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Sample records for professionals prevalence rates

  1. The Prevalence of Injuries in Professional Turkish Soccer Players

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    Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…

  2. Improving professional IT doctorate completion rates

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    Oliver Kisalay Burmeister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Professional doctorates in Information Technology (IT have been a relatively recent phenomenon, giving IT professionals career management choices not previously available to them. However, successful completion rates are the lowest of all disciplines. Completed doctorates rate in quality equivalent to PhDs, and retention has been identified as a major obstacle to completion. This qualitative study, involving 44 semi-structured interviews with students, supervisors and institutional support personnel, investigated the obstacles. Amongst the strategies discovered to improve completion rates were retention, student engagement with supervisors, feedback on progress, student engagement in the course, and student involvement in institutional communities of practice.

  3. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among US Health Care Professionals.

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    Dayoub, Elias; Jena, Anupam B

    2015-12-01

    Although health care professionals may be assumed to make healthier lifestyle choices and have better health outcomes than others because of their greater health literacy, little is known about how actual health outcomes of health care professionals compare with those of the overall population. We analyzed how trends in obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease prevalence as well as several health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and exercise) varied between health care professionals and the general US population from 2002 to 2013, using nationally representative data collected by the National Health Interview Survey. We estimated multivariate logistic regressions of each disease and behavior adjusted for age, race, sex, geographic region, and year. Although rates of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension were lower among health care professionals compared with the overall population, disease was still common among health care professionals and increased over time at a rate similar to that of the overall population. For example, obesity prevalence was lower among health care professionals but increased similarly from 2002 to 2013 (health care professionals, 20.5% in 2002 to 22.1% in 2013; other occupations, 28.4% to 31.7%; P=.64 for difference in trend). Diabetes prevalence was modestly lower among health care professionals but increased at a similar rate (health care professionals, 7.4% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2013; other occupations, 8.7% to 9.9%; P=.67 for difference in trend). Similar patterns were noted in hypertension. Coronary artery disease prevalence declined over time among health care professionals but increased for others. Health care professionals reported better health behaviors than others in smoking and physical activity but not in moderate to heavy alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gambling among European professional athletes. Prevalence and associated factors.

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    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Caillon, Julie; Humeau, Elise; Perrot, Bastien; Remaud, Manon; Guilleux, Alice; Rocher, Bruno; Sauvaget, Anne; Bouju, Gaelle

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, the prevalence of gambling disorders in the general population ranges from 0.15 to 6.6%. Professional athletes are known for having risk factors for addictive behaviors, such as young age or sensation seeking, though no study has yet tried to evaluate the prevalence of gambling and gambling disorders among this specific population. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of gambling, problematic or not, among European professional athletes and to explore the factors that are associated with gambling practice and gambling problems in professional athletes. A self-completion questionnaire was specifically designed for this study. The questionnaires were distributed by European Union athletes to professional ice hockey, rugby, handball, basketball, football, indoor football, volleyball, and cricket teams in Spain, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Socio-demographic variables (age, sex, education, marital and parental status, sport, country of birth, and country of practice), variables linked to gambling (gambling habits, screening of gambling problems with the Lie/Bet questionnaire, and gambling related cognitions), and impulsive behavior data (urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking [UPPS]-Short Form questionnaire) were gathered. There were 1,236 questionnaires filled out. The percentage of professional athletes that had gambled at least once during the previous year was 56.6%. The prevalence of problem gambling, current or past, was 8.2%. A certain number of variables were associated with the gambling status. In particular, betting on one's own team (OR = 4.1, CI 95% [1.5-11.5]), betting online (OR = 2.9, CI 95% [1.6-5.4]), gambling regularly (OR = 4.0, CI 95% [2.1-7.6]), and having a high positive urgency score (OR = 1.5, CI 95% [1.3-1.7]) were associated with gambling problems, current or past, among professional athletes. Professional athletes are particularly exposed to both gambling

  5. The geography of HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Botswana.

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    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Campbell, Eugene K; Rakgoasi, Serai Dan; Madi-Segwagwe, Banyana C; Fako, Thabo T

    2012-01-01

    Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups. We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey. Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4%) than males (14.3%). HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3%) than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively). We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25-35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36-49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more than half among those aged 50 years and over. In a multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant higher likelihood of HIV among females compared with males, and in clerical workers compared with professionals. The district-specific net spatial effects of HIV indicated a significantly higher HIV rate of 66% (posterior odds ratio of 1.66) in the northeast districts (Selebi-Phikwe, Sowa, and Francistown) and a reduced rate of 27% (posterior odds ratio of 0.73) in Kgalagadi North and Kweneng West districts

  6. Prevalence and correlates of burnout in health professionals in Ecuador.

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    Ramírez, Marina R; Otero, Patricia; Blanco, Vanessa; Ontaneda, Mercy P; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2018-04-01

    Although burnout is a widespread phenomenon among healthcare professionals, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuador. This study assesses the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Ecuadorian healthcare professionals and examine the relationship with their personal and organizational characteristics. A total of 2404 healthcare professionals (average age 40.0years; 68.4% women) from the capitals of all 24 provinces in Ecuador participated in this study. Trained psychologists assessed the presence of burnout by applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Sociodemographic variables, emotional distress, social support and coping styles as well as organizational variables were also collected. Of all healthcare professionals surveyed, 2.6% presented burnout syndrome. By dimensions, 17.2% of the participants presented a high level of emotional exhaustion, 13.5% of depersonalization, and 18.2% had reduced personal accomplishment. Being non-mestizo, being classified as a probable case of mental disorder and using more passive coping were associated with a greater probability of presenting burnout; having >10years of experience was associated with a lower probability of burnout. A significant number of active health professionals suffer from burnout. It is necessary to develop effective psychotherapeutic interventions for those who have the syndrome and to evaluate potential prevention strategies in those who have not yet developed it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of and Attitudes towards Smoking among Spanish Health Professionals.

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    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Ramos Pinedo, Angela; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Marquez, Francisca Lourdes; Palomo Cobos, Luis; Solano Reina, Segismundo; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The MPOWER strategy encourages suitable monitoring of the tobacco epidemic among health professionals in all countries. To analyse the prevalence of and attitudes towards tobacco use among Spanish health professionals. A study was conducted based on an online survey. The study population consisted of health professionals (primary care physicians, specialist physicians and nurses). The questionnaire used included questions about tobacco consumption, knowledge of and attitudes towards smoking. The sample size was calculated according to a database with 9,500 e-mail addresses and listings of health centres and hospitals all over Spain. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software programme. The study group comprised a total of 612 health professionals: 322 were women (52.6%), 196 were nurses and 416 were physicians. 11.7% of health professionals were smokers (9.6% regular smokers and 2.1% occasional smokers) and 41.3% were ex-smokers. Within the group of daily smokers, differences were observed between the nurses and the physicians: 11.2 versus 8.9% (p = 0.009). Smoking was recognized as a chronic disorder by 58.2% of health professionals, and 54.6% knew that the most effective intervention to help quit is a combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. 56% of health professionals always asked their patients about their tobacco consumption. 11.7% of Spanish health professionals are smokers. We found that they have low knowledge about strategies to quit smoking and that there is a low level of therapeutic intervention on smokers. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  9. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers: Prevalence and Associated Factors: An International Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Ramel, Eva; Ammendolia, Carlo; Hartvigsen, Jan; Schwartz, Isabella

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. Cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from nine professional ballet and modern dance companies in Canada, Denmark, Israel, and Sweden. Professional ballet and modern dancers. Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, height, weight, and before-tax yearly or monthly income. Dance specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. A total of 260 dancers participated in the study with an overall response rate of 81%. The point prevalence of self-reported injury in professional ballet and modern dancers was 54.8% (95% CI, 47.7-62.1) and 46.3% (95% CI, 35.5-57.1), respectively. Number of years dancing professionally (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.6-12.3) and rank (OR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2-4.8) were associated with injury in ballet dancers. More than 15% of all injured dancers had not reported their injury and their reasons for not reporting injury varied. The prevalence of injury is high in professional dancers with a significant percentage not reporting their injuries for a variety of reasons. Number of years dancing and rank are associated with injury in professional ballet dancers.

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with human brucellosis in livestock professionals.

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    Mufinda, Franco Cazembe; Boinas, Fernando; Nunes, Carla

    2017-06-22

    The objective of this study is to estimate the seroprevalence of human brucellosis in livestock professionals and analyze the factors associated with brucellosis focusing on sociodemographic variables and the variables of knowledge and practices related to the characteristics of the activities carried out in livestock. This is a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study with a population of 131 workers of butchers, slaughter rooms, and slaughterhouse and 192 breeders sampled randomly in Namibe province, Angola. The data were obtained from the collection of blood and use of questionnaires. The laboratory tests used were rose bengal and slow agglutination. The questionnaire allowed us to collect sociodemographic information and, specifically on brucellosis, it incorporated questions about knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of livestock professionals. In addition to the descriptive statistical approach, we used the Chi-square test of independence, Fisher's test, and logistic regression models, using a significance level of 10%. The general weighted prevalence of brucellosis was 15.6% (95%CI 13.61-17.50), being it 5.3% in workers and 16.7% (95%CI 11.39-21.93) in breeders. The statistical significance was observed between human seroprevalence and category (worker and breeder) (p brucellosis in professionals was the professional category (OR = 3.54; 95%CI 1.57-8.30, related to breeders in relation to workers). Human brucellosis in livestock professionals is prevalent in Namibe province (15.6%), where the professional category was the most important factor. The seroprevalence levels detected are high when compared with those found in similar studies. Estimar a seroprevalência da brucelose humana em profissionais da pecuária e analisar os factores associados à brucelose com foco em variáveis sociodemográficas, de conhecimento e práticas relativas às características das actividades desenvolvidas na pecuária. Estudo transversal seroepidemiológico em população de

  11. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

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    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  12. Injury rates and risk factors in competitive professional boxing.

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    Zazryn, Tsharni R; McCrory, Paul R; Cameron, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    To determine injury rates and risk factors for injury in a cohort of professional boxers. Retrospective cohort design reporting on data collected for a fight statistics database maintained by the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted for the years January 1997 through June 2005. Victoria, Australia. 545 professional boxers (age, 18 to 43 years) who participated in a total of 907 fights over the study period. Independent variables under investigation included age, gender, weight, bout exposure, and location of the bout (within or outside of the State of Victoria). Physician-reported acute boxing injuries occurring during bouts of any region or nature. 214 injuries were sustained over the 8.5 years, corresponding to an injury rate of 23.6 per 100 professional fights. The majority of these injuries were lacerations to the head and face. An increasing age and an increasing number of fights were both significant predictors of injury. Injury reduction strategies for professional boxing might include restrictions of eligibility to fight based on age and boxing bout exposure. Future research using prospective cohort designs and standardized injury definitions are needed to confirm these results. Greater mechanistic detail and more complete data entry are necessary to ensure that optimal injury prevention strategies can be developed and implemented. Upon confirmation of the results of this study, the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria may consider different criteria upon which to sanction a fight.

  13. Prevalent Approaches to Professional Development in State 4-H Programs

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    Smith, Martin H.; Worker, Steven M.; Schmitt-McQuitty, Lynn; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Lewis, Kendra M.; Schoenfelder, Emily; Brian, Kelley

    2017-01-01

    High-quality 4-H programming requires effective professional development of educators. Through a mixed methods study, we explored professional development offered through state 4-H programs. Survey results revealed that both in-person and online delivery modes were used commonly for 4-H staff and adult volunteers; for teen volunteers, in-person…

  14. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

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    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  15. Hand eczema among healthcare professionals in the Netherlands : prevalence, absenteeism, and presenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Esther W. C.; Boot, Cecile R. L.; van der Gulden, Joost W. J.; Jungbauer, Frank H. W.; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Anema, Johannes R.

    Background. Healthcare professionals have a high risk of developing hand eczema. Hand eczema can interfere with their work. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema among healthcare professionals in the Netherlands, and to investigate absenteeism and presenteeism

  16. Characteristics and prevalence of musculoskeletal injury in professional and non-professional ballet dancers.

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    Costa, Michelle S S; Ferreira, Arthur S; Orsini, Marco; Silva, Elirez B; Felicio, Lilian R

    2016-01-19

    Ballet is a high-performance activity that requires an advanced level of technical skills. Ballet places great stress on tendons, muscles, bones, and joints and may act directly as a trigger of injury by overuse. 1) to describe the main types of injuries and affected areas related to classical ballet and 2) to compare the frequency of musculoskeletal injuries among professional and non-professional ballet dancers, considering possible gender differences among the professional dancers. A total of 110 questionnaires were answered by professional and non-professional dancers. The questionnaire contained items related to the presence of injury, the regions involved, and the mechanism of the injury. We observed a high frequency of musculoskeletal injuries, with ankle sprains accounting for 69.8% of injuries in professional dancers and 42.1% in non-professional dancers. Pirouettes were the most frequent mechanism of injury in professional dancers, accounting for 67.9% of injuries, whereas in the non-professional dancers, repetitive movement was the most common mechanism (28.1%). Ankle sprains occurred in 90% of the women's injuries, and muscle sprains occurred in 54.5% of the men's injuries. The most frequent injury location was the ankle joint in both sexes among the professional dancers, with 67.6% in women and 40.9% in men. The identification of the mechanism of injury and time of practice may contribute to better therapeutic action aimed at the proper function of the dancers' bodies and improved performance by these athletes.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

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    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  18. USE OF MARK-RATING SYSTEM IN ESTIMATION OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS OF PEDIATRIC DEPARTMENT DURING PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE

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    Gumenyuk O.I.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors demonstrate the results of using mark-rating system in estimation of professional competence of the fifth-year students of pediatric department during summer professional practice.

  19. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  20. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

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    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  1. Smoking prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among primary healthcare professionals: a study from Jordan.

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    Alkhatatbeh, M J; Alefan, Q; Alzghool, M

    2017-02-01

    This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 400 healthcare professionals recruited from primary healthcare centres in northern Jordan between April and October 2015. The questionnaire included questions about smoking behaviour, risks, opinions and providing anti-smoking counselling. More than 80% of participants reported that smoking-free policies were not enforced at primary healthcare centres. Compared to hospitals and the general population, smoking was less prevalent among primary healthcare professionals and more prevalent in men. More than 90% of participants believed that smoking was dangerous and associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Around 92% believed that they should set a good example to patients by not smoking and advise them about smoking cessation. Only 15.3% of participants felt well prepared when counselling patients about smoking and 92.8% believed that they needed training. This study suggests that primary healthcare professionals should act as anti-smoking role models after receiving professional training.

  2. Prevalence rate of chronic overuse pain in taekwondo athletes.

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    Koh, Jae-Ok

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo. This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport poomsae taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. The prevalence of COP is high among sport poomsae taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.

  3. Heart Rate Variability Discriminates Competitive Levels in Professional Soccer Players.

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    Proietti, Riccardo; di Fronso, Selenia; Pereira, Lucas A; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2017-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been increasingly used to monitor team sports athletes. Besides the traditional time domain indices (i.e., the SD of successive RR intervals [SDNN] and the root mean square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]), recently the use of the stress score (SS), which is an inverse function of the SD2 index derived from the Poincaré plot, and the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio (S/PS) to monitor soccer players has been proposed. However, the reliability of these new indices and the ability of HRV to differentiate between soccer competitive levels are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of the different HRV-derived indices in professional soccer players during the competitive period and to compare HRV of professional soccer players from 3 teams of distinct competitive levels (i.e., Italian Second Division [2D], European League [EL], and Champions League [CL]). Fifty-four male professional soccer players from 3 different teams of 2 European countries (Italy and Germany) participated in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of the HRV indices varied from 0.78 (very large) to 0.90 (near perfect). The coefficient of variation (CV) values for RMSSD and SDNN were all soccer players and is able to differentiate between international- and national-level players.

  4. Prevalence of tobacco use and perceptions of student health professionals about cessation training: results from Global Health Professions Students Survey.

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    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali

    2018-05-26

    Health professionals play an important role in providing advice to their patients about tobacco prevention and cessation. Health professionals who use tobacco may be deterred from providing cessation advice and counselling to their patients. We aimed to provide prevalence estimates of tobacco use among student health professionals and describe their attitudes towards tobacco cessation training. Country-wise aggregate data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey on 'c urrent cigarette smoking' (smoking cigarettes on 1 or more days during the past 30 days), and ' curren t use of tobacco products other than cigarettes' (chewing tobacco, snuff, bidis, cigars or pipes, 1 or more days during the past 30 days) were analysed. For each WHO region, we estimated mean prevalence rates of tobacco use weighted by the population of the sampling frame and aggregate proportions for ' health professionals' role' and ' cessation training' indicators using ' metaprop ' command on Stata V.11. A total of 107 527 student health professionals participated in 236 surveys done in four health profession disciplines spanning 70 countries with response rates ranging from 40% to 100%. Overall, prevalence of smoking was highest in European countries (20% medical and 40% dental students) and the Americas (13% pharmacy to 23% dental students). Other tobacco use was higher in eastern Mediterranean (10%-23%) and European countries (7%-13%). In most WHO regions, ≥70% of the students agreed that health professionals are role models, and have a role in advising about smoking cessation to their patients and the public. Only ≤33% of all student health professionals in most WHO regions (except 80% dental students in the Eastern Mediterranean region) had received formal training on smoking cessation approaches and ≥80% of all students agreed that they should receive formal cessation training. Tobacco control should take place together with medical educators to discourage tobacco use among

  5. Prevalence of Burnout syndrome in nursing professionals from Orinoquia, Colombia in 2016

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    Oscar Alexander Gutiérrez-Lesmes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Burnout syndrome is described as an inadequate way of coping with labor stress. The main traits are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased personal performance. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in nursing professionals working in the Colombian Orinoquia. Materials and methods: A transverse analytical study was carried out with sampling by intention. The study population was constituted by 100 nurses and the Maslach Burnout instrument was used. Summary, prevalence and prevalence ratio measurements were calculated with the SPSS program. Results: 90% of the sample studied were women, 53% single, 54% under 28, and 42% without children. The general prevalence of Burnout syndrome was 16%, in the area of hospital care was 25,5% and in areas other than this was 6,1%. In the hospital area, there were greater proportions in emotional fatigue with a 42%, emotional depersonalization with a 38% and lack of personal realization with a 30%. Statistically significant differences for the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in the area of hospital care were found (RP 4,2, IC95% 1, 3-13,7, P 0,008 for professionals under 28 (RP 3,7 IC95% 1,1-12,1, p 0,017. Conclusions: The prevalence of Burnout syndrome is higher in nurses in the hospital area. Being under 28 years of age was associated with a higher prevalence. Nurses classified as sick with Burnout syndrome had to take care of a greater number of patients in their workday.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to

  7. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Lawson; Alterman, Toni; Timothy Bushnell, P; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2014-11-01

    To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002-2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace.

  8. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Methods Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002–2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Results Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Conclusions Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Clinical significance Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace. PMID:24907896

  9. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  10. Workplace Bullying among Business Professionals - Prevalence, Organisational Antecedents and Gender Differences (summary section only)

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Workplace bullying can be defined as repeated and persistent negative acts that involve a power imbalance and create a hostile work environment. Partly because of the many negative consequences associated with the phenomenon, bullying has recently become the focus of many studies by contemporary organisational researchers. Drawing on a survey, this thesis provides information on the prevalence and forms of bullying among business professionals, a group of employees neglected in previous b...

  11. National HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates are associated with the Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Li-Xia; Chen, Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming; Ye, Juan

    2014-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is a worldwide threat to human health with mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates varying widely. We evaluated the association between the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and national socioeconomic development. We obtained global age-standardized HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates from World Health Statistics Report of the World Health Organization. The human development indexes (HDIs) of 141 countries were obtained from a Human Development Report. Countries were divided into 4 groups according to the HDI distribution. We explored the association between HIV/AIDS epidemic and HDI information using Spearman correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates were inversely correlated with national HDI (r = -0.675, -0.519, and -0.398, respectively; P birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita). Low HDI countries had higher HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates than that of medium, high, and very high HDI countries. Quantile regression results indicated that HDI had a greater negative effect on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries with more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. Less-developed countries are likely to have more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. There is a need to pay more attention to HIV/AIDS control in less-developed countries, where lower socioeconomic status might have accelerated the HIV/AIDS epidemic more rapidly. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  13. [Prevalence of burnout syndrome in health professionals of an onco-hematological pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Aline Bedin; Lucca, Sergio Roberto de

    2015-04-01

    To identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in medical professionals, nurses and nursing technicians working in an Onco-Hematological Pediatric Hospital in São Paulo. An exploratory, descriptive study with cross-sectional design and quantitative approach, with a sample of 188 health professionals. Data were collected using two self-report instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) which is a biosocial data form, and a non-participant observation guide. High depersonalization for nurses (29.8%), low job performance for physicians (27.8%), and of nursing technicians (25.5%). High scores were identified in at least two domains of Burnout in 19.2% of nurses, 16.8% of nursing technicians, and 16.6% of doctors. Health professionals are highly vulnerable to each of the dimensions of Burnout syndrome - namely emotional exhaustion, alienation, and low job performance/satisfaction- in the hospital work.

  14. Prevalence of Burnout syndrome in health professionals of an onco-hematological pediatric hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bedin Zanatta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in medical professionals, nurses and nursing technicians working in an Onco-Hematological Pediatric Hospital in São Paulo. METHOD An exploratory, descriptive study with cross-sectional design and quantitative approach, with a sample of 188 health professionals. Data were collected using two self-report instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS which is a biosocial data form, and a non-participant observation guide. RESULTS High depersonalization for nurses (29.8%, low job performance for physicians (27.8%, and of nursing technicians (25.5%. High scores were identified in at least two domains of Burnout in 19.2% of nurses, 16.8% of nursing technicians, and 16.6% of doctors. CONCLUSION Health professionals are highly vulnerable to each of the dimensions of Burnout syndrome - namely emotional exhaustion, alienation, and low job performance/satisfaction- in the hospital work.

  15. Resting and postexercise heart rate variability in professional handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayacan, Yildirim; Yildiz, Sedat

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) in professional handball players during rest and following a 5 min mild jogging exercise. For that purpose, electrocardiogram (ECG) of male handball players (N.=12, mean age 25±3.95 years) and sedentary controls (N.=14, mean age 23.5±2.95 years) were recorded for 5 min at rest and just after 5 min of mild jogging. ECGs were recorded and following HRV parameters were calculated: time-domain variables such as heart rate (HR), average normal-to-normal RR intervals, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals, square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, percentage of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 milliseconds (pNN50), and frequency-domain variables such as very low frequency, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) of the power and LF/HF ratio. Unpaired t-test was used to find out differences among groups while paired t-test was used for comparison of each group for pre- and postjogging HRV. Pearson correlations were carried out to find out the relationships between the parameters. Blood pressures were not different between handball players and sedentary controls but exercise increased systolic blood pressure (Phandball players (Phandball players (Phandball players in response to a mild, short-time (5 min) jogging exercise. However, in sedentary subjects, either the sympathetic regulation of the autonomous nervous system increased or vagal withdrawal occurred.

  16. Prevalence of Hypertension in Professional Drivers (from the RACER-ABPM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Anna E; Szymanski, Filip M; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Kotkowski, Marcin; Rys, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina

    2017-11-15

    Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Nonsystematic working hours, stress, low physical activity, and unhealthy dietary habits are common among professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for the classical and nonclassical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Of the RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Of this group 135 (95.7%) were male at mean age of 50.2 ± 9.3 years, with mean body mass index of 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 . In 21.3% of patients, family history of cardiovascular disease was noted, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Arterial hypertension was previously diagnosed in 39 patients (27.9%). In ABPM, the mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) values were 130.3 ± 14.3 and 80.9 ± 9.9 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, and 46.1% of patients could be categorized as dippers. Based on the ABPM results, arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 104 of patients (73.8%). Patients with hypertension tend to be more often male and have a family history of cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, arterial hypertension is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Also abnormal day-to-night BP value patterns are often seen in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pre-Licensed Nursing Students Rate Professional Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garee, Denise L.

    2016-01-01

    Ethical decision making of new nurses relies on professional values and moral development obtained during training. This descriptive, comparative study demonstrated the importance values attributed to the items of the Nurses' Professional Values Scale-Revised (Weis & Schank, 2009), by a sample of senior ADN and BSN students from across the…

  18. Changing the smoking habit: prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among Umbrian hospital healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianori, D; Gili, A; Masanotti, G

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals should work against smoking habit to promote a correct life style. This study aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence and attitudes towards tobacco among Umbrian hospital professionals in a period between 2006 and 2015, since the approbation of the law that ban smoking in hospitals and all public areas in 2003. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered in 2006, 2011 and 2015 to healthcare professionals. It consists of 53 multiple-choice questions. Potential predictors of current smoking habits were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The sample included 475 healthcare professionals. Current smokers constituted 34.53% of the sample and no significant difference (p = 0.257) emerged in prevalence over time (33.74% in 2006; 36.02% in 2011 and 33.77% in 2015). The risk of being a smoker increased by not considering the smoking habit as the main cause of preventable deaths (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.47- 3.45). The strongest risk factor, which was significant in both models (p Smoking" law (OR = 18.90; 95% CI: 2.43-147.71; adjusted OR = 22.10; 95% CI: 1.85-264.78). The hospital staff has higher prevalence of smoking than the general population. The No Smoking law alone has been shown to be inadequate. Effective results can be achieved only by a common strategy and shared intervention programmes that are based on a workplace health promotion strategy. That for the moment has demonstrated to give interesting outcomes in modifying deep-rooted behaviour patterns.

  19. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  20. Prevalence of dental trauma and use of mouthguards in professional handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Lana; Milardović Ortolan, Slađana; Žarković, Davor; Viskić, Joško; Jokić, Dražen; Mehulić, Ketij

    2017-06-01

    Published data about orofacial injuries and mouthguard use by professional handball players are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial trauma and mouthguard use in professional handball players. Data were collected from 100 professional handball players through a questionnaire, which contained 17 questions about age, experience in playing handball, playing position, orofacial trauma experience during the past 12 months, type of injury and mouthguard use. Almost half (49%) of the interviewed players experienced head and/or facial trauma during the past year. The most common injuries were soft tissue lacerations (39.6%). Dental injuries occurred in 22% of the participants, with socket bleeding being the most frequent injury (14%). Of the affected teeth, 76.9% were upper incisors. Mouthguards had a statistically significant protective role regarding tooth fractures and tooth avulsion (P=.043). Players who wore a mouthguard had a 5.55 times less chance of suffering dental injuries. Almost 76% of dental injuries resulted in complications afterward. Sixty-seven percentage of the players knew that mouthguards could prevent injuries, but only 28% used them regularly. Of the players who wore a mouthguard regularly, 76.9% were advised to do so by their dentists. The incidence of head and orofacial injuries among professional handball players is high. Mouthguards prevented severe dental injuries such as tooth fracture and avulsion, but their use was still limited. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iranian professional drivers: results from a population based study of 12,138 men.

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    Iraj Mohebbi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is evident that professional driving is associated with substantial changes in lifestyle habits. Professional drivers are prone to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its complications because their working environment is characterized by numerous stress factors such as lack of physical activity due to working in a fixed position, disruption in diet, and irregular sleep habits. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of MetS among long distance drivers residing in West Azerbaijan province in Iran. MATERIALS: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among professional long distance drivers, 12138 participants were enrolled in this cross sectional study. The MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. RESULTS: Among 12138 participants, 3697 subjects found to be MetS. The crude and age-adjusted rates of MetS were 30.5% and 32.4% respectively. Based on Body mass index (BMI, 5027 subjects (41.4% were overweight (BMI ≥ 25.01-30 kg/m2, and 2592 (21.3% were obese (BMI ≥ 30.01 kg/m2. The presence of central obesity was more common than other components. The associations of MetS with BMI, pack-year smoking, age, weekly driving duration and driving experiences were significant in the logistic regression. By increasing BMI, pack-year smoking, age, weekly driving duration and driving experiences, odds ratio of MetS was increased. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that MetS has become a noteworthy health problem among Iranian long distance drivers. This might be due to the following facts: sitting in a fixed position for long hours while working, cigarette smoking, job stress, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyle and also for early detection and appropriate interventions.

  2. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

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    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  3. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  4. [Prevalence and risk factors of attention disorders of professional drivers in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraqui, Siham; Hossini, Omar Laraqui; Tripodi, Dominique; Manar, Nadia; Aoudi, Yasmine El; Caubet, Alain; Verger, Christian; Ghailane, Tarik; Laraqui, Chakib El Houssine

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of professional drivers' vigilance disorders in Morocco. This transversal epidemiological multicentric study concerned 5,566 professional drivers of taxis (2,134), buses (1,158) and trucks (2,274). We used an anonymous individual questionnaire of 4 sections: socioprofessional and sanitary characteristics of drivers, working conditions, sleeping habits, symptoms of sleep problems and favouring factors. Drivers were a population at risk: high body mass index (62.2%), toxic habits (smoking: 50.6%; alcohol: 12.9%; cannabis use: 11.7%), pathological antecedents (27%) and consumption of psychotropic drugs (4%). Their working conditions were difficult and sleeping problems were frequent. The mean daily hours of work was 10.6 ± 1.6, and mean sleep duration 6.5 ± 1.3 hr. Insomnia was 40.2%, abnormally high Epworth scores 36.3% and sleepiness when driving 53.4%. Information and education on the dangers of sleepiness while driving is necessary, as is respect for regulations on work duration. The extension of the occupational health system to this type of activity would help improve road security and protect the health of professional drivers and road users.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmyo Yoshiomi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Methods Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Results Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82% replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03–1.68, current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24–1.98, and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01–1.79. As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05–1.56, breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13–1.56, kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03–1.15, and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08–1.19 were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03–1.45, stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42–1.99, financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03–1.47, health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08–1.59 and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01–1.52 were similarly associated. Conclusion Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2007-07-24

    The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82%) replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.68), current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24-1.98), and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79). As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05-1.56), breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13-1.56), kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03-1.15), and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.19) were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45), stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42-1.99), financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47), health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59) and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52) were similarly associated. Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks.

  7. Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among professionals of the primary healthcare network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Silvana Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of latent M. tuberculosis infection and identify characteristics related to latent infection among workers of the primary healthcare network.Methods: Cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study, conducted in 2011, included 137 basic health workers who performed their activities in a municipality. Interviews were carried out addressing characteristics of exposure at work (BCG vaccination, length of time working in the health system, potential exposure to tuberculosis, HIV infection, use of corticosteroids, diabetes, use of tobacco or alcohol and subsequently performed tuberculin skin test (TST. Data was analyzed with Fischer and Student’s t-test (p < 0.05. Results: Health professionals were mostly women (n=126, 92% with mean age of 35.3 (± 9.1 years. Among the reactors, 25 (55.5% sought medical care, and of these, 7 (28% underwent prophylactic treatment. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis was 32.8%. Of the characteristics evaluated, only smoking (OR 3.03; 95%CI 1.05-8.77 was associated with latent infection. Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of latent M. tuberculosis infection among the evaluated health workers was 32.8%. As for the characteristics studied, it was not possible to relate them to latent infection among workers in primary healthcare network, with the exception of the smoking habit. doi: 10.5020/18061230.2014.p269

  8. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, D. H.; Sy, D. N.; Linh, N. D.; Hoan, T. M.; Dien, H. T.; Thuy, T. B.; Hoa, N. P.; Tung, L. B.; Cobelens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of

  9. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  10. [Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in professional drivers and the relationship with traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tu, C L; Yao, W F; Yu, Y F; Wang, Z; Hu, J R

    2016-12-27

    Objective: To study the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and its relationship with traffic accidents in the professional drivers. Methods: Questionnaires of OSAHS were sent to 950 professional drivers who had annual physical examination at the Central Hospital of Jiading District in Shanghai from October 2014 to September 2015. Those with moderate to severe snoring and/or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)≥9 performed the home sleep testing. All drivers were divided into OSAHS and non-OSAHS according to the survey and monitoring. The following parameters were compared such as driving ages, neck circumference, body mass index (BMI), average night sleep time, ESS, hypertension, diabetes, hypertrophy of tonsil and the incidence of traffic accidents. The risk factors of traffic accidents were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression. Results: Totally 826 responses were eligible, including 578 (70.0%) with self-reported snoring. There was measurement failure involving 3 of 233 the home sleep testing due to sensor off, 823 subjects were included in the study. The prevalence of OSAHS was 13.5% (111/823). The mild, moderate and severe OSAHS were 47, 38 and 26 cases respectively. There were 712 drives without OSAHS. The neck circumference[(39.8±3.8) vs (39.0±3.0) cm]and BMI[(26.7±4.2) vs (24.4±3.8) kg/m 2 ]were significantly higher in the drivers suffering from OSAHS (all P 0.05). The overall incidence of traffic accidents was 5.8% (48/823) in a year. The percentage was respectively 17.1% (19/111) in OSAHS and 4.1% (29/712) in non-OSAHS ( P traffic accidents.

  11. Similar Prevalence of Acetabular Labral Tear in Professional Ballet Dancers and Sporting Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of acetabular labral tear in male and female professional ballet dancers with age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants and to determine the relationship to clinical findings and cartilage defects. Case-control study. Clinical and radiology practices. Forty-nine (98 hips) male and female professional ballet dancers (current and retired) with median age 30 years (range: 19-64 years) and 49 (98 hips) age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants. Group (ballet or sports), sex, age, hip cartilage defects, history of hip pain, Hip and Groin Outcome Score, passive hip internal rotation (IR), and external rotation range of movement (ROM). Labral tear identified with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Labral tears were identified in 51% of all 196 hips. The prevalence did not differ significantly between the ballet and sporting participants (P = 0.41) or between sexes (P = 0.34). Labral tear was not significantly associated with clinical measures, such as pain and function scores or rotation ROM (P > 0.01 for all). Pain provocation test using IR at 90° of hip flexion had excellent specificity [96%, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.77%-0.998%] but poor sensitivity (50%, 95% CI, 0.26%-0.74%) for identifying labral tear in participants reporting hip pain. Older age and cartilage defect presence were independently associated with an increased risk of labral tear (both P ballet dancers was similar to a sporting population. Labral tears were not associated with clinical findings but were related to cartilage defects, independent of aging. Caution is required when interpreting MRI findings as labral tear may not be the source of the ballet dancer's symptoms.

  12. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D.; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 com...

  13. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The Prevalence of Compassion Fatigue and Burnout among Healthcare Professionals in Intensive Care Units: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mol, Margo M C; Kompanje, Erwin J O; Benoit, Dominique D; Bakker, Jan; Nijkamp, Marjan D

    2015-01-01

    Working in the stressful environment of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is an emotionally charged challenge that might affect the emotional stability of medical staff. The quality of care for ICU patients and their relatives might be threatened through long-term absenteeism or a brain and skill drain if the healthcare professionals leave their jobs prematurely in order to preserve their own health. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature related to emotional distress among healthcare professionals in the ICU, with an emphasis on the prevalence of burnout and compassion fatigue and the available preventive strategies. A systematic literature review was conducted, using Embase, Medline OvidSP, Cinahl, Web-of-science, PsychINFO, PubMed publisher, Cochrane and Google Scholar for articles published between 1992 and June, 2014. Studies reporting the prevalence of burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma in ICU healthcare professionals were included, as well as related intervention studies. Forty of the 1623 identified publications, which included 14,770 respondents, met the selection criteria. Two studies reported the prevalence of compassion fatigue as 7.3% and 40%; five studies described the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress ranging from 0% to 38.5%. The reported prevalence of burnout in the ICU varied from 0% to 70.1%. A wide range of intervention strategies emerged from the recent literature search, such as different intensivist work schedules, educational programs on coping with emotional distress, improving communication skills, and relaxation methods. The true prevalence of burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma in ICU healthcare professionals remains open for discussion. A thorough exploration of emotional distress in relation to communication skills, ethical rounds, and mindfulness might provide an appropriate starting point for the development of further preventive

  15. The Prevalence of Compassion Fatigue and Burnout among Healthcare Professionals in Intensive Care Units: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo M C van Mol

    Full Text Available Working in the stressful environment of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU is an emotionally charged challenge that might affect the emotional stability of medical staff. The quality of care for ICU patients and their relatives might be threatened through long-term absenteeism or a brain and skill drain if the healthcare professionals leave their jobs prematurely in order to preserve their own health.The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature related to emotional distress among healthcare professionals in the ICU, with an emphasis on the prevalence of burnout and compassion fatigue and the available preventive strategies.A systematic literature review was conducted, using Embase, Medline OvidSP, Cinahl, Web-of-science, PsychINFO, PubMed publisher, Cochrane and Google Scholar for articles published between 1992 and June, 2014. Studies reporting the prevalence of burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma in ICU healthcare professionals were included, as well as related intervention studies.Forty of the 1623 identified publications, which included 14,770 respondents, met the selection criteria. Two studies reported the prevalence of compassion fatigue as 7.3% and 40%; five studies described the prevalence of secondary traumatic stress ranging from 0% to 38.5%. The reported prevalence of burnout in the ICU varied from 0% to 70.1%. A wide range of intervention strategies emerged from the recent literature search, such as different intensivist work schedules, educational programs on coping with emotional distress, improving communication skills, and relaxation methods.The true prevalence of burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma in ICU healthcare professionals remains open for discussion. A thorough exploration of emotional distress in relation to communication skills, ethical rounds, and mindfulness might provide an appropriate starting point for the development of

  16. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dommelen, Paula; De Kroon, Marlou L A; Cameron, Noël; Schon̈beck, Yvonne; Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  17. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Kroon, M.L.A. de; Cameron, N.; Schonbeck, Y.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  18. Association between Search Behaviors and Disease Prevalence Rates at 18 U.S. Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dennis; Wolbrink, Traci; Logvinenko, Tanya; Harper, Marvin; Burns, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Background Usage of online resources by clinicians in training and practice can provide insight into knowledge gaps and inform development of decision support tools. Although online information seeking is often driven by encountered patient problems, the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate has not been previously characterized. Objective This article aimed to (1) identify topics frequently searched by pediatric clinicians using UpToDate (http://www.uptodate.com) and (2) explore the association between disease prevalence rate and search rate using data from the Pediatric Health Information System. Methods We identified the most common search queries and resources most frequently accessed on UpToDate for a cohort of 18 children's hospitals during calendar year 2012. We selected 64 of the most frequently searched diseases and matched ICD-9 data from the PHIS database during the same time period. Using linear regression, we explored the relationship between clinician query rate and disease prevalence rate. Results The hospital cohort submitted 1,228,138 search queries across 592,454 sessions. The majority of search sessions focused on a single search topic. We identified no consistent overall association between disease prevalence and search rates. Diseases where search rate was substantially higher than prevalence rate were often infectious or immune/rheumatologic conditions, involved potentially complex diagnosis or management, and carried risk of significant morbidity or mortality. None of the examined diseases showed a decrease in search rate associated with increased disease prevalence rates. Conclusion This is one of the first medical learning needs assessments to use large-scale, multisite data to identify topics of interest to pediatric clinicians, and to examine the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate for a set of pediatric diseases. Overall, disease search rate did not appear to be associated with hospital

  19. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, D H; Sy, D N; Linh, N D; Hoan, T M; Dien, H T; Thuy, T B; Hoa, N P; Tung, L B; Cobelens, F

    2010-08-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of HIV infection among smear-positive TB patients in six provinces with relatively high HIV population prevalence in Vietnam. All patients who registered for treatment of smear-positive TB during the fourth quarter of 2005 were offered HIV testing. Of the 1217 TB patients included in the study, 100 (8.2%) tested HIV-positive. HIV prevalence varied between 2% and 17% in the provinces, and was strongly associated with age Vietnam, HIV infection is concentrated in drug users, as well as in specific geographic areas where it has considerable impact on TB notification rates among men aged 15-34 years.

  20. Deep Learning versus Professional Healthcare Equipment: A Fine-Grained Breathing Rate Monitoring Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In mHealth field, accurate breathing rate monitoring technique has benefited a broad array of healthcare-related applications. Many approaches try to use smartphone or wearable device with fine-grained monitoring algorithm to accomplish the task, which can only be done by professional medical equipment before. However, such schemes usually result in bad performance in comparison to professional medical equipment. In this paper, we propose DeepFilter, a deep learning-based fine-grained breathing rate monitoring algorithm that works on smartphone and achieves professional-level accuracy. DeepFilter is a bidirectional recurrent neural network (RNN stacked with convolutional layers and speeded up by batch normalization. Moreover, we collect 16.17 GB breathing sound recording data of 248 hours from 109 and another 10 volunteers to train and test our model, respectively. The results show a reasonably good accuracy of breathing rate monitoring.

  1. Workplace Bullying among Business Professionals: Prevalence, Gender Differences and the Role of Organizational Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Salin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the prevalence of bullying experienced by business professionals and to further the understanding of bullying by analyzing to what extent gender aspects and organizational politics may contribute to bullying in knowledge-intensive career-oriented jobs. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey study among members of a professional organization for employees with a university degree in business studies. In addition, written stories were collected to increase the understanding of bullying. This article presents data on the prevalence of bullying, gender differences in bullying, and the relationship between bullying and organizational politics. In addition, some implications for both researchers and managers are presented. The article is based on the author’s doctoral thesis.Cet article décrit la prévalence du harcèlement professionnel dans le milieu des affaires et tente de comprendre cette réalité en considérant dans quelle mesure les différences homme-femme et la culture organisationnelle contribuent au harcèlement dans un milieu de travail compétitif où les emplois sont basés sur le savoir. Une étude transversale a été réalisée auprès de membres d’une organisation professionnelle de diplômés universitaires du milieu des affaires. Des comptes rendus écrits d’épisodes de harcèlement ont également été utilisés. Les résultats présentés décrivent la prévalence du harcèlement, les différences de genre à cet égard, ainsi que les liens entre le harcèlement et la culture organisationnelle. Des retombées intéressant les chercheurs et les gestionnaires sont également présentées. L’article est basé sur la thèse de doctorat de l’auteur.El objetivo de este artículo es describir la prevalencia de la intimidación (bullying vivida por profesionales del área de negocios con formación superior y orientación carrierista,así como incrementar la comprensi

  2. Prevalence of ocular symptoms and signs among professional computer users in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Dehghani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of ocular symptoms and signs in professional video display users (VDUs and non-users in Isfahan.
    • METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive case-control study. The VDUs group was selected from among employees working with computer and the control group was selected from among employees not working with computer. Fifty seven VDUs (34 male & 23 female with mean age of 30.7 ± 6.8 and 56 employees in the control group (25 male & 31 female, mean age of 27.6 ± 7.2 were evaluated. Complete ocular examination was done for both groups.
    • RESULTS: Among VDUs, 45 cases (79% had burning eyes and tearing, 38 cases (66% had dry eye, 37 cases (65% had asthenopia, and 47 cases (82.5% had musculoskeletal pain but these values for the control group were 24 (42.8%, 18 (32.2%, 22(39.3% and 15 (26.8% respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.037, p = 0.023, p = 0.044, p = 0.013. Schirmer's test was positive in 22 VDUs (38.5% vs. 6 (10.7% of control group (p = 0.012. There was heterophoria in 19 VDUs (33.3% vs. 3 controls (5.4% (p = 0.032.
    • CONCLUSION: Eye burning and tearing, dry eye, asthenopia and musculoskeletal problems were obviously more common in VDUs. Considering the extensive use of computers at home and work, a plan is required to detect dangers and provide appropriate solutions.
    • KEY WORDS: Video Display Terminal, Video Display Users, Computer Vision Syndrome, Dry Eye, Schirmer test, Asthenopia.

  3. Prevalence of the use of effective ergogenic aids among professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Barbara; Warzecha, Maja; Tyrała, Florentyna; Pięta, Aleksandra

    Athletic performance can be substantially enhanced with supplements and functional food which are considered by scientists as efficient, safe and legal, such as protein, carbohydrate and protein-carbohydrate supplements, isotonic sports drinks, carbohydrate-protein bars, carbohydrate bars, creatine and caffeine. The study is aimed at an analysis and evaluation of the prevalence of using effective ergogenic aids (creatine, caffeine, isotonic drinks, carbohydrates, and proteins) in a group of Polish professional athletes. The research was conducted on 600 athletes (216 women, 384 men) practicing various sports disciplines; the younger group (18-23 years old) consisted of 307 people, while the older one (24-35 years old) was comprised of 293 subjects. A questionnaire was used with questions concerning the frequency and types of consumed supplements. Nearly half of the athletes (48,2%) admitted to taking supplementation, of which 36.7% consumed the supplements occasionally and 11.5% continually. The majority of the group (75.4%) claimed to be consuming isotonic drinks, which were the most commonly chosen nutritional aid enhancing physical performance, most frequently supplementing the diet in a continuous manner (41.2%). The least frequently used supplement was creatine, chosen by only one in three interviewees (34,5%). The ergogenic aids were used more often by men than women (50.5% vs. 44.1%), and so were nutrients based on proteins (51.8% vs. 32.0%), carbohydrates (60.7% vs. 46.8%), protein-carbohydrates (45.6% vs. 32.9%), as well as creatine (39.8% vs. 25.0%). The studies showed the inessential difference in the frequency of taking supplementation based on the interviewees' age (0.4%). Competitors who use supplements over those who choose not to, seems to reflect the continuous lack of the athletes' sufficient awareness of the effectiveness, safety, and health benefits of dietary supplementation that enhances physical performance. supplements, dietary

  4. RATING CREATION FOR PROFESSIONAL EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS BASED ON THE ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Erganova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to theoretically justify and describe approval of the measurement of the level of provision of educational services, education qualities and rating of vocational educational organizations.Methods. The fundamentals of methodology of the research conducted by authors are made by provisions of system approach; research on a schematization and modeling of pedagogical objects; the provision of the theory of measurement of latent variables. As the main methods of research the analysis, synthesis, the comparative analysis, statistical methods of processing of results of research are applied.Results. The paper gives a short comparative analysis of potentials of qualitative approach and strong points of the theory of latent variables in evaluating the quality of education and ratings of the investigated object. The technique of measurement of level of rendering educational services at creation of a rating of the professional educational organizations is stated.Scientific novelty. Pedagogical opportunities of the theory of measurement of latent variables are investigated; the principles of creation of ratings of the professional educational organizations are designated.Practical significance. The operational construct of the latent variable «quality of education» for the secondary professional education (SPE approved in the Perm Territory which can form base of formation of similar constructs for creation of a rating of the professional educational organizations in other regions is developed.

  5. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2018-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.

  6. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  7. Occupational hand injuries: a current review of the prevalence and proposed prevention strategies for physical therapists and similar healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyer, Giles; Michael, Jimmy; Inklebarger, James

    2018-03-01

    Hand injury is the second most common work-related musculoskeletal injury among physical therapists (PTs) and other manual therapy professionals such as osteopaths, physiotherapists, chiropractors, acupuncturists and massage therapists. However, the nature and extent of this problem have not been fully explored yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to review the existing literature published on the prevalence, risk factors, consequences, and prevention of hand injuries among PTs and similar healthcare professionals. The lifetime prevalence of hand injuries was about 15%-46%, and the annual prevalence was reported as 5%-30%. Thumb injuries were found to be the most prevalent of all injuries, accounting more than 50% of all hand-related problems. The most significant risk factors for job-related hand injuries were performing manual therapy techniques, repetitive workloads, treating many patients per day, continued work while injured or hurt, weakness of the thumb muscles, thumb hypermobility, and instability at the thumb joints. PTs reported modifying treatment technique, taking time off on sick leave, seeking intervention, shifting the specialty area, and decreasing patient contact hours as the major consequences of these injuries. The authors recommend that PTs should develop specific preventive strategies and put more emphasis on the use of aids and equipment to reduce the risk of an unnecessary injury. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Professional karate-do and mixed martial arts fighters present with a high prevalence of temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotto, Daniel; Namba, Eli Luis; Veiga, Danielle Medeiros; Wandembruck, Fernanda; Mussi, Felipe; Afonso Cunali, Paulo; Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2016-08-01

    Facial trauma in sports has been associated with temporomandibular disorders. Because of the intensity and duration of training needed for elite-level competitions, high-performance athletes can have two to five times more traumatic injuries than recreational athletes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in high-performance martial arts fighters and compare it with the prevalence in recreational athletes and non-athletes. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders was used to diagnose and classify professional karate-do practitioners (group I; n = 24), amateur karate-do practitioners (group II; n = 17), high-performance mixed martial arts fighters (group III; n = 13), and non-athletes (n = 28). The groups were compared with the chi-square test and tested for the difference between two proportions using a significance level of 5% (P 0.05). A diagnosis of arthralgia from disk displacement was made more frequently in groups I (45.8%; P = 0.013) and III (38.5%; P = 0.012) than in group IV (7.1%). The chronic pain associated with TMD was low intensity and low disability. While there was a high prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in the professional athletes in our study, the prevalence of the condition in recreational athletes was similar to that in individuals who did not practice martial arts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevalence and incidence rate of injuries in runners at a local athletic club in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hendricks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.

  10. Heart rate variability to assess ventilatory thresholds in professional basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo; Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias; Vicente Ávila-Gandía; Cristian Marín-Pagán; Antonio Luque; Pedro E. Alcaraz

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV) during incremental test could be used to estimate ventilatory threshold (VT) in professional basketball players, with sufficient precision to be used in their training. Furthermore, the second aim was to analyse the association between HRV and 3 methods of VT determination by gas analysis. Methods: Twenty-four professional basketball players (age: 23.4 ± 4.9 years; height: 195.4 ± 9.8 cm; body mass: 92.2 ± 11.9...

  11. Association between rising professional liability insurance premiums and primary cesarean delivery rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Karna; Grobman, William A; Lee, Todd A; Holl, Jane L

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the association between changes in Illinois professional liability premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists and singleton primary cesarean delivery rates. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used to identify all singleton births between 37 weeks and 44 weeks of gestation occurring in Illinois from 1998 through 2003. Primary cesarean delivery rates for women delivered between 37 weeks and 44 weeks of gestation per 1,000 gravid women eligible to have a primary cesarean delivery were calculated for each Illinois county. The annual medical professional liability premium for each county in Illinois was represented by the reported professional liability insurance rate charges (adjusted to 2004 dollars) from the ISMIE Mutual Insurance Company. Separate analyses were conducted for nulliparous and multiparous women. The independent association between county-level primary cesarean delivery rates and the previous year's insurance premiums was evaluated using linear regression models. During the study period, 817,521 women were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The county-level mean primary cesarean delivery rate increased from 126 to 163 per 1,000 (Pinsurance premiums also rose significantly (from $60,766 in 1997 to $83,167 in 2002, Pinsurance premium increase, the primary cesarean delivery rate increased by 15.7 per 1,000 for nulliparous women. This association also was evident for multiparous women, who had an increase in cesarean deliveries of 4.7 per 1,000 for every $10,000 increase. Higher rates of primary cesarean delivery are associated with increased medical professional liability premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists in Illinois. II.

  12. Does multimorbidity influence the occurrence rates of chronic conditions? A claims data based comparison of expected and observed prevalence rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon with an almost endless number of possible disease combinations with unclear implications. One important aspect in analyzing the clustering of diseases is to distinguish between random coexistence and statistical dependency. We developed a model to account for random coexistence based on stochastic distribution. We analyzed if the number of diseases of the patients influences the occurrence rates of chronic conditions. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of 121,389 persons aged 65+ using a list of 46 chronic conditions. Expected prevalences were simulated by drawing without replacement from all observed diseases using observed overall prevalences as initial probability weights. To determine if a disease occurs more or less frequently than expected by chance we calculated observed-minus-expected deltas for each disease. We defined clinical relevance as |delta| ≥ 5.0%. 18 conditions were excluded because of a prevalence < 5.0%. RESULTS: We found that (1 two chronic conditions (e.g. hypertension were more frequent than expected in patients with a low number of comorbidities; (2 four conditions (e.g. renal insufficiency were more frequent in patients with many comorbidities; (3 six conditions (e.g. cancer were less frequent with many comorbidities; and (4 16 conditions had an average course of prevalences. CONCLUSION: A growing extent of multimorbidity goes along with a rapid growth of prevalences. This is for the largest part merely a stochastic effect. If we account for this effect we find that only few diseases deviate from the expected prevalence curves. Causes for these deviations are discussed. Our approach also has methodological implications: Naive analyses of multimorbidity might easily be affected by bias, because the prevalence of all chronic conditions necessarily increases with a growing extent of multimorbidity. We should therefore always examine and discuss the stochastic interrelations

  13. Drinking by professional Australian Football League (AFL) players: prevalence and correlates of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Paul M; Fitzgerald, John L; Jenkinson, Rebecca A

    2008-11-03

    To examine self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption and experience of alcohol-related harms among professional Australian Football League (AFL) players. Cross-sectional survey of player alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol-related harms among members of all 16 professional AFL clubs. Data relating to the 2006 football year were collected between 25 July and 30 August 2006 at regular football training sessions using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Risky/high-risk drinking for long- and short-term harm at different times of the year; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score. 582 AFL players completed the questionnaire (an 83% response rate). Alcohol consumption varied at different times of the year. During the playing season (approximately 22 weeks), the level of risky/high-risk consumption for long-term harm in AFL players (11/564 [2%]) was typically lower than in age-matched Australian men in the general population (15%). However, risky/high-risk consumption for long-term harm was higher in AFL players during the end-of-season period (approximately 2 weeks) (303/561 [54%]) and vacation period (6-8 weeks) (231/559 [41%]) than in age-matched Australian men. Risky/high-risk drinking for short-term harm on a monthly basis was frequent at all times of the year (eg, 395/560 [71%] in the pre-season period). The mean AUDIT score was 8.8 (95% CI, 8.4 to 9.1; range, 0 to 36). Reports of harmful effects of drinking and negative consequences, such as getting involved in a fight (physical or verbal) while drinking (146/556 [26%]), were common. Risky/high-risk consumption for short-term harm on a monthly basis was associated with a variety of player characteristics, such as usually drinking in public locations (odds ratio, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.02 to 2.35]). AUDIT score was associated with variables such as marital status, with married players scoring more than two points lower (95% CI, - 3.58 to - 0.58) than single players. Formal club rules

  14. Effects of a preceptorship programme on turnover rate, cost, quality and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Lin, Chia-Huei; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a preceptorship programme and to evaluate its effects on turnover rate, turnover cost, quality of care and professional development. A high turnover rate of nurses is a common global problem. How to improve nurses' willingness to stay in their jobs and reduce the high turnover rate has become a focus. Well-designed preceptorship programmes could possibly decrease turnover rates and improve professional development. A quasi-experimental research design was used. First, a preceptorship programme was designed to establish the role and responsibilities of preceptors in instructing new nurses. Second, a quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the preceptorship programme. Data on new nurses' turnover rate, turnover cost, quality of nursing care, satisfaction of preceptor's teaching and preceptor's perception were measured. After conducting the preceptorship programme, the turnover rate was 46.5% less than the previous year. The turnover cost was decreased by US$186,102. Additionally, medication error rates made by new nurses dropped from 50-0% and incident rates of adverse events and falls decreased. All new nurses were satisfied with preceptor guidance. The preceptorship programme effectively lowered the turnover rate of new nurses, reduced turnover costs and enhanced the quality of nursing care, especially by reducing medication error incidents. Positive feedback about the programme was received from new nurses. Study findings may offer healthcare administrators another option for retaining new nurses, controlling costs, improving quality and fostering professional development. In addition, incentives and effective support from the organisation must be considered when preceptors perform preceptorship responsibilities.

  15. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Burden of type 2 diabetes in Mexico: past, current and future prevalence and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  18. Back pain in the working population: Prevalence rates in Dutch trades and professions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, V.H.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of three health surveys in the Dutch working population is described, aimed at the identification of Dutch trades and professions with relative high and low prevalence rates of back pain. The sample was representative of the working population in the Netherlands and consisted of 5840 men

  19. Prevalence Rates of the Incubus Phenomenon: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Molendijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe incubus phenomenon is a paroxysmal sleep-related disorder characterized by compound hallucinations experienced during brief phases of (apparent wakefulness. The condition has an almost stereotypical presentation, characterized by a hallucinated being that exerts pressure on the thorax, meanwhile carrying out aggressive and/or sexual acts. It tends to be accompanied by sleep paralysis, anxiety, vegetative symptoms, and feelings of suffocation. Its prevalence rate is unknown since, in prior analyses, cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis with/without an incubus phenomenon have been pooled together. This is unfortunate, since the incubus phenomenon has a much greater clinical relevance than isolated sleep paralysis.MethodsPubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for prevalence studies of the incubus phenomenon, and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsOf the 1,437 unique records, 13 met the inclusion criteria, reporting on 14 (k independent prevalence estimates (total N = 6,079. The pooled lifetime prevalence rate of the incubus phenomenon was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI = 0.14–0.25, k = 14, N = 6,079] with heterogeneous estimates over different samples. In selected samples (e.g., patients with a psychiatric disorder, refugees, and students, prevalence rates were nearly four times higher (0.41, 95% CI = 0.25–0.56, k = 4, n = 1,275 than in the random samples (0.11, 95% CI = 0.08–0.14, k = 10, n = 4,804. This difference was significant (P < 0.001.ConclusionThis review and meta-analysis yielded a lifetime prevalence of the incubus phenomenon in the general population of 0.11 and, in selected samples, of 0.41. This is slightly higher than the prevalence rates in previous analyses that included cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis without an incubus phenomenon. Based on the condition’s robust clinical presentation and the relatively high prevalence rates, we advocate

  20. Short report: entomologic inoculation rates and Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, J C; Killeen, G F; Githure, J I

    1999-07-01

    Epidemiologic patterns of malaria infection are governed by environmental parameters that regulate vector populations of Anopheles mosquitoes. The intensity of malaria parasite transmission is normally expressed as the entomologic inoculation rate (EIR), the product of the vector biting rate times the proportion of mosquitoes infected with sporozoite-stage malaria parasites. Malaria transmission intensity in Africa is highly variable with annual EIRs ranging from 1,000 infective bites per person per year. Malaria control programs often seek to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malaria by reducing or eliminating malaria parasite transmission by mosquitoes. This report evaluates data from 31 sites throughout Africa to establish fundamental relationships between annual EIRs and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. The majority of sites fitted a linear relationship (r2 = 0.71) between malaria prevalence and the logarithm of the annual EIR. Some sites with EIRs 80%. The basic relationship between EIR and P. falciparum prevalence, which likely holds in east and west Africa, and across different ecologic zones, shows convincingly that substantial reductions in malaria prevalence are likely to be achieved only when EIRs are reduced to levels less than 1 infective bite per person per year. The analysis also highlights that the EIR is a more direct measure of transmission intensity than traditional measures of malaria prevalence or hospital-based measures of infection or disease incidence. As such, malaria field programs need to consider both entomologic and clinical assessments of the efficacy of transmission control measures.

  1. Views of professional nurses regarding low tuberculosis cure rate in Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandzumuni V. Maswanganyi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of patients suffering from tuberculosis (TB after discharge from hospital plays a critical role in the cure rate of TB. Despite interventions developed by the World Health Organization (WHO to improve the cure rate, TB remains a worldwide health problem. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the views of professional nurses regarding the low TB cure rate in primary healthcare facilities of Greater Giyani Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa, with the aim of determining strategies that can be used to improve this low rate. Method: This study was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The population consisted of professional nurses working in primary healthcare facilities within Greater Giyani Municipality, which has a TB cure rate below the national target of 85 %. Data gathering was through individual face-to-face interviews using an interview guide. Open-coding was used to analyse the data in this study. Results: The theme that emerged from data was ‘factors contributing to low TB cure rate’. This theme was supported by the following sub-themes: poor referral system, lack of knowledge about TB and its treatment, stigma attached to TB, and cultural and religious beliefs. The professional nurses suggested counselling of TB patients upon diagnosis, advice about patients’ responsibilities and the involvement of family members. Conclusion: The involvement of community stakeholders in TB prevention, health promotion and education activities devoted to disease spread and cure is vital so that the stigma attached to TB can be eliminated. TB education and awareness programmes should be included in the curriculum of primary schools.

  2. Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.

  3. Estimates of global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and their association with the Human Development Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Mansori; Erfan Ayubi; Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani; Shiva Mansouri Hanis; Somayeh Khazaei; Mohadeseh Sani; Yousef Moradi; Salman Khazaei; Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of greatest global public health concerns today due to the high incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. The aim of this research was investigate and estimate the global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and explore their associations with the Human Development Index. Methods: The global age-standardized rates of mortality, prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS were obtained from the UNAIDS for different countries in 2015. The human developm...

  4. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botek Michal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23, GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45, GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30, and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26. Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF and low (LF frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln. Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg were heavier (p 25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level.

  5. Eyeblink rate watching classical Hollywood and post-classical MTV editing styles, in media and non-media professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Sánchez, Celia; Martín-Pascual, Miguel Ángel; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José María

    2017-02-21

    While movie edition creates a discontinuity in audio-visual works for narrative and economy-of-storytelling reasons, eyeblink creates a discontinuity in visual perception for protective and cognitive reasons. We were interested in analyzing eyeblink rate linked to cinematographic edition styles. We created three video stimuli with different editing styles and analyzed spontaneous blink rate in participants (N = 40). We were also interested in looking for different perceptive patterns in blink rate related to media professionalization. For that, of our participants, half (n = 20) were media professionals, and the other half were not. According to our results, MTV editing style inhibits eyeblinks more than Hollywood style and one-shot style. More interestingly, we obtained differences in visual perception related to media professionalization: we found that media professionals inhibit eyeblink rate substantially compared with non-media professionals, in any style of audio-visual edition.

  6. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Prevalence rates and epidemiological risk factors for astigmatism in Singapore school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.

  8. [Analysis of Possible Sociodemographic and Occupational Risk Factors and the Prevalence of Professional Exhaustion Syndrome (Burnout) in Mexican Dentists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Aguilera, Enrique; García de Alba García, Javier E

    2013-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) in dentists and to analyze possible sociodemographic and occupational risk factors . An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional survey of 203 dental staff of the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara, Mexico, from the Mexican Social Security Institute, University of Guadalajara, and those in private practice. A self-reported identification form and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey were used to gather data. Descriptive statistics and inferential analyzes were performed using SPSS 15.0 support and EpiInfo V6.1. There was an 88.3% response. Professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) was detected in 52.2% of them. Significant differences were obtained depending on the employment contract. A negative correlation was observed between the subscales emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and a positive one between the lack of personal accomplishment at work. Professional exhaustion syndrome (burnout) is common (52.2%) for dentists, their possible risk factors: working in a public institution, being male, over 40 years, without a regular partner, and with more than 15 years with a partner, not having children, being a specialist with 10 years or more in an institution and the current job, morning shift, permanent recruitment, and having another job. The involvement of emotional exhaustion behaves like the syndrome. Average levels of the subscales are generally near normal. A negative correlation was found between the subscales emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and positive between the lack of personal fulfillment at work with the presence of the syndrome. This leads us to consider the need for preventive measures in the workplace and personnel, as well as intervention programs at an individual, social or organizational level to reduce the prevalence found. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Hair penalties: The negative influence of Afrocentric hair on ratings of Black women's dominance and professionalism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina R. Opie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Women are penalized if they do not behave in a stereotype-congruent manner (Eagly & Carli, 2007; Heilman, 1983; 2001. For example, because women are not expected to be agentic they incur an agency penalty for expressing anger, dominance or assertiveness (Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008; Eagly & Karau, 2002; Livingston, Rosette, & Washington, 2012; Rudman, 1998; Rudman & Fairchild, 2004; Rudman & Glick, 1999, 2001. Yet, all women are not equally penalized (Livingston, Rosette, & Washington, 2012. We make a novel contribution by examining how both White and Black evaluators respond to Black women’s dominance, in this case, whether Black women choose to wear Afrocentric or Eurocentric hairstyles. Design/methodology/approach: We conducted three experimental studies to examine the influence of target hairstyle and participant race on ratings of the target’s professionalism (Studies 1, 2 and 3 and dominance (Study 2. Study 1 was an online experimental study with 200 participants (112 females, 87 males, 1 missing gender; 160 Whites, 19 Blacks, 11 Latinos, 7 Asian Americans and 3 who identify as other; Mage= 35.5, SD = 11.4. Study 2 was an online experimental study with 510 participants (276 women, 234 males; 256 Blacks, 254 Whites; Mage = 41.25 years, SD = 12.21. Study 3 was an online experimental study with 291 participants (141 Blacks, 150 Whites, Mage= 47.5 years, SD = 11.66. Findings: Black, as compared to White, evaluators gave higher agency penalties to Black employment candidates when they donned Afrocentric versus Eurocentric hair, rating them as more dominant and less professional. Implications: The present research illustrates the significance of considering both target and evaluator race when examining the influence of agency, and specifically dominance, on ratings of professionalism.

  10. Study of internet addiction: Prevalence, pattern, and psychopathology among health professional undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin R Gedam; Santanu Ghosh; Lipsy Modi; Arvind Goyal; Himanshu Mansharamani

    2017-01-01

    Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Meth...

  11. Analysis of the Professional Choice Self-Efficacy Scale Using the Rasch-Andrich Rating Scale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambiel, Rodolfo A. M.; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; de Francisco Carvalho, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the psychometrics properties of the professional choice self-efficacy scale (PCSES), using the Rasch-Andrich rating scale model. The PCSES assesses four factors: self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, practical professional information search and future planning. Participants were 883 Brazilian…

  12. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Kogi, Kazutaka; Ito, Akiyoshi; Feskens, Edith J M; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2011-05-26

    Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women) was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  13. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  14. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.

  15. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  16. The reliability of perinatal and neonatal mortality rates: Differential under-reporting in linked professional registers vs. Dutch civil registers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graafmans, W.C.; Dorrepaal, C.A.; Borkent-Polet, M.; Hemel, O.J.S. van; Jansen, F.H.M.; Lya Ouden, A. den

    2001-01-01

    Official Dutch perinatal mortality rates are based on birth and death certificates. These civil registration data are not detailed enough for international comparisons or extensive epidemiological research. In this study, we linked and extrapolated three national incomplete, professional registers

  17. Study of internet addiction: Prevalence, pattern, and psychopathology among health professional undergraduates

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    Sachin R Gedam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 846 students of various faculties from Deemed University. Students were assessed with semi-structured data, Internet Addiction Test and Mental Health Inventory, after giving them brief instructions. Students were classified into normal students and addicted students for comparison. Results: The total prevalence of internet addiction was 19.85%, with moderate and severe addiction being 19.5% and 0.4%, respectively. Internet addiction was associated with gender, computer ownership, preferred time of internet use, login status, and mode of internet access (P < 0.05. It was also associated with anxiety, depression, loss of emotional/behavioral control, emotional ties, life satisfaction, psychological distress, and lower psychological well-being (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Significant association was found between psychopathology and internet addiction. Male gender, login status, emotional ties, and psychological distress were found to be important predictors of internet addiction among students. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration while promoting awareness of problematic internet use and educating students regarding healthy internet use.

  18. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. J.; Powers, R. K.; Rymer, W. Z.; Suresh, N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing. PMID:24572092

  19. Smoking prevalence in Medicaid has been declining at a negligible rate.

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    Shu-Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available In recent decades the overall smoking prevalence in the US has fallen steadily. This study examines whether the same trend is seen in the Medicaid population.National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data from 17 consecutive annual surveys from 1997 to 2013 (combined N = 514,043 were used to compare smoking trends for 4 insurance groups: Medicaid, the Uninsured, Private Insurance, and Other Coverage. Rates of chronic disease and psychological distress were also compared.Adjusted smoking prevalence showed no detectable decline in the Medicaid population (from 33.8% in 1997 to 31.8% in 2013, trend test P = 0.13, while prevalence in the other insurance groups showed significant declines (38.6%-34.7% for the Uninsured, 21.3%-15.8% for Private Insurance, and 22.6%-16.8% for Other Coverage; all P's<0.005. Among individuals who have ever smoked, Medicaid recipients were less likely to have quit (38.8% than those in Private Insurance (62.3% or Other Coverage (69.8%; both P's<0.001. Smokers in Medicaid were more likely than those in Private Insurance and the Uninsured to have chronic disease (55.0% vs 37.3% and 32.4%, respectively; both P's<0.01. Smokers in Medicaid were also more likely to experience severe psychological distress (16.2% for Medicaid vs 3.2% for Private Insurance and 7.6% for the Uninsured; both P's<0.001.The high and relatively unchanging smoking prevalence in the Medicaid population, low quit ratio, and high rates of chronic disease and severe psychological distress highlight the need to focus on this population. A targeted and sustained campaign to help Medicaid recipients quit smoking is urgently needed.

  20. The Association Between Medicolegal and Professional Concerns and Chest Pain Admission Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Julie A; Hastings, Jeffrey W; Major-Monfried, Hannah; Maron, Chad P; Winkel, Maia; Wijeratne, H R Sagara; Fleischman, William; Weingart, Scott; Newman, David H

    2015-07-01

    For patients in whom acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a concern, disposition decisions are complex and multifactorial and have traditionally been a source of considerable variation. An important factor in disposition decisions for these patients may be physician-perceived medicolegal risk and related professional concerns. The study aim was to determine, at the point of care, how much less frequently physicians report that they would admit possible ACS patients if there was either zero or a defined medicolegal risk. This was a point-of-care emergency physician survey. Research assistants approached physicians at or immediately following the moment of disposition decisions for patients who were being admitted for ACS. The primary outcome measures were the proportion of physicians reporting that patients would not have been admitted if medicolegal issues were of no concern and the proportion of physicians reporting that patients would not have been admitted if there was an "acceptable miss rate" of 1% to 2% for ACS patients. During the 3-month study period, 576 patients were admitted to an inpatient unit or to the ED observation protocol. Physicians were approached in 271 cases, and 259 surveys were completed. When presented with hypothetical zero medicolegal risk, physicians answered that they would not have admitted the patients in 30% of cases. With a hypothetical 1% to 2% acceptable miss rate, physicians indicated that they would not have admitted the patients in 29% of the cases. ED medicolegal and professional concerns may substantially increase admissions for possible ACS. An acceptable miss rate or a zero medicolegal risk environment could potentially lead to a major reduction in admissions that physicians feel to be clinically unnecessary. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  1. Reducing Bias in Citizens’ Perception of Crime Rates: Evidence From a Field Experiment on Burglary Prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2018-01-01

    Citizens are on average too pessimistic when assessing the trajectory of current crime trends. In this study, we examine whether we can correct this perceptual bias with respect to burglaries. Using a field experiment coupled with a large panel survey (n=4,895), we explore whether a public...... information campaign can reduce misperceptions about the prevalence of burglaries. Embedding the correct information about burglary rates in a direct mail campaign, we find that it is possible to substantially reduce citizens’ misperceptions. The effects are not short lived – they are detectable several weeks...... after the mailer was sent, but they are temporary. Eventually the perceptual bias re-emerges. Our results suggest that if citizens were continually supplied with correct information about crime rates they would be less pessimistic. Reducing bias in citizens’ perception of crime rates might therefore...

  2. Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors of Depression in Outpatients with Premature Ejaculation

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    Xiansheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of depression in outpatients who were diagnosed with PE. Therefore, between September 2009 and September 2011, 1801 outpatients at andrology clinics were enrolled and consented to participate in our survey by completed a verbal questionnaire. It included the following: (1 demographic data (e.g., age, body mass index, (2 PE duration, medical history, and sexual history, (3 self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times, (4 the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS, and (5 the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and (6 the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. The results showed that a total of 1,206 patients were diagnosed with PE. The prevalence rate of depression in these PE patients was 26.78%. Depression was associated with PE duration, NIH-CPSI score, and IIEF-5 score. Risk factors for depression specifically included PE durations for 13–24, 25–60, or ≥61 months, CPSI scores of 15–30 or ≥31, and IIEF-5 scores <22. These findings suggested that several associated factors (PE duration, CPSI scores, and IIEF-5 scores were the risk factors of depression in men with PE.

  3. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Cameron, Noël; Schönbeck, Yvonne; van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0) in kg/m(p) during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD)) girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4) and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4) than short girls (rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  4. Clinical investigation of proximate exposed group. 1. A study for prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus

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    Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1984-11-01

    In order to investigate effects of the A-bombing on prevalence of diabetes mellitus, follow-up studies were made on 5907 A-bomb survivors who received glucose tolerance test (GTT) during 20 years between 1963 and 1983. The A-bomb survivors were divided into the group A (1899 men and 1165 women exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter) and the group B (1725 men and 1118 women exposed 3.0 km or farther from it). Among non-obese survivors, 21.9% and 21.8% were being treated for diabetes mellitus or were evaluated as having diabetic type on GTT in the group A and the group B, respectively; while this was seen in 52.1% of obese survivors in the group A and 49.9% in the group B. There was no difference between the groups. In non-obese survivors, the annual development rate from the normal type to the diabetic type was 0.89% in the group A and 0.65% in the group B; the annual development rate from the borderline type to the diabetic type was 5.73% in the group A and 5.49% in the group B, showing no differences between the groups. The annual development rate from the normal or borderline type to the diabetic type was two times or higher in obese survivors than in non-obese survivors irrespective of exposure status. Regarding the number of diabetic survivors who became non-diabetic type in spite of having no treatment, and prevalence of diabetic complications, no difference was seen between the groups. These results suggest that the A-bombing has scarcely influenced the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and clinical course.

  5. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis

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    M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%. Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  6. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech army over a 11-year period

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    Fajfrová Jana

    2016-01-01

    statistically significant changes in the prevalence of obesity in men (12-15%. Average glycaemia levels were within normal range in both men and women. A statistically significant decrease in these levels, however, was observed in men (from 5.1 ± 0.9 mmol/L to 4.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L (p < 0.001 and in women (from 4.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L to 4.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L (p < 0.001. Concerning the lipid profile in men, a significant decrease in average values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p < 0.001, from 2.0 ± 1.6 mmol/L to 1.6 ± 1.2 mmol/L (p < 0.001 and from 3.4 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 3.2 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion. During the monitored period only one-third of military professionals had normal body weight. More favorable situation was in female professional soldiers, two-thirds of them had normal body weight during the monitored period. Additionally, the increase in the number of individuals with BMI values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due to well-developed musculature, the number of overweight and obese soldiers is still high.

  7. Prevalence of xerostomia and the salivary flow rate in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka, Barbara; Kaczmarek, Urszula; Skośkiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, which results from relative or absolute insulin deficiency. One of the first oral symptoms of diabetes is xerostomia. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the xerostomia symptoms and salivary flow rate in diabetic patients according to the type of diabetes, the level of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. The study involved 156 adult patients of both sexes including 34 patients with diabetes type 1 (group C1), 59 with diabetes type 2 (group C2), and 63 generally healthy individuals as two control groups, sex- and age-matched to the diabetic group. The patients suffering from both types of diabetes were additionally subdivided according to the level of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. Xerostomia was diagnosed with the use of a specially prepared questionnaire and Fox's test. Moreover, the salivary flow rate of resting mixed saliva was measured. In type 1 diabetics, a significantly lower salivary flow rate in comparison to the age-matched control group (0.38 ± 0.19 mL/min vs. 0.53 ± 0.20 mL/min, p diabetics, a slight lower salivary flow rate was noticed (on average, 20% lower). Dry mouth was far more frequently diagnosed in type 1 diabetics than in the control group. In type 1 diabetics, in comparison to healthy subjects, a significantly lower resting flow rate of saliva and significantly higher prevalence of xerosomia were observed, but in type 2 diabetics, only a trend of such variability was observed.

  8. The effect of an early dismissal on player work-rate in a professional soccer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Christopher; Bloomfield, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an early dismissal (after 5-min play) on work-rate in a professional soccer match. A computerised player tracking system was used to assess the work-rates of seven players who completed the match on a team with 10 players. A minute-by-minute analysis of the remaining 91min following the dismissal was performed for the total distance covered, the distance covered in five categories of movement intensity and the recovery time between high-intensity efforts for each player. The data were calculated for each half and for three equal intervals within each half and profiled against normative data for the same players obtained from the analysis of 15 games in the same season. Following the dismissal, the players covered a greater total distance than normal (pplayers may not always utilise their full physical potential as this match illustrated an increase in overall work-rate when reduced to 10 players. However, as a team with 10 players is likely to incur higher levels of fatigue, tactical alterations may be necessary and/or players may adopt a pacing strategy to endure the remainder of the match. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

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    Tomita Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Results Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Conclusions Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  10. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Joyce Irene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc., soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat, and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  11. Period Prevalence and Reporting Rate of Needlestick Injuries to Nurses in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Fathi, Afshin; Nouri, Bijan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a precise estimate of the period prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSI) among nurses working in hospitals in Iran and the reporting rate of NSI to nurse managers. We searched both international (PubMed, Scopus and the Institute for Scientific Information) and Iranian (Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex and Magiran) scientific databases to find studies published from 2000 to 2016 of NSI among Iranian nurses. The following keywords in Persian and English were used: "needle-stick" or "needle stick" or "needlestick," with and without "injury" or "injuries," "prevalence" or "frequency," "nurses" or "nursing staff," and "Iran." In a sample of 21 articles with 6,480 participants, we estimated that the overall 1-year period prevalence of NSI was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-53%) among Iranian nurses. The overall 1-year period prevalence of reporting NSI to nurse managers was 42% (95% CI, 33-52%). In meta-regression analysis, sample size, mean age, years of experience, and gender ratio were not associated with prevalence of NSI or reporting rate. The year of data collection was positively associated with period prevalence of NSI (p managers. Results indicated a high NSI period prevalence and low NSI reporting rate among nurses in Iran. Thus, effective interventions are required in hospitals in Iran to reduce the prevalence and increase the reporting rate of NSI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  13. Impact of Disease Prevalence Adjustment on Hospitalization Rates for Chronic Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmanns, Johannes; Romano, Patrick S; Weyermann, Maria; Geraedts, Max; Drösler, Saskia E

    2018-04-01

    To explore effects of disease prevalence adjustment on ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalization (ACSH) rates used for quality comparisons. County-level hospital administrative data on adults discharged from German hospitals in 2011 and prevalence estimates based on administrative ambulatory diagnosis data were used. A retrospective cross-sectional study using in- and outpatient secondary data was performed. Hospitalization data for hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma were obtained from the German Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) database. Prevalence estimates were obtained from the German Central Research Institute of Ambulatory Health Care. Crude hospitalization rates varied substantially across counties (coefficients of variation [CV] 28-37 percent across conditions); this variation was reduced by prevalence adjustment (CV 21-28 percent). Prevalence explained 40-50 percent of the observed variation (r = 0.65-0.70) in ACSH rates for all conditions except asthma (r = 0.07). Between 30 percent and 38 percent of areas moved into or outside condition-specific control limits with prevalence adjustment. Unadjusted ACSH rates should be used with caution for high-stakes public reporting as differences in prevalence may have a marked impact. Prevalence adjustment should be considered in models analyzing ACSH. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and a comparison with other populations

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    Sandhya Kiran Pemmasani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The adiponectin gene, ADIPOQ, encodes an adipocytokine, known as adiponectin hormone. This hormone is known to be associated with insulin sensitization, fat metabolism, immunity, and inflammatory response. Polymorphisms in ADIPOQ gene lower the adiponectin levels, increasing the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Aims: The study aimed to calculate the prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and to compare those prevalence rates with that of other populations. Subjects and Methods: Microarray-based genotypic data of 14 ADIPOQ polymorphisms from 703 individuals of Indian origin were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency estimation, identity-by-descent, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, Chi-square test of significance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms, Chi-square tests of significance for allelic and genotypic frequencies across various populations. Conclusions: East Asians are very different from Indians in terms of allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms. Europeans have similar genotypic and allelic patterns with Indians. Admixture Americans and Africans also showed significant differences with polymorphisms of the Indian population.

  15. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdulellah; Perry, Lin; Gholizadeh, Leila; Al-Ganmi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990-2015). A descriptive review. A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings. Studies originated from Saudi Arabia and applied a variety of research designs and tools to diagnosis diabetes. Of the 8 included studies; three reported type 1 diabetes and five on type 2 diabetes. Overall, findings indicated that the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes is rising particularly among females, older children/adolescent and in urban areas. Further development are required to assess the health intervention, polices, guidelines, self-management programs in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Correlative factors on prevalence rate of dislipidemia among 1 337 coal miners in Shanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z D; Wen, D D; Wang, B; Xue, S L; Liu, G S; Li, X H; Zhao, Z H; Wang, J; Wei, B G; Wang, S P

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence rate and correlative factors of dislipidemia among Shanxi coal miners and to provide evidence for the development of programs on dislipidemia prevention. Methods: We investigated 1 337 mine workers from a Coal Group in April 2016 and collected data related to their blood biochemistry. We then classified the types in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of " Guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults (2007)" , using χ (2) test and unconditional logistic regression model for analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of Dislipidemia was 59.1% (790/1 337), with males as 60.4% (708/1 173) and females as 50.0%(82/164) while males appeared higher ( χ (2)=6.386, P dislipidemia ( χ (2)=7.117, P dislipidemia ( P dislipidemia. Conclusion: Among the coal mine workers, those who were males, aged from 20 to 34, having high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure abnormalities) or with high BMI (≥24.0 kg/m(2)) need to be taken special attention on care and prevention of dislipidemia.

  17. Changes in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in Turkey from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Sule; Akpolat, Tekin; Erdem, Yunus; Derici, Ulver; Arici, Mustafa; Sindel, Sukru; Karatan, Oktay; Turgan, Cetin; Hasanoglu, Enver; Caglar, Sali; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess the current epidemiology of hypertension, including its prevalence, the awareness of the condition and its treatment and control, in Turkey to evaluate changes in these factors over the last 10 years by comparing the results with the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) study data (2003), as well as to assess parameters affecting awareness and the control of hypertension. Methods: The PatenT 2 study was conducted on a representative sample of the Turkish adult population (n = 5437) in 2012. Specifically trained staff performed the data collection. Hypertension was defined as mean SBP or DBP at least 140/90 mmHg, previously diagnosed disease or the use of antihypertensive medication. Awareness and treatment were assessed by self-reporting, and control was defined as SBP/DBP less than 140/90 mmHg. Results: Although the prevalence of hypertension in the PatenT and PatenT 2 surveys was stable at approximately 30%, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates have improved in Turkey. Overall, 54.7% of hypertensive patients were aware of their diagnosis in 2012 compared with 40.7% in 2003. The hypertension treatment rate increased from 31.1% in 2003 to 47.4% in 2012, and the control rate in hypertensives increased from 8.1% in 2003 to 28.7% in 2012. The rate of hypertension control in treated patients improved between 2003 (20.7%) and 2012 (53.9%). Awareness of hypertension was positively associated with older age, being a woman, residing in an urban area, a history of parental hypertension, being a nonsmoker, admittance by a physician, presence of diabetes mellitus, and being obese or overweight; it was inversely associated with a higher amount of daily bread consumption. Factors associated with better control of hypertension were younger age, female sex, residing in an urban area, and higher education level in Turkey. Conclusion: Although some progress has been made in

  18. RATINGS OF THE HYGIENIC CONDITIONS AND VERIFICATION PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE EMPLOYEE IN COMMON FOOD SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Zeleňáková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The general food legislation is a key element in creating systems for food safety and food. Its observance, particularly the general hygiene requirements, a prerequisite for the introduction of the HACCP system, and thus the overall safety of food preparation. The level of hygiene in catering premises reflects the responsibility of their management to food safety and also demonstrates the willingness of management to gain the favor of customers. In providing common food services and catering services to the public is always a danger of contagion that can spread the food, but also finished products. To avoid this possibility, it is necessary to apply the rules of hygiene. Establishments which provide catering services must meet the requirements to ensure the health of boarders. The common food services are very strict controled and is our aim to provide pointers on how to minimize risk and liability. Very dangerous is also bacterial transfer rates between hands and other common surfaces involved in food preparation in the kitchen. In our work we were rating the hygienic conditions and also verificating professional competence employee in common food services by using the modern methods like 3MTM PetrifilmTM .

  19. Prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD and other psychological disorders among Saudi firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alghamd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.

  20. Heart rate variability in the standing position reflects training adaptation in professional soccer players.

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    Ravé, Guillaume; Fortrat, Jacques-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    To show that heart rate variability (HRV) in the standing position better reflects the way in which athletes adapt to training in so-called intermittent sports than the indicator of resting parasympathetic tone usually employed in endurance sports. Twenty professional soccer players (intermittent sport) took part in a 5-week training session divided into three successive periods: "Warm-up", "Intensive training" and "Tapering". At the beginning and end of each of the three periods, a stand test was carried out and the heart rate was recorded, beat by beat (Polar Team 2). We analysed HRV to determine the indicator mostly used to demonstrate training adaptation in endurance sports (lnRMSSD supine, natural logarithm of root mean square of the successive differences) as well as indicators obtained by means of spectral analysis in both supine and standing position. A decrease in heart rate was observed in the supine position at rest during training (-5.2 ± 1.3 bpm) while lnRMSSD and spectral analysis indicators remained unchanged. The "Warm-up" caused an increase in spectral analysis total power in standing position which was further highlighted by "Tapering" (3.39 ± 0.09, 3.61 ± 0.08 and 3.65 ± 0.09 log ms(2), respectively). However, the autonomic changes are probably more complex than a change in autonomic activity or balance since spectral analysis autonomic indicators remained unchanged. HRV in the standing position could monitor training adaptation in intermittent sports contrary to the indicator usually employed in endurance sports. However, the significance of the HRV change in the standing position during training remains unclear.

  1. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

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    Paula van Dommelen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0 in kg/m(p during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4 and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4 than short girls (<-1 SD. Similar results were found in boys aged 5.0-14.9 y (RR = 4.4,95%CI:3.4-5.7 and RR = 5.3,95%CI:2.6-11.0. No large differences were found in the other age groups and in comparison with children with an average stature. Tall boys aged 2.0-4.9 y had a significantly higher positive trend in overweight between 1980 and 1997 compared to short boys (RR = 4.0,95%CI:1.38-11.9. For other age groups and in girls, no significant trends were found. The optimal Area Under the Curve (AUC to predict adult overweight was found for p = 2.0. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Tall girls aged 5.0-13.9y and tall boys aged 5.0-14.9y have much higher prevalence rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  2. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients.

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    Smalbrugge, Martin; Pot, Anne Margriet; Jongenelis, Lineke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Eefsting, Jan A

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home population of attributing somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety to either somatic or psychiatric disorder. Symptoms of major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) were measured using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Somatic symptoms of MD, GAD and PD were attributed to somatic causes when the interviewer was not sure about a psychiatric cause. To analyse the effect of this attribution on the prevalence rate of MD, GAD and PD, a sensitivity analysis was undertaken in which symptoms that were attributed to somatic causes were recoded as symptoms attributed to psychiatric disorder. Prevalence rates of MD, GAD and PD were calculated before and after recoding. The prevalence of MD after recoding rose from 7.5% to 8.1%. The prevalence of GAD did not change. The prevalence of PD rose from 1.5% to 1.8%. Attribution of somatic symptoms to either somatic or psychiatric disorder when the interviewer was not sure about a psychiatric cause of the somatic symptoms had only a very modest effect on the prevalence rate of major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in a nursing home population.

  3. HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers in Rome: prevalence, behavior patterns, and seroconversion rates.

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    Spizzichino, L; Zaccarelli, M; Rezza, G; Ippolito, G; Antinori, A; Gattari, P

    2001-07-01

    The Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma E (ASL-RME) outpatient clinic is the main reference center in Rome for HIV testing of foreign people. To define the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers attending the center. A cross-sectional, follow-up study was conducted. Between 1993 and 1999, 353 transsexuals attended the ASL-RME. They were from Colombia (n = 208), Brazil (n = 122), and other countries (n = 23). Most of these transsexuals reported having 5 to 10 partners per day. The overall HIV prevalence was 38.2%, which multivariate analysis found to be associated with origin from Brazil and a higher number of sex partners. The observed HIV seroconversion rate was 4.1 per 100 person-years, and non-regular condom use was the only factor related to seroconversion. The data from this study suggest that promotion of safer sex practices and regular condom use still is the main priority among marginalized population subgroups, such as foreign prostitutes, involved in sex activities that put them at risk for HIV infection.

  4. Prevalence rates and socioeconomic characteristics of post-partum depression in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Molnar, Peter; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2011-01-30

    The rapid socioeconomic transition in post-communist Hungary adversely affected the overall morbidity and mortality rates in the 1990s. Prevalence data on depressive disorders from the region are still scarce, however. This study reports the findings of the first epidemiological survey, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on the prevalence of post-partum depression and the associated risk factors in Hungary. A total of 1030 mothers who delivered their babies between May and July 1999 in 16 counties in Hungary were screened for depressive symptoms 3-26 weeks post-partum. The survey found that 10.81% of the sample was above the cut-off score of 13, and the EPDS detected post-partum depressive symptoms with 76% (95% confidence interval (CI)=60.5-87.1) sensitivity and 92% (95% CI=90.5-94.1) specificity. In addition, 24 socio-demographic, socio-psychiatric data and personal and obstetric variables were surveyed. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that depression of the mother during pregnancy was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms post-partum. Depression before pregnancy, housing conditions, marital relationship status and family history of alcohol problems were also identified as predictors for post-partum depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of sinus floor elevation procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla

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    Ceyda Ozçakır Tomruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sinus-lifting procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla. This retrospective chart review examined consecutive patients with tooth/teeth loss in the posterior maxilla between 2008 and 2012 treated with sinus lift, when needed, and implant insertion. Demographic variables, health status, residual alveolar bone height, augmentation types, the implant position, diameter and height, and implant failure, prosthesis types, and the marginal bone loss were recorded. The study included 302 patients at a mean age of 5.2 years, who received a total of 609 dental implants. A total of 380 (62.3% implants were inserted in native areas, 203 (33.3% ones in external sinus-lifted areas and 26 (4.4% ones in internal lifted areas. The survival rate in native or internal lifted areas were 100% and 95.6% in external sinus lifted ones (10 implant failures/203 implants. Almost half of the implants were examined radiologically with a mean duration of 30 months and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.64 ± 1.2 mm. The results showed that the survival rates of native bone and the internal sinus lifting were slightly higher than that of external sinus lifting. Implants placed with sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants in native bone.

  6. Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality

  7. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet: Influence of Age and Years of Professional Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino, Francisco Jos?; Guill?n, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Background: In spite of the high rate of overuse injuries in ballet dancers, no studies have investigated the prevalence of overuse injuries in professional dancers by providing specific diagnoses and details on the differences in the injuries sustained as a function of age and/or years of professional practice. Hypothesis: Overuse injuries are the most prevalent injuries in ballet dancers. Professional ballet dancers suffer different types of injuries depending on their age and years of prof...

  8. The trend of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in German hospitals: results of seven cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Wilborn, Doris; Dassen, Theo; Lahmann, Nils

    2009-05-01

    Pressure ulcer prevalence rates provide useful information about the magnitude of this health problem. Only limited information on pressure ulcers in Germany was available before 2001. The purpose of this study was to compare results of seven pressure ulcer prevalence surveys which were conducted annually between 2001 and 2007 and to explore whether pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased. The second aim was to evaluate if the measured prevalence rates of our sample could be generalised for all German hospitals. Results of seven point pressure ulcer prevalence studies conducted in 225 German hospitals were analysed. Chi-square tests, chi-square trend tests and one-way ANOVA to assess differences and trends across the years were applied. The sample was stratified according to pressure ulcer risk and speciality. Finally, study samples were compared with the potential population. In total data of 40,247 hospital patients were analysed. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence rate in German hospitals was 10.2%. Patient samples of each year were comparable regarding gender, age and pressure ulcer risk. Pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased from 13.9% (year 2001) to 7.3% (year 2007) (pcare units remained stable. With some limitations our study results are representative for all hospitals within Germany. It is highly probable that the decrease of prevalence rates was due to an increased awareness of the pressure ulcer problem in Germany and subsequent efforts to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The quality of clinical practice regarding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment has improved. However, pressure ulcers are still relevant and require attention. In 2007, one out of 10 hospital patients who were at pressure ulcer risk had at least one pressure related skin damage.

  9. Interrelation between the prevalence rate of suicides and the length of working hours

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    P. A. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that overworking as well as deficiency of work (plenty of free time are major factors of a suicide on an individual level which allows when passing to the level of a real social group (employees to suppose of existence of a certain optimum of working time or a parabolic (U-shaped connection between the suicide rate and an average duration of working time. From the theoretical point of view the supposed parabolic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average duration of working time of employees is described from the point of view of suicidology: excessive increase of working time is an external tendency which prevents satisfaction of actual needs of an employee and limits physically the space (off-work time for their realization. Multidirectional tendencies form a life conflict which has crucial significance when transferring to a suicidal phase. The objective of this article consists in a qualitative assessment of an influence of “an average duration of working time” on the level of prevalence of suicides when other things are fixed (economic, social, religious and others in a relatively stable social situation. For the econometric analysis, reliable and comparable data of the European database of detailed mortality data of the World Health Organization and Eurostat are used for 22 European countries for the period from 1998 till 2012. Based on analysis of a dynamics of the studied variables different hypothesis have been made: 1 about existence of statistically significant linear or logarithmic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time inside a country 2 about existence of a parabolic (U-shaped dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time between countries. A set of panel unit root tests and stationarity testify that the examined variables are unsteady variables with integratedness order I(1. The

  10. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh

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    Nurshad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555–560, 2004 that basal metabolic rate (BMR and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. Method The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Results Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence in male (12.1% than in the female (3.4% students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI, as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001. Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. Conclusion This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors

  11. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Mahmood, Shakil; Manirujjaman, M; Perveen, Rasheda; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim; Khanum, Farida Adib; Rahman, Mustafizur

    2017-07-25

    Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555-560, 2004) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in male (12.1%) than in the female (3.4%) students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI), as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adult students. The

  12. Call for early prevention: prevalence rates of overweight among Turkish and Moroccan children in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Schönbeck, Yvonne; HiraSing, Remy A; van Buuren, Stef

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring overweight in risk groups is necessary. Our aim is to assess the trend in overweight and obesity in Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands since 1997 and to monitor the levels of lifestyle-related behaviours in 2009. We selected cross-sectional data of Turkish and Moroccan children aged 2-18 years from two national Growth Studies performed in 1997 and 2009 in the Netherlands. Lifestyle-related behaviours were obtained in the 2009 study by questionnaire. In 2009, 31.9% of Turkish and 26.6% of Moroccan children had overweight, whereas this was, respectively, 26.7% and 19.6% in 1997. Already at 2 years, 21.1% in Turkish and 22.7% in Moroccan children had overweight in 2009. The prevalence of obesity was above 4% from 3 years onwards. High (i.e. ≥ 25%) prevalence rates of unhealthy lifestyle-related behaviours were found for not having breakfast (26-49%) among Turkish and Moroccan adolescent (i.e. 15-18 years) girls, consuming no fruit (29-45%) and watching TV/PC ≥ 2 h (35-72%) among all Turkish and Moroccan adolescents, no walking/cycling to school/day care among preschool children (2-4 years) (28-56%) and adolescents (34-94%), drinking ≥ 2 glasses of sweet beverages (44-74%) and being children. An upward trend of overweight and obesity occurred in Turkish and Moroccan children. Already at 2 years of age, one out of five Turkish and Moroccan children had overweight, which calls for early prevention with attention to specific lifestyle-related behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. ICD-11 Prevalence Rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a German Nationwide Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias; Augsburger, Mareike; Kliem, Sören

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors. One-month prevalence rates were as follows: PTSD, 1.5%; CPTSD, 0.5%; and CPTSD variant, 0.7%. For PTSD, the highest conditional prevalence was associated with kidnapping or rape, and the highest CPTSD rates were associated with sexual childhood abuse or rape. PTSD and CPTSD were best differentiated by sexual violence. Combined PTSD and CPTSD (ICD-11) rates were in the range of previously reported prevalences for unified PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; ICD-10). Evidence on differential predictors of PTSD and CPTSD is still preliminary.

  14. Gender, professional and non-professional work, and the changing pattern of employment-related inequality in poor self-rated health, 1995-2006 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Ho; Khang, Young Ho; Cho, Sung Il; Chun, Heeran; Muntaner, Carles

    2011-01-01

    We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.

  15. Trends of increases in potential risk factors and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, V; Kriengsinyos, W; Photi, J; Tontisirin, K

    2017-07-01

    Over the past three decades, undernutrition in Thailand has drastically reduced by over seven times. However, since 1995 the number of patients afflicted with non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, has rapidly increased, even among the young. Unhealthy life styles due to urbanization are a major reason for this increase. Less physical activity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as high consumption of added free sugar, are common. Every year, the Thai people increase their consumption of energy from fat and protein, while lowering their intake of energy from complex carbohydrates. Per capita and on average, a Thai individual consumes up to 20% of total energy from added free sugar. Barker's hypothesis and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis (DOHaD) can partially explain the increase in diabetes mellitus at this rapid rate. To alleviate the problem, the main strategy has been consumer education to reduce diabetes mellitus prevalence. Sugar elimination from infant formula is mandatory and sugar taxation is being considered. Simplified nutrition labeling is voluntarily as part of consumer education, as well as encouraging food industries to produce healthier food products. Currently, a multi-sectoral approach is used for alleviating diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

  16. Extraspinal incidental findings on routine MRI of lumbar spine: Prevalence and reporting Rates in 1278 patients

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    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  17. Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaba, Mary; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Wooditch, Alese; Kiss, Marissa; Murphy, Amy; Kumari, Suneeta; Taxman, Faye; Altice, Frederick; Lawson, William B; Springer, Sandra A

    2018-01-15

    Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of mood disorders among justice involved opioid-dependent populations. The current study enrolled 258 treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals under community-based criminal justice supervision (e.g., probation, parole) screened from the larger parent study, Project STRIDE, a seek/test/treat randomized control trial (RCT) examining HIV and opioid use treatment. During baseline, individuals were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and screened for bipolar disorder using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) tool. Overall, 78 (30%) participants screened positive for moderate to severe depression and 54 (21%) screened positive for bipolar disorder. Participants self-reported mood disorders at higher rates than they screened positive for these conditions. Participants screening positive for these conditions experienced significantly greater family, legal, and medical problems on the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite) than those who did not screen positive. Incidence of a lifetime suicide attempt was found to be associated with a positive screen for both mood disorders. Prescribed psychotropic treatment utilization was similar among those who screened positive for depression or bipolar disorder with approximately 38% reporting taking medication. Findings suggest universal mood disorder screening to improve comprehensive psychiatric care and treatment of opioid-dependent justice-involved individuals.

  18. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

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    Sebastien Breurec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. Methods Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized. In addition, the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance and the genetic background of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae were studied. Results A bacteriological infection was confirmed in 36.4 % (88/242 of neonates: 22.7 % (30/132 during the early-onset and 52.7 % (58/110 during the late-onset periods (p > 0.20. Group B streptococci accounted for 6.8 % of the 88 collected bacterial isolates, while most of them were Enterobacteriaceae (n = 69, 78.4 %. Of these, 55/69 (79.7 % were 3GC-R. The blaCTX-M-15 allele, the blaSHV and the blaTEM were highly prevalent (63.5, 65.4 and 53.8 %, respectively, usually associated with qnr genes (65.4 %. Clonally related strains of 3GC-R Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3GC-R Enterobacter cloacae, the two most commonly recovered 3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae (48/55, were detected at the three hospitals, underlining the role of cross-transmission in their spread. The overall case fatality rate was 18.6 %. Conclusions Measures should be taken to prevent nosocomial infections and the selection of resistant bacteria.

  19. Prevalence Rates of Work Organization Characteristics Among Workers in the U.S.: Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance is needed to capture work organization characteristics and to identify their trends. Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to calculate prevalence rates for four work organization characteristics (long work hours, non-standard work arrangements, temporary positions, and alternative shifts) overall, and by demographic characteristics, and industry and occupation of current/recent employment. Results Data were available for 27,157 adults, of which 65% were current/recent workers. Among adults who worked in the past 12 months, 18.7% worked 48 hr or more per week, 7.2% worked 60 hr or more per week, 18.7% had non-standard work arrangements, 7.2% were in temporary positions, and 28.7% worked an alternative shift. Conclusions Prevalence rates of work organization characteristics are provided. These national estimates can be used to help occupational health professionals and employers to identify emerging occupational safety and health risks, allow researchers to examine associations with health, and use the data for benchmarking. PMID:22911666

  20. The validated hypoallergenic cosmetics rating system: its 30-year evolution and effect on the prevalence of cosmetic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M

    2011-01-01

    The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.

  1. Prevalence and rupture rate of cerebral aneurysms discovered during intra-arterial chemotherapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourekas, E C; Newton, H B; Figg, G M; Slone, H W

    2006-02-01

    During the administration of intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy for the treatment of brain tumors (BTs), angiography may demonstrate asymptomatic, incidental cerebral aneurysms. The prevalence and complication rate of incidental aneurysms in patients undergoing IA chemotherapy remains unknown. It remains unclear whether the presence of an aneurysm represents an increased risk or a contraindication to this form of treatment. We performed a chart and angiography review of BT patients receiving IA chemotherapy over the previous 16 months. Seventy-eight patients were identified with primary (39) and metastatic (39) BTs. The cohort consisted of 40 men and 38 women, with a mean age of 47.8 years (range, 22-80 years). During initial angiography, 8 patients (10.3%) were identified with incidental cerebral aneurysms. The aneurysms were saccular and varied in size from 2-4 mm (mean, 3 mm). Seven of the 8 patients continued IA chemotherapy after detection of the aneurysm, for a total of 35 IA procedures. Of these 7 patients, 5 expired from nonaneurysmal complications (mean survival, 5.4 months; range, 2-10 months); 4 from the primary tumor, and one from an infected craniotomy site. Two patients continue to survive; one remains in treatment, and the other has completed 12 months of IA therapy. There were no aneurysmal complications during or after IA treatment in any of the BT patients. Incidental aneurysms may be more common in patients with BTs than the general population. In our patient population, there was no indication that an incidental aneurysm was reason to preclude or delay the use of IA chemotherapy.

  2. Computed tomography (CT) findings in 88 neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients: Prevalence rates and correlations of thoracic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Ken, E-mail: k-ueda@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Honda, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Satoh, Yukihisa [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan); Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and

  3. Computed tomography (CT) findings in 88 neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients: Prevalence rates and correlations of thoracic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken; Honda, Osamu; Satoh, Yukihisa; Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and

  4. [Prevalence of symptoms and risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome assessed by the Berlin Questionnaire among professionals of a health facility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadelis, G; Fayad Y Monteagudo, O E

    2016-12-01

    Few data exist on the prevalence of symptoms and risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) among professionals of a health facility, or they often work in shift schedule and night. Under these conditions, an undetected OSAS may affect alertness and attention in professional acts. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of OSAS among professionals of a health facility. It is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 773 participants working at the university hospital of Pointe-à-Pitre and volunteers to answer the Berlin questionnaire. We also collected among respondents, abdominal and neck circumference and medical history. Women accounted for 67% (n=520) of the sample and men 32.7% (n=253). The mean age was 42±11.1 years. We noted a high prevalence of OSAS symptoms (snoring at 69% to 26% daytime sleepiness) and SAS risk factors (hypertension reported to 18%, BMI>30kg/m 2 to 13%). The prevalence of subjects at high OSAS risk was 23.5% (20.6-26.6%) in the overall study population; it was 22.4% in nursing staff, and 21.4% (17-26%) among in the shift schedule workers. The factors significantly associated with a high risk of OSAS in this population were: age>51 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 8.1, P41cm (aOR: 2.9, Phealth workers who have risk factors for sleep apnea syndrome identified in this study, OSAS screening by the Berlin Questionnaire. This could be implemented for example as part of occupational medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfusion rate and prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F

    2011-01-01

    To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....

  6. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Jongenelis, L.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home

  7. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A.; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the

  8. ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE, HOSPITALIZATION RATE AND MORTALITY LEVELS RELATED TO GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN THE MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: According to prognosis made by World Health Organization experts, by mid-21st century gastrointestinal disorders will be among the leaders, partially due to lifestyle of a modern man (stress, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy habits, environmental pollution, genetically modified and low quality foods.Aim: To provide informational support of activities aimed at improvement of organization of medical care to patients with gastrointestinal disorders and at further development of specialized gastroenterological care to the population of the Moscow Region, its better availability and higher efficacy and quality.Materials and methods: We calculated and analyzed gastrointestinal morbidity in 2014 (according to referrals among the main age categories (children, adolescents, adults of the population of the Moscow Region, as well as hospitalization rates and in-hospital mortality. The information was taken from the Federal Statistical Surveillance report forms # 12 and # 14.Results: In 2014, the highest prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders was registered in adolescents, being by 42.7% higher than that in adults and by 11.7% higher than that in children. The leading causes of referrals in all age categories were gastritis and duodenitis, as well as gall bladder and bile tract disorders. The structure of morbidity was characterized by a high proportion of pancreatic disorders, stomach and duodenal ulcers in adults. The rate of hospitalizations due to gastrointestinal disorders was 17.8 cases per 1000 patients, being 17.4‰ in adults and 19.8‰ in children and adolescents. The main reasons for hospitalization in adults were diseases of pancreas (23.9% of all hospitalization due to gastrointestinal disorders, gall bladder and bile tract disorders (16.3%. In children and adolescents, the main reasons for hospitalizations were intestinal disorders (36.4%, gastritis and duodenitis (17.9%. In-hospital mortality from

  9. Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; García-Lafuente, Francisca; García-Royo, Carmen; Tomás-Rojas, Inmaculada

    2011-10-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body's energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS.

  10. Statewide prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis and rate of adrenaline autoinjector activation in Victorian government schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr. The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8% of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years, 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years, and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years. The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with 5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice.

  12. Transfusion transmitted virus prevalence rate in IDU patients: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make

  13. [Rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age in China in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z Q; Zhao, Y F; Yang, J; Wang, L M; Zhao, Z P; Zeng, X Y; Wang, L H

    2017-12-06

    Objective: To analyze the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013. Methods: The analysis used data obtained from the China Chronic and non-communicable disease surveillance in 2013.The surveillance included 176 534 adults aging ≥18 years old, who were selected from 302 surveillance points by multi-stage cluster random sampling method. A total of 46 674 women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) were investigated. Blood pressures were measured by electronic blood pressure monitor. After being weighted according to complex sampling scheme and post-stratification, the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were compared by different characteristics such as age, education, urban and rural areas, and geographic locations. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013 was 13.5%. The rate in the rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (χ(2)=46.23, P 0.05). The hypertension prevalence in all age groups (18-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49 years old) were 6.6%, 9.2%, 9.6%, 12.0%, 17.9% and 28.3%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension showed a rising trend with age increasing ( t= 12.32, Pareas; and 21.3%, 18.5% and 5.9%, respectively in rural areas. The rates in urban areas were all higher than those in rural areas (chi square were separately 18.98, 21.31, and 6.80, P values areas.

  14. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  15. Effects of Yoga on Stress, Stress Adaption, and Heart Rate Variability Among Mental Health Professionals--A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Huang, Ching-Ya; Shiu, Shau-Ping; Yeh, Shu-Hui

    2015-08-01

    Mental health professionals experiencing work-related stress may experience burn out, leading to a negative impact on their organization and patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yoga classes on work-related stress, stress adaptation, and autonomic nerve activity among mental health professionals. A randomized controlled trial was used, which compared the outcomes between the experimental (e.g., yoga program) and the control groups (e.g., no yoga exercise) for 12 weeks. Work-related stress and stress adaptation were assessed before and after the program. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at baseline, midpoint through the weekly yoga classes (6 weeks), and postintervention (after 12 weeks of yoga classes). The results showed that the mental health professionals in the yoga group experienced a significant reduction in work-related stress (t = -6.225, p control group revealed no significant changes. Comparing the mean differences in pre- and posttest scores between yoga and control groups, we found the yoga group significantly decreased work-related stress (t = -3.216, p = .002), but there was no significant change in stress adaptation (p = .084). While controlling for the pretest scores of work-related stress, participants in yoga, but not the control group, revealed a significant increase in autonomic nerve activity at midpoint (6 weeks) test (t = -2.799, p = .007), and at posttest (12 weeks; t = -2.099, p = .040). Because mental health professionals experienced a reduction in work-related stress and an increase in autonomic nerve activity in a weekly yoga program for 12 weeks, clinicians, administrators, and educators should offer yoga classes as a strategy to help health professionals reduce their work-related stress and balance autonomic nerve activities. © 2015 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing.

  16. Development of a model for case-mix adjustment of pressure ulcer prevalence rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, G.J.J.W.; Halfens, J.; Berger, M.P.; Abu-Saad, H.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute care hospitals participating in the Dutch national pressure ulcer prevalence survey use the results of this survey to compare their outcomes and assess their quality of care regarding pressure ulcer prevention. The development of a model for case-mix adjustment is essential for the

  17. Child maltreatment in numbers : a multimethod study of year prevalence rates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and

  18. Prevalence rates of six selected infectious diseases among African migrants and refugees: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernet, A; Utzinger, J; Sydow, V; Probst-Hensch, N; Paris, D H; Labhardt, N D; Neumayr, A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among migrants/refugees of African origin and to provide policy makers and health care professionals with evidence-based information. We pursued a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of six selected infectious diseases (i.e., syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infections, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) among migrants/refugees of African origin. Three electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science) were searched without language restrictions. Relevant data were extracted and random-effects meta-analyses conducted. Only adjusted estimates were analyzed to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. The results were stratified by geographical region. Ninety-six studies were included. The evidence was of low quality due to the small numbers of countries, infectious diseases, and participants included. African migrants/refugees had median (with 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) prevalence for syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infection, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C of 6.0% [95% CI: 2.0-7.0%], 13.0% [95% CI: 9.5-14.5%], 14.0% [95% CI: 13.0-17.0%], 15.0% [95% CI: 10.5-21.0%], 10.0% [95% CI: 6.0-14.0%], and 3.0% [95% CI: 1.0-4.0%], respectively. We found high heterogeneity regardless of the disease (I 2 ; minimum 97.5%, maximum 99.7%). The relatively high prevalence of some infectious diseases among African migrants/refugees warrants for systematic screening. The large heterogeneity of the available published data does not allow for stratifying such screening programs according to the geographical origin of African migrants/refugees.

  19. Professional's Attitudes Do Not Influence Screening and Brief Interventions Rates for Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers: Results from ODHIN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Preben; Anderson, Peter; Wojnar, Marcin; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Müssener, Ulrika; Colom, Joan; Karlsson, Nadine; Brzózka, Krzysztof; Spak, Fredrik; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Kaner, Eileen; Kłoda, Karolina; Mierzecki, Artur; Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Parkinson, Kathryn; Reynolds, Jillian; Ronda, Gaby; Segura, Lidia; Palacio, Jorge; Baena, Begoña; Slodownik, Luiza; van Steenkiste, Ben; Wolstenholme, Amy; Wallace, Paul; Keurhorst, Myrna N; Laurant, Miranda G H; Gual, Antoni

    2015-07-01

    To determine the relation between existing levels of alcohol screening and brief intervention rates in five European jurisdictions and role security and therapeutic commitment by the participating primary healthcare professionals. Health care professionals consisting of, 409 GPs, 282 nurses and 55 other staff including psychologists, social workers and nurse aids from 120 primary health care centres participated in a cross-sectional 4-week survey. The participants registered all screening and brief intervention activities as part of their normal routine. The participants also completed the Shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ), which measure role security and therapeutic commitment. The only significant but small relationship was found between role security and screening rate in a multilevel logistic regression analysis adjusted for occupation of the provider, number of eligible patients and the random effects of jurisdictions and primary health care units (PHCU). No significant relationship was found between role security and brief intervention rate nor between therapeutic commitment and screening rate/brief intervention rate. The proportion of patients screened varied across jurisdictions between 2 and 10%. The findings show that the studied factors (role security and therapeutic commitment) are not of great importance for alcohol screening and BI rates. Given the fact that screening and brief intervention implementation rate has not changed much in the last decade in spite of increased policy emphasis, training initiatives and more research being published, this raises a question about what else is needed to enhance implementation. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  1. Projected increased growth rate of anesthesia professional-delivered sedation for colonoscopy and EGD in the United States: 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadomi, John M; Gunnarsson, Candace L; Rizzo, John A; Fang, Hai

    2010-09-01

    Anesthesia professional-delivered sedation has become increasingly common when performing colonoscopy and EGD. To provide an estimate of anesthesia professional-participation rates in colonoscopy and EGD procedures and to examine rate changes over time and geographic variations for both procedures. Retrospective sample design. National survey data from i3 Innovus for the period 2003 to 2007 on the use rate of anesthesia professionals in both procedures. A sample of 3688 observations included 3-digit zip code-level information on anesthesia professional use rates. Data were linked to the Bureau of Health Professions' Area Resource File to control for sociodemographic factors and provider supply characteristics for anesthesia professional use rates. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify factors predicting the use rate of anesthesia professionals in these procedures and to forecast use rates for the years 2009 to 2015. For colonoscopy and EGD, anesthesia professional participation is projected to grow from 23.9% and 24.4% in 2007 to 53.4% and 52.9% by 2015, respectively. Average growth rates were highest in the northeast for colonoscopy (145.8%) and EGD (146.6%). Anesthesia professional use rates were significantly greater in areas having a higher percentage of older subjects (45 years and older), higher per capita income and lower unemployment rates, and higher per capita inpatient admissions and were significantly lower in areas having more per capita outpatient visits for both procedures. Nonexperimental retrospective sample study design. Database sample may not be nationally representative. Market area characteristics were used to control for socioeconomic and demographic factors. However, there may remain some important market factors that we were unable to control. Anesthesia professional-delivered sedation is projected to grow substantially for both procedures. Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by

  2. Divorce, divorce rates, and professional care seeking for mental health problems in Europe: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Piet F; Colman, Elien; Symoens, Sara A A; Van Praag, Lore

    2010-04-29

    Little is known about differences in professional care seeking based on marital status. The few existing studies show more professional care seeking among the divorced or separated compared to the married or cohabiting. The aim of this study is to determine whether, in a sample of the European general population, the divorced or separated seek more professional mental health care than the married or cohabiting, regardless of self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, we examine whether two country-level features--the supply of mental health professionals and the country-level divorce rates--contribute to marital status differences in professional care-seeking behavior. We use data from the Eurobarometer 248 on mental well-being that was collected via telephone interviews. The unweighted sample includes 27,146 respondents (11,728 men and 15,418 women). Poisson hierarchical regression models were estimated to examine whether the divorced or separated have higher professional health care use for emotional or psychological problems, after controlling for mental and somatic health, sociodemographic characteristics, support from family and friends, and degree of urbanization. We also considered country-level divorce rates and indicators of the supply of mental health professionals, and applied design and population weights. We find that professional care seeking is strongly need based. Moreover, the divorced or separated consult health professionals for mental health problems more often than people who are married or who cohabit do. In addition, we find that the gap between the divorced or separated and the married or cohabiting is highest in countries with low divorce rates. The higher rates of professional care seeking for mental health problems among the divorced or separated only partially correlates with their more severe mental health problems. In countries where marital dissolution is more common, the marital status gap in professional care seeking is

  3. Divorce, divorce rates, and professional care seeking for mental health problems in Europe: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symoens Sara AA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about differences in professional care seeking based on marital status. The few existing studies show more professional care seeking among the divorced or separated compared to the married or cohabiting. The aim of this study is to determine whether, in a sample of the European general population, the divorced or separated seek more professional mental health care than the married or cohabiting, regardless of self-reported mental health problems. Furthermore, we examine whether two country-level features--the supply of mental health professionals and the country-level divorce rates--contribute to marital status differences in professional care-seeking behavior. Methods We use data from the Eurobarometer 248 on mental well-being that was collected via telephone interviews. The unweighted sample includes 27,146 respondents (11,728 men and 15,418 women. Poisson hierarchical regression models were estimated to examine whether the divorced or separated have higher professional health care use for emotional or psychological problems, after controlling for mental and somatic health, sociodemographic characteristics, support from family and friends, and degree of urbanization. We also considered country-level divorce rates and indicators of the supply of mental health professionals, and applied design and population weights. Results We find that professional care seeking is strongly need based. Moreover, the divorced or separated consult health professionals for mental health problems more often than people who are married or who cohabit do. In addition, we find that the gap between the divorced or separated and the married or cohabiting is highest in countries with low divorce rates. Conclusions The higher rates of professional care seeking for mental health problems among the divorced or separated only partially correlates with their more severe mental health problems. In countries where marital dissolution is more

  4. Associations between presence of relevant information in referrals to radiology and prevalence rates in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedner, Charlotta; Sundgren, Pia C; Kelly, Aine Marie

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the presence of information including the pretest probability (Wells score), other known risk factors, and symptoms given on referrals for computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography correlated with prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism (PE). Also, to evaluate for differences between a university and a regional hospital setting regarding patient characteristics, amount of relevant information provided on referrals, and prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism. Retrospective review of all consecutive referrals (emergency room, inpatient, and outpatient) for CT performed on children and adults for suspected PE from two sites: a tertiary (university) hospital (site 1) and a secondary (regional) hospital (site 2) over a 5-year period. The overall prevalence rate was 510/3641 or 14% of all referrals. Significantly higher number of males had a positive CT compared to women (18% versus 12%, P relevant information on the referral and the probability for positive finding existed, a slight trend was noted (P = .09). In two categories, "hypoxia" and "signs of deep vein thrombosis," the presence of this information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism, P information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism. The amount of relevant clinical information on the request did not correlate with prevalence rates, which may reflect a lack of documentation on the part of emergency physicians who may use a "gestalt" approach. Request forms likely did not capture all relevant patient risks and many factors may interact with each other, both positively and negatively. Pretest probability estimations were rarely performed, despite their inclusion in major society guidelines. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Central Bank Transparency, the Accuracy of Professional Forecasts, and Interest Rate Volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, M.

    2011-01-01

    Central banks worldwide have become more transparent. An important reason is that democratic societies expect more openness from public institutions. Policymakers also see transparency as a way to improve the predictability of monetary policy, thereby lowering interest rate volatility and

  6. Anterior disc displacement with reduction and symptomatic hypermobility in the human temporomandibular joint : Prevalence rates and risk factors in children and teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; Lobbezoo, Frank; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Naeije, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) and symptomatic hypermobility in a large sample of children and teenagers. Prevalence rates were also established in samples of young adults and adults. Methods: Children from 7 Dutch primary

  7. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk

  8. [Diabetes mellitus in Spain: death rates, prevalence, impact, costs and inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; Mayoral-Sánchez, Eduardo; Corral-San Laureano, Florentino; Fernández-Fernández, Isabel

    2006-03-01

    Describing the situation of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Spain from a public health perspective. manual review of books and other documents on diabetes mellitus in Spain was conducted. In addition, a specific research of articles published using MeSH terms diabetes mortality, prevalence, incidence, cost, inequalities and Spain was conducted in Medline through Internet (PubMed). Minimun Basic Data Set was utilized as source for complication description by Communities Autonomus. DM is one of the leading cause of mortality and the third one in women. With regard to Autonomous Communities, Canary Islands, Ceuta y Melilla and Andalusia show the greatest mortality with a downward trend. Diabetics present greater mortality than non diabetic patients, being complications the main cause of the over-mortality, especially ischemic heart disease. Estimations of prevalence for DM2 range from 4.8% to 18.7% and for DM1, from .08% to .2%. In pregnancy, it has been noted a prevalence ranging from 4.5% to 16.1%. With respect to incidence per year, it is estimated a range from 146 to 820 per 100,000 inhabitants for DM2 and a range from 10 to 17 new cases annually per 100,000 inhabitants for DM1. Costs for DM1 show very different results, averaging between 1,262 and 3,311 euro per people and year. There are differences for DM2 costs as well, averaging between 381 and 2,560 euro per patient and year. Total costs estimated range from 758 to 4,348 euro per person and year. Relationship between a low socioeconomic level (LSL) and DM2 risk has been proved. Moreover, it has been noted that the less LSL the worse is the disease control, coupled with a greater frequency and more frequent factors of DM2 risk. The knowledge about the situation of the DM as a Public Health problem in Spain is limited. Mortality data available does not gather its real magnitude, and prevalence, incidence, costs and inequalities research are very poor and hardly comparable. In spite of this degree of incertitude, we

  9. The prevalence of compassion fatigue and burnout among healthcare professionals in intensive care units: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mol, Margo; Kompanje, Erwin; Benoit, Dominique; Bakker, Jan; Nijkamp, Marjan; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Working in the stressful environment of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is an emotionally charged challenge that might affect the emotional stability of medical staff. The quality of care for ICU patients and their relatives might be threatened through long-term absenteeism or a brain and skill drain if the healthcare professionals leave their jobs prematurely in order to preserve their own health. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the literature related...

  10. High rates of incident and prevalent anal human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Feng, Qinghua; Popov, Viorica; Koutsky, Laura A; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-02-01

    There are few published estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We estimated incidence and prevalence of type-specific anal HPV infection using clinician-collected anal swabs for HPV DNA testing obtained during a 1-year prospective study of 94 YMSM (mean age, 21 years) in Seattle. Seventy percent of YMSM had any HPV infection detected during the study, and HPV-16 and/or -18 were detected in 37%. The incidence rate for any new HPV infection was 38.5 per 1000 person-months and 15.3 per 1000 person-months for HPV-16/18; 19% had persistent HPV-16/18 infection. No participant tested positive for all 4 HPV types in the quadrivalent vaccine. The number of lifetime male receptive anal sex partners was significantly associated with HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 was 6% among YMSM with a history of 1 receptive anal sex partner and 31% among YMSM with ≥ 2 partners. Although the high prevalence of HPV among YMSM highlights the desirability of vaccinating all boys as a strategy to avert the morbidity of HPV infection, most YMSM appear to remain naive to either HPV-16 or -18 well into their sexual lives and would benefit from HPV immunization.

  11. Prevalence, rates and correlates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first 9 months postpartum. Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization's IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at 4 months postpartum and 9 months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. More than 20 % of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first 9 months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first 4 months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences.

  12. Prevalence and rates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L.; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first nine months postpartum. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization’s IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at four months postpartum and nine months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. Results More than 20% of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first nine months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first four months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. Conclusions The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  13. The Dynamics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence and Management Rates among Rural Population in Henan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness (P=0.089 and treatment (P=0.257 in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing trends while the awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM were still disproportionally low in central China. More works are needed urgently to popularize public health education and improve the quality of medical care in T2DM.

  14. Depressive symptomatology in severe dementia in a European sample: prevalence, associated factors and prescription rate of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Arve, Seija; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm; Soto, Maria; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Hamers, Jan; Saks, Kai; Challis, David

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a common comorbid disorder of dementia. This study explores the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptomatology, and antidepressant prescription rates in severe dementia across eight European countries. In total, 414 people with severe dementia completed measures of cognition and quality of life (QoL), whilst carers completed proxy measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms, QoL and comorbidity. Findings indicated that 30% of the sample had depression, whilst the highest and lowest prevalence of depression was reported in Germany and Finland, respectively. Lower QoL, the presence of pain and more frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with depressive symptomatology, whilst no significant relationship between impairment of ADLs, comorbidity, and depression emerged. Spain and Estonia had the highest and lowest rates of antidepressant prescribing, respectively, whilst Germany had the highest discrepancy between depressive symptomatology and prescription. The study highlights variations across countries in the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in severe dementia and prescription of antidepressants. Information about factors associated with depressive symptomatology may help to better identify and manage depression.

  15. Prevalence Rate of Using ٍEcstasy among Medical Sciences Students in Urmia University in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Miri Ghaffarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The present study aims to achieve a comprehensive depiction of ecstasy consumption among the students of Urmia University of medical sciences in 2007.Materials & Methods: Totally 950 students were surveyed in this cross-sectional descriptive study. A census was used as a sampling method. A self-report questionnaire regarding demographic details and ecstasy consumption was completed by students. Data was stored in a database and then was analyzed through descriptive tests by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to determine the correlation coefficient.Results: There were 798 subjects of all target population who had never used this drug. However, 132 subjects (18 regularly, 56 occasionally for fun and 58 at least once consumed ecstasy pills. Thus the point prevalence of ecstasy consumption among the students was 14.19 percent. There were 232 subjects who had never heard of the term “ecstasy". Instead, the knowledge source of the rest about ecstasy was books (116 subject, internet (56 subjects, mass media (489 subjects, friends (28 subjects, and family (2 subjects. A significant relation was observed between ecstasy consumption and other variables (parents' education, residence in student campus, attending parties, smoking, canabis and opium consumption. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the point prevalence of ecstasy pills consumption among university students was 14.19% that raises the need for purposive intervention and the necessity of planning to prevent and decrease this phenomenon.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:67-72

  16. How does relaxing the algorithm for autism affect DSM-V prevalence rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Hattier, Megan A; Williams, Lindsey W

    2012-08-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); thus, any change in these diagnostic criteria can have a great effect upon children with ASD and their families. It is predicted that the prevalence of ASD diagnoses will dramatically decrease with the adoption of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in 2013. The aim of this current study was to inspect the changes in prevalence first using a diagnostic criteria set which was modified slightly from the DSM-5 criteria (Modified-1 criteria) and again using a set of criteria which was relaxed even a bit more (Modified-2 criteria). Modified-1 resulted in 33.77 % fewer toddlers being diagnosed with ASD compared to the DSM-IV, while Modified-2 resulted in only a 17.98 % decrease in ASD diagnoses. Children diagnosed with the DSM-5 criteria exhibited the greatest levels of autism symptomatology, but the Mod-1, Mod-2, and DSM-IV groups still demonstrated significant impairments. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Prevalent Rate of Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Event in Korean Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsLaboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification. Major CVD events were included with coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events.ResultsNonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, when compared with albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, had shorter diabetic duration, lower concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lower prevalent rates of retinopathy and previous CVD, and higher rate of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group showed a greater association with prior CVD events than no CKD group; however, albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group made addition to increase prevalence of prior CVD events significantly when CKD categories were applied as covariates. Association of prior CVD events, when compared with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, became significant for declined eGFR, which was higher for eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria.ConclusionThe results show that subjects with nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD is significantly interrelated with occurrence of prior CVD events than those with normal eGFR with or without albuminuria. Comparing with normal eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, the combination of increased degree of albuminuria and declined eGFR is becoming significant for the association of prior CVD events.

  18. Low disease prevalence and inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock rate in Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Eschen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    AimsBrugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited channelopathy that predisposes to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and thereby syncope and sudden cardiac death. Prior studies characterizing BrS patients have used highly selected referral populations from tertiary centres and prevalence estimates have...... been carried out using electrocardiogram (ECG) surveys only. We aimed to identify and characterize all diagnosed BrS patients in Denmark (population 5.4 million).Methods and resultsBrugada syndrome patients were identified using several modalities including identification in all Danish tertiary......%) experienced inappropriate shocks during a median follow-up of 47 months. No patient died or experienced aborted sudden cardiac death during follow-up.ConclusionsWe report the first nationwide study of BrS patients. We found a low incidence of diagnosed definite BrS compared with estimates from ECG surveys...

  19. Relationships between rating-of-perceived-exertion- and heart-rate-derived internal training load in professional soccer players: a comparison of on-field integrated training sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Vazquez, Miguel Angel; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Gonzalez-Jurado, Jose Antonio; León-Prados, Juan Antonio; Santalla, Alfredo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis

    2015-07-01

    To describe the internal training load (ITL) of common training sessions performed during a typical week and to determine the relationships between different indicators of ITL commonly employed in professional football (soccer). Session-rating-of-perceived-exertion TL (sRPE-TL) and heart-rate- (HR) derived measurements of ITL as Edwards TL and Stagno training impulses (TRIMPMOD) were used in 9 players during 3 periods of the season. The relationships between them were analyzed in different training sessions during a typical week: skill drills/circuit training + small-sided games (SCT+SSGs), ball-possession games+technical-tactical exercises (BPG+TTE), tactical training (TT), and prematch activation (PMa). HR values obtained during SCT+SSGs and BPG+TTE were substantially greater than those in the other 2 sessions, all the ITL markers and session duration were substantially greater in SCT+SSGs than in any other session, and all ITL measures in BPG+TTE were substantially greater than in TT and PMa sessions. Large relationships were found between HR>80% HRmax and HR>90% HRmax vs sRPE-TL during BPG+TTE and TT sessions (r=.61-.68). Very large relationships were found between Edwards TL and sRPE-TL and between TRIMPMOD and sRPE-TL in sessions with BPG+TTE and TT (r=.73-.87). Correlations between the different HR-based methods were always extremely large (r=.92-.98), and unclear correlations were observed for other relationships between variables. sRPE-TL provided variable-magnitude within-individual correlations with HR-derived measures of training intensity and load during different types of training sessions typically performed during a week in professional soccer. Caution should be applied when using RPE- or HR-derived measures of exercise intensity/load in soccer training interchangeably.

  20. The Influence of Survey Methodology in Estimating Prevalence Rates of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Navy Recruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Cheryl B; Stander, Valerie A; Merril, Lex L

    2000-01-01

    ...% of the participants self-defined themselves as abused. Despite these differences in abuse rates, data from the SHIP survey, from SRB operational definitions, and from SRB self-definitions all independently accounted for variability in participants...

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech Army over an 11-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfrová, Jana; Pavlík, Vladimír; Psutka, Jan; Husarová, Michaela; Krutišová, Pavla; Fajfr, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR) and to emphasizethe markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2). Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due

  2. Characteristics and rates of disciplinary findings amongst anesthesiologists by professional colleges in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Asim; Khan, James; Liu, Jessica; Klemensberg, Jason; Griesman, Joshua; Bell, Chaim M

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies discussing the risk of medical misconduct amongst anesthesiologists differ in their conclusions. In Canada, there is a paucity of data regarding demographic information, disciplinary findings, and penalties received by anesthesiologists. The aim of this study was to identify potential characteristics for discipline within the specialty of anesthesiology by ascertaining disciplinary findings and types of penalties received by anesthesiologists and comparing these with cases of disciplinary action against other Canadian physicians. Using a retrospective cohort design, we constructed a database of all Canadian physicians disciplined by their respective provincial and territorial regulatory colleges between 2000-2011. We collected and compared physician demographic information, types of disciplinary findings, and penalties received by anesthesiologists and other physicians during that time period. Between 2000-2011, various physicians were disciplined 721 times in Canada. Nine anesthesiologists were found guilty of 11 (1.5%) disciplinary findings. One anesthesiologist was disciplined three separate times. All anesthesiologists subject to discipline were males, ten (90.9%) were independent practitioners, and almost two-thirds (63.6%) were international medical graduates. The most common types of disciplinary findings were related to standard of care issues, inappropriate prescribing, and fraudulent behaviour. Anesthesiologists appeared less likely than other physicians to be disciplined for sexual misconduct and unprofessional behaviour. Anesthesiologists in Canada have been subject to low rates of disciplinary action. Specifically, there have been low rates of sexual misconduct and unprofessional behaviour. Interventions to reduce disciplinary findings in anesthesiology could be directed toward bolstering education relating to standard of care issues, prescribing practices, and fraudulent behaviour.

  3. High prevalence and resistance rates to antibiotics in anaerobic bacteria in specimens from patients with chronic balanitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Mitev, Angel; Gergova, Galina; Mateev, Grisha; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Aim of the study was to assess both prevalence and antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria from glans penis skin of 70 adults. Strain susceptibility was determined by breakpoint susceptibility test or E test. In 9 asymptomatic, 48 untreated and 13 treated symptomatic patients, anaerobes were found in 22.2%, 70.8% and 53.3%, respectively. Gram-positive strains (GPAs) were 2.2-fold more common than Gram-negative ones. Prevalent Gram-negative (GNAs) and GPAs were Prevotella spp. and anaerobic cocci, respectively. Clostridium difficile strain was found in an untreated patient. In GNAs, resistance rates to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 42.1, 0, 52.6, 53.3, 86.7 and 5.2%, respectively. In GPAs, the resistance rates to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 18.2, 34.1, 52.6, 36.8 and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, anaerobes were 1.6-fold more frequent in untreated symptomatic patients compared with other patients, suggesting their participation in development of chronic balanitis. GPAs were more common than GNAs. The resistance rates to amoxicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were high. Most active agents were metronidazole and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Resistance in anaerobes varies according to sites of specimens and years of study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dengue virus serological prevalence and seroconversion rates in children and adults in Medellin, Colombia: implications for vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Mabel; Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Velez, Diana Carolina; Trujillo, Andrea; Egurrola, Jorge; Lee, Kang Sung; Kaufman, Jay S; DaSilva, Luiz Jacinto; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E

    2017-05-01

    Dengue is an important public health problem worldwide. A vaccine has recently been licensed in some countries of Latin America and Asia. Recommendations for dengue vaccine introduction include endemicity and a high serological prevalence of dengue in the territories considering its introduction. A community-based survey was conducted to estimate dengue seroprevalence and age-specific seroconversion rates in a community in Medellin, Colombia, using a dengue serological test (IgG indirect ELISA). Residents were selected at random and were first screened for dengue infection; they were then followed over 2.5 years. A total of 3684 individuals aged between 1 and 65 years participated in at least one survey. The overall dengue seroprevalence was 61%, and only 3.3% of seropositive subjects self-reported a past history of dengue. Among dengue virus (DENV)-naïve subjects with more than two visits (n=1002), the overall seroconversion rate was 8.7% (95% confidence interval 7.3-10.4) per 1000 person-months, over the study period. Overall, the mean age of DENV prevalent subjects was significantly higher than the mean age of seroconverted subjects. Specifically, DENV seropositivity over 70% was observed in participants over 21 years old. Serotype-specific plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) revealed that all four dengue serotypes were circulating, with DENV4 being most prevalent. These laboratory-based findings could inform dengue vaccine decisions, as they provide age-specific seroprevalence and seroconversion data, evidencing permanent and ongoing dengue transmission in the study area. This study provides evidence for the existing rates of secondary and heterotypic responses, presenting a challenge that must be addressed adequately by the new vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Caries prevalence in chronic alcoholics and the relationship to salivary flow rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Walter; Dobrijević, Tanja Trivanović; Katunarić, Marina; Lesić, Stjepanka

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dental status of alcoholics; to evaluate the relationship of unstimulated and stimulated saliva pH on their decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT); and to evaluate the relationship of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate on their DMFT. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients treated for alcohol dependency (n = 70; mean age 41.7 years) and a control group of non-alcoholics (n = 70; mean age 39.1 years). Examinations for dental caries were conducted using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and questionnaires. The correlation between nominal variables was determined using chi2 test (alpha = 0.05). The correlation between interval variables was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The mean DMFT was similar in alcoholics (14.40) and the control group (13.44) (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between alcoholism and unstimulated salivary flow rate (p salivary flow rate (p > 0.05) or stimulated salivary flow on DMFT (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between alcoholism and the pH value of stimulated saliva (p 0.05). No major differences were found with respect to overall DMFT in alcoholics compared to the control group. Alcoholism and stimulated salivary flow rate showed no correlation. Unstimulated salivary flow rate as well as the pH values of both unstimulated and stimulated saliva, were lower in the alcoholic group.

  6. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the...... currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 January 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.246....

  7. Case-mix adjustment approach to benchmarking prevalence rates of nosocomial infection in hospitals in Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Dimitriadis, Ioannis; Roumbelaki, Maria; Vounou, Emelia; Kontou, Maria; Papakyriakou, Panikos; Koliou-Mazeri, Maria; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Vrouchos, George; Troulakis, George; Gikas, Achilleas

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of heterogeneous case mix for a benchmarking analysis and interhospital comparison of the prevalence rates of nosocomial infection. Cross-sectional survey. Eleven hospitals located in Cyprus and in the region of Crete in Greece. The survey included all inpatients in the medical, surgical, pediatric, and gynecology-obstetrics wards, as well as those in intensive care units. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used to define nosocomial infection. The information collected for all patients included demographic characteristics, primary admission diagnosis, Karnofsky functional status index, Charlson comorbidity index, McCabe-Jackson severity of illness classification, use of antibiotics, and prior exposures to medical and surgical risk factors. Outcome data were also recorded for all patients. Case mix-adjusted rates were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for nosocomial infection risk and an indirect standardization method.Results. The overall prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 7.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.9%-8.3%) among 1,832 screened patients. Significant variation in nosocomial infection rates was observed across hospitals (range, 2.2%-9.6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the mean predicted risk of nosocomial infection across hospitals ranged from 3.7% to 10.3%, suggesting considerable variation in patient risk. Case mix-adjusted rates ranged from 2.6% to 12.4%, and the relative ranking of hospitals was affected by case-mix adjustment in 8 cases (72.8%). Nosocomial infection was significantly and independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6 [95% confidence interval, 2.1-6.1]). The first attempt to rank the risk of nosocomial infection in these regions demonstrated the importance of accounting for heterogeneous case mix before attempting interhospital comparisons.

  8. HCV infection among Saudi population: high prevalence of genotype 4 and increased viral clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim

    Full Text Available HCV is a major etiological agent of liver disease with a high rate of chronic evolution. The virus possesses 6 genotypes with many subtypes. The rate of spontaneous clearance among HCV infected individuals denotes a genetic determinant factor. The current study was designed in order to estimate the rate of HCV infection and ratio of virus clearance among a group of infected patients in Saudi Arabia from 2008 to 2011. It was additionally designed to determine the genotypes of the HCV in persistently infected patients. HCV seroprevalence was conducted on a total of 15,323 individuals. Seropositive individuals were tested by Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay to determine the ratio of persistently infected patients to those who showed spontaneous viral clearance. HCV genotyping on random samples from persistently infected patients were conducted based on the differences in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 7.3% of the totally examined sera. A high percentage of the HCV infected individuals experienced virus clearance (48.4%. HCV genotyping revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 4, the latter represented 97.6% of the tested strains. Evidences of the widespread of the HCV genotype 4 and a high rate of HCV virus clearance were found in Saudi Arabia.

  9. The Prevalent Rate of Problem-Solving Approach in Teaching Mathematics in Ghanaian Basic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyala, Joseph; Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham; Tse, Newel

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholders of mathematics education decry the rate at which students' performance are falling below expectation; they call for a shift to practical methods of teaching the subject in Ghanaian basic schools. The study explores the extent to which Ghanaian basic school mathematics teachers use problem-solving approach in their lessons. The…

  10. Prevalence Rate of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Identification of Candida Species in Women in Referred to Hamedan Hospitals 2013 - 2014, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Habibipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common gynecological finding among the women worldwide. Objectives In this study determine of prevalence rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis and identification of Candida species was investigated. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study study, 350 females selected and examined by wet mount and culture procedure. Results The prevalence rate, by means of culture procedure was 26%. Candida albicans was responsible for 81.3% episodes of volvovaginal candidiasis. Conclusions In order to decrease the prevalence rate of vulvovaginitis, more epidemiological surveillance and accurate informative programs about public health care, symptoms and signs and transmission ways should be performed in the future.

  11. The Relationship of Practice Exposure and Injury Rate on Game Performance and Season Success in Professional Male Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Caparrós, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Gregory D. Myer, Lluís Capdevila, Kristian Samuelsson, Bruce Hamilton, Gil Rodas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship among game performance, injury rate, and practice exposure in a professional male basketball team. A retroospective analysis of prospective collected data was conducted over seven consecutive seasons (2007/2008 to 2013/2014. Data collection included sports performance during competition (statistical evaluation, injury rate, and total exposure (games and practices. Over the surveillance period, 162 injuries (91 practice; 71 matches occurred over 32,668 hours of exposure (556 games and 2005 practices. There was a strong positive correlation between: 1 exposure (total number of practices and hours of exposure and the total number of injuries (r = 0.77; p = 0.04; 2 exposure (total hours of exposure and total hours of practice exposure and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.77 and p = 0.04, and r = 0.8 and p = 0.03, respectively; and 3 total number of injuries and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.84; p = 0.02. While increasing practice and competition time is related to greater team performance, it also increases the number of injuries. However, higher injury rates were not associated with worse overall team performance. Efforts to reduce high-risk activity during practice, optimally replaced with injury prevention training, might help to reduce injury risk.

  12. The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Caroline W; Gilbert, Marius; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine

    2017-01-26

    Although malaria has been traditionally regarded as less of a problem in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas, the risk of malaria infection continues to exist in densely populated, urban areas of Africa. Despite the recognition that urbanization influences the epidemiology of malaria, there is little consensus on urbanization relevant for malaria parasite mapping. Previous studies examining the relationship between urbanization and malaria transmission have used products defining urbanization at global/continental scales developed in the early 2000s, that overestimate actual urban extents while the population estimates are over 15 years old and estimated at administrative unit level. This study sought to discriminate an urbanization definition that is most relevant for malaria parasite mapping using individual level malaria infection data obtained from nationally representative household-based surveys. Boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to determine the effect of urbanization on malaria transmission and if this effect varied with urbanization definition. In addition, the most recent high resolution population distribution data was used to determine whether population density had significant effect on malaria parasite prevalence and if so, could population density replace urban classifications in modelling malaria transmission patterns. The risk of malaria infection was shown to decline from rural areas through peri-urban settlements to urban central areas. Population density was found to be an important predictor of malaria risk. The final boosted regression trees (BRT) model with urbanization and population density gave the best model fit (Tukey test p value <0.05) compared to the models with urbanization only. Given the challenges in uniformly classifying urban areas across different countries, population density provides a reliable metric to adjust for the patterns of malaria risk in densely populated urban areas. Future malaria risk

  13. Measuring functional developmental delay in infants and young children: prevalence rates from the NHIS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Gloria A; Colpe, Lisa; Greenspan, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In order to measure the prevalence of developmental delay among US infants and children, two types of questions were asked of parents in the 1994-95 National Health Interview Survey on Disability (NHIS-D). To measure functional delay (FD), questions from the Functional Developmental Growth Chart (FDQ), which measures specific age-appropriate tasks, were used. General delay (GD) was defined using the general type of questions about developmental delay that had been used in previous surveys. Using a nationally representative sample of 15 291 infants and children aged 4-59 months from the NHIS-D, analyses revealed that, according to these questions, approximately 3.3% had FD and 3.4% of the children had GD. However, only one-third of the children were identified by both sets of questions. Thus, two-thirds of the children identified as having FD were not recognised by their parents as having a delay. Conversely, many parents responded to the GD questions indicating that their child had a delay, but failed to indicate that their child had a functional problem. In addition, only 17% of the children with FD and 31% of those with GD were receiving special services. Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that children with both FD and GD were more likely to be male and to be living in families with incomes below 200% of the poverty level. The findings suggest that the general types of developmental delay questions used in national surveys may not identify children with functional delays. As parents failed to identify these children, it is possible that many of these children may be slipping through paediatric surveillance. Further research to evaluate the use of these measures in population surveys is recommended.

  14. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    and Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and

  15. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Breurec, Sebastien; Bouchiat, Coralie; Sire, Jean-Marie; Moquet, Olivier; Bercion, Raymond; Cisse, Moussa Fafa; Glaser, Philippe; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Ka, Sidy; Salord, Helene; Seck, Abdoulaye; Sy, Haby Signate; Michel, Remy; Garin, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Background: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with amortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births.Methods: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at threeneonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections wereconfirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiologi...

  16. Has prenatal screening influenced the prevalence of comorbidities associated with Down syndrome and subsequent survival rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jane; Collins, Veronica; Riley, Merilyn; Youssef, Danielle; Muggli, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    With this study we aimed to compare survival rates for children with Down syndrome in 2 time periods, 1 before prenatal screening (1988-1990) and 1 contemporaneous with screening (1998-2000), and to examine the frequency of comorbidities and their influence on survival rates. Record-linkage was performed between the population-based Victorian Birth Defects Register and records of deaths in children up to 15 years of age collected under the auspice of the Consultative Council on Obstetric and Pediatric Mortality and Morbidity. Cases of Down syndrome were coded according to the presence or absence of comorbidities by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision classification of birth defects. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and log rank tests for equality of survival distributions were performed. Of infants liveborn with Down syndrome in 1998-2000, 90% survived to 5 years of age, compared with 86% in the earlier cohort. With fetal deaths excluded, the proportion of isolated Down syndrome cases in the earlier cohort was 48.7% compared with 46.1% in the most recent cohort. In 1988-1990 there was at least 1 cardiac defect in 41.1% of cases and in 45.4% in 1998-2000. There was significant variation in survival rates for the different comorbidity groupings in the 1988-1990 cohort, but this was not so evident in the 1998-2000 cohort. Survival of children with Down syndrome continues to improve, and there is an overall survival figure of 90% to at least 5 years of age. It is clear from this study that prenatal screening technologies are not differentially ascertaining fetuses with Down syndrome and additional defects, because there has been no proportional increase in births of isolated cases with Down syndrome.

  17. Examination of anonymous canine faecal samples provides data on endoparasite prevalence rates in dogs for comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Gottwald, Michaela; Moser, Jasmine; Reicher, Bianca; Schäfer, Bhavapriya Jasmin; Schaper, Roland; Joachim, Anja; Künzel, Frank

    2017-10-15

    Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence. We collected 1001 anonymous faecal samples from 55 dog zones from all 23 districts of the federal state of Vienna, as well as 480 faecal samples from the Mödling district and Wolkersdorf with a peri-urban and rural character, respectively. Faeces were examined by flotation and by Baermann technique. Additionally we evaluated 292 Viennese, 102 peri-urban and 50 rural samples for Giardia and Cryptosporidium by GiardiaFASTest ® and CryptoFASTest ® . Samples from "clean" dog zones were compared to samples from "dirty" zones. The infection rate of Toxocara was surprisingly low, ranging from 0.6% to 1.9%. Trichuris was the most frequent helminth (1.8-7.5%) and Giardia the most frequent protozoan (4.0-10.8%). Ancylostomatidae, Crenosoma, Capillaria, Taeniidae, Cystoisospora and Sarcocystis were found in 1.8-2.2%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.6%, 0.3-3.1% and 0-0.6% of the samples, respectively. Samples from "dirty" dog zones in Vienna showed a significantly higher rate of parasites overall (p=0.003) and of Trichuris (p=0.048) compared to samples from "clean" dog zones. There were no statistically significant differences in densely vs. less densely populated areas of Vienna. Samples from the rural region of Wolkersdorf had significantly higher overall parasite, Trichuris and Cystoisospora prevalences than the peri-urban Mödling district and Vienna (p

  18. Strength and Conditioning Coaches’ Application of the Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Method of Monitoring Within Professional Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comyns Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE is a method of monitoring and managing training loads. The purpose of this study was to research how and for what purpose strength and conditioning (S&C coaches implement this monitoring method within professional rugby union. The study also aimed to assess if S&C coaches found this monitoring method to be valid and effective. An online survey containing 24 fixed response questions was used to assess how S&C coaches applied the session-RPE method. The survey was piloted with expert researchers and practitioners in the area of session-RPE prior to distribution and alterations were made to the survey based on the experts’ feedback. Twenty S&C coaches working with professional rugby union clubs in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales completed the survey. The coaches’ responses indicated that the majority found the session-RPE to be a valid and effective monitoring method. While some good implementation practices were identified, not all of the coaches adhered to these guidelines which may impact on the accuracy of the collected data. For example, 30% of coaches do not collect the RPE for every session that a player does per week limiting the use of the session-RPE variables cumulative training load, training monotony, training strain and acute:chronic load ratio. S&C coaches within rugby should consider using session-RPE as a method of monitoring and implement the method in a manner reflective of research findings to enhance the potential applications of this system in maximising adaptations and minimising the risk of injury.

  19. Gender differences in drunk driving prevalence rates and trends: a 20-year assessment using multiple sources of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    This research tracked women's and men's drunk driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1982-2004 using three diverse sources of evidence. Sex-specific prevalence estimates and the sex ratio are derived from official arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Drunk driving trends were analyzed using Augmented Dickey Fuller time series techniques. Female DUI arrest rates increased whereas male rates declined then stabilized, producing a significantly narrower sex ratio. According to self-report and traffic data, women's and men's drunk driving rates declined and the gender gap was unchanged. Women's overrepresentation in arrests relative to their share of offending began in the 1990s and accelerated in 2000. Women's arrest gains, contrasted with no systematic change in DUI behavior, and the timing of this shift suggest an increased vulnerability to arrest. More stringent laws and enforcement directed at less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female offending patterns.

  20. The National and Regional Prevalence Rates of Disability, Type, of Disability and Severity in Saudi Arabia-Analysis of 2016 Demographic Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Vennu, Vishal

    2018-02-28

    The prevalence of disability varies between countries ranging from less than 1% to up to 30% in some countries, thus, the estimated global disability prevalence is about 15%. However, it is unknown what the current estimate of disability and its types and severity are in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the objective of this study is to estimate national and regional prevalence rates of any disability, types of disability, and their severity among Saudi populations. Data on disability status were extracted from the national demographic survey conducted in 2016 as reported by the General Authority for Statistics, Saudi Arabia (N = 20,064,970). Prevalence rates per a population of 100,000 of any disability, type of disability, and its severity were calculated at the national level and in all 13 regions. Out of 20,064,970 Saudi citizens surveyed, 667,280 citizens reported disabilities, accounting for a prevalence rate of 3326 per a population of 100,000 (3.3%). Individuals aged 60 years and above (11,014) and males (3818) had a higher prevalence rate of disability compared with females (2813). The Tabuk region has the highest rate of reported disability, at 4.3%. The prevalence rates of extreme disabilities in mobility and sight were higher in Madinah (57,343) and Northern border (41,236) regions, respectively. In Saudi Arabia, more than half a million Saudi citizens (1 out of every 30 individuals) reported the presence of disability during the year 2016. A higher prevalence rate of disability was seen among those aged 60 years and above, and males. Targeted efforts are required at the national and regional levels to expand and improve rehabilitation and social services for all people with disabilities.

  1. An investigation of the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease among people undergoing physical examination in Tangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Yulin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease among people undergoing physical examination in Tangshan, China, and to provide a reasonable basis for the prevention and treatment of fatty liver disease. MethodsThe clinical data of 12 808 individuals who underwent physical examination in Tangshan from March 2014 to February 2016 were collected, and among these individuals, 3540 had fatty liver disease. The data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and liver ultrasound findings were analyzed. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Of all 7151 male individuals who underwent physical examination, 2750 (38.46% had fatty liver disease, and of all 5657 female individuals, 790 (13.96% had fatty liver disease; there was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals (χ2=947.25, P<0.01. There was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals in each age group of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥50 years (χ2=337.58, 474.06, 449.38, and 12.86, all P<0.01. There was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male or female individuals with different BMIs [obese (BMI ≥28, overweight (24≤BMI<28, and normal (BMI<24] (χ2=1104.01 and 500.23, both P<0.01. In the three groups of obese (BMI ≥28, overweight (24≤BMI<28, and normal (BMI<24 individuals who underwent physical examination, there was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals in each group (χ2=71.24, 87.97, and 323.84, all P<0.01. Male and female individuals with obesity (BMI ≥28 and overweight (24

  2. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  3. Psychometric Properties of the Pain Numeric Rating Scale When Applied to Multiple Body Regions among Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the broad popularity of a numeric rating scale (NRS) its psychometric properties are not well known. The objective was to determine if there is any difference in the discrimination ability of the NRS when used for measuring pain severity separately in different body regions. Methods Cross-sectional survey study of 630 professional musicians. Item Response Theory (IRT) was used to define the psychometric properties of the NRS. Results The discrimination ability of the pain NRS was dependent on the body area to which it was applied. The discrimination was low 0.5 (95% CI 0.4. to 0.7) for the hand region and perfect for the shoulder and upper part of the neck– 3.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 5.2) and 10.5 (95% CI 10.0 to 10.9), respectively. Both shoulder and neck NRSs showed a great shift towards higher levels of pain severity meaning that the ability of the NRS to discriminate low levels of pain is poor. NRS scores obtained from all other regions did not demonstrate any discrimination ability. Conclusions The pain NRS might have different psychometric properties depending on the body area to which it is applied. Overall, the modest discrimination ability of the pain NRS implies that it should be used in screening questionnaires with some reservations. PMID:27603011

  4. Effects of regular away travel on training loads, recovery, and injury rates in professional Australian soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the acute and longitudinal effects of regular away travel on training load (TL), player wellness, and injury surrounding competitive football (soccer) matches. Eighteen male professional football players, representing a team competing in the highest national competition in Australia, volunteered to participate in the study. Training loads, player wellness and injury incidence, rate, severity, and type, together with the activity at the time of injury, were recorded on the day before, the day of, and for 4 d after each of the 27 matches of the 2012-13 season. This included 14 home and 13 away matches, further subdivided based on the midpoint of the season into early (1-13) and late competition (14-27) phases. While TLs were significantly greater on day 3 at home compared with away during the early competition phase (P=.03), no other significant effects of match location were identified (P>.05). Total TL and mean wellness over the 6 d surrounding matches and TL on day 3 were significantly reduced during the late compared with the early competition phase at home and away (P.05), training missed due to injury was 60% and 50% greater during the late than during the early competition phase at home and away, respectively. In conclusion, no significant interactions between match location and competition phase were evident during the late competition phase, which suggests that away travel had negligible cumulative effects on the reduction in player wellness in the latter half of the season.

  5. Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Ballet exposes the hip joint to repetitive loading in extreme ranges of movement and may predispose a dancer to pain and osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of cartilage defects in professional ballet dancers and athletes and to determine the relationship of clinical signs and symptoms. Forty-nine male and female, current and retired professional ballet dancers and 49 age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes completed hip pain questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent hip range of movement (ROM) testing and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to score cartilage defects (no defect, grade 1: focal partial defect and grade 2: diffuse or full thickness defect). Thirty (61 %) dancers and 27 (55 %) athletes had cartilage defects (p = 0.54). The frequency of grade 1 and 2 cartilage defects did not differ between dancers and athletes (p = 0.83). The frequency of cartilage defects was similar in male and female dancers (p = 0.34), and male and female athletes (p = 0.24). Cartilage defects were not related to history of hip pain (p = 0.34), HAGOS pain (p = 0.14), sports/rec (p = 0.15) scores or hip internal rotation ≤20° (p > 0.01). Cartilage defects were related to age in male dancers (p = 0.002). Ballet dancers do not appear to be at a greater risk of cartilage injury compared to non-dancing athletes. Male dancers develop cartilage defects at an earlier age than athletes and female dancers. Cartilage defects were not related to clinical signs and symptoms; thus, prospective studies are required to determine which cartilage defects progress to symptomatic hip OA.

  6. The Production of Professional School Counselors in Alabama: Graduation Rates of CACREP and Non-CACREP Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Susan R.; Snow, Brent M.; Chibbaro, Julie S.

    2009-01-01

    Today's professional school counselors have many roles and tasks within the schools. As more children depend on the services of school counselors, well-trained counselors are needed to meet the demands. Data presented in this paper provide support for the production of professional school counselors in Alabama and the immediate southeastern area…

  7. Postoperative pain assessment based on numeric ratings is not the same for patients and professionals: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.F.; van Wijck, A.J.M.; Kappen, T.H.; Peelen, L.M.; Kalkman, C.J.; Schuurmans, M.J.

    Background: Numeric pain scores have become important in clinical practice to assess postoperative pain and to help develop guidelines for treating pain. Professionals need the patients’ pain scores to administer analgesic medication. However, do professionals interpret the pain scores in line with

  8. Measuring the prevalence of regional mutation rates: an analysis of silent substitutions in mammals, fungi, and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuch Brian B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of mutation vary both within and across genomes. It has been shown for a few mammals that mutation rates vary within the genome, while for unknown reasons, the sensu stricto yeasts have uniform rates instead. The generality of these observations has been unknown. Here we examine silent site substitutions in a more expansive set (20 mammals, 27 fungi, 4 insects to determine why some genomes demonstrate this mosaic distribution and why others are uniform. Results We applied several intragene and intergene correlation tests to measure regional substitution patterns. Assuming that silent sites are a reasonable approximation to neutrally mutating sequence, our results show that all multicellular eukaryotes exhibit mutational heterogeneity. In striking contrast, all fungi are mutationally uniform – with the exception of three Candida species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis. We speculate that aspects of replication timing may be responsible for distinguishing these species. Our analysis also reveals classes of genes whose silent sites behave anomalously with respect to the mutational background in many species, indicating prevalent selective pressures. Genes associated with nucleotide binding or gene regulation have consistently low silent substitution rates in every mammalian species, as well as multiple fungi. On the other hand, receptor genes repeatedly exhibit high silent substitution rates, suggesting they have been influenced by diversifying selection. Conclusion Our findings provide a framework for understanding the regional mutational properties of eukaryotes, revealing a sharp difference between fungi and multicellular species. They also elucidate common selective pressures acting on eukaryotic silent sites, with frequent evidence for both purifying and diversifying selection.

  9. Prevalence and incidence rates of autism in the UK: time trend from 2004–2010 in children aged 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brent; Jick, Hershel; MacLaughlin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To update UK studies begun in the early 1990s on the annual prevalence and incidence rates of autism in children; undertaken in response to a March 2012 press release, widely covered by the media, from the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) reporting that the autism prevalence rate in 2008 in 8-year-old US children was 1 in 88, a 78% increase from a CDC estimate in 2004. This finding suggested a continuation of the dramatic increase in children diagnosed as autistic, which occurred in the 1990s. Design Population study using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods Annual autism prevalence rates were estimated for children aged 8 years in 2004–2010 by dividing the number diagnosed as autistic in each or any previous year by the number of children active in the study population that year. We also calculated annual incidence rates for children aged 2–8 years, by dividing the number newly diagnosed in 2004–2010 by the same denominators. Results Annual prevalence rates for each year were steady at approximately 3.8/1000 boys and 0.8/1000 girls. Annual incidence rates each year were also steady at about 1.2/1000 boys and 0.2/1000 girls. Conclusions Following a fivefold increase in the annual incidence rates of autism during the 1990s in the UK, the incidence and prevalence rates in 8-year-old children reached a plateau in the early 2000s and remained steady through 2010. Whether prevalence rates have increased from the early 2000s in the USA remains uncertain. PMID:24131525

  10. PREVALENCE OF WORK RELATED LOW BACK PAIN IN PHYSICAL THERAPIST PROFESSIONAL FROM THE CITY OF TAIF, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad T. Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical therapy often is used in the management of work-related low back pain (LBP. Little information, however, is known about work related low back pain that may occur in physical therapy experts themselves. Work related low back agony speaks to one of the real wellbeing issues that happen in well-beings experts. The point of this study is to examine the pervasiveness of work related low back pain in physical therapy experts, and its connection to the way of work. Methods: One hundred and seven physical therapy experts working at general hospitals at Taif, KSA took part in this study, their age ranged from 25 to 60 years, and they were complaining from low back pain for more than 3 months and their current pain for at least three or more weeks. Every subject was requested to finish the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index Questionnaires that comprised of 15 close-ended inquiries. Results: We analyzed Data by utilizing descriptive statistics to gauge the predominance of low back pain in physical therapy experts and to explore connection between back pain and hospital facility work. Out of two hundred thirty physical therapist advisor, one hundred and ten (47.8% physical specialists finished/gave back the surveys. three polls were rejected from investigation since members had missed a few things in filling the survey. In this manner, just information from 107 members was utilized to figure the predominance rates. It was found that the commonness of work related low back pain in physical therapy expert is equivalent 72%. It was found that a connection between the works related low back pain and age, proficient rank, and specialty. Conclusion: There is a higher occurrence of work related back pain among physiotherapist expert and this may be impacted by age, proficient rank and specialty.

  11. A Servey on the prevalence rate of Linguatula serrata in stary dogs of the city of Urmia

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    S Rasoli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguatla serrata is a zoonotic parasite which causes different forms of liguatulosis in humans, carnivores and ruminants. The most important way of human infection is injection of vegetables, fruits and water contaminated by parasite eggs and through nasal and oral secretions and feces of carnivorous especially stray dogs. Also, consumption of raw and under cook meat of sheep, goats, cattle and other herbivores is another risk factor in human infection by Linguatla serrata.  This study was conducted in order to determine the infection rate of dogs by Linguatla serrata in the city of Urmia. In the present study, 37 dogs including 22 male and 15 female animals from different parts of the city were studied. The frontal sinuses, nasal turbinates, brain cavity, nasopharynx and eustachian tubes were examined for adult Linguatla serrata. The recovered parasites were fixed in 10% formalin solution, cleared by lactophenol and stained with azocarmin. Thirty of the studied dogs (81.01% were infected by Linguatla serrata. The results indicated that body weight, age, sex and geographical locations had no significant effect in the prevalence rate of the parasite. The number of parasites recovered from each dog ranged from 1 to 7 with an average of 2.93 in each dog. The length of the mature linguatula varied from 35-50 mm in females and 2-18 mm in males. The greatest number of parasites was found in the cranial part of the frontal sinus with 7 parasites.

  12. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Antimicrobial Resistance status and prevalence rates of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL producers isolated from a mixed human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Afunwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the increasing epidemiological and therapeutic challenges associated with infections due to ESBL producers, ESBL prevalence rate among some bacteria isolates from healthy and non-healthy human population in a metropolitan Nigerian setting was evaluated.A total of one hundred and forty-five (145 bacteria strains were isolated from a total of four hundred and sixty (460 samples collected from urine, wound, throat and anal swabs of 220 healthy volunteers in the community and from 240 patients in 2 secondary and 2 tertiary hospitals (altogether, 4 in Enugu metropolis. The presumptive confirmatory test used for ESBL detection was the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST method. Conjugation and plasmid curing studies were also done for resistance factor determination.Of the 145 isolates, 20 were ESBL producers with 35% of these ESBL producers being of community origin and 65% from hospitals. This translates to 4.8% and 9% incidences (comparably higher than established prevalence of 4.4% and 7.5 respectively for community and hospital infections respectively. The ESBL isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Augmentin® (Amoxicilin and clavulanic acid combination. Conjugation studies for Resistance plasmid transfer showed non-transference of resistance determinants between the ESBL transconjugants and recipient strains. Correspondingly, the plasmid curing studies revealed that the acridine orange could not effect a cure on the isolates as they still retained high resistance to the antibiotics after the treatment.This study confirms the growing incidences/pool of ESBL strains in Nigeria and call for widespread and continuous monitoring towards an effective management of the potential therapeutic hurdle posed by this trend.

  15. Reconciling disparate prevalence rates of PTSD in large samples of US male Vietnam veterans and their controls

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    Gottesman Irving I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two large independent studies funded by the US government have assessed the impact of the Vietnam War on the prevalence of PTSD in US veterans. The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS estimated the current PTSD prevalence to be 15.2% while the Vietnam Experience Study (VES estimated the prevalence to be 2.2%. We compared alternative criteria for estimating the prevalence of PTSD using the NVVRS and VES public use data sets collected more than 10 years after the United States withdrew troops from Vietnam. Methods We applied uniform diagnostic procedures to the male veterans from the NVVRS and VES to estimate PTSD prevalences based on varying criteria including one-month and lifetime prevalence estimates, combat and non-combat prevalence estimates, and prevalence estimates using both single and multiple indicator models. Results Using a narrow and specific set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 2.5% and 2.9% for the VES and the NVVRS, respectively. Using a more broad and sensitive set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 12.2% and 15.8% for the VES and NVVRS, respectively. Conclusion When comparable methods were applied to available data we reconciled disparate results and estimated similar current prevalences for both narrow and broad definitions of combat-related diagnoses of PTSD.

  16. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  17. Feeding and eating disorders in the DSM-5 era: a systematic review of prevalence rates in non-clinical male and female samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall Dahlgren, Camilla; Wisting, Line; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) during the DSM-5 era, and to report rates of point- and lifetime prevalence. A PubMed search was conducted targeting articles on the epidemiology of EDs, in particular, reported rates of prevalence. The review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and was limited to DSM-5 based eating disorder diagnoses published between 2012 and 2017. A total of 19 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Following the transition to DSM-5, it is evident that the prevalence of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS)/other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED) has decreased as intended, and there is preliminary evidence suggesting that rates of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have increased. Further, we observed higher rates of BED prevalence among females compared to males, with rates increasing with age. A limitation to the study was the search date, and that none of the included studies investigated the "new" DSM-5 feeding disorders avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), pica or rumination disorder warranting attention in future studies investigating the epidemiology of feeding and eating disorders.

  18. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet: Influence of Age and Years of Professional Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Francisco José; Guillén, Pedro

    2017-06-01

    In spite of the high rate of overuse injuries in ballet dancers, no studies have investigated the prevalence of overuse injuries in professional dancers by providing specific diagnoses and details on the differences in the injuries sustained as a function of age and/or years of professional practice. Overuse injuries are the most prevalent injuries in ballet dancers. Professional ballet dancers suffer different types of injuries depending on their age and years of professional practice. Descriptive epidemiology study. This descriptive epidemiological study was carried out between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, regarding injuries sustained by professional dancers belonging to the major Spanish ballet companies practicing classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish dance. The sample was distributed into 3 different groups according to age and years of professional practice. Data were obtained from the specialized medical care the dancers received from the Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery Service at Fremap in Madrid. The dependent variable was the study of the injury. A total of 486 injuries were identified over the study period, with overuse injuries being the most common etiology ( P ballet and veteran dancers practicing contemporary ballet ( P = .01). Specifically, among other findings, stress fractures of the base of the second metatarsal ( P = .03), patellofemoral syndrome, and os trigonum syndrome were more prevalent among junior professionals ( P = .04); chondral injury of the knee in senior professionals ( P = .04); and cervical disc disease in dancers of intermediate age and level of experience. Overall, overuse injuries were more prevalent in younger professionals, especially in women. This finding was especially true for the more technical ballet disciplines. On the other hand, in the athletic ballet disciplines, overuse lesions occurred mainly in the more senior professionals. This study provides specific clinical diagnoses obtained through

  19. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  20. Etiology and prevalence rate of bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment in children born in Kobe city over a 10 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Mieko; Naito, Yashushi

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out on children born over a 10 year period from 1997 to 2006 in Kobe city and referred to our center for specialist audiological assessment. A total of 107 cases had a bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment averaging 25 dB or over in the better hearing ear during the study period. To ascertain causes of sensorineural hearing impairment, full medical histories were obtained with detailed family history relevant to hearing impairment and perinatal course for adverse etiological factors. The children were investigated for possible congenital infection and chromosomal anomalies. Children with positive family history of deafness in parents or siblings constituted 11.2% of cases (genetic group). Other etiological groups showed the following distribution: syndromal group 5.6%; inner ear anomalies 5.6%; perinatal group 13.1%; congenital infection 11.2%; chromosomal anomalies 16.8%; multiple congenital anomalies 5.6%; causes unknown 30.9%. The high incidence of causes unknown indicates that steps should be taken to yield a diagnosis. The total number of children born in Kobe city was 117,896 during the period from 1997 to 2005, which gave a prevalence rate of hearing impairment of 0.87/1,000 births. Newborn hearing screening identified many children earlier and also provide the opportunity to finetune the evaluation. (author)

  1. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young's questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student's mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty' students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH.

  2. Prevalencia del juanete de sastre y quinto dedo adducto varo en el baile flamenco profesional. Prevalence of tailor's bunion and fifth toe adductus varus in professional flamenco dancing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Salti

    2013-05-01

    and 14 men flamenco dancers´ feet. The results revealed tailor’s bunions prevalence was 14.8% and 35% of varus fifth toe. Both of them have a higher prevalence in women population. Significant differences in the presence of deformities were found according to the years of professional activity.

  3. Youth with Disabilities in the Corrections System: Prevalence Rates and Identification Issues. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Cindy Wheeler; Griller-Clark, Heather M.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, reviews current data on disabilities requiring special education and related supports. Statistics on the prevalence of juvenile crime are followed by statistics on the prevalence of special education disabilities in the system, specifically specific…

  4. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Roshani, Daem; Shakib, Pegah; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR) in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012) that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10). Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20%) with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%), respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%).0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family. PMID:25767526

  5. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ramazanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012 that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10. Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20% with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%, respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%.0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family.

  6. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-06-23

    Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao-Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45-64 years, 46%; 18-44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) for young adults aged 18-44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45-64 years and 65 years or older. The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey.

  7. Do physicians attend to base rates? Prevalence data and statistical discrimination in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Lutfey, Karen E; McKinlay, John B

    2009-12-01

    To examine whether physicians attend to gender prevalence data in diagnostic decision making for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to test the hypothesis that previously reported gender differences in CHD diagnostic certainty are due to discrimination arising from reliance on prevalence data ("statistical discrimination"). A vignette-based experiment of 256 randomly sampled primary care physicians conducted from 2006 to 2007. Factorial experiment. Physicians observed patient presentations of cardinal CHD symptoms, standardized across design factors (gender, race, age, socioeconomic status). Structured interview. Most physicians perceived the U.S. population CHD prevalence as higher in men (48.4 percent) or similar by gender (44.9 percent). For the observed patient, 52 percent did not change their CHD diagnostic certainty based on patient gender. Forty-eight percent of physicians were inconsistent in their population-level and individual-level CHD assessments. Physicians' assessments of CHD prevalence did not attenuate the observed gender effect in diagnostic certainty for the individual patient. Given an adequate presentation of CHD symptoms, physicians may deviate from their prevalence data during diagnostic decision making. Physicians' priors on CHD prevalence did not explain the gender effect in CHD certainty. Future research should examine personal stereotypes as an explanation for gender differences.

  8. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  9. Prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai--a school based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajinkya, Shaunak; Kaur, Darpan; Gursale, Akshay; Jadhav, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    To study the prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai. One hundred twenty two children including both boys and girls aged between 6 y and 11 y were selected from a school at Navi Mumbai and their parents were given the National Innovative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to be filled and returned, which was subsequently analyzed using SPSS (version 16). The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was 12.3 % with boy to girl ratio of 3:2. It was more prevalent in nuclear type of family and in families where a single parent was working especially where the father was the sole breadwinner and doing semi-skilled or unskilled type of work. No significant relation was found between the numbers of work-related hours when parents were away from children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is prevalent in the primary school-going population of Navi Mumbai, especially in boys. The increased prevalence in nuclear families and families with single working parent should further be explored. Further studies with larger sample size and longer period of follow up may be recommended. The study also recommends screening of school children for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Prevalence, Employment Rate, and Cost of Schizophrenia in a High-Income Welfare Society: A Population-Based Study Using Comprehensive Health and Welfare Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Ueland, Torill; Falkum, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with recurrent hospitalizations, need for long-term community support, poor social functioning, and low employment rates. Despite the wide- ranging financial and social burdens associated with the illness, there is great uncertainty regarding prevalence, employment rates, and the societal costs of schizophrenia. The current study investigates 12-month prevalence of patients treated for schizophrenia, employment rates, and cost of schizophrenia using a population-based top-down approach. Data were obtained from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers in Norway. We identified a 12-month prevalence of 0.17% for the entire population. The employment rate among working-age individuals was 10.24%. The societal costs for the 12-month period were USD 890 million. The average cost per individual with schizophrenia was USD 106 thousand. Inpatient care and lost productivity due to high unemployment represented 33% and 29%, respectively, of the total costs. The use of mandatory health and welfare registers enabled a unique and informative analysis on true population-based datasets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

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    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  12. Rates of insufficiency and deficiency of vitamin D levels in elite professional male and female skiers: A chronobiologic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Lombardi, Giovanni; Cavaleri, Luca; Graziani, Rosa; Schoenhuber, Herbert; Torre, Antonio La; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance and promotion of musculoskeletal health, for the functioning of the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and its main action is to keep calcium and phosphate plasmatic physiological concentrations at intestinal, renal and bony level. Vitamin D affects several parameters related to physical performance too and a particularly high percentage of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in professional athletes has been observed. Several variables are able to impair the synthesis of 25(OH)D in athletes, specifically both genetic and environmental factors, but the most probable explanation for the deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels is the insufficient ultraviolet B light (UVB) exposure during winter. To confirm this, the existence of a circannual rhythm of vitamin D in professional soccer players, highlighting a peak in summer and lowest values in winter regardless the period of the season, has been documented. Nonetheless, from what we are aware of, no other study adopted a chronobiologic approach to better understand and describe the circannual variations of serum 25(OH)D in other sport disciplines. Therefore, we studied serum vitamin D in a cohort of top-level professional skiers, during a period of three consecutive competitive seasons (2015, 2016 and 2017), in order to evaluate, with a rhythmometric approach, the vitamin D behavior along the year. The study population was composed by 152 professional Italian alpine skiers of FISI (Winter Sport Italian Federation), 63 females and 89 males (mean age: 24.1 ± 3.2 years) and a total of 298 blood drawings were carried out to determine plasma 25(OH)D. Vitamin D data were compared between genders and then processed with the population mean cosinor tests to evaluate the presence of a circannual rhythm, both for female and male athletes. In total, 77 skiers (50.7%) showed, at least once during the three competitive seasons, an insufficient level of 25(OH)D and

  13. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

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    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  14. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammel, Nadine; Abbing, Eva M; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample) compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample). Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety) compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data.

  15. Prevalence of Reduced Kidney Function by Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Using an Equation Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Korean Adults

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    Yang Ho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated and compared the prevalence of reduced kidney function in MetS and its components by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcr, cystatin C (eGFRcys, and combined creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys in Korean adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from 3,649 adults who participated in a comprehensive health examination.ResultsMean values of eGFRcys were higher compared with mean values of eGFRcr (96.1±18.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 91.2±13.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 in total subjects. The prevalence of reduced kidney function increased with age (9.6% for eGFRcys vs. 5.8% for eGFRcr-cys vs. 4.9% for eGFRcr, in subjects aged ≥60 years, and significantly increased with MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein (HDL, and high insulin resistance. The prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high insulin resistance, low HDL, and hepatic steatosis was significantly increased in subjects with reduced kidney function. This increased prevalence and the odds ratio of reduced kidney function for prevalence of MetS was highest for eGFRcys, followed by those of eGFRcr-cys, and eGFRcr.ConclusionThe prevalence of reduced kidney function by eGFR was significantly increased in subjects with MetS and its related components. eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys were superior to eGFRcr in detecting reduced kidney function.

  16. Prevalence of hypertension and hypertension control rates among elderly adults during the cold season in rural Northeast China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nobuo; Zhang, Xiumin; Chiang, Chifa; Liu, Hongjian; Li, Jinghua; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2018-05-01

    Objective: The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in China, together with economic development and social changes. The prevalence of risk factors for NCDs, such as overweight/obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, is reported to be high even among poor residents of rural areas. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among elderly adults in rural Northeast China and the proportion with controlled hypertension among those on antihypertensive medication (hypertension control rate). We also aimed to examine the association of hypertension control with health facilities that provide treatment. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in six rural villages of Northeast China from February to early March, 2012. We interviewed 1593 adults aged 50-69 years and measured their blood pressure. We examined the differences in mean blood pressure between participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics and those who obtained medication from other sources, using analysis of covariance adjusted for several covariates. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among participants was as high as 63.3%, but the hypertension control rate was only 8.4%. Most villagers (98.1%) were not registered in the chronic disease treatment scheme of the public rural health insurance. The mean systolic blood pressure, adjusted for the covariates, of participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics was significantly lower than that of participants who obtained medication from township hospitals (by 16.5 mmHg) or from private pharmacies (by 7.3 mmHg). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was high and the hypertension control rate low among elderly villagers during the cold season. As treatment at village clinics, which villagers can access during the cold season seems to be more effective than self-medication or treatment at distant hospitals, improving the quality of treatment

  17. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in HIV-infected patients: the HIV-HY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Ricci, Elena; Maggi, Paolo; Parruti, Giustino; Pucci, Giacomo; Di Biagio, Antonio; Calza, Leonardo; Orofino, Giancarlo; Carenzi, Laura; Cecchini, Enisia; Madeddu, Giordano; Quirino, Tiziana; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypertension in an unselected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population and to identify factors associated with hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. We used a multicenter, cross-sectional, nationwide study that sampled 1,182 unselected, consecutive, HIV-infected patients. Office blood pressure was accurately measured with standard procedures. Patients were 71% men and 92% white, with a median age of 47 years (range = 18-78); 6% were antiretroviral treatment naive. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 29.3%; high-normal pressure accounted for an additional 12.3%. Among hypertensive subjects, 64.9% were aware of their hypertensive condition, 52.9% were treated, and 33.0% were controlled (blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg). Blood pressure-lowering medications were used in monotherapy in 54.3% of the subjects. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were the most frequently used drugs (76.1%: monotherapy = 39.1%, combination treatment = 37.0%). In multivariable regression models, hypertension was independently predicted by traditional risk factors, including age ≥50 years, male sex, family history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, previous cardiovascular events, diabetes, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome, as well as by duration of HIV infection, duration of antiretroviral therapy, and nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200/μl. The choice of protease inhibitors vs. nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a third antiretroviral drug was irrelevant. Hypertension affects nearly 30% of HIV adult outpatients in Italy. More than one-third of the hypertensive subjects are unaware of their condition, and more than two-thirds are uncontrolled. A higher level of attention to the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is mandatory in this setting.

  18. Estimating Plasmodium falciparum transmission rates in low-endemic settings using a combination of community prevalence and health facility data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Yukich

    Full Text Available As some malaria control programs shift focus from disease control to transmission reduction, there is a need for transmission data to monitor progress. At lower levels of transmission, it becomes increasingly more difficult to measure precisely, for example through entomological studies. Many programs conduct regular cross sectional parasite prevalence surveys, and have access to malaria treatment data routinely collected by ministries of health, often in health management information systems. However, by themselves, these data are poor measures of transmission. In this paper, we propose an approach for combining annual parasite incidence and treatment data with cross-sectional parasite prevalence and treatment seeking survey data to estimate the incidence of new infections in the human population, also known as the force of infection. The approach is based on extension of a reversible catalytic model. The accuracy of the estimates from this model appears to be highly dependent on levels of detectability and treatment in the community, indicating the importance of information on private sector treatment seeking and access to effective and appropriate treatment.

  19. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs - which are often characterised as 'female') among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls.

  20. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maribel; Cos, Francesc Xavier; Álvarez-Guisasola, Fernando; Fuster, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age population in developed countries. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been considered biomarkers for DR. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DR and its relationship with eGFR and other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Spain. A cross-sectional and descriptive study has been performed in 14,266 patients. Clinical records were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, clinical variables, and results from laboratory tests were recorded. Prevalence rates of DR were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess predictors of the DR presence/absence. DR prevalence was 14.9%, being more prevalent in women (p = 0.0087) and in older patients (p < 0.0001). Duration of disease (OR = 5.3, IC95% = 3.8-7.4; p < 0.0001), eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (OR = 2.0, IC95% 1.6-2.4; p < 0.0001), levels of HbA1c ≥ 7% (OR = 1.9, IC95% = 1.5-2.3; p < 0.0001) and high blood pressure (OR = 1.6, IC95% = 1.2-2.1; p = 0.0032) were associated with higher risk of DR. DR was also more frequent in patients taking insulin (32,6% vs. 10,2%; p < 0.0001). Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  1. Veterinary practice and occupational health. An epidemiological study of several professional groups of Dutch veterinarians. I. General physical examination and prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R; Blaauw, P J; de Vries, M; van Gulick, P J; Smithuis, O L; Gerrits, R P; Tielen, M J

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied in 102 Dutch veterinarians, subdivided into five professional groups (predominantly working with either swine, cattle, poultry, companion animals, or as a non-practitioner). The mean age of the participants was 43 years; 6 participants were females. Twenty-two per cent of the participants were overweight, and relatively more non-practitioners than practitioners were overweight. Approximately 23% of the vets reported complaints of prolonged fatigue. The data suggest a relationship between complaints of prolonged fatigue and a more than average number of daily working hours. Only a small proportion of vets were sensitized against several allergens. There were no significant differences in prevalence of distinct lung function disorders or bronchial hyperreactivity between professional groups. It is hypothesized that the respiratory complaints (chronic coughing, chronic phlegm production, stuffed nose, sneezing) reported by the vets predominantly working in swine and/or poultry practice could be caused by irritation and/or inflammation of the first part of the trachea-bronchial tree that has no measurable and permanent consequences for changes in lung function or increased bronchial hyperreactivity. The results of a skin test against allergens and determination of allergen-specific IgE in blood indicated that the respiratory complaints were probably not related to allergy against the panel of allergens tested.

  2. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling metho...

  3. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples

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    Nadine Stammel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. Objective: The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Method: Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Results: Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample. Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. Conclusions: The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data.

  4. Perceptions of Community HIV/ STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community’s HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/ STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women’s HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were condu...

  5. Concussion surveillance: do low concussion rates in the Qatar Professional Football League reflect a true difference or emphasize challenges in knowledge translation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L; Targett, Steve; Holmich, Per; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    To investigate concussion epidemiology in the first football (soccer) division of Qatar. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division Football League of Qatar. All first team players were included at the beginning of each season. Daily collection of training and match exposure from August 2008 until April 2012 by club medical staff. Head injuries during training and match play were recorded on standardized injury cards. Injury incidence was calculated as number of injuries per hour exposed to risk and expressed as rate per 1000 hours. The incidence of concussions in professional club football in Qatar is 0.016 (0.000-0.033) per 1000 hours of exposure. The concussion incidence is only 25% of that in the previous European studies using the same time loss injury definition. This raises the possibility that concussions are underreported. Further research is necessary. In the meantime, concussion education of players, club medical, and support staff is warranted, in keeping with the Zurich concussion consensus call for the need for an increase in knowledge translation.

  6. An altered hormonal profile and elevated rate of bone loss are associated with low bone mass in professional horse-racing jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Eimear; McGoldrick, Adrian; Davenport, Colin; Kelleher, Grainne; Byrne, Brendan; Tormey, William; Smith, Diarmuid; Warrington, Giles D

    2012-09-01

    Horse-racing jockeys are a group of weight-restricted athletes, who have been suggested as undertaking rapid and extreme weight cycling practices in order to comply with stipulated body-mass standards. The aim of this study was to examine bone mass, turnover and endocrine function in jockeys and to compare this group with age, gender and body mass index matched controls. Twenty male professional jockeys and 20 healthy male controls participated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and early morning fasting blood and urine samples were used to measure bone mass, turnover and a hormonal profile. Total body bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly lower in jockeys (1.143 ± 0.05 vs. 1.27 ± 0.06 g cm(-3), p professional jockeys have an elevated rate of bone loss and reduced bone mass that appears to be associated with disrupted hormonal activity. It is likely that this may have occurred in response to the chronic weight cycling habitually experienced by this group.

  7. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    OpenAIRE

    Covic Tanya; Cumming Steven R; Pallant Julie F; Manolios Nick; Emery Paul; Conaghan Philip G; Tennant Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific ca...

  8. Dengue virus serological prevalence and seroconversion rates in children and adults in Medellin, Colombia: implications for vaccine introduction

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    Mabel Carabali

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: These laboratory-based findings could inform dengue vaccine decisions, as they provide age-specific seroprevalence and seroconversion data, evidencing permanent and ongoing dengue transmission in the study area. This study provides evidence for the existing rates of secondary and heterotypic responses, presenting a challenge that must be addressed adequately by the new vaccine candidates.

  9. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan: Analysis of the 2000–2009 Nationwide Health Insurance database

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    Yi-Der Jiang

    2012-11-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of diabetes, including type 1, remained stable over this 10-year period in Taiwan. However, the incidence rate in men aged 20–59 years was higher than that in age-matched women. With our nationwide database, subgroup analysis of DM incidence can be performed to refine our health policies for the prevention, screening, and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Martin; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ganter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades. There is only limited knowledge about the prevalence of both pathogens in sheep, although sheep are involved in almost all Q fever outbreaks in Germany. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of both pathogens in flocks located in Lower Saxony, Germany, in correlation to the management form and abortion rate. Serum samples of 1714 sheep from 95 flocks located in Lower Saxony were investigated by ELISA. 2.7% of these samples were positive, 1.3% showed inconclusive results in the C. burnetii-ELISA. Elevated intra-flock seroprevalences were only detected in three migrating flocks. Chlamydia-specific antibodies could be detected in 15.1% serum samples of mainly shepherded and migrating flocks. In one of these flocks with a high intra-flock seroprevalence for C burnetii (27%) and Chlamydia (44.9%), C burnetii was detected in 21.6% of the placenta samples of normal births and in 12.5% of the colostrum samples by PCR. Aborted fetuses and the corresponding placentas were negative in C burnetii-PCR, but in most of them and also in many other placenta samples Chl. abortus could be detected by PCR and DNA microarray. This survey shows a low overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sheep in Lower Saxony in the year 2004. However, three migrating flocks with a high intra-flock prevalence are localized in the southern parts of Lower Saxony. Spreading of C burnetii could occur, because of the large radius of grazing of all three flocks.

  11. Good clean fun? A content analysis of profanity in video games and its prevalence across game systems and ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, James D; Williams, Dmitri; Martins, Nicole; Consalvo, Mia

    2009-08-01

    Although violent video game content and its effects have been examined extensively by empirical research, verbal aggression in the form of profanity has received less attention. Building on preliminary findings from previous studies, an extensive content analysis of profanity in video games was conducted using a sample of the 150 top-selling video games across all popular game platforms (including home consoles, portable consoles, and personal computers). The frequency of profanity, both in general and across three profanity categories, was measured and compared to games' ratings, sales, and platforms. Generally, profanity was found in about one in five games and appeared primarily in games rated for teenagers or above. Games containing profanity, however, tended to contain it frequently. Profanity was not found to be related to games' sales or platforms.

  12. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006). The rates for overweight, including obesity, in Germany have levelled off. However, they still remain at a high level, indicating a need for further public health action. What is Known: • In the last decades, prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen. Now a days, the prevalence seems to be stagnating. • In Germany, prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are only available from regional or non-representative studies. What is New: • This article gives an update for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity amongst children aged 4-10 years in Germany based on a nationwide and representative sample. • Results show that stagnation in prevalence rates for overweight in children in Germany is reached.

  13. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; Zou, Haidong; He, Xiangui; Li, Qiangqiang; Wang, Weijie; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2014-12-22

    To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations. A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was

  14. A Reaction to: What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W.; Knol, Linda; Meyer, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    "What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals" describes an important issue in health care that is the provision of nutrition education. Obesity and chronic disease rates are rapidly increasing. Due to increase in the prevalence rates of obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases, there is a growing need for…

  15. Prevalence Rates of Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in a Rural Hypertension Population: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors among hypertensive patients in primary care. A cross-sectional survey, with 318 hypertensive patients, was conducted in a rural area in Beijing, China, in 2012. Participants were mainly recruited from a community health clinic and completed questionnaires assessing their self-care behaviors, including data on adherence to a prescribed medication regimen, low-salt diet intake, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, blood pressure monitoring, and physical exercise. The logistic regression model was used for the analysis of any association between self-care behaviors and age, gender, duration of hypertension, self-rated health, marital status, education level, diabetes status, or body mass index. Subjects that adhered to their medication schedule were more likely to have hypertension for a long duration (OR, 3.44; 95% CI 1.99–5.97. Older participants (OR, 1.80; 95% CI 1.08–2.99 were more likely to monitor their blood pressure. Subjects who did not partake in physical exercise were more likely to be men, although the difference between genders was not significant (OR, 0.60; 95% CI 0.36–1.01. Patients with shorter history of hypertension, younger and being males have lower self-care behaviors. Primary care providers and public health practitioner should pay more attention to patients recently diagnosed with hypertension as well as younger male patients.

  16. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-01-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Prevalence of LD From Parental and Professional Perspectives: A Comparison of the Data From the National Survey of Children's Health and the Office of Special Education Programs' Reports to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Paige C

    Since the emergence of the field of learning disabilities (LD) in the late 1960s and early 1970s, controversy has surrounded issues regarding methods used for identification. The prevalence of students identified as LD increased steadily from the 1970s until the beginning of the 21st century, at which time it has decreased until at least 2011 (the most current data available from the U.S. Office of Education). In this article, I compare the prevalence rates of children aged 6 to 17 years being served in schools according to the Office of Special Education Programs with the prevalence rates as reported by parents on the National Survey of Children's Health. To date, no such comparison has been made that takes into account parents' knowledge of their children's disabilities. Results of the analyses reveal that parents report that their children have LD at a significantly higher rate than what is reported by schools of students receiving LD services. Most important, the longitudinal trend from 2001 to 2011 indicates that parents are reporting a slight increase whereas the Office of Special Education Programs is reporting a dramatic decrease in LD.

  18. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  19. Time trends of period prevalence rates of patients with inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists-containing prescriptions: a European comparative database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Rottenkolber

    Full Text Available Inhaled, long-acting beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA have well-established roles in asthma and/or COPD treatment. Drug utilisation patterns for LABA have been described, but few studies have directly compared LABA use in different countries. We aimed to compare the prevalence of LABA-containing prescriptions in five European countries using a standardised methodology.A common study protocol was applied to seven European healthcare record databases (Denmark, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands (2, and the UK (2 to calculate crude and age- and sex-standardised annual period prevalence rates (PPRs of LABA-containing prescriptions from 2002-2009. Annual PPRs were stratified by sex, age, and indication (asthma, COPD, asthma and COPD.From 2002-2009, age- and sex-standardised PPRs of patients with LABA-containing medications increased in all databases (58.2%-185.1%. Highest PPRs were found in men ≥ 80 years old and women 70-79 years old. Regarding the three indications, the highest age- and sex-standardised PPRs in all databases were found in patients with "asthma and COPD" but with large inter-country variation. In those with asthma or COPD, lower PPRs and smaller inter-country variations were found. For all three indications, PPRs for LABA-containing prescriptions increased with age.Using a standardised protocol that allowed direct inter-country comparisons, we found highest rates of LABA-containing prescriptions in elderly patients and distinct differences in the increased utilisation of LABA-containing prescriptions within the study period throughout the five European countries.

  20. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of

  1. [Prevalence of hypertension and assessment of its impact on self-rated health in rural populations: a cross-sectional study in northern Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, S M; Diop-Dia, A; Dia, D Gueye; Gueye, L

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a growing public health problem, and its impact on the overall health of patients in Africa is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine its prevalence and its influence on self-rated health among people living in rural areas of Senegal. This cross-sectional study was conducted over a two-week period in the rural communities of Labgar and Lougré Thiolly, located in the central northern region of Senegal, in an agricultural area. Randomly recruited volunteers were questioned during direct individual interviews about socio-demographic (age, sex, marital status, education, occupation) and lifestyle data (smoking or alcohol, physical activity). Clinical data (medical history, weight, height, blood pressure, course of treatment) were also collected. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed by asking if they felt their health was bad or good. We included 627 patients with a mean age of 40.93 ± 17.2 years (range: 15-100 years), 59.9% of them women. Illiteracy and overweight were more common among women than among men, and smoking and alcohol consumption more frequent in men. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 23.4% and did not differ significantly between men (24.9%) and women (22.4%)(P = 0.50). Self-rated health was similar in men and women (with respectively 66.9% and 72.9% reporting good health, P = 0.10). On univariate analysis, the factors associated with perceived health status were age (OR = 1.34, P = 0.04), smoking (OR = 2.16, P = 0.03), educational level (OR = 1.21, P = 0.04), and the presence of hypertension (OR = 0.63, P = 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that among women, advanced age (≥50 years) and hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were associated with poorer perceived health, whereas for men, only smoking was significantly correlated with poor health status (OR = 0.41, P = 0.01). This study shows that hypertension is common in this rural area of Senegal and is significantly

  2. Nurses' professional and personal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Michal

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure professional and personal values among nurses, and to identify the factors affecting these values. The participants were 323 Israeli nurses, who were asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The three fundamental professional nursing values of human dignity, equality among patients, and prevention of suffering, were rated first. The top 10 rated values all concerned nurses' responsibility towards patients. Altruism and confidentiality were not highly rated, and health promotion and nursing research were rated among the last three professional values. For personal (instrumental) values, honesty, responsibility and intelligence were rated first, while ambition and imagination were rated 14th and 16th respectively out of 18. Significant differences (P personal and professional values rated as functions of culture, education, professional seniority, position and field of expertise. The results may assist in understanding the motives of nurses with different characteristics and help to promote their work according to professional ethical values.

  3. An exploration of the prevalence and predictors of work-related well-being among psychosocial oncology professionals: An application of the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnell, Adrienne; Rasmussen, Victoria; Butow, Phyllis; Juraskova, Ilona; Kirsten, Laura; Wiener, Lori; Patenaude, Andrea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Grassi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Burnout is reportedly high among oncology healthcare workers. Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. However, their work engagement may also be high, counteracting stress in the workplace. This study aimed to document the prevalence of both burnout and work engagement, and the predictors of both, utilizing the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, within a sample of psychosocial oncologists. Psychosocial-oncologist (N = 417) clinicians, recruited through 10 international and national psychosocial-oncology societies, completed an online questionnaire. Measures included demographic and work characteristics, burnout (the MBI-HSS Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) subscales), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of job demands and resources. High EE and DP was reported by 20.2 and 6.6% of participants, respectively, while 95.3% reported average to high work engagement. Lower levels of job resources and higher levels of job demands predicted greater burnout, as predicted by the JD-R model, but the predicted interaction between these characteristics and burnout was not significant. Higher levels of job resources predicted higher levels of work engagement. Burnout was surprisingly low and work engagement high in this sample. Nonetheless, one in five psychosocial oncologists have high EE. Our results suggest that both the positive (resources) and negative (demands) aspects of this work environment have an on impact burnout and engagement, offering opportunities for intervention. Theories such as the JD-R model can be useful in guiding research in this area.

  4. High rate of pneumococcal bacteremia in a prospective cohort of older children and adults in an area of high HIV prevalence in rural western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oundo Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although causing substantial morbidity, the burden of pneumococcal disease among older children and adults in Africa, particularly in rural settings, is not well-characterized. We evaluated pneumococcal bacteremia among 21,000 persons ≥5 years old in a prospective cohort as part of population-based infectious disease surveillance in rural western Kenya from October 2006-September 2008. Methods Blood cultures were done on patients meeting pre-defined criteria - severe acute respiratory illness (SARI, fever, and admission for any reason at a referral health facility within 5 kilometers of all 33 villages where surveillance took place. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done by latex agglutination and quellung reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using broth microdilution. We extrapolated incidence rates based on persons with compatible illnesses in the surveillance population who were not cultured. We estimated rates among HIV-infected persons based on community HIV prevalence. We projected the national burden of pneumococcal bacteremia cases based on these rates. Results Among 1,301 blood cultures among persons ≥5 years, 52 (4% yielded pneumococcus, which was the most common bacteria isolated. The yield was higher among those ≥18 years than 5-17 years (6.9% versus 1.6%, p 95%. The crude rate of pneumococcal bacteremia was 129/100,000 person-years, and the adjusted rate was 419/100,000 person-years. Nineteen (61% of 31 patients with HIV results were HIV-positive. The adjusted rate among HIV-infected persons was 2,399/100,000 person-years (Rate ratio versus HIV-negative adults, 19.7, 95% CI 12.4-31.1. We project 58,483 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia will occur in Kenyan adults in 2010. Conclusions Pneumococcal bacteremia rates were high among persons ≥5 years old, particularly among HIV-infected persons. Ongoing surveillance will document if expanded use of highly-active antiretroviral

  5. Evaluation of the Prevalence Rate and the Prognostic Effect of Human Papilloma Virus Infection in a Group of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Zamanzadeh, Maryam; Meshkat, Zahra; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar; Salek, Roham

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity. A relationship between the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the prognosis of oral cavity SCC (OCSCC) has been discussed before. We investigated the prevalence rate of HPV status in patients with OCSCC, and its effects on clinicopathological characteristics of tumors and patients' prognosis. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 114 histopathologically confirmed OCSCC cases were investigated in this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to evaluate the HPV status in the samples. Fifteen (13.16%) cases were identified as HPV positive. The detected viral subtypes in this study were the subtypes 6 and 11. The stage and especially lymph node stage was significantly higher in the HPV positive group compared to the HPV negative group (P = 0.04). Disease free survival (DFS) was remarkably lower in the HPV positive group compared to the HPV negative group (13.9 vs. 49.9 months, P = 0.02). Overall survival (OS) was also significantly inferior in the HPV positive group (15.7 vs. 49.6 months, P = 0.01). In the current study, no significant differences were observed between two groups in relation to the variables of age, gender, tumors site, tumor size, tumor grading and also the recurrence rate. The observed higher mortality rate among the HPV positive group indicates the poorer prognosis of this group in comparison with the HPV negative patients. The incidence rate of HPV infection was low in the studied samples; however, interaction of subtypes 6 and 11 of HPV in poorer prognosis of the patients and a carcinogenic role of HPV in OCSCC cannot be ruled out.

  6. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among 5-year-old children in Saint Lucia by three methods of classification and a comparison with historical rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K; Bird, J; Canning, P M; Frizzell, L M; Smith, L M

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if child obesity rates have risen in the Caribbean nation of Saint Lucia, as found globally, and whether under-nutrition coexists, as in other developing nations. The average adult in Saint Lucia is overweight, thus considerable child obesity might be expected, but there are no current data. Heights and weights were obtained from a sample (n= 425) of the 2001 birth cohort of Saint Lucian children measured during the nation-wide 2006/2007 Prior to School Entry Five-Year Assessment. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight were estimated by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Cole et al. and new World Health Organization (WHO) methods. Previously reported 1976 estimates, including children ≤60 months of age only, based on National Centre for Health Statistics curves, were adjusted to new WHO equivalents using an algorithm developed by Yang and de Onis, and compared with rates in our subsample of children ≤60 months of age (n= 99). Regardless of classification method, overweight and obesity rates were high: 14.4% and 9.2% (WHO); 11.3% and 12.0% (CDC); and 9.9% and 7.1% (Cole et al.), respectively. Underweight estimates also varied: 4.7% (WHO); 11.3% (CDC) and 6.6% (Cole et al.). Obesity in our young subsample (15.2%; WHO) was more than 3 times the adjusted 1976 rate (4.3%). Obesity among Saint Lucian pre-schoolers has tripled in 30 years. Our findings also suggest that this country, like many undergoing a 'nutrition transition', faces the dual challenge of over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Routine monitoring of overweight and underweight is needed in Saint Lucia, as is the implementation and evaluation of programmes to address these problems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Sex-specific differences in hemodialysis prevalence and practices and the male-to-female mortality rate: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hecking

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively and mortality (via Cox regression by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall, with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y, were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11 than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001. This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex

  8. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background : Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods : Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results : Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions : Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  9. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities .

  10. Prevalence Rate and Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse Among New Psychiatric Outpatients in a City in Northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Juhás, Michal; Ritchie, Amanda; Ogunsina, Olurotimi; Ambrosano, Lorella; Corbett, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence rate for child sexual abuse among new psychiatric outpatients in Fort McMurray was 20.7%. With an odds ratio for sex of 3.30, female patients are about 3 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared with male patients when controlling for other factors. Similarly, patients with at most high school education and those with previous contact with psychiatric services were about 2 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared to the patients with college or university education or no previous contact with psychiatric services, respectively. Similarly, patients with histories of substance abuse and patients with family histories of mental illness had higher likelihoods of reporting histories of child sexual abuse compared to patients without histories of substance abuse or family histories of mental illness, respectively. Our findings suggest that victims of child sexual abuse are an at-risk population in need of ongoing mental health and educational support.

  11. Modelling intentions to provide smoking cessation support among mental health professionals in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, Matthijs; Buisman, Renate; Hopman, Petra; van Gool, Ronald; van Laar, Margriet

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use prevalence is elevated among people with mental illnesses, leading to elevated rates of premature smoking-related mortality. Opportunities to encourage smoking cessation among them are currently underused by mental health professionals. In this paper, we aim to explore mechanisms to

  12. Being on sick leave due to heart failure: self-rated health, encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers and self-estimated ability to return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Lena; Söderlund, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Younger people with heart failure often experience poor self-rated health. Furthermore, poor self-rated health is associated with long-term sick leave and disability pension. Socio-demographic factors affect the ability to return to work. However, little is known about people on sick leave due to heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between self-rated health, mood, socio-demographic factors, sick leave compensation, encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers and self-estimated ability to return to work, for people on sick leave due to heart failure. This population-based investigation had a cross-sectional design. Data were collected in Sweden in 2012 from two official registries and from a postal questionnaire. In total, 590 subjects, aged 23-67, responded (response rate 45.8%). Descriptive statistics, correlation analyses (Spearman bivariate analysis) and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations. Poor self-rated health was strongly associated with full sick leave compensation (OR = 4.1, p health was moderately associated with low income (OR =  .6, p =  .003). Good self-rated health was strongly associated with positive encounters with healthcare professionals (OR = 3.0, p =  .022) and to the impact of positive encounters with healthcare professionals on self-estimated ability to return to work (OR = 3.3, p work imposes reduced quality of life. Positive encounters with healthcare professionals and social insurance officers can be supportive when people with heart failure struggle to remain in working life.

  13. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Brettschneidera, Anna-Kristin; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Kuhnert, Ronny; Schmidt, Steffen; Wiegand, Susanna; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2015-11-06

    The nationwide "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regularly monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing self-reported height and weight. Since self-reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. The aim of the present study is to obtain updated prevalence rates for overweight and obesity for 11- to 17-year olds living in Germany after correction for bias in self-reports. In KiGGS Wave 1, self-reported height and weight were collected from 4948 adolescents during a telephone interview. Participants were also asked about their body perception. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from self-reports, weight status categories based on self-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure under consideration of body perception. The correction procedure was applied and corrected rates were estimated. The corrected prevalence of overweight, including obesity, derived from KiGGS Wave 1, showed that the rate has not further increased compared to the KiGGS baseline survey (18.9 % vs. 18.8 % based on the German reference). The rates of overweight still remain at a high level. The results of KiGGS Wave 1 emphasise the significance of this health issue and the need for prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

  14. Convergence of prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle and low income groups in urban India: 10-year follow-up of the Chennai Urban Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Manjula, Datta; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to look for temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in two residential colonies in Chennai. Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) was carried out between 1996-1998 in Chennai in two residential colonies representing the middle income group (MIG) and lower income group (LIG), respectively. The MIG had twice the prevalence rate of diabetes as the LIG and higher prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. They were motivated to increase their physical activity, which led to the building of a park. The LIG was given standard lifestyle advice. Follow-up surveys of both colonies were performed after a period of 10 years. In the MIG, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 12.4 to 15.4% (24% increase), while in the LIG, it increased from 6.5 to 15.3% (135% increase, p India with a convergence of prevalence rates among people in the MIG and LIG. This could have a serious economic impact on poor people in developing countries such as India. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Symptoms Of Common Mental Disorders In Professional Rugby: An International Observational Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and three rugby unions distributed questionnaires based on validated scales for assessing symptoms of common mental disorders. Among the whole study sample (N=990; overall response rate of 28%), prevalence (4-week) of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 15% for adverse alcohol use to 30% for anxiety/depression. These findings support the prevalence rates of symptoms of common mental disorders found in previous studies among professional (i. e., elite) athletes across other sports, and suggestions can be made that the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety/depression seems slightly higher in professional rugby than in other general/occupational populations. Awareness of the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders should be improved in international rugby, and an interdisciplinary approach including psychological attention should be fostered in the medical care of professional rugby players. Adequate supportive measures to enhance awareness and psychological resilience would lead not only to improved health and quality of life among rugby players but arguably to enhanced performance in rugby. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Studying the Prevalence Rate of Hearing Loss in Children of Primary Schools in Bebehan During the Year Between 1996 and1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Niaparast

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to establish the prevalence rate of hearing disorders in school age children. Method: This study has been performed in a randomized manner among 1000 school-age children (500 girls and 500 boys in the years between1976-1997 in Behbehan. All subjects underwent Audiometric evaluations, Otoscopy, and impedance audiometry. Additionally, parents, children and teachers were interviewed or asked by questionnaires regarding the familial status of parents, familial history of any hearing loss and the awareness of suffering hearing loss. The findings have been prepared in the charts and tables and the relationship between age and gender of the subjects with the incidence of hearing loss has been evaluated via the statistical test X² and hearing loss in left and right ear was compared by T-test. Results: the findings demonstrated that 6.6% of the subjects suffered hearing loss in one ear (2.2% or both ears (4.3%. 4.8% of the patients suffered conductive hearing loss while 1.6% suffered sensory-neural hearing loss. In .2% patients complained different types of hearing loss in the ears. Hearing loss was mostly slight and the relationship between age and gender with the incidence of hearing loss was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the findings we have concluded that in18.4% of the subjects, medical treatment was required and 0.7% of them were in need of rehabilitation. The percentage of the awareness of the hearing disorders among children, parents and teachers was 21.2%, 22.7% and 15.2% respectively.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate in community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Helen; Werner, Karin; Christensson, Anders; Pihlsgård, Mats; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2017-12-04

    Differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can lead to clinical uncertainty. Existing eGFR equations perform poorly in a subset of individuals. This study aims to describe the prevalence of differences between cystatin C-based (eGFR cys ) and creatinine-based (eGFR creat ) eGFR in older adults and to explore which subsets of individuals may be most affected by differing estimations. In this cross-sectional study, participants from a cohort of community-dwelling older adults were examined at a baseline visit in 2001-2004 as part of the larger "Good Aging in Skåne" study. Exposure variables were obtained from questionnaires, interviews, examinations, and medical records. Blood samples were taken during the baseline visit, cryopreserved, and analyzed at a later time for biomarkers. The CKD-EPI equations were used to estimate GFR. Initial descriptive analyses were performed on 2931 individuals. A total of 2532 participants were included in the final multiple linear regression. Nearly two-thirds of participants had eGFR differences exceeding 10%, with nearly 20 % of participants having eGFR differences exceeding 30%. Smoking, age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), glucocorticoid use, and mean eGFR were correlated with differences between eGFR creat and eGFR cys . Differences between eGFR creat and eGFR cys are common and often of large magnitude in this community-dwelling population of older adults. The finding of multiple non-GFR determinants correlated to differences in GFR estimations can help direct future research to improve eGFR equations for subgroups prone to conflicting GFR estimations or to guide choice of biomarker for GFR estimation in these subgroups.

  18. Concussion surveillance: do low concussion rates in the Qatar Professional Football League reflect a true difference or emphasize challenges in knowledge translation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L.; Targett, Steve; Holmich, Per; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    To investigate concussion epidemiology in the first football (soccer) division of Qatar. Prospective cohort study. Professional First Division Football League of Qatar. All first team players were included at the beginning of each season. Daily collection of training and match exposure from August

  19. The mental wellbeing of current and retired professional cricketers: an observational prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuring, Nannet; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Gray, Janine; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders in professional cricket is non-existent. Consequently, the aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and the 6 months incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD: distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol use) among current and former professional cricketers and to explore the association of potential stressors (significant injury, surgery, adverse life events, career dissatisfaction) and CMD. An observational prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 6 months was conducted among current and former professional cricketers from South Africa. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders as well as several stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by the South African Cricketers Association (SACA). A total of 116 participants enrolled at baseline (overall response rate of 33%) and 76 of those participants completed the 6 month follow-up (follow up rate of 66%). The prevalence of symptoms of CMD in current professional cricketers was 38% for distress, 38% for sleep disturbance, 37% for anxiety/depression and 26% for adverse alcohol use. Among former professional cricketers, baseline prevalence as was 26% for distress, 24% for anxiety/depression, 21% for sleep disturbance and 22% for adverse alcohol use. Career dissatisfaction led to an increased risk of distress, anxiety/depression and sleep disturbance in current professional cricketers. Surgeries and adverse life events led to an increase in reported symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression in current professional cricketers. It was concluded that symptoms of CMD are prevalent in both current and former professional cricketers and the association with surgery, adverse life events and cricket career dissatisfaction may provide some insight into possible mechanisms.

  20. Professional Commitment and Professional Marginalism in Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov A.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.

  1. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  2. Professional burnout and its correlates in Lithuanian neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranckeviciene, Aiste; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Bunevicius, Adomas

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prevalence and severity of professional burnout in a sample of Lithuanian neurosurgeons and to analyze its personal, interpersonal, and organizational correlates. Thirty-one out of 79 (response rate 39 %) Lithuanian neurosurgeons participated in the study. Professional burnout was evaluated using the Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey. Participants also answered questions about professional stressors, sources of professional dissatisfaction, life-style factors, sickness absenteeism/presenteeism, and professional practice. The majority of neurosurgeons were between 41 and 60 years of age (48 %), were married (97 %), had children (84 %). Most neurosurgeons had 20 or more years of professional experience (54.9 %), worked from 41 to 60 h per week (58 %), and performed up to 150 surgeries per year (77.4 %). Eight (26 %) neurosurgeons reported a high level of emotional exhaustion, five (16 %) reported high level of cynicism, and eight (26 %) reported low professional efficacy. Correlation analyses revealed that higher number of surgeries per year, more hours devoted to clinical work, opportunities for professional development, intellectual challenges at work, appreciation by the patients and prestige of the profession were related to lower level of burnout. Greater general workload, unpredictability of the work schedule, lack of necessary technical equipment, dissatisfaction with colleagues, and uncertainty about the future were related to a higher level of burnout. Burnout was reported by one-quarter of neurosurgeons who chose to participate in the study. Personal, interpersonal, and organizational factors arising while fulfilling professional duties were important correlates of neurosurgeons' burnout. Due to the moderate response rate, our results should be interpreted with caution. Larger studies evaluating burnout among European neurosurgeons are needed.

  3. Perception of ethical misconduct by neuropsychology professionals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Romero, Alfonso Caracuel; Panyavin, Ivan; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of perceived ethical misconduct in clinical practice, teaching, and research in the field of neuropsychology in Spain. Two hundred and fifteen self-identified mental health professionals who engage in neuropsychology practice in Spain completed an online survey from July to December of 2013. In the ethics section of the survey, participants were asked to identify if neuropsychologists they know who work in their country engaged in specific kinds of ethical misconduct. 41% reported receiving formal training in professional ethics. The clinical findings are as follows. The highest rate of perceived misconduct was found in the area of professional training and expertise, with an average of 40.7%, followed by research/publications (25.6%), clinical care (23.9%), and professional relationships (8.8%). Specifically, regarding training, over half of respondents (56.7%) know professionals who claim themselves to be neuropsychologists, even though they lack proper training or expertise and 46.0% know professionals in the field who do not have adequate training for experience to be working in the field. Regarding research/publications, 41.9% of respondents know professionals who appear as authors on publications where they have not made a significant contribution. Regarding clinical care, over one third of respondents endorse knowing professionals who (1) provide results of neuropsychological evaluations in such a way that patients or other professionals are not likely to understand (37.2%) and (2) do not have the skills or training to work with patients who are culturally different from them (34.9%). Less than half of survey respondents reported receiving ethics training. It is possible that introducing more or improved ethics courses into pre-graduate and/or graduate school curriculums, and/or requiring continuing ethics education certification may reduce perceived ethical misconduct among neuropsychological professionals in Spain.

  4. The prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Hale, Claire; Helliwell, Philip; Hill, Jackie; Nelson, E Andrea

    2008-02-15

    To establish the prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in secondary care. A postal survey of all patients with RA (n = 1,130) under the care of rheumatologists in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK was performed. The prevalence data were validated through clinical examination, case-note review, and contact with health professionals. The false-negative rate was investigated in a subsample of patients (n = 70) who denied any history of ulceration. The postal survey achieved a 78% response rate. Following validation, the point prevalence of foot ulceration was 3.39% and the overall prevalence was 9.73%. The false-positive rate was initially high at 21.21%, but use of diagrammatic questionnaire data to exclude leg ulceration reduced the rate to 10.76%. The false-negative rate was 11.76%. The most common sites for ulceration were the dorsal aspect of hammer toes, the metatarsal heads, and the metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with hallux abducto valgus, with 33% of patients reporting multiple sites of ulceration. Patients with open-foot and healed-foot ulceration had significantly longer RA disease duration, reported significantly greater use of special footwear, and had a higher prevalence of foot surgery than ulcer-free patients. Foot ulceration affects a significant proportion of patients with RA. Further work is needed to establish risk factors for foot ulceration in RA and to target foot health provision more effectively.

  5. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  6. Mental and psychosocial health among current and former professional footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, V; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2015-04-01

    In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental health problems and psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers, and to explore the association between psychosocial stressors and the health conditions studied. Based on validated scales, a paper and electronic questionnaire was developed for current and former professional footballers and distributed by the World Footballers' Union (FIFPro) and players' unions in six countries. Prevalence was calculated and cross-sectional analyses were conducted. The response rate was 29% with 253 responses available for analysis. The prevalence of mental health complaints ranged from 5% (burnout) to 26% (anxiety/depression) in 149 current players and from 16% (burnout) to 39% (anxiety/depression) in 104 former footballers. The prevalence of psychosocial problems ranged from 3% (low self-esteem) to 26% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in current players and from 5% (low self-esteem) to 42% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in former footballers. In both current and former players, mental health problems were significantly associated with low social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1) and recent life events (OR = 1.4-1.6). In former players, previous surgery was significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.9). The prevalence of mental health problems and/or psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers was found to be high. The presence of mental health problems was associated with low social support and recent life events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Pain among professional orchestral musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Roessler, Kirsten K; Eichberg, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Professional musicians experience high rates of musculoskeletal pain, but only few studies have investigated how this pain is accepted by musicians.......Professional musicians experience high rates of musculoskeletal pain, but only few studies have investigated how this pain is accepted by musicians....

  8. Estimating trematode prevalence in snail hosts using a single-step duplex PCR: how badly does cercarial shedding underestimate infection rates?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Born-Torrijos, A.; Poulin, R.; Raga, J. A.; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 243 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : prevalence * detection * snail host * double infection * single-steo duplex PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  9. Prevalence, distribution and risk of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps at a center with a high adenoma detection rate and experienced pathologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJspeert, Joep E. G.; de Wit, Koos; van der Vlugt, Manon; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are the precursors of 15 % - 30 % of colorectal cancers (CRC). We aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of SSA/Ps and to evaluate the association between SSA/Ps and the risk of synchronous advanced neoplasia at a high quality colonoscopy center.

  10. Professional Learning in Higher Education: Making Good Practice Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeannie

    2017-01-01

    Professionals working in a range of contexts are increasingly expected to engage in ongoing professional learning to maintain their skills and develop their practices. In this paper, I focus on professional learning in Higher Education and challenge the standardisation of professional learning that is becoming prevalent in a number of countries. I…

  11. Revisiting the concept of ‘chronic disease’ from the perspective of the episode of care model. Does the ratio of incidence to prevalence rate help us to define a problem as chronic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K Soler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a study of the epidemiology of acute and chronic episodes of care (EoCs in the Transition Project in three countries. We studied the duration of EoCs for acute and chronic health problems and the relationship of incidence to prevalence rates for these EoCs.Method The Transition Project databases collect data on all elements of the doctor–patient encounter in family medicine. Family doctors code these elements using the International Classification of Primary Care.We used the data from three practice populations to study the duration of EoCs and the ratio of incidence to prevalence for common health problems.Results We found that chronic health problems tended to have proportionately longer duration EoCs, as expected, but also a lower incidence to prevalence rate ratio than acute health problems. Thus, the incidence to prevalence index could be used to define a chronic condition as one with a low ratio, below a defined threshold.Conclusions Chronic health problems tend to have longer duration EoCs, proportionately, across populations. This result is expected, but we found important similarities and differences which make defining a problem as chronic on the basis of time rather difficult. The ratio of incidence to prevalence rates has potential to categorise health problems into acute or chronic categories, at different ratio thresholds (such as 20, 30 or 50%. It seems to perform well in this study of three family practice populations, and is proposed to the scientific community for further evaluation.

  12. Professional correlates of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Damien; Massuel, Marie-Anne; Metlaine, Arnaud

    2006-02-01

    Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder that affects daytime functioning, behavior, and quality of life. Several reports have shown that insomnia impacts on the workforce and is associated with an increased risk of absenteeism. However, few workplace studies have been performed. Our study attempted to evaluate the professional correlates of insomnia by comparing a group of workers with insomnia to a matched group of good sleepers. The main objective measure was absenteeism. Accidents, self-esteem at work, job satisfaction, and efficiency at work were also investigated. Pairs of workers with insomnia (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition definition) and good sleepers, matched by age, sex, and occupational status, were interviewed by their occupational physician and also answered a self-administered questionnaire on work-related criteria. Objective data on absenteeism (number of days absent from work) were provided by the employers' health resource databases. Paris and the Ile de France region (France). Seven hundred eighty-five subjects completed the questionnaire. We retained 369 pair (ie, 738 subjects) for analysis. Insomniacs missed work twice as often as good sleepers. The difference between insomniacs and good sleepers in terms of absenteeism was particularly high for blue-collar workers (odds ratio = 3.0) and men (odds ratio = 2.31). Insomniacs had also a higher accident rate while driving and, strikingly, a 3-fold greater risk of having 2 or 3 serious road accidents. They also reported poor self-esteem at work, less job satisfaction, and less efficiency at work, compared with good sleepers. Our study found an objective increase in absenteeism in insomniacs compared with good sleepers.

  13. Professional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAndrew-Benavidas, E.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation outlines the functions of the North American Young Generation in Nuclear. Activities of the organization include professional development, recruiting, retention, public outreach, leadership, networking, workforce issues, mentoring and communications

  14. Gender differences in brain activity and the relationship between brain activity and differences in prevalence rates between male and female major depressive disorder patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijian; Yan, Rui; Wei, Maobin; Tang, Hao; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    We examined the gender-difference effect on abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of male and female major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and the further clarified the relationship between the abnormal ALFF and differences in MDD prevalence rates between male and female patients. Fourteen male MDD patients, 13 female MDD patients and 15 male and 15 female well matched healthy controls (HCs) completed this study. The ALFF approach was used, and Pearson correlation was conducted to observe a possible clinical relevance. There were widespread differences in ALFF values between female and male MDD patients, including some important parts of the frontoparietal network, auditory network, attention network and cerebellum network. In female MDD patients, there was a positive correlation between average ALFF values of the left postcentral gyrus and the severity of weight loss symptom. The gender-difference effect leading to abnormal brain activity is an important underlying pathomechanism for different somatic symptoms in MDD patients of different genders and is likely suggestive of higher MDD prevalence rates in females. The abnormal ALFF resulting from the gender-difference effect might improve our understanding of the differences in prevalence rates between male and female MDD patients from another perspective. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing the prevalence rates of social phobia in a community according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R Comparando estimativas de prevalência da fobia social na comunidade empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based study aimed to compare the prevalence rates of social phobia using DSM-III-R and CID-10, based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, in a Brazilian community. METHODS: This survey was carried out in a representative sample of 1,041 residents from Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil (attrition rate = 14.7%. The Brazilian version of the CIDI was used. One-month, one-year and lifetime social phobia prevalence rates were estimated, employing the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 classifications, using the CIDI computer program. RESULTS: One-month, one-year, and life prevalence rates of social phobia, based on the DSM-III-R (7.9, 9.0 and 11.7% respectively were higher than those based on the ICD-10 (4.7, 5.2 and 6.7% respectively; p OBJETIVO: Este estudo populacional visa comparar estimativas de prevalência de fobia social empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R em uma comunidade brasileira. MÉTODOS: O levantamento foi realizado em uma amostra representativa de 1.041 residentes de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil (perda = 14,7%. Foi utilizada a versão brasileira da Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida foram estimadas empregando-se as classificações CID-10 e DSM-III-R, utilizando-se o programa de computador da CIDI. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida da fobia social, baseadas na DSM-III-R (7,9, 9,0 e 11,7% respectivamente foram mais elevadas que aquelas baseadas na CID-10 (4,7, 5,2 e 6,7%, respectivamente; p < 0,01 para todos. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados reforçam a hipótese de que as taxas de prevalência de fobia social são mais elevadas quando baseadas na DSM-III-R em comparação com a CID-10.

  16. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use. PMID:22269280

  17. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Pallant, Julie F; Manolios, Nick; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2012-01-24

    While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  18. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covic Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  19. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.

  20. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J; Gerrie, Brayden J; Varner, Kevin E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Harris, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of traumatic injuries, accounting for half of their

  1. Violência entre usuárias de unidades de saúde: prevalência, perspectiva e conduta de gestores e profissionais Violencia entre usuarias de unidades de salud: prevalencia, perspectiva y conducta de gestores y profesionales Violence among female users of healthcare units: prevalence, perspective and conduct of managers and professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Duarte Osis

    2012-04-01

    de la mujer, 2.379 usuarias de unidades básicas de salud, 75 gestores y 375 profesionales, en 15 municipios del Estado de Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, realizado entre agosto de 2008 y mayo de 2009. Los datos fueron colectados por cuestionarios estructurados y se realizó análisis descriptivo. RESULTADOS: Protocolo de atención específico para las mujeres en situación de violencia fue mencionado en cinco municipios. La mayoría de los coordinadores mencionó detectar situaciones de violencia entre las usuarias; sin embargo, 74% señalaron que tales situaciones no eran investigadas de forma rutinaria, siendo confirmado por 72,3% de los profesionales. Entre las mujeres, 76,5% relataron haber sufrido algún tipo de violencia a lo largo de la vida y 56,4% mencionaron violencia por pareja íntima; cerca de 305 mencionaron por lo menos un episodio en los últimos 12 meses; 6,5% señalaron haber procurado ayuda en Unidad Básica de Salud. CONCLUSIONES: Relevante proporción de usuarias vivenciaba violencia en su cotidiano, especialmente por parejas íntimas. Mayor parte de las mujeres no era identificada o abordada en tales servicios y no recibía ayuda. Gestores y profesionales de salud, a pesar de percibir la magnitud del problema, no consideraban la atención básica preparada para atender dichas mujeres. Se evidenció la ausencia de red inter-sectorial de cuidados para atender mujeres en situación de violencia.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of violence in women who are primary healthcare users and to verify if these situations were detected and how they were tackled by these services' professionals. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out with 14 municipal women's health coordinators, 2,379 women who are users of primary healthcare units, 75 managers and 375 professionals, in 15 municipalities of the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, between August 2008 and May 2009. Data were collected through structured questionnaires and a

  2. Occupational violence against dental professionals in southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, C C; Ezeja, E B; Ehikhamenor, E E

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of workplace violence in Oral healthcare centres against Nigerian dental professionals. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 175 randomly selected dental professionals working in Oral healthcare centres of University Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria was conducted. The survey response rate was 78.9%. The respondents were dentists (58.0%), dental nurses (18.1%), dental technologists (12.3%), dental therapists (8.0%) and dental record officers (3.6%). The prevalence of violence in Nigerian Oral healthcare centres was 31.9%. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of violence against dentist and dental auxiliaries. Violence was often associated with long waiting time (27.3%), cancellation of appointment (13.6%), outcome of patient's treatment (11.4%), alcohol intoxication (9.1%), psychiatric patient (6.8%,) patient's bill (4.5%) and others (27.3%). Non-physical violence in form of loud shouting (50.0%) threat (22.7%), sexual harassment (6.8%) and swearing (2.3%) constituted the majority while physical violence in form of bullying and hitting constituted the remaining 18.2%. The main perpetrators of the violence were patients (54.5%) and patient's relatives/friends (18.2%). The expressed impact of violence among the respondents include fear (18.2%), impaired job performance (15.9%), psychological problems (13.6%) and off duty (9.1%). No impact was declared by 43.2% of respondents. The prevalence of workplace violence in Oral healthcare centres against dental professionals in Southern Nigeria was significant and had a substantial effect on dental professionals' well-being thus necessitating urgent attention.

  3. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, risk factors, and targeted interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Results Fourteen studies (n = 1,595) with 52.1% males aged 14.4 years reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1,508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1,348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean: 42 months follow-up were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female gender, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. Conclusions SI and SA are highly common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. PMID:23829436

  4. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  5. Professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, A E

    1998-02-01

    Professional autonomy may represent the first step to implementing measures that will allow CRNAs to attain a level of independent practice consistent with their clinical and educational training. Autonomy is regarded as an essential ingredient of professionalism and confers independent function at the individual practitioner level. The principle of autonomy refers to the individual's capacity to make independent decisions based on the assumption that he or she possesses the cognitive, psychological, and emotional faculties to make rational decisions. Nursing practice meets the first two criteria of professionalism--competence and dedication to an important social good. The third criterion of professionalism, autonomy, has been a focal point for controversy since the late nineteenth century, in which obedience to supervisors and physicians remained a central focus of nursing ethics teaching until the advent of feminism in the 1970s. This article presents a thorough analysis of these concepts with some thoughts on how understanding the fundamental precepts and further research may not only help maintain the current level of CRNA professional autonomy but serve to guide us to become more autonomous in the future.

  6. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your next appointment . Healthcare professionals talk about why good communication is important A patient describes how he prepares for ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking ... 8 Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low 9 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate 10 ...

  7. The Arena of the Professional Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Blagoev, Blagoy; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    professionals, as well as to escape from frustrations arising in their everyday work life. We develop how this turn to sport can be viewed as an attempt to deal with the conflicting discourses of autonomy and ambition prevalent in professional service firms. In so doing, the paper seeks to contribute to a more...

  8. Symptoms of craniomandibular dysfunction in professional orchestra musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, A; Zeh, A; Delank, K S; Peroz, I

    2014-01-01

    Up to 80% of professional musicians are affected by playing-related musculoskeletal disorders, but data regarding the frequency of craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) in professional orchestra musicians is scarce. To evaluate the frequency of CMD and its relation to musculoskeletal pain in various body regions. A questionnaire-based survey approach assessing CMD symptoms and musculoskeletal pain in professional orchestra players was adopted. Relative prevalence rates and prevalence ratios for different instrument groups were estimated. A total of 408 musicians completed the questionnaire (response rate 57%). Playing-related pain in the teeth or jaw was reported by 19-47% of musicians and TMJ pain by 15-34%, depending on the instrument group. Current pain in the face indicating a painful CMD was reported in 6-10% and related symptoms such as teeth grinding in 25-34%, jaw clenching in 33-42% and jaw locking in 11-18% of musicians. Females were 2.4 times (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.49-3.84) more likely to report having had orofacial pain within the last month. Musicians reporting orofacial pain within the last month were 4.8 times (95% CI: 2.83-8.02) more likely to report pain in the neck and 2.5-3.8 times (P neck, shoulder and hands. There is a need to enhance awareness of CMD to optimize early medical diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.

  10. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christian; Krüger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Being Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation...

  12. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters: An examination of associated features and comparison of pre-career and career prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-10-15

    Women protective service workers die by suicide at a higher rate than women workers in other occupational groups. However, no study has examined rates and correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among women firefighters, despite the potential for these data to inform suicide screening, prevention, and intervention initiatives. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare pre-career and career rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors and identify their sociodemographic and occupational correlates among women firefighters. Data were obtained from 313 current U.S. women firefighters who completed a web-based survey (mean age = 37.30y, SD = 9.70y, 92.7% White). Pre-career rates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) were found to be 28.4%, 10.2%, 5.8%, and 11.2%, respectively. Career rates of suicide ideation, plans, attempts, and NSSI were found to be 37.7%, 10.9%, 3.5%, and 9.3%, respectively. Pre-career rates of suicide ideation (OR = 4.760, 95% CI = 2.820-8.034, p harassment) are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, John David; Côté, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Participants...... were recruited from nine professional ballet and modern dance companies in Canada, Denmark, Israel, and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Professional ballet and modern dancers. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, height, weight, and before-tax yearly or monthly income. Dance...... specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. RESULTS: A total of 260 dancers...

  14. Gender differences in the association of individual social class and neighbourhood unemployment rate with prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study from the DIAB-CORE consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Grit; Hartwig, Saskia; Greiser, Karin Halina; Moebus, Susanne; Pundt, Noreen; Schipf, Sabine; Völzke, Henry; Maier, Werner; Meisinger, Christa; Tamayo, Teresa; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Berger, Klaus

    2013-06-21

    To analyse gender differences in the relationship of individual social class, employment status and neighbourhood unemployment rate with present type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Five cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in five regions of Germany from 1997 to 2006. The sample consisted of 8871 individuals residing in 226 neighbourhoods from five urban regions. Prevalent T2DM. We found significant multiplicative interactions between gender and the individual variables--social class and employment status. Social class was statistically significantly associated with T2DM in men and women, whereby this association was stronger in women (lower vs higher social class: OR 2.68 (95% CIs 1.66 to 4.34)) than men (lower vs higher social class: OR 1.78 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.58)). Significant associations of employment status and T2DM were only found in women (unemployed vs employed: OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.92); retired vs employed: OR 1.77 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.84); others vs employed: OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.67)). Neighbourhood unemployment rate was associated with T2DM in men (high vs low tertile: OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.96)). Between-study and between-neighbourhood variations in T2DM prevalence were more pronounced in women. The considered covariates helped to explain statistically the variation in T2DM prevalence among men, but not among women. Social class was inversely associated with T2DM in both men and women, whereby the association was more pronounced in women. Employment status only affected T2DM in women. Neighbourhood unemployment rate is an important predictor of T2DM in men, but not in women.

  15. 513例精神分裂症住院患者院前饮酒调查%THE PREVALENCE OF DRINKING AND THE COMORBID RATE OF ALCOHOL USE DISORDER IN 513 INPATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA BEFORE THEIR ADMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康兆鹏; 高滢; 武孟丽; 董雪冰; 苏中华; 郝伟

    2017-01-01

    目的:了解精神分裂症患者住院前的饮酒状况及其酒精使用障碍的共病率.方法:使用自编饮酒调查表、酒精使用障碍筛查量表(AUDIT)对542名住院精神分裂症患者院前的饮酒状况进行调查,根据美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第5版(DSM-5)酒精使用障碍标准对筛查阳性者(AUDIT≥7)进行诊断.结果:精神分裂症患者男、女及总样本终生饮酒率分别是65.1%、42.2%、55.9%,年饮酒率分别是40.4%、27.2%、35.1%;年饮酒者中男、女及总样本AUDIT阳性率分别是40.3%、12.5%、31.7%.男、女及总样本酒精使用障碍时点共病率分别是9.1%、2.0%、6.2%,男性高于女性(x2=10.86,P=0.001).结论:本地区精神分裂症患者的饮酒率低于普通人群,且合并酒精使用障碍的诊断率低于西方发达国家.%Objective:To describe the prevalence of drinking and the comorbid of alcohol use disorder among the inpatients with schizophrenia before their admission.Methods:A total of 542 inpatients with schizophrenia were surveyed by a self-developed questionnaire to collect the general information and alcohol use.180 drinkers were screened for alcohol dependence by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT).57 participants who were screened positive (AUDIT ≥ 7) for alcohol dependence were diagnosed by trained psychiatrists with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria.Results:The data of 513 participants whose information were complete were analysis.The total lifetime prevalence in the sample was 55.9%.The lifetime prevalence in male was 65.1% where female was 42.2%.The total one-year drinking-rate was 35.1%.The one -year drinking-rate in male was 40.4% where female was 27.2%.The point prevalence rates of patients screened positive (AUDIT≥7) were 40.3%,12.5% and 31.7% for male,female and the whole sample respectively in the one-year drinking patients

  16. The evaluaton of prevalence rate of p53 antigen expression in cutaneous malignant melanoma and it′s relation to tumor thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghihi Gita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available P53 tumor suppressor gene mutation is one of the most common genetic alteration in human malignancies. This study was done to determine the prevalence of the P53 antigen expression by sex, age, type of melanoma, thickness of the lesion and site of the antigen expression either cytoplasmic or nuclear. Paraffin embeded block of 50 patients (45 primary and metastaticwith documented diagnosis of melanoma deparaffinized and immuno stained with DO-7 monoclonal antibody. The lesions were divided depending on the degree of the staining as follow: 1. no staining, 2. mild (less than 10%, 3. moderate (10%-50% staining, 4. severe (more than 50%. Fifty four percent of evaluated patients were female and 46% were male. Forty percent of lesions were graded as no staining, 36% of lesions showed mild staining, 14% moderate and 10% severe staining site of expression was excusively in the cytoplasm. There was no meaningful statistical deference between severity of staining and the age group, sex, type and thickness of melanoma. (p value was 0.532, 0.488, 0.626, 0.954 respectively.

  17. WHO-defined 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)' in 88 consecutive patients: survival data, leukemic transformation rates and prevalence of JAK2, MPL and IDH mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, M M; Lasho, T L; Finke, C M; Gangat, N; Caramazza, D; Holtan, S G; Pardanani, A; Knudson, R A; Ketterling, R P; Chen, D; Hoyer, J D; Hanson, C A; Tefferi, A

    2010-07-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to identify 88 consecutive Mayo Clinic patients with 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)' (median age 74 years; 60 females). In all, 60 (68%) patients were followed up to the time of their death. Overall median survival was 66 months; leukemic transformation was documented in five (5.7%) cases. Multivariable analysis identified age >or=70 years (P=0.01), transfusion need at diagnosis (P=0.04) and dysgranulopoiesis (P=0.02) as independent predictors of shortened survival; the presence of zero (low risk), one (intermediate risk) or >or=2 (high risk) risk factors corresponded to median survivals of 102, 52 and 27 months, respectively. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutational analysis was performed on archived bone marrows in 78 patients; JAK2V617F and MPLW515L mutations were shown in five (6.4%) and three (3.8%) patients, respectively, and did not seem to affect phenotype or prognosis. IDH mutations were not detected. Survival was not affected by serum ferritin and there were no instances of death directly related to iron overload. The current study is unique in its strict adherence to WHO criteria for selecting study patients and providing information on long-term survival, practical prognostic factors, baseline risk of leukemic transformation and the prevalence of JAK2, MPL and IDH mutations.

  18. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Educating professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    relates to actual development work, where a social worker education program is restructured and developed, with the aim of creating optimal transfer. The social worker must 'be able to co-operate, organize, coordinate, implement, evaluate and develop social efforts’ in accordance with the curriculum. How...... does that look in practice? Based on interviews with newly-educated social workers, I have analyzed which competences the social worker (hereafter ‘he’) uses in practice, how these competences are developed, and how the student learns to apply the competences acquired in the educational program.......The purpose of the professional bachelor’s degree is to qualify the students to act competently in a subsequent job situation. Anecdotal experience and research have shown that limited transfer between what is learned during the coursework and the subsequent professional practice. This article...

  20. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2014-07-01

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of scales ELI, SAL, MODIFIED LARSEN, KLOCKHOFF and NIOSH rating for professional hearing loss, Popayán Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Teresa Palacios-Pérez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of five available scales to the qualification of the Tonal Audiometry for the detection of occupationally induced hearing loss. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. The study population was 92 adult workers. Participants underwent the application of the different formats of registration of the results and qualification of the tonal audiometry. Participants received a hearing evaluation by clinical audiometry. Sixty four cases met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the final analysis.Once the tonal audiometry was complete, evaluation of occupationally induced hearing loss was done by using the ELI, salt, modified LARSEN, KLOCKHOFF and NIOSH classification scales. Results were compared to FREQUENCIAL analysis. Results: The LARSEN scale was noted to detect more cases of occupationally induced hearing loss. The LARSEN modified, represented detection in 54.69% of cases for right ear and 56.25% of cases for left ear. On the other hand, noted the direct relationship of hearing loss with regard to the age. No direct correlation to time of noise exposure was found.. Conclusions: The rating scale that presented greater sensitivity was the LARSEN modified. It was represented by 93.1% and a specificity of 100%.

  2. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare?Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare?documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare?identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between th...

  3. Prevalence, incidence rates and persistence of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study: a 15-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C. G.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort of 1501 unselected 8th grade schoolchildren was established 15 years ago with the aim to follow the course of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from school age into adult life. To date no studies have evaluated incidence rates and persistence of contact al...... the most common contact allergen, and new sensitizations occurred despite the European Union nickel regulation. Fragrance mix I was a poor marker for history of eczematous skin reaction to perfumed products....

  4. Regular and negative self-rated health in students from a public university fromNortheastern,Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira de Sousa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-rated health is a major health indicator and has been widely used in epidemiologic surveys. Current study analyzes the factors associated to regular and negative self-rated health in Brazilian college students. Current investigation is a segment of the 2010 MONISA study carried out in a Brazilian public university with 5,461 students. Estimated sample comprised 1,232 university students and results showed self-rated regular and negative health. Multinomial logistic regression estimated Odds Ratio (OR. The factors associated to regular health self-evaluation negative assessment of relationship with professors (OR: 1.85; CI95%: 1.20-2.87; inactivity in leisure (OR: 2.34; CI95%: 1.73-3.16; insufficient consumption of vegetables; almost daily consumption of soft drinks; assessment of intermediate and negative stress (OR: 3.34; CI95%: 2.11-5.28. Students inactive in leisure (OR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.09-5.13, students with self-evaluated negative stress (OR: 10.1; 95%CI: 3.23-31.8 and obese students (OR: 4.52; 95%CI: 1.36-15.0 were associated to the negative health self-assessment. It has been verified that health behavior is rather associated to the regular self-assessment of health, whereas perceptive and biological indicators were more associated to negative health self-assessment.

  5. Impact of using DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing binge eating disorder in bariatric surgery candidates: change in prevalence rate, demographic characteristics, and scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was recently included in the DSM-5. The prevalence rate for BED using the DSM-IV-TR research criteria tends to be higher in bariatric surgery candidates than the normative population; however, no studies have examined how many more bariatric surgery candidates will meet the new, less conservative criteria of DSM-5. We explore the current BED prevalence rate change in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. Data were obtained for 1,283 bariatric surgery candidates. 84 men and 213 women were diagnosed with current BED using DSM-IV-TR research criteria. A semi-structured interview, the binge eating scale (BES), and a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) were given to every patient as part of standard procedures mandated by the facility. An additional 3.43% (p MMPI-2-RF and BES scores when compared with patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Thus, the current investigation indicates that individuals meeting BED criteria based on DSM-5 are similar to those meeting the more conservative diagnostic threshold outlined in DSM-IV-TR in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Cigarette smoking among healthcare professional students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is aknown fact that health professionals can play a critical role in reducing tobacco use. In fact, it has been shown that even brief and simple advice from health care professionals can substantially increase smoking cessation rates. Students in healthcare professions are future healthcare professionals ...

  7. Professional C++

    CERN Document Server

    Gregoire, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Master complex C++ programming with this helpful, in-depth resource From game programming to major commercial software applications, C++ is the language of choice. It is also one of the most difficult programming languages to master. While most competing books are geared toward beginners, Professional C++, Third Edition, shows experienced developers how to master the latest release of C++, explaining little known features with detailed code examples users can plug into their own codes. More advanced language features and programming techniques are presented in this newest edition of the book,

  8. Professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage among patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan: prevalence rate, molecular characterization and de-colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu-Chuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin resistant (MRSA, is a common pathogen among patients receiving hemodialysis. To evaluate nasal carriage, molecular characterization and effectiveness of decolonization of MRSA among patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan, we conducted this study. Methods From January to June 2011, two nasal samplings with a 3-month interval were obtained from patients undergoing hemodialysis in a medical center (CGMH, and in a local hospital (YMH and sent for detection of MRSA. For MRSA carriers, decolonization procedures were administered. All patients in CGMH were observed if MRSA infections occurred during the study period. Results A total of 529 nasal specimens (265 from CGMH and 264 from YMH were collected from 296 patients (161 from CGMH and 135 from YMH. 233 patients participated in both surveys. Average one-time point MRSA carriage rate was 3.8%, and the rate was up to 6.9% for those with two-time point surveys. No additional significant factor for MRSA carriage was identified. Seventy percent of the 20 colonizing MRSA isolates, though categorized as healthcare-associated strains epidemiologically, shared common molecular characteristics of the local community-associated strains. Only one of the 20 MRSA-colonized patients failed decolonization and had persistent colonization, while without any intervention, 17 (61% of 28 patients with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus colonization in the first survey had persistent colonization of a genetically indistinguishable strain. Within the study period, two patients (1.24% in CGMH, one with MRSA colonization (9.1%, developed MRSA infection. Conclusion A substantial proportion of patients receiving hemodialysis in Taiwan had MRSA colonization, mostly genetically community strains. Decolonization procedures may effectively eliminate MRSA colonization and might reduce subsequent MRSA infection in these patients.

  10. Lower extremity osteoarthritis is associated with lower health-related quality of life among retired professional footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J

    2018-03-15

    The objective of the current study was to explore whether retired professional footballers suffering from lower extremity OA have a lower health-related quality of life than those without OA or current professional footballers. An observational study based on a cross-sectional design by means of questionnaires was conducted. Participants were retired and current professional footballers recruited by the World Players' Union (FIFPro). Information about lower extremity OA (clinically diagnosed by a medical professional) was gathered, while health-related quality of life (Global Physical Health and Global Mental Health scores) was assessed through a validated scale. A total of 396 retired and 361 current professional footballers were included in the analyses (response rate of 54%). The group of retired professional footballers was on average 36 years old, and they had competed in professional football for 11 years (retired for 5 years). The group of current professional footballers was on average 25 years old, and they had been active in professional football for 7 years. Within the group of retired professional footballers, prevalence of lower extremity OA was 33%. Both Global Physical Health and Global Mental Health scores among retired professional footballers with lower extremity OA were significantly lower than among retired players without OA and current players, but these scores were nearly similar to the norm for the general population (regardless the presence of OA or not). Health-related quality of life among retired professional footballers with lower extremity OA was significantly lower than among retired players without OA and current players but nearly similar to the norm for the general population (regardless the presence of OA or not). A rational recommendation is that a support measure such as the After Career Consultation should be introduced among retired professional footballers in order to empower their sustainable health and quality of life

  11. Prevalence of mind and body exercises (MBE in relation to demographics, self-rated health, and purchases of prescribed psychotropic drugs and analgesics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rådmark

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify any differences regarding gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES, self-rated health, perceived stress and the purchase of prescribed drugs among people who practice mind and body exercises (MBE extensively compared to people who do not.The study includes 3,913 men and 4,803 women aged 20-72 who participated in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH. The respondents were divided into three groups depending on frequency of MBE practice (never/seldom/often. Measures regarding MBE practice, health behaviors, self-rated health, and illnesses were drawn from the SLOSH questionnaire, while more objective measures of socioeconomic status and education were derived from registry data. In addition, data on purchases of prescription drugs for all respondents were included in the study. These data were obtained from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, which contains information about prescription drugs dispensed at Swedish pharmacies. Separate analyses were performed for mental MBE (mindfulness, meditation, relaxation techniques and physical MBE (yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, respectively.A high intensity MBE practice is cross-sectionally related to poor self-assessed health (sleeping problems, pain, depressive symptoms, mental disorders, high levels of stress, and high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics. These cross-sectional relationships are generally stronger for mental MBE than for bodily-directed MBE. More women than men are practicing MBE on a regular basis, and physically active people participate to a greater extent in MBE compared with the physically inactive.Overall, the study shows that frequent participation in mind and body exercises is associated with high levels of purchases of psychotropic drugs and analgesics as well as with poor self-assessed health and high levels of stress. However, since this is a cross-sectional study, it is impossible to establish cause and effect

  12. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare–Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare–documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare–identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed. PMID:27777329

  13. Professional socialisation: an influence on professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of values, attitudes, skills and knowledge pertaining to a profession. This article reviews the definition and conceptualisation of professional socialisation through anticipatory and formal professional socialisation processes. It describes the core elements of professional ...

  14. Professional Cultures and Rates of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.; Roland, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Preventing and reducing bullying requires long-term and systematic school-wide actions. Researchers on bullying have given little attention to the school organization and its influence on the ability to implement the necessary actions to prevent and stop bullying. This study examines the relationship between aspects of a school's professional…

  15. The prevalence rate of internet addiction among Japanese college students: two cross-sectional studies and reconsideration of cut-off points of Young's internet addiction test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Teo, Alan R; Shiraishi, Masaki; Tayama, Masaya; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-05-30

    Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over two years and investigated the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan, and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of self-rating scale to screen possible IA. This study is composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of two years. The study questionnaire included questions about demographics and internet use, and the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Additionally, the subjects in survey II were asked about self-reported IA. There were 1,005 respondents in total with a mean age of 18.9±1.3. The mean IAT scores remained stable between 2014 and 2016: 45.2±12.6 in survey I and 45.5±13.1 in survey II (overall mean IAT score of 45.4±13.0). With respect to self-reported IA in survey II, a total of 21.6% agreed (score of 5 or 6 on a 6-point Likert scale). We categorized these subjects as IA, and the remainder as non-IA. The mean IAT score showed significant difference between these two groups (57.8±14.3 vs 42.1±10.7, p<0.001). The severity of symptoms of IA among Japanese college students appears stable in recent years, with a mean IAT scores of over 40. Our results suggest that a screening score cut-off of 40 on the IAT could be reconsidered and that of 50 might be proposed for the cut-off. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Muchiutti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

  17. Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Elite Female Endurance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poświata Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in a group of elite female endurance athletes, as professional sport is one of the risk factors for stress urinary incontinence. SUI rates in the groups of female cross-country skiers and runners were compared to determine whether the training weather conditions like temperature and humidity influenced the prevalence of urinary incontinence. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 112 elite female athletes ie., 57 cross-country skiers and 55 runners. We used a short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 to assess the presence of SUI symptoms and the level of urogenital distress. Only women who had been practicing sport professionally for at least 3 years, on an international and national level, were included in the research. The study group consisted of 76% nulliparous and 24% parous women. 45.54% of all participants reported leakage of urine associated with sneezing or coughing which indicates stress urinary incontinence. 29.46% were not bothered by the urogenital distress symptoms. 42.86% of the participants were slightly bothered by the symptoms, 18.75% were moderately bothered, 8.04% were significantly bothered and 0.89% were heavily bothered. The absence of statistically significant differences between both groups seems to indicate that training weather conditions did not influence the prevalence of SUI in elite female endurance athletes.

  18. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  19. Portrait professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Most medical photographers, unless working as dedicated ophthalmic photographers or retinal screeners, will shoot portraits or publicity pictures. Many will spend a proportion of their time producing brochure shots for patient information material or their Trust's Annual Report. High-quality images of staff at work are often required by the strategic planning departments of Trusts to support bids for business from service commissioners. This "non-clinical" work is in reality commercial work - the jobs that high street portrait and general practice photographers would undertake in different settings. Medical photographers use many of the same tools as their commercial cousins. They use the same DSLR cameras and lenses. They use Adobe Photoshop to manipulate images. However, one software tool extensively used by portrait and social photographers, but possibly unfamiliar to many medical photographers, is Portrait Professional. Currently in its 10th version, it is produced by Anthropics Technology ( http://www.anthropics.com ), a London-based company specialising in image manipulation software.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Soil Contamination Rate, Prevalence, Intensity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-01

    Nov 1, 2017 ... permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any ... flotation method while stool specimens were analyzed using two techniques. ... of sanitary facilities, unsafe waste disposal system, ... toilet and human factors including age, sex, socio- economic ... work was done at the Research Unit of the.

  1. Suicidality among Hong Kong nurses: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Lee, Paul H; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-04-01

    The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of suicidality among professional nurses in Hong Kong. Suicide rates among middle-aged employed groups have been increasing over the past few decades. There is a concern that medical occupational groups worldwide are at elevated risk of suicide. Nonetheless there are few population-based studies of suicide dealing with working-age Asian nurses. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected in Hong Kong over 4 weeks from October-November 2013. Statistical methods including descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate cumulative logit modelling were used to examine the weighted prevalence rates of past-year suicidality and its associated factors in nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study; 14·9% of participants had contemplated suicide while 2·9% had attempted suicide once or more in the past year. Women report suicidal thoughts or attempts more often than men. Religion, poor health, deliberate self-harm, depressive symptoms and poor self-perceived physical and mental health were significantly associated with nurses' suicidality. Nurse professionals are not immune from mental health issues. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of suicide prevention initiatives to promote mental wellness in the profession. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  3. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Associated With Job Contentment in Dental Professionals: Indian Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Kumar Rajendra; Karim, Bushra; Kanwar, Alpana; Jain, Ankita; Yadav, Ankit; Saini, Priya; Arya, Satya; Sachdeva, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Background High prevalence rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) among dentists have been reported. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies can be helpful in managing and preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine if dental professionals are using CAM for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Who have greater job satisfaction: dentist who uses Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) or conventional ther...

  4. Competence and Professional Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.T.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical controversies exist about the understanding and potentials of the concepts of competence and professional expertise. In this chapter, both concepts will be thoroughly conceptualised and discussed. Competence and professional expertise are important as all professionals need

  5. Competence and Professional Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical controversies exist about the understanding and potentials of the concepts competence and professional expertise. In this chapter, both concepts will be thoroughly conceptualised and discussed. Competence and professional expertise are important as all professionals need to

  6. Factors associated with unwillingness to seek professional help for depression: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Taniguchi, Toshiatsu; Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Ishiguro, Shin; Matsumura, Hiromichi

    2017-12-04

    Depression is a prevalent disorder that has a substantial impact on not only individuals but also society as a whole. Despite many effective depression interventions, delay in initial treatment contact is problematic. The Internet is a possible tool for low-cost dissemination of appropriate information and awareness raising about depressive disorders among the general public. This study aimed to identify factors associated with unwillingness to seek professional help for depression in Internet users. This web-based cross-sectional study surveyed 595 participants who scored over the cutoff point for depression on a self-rated mental-health questionnaire for depression, had never been assessed or treated by a mental health professional, and were experiencing depressive symptoms for at least 6 months. Among the 595 participants, 329 (55.3%) reported they were unwilling to seek professional help for depression. Regression analysis indicated that unwillingness to seek professional help for depression was associated with male sex and financial issues as a depression trigger, and that willingness to seek professional help was associated with problems with interpersonal relationships. The Internet warrants further complementary investigation to elucidate factors associated with unwillingness to seek professional help for depression.

  7. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    period 1987 - 1989. Prevalence rates were low to moderate with an overaJl prevalence of 42%. These ranged from approximately 10% in the low-prevalence ... PH. DC. C. C. Appieton. PI-lD. Department of Zoology, University of Tr

  8. Networked professional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2013). Networked professional learning. In A. Littlejohn, & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced Professional Learning: Processes, Practices and Tools (pp. 97–108). London: Routledge.

  9. From Burnout to Wellness: A Professional Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Johns, Michael M

    2018-03-01

    Professional burnout is a barrier to physician wellness. Burnout is prevalent across medicine, and otolaryngology as a specialty ranks near the mean. We review burnout levels in various subgroups of otolaryngology, including academic chairs, faculty, and residents. Risk factors of burnout are discussed, which differ by subgroup. Finally, we propose measures that could help minimize burnout and promote healthy and satisfying careers.

  10. Prevalance rate of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Results of a questionnaire survey of member facilities of Japan society of ningen dock with special concerns regarding the actual status and disincentives for implementing such screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a survey of member facilities of the Japan Society of Ningen Dock to elucidate the actual status of chest computed tomography (CT) screening and the reasons for not being able to change to low-dose CT. We sent a questionnaire consisting of 9 items to 531 member facilities in July 2010, response by facsimile to obtain an analysis. The prevalence rate of low-dose CT lung cancer screening slightly increased to 35% in comparison with the former survey done in November 2008. Some facilities indicated some shift in tube current to a lower range even though this was insufficient to meet the definition of low-dose CT. This reflects their thinking of ''Even with knowledge, there is strong hesitation to change to low-dose CT''. Among the reasons why they did not change to low-dose CT, a priority for high quality images was the top reason among problems of devices and performance. Informed consent was not yet adequate. It is necessary for manufactures to develop better technology to improve the image quality of low-dose CT and to report enough information to clinicians. On the medical side, perception of the necessity for appropriate reduction of radiation dose and the decision to move to low-dose CT would be of crucial significance for facility heads as well as radiologists and technicians. (author)

  11. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. Results A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Conclusion Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Clinical Relevance Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet. PMID:26665100

  12. Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: prevalence, correlates and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses recent findings from epidemiological surveys of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) globally, including their prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in the community. Recent findings A number of studies on the epidemiology of PTSD have recently been published from diverse countries, with new methodological innovations introduced. Such work has not only documented the prevalence of PTSD in different settings, but has also shed new light on the PTSD conditional risk associated with specific traumatic events, and on the morbidity and comorbidities associated with these events. Summary Recent community studies show that trauma exposure is higher in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries. PTSD prevalence rates are largely similar across countries, however, with the highest rates being found in postconflict settings. Trauma and PTSD-risk factors are distributed differently in lower-income countries compared with high-income countries, with sociodemographic factors contributing more to this risk in high-income than low-income countries. Apart from PTSD, trauma exposure is also associated with several chronic physical conditions. These findings indicate a high burden of trauma exposure in low-income countries and postconflict settings, where access to trained mental health professionals is typically low. PMID:26001922

  13. Online professionalism: A synthetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G

    2015-04-01

    The rise of social media has increased connectivity and blurred personal and professional boundaries, bringing new challenges for medical professionalism. Whether traditional professionalism principles apply to the online social media space remains unknown. The purpose of this synthetic literature review was to characterize the original peer-reviewed research studies published between 1 January 2000-1 November 2014 on online professionalism, to assess methodologies and approaches used, and to provide insights to guide future studies in this area. The investigators searched three databases and performed manual searches of bibliographies to identify the 32 studies included. Most studies originated in the USA. Cross-sectional surveys and analyses of publicly available online content were the most common methodologies employed. Studies covered the general areas of use and privacy, assessment of unprofessional online behaviours, consensus-gathering of what constitutes unprofessional or inappropriate online behaviours, and education and policies. Studies were of variable quality; only around half of survey studies had response rates of 50% or greater. Medical trainees were the most common population studied. Future directions for research include public perspectives of online professionalism, impact on patient trust, and how to use social media productively as medical professionals.

  14. Prevalencia del síndrome de desgaste profesional (burnout en odontólogos mexicanos del sector educativo y privado Prevalence of the syndrome of professional exhaustion (burnout in mexican dentists of the education sector and private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castañeda Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    ón en los niveles individual, social u organizacional para reducir la prevalencia encontrada.Objective: To determine the prevalence of burnout (burnout in dental education and private sector. Material and methods: Methods: Observational, descriptive and cross through the dental staff census metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico at the University of Guadalajara and those in private practice, attended by 135 of the mapplying to the maform of identification and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey in a self-administered. Descriptive statistics and inferential analyzes were performed using SPSS15.0 support and Epi-infoV6.1. Results: We achieved 90.0 % response. Was detected a frequency of burnout (burnout in 50.3 % of them. There were significant differences in function to be under 40 years of age. Negative correlation was observed between emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales and positive relationship between lacks of personal accomplishment at work. Conclusions: The syndrome of burnout (burnout is frequent (50.3 % for dentists, the main risk factors: work in private practice, being female, under 40 years old without regular partner and with more than 15 years with partner, partner not working, no children, be a specialist, with less than 10 years of work and the current job more than 10 years work in the morning shift, permanent recruitment and have other work. Involvement of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization behaves like syndrome. The average levels of the subscales are generally near normal.We found a negative correlation between emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales and positive relationship between lacks of personal fulfillment in working with the presence of the syndrome. It is necessary to establish preventive or intervention at the individual, social or organizational to reduce the prevalence found.

  15. Parents' concerns about children are highly prevalent but often not confirmed by child doctors and nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiefferink Carin H

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence in the general population of parents' concerns about the development of their child, to identify groups at risk and to assess the association between parents' concerns and professional judgement. Methods We obtained cross-sectional data on a Dutch nationally representative sample of children aged 14 months, 3 3/4, 5–6 and 8–12 years within the setting of routine well-child visits provided to the entire population. A total of 4,107 participated (response rate 85.3%. Data were about concerns that parents reported by questionnaire before the visit regarding behavioural and emotional problems, developmental delay, consequences of disease and contact with peers that needed professional assistance, and about the assessment of these domains by doctors and nurses during the visit. Moreover, we obtained data on parent-reported psychosocial problems using the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Of all parents, 49.3% reported some concerns and 8.7% reported frequent concerns, most frequently on child behaviour. Frequent concerns were most likely to refer to young children, children from labour immigrant families, with fathers of medium educational level and in low-income families. The prevalence rates of professional-assessed parenting problems were much lower than parent-reported ones. The rates of psychosocial problems were highest in the case of shared concerns, but also higher if parents expressed concerns that were not confirmed by professionals. Conclusion A very large proportion of parents of young children have concerns regarding their child, but agreement on these concerns with child health professionals is relatively low.

  16. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying What Student Affairs Professionals Value: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Professional Competencies Listed in Job Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John L.; Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study explored the professional competencies that administrators expect from entry-, mid-, and senior-level professionals as reflected in 1,759 job openings posted in 2008. Knowledge, skill, and dispositional competencies were identified during the qualitative phase of the study. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of…

  18. Professional burnout syndrome among correctional facility officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harizanova, Stanislava N; Tarnovska, Tanya H

    2013-01-01

    Correctional facilities present unique work places--the employees there work in tough, demanding and hazardous working conditions, in real life-threatening environment, subjected to physical and mental fatigue, risk of infectious diseases, work in shifts, with inadequate pay, etc. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence and level of burnout syndrome among employees working in the District Prison of the town of Plovdiv. The study included all employees that had direct contact with the inmates in the prison. We recruited 106 employees that participated in the study anonymously and voluntarily. The main instrument we used was the questionnaire designed according to the methods developed by V. Boiko, which allows identification of professional burnout syndrome in its three phases with four symptoms in each of the phases. We found a high prevalence of burnout syndrome among the staff in the District Prison in Plovdiv (74.53%). All three phases of burnout were found to have a high prevalence rate--the stress phase: 48.11%, the resistance phase: 66.98%, the exhaustion phase: 41.51%. The rank in the service hierarchy was found to be a predictor in the stress phase, B = 0.701, p = 0.048, Exp(B) = 2.106, 95%CI [1.00; 4.04]. The single officers (83.33% of the divorced and 55.56% of the single employees) and those of the staff that were more highly educated (78.72%) had elevated levels of burnout syndrome, and these manifested during the first 5 years of their service in the prison (77.78%). In Bulgaria at present the burnout syndrome has not been studied among employees working in correctional facilities. We found a high prevalence of the syndrome among the employees of the District Prison - Plovdiv. The younger, the single and the more educated employees had greater levels of burnout syndrome, which manifest during the first 5 years of their service. The results suggest that there is a need to develop and implement effective strategies to reduce and prevent

  19. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-02-14

    Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV) among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%), then physical assault (22.7%) and sexual harassment (1.1%). The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6%) and their relatives (17.5%), followed by colleagues (7.7%) and supervisors (6.3%). Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH) and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong's local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  20. Workplace violence towards nurses in Hong Kong: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teris Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are especially vulnerable to violent and other forms of aggression in the workplace. Nonetheless, few population-based studies of workplace violence have been undertaken among working-age nurse professionals in Hong Kong in the last decade. Methods The study estimates the prevalence and examines the socio-economic and psychological correlates of workplace violence (WPV among professional nurses in Hong Kong. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Multivariate logistic regression examines the weighted prevalence rates of WPV and its associated factors for a population of nurses. Results A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. 44.6% had experienced WPV in the preceding year. Male nurses reported more WPV than their female counterparts. The most common forms of WPV were verbal abuse/bullying (39.2%, then physical assault (22.7% and sexual harassment (1.1%. The most common perpetrators of WPV were patients (36.6% and their relatives (17.5%, followed by colleagues (7.7% and supervisors (6.3%. Clinical position, shift work, job satisfaction, recent disturbances with colleagues, deliberate self-harm (DSH and symptoms of anxiety were significantly correlated with WPV for nurses. Conclusions WPV remains a significant concern for healthcare worldwide. Hong Kong’s local health authority should put in place a raft of zero-tolerance measures to prevent WPV in healthcare settings.

  1. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  2. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  3. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would ...

  4. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  5. Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareerat Rakwichitkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teacher professional development are the teachers’ learning process throughout their career stages to ensure that teachers have knowledge, skills and needed competencies for teaching among rapid changes in social, economic and technology which have the impact on learning and teaching. This article deals with the topics of the framework for teaching, teacher career stages and teacher professional development. The research findings related to teacher professional development, teacher professional development activities, suggestions for planning the professional development. Those research findings can be applied and implemented by the school principals, educational supervisors and other professional developers.

  6. The prevalence of encopresis in a multicultural population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M. F.; Benninga, M. A.; Hirasing, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies on the prevalence of encopresis in children are scarce and generally outdated. Prevalence estimates based on clinical studies are unreliable because parents tend to be reticent to seek medical help for this problem. Professional help is necessary, however,

  7. The Prevalence of Encopresis in a Multicultural Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, M.F.; Benninga, M.A.; Hira Sing, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Population-based studies on the prevalence of encopresis in children are scarce and generally outdated. Prevalence estimates based on clinical studies are unreliable because parents tend to be reticent to seek medical help for this problem. Professional help is necessary, however,

  8. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  9. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Mar 8,2018 After a cardiac event ... shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get ...

  10. Professional performance in school

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performan...

  11. Professional negligence reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    DeVries, Ubaldus R M Th

    1996-01-01

    This thesis examines the concept of professional negligence. In doing so, it aims to find the distinguishing factors that characterize professional negligence as against other types of negligence. It seeks to emphasize the functions, duties and activities of professional people, rather than any examination of their status. The thesis demonstrates that this concept is based on a "broadspectrum" duty of care with specific obligations, particular to professional conduct. ...

  12. Cosmetic Professionals' Awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Theo K; Mulkens, Sandra; van der Lei, Berend

    2017-02-01

    Preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw is the main feature of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of these patients seek and often receive some sort of cosmetic procedure, although this condition is considered to be a contraindication. This study evaluates cosmetic professionals' recognition of body dysmorphic disorder and the way they act on this. Members of Dutch professional associations for aesthetic plastic surgery, dermatology, and cosmetic medicine received an online survey by means of their association's digital mailing lists; the survey was completed by 173 respondents. Most participants indicated being more or less familiar with the diagnostic criteria and clinical picture of body dysmorphic disorder. Approximately two-thirds of the participants reported that they had encountered between one and five of these patients in their practice over the past year, a percentage that is significantly lower than the estimated prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of professionals sometimes or often address body image problems during consultation, most of them collaborate with psychologists or psychiatrists when encountering a patient with body dysmorphic disorder, and approximately 70 percent had refused to perform a procedure in such a patient. Our results converge with those of previous studies, showing that most cosmetic professionals have some degree of awareness of body dysmorphic disorder, although the number they report encountering in clinical practice departs from prevalence figures. When a patient is identified as having body dysmorphic disorder, the professionals use this knowledge to guide their decision to perform a cosmetic procedure.

  13. Professional Development. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…

  14. Professional Socialization in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Geraldine E.

    Professional socialization is the process by which individuals acquire the specialized knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and interests needed to perform their professional roles acceptably. The following interacting domains of potential professional self-growth can be defined as outcomes of the socialization process: self-image, role…

  15. How Professionals Share an E-Care Plan for the Elderly in Primary Care: Evaluating the Use of an E-Communication Tool by Different Combinations of Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Catharina C; Ros, Wynand Jg; van Leeuwen, Mia; Schrijvers, Guus

    2016-11-24

    Home-dwelling elderly patients with multimorbidity are at risk of fragmentation of care because of the many different professionals involved and a potentially unclear level of communication. Multidisciplinary communication seems to occur incidentally. Mutual feedback is needed for a professional team to provide consistent care and adequate support to the patient system. eHealth technology can improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a tool, Congredi, for electronic communication by professionals for the care of home-dwelling elderly patients. The research group was recruited through general practices and home care organizations. Congredi, a tool designed for multidisciplinary communication, was made available for professionals in primary care. It consists of a care plan and a communication channel (secure emailing). Professionals opened Congredi records for elderly patients who had 2 or more professionals involved. The records were the unit of analysis. Data were gathered from the Congredi system over a period of 42 weeks. An inclusion rate of 21.4% (203/950) was achieved; nearly half of the participants were nurses. During the study, professionals were active in 448 patient records; female professionals were prevalent. In the patient records, 3 types of actions (care activities, emailing, and process activities) were registered. Most activities occurred in the multidisciplinary records (mean 12.2), which had twice the number of activities of monodisciplinary records (6.35), and solo records had a mean of 3.43 activities. Most activities were care activities (mean 9.14), emailing had a mean of 0.89 activities, and process activities had a mean of 0.29. An e-communication tool (Congredi) was usable for improving multidisciplinary communication among professionals. It even seemed to yield results for 40% of the professionals who used the e-care plan on their own. The content of the tool provided an active communication practice, with

  16. Medium-to-high prevalence of screening-detected parkinsonism in the urban area of Tehran, Iran: data from a community-based door-to-door study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Shafieesabet, Mahdiyeh; Rahmani, Arash; Delbari, Ahmad; Lökk, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinsonism occurs in all ethnic groups worldwide; however, there are wide variations in the prevalence rates reported from different countries, even for neighboring regions. The huge socioeconomic burden of parkinsonism necessitates the need for prevalence studies in each country. So far, there is neither data registry nor prevalence information on parkinsonism in the Iranian population. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence rate of probable parkinsonism in a huge urban area in Iran, Tehran using a community-based door-to-door survey. We used a random multistage sampling of the households within the network of health centers consisting of 374 subunits in all 22 districts throughout the entire urban area of Tehran. Overall, 20,621 individuals answered the baseline checklist and screening questionnaire and data from 19,500 persons aged ≥30 years were entered in the final analysis. Health care professionals used a new six-item screening questionnaire for parkinsonism, which has been previously shown to have a high validity and diagnostic value in the same population. A total of 157 cases were screened for parkinsonism using the validated six-item questionnaire. After age and sex adjustment based on the Tehran population, the prevalence of parkinsonism was calculated as 222.9 per 100,000. Using the World Health Organization's World Standard Population, the standardized prevalence rate of parkinsonism was 285 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 240-329). The male:female ratio of probable parkinsonism was calculated as 1.62, and there was a significant increase in the screening rate by advancing age. The calculated rates for the prevalence of parkinsonism in our study are closer to reports from some European and Middle Eastern countries, higher than reports from Eastern Asian and African populations, and lower than Australia. The prevalence rate of >200 in 100,000 for parkinsonism in Tehran, Iran could be considered a medium-to-high rate.

  17. Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use in Chinese hospitals in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Nan; Zhou, Pengcheng; Wen, Ximao; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Xun; Guo, Yanhong; Meng, Li; Gong, Ruie; Feng, Li; Fu, Chenchao; Wu, Anhua

    2016-03-01

    In China, several measures have been adopted to decrease unnecessary antimicrobial overuse since 2010. This study aimed to identify characteristics of antimicrobial use in Chinese hospitals after implementing these measures and to explore additional targets for future antimicrobial stewardship. In 2012, point prevalence surveys conducted in Chinese hospitals included inpatients who were admitted for at least 24 hours. Details regarding infection, antimicrobial use, and bacterial cultures were recorded. A survey of 786,028 inpatients in 1,313 hospitals included prevalence of health care-associated (3.22%) and community-acquired infections (22.52%); antimicrobial use prevalence (AUP, 38.39%); bacterial culture rate (BCR, 40.16%); and proportions of administration of a single antimicrobial (75.33%), therapeutic (23.16%), prophylactic (11.99%), and therapeutic plus prophylactic (3.24%) AUP rates. Prophylactic AUP rates of hospitals with AUP rates for surgical patients with classes I, II, and III wounds were 45.19%, 68.18%, and 68.47%, respectively. Prophylactic AUP rates for surgical patients decreased with increasing hospital bed numbers. These indices varied among different hospital departments. More efforts are needed toward small hospitals, prophylactic antimicrobial use for surgical patients, and departments with low BCRs to optimize the clinical antimicrobial use. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of occupational accidents with biological material among professionals in pre-hospital services

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Adriana Cristina de; Paiva,Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of accidents due to biological material exposure, the characteristics and post-accident conduct among professionals of pre-hospital services of the four municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHOD: A cross-sectional study, using a structured questionnaire that was developed to enable the calculation of prevalence, descriptive analysis and analytical analysis using logistic regression. The study included 228 professionals; the prevalence of accidents du...

  19. Health behaviour advice from health professionals to Canadian adults with hypertension: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin L; Gee, Marianne E; Bancej, Christina; Nolan, Robert P; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Joffres, Michel; Bienek, Asako; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals play an important role in providing health information to patients. The objectives of this study were to examine the type of advice that Canadians with hypertension recall receiving from health professionals to manage their condition, and to assess if there is an association between health behaviour advice provided by health professionals and self-reported engagement in health behaviour modification. Respondents of the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada (N = 6142) were asked about sociodemographic characteristics, health care utilization, and health behaviour modification to control hypertension. Association between receipt of advice from health professional and ever engaging, continuing to engage, and not engaging in health behaviour modification was quantified by prevalence rate ratios. Most participants (90.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.6-92.2) reported that the health professional most responsible for treating their high blood pressure was their general practitioner. Approximately 9% reported that they had not received or do not recall receiving any advice for blood pressure control. The most commonly reported advice received from a health professional was to participate in physical activity or exercise (70.0%). Respondents who had received advice on health behaviour change to manage their high blood pressure were more likely to report engaging in the behaviour compared with those who did not receive such advice. Many Canadians with hypertension receive health behaviour change advice from their health professionals. Receiving this advice was associated with a greater likelihood of attempting health behaviour change and attempting to sustain that change. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Indicadores básicos de saúde infantil em área urbana no extremo sul do Brasil: estimando prevalências e avaliando diferenciais Basic indicators of child health in an urban area in southern Brazil: estimating prevalence rates and evaluating differentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2006-12-01

    -sectional population studies were carried out in the city. Interviewers were previously trained and applied standardized questionnaires during visits to families with children under 5 years old. The following variables were investigated: family income, maternal education, type of construction of home (wooden/masonry etc., availability of toilet, running water, sewage system and domestic appliances. Data collected on the children themselves included number of antenatal consultations and age at first antenatal, type of delivery and medical care received during delivery, breastfeeding and dietary patterns, morbidity and health services utilization. Children were weighed and measured for height/length. Comparisons of frequencies between the two datasets were made using the chi-square test. RESULTS: In 1995, 395 children were studied and in 2004 there were 384. During the intervening period improvements had taken place in type of construction, number of homes with flush toilet, the availability of running water and in breastfeeding pattern and duration. The frequency of diarrhea reduced, while rates of basic vaccination coverage, growth monitoring, patients in possession of their own medical cards and reporting of birth weights all increased. There was a deterioration in families' purchasing power and in the mean number of antenatal consultations. The prevalence of childhood obesity increased by 92%, while the incidence of malnutrition remained practically unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing health indicators from the two periods revealed that, in addition to improvements in the majority of the indicators assessed, there had been a substantial increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity.

  1. Professional use of social media by pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arden R; Pearson, Glen J

    2015-01-01

    A recent trend among health care professionals is the use of social media for professional purposes. These rapidly expanding media allow for timely and efficient access to health information, but they also carry the potential for increased liability. There is a paucity of research detailing how health care professionals, specifically pharmacists, use social media. To characterize the use of social media by pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta and to identify independent determinants of and perceived barriers to using social media for professional purposes. Data for this mixed-methods study were collected by an online survey in March and April 2014. Alberta pharmacists were invited to participate via e-mail distributed by 2 professional organizations. The survey had 273 respondents. Of these, 226 (82.8%) stated that they had a social media account for either personal or professional purposes, and 138 (61.1%) of these reported using social media for professional purposes, although most respondents used social media predominantly for personal reasons. The most commonly reported social media applications were Facebook and Twitter, accessed primarily via smartphones. Of the 273 respondents, 206 (75.5%) had a Facebook account, and 101 (49.0%) of these used Facebook to some extent for professional purposes. Twitter users (104 [38.1%] of respondents) had a higher rate of professional utilization (57/104 [54.8%]). The most commonly identified barrier to using social media for professional purposes was concern over liability. Positive predictors of use of social media for professional purposes included younger age and fewer years of professional experience. Participants perceived the most beneficial aspect of social media (in professional terms) as connecting with pharmacist colleagues. More than 80% of pharmacists in Alberta reported that they had a social media account, and over half of them reported using their accounts for professional purposes. Although

  2. Analysis of Injury Incidences in Male Professional Adult and Elite Youth Soccer Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.

  3. Type and severity of pain during phonation in professional voice users and nonvocal professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lierde, Kristiane M; Dijckmans, Joke; Scheffel, Lara; Behlau, Mara

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence, frequency, and intensity of pain during speaking in professional voice users and nonvocal professionals and to determine if the presence of pain is significantly related with the profile of the professional voice user. Based on the available literature, significantly more pain symptoms in professional voice users can be hypothesized. Sample survey. To characterize the presence, type, and degree of pain symptoms during speaking, a questionnaire was used. Pain severity was measured by means of a numerical rating scale. Fifty-five (176/320) percent of the nonvocal professionals and 84% (698/832) of the professional voice users mentioned the presence of one or more pain symptoms during speaking. Throat pain was mentioned as the most common pain in both the professional and nonvocal professional voice users. The professional voice users showed significantly more throat, neck, shoulder, headache, ear, and back pain. Moreover, the intensity of throat pain was significantly increased in the professional voice users. This study showed evidence that several types of pain are present with significantly greater frequency in professional voice users. Vocal screening strategies, diagnostic, and treatment protocols should include the assessment of the type and severity of pain. Currently, the voice clinic is working on improving the diagnostic protocol with the objective of defining the combination of tests, which best diagnose voice problems and related complaints and which evaluate progress in vocal characteristics and pain after rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Professional performance in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.

  5. The prevalence of resilience in a group of professional nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena P. Koen

    2011-11-01

    Opsomming Die literatuur en praktyk dui daarop dat baie professionele verpleegkundiges emosioneel uitgeput is, werksontevredenheid ervaar en dikwels die beroep verlaat. Paradoksaal kies sommige verpleegkundiges om in die beroep te bly, en floreer selfs ten spyte van hul unieke en moeilike werksomstandighede. Dit is egter nie bekend wat die voorkoms van veerkragtigheid in verpleegkundiges is nie, of wat die invloed van werk in privaat versus die openbare omgewing op veerkragtigheid is nie. Die doelwitte van die studie was om die voorkoms van veerkragtigheid in ‘n groep professionele verpleegkundiges te bepaal, om die rol van privaat versus openbare omgewings in veerkragtigheid te bepaal, en om ‘n aanduiding van deelnemers se siening oor hul professie en veerkragtigheid daarin, te bekom. ‘n Dwarsdeursnit ontwerp was gebruik waarin professionele verpleegkundiges (N = 312 werksaam in openbare of privaat hospitale in Suid-Afrika vrywillig vraelyste oor psigososiale welstand as aanduiders van die vlak van veerkragtigheid, voltooi het. Hulle het ook drie oop-einde vrae oor hul beroep beantwoord. Bevindinge het op matige tot hoë korrelasies tussen skale gewys wat dui op konseptuele koherensie tussen die indikatore van veerkragtigheid. Veerkragtigheid is bereken deur normalisering van die gemiddelde tellings vir die meetinstrumente van al die skale. Die totale waarde van genormaliseerde gemiddeldes was as ‘n fraksie (0−1 uitgedruk. Drie vlakke van veerkragtigheid het gemanifesteer, 10% van die deelnemers het met lae veerkragtigheid gemanifesteer, 47% met matige veerkragtigheid en 43% met hoё veerkragtigheid. Verpleegkundiges in privaat gesondheidsorg het beduidende (klein praktiese waarde hoёr vlakke van veerkragtigheid getoon as verpleegkundiges in openbare gesondheidsorg.

  6. Prevalence Of Dyslipidaemia In Apparently Healthy Professionals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Triglycerides were determined using standard cholesterol LDLprecipitating reagents/kits. Themean age of the subjectswas 41.5 9 8.22 years (range 29 to 58 years) withmale to female ratio of 1:1.2. Mean total cholesterol was 180.69 36.248 mg/dl (4.67 0.94 mmol/L), ...

  7. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Joshua; Gatewood, Medley O; Ilgen, Jonathan S; Schaninger, Caitlin; Strote, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM) trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees' perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine's "Project Professionalism" and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88%) completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the "respect for others" and "honor and integrity" valued significantly higher (p<0.001). Significant differences were found between interns and seniors for five attributes primarily in the "duty and service" domain (p<0.05). Among different residencies, significant differences were found with attributes within the "altruism" and "duty and service" domains (p<0.05). Residents perceive differences in the relative importance of traditionally defined professional attributes and this may

  8. Drivers of professional mobility in the Northern Territory: dental professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D J; Garnett, S T; Barnes, T; Stevens, M

    2007-01-01

    Attracting and retaining an efficient allied health workforce is a challenge faced by communities in Australia and overseas. High rates of staff turnover in the professional workforce diverts resources away from core business and results in the loss of valuable skills and knowledge. Understanding what attracts professionals to a particular place, and why they leave, is important for developing effective strategies to manage turnover and maximise workforce productivity. The Northern Territory (NT) faces particular workforce challenges, in part because of its geographic location and unusual demography. Do these factors require the development of a tailored approach to recruitment and retention? This article reports on a study undertaken to examine the motivations for coming to, staying in and leaving the NT for dental professionals, and the implications of results on workforce management practices. In 2006, dentists, dental specialists, dental therapists and dental hygienists who were working or had worked in the NT, Australia, in the recent past were surveyed to collect demographic and workforce data and to establish the relative importance of social and work-related factors influencing their migration decisions. Multivariate logistic regression models were generated to describe the demographic characteristics of dental professionals who stayed in the NT for more than 5 years and to analyse why dental professionals left. The analyses, based on a 42% response rate, explained 60-80% of the variation in responses. Generally dental professionals who had stayed for more than 5 years were older, had invested in the purchase of homes and were more involved in social and cultural activities. Those who moved to the NT as a result of financial incentives or who had strong expectations that working in the NT would be an exciting, novel experience tended to stay for no more than 5 years, often leaving because they found the work environment too stressful. In contrast, those who

  9. Chronic daily headache with analgesics overuse in professional women breath-hold divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jay Chol; Lee, Jung Seok; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Kang, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Jong-Myon

    2008-07-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of headache in Korean professional women breath-hold divers, including their overuse of analgesics. Headache is a common problem encountered in clinical practice, and undersea divers exhibit unique causes of headache in addition to other common primary headaches. Many scuba divers are known to use various types of drugs to overcome dive-related symptoms or to enhance their underwater performance. The target population of this study was women divers in the northern district of Jeju Island who were registered in the divers' union. Data were collected using telephone interviews with a structured questionnaire. Headache was diagnosed and classified according to criteria of the International Headache Society. Nine hundred and eleven (80.3%) divers responded to the telephone interview. The prevalence rates of headache were 21.4% for tension-type headache and 9.1% for migraine. One hundred and four divers (11.4%) fulfilled the criteria for chronic daily headache (CDH). Overuse of combination analgesics was reported by 70.7% of divers. Women divers with CDH were significantly older and they complained more of tinnitus and dizziness, and had a greater history of hypertension than divers without headache. The prevalence of CDH is high in Korean professional women breath-hold divers, with many of them being combination-analgesics overusers.

  10. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.

  11. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  12. [Nursing staff absenteeism rates as a personnel management indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancinetti, Tânia Regina; Soares, Alda Valéria Neves; Lima, Antonio Fernandes Costa; Santos, Nanci Cristiano; Melleiro, Marta Maria; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone

    2011-08-01

    Absenteeism in nursing is a difficult problem for health organizations; hence it is an indicator that must be monitored. The objective of this study was to analyze the absenteeism rate of nursing professionals in a public hospital. Absenteeism data were collected monthly, from January to July 2008, and calculated by means of an electronic program. The mean absenteeism index for nurses varied from 5.6% to 9.7% for technicians/nursing aides. Sick leaves were the most prevalent reason for absences. The data revealed the major cause of absenteeism and pointed at the need to change policies for hiring nursing professionals, in addition to reviewing the working processes in order to improve the workers' health conditions.

  13. Studies on the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Practices Toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Teenagers (10-19yrs) had the highest malaria prevalence rate and were followed by ... Keywords: Cluster sampling, Malaria, Prevalence, Knowledge, Practices, ... annual rainfall and humidity were relatively .... Alcohol/ Don't.

  14. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  15. Dutch diabetes prevalence estimates (DUDE-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, Nanne; Landman, Gijsw. D.; Van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.; Meulepas, Marianne; Romeijnders, Arnold; Rutten, Guy E. H.; Klomp, Maarten; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent decades have seen a constant upward projection in the prevalence of diabetes. Attempts to estimate diabetes prevalence rates based on relatively small population samples quite often result in underestimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Dutch

  16. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  17. Physician-Rating Web Sites: Ethical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samora, Julie Balch; Lifchez, Scott D; Blazar, Philip E

    2016-01-01

    To understand the ethical and professional implications of physician behavior changes secondary to online physician-rating Web sites (PRWs). The American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) Ethics and Professionalism Committee surveyed the ASSH membership regarding PRWs. We sent a 14-item questionnaire to 2,664 active ASSH members who practice in both private and academic settings in the United States. We received 312 responses, a 12% response incidence. More than 65% of the respondents had a slightly or highly unfavorable impression of these Web sites. Only 34% of respondents had ever updated or created a profile for PRWs, although 62% had observed inaccuracies in their profile. Almost 90% of respondents had not made any changes in their practice owing to comments or reviews. One-third of respondents had solicited favorable reviews from patients, and 3% of respondents have paid to improve their ratings. PRWs are going to become more prevalent, and more research is needed to fully understand the implications. There are several ethical implications that PRWs pose to practicing physicians. We contend that it is morally unsound to pay for good reviews. The recourse for physicians when an inaccurate and potentially libelous review has been written is unclear. Some physicians have required patients to sign a waiver preventing them from posting negative comments online. We propose the development of a task force to assess the professional, ethical, and legal implications of PRWs, including working with companies to improve accuracy of information, oversight, and feedback opportunities. It is expected that PRWs will play an increasing role in the future; it is unclear whether there will be a uniform reporting system, or whether these online ratings will influence referral patterns and/or quality improvement. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Professionalism in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of an individual in the nuclear training environment to his colleagues, trainees, and his own personal growth should be determined by his desire to be a professional. This paper discusses professionalism as an on-going process. That is, professionalism is not an entity that a person can acquire; rather it is a complicated superposition of many facets of an individual's attempt to work for solutions to problems, not problems with solutions

  19. AORN sales professional course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R; Thompson, J

    1996-04-01

    The sales professional course "Introduction to the Operating Room" offered by the AORN Center for Nursing Practice, Health Policy, and Research is an introductory program in OR etiquette. Its purpose is to provide sales professionals a working knowledge of OR protocol for them to function appropriately in OR settings. Sales professionals who have completed this course establish mutually beneficial perioperative partnerships with OR personnel. Sales professionals' effectiveness is strengthened as a result of their newly acquired knowledge of OR protocol, and patient safety is protected. An AORN Certificate of Recognition is awarded on completion of the course.

  20. Professionalism: rise and fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, M S

    1979-01-01

    Historically, the early professionalization movements in medicine and the law appear as organizational projects which aspire to monopolize income and opportunities in markets of services or labor and to monopolize status and work privileges in occupational hierarchies. Their central task is to standardize training and link it to actual or potential markets of labor or services, a linkage that is structurally effected in the modern university. The second wave of professionalization has different protagonists than the older "market professions": placed in a different structural situation, the bureaucratic professions transform the model of profession (which they adopt as a strategy of collective ascension) into an ideology. The import of the ideology of professionalism is examined in relation to two issues: the relationships between professional occupations and bureaucratic organizations; and the position of professional occupations within the larger structure of inequality. Analysis of the first point requires consideration of the distinctions between professional occupations in the public and private sectors, the use of professional knowledge and the image of profession in bureaucratic organizations, and the specific characteristics of professions that produce their own knowledge. In the discussion of the second point, professional occupations and their ideology are examined in relation to other occupations and to the possibilities of political awareness generated by uncertain professional statuses.

  1. INJURIES IN PROFESSIONAL DANCERS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana Alexandre Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Movement is a fundamental element of dance, and the dancer’s body is the raw material through which the art of dance is expressed; for this, it demands the utmost discipline in the pursuit of technical and artistic excellence. To meet the professional demands, dancers are subjected to strenuous training routines, which can lead to the development of injuries in this environment. The objective was to examine the etiology, main affected segments, prevalence, and instruments used to evaluate the lesions in studies with professional dancers and/or in comparison with similar populations. We selected articles published in the last decade in the databases BIREME, LILACS, MEDLINE EBSCO, WEB OF SCIENCE, SCOPUS (Elsevier, and PubMed, with cross-sectional, observational cohort and case control design published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. Systematic reviews, case studies, dissertations, theses, book chapters, cross-referenced articles, and studies published outside of the last decade were not included. The search used combinations of the terms “dancing* and athletic injuries* and musculoskeletal* and pain*”. A principal investigator and two reviewers conducted the survey and analyzed all the potentially relevant articles, initially by the abstract and title. Twelve articles were included, with 1,149 participants (965 professional dancers of classical ballet, modern dance, contemporary dance, and breakdance, 104 amateur dancers, and 80 elite athletes. Nine studies found simultaneous lesions with emphasis on the foot and ankle (n=4, upper and lower limbs lesions (n=4 and lower and upper limb joints (n=1. Other studies have found lesions in the anterior cruciate ligament (n=3. There was no agreement regarding the instruments for detecting lesions in professional, pre-professional, and amateur dancers. There was a prevalence of studies aimed at classical ballet modality, evidencing a higher frequency of lower limb involvement in

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of Parkinson's disease in retired Thai traditional boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolekha, Praween; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2010-09-15

    Boxing is often believed to be a frequent cause for parkinsonism caused by chronic repetitive head injury, with Muhammad Ali frequently cited as an example. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in retired Thai traditional boxers. Two standardized screening questionnaires were sent to all registered Thai traditional boxers. Subjects who screened positive for parkinsonism were invited for clinical examinations by two independent neurologists. Among 704 boxers (70%) who completed the questionnaires, 8 boxers (1.14%) had parkinsonism: 5 with PD, 1 with progressive supranuclear palsy and 2 with vascular parkinsonism. Boxers with PD were found to have an older mean age than those without PD (P = 0.003). The analysis of probable risk factors disclosed an association between the number of professional bouts (>100 times) and PD (P = 0.01). The crude prevalence of PD in Thai boxers was 0.71% (95% CI: 0.09-1.33), with a significant increase with age. The prevalence rate of PD in those aged 50 and above was 0.17% (95% CI: 0.15-0.20), age-adjusted to the USA 1970 census, which is comparable to that of the general populations. The analysis determined that the number of professional bouts is a risk factor among these boxers, supporting the notion that repetitive head trauma may pose an additional risk to certain individuals who are already susceptible to PD. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Rates of Oral Antidiabetic Prescribing in Accordance with Guidelines and Manufacturer Recommendations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients within a Long-Term Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD among nursing home (NH residents with type 2 diabetes. The pattern of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD use and their concordance with the National Kidney Foundation (NKF guideline and prescribing information (PI was also assessed. About half (47% of diabetic residents had moderate to severe CKD. A little over a quarter of the 186 residents using OADs received at least one NKF-discordant OAD prescription. Metformin was the most commonly misused OAD. PI nonconcordance was observed in 58.6% of residents and was highest in glipizide and metformin users. With the high prevalence of moderate to severe CKD in NH residents with diabetes, physicians should consider residents’ renal function when choosing treatment plans and review treatments regularly to check compliance with the NKF guidelines or PIs.

  4. Professional burnout among medical students: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erschens, Rebecca; Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Loda, Teresa; Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane; Bugaj, Till Johannes; Nikendei, Christoph; Huhn, Daniel; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian

    2018-04-14

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to summarize the available evidence on the prevalence of professional burnout among medical students. The review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles, reporting burnout among medical students published between 2000 and 2017. The meta-analysis was conducted on the available data on burnout rates in medical students measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS). Fifty-eight out of 3006 studies were found eligible for inclusion. Twelve of these studies met the criteria for meta-analysis. Weighted mean values for the three sub-dimensions of the MBI-HSS were M = 22.93 (SD = 10.25) for Emotional Exhaustion, M = 8.88 (SD = 5.64) for Depersonalization, and M = 35.11 (SD = 8.03) for Personal Accomplishment. Prevalence rates for professional burnout ranged from 7.0% to 75.2%, depending on country-specific factors, applied instruments, cutoff-criteria for burnout symptomatology. This review underlines the burden of burnout among medical students. Future research should explicitly focus on specific context factors and student group under investigation. Such efforts are necessary to control for context-dependent confounders in research on medical students' mental health impairment to enable more meaningful comparisons and adequate prevention strategies.

  5. Tax Professional Internships and Subsequent Professional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…

  6. Promoting teachers' professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Pietsje Roelofje

    2008-01-01

    Because teacher quality has a great influence on pupil attainment, teachers’ professional development receives a lot of attention in educational policy. This dissertation contains five studies on how teachers’ professional development, in terms of learning at the workplace, can be explained and

  7. Professional Learning from within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korthagen, Fred A. J.

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary on the paper by the Bank Street Reading and Literacy Alumnae Group, Korthagen states that, while it provides an excellent example of how fruitful professional development can be when it is grounded in the needs and strengths of the people involved; regretfully, many traditional approaches to professional development are based on…

  8. Whistleblowing & Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the moral dilemmas encountered daily by professionals and how the teaching of ethics may help resolve the conflicts individuals face with respect to whistleblowing. Included are consideration of responsibilities, role of ethics codes, and courses on professional ethics. (CS)

  9. Certifying Enrollment Management Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…

  10. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  11. Evaluating professional development

    CERN Document Server

    Guskey, Thomas R

    2000-01-01

    This is a practical guide to evaluating professional development programs at five increasing levels of sophistication: participants' reaction to professional development; how much participants learned; evaluating organizational support and change; how participants use their new knowledge and skills; and improvements in student learning.

  12. Determinants of Teacher Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y. L. Jack

    1983-01-01

    Reports a study of the effect of variables at the personal, school, and district/division level on these aspects of the attitudinal professionalism of 1,205 Manitoba teachers: use of professional organization as major referent, belief in public service, belief in self-regulation, sense of calling to the field, and autonomy. (SB)

  13. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  14. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find a list of questions to ask at your next appointment . Healthcare professionals talk about why good communication is important A patient describes how he prepares for office ...

  15. Purpose and Professional Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyler, Nancy Roundy

    1989-01-01

    Describes a protocol study of 10 professional writers which examined the meaning and influence of purpose on writers in the workplace. Explores the interactions of various purpose considerations derived from situation, reader, and text. Suggests that professional writers have a range of meanings in mind when they think about purpose. (MM)

  16. Partnering for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Duerr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Literacy specialists are often overlooked when determining the professional development needs within a school, and yet they are arguably the school's best resource to empower teachers with professional growth to meet state mandates. How can literacy specialists be supported to increase their knowledge and skills so that all educators' and…

  17. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  18. National variation of ADHD diagnostic prevalence and medication use: health care providers and education policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Levine, Peter; Stone, Susan; Brown, Timothy T; Modrek, Sepideh

    2009-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic prevalence and medication use vary across U.S. census regions, but little is known about state-level variation. The purpose of this study was to estimate this variation across states and examine whether a state's health care provider characteristics and education policies are associated with this variation. Logistic regression models were estimated with 69,505 children aged four to 17 from the state-stratified and nationally representative 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnostic prevalence was higher in the South (odds ratio [OR]=1.42, p<.001) than in the West; among children with ADHD diagnoses, medication use was higher in the South (OR=1.60, p<.01) and the Midwest (OR=1.53, p<.01) versus the West. On these measures, several states differed from the U.S. averages, including some states that, on the basis of the regional patterns found above, would not be expected to differ: Michigan had a high diagnostic prevalence; Vermont, South Dakota, and Nebraska had low diagnostic prevalences; and Connecticut, New Jersey, and Kentucky had low medication rates. Both diagnosis and medication status were associated with the number, age, and type of physicians within a state, particularly pediatricians. However, state education policies were not significantly associated with either diagnostic prevalence or medication rates. To better understand the association between a state's health care provider characteristics and both diagnostic prevalence and medication use, it may be fruitful to examine the content of provider continuing education programs, including the recommendations of major health professional organization guidelines to treat ADHD.

  19. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts......This article examines how individual accountants subjectively interpret competing logics of professionalism as they transform from practicing accountants to managerial roles and as their organizations transform from traditional professional partnerships to more corporate organizational forms. Based....... We further observe considerable interpretive variation in how identity scripts are reproduced and enacted. We contribute to the emerging understanding of institutions as ‘inhabited’ by individuals and extend this literature by demonstrating that the institutional work of reinterpreting competing...

  20. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.

  1. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  2. Cavum Septi Pellucidi in Symptomatic Former Professional Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M.; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y.; Coleman, Michael J.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE. Future research is needed to investigate the pathomechanism underlying the development of CSP after repetitive head impacts, and its potential association with neuropathologically confirmed CTE. PMID:26414478

  3. SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPY CURRICULA IN PHYSICAL THERAPIST PROFESSIONAL DEGREE PROGRAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Edward P; DeVahl, Julie

    2017-10-01

    The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to spur further discussion on the necessity, structure, and

  4. [Professional Development Processes of Trainee and Experienced Psychotherapists in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilican, F Işıl; Soygüt, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored professional characteristics of psychotherapists in Turkey, examined the changes in their professional developmental processes, and compared the professional characteristics of the trainees and experienced therapists. The participants were 88 psychotherapists, including trainee (N=37) and experienced (N=51) psychotherapists in Turkey. They completed the Development of Psychotherapists International Study-Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ), developed by the Collaborative Research Network. The participants identified with the cognitive theoretical orientation most often. 30% of the participants had more than two salient orientations. The most prevalent therapy modality was individual, followed by couples, family, and group psychotherapy. Ongoing supervision rate was 44%. Trainees scored lower on effectiveness in engaging patients in a working alliance, feeling natural while working with patients, effectiveness in communicating their understanding and concern to their patients, and feeling confident in their role as a therapist. Experienced therapists made changes in the therapeutic contract and invited collaboration from families more compared to the trainees. 63% of the variance in Healing Involvement was explained by Overall Career Development, Currently Experienced Growth, being influenced by the humanistic approach, and the impact of the main therapeutic environment; 26% of the variance in Stressful Involvement was explained by the length of official supervision received and having control over the length of therapy sessions. Therapists were more cognitively oriented, less eclectic, and had less supervision compared to their international counterparts. Experienced therapists were more flexible, natural, and confident than the trainees. Supervision, a supportive work environment, the humanistic approach, and investing in career development were essential to providing a healing experience.

  5. Injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targett, S G

    1998-10-01

    To document injury rates in professional rugby players in the Rugby Super 12 competition and to act as a pilot study for future studies of rugby injuries. Prospective longitudinal study encompassing the 1997 Super 12 rugby season. A New Zealand Super 12 rugby squad. 25 professional rugby players (replacement players were used for unavailable players, so although 30 different players were used during the season, there were only 25 in the squad at any one time). An "injury" was defined as something that prevented a player from taking part in two training sessions, from playing the next week, or something requiring special medical treatment (suturing or special investigations). An injury was "significant" if it prevented the player from being able to play one week after sustaining it (that is, if it made the player miss the next match). The overall injury rate was 120/1000 player hours. The rate of significant injuries was 45/1000 player hours. Those playing the position of "forward" had a higher overall injury rate than other players, but there was no difference in significant injury rate between the forwards and the backs. Injuries that caused players to miss game time occurred almost exclusively during the pre-season program or in the final third of the season. The majority of injuries were musculo-tendinous sprains or strains. The phase of play responsible for the majority of injuries was the tackle. The most frequently injured body part was the head and face. No catastrophic injuries occurred during the study period. Injury rates increase with increasing grade of rugby, injury rates in the Super 12 competition being higher than in first grade rugby. There is very little quality data on rugby injuries, and the few studies available use different methods of data collection and injury definition. There is a pressing need for the collection of accurate ongoing epidemiological data on injuries in rugby.

  6. A Critical Care Societies Collaborative Statement: Burnout Syndrome in Critical Care Health-care Professionals. A Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marc; Good, Vicki S; Gozal, David; Kleinpell, Ruth; Sessler, Curtis N

    2016-07-01

    Burnout syndrome (BOS) occurs in all types of health-care professionals and is especially common in individuals who care for critically ill patients. The development of BOS is related to an imbalance of personal characteristics of the employee and work-related issues or other organizational factors. BOS is associated with many deleterious consequences, including increased rates of job turnover, reduced patient satisfaction, and decreased quality of care. BOS also directly affects the mental health and physical well-being of the many critical care physicians, nurses, and other health-care professionals who practice worldwide. Until recently, BOS and other psychological disorders in critical care health-care professionals remained relatively unrecognized. To raise awareness of BOS, the Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC) developed this call to action. The present article reviews the diagnostic criteria, prevalence, causative factors, and consequences of BOS. It also discusses potential interventions that may be used to prevent and treat BOS. Finally, we urge multiple stakeholders to help mitigate the development of BOS in critical care health-care professionals and diminish the harmful consequences of BOS, both for critical care health-care professionals and for patients.

  7. Sexual harassment in Dentistry: prevalence in dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208. Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.

  8. Sexual harassment in dentistry: prevalence in dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Garbin, Artênio José Insper; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611)]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.

  9. Confused Professionals? : Capacities to Cope with Pressures in Professional Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, Carina; Van Kleef, Daphne; Noordegraaf, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Public professionalism is increasingly subject to organizational and societal pressures, which has led to ambiguity concerning its nature. Professionals face conflicting situations due to potential clashes between multifaceted professional, organizational, and societal factors. This raises questions

  10. SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Abramova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specific characteristics of professional communication teachers in the course of his career. Characterized by the basic communication skillsfor professional communication teachers, distinguished social and psychological characteristics of professional educator.

  11. Breast cancer surgery effect over professional activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Dias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is responsible for 25% of all cancers and is the most prevalent in the female population. Due to treatment advances and early diagnoses, survival rates have improved, however this condition impacts work absenteeism due to the productive age of these women. The main factors responsible for work absenteeism are physical complications due to surgical treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surgical breast cancer treatments on occupation, to characterize the degree of work absenteeism and to investigate the type of relation between surgical technique and absenteeism’s main causes. Method: Cross-sectional study with 74 women diagnosed with breast cancer. A semi-structured interview was used to collect information regarding surgical and clinical aspects, sociodemographic data, work behavior and physical therapy treatments. The data was organized on Microsoft Excel and analyzed by frequency and chi-squared test. The significance level considered was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Breast cancer was most common on the left side (51%, Madden modified radical mastectomy was the most common (50% and lymph node resection was present in 93.2% of cases. The most frequent post-surgery complications were pain, problems with scarring, sensitivity alterations, ROM limitation, lymphedema and seroma. Only 58% of women were treated with physical therapy and 60% withdrew from professional activities, 23% abandoned work, 26% changed their work role and 14% retired due to the disease. Conclusion: The present study suggests the existence of a direct relation between treatment and work absenteeism.

  12. Information professionals: core competencies and professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We discuss the concept of core competencies applied to policies for teaching and training information professionals, particularly librarians. Method. Sixty graduates of the Institute were employed as information professionals. These sixty were asked to attribute degrees of importance to specific items associated with knowledge and skills that, within the scope of this research, were considered core competencies for meeting the demands of their jobs. Participants were also asked to cite knowledge they acquired in school and knowledge they use in exercising their profession, the skills that they consider necessary but that they did not gain in school, and the difficulties they encounter in exercising their profession and for which they were not sufficiently well prepared. Analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data analyses were performed. The data were tabulated using Access and several reports and cross-tabulations were generated. Results. The results suggest a gulf between knowledge and skills acquired in library school and those that are required by the job market. In particular, participants lacked the skills they needed to work with information and communication technologies. Conclusion. The concept of core competencies is increasingly taken into account by the productive sector of the economy. The educational system ought to keep up with this change. The empirical research described shows that there is a need to establish advanced and modern policies for the education of librarians, participants in the market for information professionals.

  13. Turnover among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ben D

    2009-01-01

    Turnover among healthcare professionals is a costly consequence. The existing body of knowledge on healthcare professional turnover is correlated with job satisfaction levels. A landmark study differentiated 2 areas of job satisfaction categories: satisfiers and dissatisfiers (intrinsic and extrinsic motivators). The aim of this article is to examine existing research on precursors of turnover, such as burnout behaviors experienced by healthcare professionals, job satisfaction levels, employee organizational commitment, health complications which precede turnover, some current strategies to reduce turnover, and some effects CEO turnover has on employee turnover intentions.

  14. The experiences of urban, professional women when combining breastfeeding with paid employment in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Shela Akbar Ali; Karmaliani, Rozina

    2013-06-01

    Pakistan has the second highest child mortality rate in South Asia. Breastfeeding can promote infant health, prevent infection and possibly mortality. However, a gradual decline in breastfeeding is reported for Pakistan; especially among urban, educated, employed women. Little research exists regarding the experiences of professional women in Pakistan who are breastfeeding and employed. To describe the experiences of urban, professional women who breastfeed and are employed, as related to facilitators and barriers of breastfeeding. Using a qualitative descriptive design, nine full-time employed women were recruited through purposive sampling from a private tertiary care health setting in Karachi, Pakistan. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used for an in-depth interview of 40-45min with each participant. Most women spoke about the challenges of combining breastfeeding with employment, which resulted in early cessation of breastfeeding. The study indicated that positive maternal attributes such as knowledge about breastfeeding, planning, self-commitment, and open communication, as well as availability of social and workplace support is essential to enable urban, professional women in Pakistan to continue breastfeeding while employed. Pakistan has high infant and child mortality rate and decreasing prevalence of breastfeeding, especially among employed professional women. Our findings indicate an urgent need for lactation support programs that include integrated interventions for lactating women that offer informational support, social support, and formal workplace support. Copyright © 2012 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Inadequate Immunity to Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella in MLB and NBA Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Justin J; Toresdahl, Brett G; Ling, Daphne I; Boniquit, Nicole T; Callahan, Lisa R; Kinderknecht, James J

    2018-05-01

    Multiple outbreaks of vaccine-preventable viral diseases have occurred in professional sports in recent years. Currently, there is no established protocol for vaccination or immunity screening for professional athletes. There are significant differences in the prevalence of inadequate immunity dependent on age, sport, country of birth, and participation in collegiate sports. Cross-sectional cohort study. Level 4. A sample of Major League Baseball (MLB) and National Basketball Association (NBA) players were screened for serologic evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella prior to the 2015 and 2016 seasons. The results were designated as adequate (immune) or inadequate (equivocal or nonimmune) based on laboratory criteria. Comparison with an age-matched control group was performed using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 98 athletes (62 MLB, 36 NBA) were screened. The prevalence of inadequate immunity for any virus was 35.5% in MLB players and 33.3% in NBA players. There was a significantly greater risk of inadequate immunity to rubella (risk ratio, 6.38; P < 0.01) and varicella (risk ratio, 4.21; P < 0.01) in athletes compared with the age-matched NHANES population. Our analysis did not reveal differences in rates of immunity based on sport, country of birth (US born vs international), or participation in college athletics. There was a lower rate of inadequate immunity to varicella with increasing age (odds ratio, 0.72; P = 0.05). One-third of athletes studied had inadequate immunity to 1 of the 4 viruses tested. Younger players had a significantly greater risk of inadequate immunity to varicella. Birth outside the US and lack of participation in college athletics were not found to influence immunity rates. These results can inform the development of future screening programs to prevent outbreaks of viral infections in professional athletes.

  16. The art of staying engaged : The role of personal resources in mental well-being of young veterinary professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents research on mental well-being of veterinary professionals at the beginning of their professional career. It aims to assess the prevalence of burnout and work engagement and to identify its work and person related antecedents in this specific group of professionals. Additionally

  17. Professional Education: Some New Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.; Kommers, Diane W.

    This is a plea for planning for impending changes in professional education. The author analyzes new features of professional practice and shifting expectations of professional students and then undertakes a perceptive analysis of the anatomy of change itself. (MJM)

  18. Professional Networks in the International Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    debates; and the creation of ‘human capital controls’ to prevent the poaching of skilled migrants. The paper directly contributes to the STS literature in locating how professional practices and, their work content, are linked to science and technology while embedded in sociocultural frameworks......Who writes the rules for the governance of the world economy? This paper looks beyond the usual suspects of states, NGOs and firms to attempt to map how ideas and skills travel between professional ecologies to solve long-term socioeconomic problems. The paper identifies professional networks...... they compete and cooperate through a variety of novel concepts and technologies. The issue-areas discussed in relation to professional networks include: the creation of a viable bio-fuels industry; addressing low fertility rates in the OECD; risk weighting and regulatory segmentation in financial reform...

  19. Relationships between medical student burnout, empathy, and professionalism climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, Chantal M L R; Schroeder, Robin; Rovi, Sue; Boyd, Linda

    2010-10-01

    Medical student burnout is prevalent, and there has been much discussion about burnout and professionalism in medical education and the clinical learning environment. Yet, few studies have attempted to explore relationships between those issues using validated instruments. Medical students were surveyed at the beginning of their fourth year using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-Student Version, and the Professionalism Climate Instrument. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and Spearman correlation analysis was performed. Scores indicative of higher medical student burnout were associated with lower medical student empathy scores and with lower professionalism climate scores observed in medical students, residents, and faculty. Investigators observed relationships between medical student burnout, empathy, and professionalism climate. These findings may have implications for the design of curriculum interventions to promote student well-being and professionalism.

  20. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  1. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you talk to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find ... Can I Expect? Introduction Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - ...

  2. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow-up ... or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the phone, ...

  3. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... getting the facts. Usually, office visits and phone calls are shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ...

  4. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the ...

  5. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find a list ... Plan - Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - ...

  6. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  7. Personal professional development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rao, S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Three workshop sessions on personal professional development were held during the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference. These were designed to teach participants about planning for career success, "survival skills," negotiation, and ways...

  8. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow- ... you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the ...

  9. Changing professional autonomy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway......The paper presents a typology for the analysis for professional autonomy and an application of the typology in realation to discourses of quality development in the 'Health Care sector in Denmark and Norway...

  10. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  11. Professionalism without autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Rania

    2016-01-01

    Further Education lecturers appear to be stranded in a professional wilderness, deemed to fall short of the virtues of school teachers and lacking the academic credentials of university lecturers. One response to this apparent lack of status was an attempt to re-professionalise the FE workforce, most notably through the work of its first professional body, the Institute for Learning (IfL). This essay charts the ups and downs of the professionalisation agenda in Further Education and its impac...

  12. Systematic review of the prevalence of mental illness stigma within the Greek culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouvara, Vasiliki; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch

    2016-05-01

    A number of primary studies have now assessed mental illness stigma within the Greek culture. A synthesis and appraisal of all available evidence is now required and will contribute to our growing understanding of the relationship between the cultural context and the formation of stigmatising attitudes. To systematically review the prevalence of mental illness public stigma within the Greek and Greek Cypriot culture. Empirical articles with primary data pertaining to the prevalence of mental illness public stigma among Greek and/or Greek Cypriot populations were retrieved. Included studies were assessed for quality and extracted data were narratively synthesised. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was highly variable; only 1 study was adequately statistically powered, 10 studies employed at least some element of probability sampling and obtained response rates of at least 70%, while 10 and 13 studies employed reliable and validated prevalence tools, respectively. Studies sampled the general population (n = 11), students (n = 4), healthcare professionals (n = 2), police officers, employers and family members (all n = 1). Stigma was consistently identified in moderate and high proportions across all of these groups, particularly in terms of social discrimination and restrictiveness, social distance and authoritarianism. However, some evidence of benevolence and positivity towards high-quality social care was also identified. The review highlights the wide-scale prevalence of mental illness stigma within the Greek culture and the need for further rigorous research including culturally tailored stigma interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Professional Learning of Instructors in Vocational and Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Kuntz, Jeff; Newton, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This article presents insights from a study into instructor professional learning in vocational and professional education (VPE) in Canada. While most studies on instructor learning focus on learning through formal professional development programmes, this study specifically focuses on professional learning as it happens in day-to-day practice.…

  14. The perception and experience of gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement among Japanese physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from the US have found that female physicians often experience gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement. In Japan, female physicians are underrepresented in leadership positions but little is known about the prevalence of gender discrimination. We investigated the perception and prevalence of gender-based career obstacles and discrimination among Japanese physicians. The study was based on surveys of alumnae from 13 medical schools and alumni from 3 medical schools. In total, 1,684 female and 808 male physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 83% and 58%). More women than men had the perception of gender-based career obstacles for women (77% vs. 55%; p gender discrimination related to professional advancement (21% vs. 3%; p gender discrimination included age (p gender discrimination compared with younger women (OR 5.77, 95% CI: 1.83-18.24 for women above 50, and OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.48-7.28 for women between 40 and 49) and women with PhD were more likely to experience gender discrimination (OR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.81-9.89). Our study demonstrated that a significant proportion of Japanese women experienced gender-based discrimination and perceived gender-based career obstacles compared with male physicians.

  15. Prevalence, assessment, and treatment of pathological gambling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, N M; Armentano, C

    1999-08-01

    Although pathological gambling is an increasing problem, many mental health providers are unfamiliar with its diagnosis and treatment. To improve recognition and treatment of pathological gambling, the authors reviewed the literature on its prevalence, assessment, and treatment. Entries in PsycLIT and MEDLINE were examined for the years 1984 to 1998. The prevalence of pathological gambling seems to be increasing with the spread of legalized gambling; casinos are now operating in 27 states. Point and lifetime prevalence rates of pathological gambling are reported to be as high as 1.4 percent and 5.1 percent, respectively. The most commonly used assessment instrument is the DSM-based, 20-item South Oaks Gambling Screen. There is no standard treatment for pathological gambling. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is the most popular intervention, and about 1,000 chapters exist in the U.S. Studies suggest that only 8 percent of GA attendees achieve a year of abstinence. Combining professional therapy and GA participation may improve retention and abstinence. Marital and family treatments, including participation in Gam-Anon, the spousal component of GA, have not been sufficiently evaluated. The few studies of cognitive-behavioral treatments suggest that this approach, which may include cognitive restructuring, problem solving, social skills training, and relapse prevention, is promising. Carbamazepine, naltrexone, clomipramine, fluvoxamine, and lithium have been used with some effect. Therapists' manuals and self-help manuals are available. Although research evaluating their efficacy is necessary, manuals can provide a start for therapists who encounter patients with gambling problems. Brief motivational interviewing may be a useful strategy for decreasing gambling among heavy gamblers who are ambivalent about entering treatment or who do not desire abstinence.

  16. How important is Autonomy to Professional Workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Mastekaasa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption is that autonomy is crucial to professional workers. I examine this using survey data on a sample of public sector welfare professionals, viz. medical doctors, nurses, teachers, social workers. Comparisons are made with general population data from the International Social Survey Programme. Two methods of assessing the importance of work autonomy are employed; respondents’ direct ratings and statistical associations between work autonomy (and other job characteristics on the one hand and job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the other. Findings: Autonomy is not rated as more important among the professionals than in the general population, and neither is it more strongly related to job satisfaction. Interesting work and workplace social support appear to be more central.

  17. Mental and psychosocial health among current and former professional footballers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, V.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental

  18. Psychosocial and professional characteristics of burnout in Swiss primary care practitioners: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Catherine; Bouvier Gallacchi, Martine; Künzi, Beat; Bovier, Patrick

    2005-02-19

    To measure the prevalence of burnout and explore its professional and psychosocial predictors among Swiss primary care practitioners. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to measure burnout, work-related stressors, professional and psychosocial characteristics among a representative sample of primary care practitioners. Answers to the Maslach burnout inventory were used to categorize respondents into moderate and high degree of burnout. 1784 physicians responded to the survey (65% response rate) and 1755 questionnaires could be analysed. 19% of respondents had a high score for emotional exhaustion, 22% had a high score for depersonalisation/cynicism and 16% had a low score for professional accomplishment; 32% had a high score on either the emotional exhaustion or the depersonalisation/cynicism scale (moderate degree of burnout) and 4% had scores in the range of burnout in all three scales (high degree of burnout). Predictors of moderate burnout were male sex, age 45-55 years and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, health-insurance-related work, difficulties to balance professional and private life, changes in the health care system and medical care uncertainty. A high degree of burnout was associated with male sex, practicing in a rural area, and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, patient's expectations, difficulties to balance professional and private life, economic constraints in relation to the practice, medical care uncertainty and difficult relations with non-medical staff at the practice. About one third of Swiss primary care practitioners presented a moderate or a high degree of burnout, which was mainly associated with extrinsic work-related stressors. Medical doctors and politicians in charge of redesigning the health care system should address this phenomenon to maintain an efficient Swiss primary care physician workforce in the future.

  19. Professional Burnout in European Young Oncologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Sutanuka; Califano, R; Corral, Javier

    2017-01-01

    ≤40 (YOs). Methods: A survey was conducted using the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and additional questions exploring work/lifestyle factors. Statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with burnout. Results: 737 surveys (all ages) were collected from 41 European......Background: Burnout in health care professionals could have serious negative consequences on quality of patient care, professional satisfaction and personal life. Our aim was to investigate the burnout prevalence, work and lifestyle factors potentially affecting burnout amongst European oncologists...... = 0.0001 ) and low accomplishment was highest in the 26-30 age group ( p work/life balance, access to support services, living alone and inadequate vacation time remained independent burnout factors ( p 

  20. WHO-defined ‘myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)' in 88 consecutive patients: survival data, leukemic transformation rates and prevalence of JAK2, MPL and IDH mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, M M; Lasho, T L; Finke, C M; Gangat, N; Caramazza, D; Holtan, S G; Pardanani, A; Knudson, R A; Ketterling, R P; Chen, D; Hoyer, J D; Hanson, C A; Tefferi, A

    2010-01-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were used to identify 88 consecutive Mayo Clinic patients with ‘myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)' (median age 74 years; 60 females). In all, 60 (68%) patients were followed up to the time of their death. Overall median survival was 66 months; leukemic transformation was documented in five (5.7%) cases. Multivariable analysis identified age ⩾70 years (P=0.01), transfusion need at diagnosis (P=0.04) and dysgranulopoiesis (P=0.02) as independent predictors of shortened survival; the presence of zero (low risk), one (intermediate risk) or ⩾2 (high risk) risk factors corresponded to median survivals of 102, 52 and 27 months, respectively. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutational analysis was performed on archived bone marrows in 78 patients; JAK2V617F and MPLW515L mutations were shown in five (6.4%) and three (3.8%) patients, respectively, and did not seem to affect phenotype or prognosis. IDH mutations were not detected. Survival was not affected by serum ferritin and there were no instances of death directly related to iron overload. The current study is unique in its strict adherence to WHO criteria for selecting study patients and providing information on long-term survival, practical prognostic factors, baseline risk of leukemic transformation and the prevalence of JAK2, MPL and IDH mutations. PMID:20485371

  1. Low rates of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in wildlife in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, surrounded by villages with high prevalence of multiresistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in people and domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Papousek, Ivo; De Nys, Helene; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Metzger, Sonya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Wittig, Roman M; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Leendertz, Fabian H; Literak, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance genes can be found in all ecosystems, including those where antibiotic selective pressure has never been exerted. We investigated resistance genes in a collection of faecal samples of wildlife (non-human primates, mice), people and domestic animals (dogs, cats) in Côte d'Ivoire; in the chimpanzee research area of Taï National Park (TNP) and adjacent villages. Single bacteria isolates were collected from antibiotic-containing agar plates and subjected to molecular analysis to detect Enterobacteriaceae isolates with plasmid-mediated genes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). While the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the villages was 27% in people (n = 77) and 32% in dogs (n = 38), no ESBL-producer was found in wildlife of TNP (n = 75). PMQR genes, mainly represented by qnrS1, were also present in human- and dog-originating isolates from the villages (36% and 42% in people and dogs, respectively), but no qnrS has been found in the park. In TNP, different variants of qnrB were detected in Citrobacter freundii isolates originating non-human primates and mice. In conclusion, ESBL and PMQR genes frequently found in humans and domestic animals in the villages were rather exceptional in wildlife living in the protected area. Although people enter the park, the strict biosecurity levels they are obliged to follow probably impede transmission of bacteria between them and wildlife.

  2. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. [What is professionalism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbu, Sadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    What is a profession? According to Cruess, it is an occupation whose core element is work that is based on the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills. It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning, or the practice of an art founded on it, is used in the service of others. Its members profess a commitment to competence, integrity, morality, altruism, and the promotion of the public good within their domain. These commitments form the basis of a social contract between a profession and society, which in return grants the profession autonomy in practice and the privilege of self-regulation. Although medical professionals share the role of healer, there are wide variations between individuals. Professionalism is the basis of medicine's contract with society. Public trust is essential to that contract, and public trust depends on the integrity of both individual professionals and the whole profession. The introduction to this important symposium includes definitions of professions and of medical professionalism. It also includes discussions of reciprocal altruism, conflicts of interest in medical societies, the theory of cognitive dissonance, and the moral foundations of professionalism.

  4. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled “Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012” [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept “prevalence” is not correctly used.[...

  5. FEATURES OF PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE REALIZATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Lobova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The signs of professional liability insurance are generalized in the article. It is the presence of losses, additional costs that require mechanisms and sources of compensation. The essence of the professional responsibility concept is determined and it is characterized like specialists material liability of different professions, lack of qualifications, errors and omissions are due to carelessness or negligence may cause harm to the client The main elements of the professional liability insurance contract, such as insurance objects, insurance compensation, insurance risks are described. The types of professional liability insurance are characterized. There are such types of the professional liability insurance: professional liability insurance of architect, lawyer, auditor (accountant, appraiser, notary, customs broker and doctor. It is determined, that the most widespread in Ukraine is the professional liability insurance of lawyer and customs broker because the policy is purchased for the sole purpose to obtain a license. The size of insurance rates in the provision of professional liability insurance in different insurance companies of Ukraine are analyzed. It is established that insurance rate depends on the type of professional activity, scope of service, qualifications and the other factors. The development impulse can only provide judicial and legal definition of professions wide list that are subject under mandatory professional liability insurance.

  6. Professional Development Needs of Online Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mamta; Boboc, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in mind the rising rate of K-12 enrollment, and the increased demand for online teachers, the need for professional development of online teachers is keenly felt. The skills needed for teaching in face-to-face environments are not always transferable to online settings. There is a pointed change in the way teaching takes place in an online…

  7. Teaching and Teacher Education for Health Professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are discussed as indications for educational skills training for educators in health professionals' education. Method: 250 medical students from the MB ChB programme were surveyed, in an evaluation exercise, to rate the teaching contribution of all the full-time and honorary lecturers (n=88). The students were requested to ...

  8. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Macur, Mirna; Kir?ly, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygy?rgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ...

  9. Correlation between burnout and professional value in Chinese oncology nurses: A questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Clinical implication: The prevalence of job burnout in oncology nurses is high, and this could be improved by increasing perception of professional value. It is urgent for managers to strengthen professional value education and to take strategies that reduce job burnout, which is important for the overall quality and safety of nursing.

  10. Evaluating Graduate Education and Transcending Biases in Music Teachers' Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laor, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Research concerning professional development and its contribution to the formation of professional identity is prevalent in both general and music education. However, its implications for music educators in the context of graduate programs for music education are seldom discussed. This mixed-methods case study examined experienced music teachers'…

  11. Globalisation, economics and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chay-Hoon; Macneill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of globalisation and attendant economic factors on the global practice of medicine, medical education, medical ethics and medical professionalism. The authors discuss the implications of these trends, citing case scenarios in the healthcare insurance, medical tourism, pharmaceutical industries, and the educational systems as well as in clinical practice, to illustrate the impact of globalisation and economics on professionalism. Globalisation, on the one hand, offers benefits for the global practice of medicine and for medical education. On the other, globalisation can have negative effects, particularly when the main driver is to maximise profitability across national boundaries rather than concern for human well-being. Appraising the effect of globalisation on professionalism involves assessing its effects at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional levels, and its effect on society at large.

  12. Occupational balance in health professionals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Petra; Lindmark, Ulrika; Rolander, Bo; Wåhlin, Charlotte; Håkansson, Carita

    2017-01-01

    Health care employees are often women, a group that has high degrees of sick leave and perhaps problems attaining occupational balance. However, people think differently about their everyday activities and it is therefore important to take their perceptions into account but occupational balance has not yet been measured in health professionals. The aim was to describe occupational balance in three different samples of health professionals in Sweden. A further aim was to investigate whether occupational therapists (OTs) rate their occupational balance differently from other health professionals. Four hundred and eighty-two health professionals, employees in public dentistry, mental health care and OTs, aged 21-70 years participated. The participants' occupational balance was measured using the occupational balance questionnaire (OBQ). The ratings of occupational balance were similar to earlier studies and did not differ significantly between the samples. The OTs' occupational balance was also similar to that of the other health professionals. The similarities in occupational balance indicate the same difficulties in attaining it. The result highlights the possibility that working people face similar difficulties in achieving occupational balance. Further research is warranted about how to attain it.

  13. Professional courtesy--current practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M A; Arnold, R M; Fine, M J; Kapoor, W N

    1993-11-25

    Physicians have long provided care free of charge or at a reduced rate as a professional courtesy to other physicians and their families. We conducted a stratified national mail survey to assess the extent to which this practice has changed in recent years. Using the American Medical Association's 1991 master list of physicians, we selected a random sample of 4800 practicing physicians from 12 direct-care specialties. These physicians were asked about their current policy and opinions regarding professional courtesy. Of the 2224 respondents, 2127 (96 percent) offered professional courtesy, defined as providing free or discounted health care to physicians and their families. Psychiatrists were less likely to offer professional courtesy than physicians in any of the other specialties (80 percent vs. 91 to 99 percent, P courtesy included billing only the insurance company (75 percent), providing care at no charge (49 percent), and giving a partial discount (23 percent). Twenty-three percent of the respondents reported that they had changed their policy regarding professional courtesy since starting to practice. Among those who had changed their policy, the most common changes were to increase the practice of billing only the insurance company (67 percent) and to provide care at no charge less often (58 percent). The majority of physicians responding to the survey thought that professional courtesy solidified bonds between physicians (79 percent) and was sound business practice (62 percent); 12 percent believed that it was too expensive to offer free or discounted care as a professional courtesy, and 14 percent thought that the practice had negative effects on the physician-patient interaction. Our survey of physicians involved in direct patient care indicates that, with the exception of psychiatrists, almost all American physicians offer free or discounted care as a professional courtesy and support the practice.

  14. Awareness of nutrition problems among Vietnamese health and education professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Hai Quynh; Worsley, Anthony; Lawrence, Mark; Marshall, Bernie

    2017-10-01

    Professionals who provide nutrition education and consulting to the public are encouraged to take into account the health, environmental and social contexts that influence health-related attitudes and behaviours in the population. This paper examined the awareness of shifts in population health outcomes associated with the nutrition transition in Vietnam among university nutrition lecturers, health professionals and school education professionals. Most of these professionals held accurate views of the current population health issues in Vietnam. However, they differed in their awareness of the seriousness of overweight and obesity. Although the majority indicated that the prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) had increased, nearly half believed that the government should complete its attempts to control undernutrition before trying to control obesity. More health professionals believed that food marketing was responsible for the growing prevalence of children's obesity, and more of them disapproved of the marketing of less healthy food to children. In contrast, the university nutrition lecturers were least aware of food marketing and the seriousness of obesity. Of the three groups, the university nutrition lecturers held less accurate perceptions of nutrition transition problems and their likely drivers. There is an urgent need for greater provision of public nutrition education for all three groups of professionals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Professional Silverlight 4

    CERN Document Server

    Beres, Jason; Rader, Devin

    2010-01-01

    Everything .NET developers need to take advantage of Silverlight 4. Silverlight 4 is a major new release of Microsoft's flagship product for building rich, interactive applications that combine animation, graphics, audio, and video. This book, by seasoned Wrox authors and Silverlight experts, gives professional Web developers all the tools necessary to build RIAs using the new Silverlight capabilities. You will gain a complete, thorough understanding of both core and advanced platform concepts, with examples in both C# and VB.NET. Professional Silverlight 4 prepares Web developers to take

  16. Effective professional networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Mary Jo; Knestrick, Joyce M

    2017-08-01

    The reasons for nurse practitioners to develop a professional network are boundless and are likely to change over time. Networking opens doors and creates relationships that support new opportunities, personal development, collaborative research, policy activism, evidence-based practice, and more. Successful professional networking involves shared, mutually beneficial interactions between individuals and/or individuals and groups, regardless of whether it occurs face to face or electronically. This article combines nuggets from the literature with guidance based on the authors' combined experience in networking activities at the local, national, and international levels. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  17. Sex differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and associated features of migraine, probable migraine and other severe headache: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    the prevalence of migraine and PM, but not for other severe headache. Adjusted female to male prevalence ratios ranged from 1.48 to 3.25 across the lifetime for migraine and from 1.22 to 1.53 for PM. Sex differences were also observed in associated symptomology, aura, headache-related disability, healthcare resource utilization, and diagnosis for migraine and PM. Despite higher rates of migraine diagnosis by a healthcare professional, females with migraine were less likely than males to be using preventive pharmacologic treatment for headache. In this large, US population sample, both migraine and PM were more common among females, but a sex difference was not observed in the prevalence of other severe headache. The sex difference in migraine and PM held true across age and for most other sociodemographic variables with the exception of race for PM. Females with migraine and PM had higher rates of most migraine symptoms, aura, greater associated impairment, and higher healthcare resource utilization than males. Corresponding sex differences were not observed among individuals with other severe headache on the majority of these comparisons. Results suggest that PM is part of the migraine spectrum whereas other severe headache types are not. Results also substantiate existing literature on sex differences in primary headaches and extend results to additional headache types and related factors. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  18. Collaborative Professional Learning: Contributing to the Growth of Leadership, Professional Identity and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmer, Kaye

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to understanding of professionalism in early childhood education and argues that in working to implement a mandated curriculum framework, professional identity and professionalism can be enhanced. While primarily focused on examining the nature of leadership practice during professional development and learning to…

  19. Transazioni "professionali" in valuta estera, rischio di cambio e crescita del sistema bancario internazionale. ( “Professional trading”, exchange rate risk and the growth of international banking: a note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. CALLIER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il movimento da tasso fisso a tassi di cambio fluttuanti ha portato alle previsioni che i mercati valutari potrebbero diventare più volatili . In particolare , la questione se la speculazione nel mercato è stata stabilizzazione o destabilizzante è stata ampiamente discussa . Preoccupazione è stata espressa anche se i fondi speculativi sufficienti sarebbero disponibili per garantire la mobilità dei capitali . L'autore sostiene che lo sviluppo del sistema bancario internazionale ha consentito alle banche di intraprendere negoziazioni di valute più speculative senza incorrere in un rischio maggiore , in modo da alleviare il problema della mobilità dei capitali .The movement from fixed to floating exchange rates led to predictions that foreign exchange markets might become more volatile. In particular, the issue whether speculation in the market was stabilising or destabilising was widely debated. Concern was also expressed whether sufficient speculative funds would be available to ensure capital mobility. The author argues that the development of international banking has allowed banks to undertake more speculative foreign exchange trading without incurring greater risk, thus alleviating the problem of capital mobility. JEL: F31, F33, G21

  20. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2018-01-01

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  1. Family planning use: prevalence, pattern and predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: High fertility,high birth rates and low family planning prevalence rate is a common feature in developing countries with consequent rapid population growth. Family planning has saved the lives and protected the health of millions of women and children. This study aims to ascertain prevalence, pattern and ...

  2. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Professional Football (Soccer) Across Five European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Backx, Frank J. G.; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of symptoms related to distress, anxiety/depression or substance abuse/dependence, - typically referred to as symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) - is lacking in European professional football (soccer). The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence

  3. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Me