accuracy and touchdown loads. These metrics may be converted to parameters that affect mass, such as ballast for stabilizing the abort vehicle, propellant to achieve increased lunar coverage or extended missions, or ballast to increase the lift-to-drag ratio to improve entry and landing performance. The Orion Flight Dynamics team was tasked to perform analyses to evaluate many of these trades. These analyses not only provide insight into the physics of each particular trade but, in aggregate, they illustrate the processes used by Orion to balance performance and mass margins, and thereby make design decisions. Lessons learned can be gleaned from a review of these studies which will be useful to other spacecraft system designers. These lessons fall into several categories, including: appropriate application of Monte Carlo analysis in design trades, managing margin in a highly mass-constrained environment, and the use of requirements to balance margin between subsystems and components. This paper provides a review of some of the trades and analyses conducted by the Flight Dynamics team, as well as systems engineering lessons learned.

  12. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  13. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  14. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  15. Emissions Trading: Trends and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides the latest developments of announced, proposed and existing greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes (ETS) around the world since 2006. It also examines different potential design options for ETS (e.g. coverage, allocation mode, provision for offsets), and how these options are treated in the existing, announced or proposed schemes.

  16. Trade microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in trade and repair in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU. In terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises in enterprises sector is conclusively the weakest.

  17. Streamlining digital signal processing a tricks of the trade guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Streamlining Digital Signal Processing, Second Edition, presents recent advances in DSP that simplify or increase the computational speed of common signal processing operations and provides practical, real-world tips and tricks not covered in conventional DSP textbooks. It offers new implementations of digital filter design, spectrum analysis, signal generation, high-speed function approximation, and various other DSP functions. It provides:Great tips, tricks of the trade, secrets, practical shortcuts, and clever engineering solutions from seasoned signal processing professionalsAn assortment.

  18. TTIP, CETA, TiSA behind closed doors : Transparency in the EU trade policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delimatsis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Transparency in diplomatic negotiations and political discussions is an oxymoron. Rather, secrecy and informality traditionally reign negotiations at the bilateral, regional and multilateral level. Yet transparency ranks among the most basic desiderata in the grammar of global governance and has

  19. The Southern African Development Community trade legal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNISA

    consider the systemic implications of the agreements for the multilateral trading ..... addition, when dealing with intra-SADC trade, Member States shall adopt policies ..... systematic exclusion of any major sectors such as agriculture or textile.

  20. Trade Publications in the Marketing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, William A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes how marketing teachers can use trade publications to enhance the quality of and provide relevance to the marketing education curriculum. Identifies representative trade publications; suggests how to get them for classroom use and how teachers can use them. (JOW)

  1. Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romain Wacziarg; Karen Horn Welch

    A new data set of on openness indicators and trade liberalization dates allows the 1995 Sachs and Warner study on the relationship between trade openness and economic growth to be extended to the 1990s...

  2. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration...

  3. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  4. The Evolution of the Romanian Trade Balance in the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzea Elena Ramona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyse the evolution of the trade balance of Romania with the European Union Member States during the 22 years of transition from a centralised system to a democratic economic and social system and an efficient market economy. Nearly 25 years after the events of 1989, Romania has made great steps in order to resettle the entire economic system and to transform it into a functional one. However, the path was filled with inconsistent decisions and with a repositioning of the trajectory dictated by internal or external pressures. The research focuses on a brief analysis of the evolution of the trade between Romania and the EU Member States to determine the effect the integration had on the structural discrepancies between exports and imports.

  5. Absent yet at All Times Present: Further Thoughts on Secrecy in the Shī‛ī Tradition and in Sunnī Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebstein, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes a tradition (ḥadīṯh that is found in Sunnī and in Shī‛ī sources alike and which portrays the ideal believer as a hidden man who chooses to practice his religion away from the eyes of others. According to the author’s analysis, this tradition has its origins in the religious-political conflicts (fitness of the 2nd/8th century. These conflicts gave rise to a pietistic attitude of noninvolvement and withdrawal from society in times of civil strife. In Shī‛ī versions of the tradition, the element of secrecy and taqiyya is added to the description of the ideal believer. These various motifs were to play an important role in Islamic mysticism, particularly in the teachings of movements such as the malāmatiyya. The author argues that while both Shī‛ī esotericism and Sunnī mysticism incorporated similar, early ḥadīṯhs in their discussions of the figure of the hidden saint, the Shī‛ī tradition contributed much to the development of this theme in its ethical-psychological and esoteric aspects.Este artículo analiza el ḥadīṯ que se encuentra tanto en las fuentes šī‛íes como sunníes que retrata al creyente ideal como un hombre escondido que elige practicar su religión apartado de los ojos de los otros. Según el autor, esta tradición tiene su origen en las luchas político-religiosas (fintas del siglo II/VIII, que propiciaron una actitud piadosa de retiro de la sociedad y no participación en tiempos de lucha civil. En las versiones šī‛íes del ḥadīṯ el elemento de secreto, taqiyya, se anade a la descripción del creyente ideal. Estos motivos habrán de desempenar un papel importante en movimientos místicos como el de malāmatiyya. Aunque el esoterismo šī‛í y el misticismo sunní incorporaron hadices similares a su elaboración del santo escondido, la tradición šī‛í contribuyó particularmente al desarrollo de este tema tanto en términos ético-psicológicos como esotéricos.

  6. Efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico liofilizado de hojas de Bixa orellana (achiote, en la secreción gástrica de ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Huamán

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas Bixa orellana (achiote sobre los niveles de grupos sulfidrilos no proteicos (GS-NP, moco gástrico, pH y acidez total de la secreción gástrica. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, analítico-experimental y transversal. Lugar: Laboratorios del Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: Para evaluar el efecto del extracto sobre la mucosa gástrica se utilizó el modelo de la ligadura pilórica, propuesto por Vissher y modificado por Sandoval. En la determinación de GS-NP se utilizó el método de Sadlak y Lindsay; la producción de moco gástrico fue según Corne, el pH por potenciómetro y la acidez total por titulación con NaOH. Principales medidas de resultados: Niveles de grupos sulfidrilos no proteicos (GS-NP, moco gástrico, pH y acidez total. Resultados: El extracto hidroalcohólico de hojas de Bixa orellana incrementó los GS-NP en 133 y 168% (p< 0,01, a las dosis de 100 y 200 mg/kg, y la producción de moco, en 39,4% y 44,9 %, respectivamente, a las dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg (p<0,01. Sin embargo, solo en el grupo que recibió la dosis de 400 mg/kg de peso se produjo un descenso de pH de forma significativa (p<0,05. Por otro lado, la acidez total a la dosis de extracto 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg presentaron un incremento de 62,3%, 58,2% y 166,6%, respectivamente (p<0,01. Conclusiones: El tratamiento con extracto hidroalcohólico de Bixa orellana incrementa la producción de GS-NP y moco gástrico, sin inhibición de la acidez total.

  7. Indonesia's Intra -Industry Trade with ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Widarjono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    AFTA has been starting since 2003. This study will investigate Indonesia's bilateral trade with ASEAN member by examining intra-industry trade. The Grubel-Lloyd Index is applied to measure intra-industry trade. Intra –industry trade is classified based on factor intensity in the production process. There are natural resource intensive, unskilled labor intensive, physical capital intensive, human capital intensive and technological intensive. This research shows that level of Indonesia...

  8. Regional cooperation, infrastructure, and trade costs

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas H. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    International trade has played an essential role in Asia's remarkable growth, development, and integration in recent decades. Infrastructure, both hard and soft, has played an integral part in facilitating that trade, primarily through reducing the associated transaction costs. Regional coordination and cooperation can help to reduce negative externalities from trade and to capitalize more fully on positive spillover effects. This study explores the nexus between Asia's trade flows and patter...

  9. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  10. Professional development of distance education professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Professional development of distance education professionals (DEPs) at TSA: a profile of functions. J.F. van Koller. Institute for Staff Development, Technikon SA, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710 South Africa jvcoller@tsa.ac.za. This article deals with the development of a profile of the functions and required competencies of ...

  11. Teacher Professionalism: Analysis of Professionalism Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Cipto; Herdiani, Aulia; Sulikah

    2017-01-01

    Teacher professionalism has become a distinctive concern in educational discussions. Based on Teacher and Lecturer Act No.14 2005 carried out by Indonesian Government, teacher professionalism, considered as an assessment aspect of teacher quality, could be drawn by four competences, pedagogical competence, personal, competence, social competence,…

  12. Professional Environment for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Teaching and training are at the heart of the knowledge society where the continuing professional development of teachers and trainers provides the cornerstone for the development of a high quality education and training systems. The Aim of the Study. To identify a design of professional environment for teacher professional…

  13. Transforming Professional Development to Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews teacher professional development norms as they are shifting toward collaborative practice. It is posed that passive and individual practices are inadequate to prepare teachers to integrate the academic skills that learners need for both workforce and college readiness. Promising practices in professional development are…

  14. Professional Development Plus: Rethinking Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of professional development is to enhance educator practices so that students may achieve at high levels. Too often, professional development tends to be too broad, general, or unrelated to problems of practice that teachers face in their own classrooms. This action research project builds upon the scholarly research that recognizes…

  15. Coevolution of Human Speech and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horan, R.D.; Bulte, E.H.; Shogren, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a paleoeconomic coevolutionary explanation for the origin of speech in modern humans. The coevolutionary process, in which trade facilitates speech and speech facilitates trade, gives rise to multiple stable trajectories. While a `trade-speech¿ equilibrium is not an inevitable outcome for

  16. 77 FR 52766 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of... day roundtable entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss... ways in which market participants design, implement, and manage complex and inter-connected trading...

  17. 77 FR 56697 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...] Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of roundtable... entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss ways to promote... Trading and Markets, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-7010. By...

  18. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A nonroad...

  19. Trade facilitation and Africa's manufactured goods export

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akinkugbe, Oluyele

    2006-01-01

    ... all forms of constraints to the free flow of goods--reducing trade and customs regulations--from current levels, could have a significant impact on trade expansion in Africa. Introduction The role of international trade in industrialization, economic growth and development has long been a topic of interest to economists and policy makers worldwi...

  20. INNOVATIONS OF THE TRADE MARKETING IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spīča, Inese; Spīčs, Ernests

    2010-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment contemporary marketing activities affects educational programms. The paper analyze the marketing and sales current events in Latvia. In this paper given a substantive explanation of trade marketing and trade marketing development opportunities for Latvia, trade marketing new development areas and to clarify their learning opportunities in Latvia.

  1. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand means...

  2. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds...

  3. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the... trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the United States and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 984.22 Section 984.22 Agriculture...

  4. International Trade and Investment Report 2001

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Forfás' International Trade and Investment Report 2001 examines in detail Ireland's performance in international trade and in flows of investment, both inwards and outwards. This report shows the vital place of international trade and investment in the Irish economy.

  5. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower…

  6. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research agenda will cover four themes: linkages between trade and inclusive growth; negotiation issues with poorly understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; liberalization of trade in services, and the emerging regional trade policy architecture. The idea is to promote a better ...

  7. The Southern African Development Community trade legal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNISA

    List of abbreviations and acronyms. ACP – African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States. BLNS- Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland. CRTA- Committee on Regional Trade Agreements. CTG- Council on Trade in Goods. EPA- Economic Partnership Agreements. EU- European Union. FTA- Free Trade Area.

  8. Smart trade logistics - Compliance as an opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitation of trade logistics aims at simplification and harmonization of border procedures and related documentation. This is an accelerator for global trade and economic growth and therefore a priority in global trade policy. Trends in logistics and supply chain security and innovations in

  9. Opening the Black Box of Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; De Lombaerde, Philippe; Saucedo Accosta, Edgar J.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter the author presents a coding methodology to capture the heterogeneity of trade agreements and to facilitate quantitative analysis departing from qualitative legal differences in trade agreements. The coding is based on whether the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are

  10. The Option Value in Timing Derivative Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Feico; van der Heijden, T.G.E.; Werker, Bas

    Risk-neutral traders executing derivative trades on behalf of portfolio managers maximize their expected profit compared to trading at pre-determined times by timing trades, using the quickly changing risk exposures of derivative baskets. The optimal order submission strategy is a sequence of stop

  11. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  12. Magnet Trade Books: Attracting and Repelling Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    A series of magnet trade books were analyzed against a validated list of magnet concepts (Barrow, 1990a) and their Flesch (1974) Readability was determined. These trade books were used to supplement a second grade unit on magnetism locally constructed from AIM's "Mostly Magnets" (1991). All trade books accurately described how like and unlike…

  13. The Politics of Trade: The Role of Research in Trade Policy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 mai 2009 ... The Politics of Trade: The Role of Research in Trade Policy and Negotiation. Book cover The Politics of Trade: The Role of Research in Trade Policy and Negotiation. Directeur(s) : ... Grappes des technologies de l'information et de la communication, rendement des entreprises locales et création d'emplois.

  14. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...; education services; electronic components; electrical power systems; food processing and packaging equipment...) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia business forum in Singapore (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission). Trade...

  15. Trade structure, trade mode and the urban-rural income gap in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effect of foreign trade in China on the urban-rural income gap from certain angles including trade scale, trade structure and trade mode at the national and provincial levels. The empirical results indicate that, from the perspective of trade scale, the export and import in the eastern and national regions have an expansion effect on the urban-rural income gap, and, in the central regions, they have a reduction effect. Furthermore, export in the western regions has a reduction effect while import in these regions did not have a significant effect. From the perspective of trade structure, the trade of high-tech products and labour-intensive products in the national and eastern regions has an expansion effect, and the trade of the above-mentioned products in the central regions has a reduction effect. The trade of labour-intensive products in the western regions has a reduction effect, and that of high-tech products an expansion effect. From the perspective of trade mode, processing trade and general trade in the national and eastern regions have an expansion effect, while in the central regions they have a reduction effect. General trade in the western regions would expand the urban-rural income gap, and processing trade does not have a significant effect. Consequently, when the South African Government is working out trade multiplicative and corresponding policy, they should consider the development of foreign trade and should pay attention to the labour market structure.

  16. Preferential Trade Arrangements and the Pattern of Production and Trade when Inputs are Differentiated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is concerned with rules of origin when intermediate goods are differentiated. An analytical model emphasizes trade patterns and the relative importance of trade in intermediates given trade preferences. Econometric evidence based on intra-OECD trade in motor vehicles and motor

  17. Additive versus Multiplicative Trade Costs and the Gains from Trade Liberalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses welfare e¤ects from trade liberalization in a Melitz (2003) heterogeneous-…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and …xed trade costs. The novel contribution...... of the pa- per is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from di¤erences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from...

  18. Corridors of trade and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Stepputat, Finn

    business between 1991 and today: from the heavily informalised economy of the 1980s, the violent markets of the early 1990s and the subsequent ‘duty-free shop’ period, to the emergence of a more regulated economy with a significant development of multi-clan shareholder companies since the mid-2000s....... In doing so, this paper offers numerous empirical and analytical insights into the relationship between trade, violence and regulation. With ongoing and future research on this topic in mind, we suggest a series of research questions and conceptualise the nexus between everyday economic activities...... and state formation dynamics. Finally, we propose a ‘corridor approach’, focussing on transnational corridors of trade and transport that traverse Somali East Africa, as a way of grasping the complex and dynamic interactions between state formation and everyday economic activity....

  19. Rationalities in trade union work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    as ‘customers’ tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of ‘political actors’ to ‘service providers’ in the advanced liberal societies. In closing, the paper will gesture to possible contestations, points of resistance and alternative discourses that are silenced in the strategy...... and exclusion, the territoriality of the unions, political ambitions, etc. By destabilizing the predominant neo-liberal discourses of the trade unions, the paper thus aims to point to alternative discursive resources and practices for strategy development....... papers. Using discourse analytic methods the paper will analyze, discuss and compare the current strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation will clarify the discursive premises of the unions and it will be shown how...

  20. Rethinking distance in international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013

    CERN Document Server

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distances incorporate the different dimensions that affect international trade, beyond mere geography. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat, but hyperbolic. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; th...

  1. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    OpenAIRE

    Б. В. Духницький; Т. В. Сіліфонов

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the w...

  2. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures.... Engage in promotional and marketing activities and collect information on trade opportunities in the... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export...

  3. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export... marketing activities; b. Collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and distribute... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 10-00002...

  4. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export... marketing activities and collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and distribute... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (Application...

  5. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with your healthcare team about your concerns, asking questions and getting the facts. Usually, office visits and ... or other healthcare professionals. Find a list of questions to ask at your next appointment . Healthcare professionals ...

  6. Professionalism in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Homer

    2017-02-01

    Is professionalism in medicine just another bureaucratic imposition on our practice or a fundamental concept for physicians at all stages in their career? In this review, the historical perspectives of professionalism are explored as well as the what, why, and how questions concerning this topic. The key words "professionalism" and "anesthesia" were used to conduct a search of the PubMed database, the policies and publications of relevant Canadian and international physician regulatory bodies and organizations, historical documents, and other internet publications. Professionalism in anesthesia has a long history. While there are many definitions for professionalism, some very dated, all are based on virtues, behaviour, or professional identity. Professionalism plays a central role in the balance between physician autonomy and social contract, and it has a significant impact on patient safety and medicolegal litigation. Considerable evidence exists to suggest that professionalism must be treated seriously, particularly in these times of social accountability and budgetary pressures.

  7. Communicating with Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  8. Communicating with Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  9. ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL ASPECTS REGARDING INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although subject to short term fluctuations as a result of the business cycle, the value of trade has continued to grow, reflecting the increased significance of trade and globalization. This paper focuses on the importance of accounting harmonisation on international trade showing the fiscal framework regarding trade in Romania. The study also presents the situation of exports and imports in our country in the last years, showing that the volume of goods and services trades is raising, leading also at the entire economy to grow.

  10. Determinants of retail trade in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Benazić, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that retail trade is one of the most important parts of any economy. Retail trade is also a very important component of GDP, whereby rising retail trade means a growth in consumption and a fall in unemployment. Therefore, policy makers must be able to recognise how changes in economic variables affect changes in retail trade. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the effects of changes in retail prices, net wages and short-term interest rate on nominal retail trade in ...

  11. Problems of Interplanetary and Interstellar Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, John

    2008-01-01

    If and when interplanetary and interstellar trade develops, it will be novel in two respects. First, the distances and time spans involved will reduce all or nearly all trade to the exchange of intangible goods. That threatens the possibility of conducting business in a genuinely common currency and of enforcing debt agreements, especially those involving sovereign debt. Second, interstellar trade suggests trade between humans and aliens. Cultural distance is a probable obstacle to initiating and sustaining such trade. Such exchange also threatens the release of new and potentially toxic memes.

  12. U.S. trade remedy law and agriculture: trade diversion and investigation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Colin A. Carter; Caroline Gunning-Trant

    2010-01-01

    We study U.S. agricultural antidumping and countervailing duty cases from 1980 to 2005, and gauge the effectiveness of trade remedy law as a form of protection. The purpose is to measure the resulting investigation and trade diversion effects. Previous research on trade in manufactured products has shown that the domestic protection offered by AD and CV duties is largely offset by trade diversion. In contrast, we find that for agriculture, trade diversion is relatively unimportant. So AD and ...

  13. The Physical Burdens of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L.; Masicampo, E. J.; Toosi, Negin R.; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    The present work examined whether secrets are experienced as physical burdens, thereby influencing perception and action. Four studies examined the behavior of people who harbored important secrets, such as secrets concerning infidelity and sexual orientation. People who recalled, were preoccupied with, or suppressed an important secret estimated…

  14. Common Randomness Principles of Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the secure processing of distributed data by multiple terminals, using interactive public communication among themselves, in order to accomplish a given computational task. In the setting of a probabilistic multiterminal source model in which several terminals observe correlated random signals, we analyze secure…

  15. Professionalism in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Susan R.; Mistry, Gianna Limone

    2012-01-01

    Professionalism in Dance Education is a complex construction. It can be imposed from the outside (degree completed, job status, salary) or can be identified from the professional herself. Seven graduate dance education students were interviewed with specific focus on the transition from student to professional and the feelings surrounding this…

  16. Professional Development. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…

  17. Managing Carbon Footprints under the Trade Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how the retailer adjusts optimal ordering policy in the presence of cap-and-trade system and trade credit, and the corresponding changes of the retailer’s total costs and carbon footprint. Trade credit is one of the most used short-term financing tools. Our study shows that carbon emissions trading will shorten the ordering cycle for products that emit more carbon dioxide during the storage stage, and therefore reduce the buying behavior stimulation effect of trade credit on these products. Under the cap-and-trade system, the retailer’s total cost may increase or decrease, depending on the combination of carbon cap allocated to the retailer and the carbon price. Moreover, trade credit and the corresponding cost of capital affect the retailer’s carbon emission reduction strategy by changing the retailers’ consolidated cost during the ordering and inventory holding stages.

  18. International service trade and its implications for human resources for health: a case study of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitayarangsarit Siriwan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims at analysing the impact of international service trade on the health care system, particularly in terms of human resources for health (HRH, using Thailand as a case study. Information was gathered through a literature review and interviews of relevant experts, as well as a brainstorming session. It was found that international service trade has greatly affected the Thai health care system and its HRH. From 1965 to 1975 there was massive emigration of physicians from Thailand in response to increasing demand in the United States of America. The country lost about 1,500 physicians, 20% of its total number, during that period. External migration of health professionals occurred without relation to agreements on trade in services. It was also found that free trade in service sectors other than health could seriously affect the health care system and HRH. Free trade in financial services with free flow of low-interest foreign loans, which started in 1993 in Thailand, resulted in the mushrooming of urban private hospitals between 1994 and 1997. This was followed by intensive internal migration of health professionals from rural public to urban private hospitals. After the economic crisis in 1997, with the resulting downturn of the private health sector, reverse brain drain was evident. At the same time, foreign investors started to invest in the bankrupt private hospitals. Since 2001, the return of economic growth and the influx of foreign patients have started another round of internal brain drain.

  19. 40 CFR 1042.720 - Trading emission credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading emission credits. 1042.720..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1042.720 Trading emission credits. (a) Trading is the exchange of... further trading transactions. (b) You may trade actual emission credits as described in this subpart. You...

  20. Professional performance in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.

  1. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  2. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdan, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.perdan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: > The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. > Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. > The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. > Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. > A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  3. Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    with Canada since 1989, which was expanded to include Mexico and became the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) effective in January 1994. U.S...Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement ( TPP ). The TPP is a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. The TPP , which... Mexico , went into effect in January 1994. U.S. interest in bilateral and regional free trade arrangements surged, and the Bush Administration

  4. Nutrition Labelling is a Trade Policy Issue: Lessons From an Analysis of Specific Trade Concerns at the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, C; Thow, A. M.; Jones, A; Ali, I.; Labonte, R

    2017-01-01

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organ...

  5. Who Uses Free Trade Agreements?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Hiratsuka, Daisuke; Shiino, Kohei; Sukegawa, Seiya

    2009-01-01

    It is noted that utilization of ASEAN Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) is low by international standards. In order to clarify the reasons for such low utilization, this paper investigates what kinds of Japanese affiliates in ASEAN are more likely to use FTAs in their exporting, by employing unique affiliate-level data. Our findings are as follows. First, the larger the affiliate is, or the more diversified the origins of its procurements, the more likely it is to utilize an FTA scheme in its expo...

  6. Combination trading with limit orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Schellhorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the exchange of commodities that are contingent upon each other, when traders place mostly limit orders. Examples include: 1 a market of financial futures where future spreads are also traded, 2 a market of mutual funds and stocks, 3 a market of options and stocks, under the viewpoint that they are both combinations of Arrow-Debreu securities. We prove that consistent prices are optimal. We develop a fixed-point algorithm to compute an optimal price and allocation. The algorithm combines ideas from contraction mapping theory and from homotopy theory. It is much faster than a traditional linear programming approach.

  7. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods...

  8. Non-preferential Trading Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries, that unambiguou......, that unambiguously increase the welfare of these countries while leaving the welfare of non-members unaltered. In terms of economic policy implications, our results show that there exist regional, MFN-consistent arrangements that lead to Pareto improvements in world welfare....

  9. English for International Trade Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bilová Štĕpánka

    2014-01-01

    The Faculty of Law at Masaryk University in Brno, the Czech Re- public, offers several fields of studies, one of them being the three-year Bachelor’s degree programme of International Trade Law. This programme includes two semesters of English for specific purposes which the students take in their first year of studies. However, as the programme is offered as a part time study, there are only 10 lessons of English taught within two days per semester. Preparing a course which would develop the...

  10. LAVA Pressure Transducer Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Samuel B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload will transport the (LAVA) subsystem to hydrogen-rich locations on the moon supporting NASA's in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) programs. There, the LAVA subsystem will analyze volatiles that evolve from heated regolith samples in order to quantify how much water is present. To do this, the system needs resilient pressure transducers (PTs) to calculate the moles in the gas samples. The PT trade study includes a comparison of newly-procured models to a baseline unit with prior flight history in order to determine the PT model with the best survivability in flight-forward conditions.

  11. INTERACTION OF TRADE AND FINANCIAL LINKAGES IN THE FREE TRADE ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different models of free trade agreements (FTA and free trade zones (FTZ are considered in the article, argued the complex approach to their structures and results under unstable global economic environment. The typology of the free trade zones models and financial linkages types between countries have been developed. Approaches to the results of the free trade zones have been argued. It has been discovered that for the free trade zones of transitional countries the prevailing are tarde flows concentration whereas financial and investment linkages are acting with developed countries. The main directions of increasing of the financial linkages results in the free trade zones have been discovered.

  12. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    that industry will have most influence on government policy, with environmental organizations taking second place. Our conclusion is that most interest groups prefer a combination of government trading and credit trading even though permit trading is more efficient. Furthermore, some governments prefer......The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find...... government trading because it retains the possibility of hot air trading. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  13. Libraries are not Trading Houses!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın İleri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the reviewed version of the assertion shared on 29 November 2016 at Kutup-L professional discussion list and prepared by school libraries association in relation to the collecting societies’ asking for Money for preventing writer’s rights as much as the the number of books lent.

  14. Trading Cards for the Professoriate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    In the celebrity-driven, star-struck culture, university professors do not receive the attention or praise--not to mention the paychecks--of movie actors, pop music idols, super models, or sports stars. Although professors' egos may not be much smaller than those of celebrities, academia lacks the promotional infrastructure of professional sports…

  15. THE EU’S NEIGHBOURHOOD TRADE ARRANGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The elusive outcome of the Doha Round has increased the importance of the preferential trade agreements worldwide. Currently, the EU`s trade policy is driven by preferential negotiations. European bilateralism is important and extremely challenging. This union aims to conclude a significant number of deep and comprehensive free trade agreements, particularly by eliminating tariffs, and also by facilitating the trade of services, investments, procurement and regulatory matters. The EU has granted unilateral preferences to developing countries through tariff free access to the EU market, thereby helping them to eradicate poverty and promote sustainable development. Based on the primary motives of Europe’s preferential trade agreements, we have analysed the trade agreements negotiated with geographically close neighbours to which the EU is prepared to offer commercial accession or some slightly less ambitious type of relationship.

  16. Time-Space Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Jakob Illeborg

    In this dissertation we investigate the complexity of the time-space trade-off for sorting, element distinctness, and similar problems. We contribute new results, techniques, tools, and definitions pertaining to time-space trade-offs for the RAM (Random Access Machine), including new tight upper...... bounds on the time-space trade-off for Sorting in a variety of RAM models and a strong time-space trade-off lower bound for a decision problem in the RAM (in fact the branching program) model. We thus contribute to the general understanding of a number of fundamental combinatorial problems. Time...... and space are the two most fundamental resources studied in the areas of algorithms and computational complexity theory and it is clearly important to study how they are related. In 1966 Cobham founded the area of time-space trade-offs by formally proving the first time-space trade-off—for the language...

  17. Excessive trading, a gambling disorder in its own right? A case study on a French disordered gamblers cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Sauvaget, Anne; Boutin, Claude; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Caillon, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Trading and gambling appear to share some similarities. Indeed, traders can get professionally involved in high-risk types of trading as if it were gambling. This research explores whether excessive trading can be conceptualized as a subset of gambling disorders. To better acknowledge the existence of an addictive-like trading behavior and to discuss its phenomenological similarities with gambling disorders. The data of 8 excessive traders out of a cohort of 221 outpatients seeking treatment in our Problem Gambling unit were analyzed. Our case series revealed important similarities with gambling disorders in terms of diagnosis, trajectory and comorbidities. Like many disordered gamblers, excessive traders of this study experienced a number of small early wins, chased their losses, and ended up losing control over the money they invested. All of them invested in very risky stocks associated with short-term trading leading to potential large gains, but also with very significant losses. The structure itself of the two activities (gambling and trading) is very close. Our results tended to support the idea of an addictive-like trading behavior as a subset of gambling disorders. Investing is not a form of gambling, but some people gamble with investments. Several observations and recommendations can be made: (i) conduct researches; (ii) build and validate specific assessment tools; (iii) develop strategies for prevention and treatment; and (iv) conduct more rigorous studies to clarify what we named an addictive-like trading behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Formation of Russian Agrarian Trade Structure: Inter-industry vs. Intra-industry Trade Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ishchukova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on specialization of Russia’s foreign trade in agrarian products and foodstuffs in terms of inter-industry and intra-industry trade. The main objective of this study is to analyse the extent of intra-industry trade in Russia’s foreign trade in agricultural products and to identify significant changes in trade patterns at the industry level over the transformation period (1996–2012.The results coming from individual conducted analyses provide a systematic decomposition of Russia’s foreign trade into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry in horizontally and vertically differentiated products. Inter-industry type of trade dominates in Russian foreign trade in agricultural and food products and accounts for about a third of total trade flows. The analysis revealed significant differences in the intensity of intra-industry trade, depending on geographic region. The lowest level of intra-industry trade is observed in relation to Africa and South America, the highest - in relation to CIS countries. There were also found some trends, including the expanding intra-industry trade in relation to the CIS countries, as well as a decrease in relation to Asian and EU countries.

  19. Marketingová komunikace fair trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nídlová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how fair trade and its brand are communicated on the market. The theoretical part describes the basic concepts of marketing, marketing communication and marketing research. The practical part describes the general meaning of fair trade and its main principles and goals. The following section is devoted to the analysis of recent marketing activities. The main research investigates the level of knowledge of fair trade among Czech consumers. The conclusion summarizes the r...

  20. Trade and Environmental Issues in Forest Production

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Simula

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to clarify some of the key issues on trade and environment in the forestry sector. The two main emerging issues in the international trade of forest products within Latin America and the Caribbean to be studied are: 1) implications of the removal of trade barriers for the economic contribution and sustainability of production of the forest sector; and 2) prospects for "green" markets and eco-labelling of forest products based on improved management and harvesting prac...

  1. Japanese Trading Companies: Can they Be Copied?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Sarathy

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of Japanese trading companies suggests that would-be U.S. trading companies could be emulate Japan's special, rather than general, trading companies. Factors likely to lead to success are: offering narrow high-margin product lines in geographically diversified markets; integration with manufacturing operations having strong domestic markets; well capitalized finances with access to ample credit, perhaps achieved through partnership with large international banks; efficient working ca...

  2. The Fair Trade Network in Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fridell , Gavin

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the fair trade network within the context of the post-war international development regime. In recent years, sales of fair trade goods — both commodities and handicrafts — have grown substantially in Europe and North America, and the fair trade network has been relatively successful at gaining the support of public institutions, international financial institutions, and transnational corporations. This paper argues that this success, when viewed historically, can only be p...

  3. China: Exchange Rate Policy and Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia García-Herrero; Tuuli Koivu

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows empirically that China s trade balance is sensitive to fluctuations in the renminbi real effective exchange rate. However, the current size of the trade surplus is such that exchange rate policy, alone, will probably not be able to address the imbalance. The reduction in the trade surplus is limited mainly because Chinese imports do not react as expected to exchange rate appreciation. In fact, they tend to fall rather than increase. By estimating bilateral import equations fo...

  4. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  5. Trade union organization in employment relations

    OpenAIRE

    Čeledová, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Trade unions organizations in employment relations The thesis deals with trade union organization as the most important representative of employees in collective employment relations. The purpose of this thesis is to describe a task of trade union organization as a legal subject from the view of legal theory, as well as from the view of contemporary legal regulation which has recently been substantially changed due to the recodification of private law. These contemporary amendments change a s...

  6. A Dialogical Approach to Trade and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Trujillo

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, supporters of free trade and environmentalists have regarded each other as the obstacle to development, and both sides have very different views as to what constitutes development. This article considers the various dimensions to international trade governance in the context of the environment and draws from the dialogic theory in comparative constitutional law to frame trade governance regarding the environment in a new way. It uses a dialogical approach to highlight primarily...

  7. Five essays on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2005-03-01

    The thesis discusses energy, environmental and economic aspects of polluting emissions with emphasis on greenhouse gas trade and political measures. 5 papers are included with titles: 1) Carbon trading across sources and periods constrained by the Marrakesh Accords which examines examine the potential effects on permit prices and abatement costs of four compliance rules governing emissions trade across sources and periods in the Kyoto Protocol: The banking rule that allows excess permits to be used later; the restoration rate rule that penalizes borrowing; the commitment period reserve rule that limits sales; and finally, the suspension rule that restricts borrowing and sales. Our framework is a two-period model where parties may be out of compliance in the Kyoto period, but are assumed to comply at a later time. Under varying assumptions about market power and US participation, we find that the rules may have pronounced effects on individual costs, but overall efficiency is not severely affected. 2) Affine price expectations and equilibrium in strategic markets which considers equilibrium in imperfect markets, featuring agents who exchange property rights. Important cases include trade in emission permits of greenhouse gases, or exchange of catch quotas of fish. Some players act strategically while others are price-takers. The ''demand curve'' is endogenous, and it affects all parties. The resulting, reduced objectives need not be concave. Therefore, existence of equilibrium is a delicate matter. To simplify things, and to ensure availability of ''equilibria up to first order'', we presume that all strategic agents form affine price expectations. 3) Greenhouse gases, quota exchange and oligopolistic competition that discusses the problem how quotas can be shared in the ''emissions market'' and how can the agents reach as overall equilibrium in the product market. 4) Strategic markets in property rights

  8. Restoring medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity.

  9. The nature and significance of intra-industry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Roy J. Ruffin

    1999-01-01

    In this article, Roy Ruffin gives an overview of intra-industry trade for the generalist. Intra-industry trade represents international trade within industries rather than between industries. Such trade is more beneficial than inter-industry trade because it stimulates innovation and exploits economies of scale. Moreover, since productive factors do not switch from one industry to another, but only within industries, intra-industry trade is less disruptive than inter-industry trade.

  10. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michele Ford

    2015-01-01

    .... The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings...

  11. Wildlife trade and global disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James

    2005-07-01

    The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife populations, and the health of ecosystems. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage globally. Rather than attempting to eradicate pathogens or the wild species that may harbor them, a practical approach would include decreasing the contact rate among species, including humans, at the interface created by the wildlife trade. Since wildlife marketing functions as a system of scale-free networks with major hubs, these points provide control opportunities to maximize the effects of regulatory efforts.

  12. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  13. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Cingolani

    Full Text Available We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  14. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  15. EU-India migration and trade linkages

    OpenAIRE

    TUMBE, Chinmay

    2013-01-01

    CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration This paper reviews the relationship between migration and trade between India and the European Union (EU). It provides an overview of EU-India trade across various dimensions and links it with migration in three specific contexts: (a) The $ 14 billion EU-India diamond trade that represents nearly 15% of total EU-India merchandise trade, and that is attributed to the direct and active role played by Indian immig...

  16. Unstimulated salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of saliva in healthy volunteers Débito basal, pH y capacidad tampón de la secreción salivar en sujetos sanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fenoll-Palomares

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to assess the salivary flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity of healthy volunteers, and their relationships with age, gender, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, and to establish the lower-end value of normal salivary flow (oligosialia. Methods: a prospective study was conducted in 159 healthy volunteers (age > 18 years, absence of medical conditions that could decrease salivary flow. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during ten minutes, and salivary flow rate (ml/min, pH, and bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l were measured using a Radiometer ABL 520. The 5 percentile of salivary flow rate and bicarbonate concentration was considered the lower limit of normality. Results: median salivary flow rate was 0.48 ml/min (range: 0.1-2 ml/min. Age younger than 44 years was associated with higher flow rates (OR 2.10. Compared with women, men presented a higher flow rate (OR 3.19 and buffer capacity (OR 2.81. Bicarbonate concentration correlated with salivary flow rate. The lower-end values of normal flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were 0.15 ml/min and 1.800 mmol/l, respectively. The presence of obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not influence salivary parameters. Conclusions: in healthy volunteers, salivary flow rate depends on age and gender, and correlates with buffer capacity. Obesity, smoking, and alcohol use do not influence salivary secretion.Objetivos: conocer el débito, pH y capacidad tampón de la saliva en sujetos sanos y sus relaciones con edad, sexo, obesidad y hábitos tabáquico y alcohólico, así como establecer la definición de hiposialia. Métodos: estudio observacional prospectivo en 159 voluntarios sanos (> 18 años, sin factores conocidos que disminuyan la secreción salivar. Se ha recogido la saliva total, sin estímulo, durante 10 minutos, determinando su débito (ml/min, pH y capacidad tampón (concentración de bicarbonato en mmol/l mediante autoanalizador Radiometer ABL 520. Se han

  17. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.

  18. Trading people versus trading time: What is the difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Christine C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Person trade-off (PTO elicitations yield different values than standard utility measures, such as time trade-off (TTO elicitations. Some people believe this difference arises because the PTO captures the importance of distributive principles other than maximizing treatment benefits. We conducted a qualitative study to determine whether people mention considerations related to distributive principles other than QALY-maximization more often in PTO elicitations than in TTO elicitations and whether this could account for the empirical differences. Methods 64 members of the general public were randomized to one of three different face-to-face interviews, thinking aloud as they responded to TTO and PTO elicitations. Participants responded to a TTO followed by a PTO elicitation within contexts that compared either: 1 two life-saving treatments; 2 two cure treatments; or 3 a life-saving treatment versus a cure treatment. Results When people were asked to choose between life-saving treatments, non-maximizing principles were more common with the PTO than the TTO task. Only 5% of participants considered non-maximizing principles as they responded to the TTO elicitation compared to 68% of participants who did so when responding to the PTO elicitation. Non-maximizing principles that emerged included importance of equality of life and a desire to avoid discrimination. However, these principles were less common in the other two contexts. Regardless of context, though, participants were significantly more likely to respond from a societal perspective with the PTO compared to the TTO elicitation. Conclusion When lives are at stake, within the context of a PTO elicitation, people are more likely to consider non-maximizing principles, including the importance of equal access to a life-saving treatment, avoiding prejudice or discrimination, and in rare cases giving treatment priority based purely on the position of being worse-off.

  19. Does AFTA Create More Trade for Thailand? An Investigation of Some Key Trade Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA creates trade for Thailand or actually diverts it away from the country. It does this by analyzing various trade indicators: the Export Similarity Index, the Intra-Industry Trade Index, and Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA rank correlation. By examining the patterns of trade between Thailand and other members of ASEAN, it reveals a high degree of similarity regarding the trade structure between Thailand and AFTA, which indicates that there will be fewer trade-creation benefits from AFTA and a greater likelihood of trade diversion once the AFTA scheme has been fully implemented. This similarity pattern explains the reasons for future collaboration among member countries and supportive arguments for the future extension of ASEAN ("ASEAN+". Market-penetration and development strategies should be employed by Thai exporters when accessing the ASEAN market.

  20. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Changes That Matter Find HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals ...

  1. Professionalism: rise and fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, M S

    1979-01-01

    Historically, the early professionalization movements in medicine and the law appear as organizational projects which aspire to monopolize income and opportunities in markets of services or labor and to monopolize status and work privileges in occupational hierarchies. Their central task is to standardize training and link it to actual or potential markets of labor or services, a linkage that is structurally effected in the modern university. The second wave of professionalization has different protagonists than the older "market professions": placed in a different structural situation, the bureaucratic professions transform the model of profession (which they adopt as a strategy of collective ascension) into an ideology. The import of the ideology of professionalism is examined in relation to two issues: the relationships between professional occupations and bureaucratic organizations; and the position of professional occupations within the larger structure of inequality. Analysis of the first point requires consideration of the distinctions between professional occupations in the public and private sectors, the use of professional knowledge and the image of profession in bureaucratic organizations, and the specific characteristics of professions that produce their own knowledge. In the discussion of the second point, professional occupations and their ideology are examined in relation to other occupations and to the possibilities of political awareness generated by uncertain professional statuses.

  2. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask Your ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and ...

  3. Trade in Health Services and Globalization: The Role of Infinitesimal Changes of Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Tonmoy; Gupta, Kausik

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to integrate the issues related to health care, consumption efficiency hypothesis and international trade in the context of a developing economy. In this article we have framed a hybrid type of three sector general equilibrium trade model in the presence of a nutritional efficiency factor of health consumption, where first two sectors form a Heckscher-Ohlin nugget and the third one is a non-traded health service producing sector. Overall, we find little harm from trade, an...

  4. US Trade and Wages: The Misleading Implications of Conventional Trade Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Edwards; Robert Z. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Conventional trade theory, which combines the Heckscher-Ohlin theory and the Stolper-Samuelson theorem, implies that expanded trade between developed and developing countries will increase wage inequality in the developed countries. This theory is widely applied. It serves as the basis for estimating the impact of trade on wages using two-sector simulation models and the net factor content of trade. It leads naturally to the presumption that the rapid growth and declining relative prices of U...

  5. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Book Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the U.S. and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; calendar, 2002-2009; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  6. Taxonomía de onicóforos de Santander, Colombia y termogravimetría, calorimetría de barrido diferencial y espectroscopía infrarroja de la secreción adhesiva (Onychophora: Peripatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier H Jerez-Jaimes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Redescribimos taxonómicamente el gusano Macroperipatus geagy Bouvier 1899, a partir de 15 especímenes recolectados en los cafetales de hacienda El Roble, Santander, Colombia. De acuerdo con la reconstrucción en tres dimensiones de la superficie dorsal del cuerpo, las papilas primarias y accesorias de M. geagy se distribuyen sin formar un patrón determinado. Características diagnósticas: un diente accesorio y un diente principal en la mandíbula externa; y un diente principal, un diente accesorio y siete dentículos en la sierra de la mandíbula interna. Cuerpo: longitud (X=45.66; S=26.10 mm, peso (X= 0.95; S= 2.21 y pares de lobopodos (X= 28.13; S= 1.30. Se elaboró una clave para seis especies de Macroperipatus. La secreción adhesiva en estado líquido perdió 60% del peso inicial al alcanzar los 70 ºC, la muestra sólida perdió el 13% del peso cerca de los 90 ºC, la fase de estabilidad térmica de la secreción estuvo entre los 90 y 280 ºC en la secreción líquida y entre los 100 y 205 ºC en la sólida. La temperatura de inicio de la degradación de las muestras se registró a los 355 ºC. En comparación con la araña Nephila sp., el onicóforo perdió mayor porcentaje de peso y alcanzó la fase de degradación a temperaturas más bajas. Los cambios en el flujo de calor en la secreción adhesiva sólida y líquida de M. geagy fueron confirmados con el comportamiento de las muestras en el análisis de termogravimetría. La proporción de láminas beta calculado en el espectro infrarrojo de la secreción adhesiva fue del 59%. La presencia de este tipo de conformación de la estructura secundaria de las proteínas en la secreción adhesiva de M. geagy conferiría extensibilidad y resistencia a la tracción, en similitud con las fibras de seda tejidas por las arañas para depredación.Velvet worm taxonomy from Santander, Colombia and thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy of the adhesive

  7. CINNAMON, CASSIA AND ANCIENT TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen George Haw

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is a widespread assumption that ancient “cinnamon” and “cassia” were the same as the spices now known by those names; that is, products obtained from trees of the genus Cinnamomum. This article argues that this is not the case, but that the “cinnamon” and “cassia” of ancient writers very probably came from plants native to northeast Africa, as several early writers actually state. Possible African sources of ancient “cinnamon” and “cassia” are suggested. The most probable principal source is identified as Cassia abbreviata. It is also argued that alleged identifications of cinnamon or cassia at archaeological sites in the Mediterranean region are questionable. It is shown that cinnamon and cassia did not figure in Southeast Asian and Chinese trade at an early period, and that Austronesian settlement of Madagascar occurred after the Classical period, probably during the second half of the first millennium CE, too late for Southeast Asians to have played any major role in trade with the Roman Empire. There is no good reason to believe that true cinnamon and cassia were traded to the western Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean region at any very early date. This article truly takes an interdisciplinary approach to its subject: the author is a botanist as well as a historian, and is able to use original Chinese sources. The question of whether ancient “cinnamon” and “cassia” were the same as modern cinnamon and cassia (products of trees of the genus Cinnamomum is a thorny one, which has been repeatedly debated in the past, usually with no very conclusive result. The most recent thorough discussion of the issue, by Lionel Casson, concluded that the ancient and modern products were the same. This article refutes that view: it is clear that Casson lacked the botanical knowledge necessary to reach a sound conclusion. The article deals with its subject thoroughly, examining archaeological as well as textual

  8. Trade Relations between New Zealand and China: An Empirical Analysis in the Context of a Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Bano

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the bilateral trade relations between New Zealand and China from 1980 to 2012. It examines the strength of the trade relationship using export and import intensity indices; identifies the degree of trade reciprocity using a 'trade reciprocity index'; estimates the magnitude of intra-industry trade using the Grubel-Lloyd and Aquino indices; and analyses these indices to consider how trade patterns and relations have changed between 1980 and 2012. Significant growth in trade...

  9. International trade and employment: trade partner country effects on jobs and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortanier, F.N.; Jaarsma, M.; Korvorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent academic research has consistently identified trading firms - both exporters and importers - to be larger, and to pay higher wages than their non-trading counterparts. However, not all trade is equal: imports from low-wage countries may destroy employment, particularly among low-skilled

  10. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and the WTO. The STDF supports developing countries in building... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade...) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). DATES...

  11. Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing (Workshop Summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Robertson, K.; Woes-Gallasch, S.; Schlamadinger, B.

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled ‘Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing the benefits’, jointly organised by IEA Bioenergy Tasks 38 (GHG Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems) and 40 (Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), and ENOVA, took place in

  12. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  13. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  14. 31 CFR 500.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 500.322 Section 500.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  15. Trade reform in Iran for accession to the World Trade Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, Zakariya; Zhu, Xueqin; Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We developed a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to study the potential welfare and environmental impacts of Iran's trade reform for accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Our results show that removing trade barriers not only results in higher welfare and GDP as well as lower

  16. Trade tensions between EU and Russia: Possible effects on trade in agricultural commodities for Visegrad countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper includes overview of the current state of the EU-CIS and the EU-Russia trade flows with particular attention to trade in agricultural commodities, as well as contemporary tendencies in agricultural production and foreign trade in agricultural commodities and food in Russia. The paper

  17. Tax Professional Internships and Subsequent Professional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…

  18. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Certifying Enrollment Management Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…

  20. Whistleblowing & Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the moral dilemmas encountered daily by professionals and how the teaching of ethics may help resolve the conflicts individuals face with respect to whistleblowing. Included are consideration of responsibilities, role of ethics codes, and courses on professional ethics. (CS)

  1. Leading Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    If the goal is to fundamentally change the culture inside schools, people need to move beyond the superficiality of professional learning communities and focus on a system of learners. Professional learning communities are in fact about establishing lasting new collaborative cultures. Collaborative cultures are ones that focus on building the…

  2. Promoting teachers' professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Pietsje Roelofje

    2008-01-01

    Because teacher quality has a great influence on pupil attainment, teachers’ professional development receives a lot of attention in educational policy. This dissertation contains five studies on how teachers’ professional development, in terms of learning at the workplace, can be explained and

  3. Evaluating professional development

    CERN Document Server

    Guskey, Thomas R

    2000-01-01

    This is a practical guide to evaluating professional development programs at five increasing levels of sophistication: participants' reaction to professional development; how much participants learned; evaluating organizational support and change; how participants use their new knowledge and skills; and improvements in student learning.

  4. Parents: Dilemmas for Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrea

    1988-01-01

    A British educational psychologist critically examines her practices toward parents. Aspects of the power relationship are explored, including acting as a friend, the trappings of professionalism, privacy and confidentiality, interprofessional trust, and service provision. Professional survival is seen to be the underlying motive in these…

  5. Educators' Professional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, R.; Anitha, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive model of professional characteristics of an educator that will prepare them for high standards of professional achievements, as all professions demand standardization and formulation of guidelines in today's competitive environment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature on essentials of an educator was sourced…

  6. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  7. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  8. Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Alison

    2017-01-01

    There are many professional development programmes on offer for primary science. The best of these involve teachers in developing practice over time, alongside engaging with theory. In this article, the author considers how working as part of a professional learning community can support a collaborative and evidence informed approach to improving…

  9. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  10. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  11. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  12. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Trade Facilitation Services; 2. Engage in promotional and marketing activities and collect information... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The Export...

  13. 78 FR 78818 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... for the provision of Export Trade Facilitation Services; 2. Engage in promotional and marketing... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The U.S...

  14. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  15. 75 FR 70973 - Registration of Foreign Boards of Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... prospectively to facilitate direct access to the electronic trading system of a foreign board of trade by its U... Trading Corporation 17 CFR Part 48 Registration of Foreign Boards of Trade; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 48 RIN 3038-AD19 Registration of Foreign Boards of Trade AGENCY: Commodity Futures...

  16. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... of the trade mission to Australia are to (1) increase U.S. exports to Australia, (2) introduce U.S...

  17. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  18. Hubs and spokes in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2017-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries are involved in much more RTAs than others. Furthermore, some countries take in a position as a hub: they have trade agreements with many other countries, while their partner countries are much less involved in RTA relations. Even

  19. Global Trade Alert | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global Trade Alert. As many economies witness the sharpest fall in exports in decades, and with unemployment rising to levels not seen since the 1980s, governments might be tempted to resort to protectionist policies. Although the world has not seen a return to the trade-distorting reactions of the 1930s, governments have ...

  20. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  1. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  2. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-07

    Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Couverture du livre Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Editor(s):. Mercedes Botto. Publisher(s):. Routledge, CRDI. October 7, 2009. ISBN: 9780415801911. 246 pages.

  3. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  4. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  5. the europeanisation of emissions trading gerard h.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    ABSTRACT. The adoption of carbon market trading in the European Union (EU) was far from assured. Prior to the Kyoto Protocol, the EU had been critical of market trading and had expressed grave reservations regarding its potential contribution to climate governance. Given this historical backdrop, the EU's conversion to ...

  6. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  7. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  8. Review Existing and Proposed Emissions Trading Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews key design features of mandatory emissions trading systems that had been established or were under consideration in 2010, with a particular focus on implications for the energy sector. Putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone policy in climate change mitigation. To this end, many countries have implemented or are developing domestic emissions trading systems.

  9. 12 CFR 335.241 - Unlisted trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unlisted trading. 335.241 Section 335.241 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.241 Unlisted trading. The provisions of the applicable and...

  10. International Emissions Trading : Design and Political Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices.

  11. Legal insider trading and stock market liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, Hans; de Jong, Frank; Lefebvre, J.J.G.

    This paper assesses the impact of legal trades by corporate insiders on the liquidity of the firm’s stock. For this purpose, we analyze two liquidity measures and one information asymmetry measure. The analysis allows us to study as well the effect of a change in insider trading regulation, namely

  12. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  13. Trade Space Analysis: Rotational Analyst Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A., & Sundararaj, G. J. (2000, May). Interactive Physical Programming: Tradeoff Analysis and Decision Making in Multicriteria Optimization. AIAA...TRAC-M-TR-15-028 September 2015 Trade Space Analysis : Rotational Analyst Research Project TRADOC Analysis ...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK TRAC-M-TR-15-028 September 2015 Trade Space Analysis : Rotational Analyst Research Project

  14. Mainstreaming fair trade: the role of retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Rossing, G.; Hendriksen, A.; Voerman, K.

    2014-01-01

    In just two decades, fair trade has evolved from a niche market supplying products for a small group of dedicated consumers to a well-established market in several European countries, including the Netherlands. This transition has led to important changes in the dynamics in the fair-trade supply

  15. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  16. 75 FR 1029 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... officials in India to learn about various regulatory procedures and policies; and (3) introduce companies to... Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Statement Medical Trade Mission to India: March 8-13, 2010. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign...

  17. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-12-05

    Dec 5, 2008 ... Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution will be of interests to students and scholars of trade, international relations, and conflict studies. ... This project will provide evidence on the role of high-quality, affordable daycare in allowing mothers to work in paid employment in poor urban contexts.

  18. Emission Trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    1998-12-01

    This report discusses the potential gains from emission trading and raises some crucial questions. It shows that the total costs of the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced by about 95% through emission trading. Emission trading is an option also in the domestic arenas. The governments of the Annex B countries may allocate emission quotas to local enterprises as emission permits. Thus new markets for greenhouse gas emission quotas may emerge, domestically and internationally. It is emphasized that emission trading at the national and international levels must be discussed separately. The Nordic governments, for example, will find several good reasons for supporting emission trading at the international level if not necessarily domestically. The Nordic countries have already implemented domestic taxes on CO{sub 2} emissions and this tax policy could be sustained while these governments support and take part in emission trading at the international level.The report also considers a possible side effect of emission trading: free emission trading among Annex B countries could reduce the total abatement compared to a non-tradable policy as a consequence of the fact that some of the countries that are in transition to a market economy may be given emission limitations above their business-as-usual emissions. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  20. The determinants of trade credit use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Kihanga, Ernest; Lensink, Robert; Lutz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Most small businesses in the developing economies suffer from a lack of access to formal external finance. One important alternative source of finance for these entrepreneurs is trade credit. Applying a unique data-set containing data on specific trade relations between rice wholesalers and rice