WorldWideScience

Sample records for professionals performed tasks

  1. Chinese Preservice Teachers' Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    .... This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program...

  2. Chinese Preservice Teachers’ Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model. PMID:27199810

  3. Chinese Preservice Teachers' Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers' career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  4. Chinese preservice teachers’ professional identity links with education program performance: The roles of task value belief and learning motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eZhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProfessional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first three years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1 variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2 professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM; (3 task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4 higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5 task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  5. Chinese preservice teachers’ professional identity links with education program performance: The roles of task value belief and learning motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Yan eZhang; Skyler eHawk; Xiaohui eZhang; Hongyu eZHAO

    2016-01-01

    AbstractProfessional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic ...

  6. Chinese Preservice Teachers’ Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning...

  7. Performing Task Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    . Here cross-professional coordination of work was done by scheduled communication twice a day. When we proposed a way for further integration of tasks through an all-inclusive team organization, we were met with resistance. We use the study to discuss whether relational coordination theory is able to do...... away with differences regarding task definitions and working conditions as well as professional knowledge hierarchies and responsibilities for parts and wholes....

  8. Professional performance in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.

  9. Local Knowledge and Professional Background Have a Minimal Impact on Volunteer Citizen Science Performance in a Land-Cover Classification Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Salk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea that closer things are more related than distant things, known as ‘Tobler’s first law of geography’, is fundamental to understanding many spatial processes. If this concept applies to volunteered geographic information (VGI, it could help to efficiently allocate tasks in citizen science campaigns and help to improve the overall quality of collected data. In this paper, we use classifications of satellite imagery by volunteers from around the world to test whether local familiarity with landscapes helps their performance. Our results show that volunteers identify cropland slightly better within their home country, and do slightly worse as a function of linear distance between their home and the location represented in an image. Volunteers with a professional background in remote sensing or land cover did no better than the general population at this task, but they did not show the decline with distance that was seen among other participants. Even in a landscape where pasture is easily confused for cropland, regional residents demonstrated no advantage. Where we did find evidence for local knowledge aiding classification performance, the realized impact of this effect was tiny. Rather, the inherent difficulty of a task is a much more important predictor of volunteer performance. These findings suggest that, at least for simple tasks, the geographical origin of VGI volunteers has little impact on their ability to complete image classifications.

  10. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we...... identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings...... influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions...

  11. Teachers Performing Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Bourke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the perceived need to redefine education for more economic utilitarian purposes, as well as to encourage compliance with government policies, Australia, like many other Anglophone nations, has engaged in numerous policy shifts resulting in performativity practices becoming commonplace in the educational landscape. A series of interviews with teachers from Queensland, Australia, in which they revealed their experiences of professionalism are examined archaeologically to reveal how they enact their roles in response to this performative agenda. Findings suggest that while there is some acceptance among teachers of the performative discourse, there is increasing resistance, which permits the construction of alternative or counter-discourses to the currently internationally pervasive performative climate.

  12. Computer-Related Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longstreet, Phil; Xiao, Xiao; Sarker, Saonee

    2016-01-01

    The existing information system (IS) literature has acknowledged computer self-efficacy (CSE) as an important factor contributing to enhancements in computer-related task performance. However, the empirical results of CSE on performance have not always been consistent, and increasing an individual......'s CSE is often a cumbersome process. Thus, we introduce the theoretical concept of self-prophecy (SP) and examine how this social influence strategy can be used to improve computer-related task performance. Two experiments are conducted to examine the influence of SP on task performance. Results show...

  13. Tax Professional Internships and Subsequent Professional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…

  14. Scarred for the Rest of My Career? Career-Long Effects of Abusive Leadership on Professional Athlete Aggression and Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Erica L; Barling, Julian; Christie, Amy M; Trivisonno, Melissa; Tulloch, Kelsey; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Based on the contention that leadership has sustained effects on followers even after the leader-follower relationship has ended, we investigated the career-long effects of abusive coach leadership on athlete aggression and task performance. Abusive leadership scores were derived from ratings by two independent raters' evaluations of coaches' biographies, and athlete aggression and task performance data were derived from objective sources. Data were obtained from players (N = 693) and coaches (N = 57) involved in the National Basketball Association (NBA) between the 2000-2001 and 2005-2006 seasons. Controlling for tenure, salary, team winning percentage, and absence due to injuries, multilevel modeling showed that exposure to abusive leadership influenced both the trajectory of psychological aggression and task performance over players' careers. These findings suggest that the effects of abusive leadership extend far longer than currently acknowledged, thus furthering our understanding of the nature and effects of abusive leadership.

  15. Innovation in Accounting Tasks: Empirical Study in Two Professional Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Cristina da Silva Vicente

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge on innovation in accounting tasks, from the point of view of two professional groups. Its goals are: evaluating the importance given by the professionals to accounting tasks; identifying whether there is convergence between the two professional groups, regarding the importance of the tasks; examining whether there is an association between the professionals’ individual characteristics and the importance they attach to the tasks. Two professional groups were surveyed: 105 financial officers of the top 500 Portuguese companies; and 412 Chartered Accountants. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the respondents attach more importance to the traditional tasks, linked to the concept of a monetary-oriented accountant, and less importance to the more innovative tasks, related to business strategy; there is no convergence between the two professional groups in terms of the importance of the accountants’ participation in the strategic tasks. Regarding the association between individual characteristics and the level of importance assigned to the accounting tasks, we found an influence of the following characteristics: gender; academic degree of the professionals; and the institution where that degree was obtained.

  16. Knee stability, athletic performance and sport-specific tasks in non-professional soccer players after ACL reconstruction: comparing trans-tibial and antero-medial portal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Cosentino, Andrea; Chiozzi, Federica; Piva, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    a wrong position of bone tunnels, in particular on the femur, is one of the most frequent causes of a failed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Several studies demonstrated that drilling the femoral tunnel through the antero-medial portal (AMP) allows a more anatomical placement on the lateral femoral condyle and higher knee stability, compared to trans-tibial (TT) technique. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate two groups of soccer players operated on for ACL reconstruction according to either one of these two techniques. two groups of non-professional soccer players operated on for a single bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft using either a TT (20 patients) or an AMP (23 patients) technique were retrospectively evaluated with KT-1000 arthrometer, manual pivot shift test, isokinetic test, the incremental treadmill-running test, athletic and sport specific tasks, and knee scores (IKDC, Lysholm and KOOS). the AMP group showed better results at pivot shift test and KOOS, but lower flexion angles at single leg squat test. There were no differences in all the other considered outcomes. the better rotational stability of the knee achieved in AMP group did not lead to significantly better clinical and functional results in our patients. Case-control study.

  17. Professional Development for Mathematics Teachers: Using Task Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hea-Jin; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on a Task Design and Analysis activity from a year-long professional development program. The activity was designed to increase teacher growth in several areas, including knowledge of mathematics, understanding of students' cognitive activity, knowledge of good questions, and ability to develop and improve high quality tasks.…

  18. Professional Performance and Bureaucratic Benchmarking Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    Prior research documents positive effects of benchmarking information provision on performance and attributes this to social comparisons. However, the effects on professional recipients are unclear. Studies of professional control indicate that professional recipients often resist bureaucratic co...

  19. Organisational and task factors influencing teachers’ professional development at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.T.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Kreijns, K.

    2016-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate organisational (cultural and relational) and task factors which potentially enhance teachers’ professional development at work (TPD at Work). The development of lifelong learning competencies and, consequently, the careers of teachers, has

  20. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  1. Professional Performance and Bureaucratic Benchmarking Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    Prior research documents positive effects of benchmarking information provision on performance and attributes this to social comparisons. However, the effects on professional recipients are unclear. Studies of professional control indicate that professional recipients often resist bureaucratic...... controls because of organizational-professional conflicts. We therefore analyze the association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision and professional performance and suggest that the association is more positive if prior professional performance was low. We test our hypotheses based...... on archival, publicly disclosed, professional performance data for 191 German orthopedics departments, matched with survey data on bureaucratic benchmarking information given to chief orthopedists by the administration. We find a positive association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision...

  2. Professional Performance and Bureaucratic Benchmarking Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Melanie L.; Mahlendorf, Matthias D.; Schäffer, Utz

    controls because of organizational-professional conflicts. We therefore analyze the association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision and professional performance and suggest that the association is more positive if prior professional performance was low. We test our hypotheses based......Prior research documents positive effects of benchmarking information provision on performance and attributes this to social comparisons. However, the effects on professional recipients are unclear. Studies of professional control indicate that professional recipients often resist bureaucratic...... on archival, publicly disclosed, professional performance data for 191 German orthopedics departments, matched with survey data on bureaucratic benchmarking information given to chief orthopedists by the administration. We find a positive association between bureaucratic benchmarking information provision...

  3. THE PROFESSIONAL LEARNER AND PERFORMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Pertzborn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the field of higher education and expertise development for learning and performing the double bass. The aim is to draw a picture of how the double bass is currently learned and performed by the learning student, the supervising professor and the performer working in a symphony orchestra, to find out whether if there were any significant differences between the three groups in their approaches to practice and performance. Results indicated that the achievement of expertise on the double bass is multifaceted and implies the development of multiple tasks and skills which soon have to be fostered and experienced in the field of learning and performing. Significant differences between the three groups were detected in the area of demography, experiences, knowledge, and their approaches to practice. Recommendations and implications for further investigation indicate that a wider perspective of learning, practice, self-evaluation in combination of the usage of technology for practice support and feedback should be taken into account for enhancing performance ability for the double bass.

  4. Gender Differences in Job Ability Perception and Task Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Abstract: This study investigated gender differences in Job Ability Perception and Task. Performance among professionals in male dominated professions. The study was a descriptive survey research design. Four professions from the male dominated professions were randomly selected from Lagos and Rivers States.

  5. Pleasantness of Creative Tasks and Creative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenasni, Franck; Lubart, Todd

    2011-01-01

    To examine the impact of emotion on creative potential, experimental studies have typically focused on the impact of induced or spontaneous mood states on creative performance. In this report the relationship between the perceived pleasantness of tasks (using divergent thinking and story writing tasks) and creative performance was examined.…

  6. The minimum entropy principle and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten; Weinberger, Kelsey

    2013-07-01

    According to the minimum entropy principle, efficient cognitive performance is produced with a neurocognitive strategy that involves a minimum of degrees of freedom. Although high performance is often regarded as consistent performance as well, some variability in performance still remains which allows the person to adapt to changing goal conditions or fatigue. The present study investigated the connection between performance, entropy in performance, and four task-switching strategies. Fifty-one undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The temporal patterns of performance were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, and overall performance. Task switching strategies from a previous study were available for the same participants as well. Results indicated that both topological entropy and Shannon entropy were negatively correlated with performance. Some task-switching strategies produced lower entropy in performance than others. Stepwise regression showed that the top three predictors of performance were Shannon entropy and arithmetic and spatial abilities. Additional implications for the prediction of work performance with cognitive ability measurements and the applicability of the minimum entropy principle to multidimensional performance criteria and team work are discussed.

  7. Multiple-task performance and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In our modern society, complex technological systems typically require people to perform several tasks in a limited period of time. In order to be able to optimize such technological systems, the present thesis aims at explicating some difficulties with regard to the fundamentals of multiple-task

  8. Performance samples on academic tasks : improving prediction of academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanilon, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development and validation of a performance-based test, labeled as Performance Samples on academic tasks in Education and Child Studies (PSEd). PSEd is designed to identify students who are most able to perform the academic tasks involved in an Education and Child Studies

  9. Professional Identity Development: A Grounded Theory of Transformational Tasks of New Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Donna M.; Dollarhide, Colette T.; Moss, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional identity development is an important professional issue. Examining the lived experiences of counselors-in-training (CITs), the authors used grounded theory methodology to describe the transformational tasks that are required for professional identity development. Tasks include finding a personal definition of counseling, internalizing…

  10. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-03-01

    The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Performance samples on academic tasks: improving prediction of academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tanilon, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development and validation of a performance-based test, labeled as Performance Samples on academic tasks in Education and Child Studies (PSEd). PSEd is designed to identify students who are most able to perform the academic tasks involved in an Education and Child Studies bridging program. Many Dutch universities set up bridging programs that aim to prepare students with non-university degrees in the Netherlands for Master’s programs at the university level. Some univ...

  12. Perform or Else: The Performative Enhancement of Teacher Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Warren Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Singapore Ministry of Education's Enhanced Performance Management System (EPMS) was instituted in 2005 as a system of professional accountability to enhance the standards and stakes of teacher professionalism in schools. This essay explores how the EPMS, with its underlying paradigm of performance management, functions as a "technology of…

  13. Pay for performance and medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Marissa A

    2008-01-01

    Health care delivery systems are widely studying and implementing physician pay for performance (P4P) initiatives to improve quality and control costs. However, the increasing focus on quality-driven financial incentives has some troubling implications for medical professionalism. This article examines the P4P concept in light of a notion of medical fiduciary professionalism that dates back to the 18th-century Scottish physician John Gregory. Gregory's principles serve as a framework to assess the appropriateness of P4P initiatives in disseminating the principles of high-quality care without damage to professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, and access to care for all patients.

  14. Promising High Monetary Rewards for Future Task Performance Increases Intermediate Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedelius, Claire M.; Veling, Harm; Bijleveld, Erik; Aarts, Henk

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life contexts and work settings, monetary rewards are often contingent on future performance. Based on research showing that the anticipation of rewards causes improved task performance through enhanced task preparation, the present study tested the hypothesis that the promise of monetary rewards for future performance would not only increase future performance, but also performance on an unrewarded intermediate task. Participants performed an auditory Simon task in which they responded to two consecutive tones. While participants could earn high vs. low monetary rewards for fast responses to every second tone, their responses to the first tone were not rewarded. Moreover, we compared performance under conditions in which reward information could prompt strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented for a relatively long duration) to conditions preventing strategic performance adjustments (i.e., when reward information was presented very briefly). Results showed that high (vs. low) rewards sped up both rewarded and intermediate, unrewarded responses, and the effect was independent of the duration of reward presentation. Moreover, long presentation led to a speed-accuracy trade-off for both rewarded and unrewarded tones, whereas short presentation sped up responses to rewarded and unrewarded tones without this trade-off. These results suggest that high rewards for future performance boost intermediate performance due to enhanced task preparation, and they do so regardless whether people respond to rewards in a strategic or non-strategic manner. PMID:22905145

  15. [Qualification concept for delegation of medical tasks to nonmedical professional groups. The "Greifswalder 3-level model"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W; van den Berg, N; Dreier, A

    2013-04-01

    To manage the current demographics and the expected medical, nursing, and social care needs of the population, structural changes are needed in the German health care system. On the regional level, there is a shortage of general practitioners in Germany. In the future, the number of affected regions will likely increase. These trends require new support strategies, which include the delegation of medical tasks to nonphysician professionals of which nurses and medical assistants are the primary profession. Thus, they will expand their traditional scope of work. However, their traditional training does not qualify them to perform medical tasks responsibly and with high quality. Hence, there is a need for further development of advanced training programs. The goal is to tailor modular advanced training to the specific support needs of the patients. A recent law (GKV-Versorgungsstrukturgesetz, GKV-VStG, 1 January 2012) was passed that specifies and extends the delegation options of medical tasks beyond the restrictions defined in previous German legislation (§ 63, SGB V in 2008). In this article, we present a three-stage model for qualifying nonphysician medical professionals for defined ranges of medical tasks.

  16. Effect of music tempo on task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, C; Moss, S

    1989-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of music tempo on task performance. In Study 1, 44 undergraduate business students were asked to be "workers" in a stock market project by collecting closing stock prices and calculating the percentage of change in the price from week to week. Subjects were randomly divided into groups such that they either listened to fast-paced music while they worked, to slow-paced music, or to no music. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on both the quantity and quality of the subjects' work, using music listening habits as a covariate. There were no differences in either the quantity or quality of the work produced by the groups. There were some methodological concerns regarding Study 1, so a second study was conducted. The 70 undergraduate business students in Study 2 completed the same task under the same music conditions as in Study 1. Analyses of variance indicated women performed significantly better than men, performance was significantly higher in the rock condition than in the heartbeat condition, and subjects in the rock condition had a significantly higher perceived level of distraction by the music.

  17. Investigating Effects of Task Structure on EFL Learner's Oral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Massoud; Mehrang, Faezeh

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that tasks with different structures yield different performances in terms of accuracy, fluency and complexity. The present study is thus an attempt to investigate the impact of task structure on second language task performance. Thirty two upper-intermediate Iranian learners of English performed two narrative tasks (Structured vs.…

  18. Chaos Generation Managed Through Design Thinking: a Task Model for the Design Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Christina; Møllenbach, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    standard processes, but rather focus on developing a set of design tasks for each unique project, where design thinking and methods are implemented in unique ways. Chaos generation through chaos management as job to be done by the design professional is the main argument of this paper.......The task model presented here is a working vision for the design professional redirecting focus from the application of predefined project structures to a process of complex evaluation. The task model is developed through a hermeneutic analysis of the discourse applied by design professionals...... to their practice. The tasks identified provide both a new focus and direction to the value creation process, in which the design professional is engaged. The intention of this paper is to provide the professional practitioner with deeper insights into own design role and design agenda. It is suggested not to use...

  19. Performance Evaluation for Non-Teaching Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Anthony F.

    The program Performance Evaluation for Non-Teaching Professionals at the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome provides periodic assessments as required by institutional policy. The system is intended to establish a standard for judging quality of an employee's work and a rational and uniform basis for appraising…

  20. Physicists' Information Tasks: Structure, Length and Retrieval Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Ingwersen, Peter; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    to describe the tasks, 3) what semantic categories were used to express the search facets, and 4) retrieval performance. Results show variety in structure and length across task descriptions and task purposes. The results indicate effect of length and, in particular, of task purpose on retrieval performance...

  1. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organization of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. \\ud \\ud Our study compared...

  2. Effect Monitoring in Dual-Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Robert; Janczyk, Markus; Kunde, Wilfried

    2017-11-02

    Actions aim to produce effects in the environment. To accomplish this properly, we not only have to recruit the appropriate motor patterns, but also we must be able to monitor whether an intended effect has ultimately been realized. Here, we investigated the impact of such effect monitoring on performance in multitasking situations: Multitasking basically means to produce and monitor multiple actions and effects in fast succession. We show that effect monitoring cannot run in parallel, without causing processing decrements, with a second task. Also, monitoring of effects that are spatially incompatible to a response seems to take longer than the monitoring of spatially compatible action effects (Experiments 1 through 4). We further argue that effect monitoring is essential toward learning of response-effect associations, as it captures not only anticipated action effects, but also unpredictable occurrences in the environment (Experiments 5a and 5b). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Development of Primary School Teacher’s Competences in the Process of Solving Professional Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanina S.P.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of development of primary school teacher’s professional competences in the sphere of organization and formation elementary school pupils’ skills of educational cooperation. The article provides results of the research, which is directed at the study of teachers’ notions of productive methods of teacher and pupil collaboration and at development of elementary school teachers’ professional competences. The certain hypothesis is put to a test: a manner of cooperation, based on educational collaboration principles, contributes to development of primary school teacher’s competences. The principle of educational professional goals, considered constructive, development is shown. An instance of a task is exemplified: the task targets the study of effective cooperation methods between teacher and pupils and allows organization of a productive way of cooperation between students. The effectiveness of professional tasks usage in development of teachers’ competences within the confines of professional education is proven.

  4. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea R

    2017-05-01

    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organisation of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. Our study compared performance during dual task execution in expert musicians compared to controls with little if any musical experience. Participants performed a music recognition task and a visuo-spatial task separately (single task) or simultaneously (dual task). Both groups showed a significant but similar performance decline during dual tasks. In addition, the two groups showed a similar decline of dual task performance during encoding and retrieval of the musical information, mainly attributed to a decline in sensitivity. Our results suggest that attention during dual tasks is similarly distributed by expert and non-experts. These findings are in line with previous studies showing a lack of sensitivity to difficulty and lack of practice effect during dual tasks, supporting the idea that different tasks may rely on different and not-sharable attentional resources.

  5. Task Performance induced Work Load in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: High workload may lead to increase human errors, compromise quality and safety of care, and reduce the nurses’ quality of working life. The aim of this study is to determine the task-induced workload in nursing. Methods: This is a descriptive analytical study. All of 214 nurses of one of the educational hospital took part in. After obtaining informed consent from participants, data were collected based on NASA-TLX questionnaire and the desired level assumed less than 50%. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistics and Anova in SPSS software (version 11. 0 at significant level of 0.05. Results: The results showed that perceived mental pressure for nurses is more than other NASA-TLX subscales (P< .001. Also, the mean perceived workload was more than 50%. However, mean workload score of NASA-TLX showed significant correlation with age (P< .001, work experience (P< .001, shift work (P< .02, and department (P< .001. Conclusion: The results show that effective programs will be required to reduce the work load, and to enhance nurses' performance

  6. Performance assessment task team progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R. [and others

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, {open_quotes}Low-Level Waste Management{close_quotes}. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team`s purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993.

  7. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  8. Task complexity and task, goal, and reward interdependence in group performance management : A prescriptive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vijfeijken, H.; Kleingeld, A.; van Tuijl, H.; Algera, J.A.; Thierry, Hk.

    2002-01-01

    A prescriptive model on how to design effective combinations of goal setting and contingent rewards for group performance management is presented. The model incorporates the constructs task complexity, task interdependence, goal interdependence, and reward interdependence and specifies optimal fit

  9. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and 2 are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e. decreasing SOAs do not increase RTs and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/ or error rates in Task 1. This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  10. Japanese professional nurses spend unnecessarily long time doing nursing assistants' tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasushi; Yoshimura, Emiko; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shibuya, Akitaka; Aizawa, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    In environments in which professional nurses do simple tasks, e.g., laundry, cleaning, and waste disposal, they cannot concentrate on technical jobs by utilizing their expertise to its fullest benefit. Particularly, in Japan, the nursing shortage is a serious problem. If professional nurses take their time to do any of these simple tasks, the tasks should be preferentially allocated to nursing assistants. Because there has been no descriptive study to investigate the amount of time Japanese professional nurses spent doing such simple tasks during their working time, their actual conditions remain unclear. Professional nurses recorded their total working time and the time they spent doing such simple tasks during the week of the survey period. The time an individual respondent spent doing one or more simple tasks during that week was summed up, as was their working time. Subsequently, the percentage of the summed time he or she spent doing any of those tasks in his or her summed working time was calculated. A total of 1,086 respondents in 19 hospitals that had 87 to 376 beds were analyzed (response rate: 53.3%). The average time (SD) that respondents spent doing those simple tasks and their total working time were 2.24 (3.35) hours and 37.48 (10.88) hours, respectively. The average percentage (SD) of the time they spent doing the simple tasks in their working time was 6.00% (8.39). Hospital administrators must decrease this percentage. Proper working environments in which professional nurses can concentrate more on their technical jobs must be created.

  11. Belief, Evaluation, and Performance on an ESP Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Bruce D.; Turnbull, Bill

    1975-01-01

    Belief in the possibility of demonstrating ESP on an experimental task and evaluation of ESP were independently manipulated in two laboratory studies investigating the relationship between these varaibles and ESP task performance. (Editor)

  12. Relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams: an examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.

  13. Physicians' professional performance: an occupational health psychology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Renée A.

    2017-01-01

    Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be

  14. Working memory capacity modulates task performance but has little influence on task choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karin M; Arrington, Catherine M; Weywadt, Christina

    2011-05-01

    Variation in the ability to maintain internal goals while resolving competition from multiple information streams has been related to individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC). In a multitask environment, task choice and task performance are influenced by internal goals, prior behavior within the environment, and the availability of relevant and irrelevant information in the environment. Using the voluntary task-switching procedure, task performance, as measured by switch costs, was related to WMC, but only at short preparation intervals. Task choice processes were only weakly related to WMC. These findings are consistent with models of cognitive control that separate task choice processes from the processes of activating and maintaining task readiness. WMC is related to regulation of specific task parameters but not to choice processes integral to the coordination of multiple sources of information.

  15. Lucid dreaming and ventromedial versus dorsolateral prefrontal task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, Michelle; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Forselius, Erica; Pittman, Brian; Morgan, Peter T

    2011-06-01

    Activity in the prefrontal cortex may distinguish the meta-awareness experienced during lucid dreams from its absence in normal dreams. To examine a possible relationship between dream lucidity and prefrontal task performance, we carried out a prospective study in 28 high school students. Participants performed the Wisconsin Card Sort and Iowa Gambling tasks, then for 1 week kept dream journals and reported sleep quality and lucidity-related dream characteristics. Participants who exhibited a greater degree of lucidity performed significantly better on the task that engages the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (the Iowa Gambling Task), but degree of lucidity achieved did not distinguish performance on the task that engages the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (the Wisconsin Card Sort Task), nor did it distinguish self-reported sleep quality or baseline characteristics. The association between performance on the Iowa Gambling Task and lucidity suggests a connection between lucid dreaming and ventromedial prefrontal function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Personality predicts prospective memory task performance: an adult lifespan study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Carrie; Graf, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Do interindividual differences in prospective memory task performance reflect individual differences in personality and lifestyle? Do the cognitive abilities known to change with age retain their power to predict episodic prospective memory task performance after controlling for personality and lifestyle variables, and do personality and lifestyle variables offer predictive power apart from that provided by cognitive ability measures? To answer these questions, we conducted a study with community-living healthy individuals (n= 141) between 18 and 81 years of age. They completed three different episodic prospective memory tasks--two laboratory tasks and one field task--as well as various measures of personality, lifestyle, and cognitive ability. The results indicated that personality and lifestyle reliably predicted who will succeed and who will fail on all three episodic prospective memory tasks. Conscientiousness predicted performance on two of the prospective memory tasks; socially prescribed perfectionism and neuroticism each predicted performance on one of the prospective memory tasks. Cognitive ability predicted performance on one of the laboratory prospective memory tasks but not on the other two prospective memory tasks. After we controlled for individual differences in personality and lifestyle variables, cognitive ability was no longer able to predict performance on the laboratory prospective memory task. By contrast, controlling for cognitive ability had no influence on the predictive power of the personality and lifestyle variables.

  17. Gender differences in job ability perception and task performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference in Job Ability Perception among professionals (both male and female) in male dominated professions; while, there was a significant gender difference in tasks given to the Engineers and Estate Managers but no significant gender difference in the ...

  18. The Role of Task Complexity, Modality, and Aptitude in Narrative Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit; Trebits, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the relationship between components of aptitude and the fluency, lexical variety, syntactic complexity, and accuracy of performance in two types of written and spoken narrative tasks. We also addressed the question of how narrative performance varies in tasks of different cognitive complexity in the…

  19. Brain Modularity Mediates the Relation between Task Complexity and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qiuhai; Martin, Randi C; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Ramos-Nuñez, Aurora I; Ye, Fengdan; Deem, Michael W

    2017-09-01

    Recent work in cognitive neuroscience has focused on analyzing the brain as a network, rather than as a collection of independent regions. Prior studies taking this approach have found that individual differences in the degree of modularity of the brain network relate to performance on cognitive tasks. However, inconsistent results concerning the direction of this relationship have been obtained, with some tasks showing better performance as modularity increases and other tasks showing worse performance. A recent theoretical model [Chen, M., & Deem, M. W. 2015. Development of modularity in the neural activity of children's brains. Physical Biology, 12, 016009] suggests that these inconsistencies may be explained on the grounds that high-modularity networks favor performance on simple tasks whereas low-modularity networks favor performance on more complex tasks. The current study tests these predictions by relating modularity from resting-state fMRI to performance on a set of simple and complex behavioral tasks. Complex and simple tasks were defined on the basis of whether they did or did not draw on executive attention. Consistent with predictions, we found a negative correlation between individuals' modularity and their performance on a composite measure combining scores from the complex tasks but a positive correlation with performance on a composite measure combining scores from the simple tasks. These results and theory presented here provide a framework for linking measures of whole-brain organization from network neuroscience to cognitive processing.

  20. Brain Modularity Mediates the Relation between Task Complexity and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fengdan; Yue, Qiuhai; Martin, Randi; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Ramos-Nuã+/-Ez, Aurora; Deem, Michael

    Recent work in cognitive neuroscience has focused on analyzing the brain as a network, rather than a collection of independent regions. Prior studies taking this approach have found that individual differences in the degree of modularity of the brain network relate to performance on cognitive tasks. However, inconsistent results concerning the direction of this relationship have been obtained, with some tasks showing better performance as modularity increases, and other tasks showing worse performance. A recent theoretical model suggests that these inconsistencies may be explained on the grounds that high-modularity networks favor performance on simple tasks whereas low-modularity networks favor performance on complex tasks. The current study tests these predictions by relating modularity from resting-state fMRI to performance on a set of behavioral tasks. Complex and simple tasks were defined on the basis of whether they drew on executive attention. Consistent with predictions, we found a negative correlation between individuals' modularity and their performance on the complex tasks but a positive correlation with performance on the simple tasks. The results presented here provide a framework for linking measures of whole brain organization to cognitive processing.

  1. Selective impairment of masked priming in dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Schubert, Torsten

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the impact of divided attention on masked priming. In a dual-task setting, two tasks had to be carried out in close temporal succession: a tone discrimination task and a masked priming task. The order of the tasks was varied between experiments, and attention was always allocated to the first task-that is, the first task was prioritized. The priming task was the second (nonprioritized) task in Experiment 1 and the first (prioritized) task in Experiment 2. In both experiments, "novel" prime stimuli associated with semantic processing were essentially ineffective. However, there was intact priming by another type of prime stimuli associated with response priming. Experiment 3 showed that all these prime stimuli can reveal significant priming effects during a task-switching paradigm in which both tasks were performed consecutively. We conclude that dual-task specific interference processes (e.g., the simultaneous coordination of multiple stimulus-response rules) selectively impair priming that is assumed to rely on semantic processing.

  2. Performance management in healthcare: performance indicator development, task uncertainty, and types of performance indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geer, Eric; van Tuijl, Harrie F J M; Rutte, Christel G

    2009-11-01

    In healthcare, performance indicators are increasingly used to measure and control quality and efficiency of care-providing teams. This article demonstrates that when controllability is emphasized during indicator development, the level of task uncertainty influences the type of resulting performance indicators. We report findings from a field study in a medical rehabilitation centre in The Netherlands, where four low task uncertain teams ('hand trauma', 'heart failure', 'amputation', 'chronic pain'), and four high task uncertain teams ('children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD)', 'parkinson's disease', 'young children (0-4 years) with developmental disorders', and 'acquired brain injuries') participated in the development of performance indicators using the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES) method. Results show that teams higher on task uncertainty developed relatively more process indicators compared to outcome indicators, whereas the reverse was true for teams lower on task uncertainty. Additionally, process indicators developed by high task uncertain teams were more of a problem solving nature than process indicators developed by low task uncertain teams, which had a more procedural character. The study expands existing knowledge by providing a framework which explicates the task processes to be executed under different levels of task uncertainty, and in line with that appropriate performance indicators for healthcare teams.

  3. Administrative Task Performance by Heads of Senior High Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at examining the administrative task performance of heads of senior high schools (SHS) in Ghana from the organising perspective. The study hypothesized that there is no statistically significant difference in the compliance level of organising as an administrative task performance by heads in the rural and ...

  4. When predictions take control: The effect of task predictions on task switching performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wout eDuthoo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aimed to investigate the role of self-generated predictions in the flexible control of behaviour. Therefore, we ran a task switching experiment in which participants were asked to try to predict the upcoming task in three conditions varying in switch rate (30%, 50% and 70%. Irrespective of their predictions, the colour of the target indicated which task participants had to perform. In line with previous studies (Mayr, 2006; Monsell & Mizon, 2006, the switch cost was attenuated as the switch rate increased. Importantly, a clear task repetition bias was found in all conditions, yet the task repetition prediction rate dropped from 78% over 66% to 49% with increasing switch probability in the three conditions. Irrespective of condition, the switch cost was strongly reduced in expectation of a task alternation compared to the cost of an unexpected task alternation following repetition predictions. Hence, our data suggest that the reduction in the switch cost with increasing switch probability is caused by a diminished expectancy for the task to repeat. Taken together, this paper highlights the importance of predictions in the flexible control of behaviour, and suggests a crucial role for task repetition expectancy in the context-sensitive adjusting of task switching performance.

  5. Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-efficacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a fine-tuned task-specific level. The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-efficacy beliefs, domain-related prior knowledge, learning strategy use, and task performance as they were applied to English vocabulary learning from reading tasks. Participants were 120 second-year university students (mean age 21) from a Chinese university. This experiment had two conditions (simple/complex). A vocabulary level test was first conducted to measure participants' prior knowledge of English vocabulary. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the learning tasks. Participants were administered task booklets together with the self-efficacy scales, measures of learning strategy use, and post-tests. Data obtained were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis. Results from the MANOVA model showed a significant effect of vocabulary level on self-efficacy beliefs, learning strategy use, and task performance. Task complexity showed no significant effect; however, an interaction effect between vocabulary level and task complexity emerged. Results from the path analysis showed self-efficacy beliefs had an indirect effect on performance. Our results highlighted the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs and learning strategy use. Our findings indicate that students' prior knowledge plays a crucial role on both self-efficacy beliefs and task performance, and the predictive power of self-efficacy on task performance may lie in its association with learning strategy use. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self

  7. Task Performance and Interpersonal Attraction in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, John M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports two studies investigating how performance information affects interpersonal attraction in children. In both experiments children worked on perceptual problems in simulated groups, received feedback about their own and other group members' performance, and then indicated their desire to interact with selected group members in various…

  8. Characterization of Task-free and Task-performance Brain States via Functional Connectome Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Guo, Lei; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Tuo; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Chen, Hanbo; Lv, Jinglei; Jin, Changfeng; Zhao, Qun; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Both resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) and task-based fMRI (T-fMRI) have been widely used to study the functional activities of the human brain during task-free and task-performance periods, respectively. However, due to the difficulty in strictly controlling the participating subject's mental status and their cognitive behaviors during R-fMRI/T-fMRI scans, it has been challenging to ascertain whether or not an R-fMRI/T-fMRI scan truly reflects the participant's functional brain states during task-...

  9. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  10. Computerised self-evaluation of performance in professional English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the focus of this article is to explore self-evaluation of performance in professional English that students have to do in university studies. It is clear that students can have various problems in learning English and make mistakes in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and vocabulary. Speaking and listening are the skills that are more common on an everyday basis than reading and writing. Speaking and listening skills have been known to be more difficult to master. English vocabulary presents another problem for language learners. At the university level, students study professional English, also called English for Specific Purposes (ESP. Students will need it for their future profession, so it is important for them to be able to evaluate their achievements in learning.Methodology/approach – the research paper adopts the qualitative research approach. The questionnaire on learner perceptions of computerized self-evaluation of various activities was administered to students of three different specializations. Students‘ perceptions of success or failure in their performance were analyzed.Findings. The results indicated that attitudes to computerized self-evaluation depended on the difficulty of tasks and chosen future specialization. The findings show that respondents of three investigated specializations encounter similar difficulties, but to a different degree. There are no specific problems in performance due to the complexity of the professional vocabulary that students must learn. The computations of Pearson’s correlations coefficients demonstrate that there are good correlational relationships within each specialization. The ratings of Psychology (PS students reveal higher mean values and lower scattering of Standard Deviations in Moodle tasks than the ratings of Internet Management and Communication (IMC students.Research limitations. The investigated samples contain the limited number of respondents, which might

  11. Effect of Redundant Haptic Information on Task Performance During Visuo-Tactile Task Interruption and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Seung Moon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that interruption induces disruptive influences on the performance of cognitive tasks. While much research has focused on the use of multimodal channels to reduce the cost of interruption, few studies have utilized haptic information as more than an associative cue. In the present study, we utilized a multimodal task interruption scenario involving the simultaneous presentation of visual information and haptic stimuli in order to investigate how the combined stimuli affect performance on the primary task (cost of interruption. Participants were asked to perform a two-back visuo-tactile task, in which visual and haptic stimuli were presented simultaneously, which was interrupted by a secondary task that also utilized visual and haptic stimuli. Four experimental conditions were evaluated: (1 paired information (visual stimulus + paired haptic stimulus with interruption; (2 paired information without interruption; (3 non-paired information (visual stimulus + non-paired haptic stimulus with interruption; and (4 non-paired information without interruption. Our findings indicate that, within a visuo-tactile task environment, redundant haptic information may not only increase accuracy on the primary task but also reduce the cost of interruption in terms of accuracy. These results suggest a new way of understanding the task recovery process within a multimodal environment.

  12. Learners' Performance in Doing Task with and without Teacher's Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Massoud; Zakeri, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Recently task-based language teaching has attracted many researchers', testers' and syllabus designers' attention and consequently a lot of studies are carried out in this field. This study was conducted in the task-based realm too. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of teacher's presence on learners' performance in doing…

  13. The Effects of Distraction on Cognitive Task Performance during Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Nancy M.; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Haden, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of distraction on attention and task performance during toddlerhood. Thirty toddlers (24- to 26-month-olds) completed different tasks (2 of each: categorization, problem solving, memory, free play) in one of two conditions: No Distraction or Distraction. The results revealed that the distractor had varying effects on…

  14. Interference effects of vocalization on dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, J. M.; Goodman, L. S.; Pianka, M. J.

    1984-09-01

    Voice command and control systems have been proposed as a potential means of off-loading the typically overburdened visual information processing system. However, prior to introducing novel human-machine interfacing technologies in high workload environments, consideration must be given to the integration of the new technologists within existing task structures to ensure that no new sources of workload or interference are systematically introduced. This study examined the use of voice interactive systems technology in the joint performance of two cognitive information processing tasks requiring continuous memory and choice reaction wherein a basis for intertask interference might be expected. Stimuli for the continuous memory task were presented aurally and either voice or keyboard responding was required in the choice reaction task. Performance was significantly degraded in each task when voice responding was required in the choice reaction time task. Performance degradation was evident in higher error scores for both the choice reaction and continuous memory tasks. Performance decrements observed under conditions of high intertask stimulus similarity were not statistically significant. The results signal the need to consider further the task requirements for verbal short-term memory when applying speech technology in multitask environments.

  15. Teaching Software Developers to Perform UX Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øvad, Tina; Bornoe, Nis; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    Good UX design is becoming important within the industry when developing new products. This entails that UX skills have to be available in the development processes. This paper investigates the opportunities of using software developers as a UX work resource in the day-to-day working practice....... This is done via an action research study where the developers were provided with material concerning a modified AB usability test, by training them in performing this type of work, and by using their feedback to improve the method and the material. The overall result of the study is positive and it is found...... that by using the developers' feedback in the modification process, the method has truly become applicable within an agile, industrial setting. In combination with a guideline and template this has induced the developers to feel confident in independently performing this type of work....

  16. Pycnogenol® improves cognitive function, attention, mental performance and specific professional skills in healthy professionals aged 35-55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Luzzi, R; Dugall, M; Ippolito, E; Saggino, A

    2014-12-01

    This 12-week, product-evaluation registry study aimed to compare the effects of supplementation with French Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol®) on cognitive function, attention, and mental performance in healthy professionals with increased oxidative stress in a professional context. Professionals were screened for increased oxidative stress: 60 subjects (range 35-55 years, no risk conditions, no addictions) voluntarily decided to be followed-up. Diet, alcohol and lifestyle patterns, including exercise, were controlled. Pycnogenol® (150 mg/day) was used in combination with a health plan to enhance mental performance and control oxidative stress. A group of 30 professionals used Pycnogenol®, and 29 acted as comparable controls for a period of 12 weeks. The two registry groups were comparable. Cognitive function, attention, mental performance, sustained attention, memory, executive functions, mood and oxidative stress values were comparable at inclusion. At 12 weeks the improvement in Pycnogenol® subjects was more significant than in controls. Plasma-free radicals (oxidative stress) were significantly decreased (median -30.4%) at 12 weeks in Pycnogenol® subjects in comparison with a non-significant variation observed in controls (+0.9%; difference between groups). Considering the cognitive test battery (PASAT, pattern recognition memory, spatial recognition memory, spatial working memory), Pycnogenol® subjects showed a small but significant improvement with spatial recognition memory unchanged. Mood parameters (alertness, anxiety, contentedness) also improved in professionals using the supplement. In the evaluation of 12 professional daily tasks all items were improved with Pycnogenol® supplementation. The score relative to semi-professional minitasks was improved more in Pycnogenol® subjects. Tolerability and compliance were optimal with >94% of the doses of supplement correctly used. Pycnogenol® supplementation for 12 weeks appears to improve cognitive

  17. Professional development in statistics, technology, and cognitively demanding tasks: classroom implementation and obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Gregory D.; Bakr Khoshaim, Heba; Alsaeed, Maha; Nihan Er, S.

    2012-03-01

    Attending professional development programmes can support teachers in applying new strategies for teaching mathematics and statistics. This study investigated (a) the extent to which the participants in a professional development programme subsequently used the techniques they had learned when teaching mathematics and statistics and (b) the obstacles they encountered in enacting cognitively demanding instructional tasks in their classrooms. The programme created an intellectual learning community among the participants and helped them gain confidence as teachers of statistics, and the students of participating teachers became actively engaged in deep mathematical thinking. The participants indicated, however, that time, availability of resources and students' prior achievement critically affected the implementation of cognitively demanding instructional activities.

  18. Reducing postural sway by concurrently performing challenging cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polskaia, Nadia; Lajoie, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The present experiment varied cognitive complexity and sensory modality on postural control in young adults. Seventeen participants (23.71±1.99years) were instructed to stand feet together on a force platform while concurrently performing cognitive tasks of varying degrees of difficulty (easy, moderate and difficult). The cognitive tasks were presented both, auditorily and visually. Auditory tasks consisted of counting the occurrence of one or two letters and repeating a string of words. Visual tasks consisted of counting the occurrence of one or two numbers. With increasing cognitive demand, area of 95% confidence ellipse and ML sway variability was significantly reduced. The visual tasks reduced ML sway variability, whereas the auditory tasks increased COP irregularity. We suggest that these findings are primarily due to an increase in sensorimotor integration as a result of a shift in attentional focus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of task design on task performance and injury risk: case study of a simulated drilling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkarim, Saad; Nussbaum, Maury A; Rashedi, Ehsan; Kim, Sunwook; Agnew, Michael; Gardner, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Existing evidence is limited regarding the influence of task design on performance and ergonomic risk, or the association between these two outcomes. In a controlled experiment, we constructed a mock fuselage to simulate a drilling task common in aircraft manufacturing, and examined the effect of three levels of workstation adjustability on performance as measured by productivity (e.g. fuselage completion time) and quality (e.g. fuselage defective holes), and ergonomic risk as quantified using two common methods (rapid upper limb assessment and the strain index). The primary finding was that both productivity and quality significantly improved with increased adjustability, yet this occurred only when that adjustability succeeded in reducing ergonomic risk. Supporting the inverse association between ergonomic risk and performance, the condition with highest adjustability created the lowest ergonomic risk and the best performance while there was not a substantial difference in ergonomic risk between the other two conditions, in which performance was also comparable. Practitioner Summary: Findings of this study supported a causal relationship between task design and both ergonomic risk and performance, and that ergonomic risk and performance are inversely associated. While future work is needed under more realistic conditions and a broader population, these results may be useful for task (re)design and to help cost-justify some ergonomic interventions.

  20. Circadian Effects on Simple Components of Complex Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Benjamin A.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Vieane, Alex Z.; Gutzwiller, Robert S.; Sebok, Angelia L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to advance understanding and prediction of the impact of circadian rhythm on aspects of complex task performance during unexpected automation failures, and subsequent fault management. Participants trained on two tasks: a process control simulation, featuring automated support; and a multi-tasking platform. Participants then completed one task in a very early morning (circadian night) session, and the other during a late afternoon (circadian day) session. Small effects of time of day were seen on simple components of task performance, but impacts on more demanding components, such as those that occur following an automation failure, were muted relative to previous studies where circadian rhythm was compounded with sleep deprivation and fatigue. Circadian low participants engaged in compensatory strategies, rather than passively monitoring the automation. The findings and implications are discussed in the context of a model that includes the effects of sleep and fatigue factors.

  1. How different types of participant payments alter task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers typically use incentives (such as money or course credit in order to obtain participants who engage in the specific behaviors of interest to the researcher. There is, however, little understanding or agreement on the effects of different types and levels of incentives used. Some results in the domain of statistical reasoning suggest that performance differences --- previously deemed theoretically important --- may actually be due to differences in incentive types across studies. 704 participants completed one of five variants of a statistical reasoning task, for which they received either course credit, flat fee payment, or performance-based payment incentives. Successful task completion was more frequent with performance-based incentives than with either of the other incentive types. Performance on moderately difficult tasks (compared to very easy and very hard tasks was most sensitive to incentives. These results can help resolve existing debates about inconsistent findings, guide more accurate comparisons across studies, and be applied beyond research settings.

  2. Disability in late-life major depression: Patterns of self-reported task abilities, task habits, and observed task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Joan C.; Holm, Margo B.; Raina, Ketki D.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Shih, Min-Mei; Begley, Amy; Houck, Patricia R.; Mazumdar, Sati; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of concordance/discordance between self-reported abilities (“can do”) and habits (“does do”) and observed task performance of daily living tasks in 3 groups of older adults: late life depression with mild cognitive impairment (n = 53), late life depression without mild cognitive impairment (n = 64), and non-depressed, cognitively normal controls (n = 31). Self-reported data were gathered by interview in participants' homes, followed by observation of task performance. Significant differences in the patterns of response were found between controls and respondents with both late life depression and mild cognitive impairment for the cognitive instrumental activities, and between the two depressed groups and controls for the physical instrumental activities. For both sets of activities, controls exhibited the greatest overestimation of task performance. No differences were found among the groups for the less complex functional mobility and personal care tasks. However, for the more complex instrumental activities, concordance was close to, or less than, chance. The findings led us to conclude that when performance testing is not feasible, self-reports of functional status that focus on habits may be more accurate than those that focus on abilities. PMID:20537712

  3. Evaluation Of The Job Performance Of Extension Professionals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was design to assess the job performance of extension professionals in Abia state agricultural development programme (ADP). The study also highlighted the relationship between selected personal characteristics and job performance variables of extension professionals in Abia state ADP. A sample of ninety six ...

  4. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  5. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  6. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGathmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring - an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task. This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST, measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task.

  7. Children's Performance on Two Tasks of Visual and Tactual Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Virginia

    1982-01-01

    Reports the results of two experiments dealing with children's visual and tactual performance. In the first task, after several presentations of a series, the tactual group made almost errorless discriminations. But with memory demands, tactual performance became poorer than visual performance. Found a large developmental difference. (JAC)

  8. The influence of principal managerial task performance on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor performance of managerial tasks culminates declining staff productivity and thus deteriorating students academic performance. Secondary school students performance in most public examinations are not satisfactory in most states in Nigeria. Hence, this study investigate the extent to which secondary school principal ...

  9. Functional Task Test: 1. Sensorimotor changes Associated with Postflight Alterations in Astronaut Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N. H.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Platts, S. H.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.

  10. Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ninaus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level. 

  11. Improving Physical Task Performance with Counterfactual and Prefactual Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Cecilia; Chan, Amy Y C

    2016-01-01

    Counterfactual thinking (reflecting on "what might have been") has been shown to enhance future performance by translating information about past mistakes into plans for future action. Prefactual thinking (imagining "what might be if…") may serve a greater preparative function than counterfactual thinking as it is future-orientated and focuses on more controllable features, thus providing a practical script to prime future behaviour. However, whether or not this difference in hypothetical thought content may translate into a difference in actual task performance has been largely unexamined. In Experiment 1 (n = 42), participants performed trials of a computer-simulated physical task, in between which they engaged in either task-related hypothetical thinking (counterfactual or prefactual) or an unrelated filler task (control). As hypothesised, prefactuals contained more controllable features than counterfactuals. Moreover, participants who engaged in either form of hypothetical thinking improved significantly in task performance over trials compared to participants in the control group. The difference in thought content between counterfactuals and prefactuals, however, did not yield a significant difference in performance improvement. Experiment 2 (n = 42) replicated these findings in a dynamic balance task environment. Together, these findings provide further evidence for the preparatory function of counterfactuals, and demonstrate that prefactuals share this same functional characteristic.

  12. Improving Physical Task Performance with Counterfactual and Prefactual Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Cecilia; Chan, Amy Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    Counterfactual thinking (reflecting on “what might have been”) has been shown to enhance future performance by translating information about past mistakes into plans for future action. Prefactual thinking (imagining “what might be if…”) may serve a greater preparative function than counterfactual thinking as it is future-orientated and focuses on more controllable features, thus providing a practical script to prime future behaviour. However, whether or not this difference in hypothetical thought content may translate into a difference in actual task performance has been largely unexamined. In Experiment 1 (n = 42), participants performed trials of a computer-simulated physical task, in between which they engaged in either task-related hypothetical thinking (counterfactual or prefactual) or an unrelated filler task (control). As hypothesised, prefactuals contained more controllable features than counterfactuals. Moreover, participants who engaged in either form of hypothetical thinking improved significantly in task performance over trials compared to participants in the control group. The difference in thought content between counterfactuals and prefactuals, however, did not yield a significant difference in performance improvement. Experiment 2 (n = 42) replicated these findings in a dynamic balance task environment. Together, these findings provide further evidence for the preparatory function of counterfactuals, and demonstrate that prefactuals share this same functional characteristic. PMID:27942041

  13. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W; Myers, Justus

    2013-12-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternative explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost--that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternative explanations for both the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across sub-disciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternative models might be empirically distinguished.

  14. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, S.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fein, G. (Neurobehavioral Lab. Software, San Rafael, CA (United States)); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. (ABRATech Corp., Mill Valley, CA (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m[sup 2] and 73 cd/m[sup 2]. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  15. Luminance controlled pupil size affects Landolt C task performance. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, S.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fein, G. [Neurobehavioral Lab. Software, San Rafael, CA (United States); Jewett, D.L.; Ashford, F. [ABRATech Corp., Mill Valley, CA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Subjects judged the orientation of a 2 min. gap Landolt C located at a distance of 2.4 m. The stimuli were presented in central vision on a CRT, at low to medium contrast. The effects of varying the spectrum and luminance of surround lighting were assessed on both pupil size (measured using infrared pupillometry during task performance) and task accuracy. The task display was protected from the surround lighting, so that its luminance and contrast could be varied independently of the changes in the surround lighting. Indirect surround illumination was provided by either two illuminants of very different scotopic spectral content but with the same photopic luminance (Experiments 1 and 3), or by using the same illuminant at two different luminance levels (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, the effect of changing surround spectrum was compared to the effect of varying task background luminance between 12 cd/m{sup 2} and 73 cd/m{sup 2}. In all experiments, scotopically enhanced surround lighting produced pupil areas which were reduced by almost 50% in comparison with surround lighting with relatively less scotopic luminance. Concomitantly there was improvement in Landolt C task performance with the scotopically enhanced surround lighting at all contrast and luminance levels. In these experiments, smaller pupil sizes were associated with significantly better visual-task performance in spite of lower task retinal illuminance when compared to the condition with larger pupils. These results suggest that changes in surround spectrum can compensate for the effect on task performance of a reduction in task luminance and supports the hypothesis that lighting energy savings could accrue in the workplace by shifting lamp spectra to obtain greater scotopic efficacy.

  16. Advancing a new evidence-based professional in health care: job task analysis for health and wellness coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Jordan, Meg; Lawson, Karen; Moore, Margaret

    2016-06-27

    The pressing need to manage burgeoning chronic disease has led to the emergence of job roles such as health and wellness coaches (HWCs). As use of this title has increased dramatically, so has the need to ensure consistency, quality and safety for health and wellness coaching (HWC) provided in both practice and research. Clear and uniform role definitions and competencies are required to ensure appropriate scope of practice, to allow best practices to emerge, and to support the implementation of well-designed, large scale studies to accumulate a rigorous evidence base. Since the nascent field is replete with heterogeneity in terms of role delineations and competencies, a collaborative volunteer non-profit organization, the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches (NCCHWC), has been built over the past six years to support professionalization of the field. In 2014, a professionally led Job Task Analysis (JTA) was conducted with 15 carefully selected subject matter experts (SMEs) with diverse education and professional backgrounds who were practicing HWC in a wide variety of settings. After establishing a thorough list of specific tasks employed during HWC, the expert panel discussed the knowledge and skills necessary to competently perform the tasks. Subsequently, a large validation survey assessed the relative importance and frequency of each identified job task in conducting HWC. The JTA identified 21 job tasks as essential to HWC. In the subsequent validation survey, 4026 practicing health and wellness coaches were invited to rate each of the 21 job tasks in terms of their importance and frequency. A response rate of 25.6 % provided a diverse sample (n = 1031) in terms of background, and represented a wide variety of training programs from academia, industry, the private sector and associations. Per best practices, the subset of practicing HWCs (n = 885) provided importance and frequency ratings to be used to calculate task and

  17. KPG oral exams: task design considerations and actual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Nteliou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a task analysis model that has been designed for the oral tasks of the Greek State Exams for foreign language certification (known as KPG. The theoretical background of the model is based on the systemic functional approach to language use as well as on the notion of genre as both process and product. The purpose of this paper is to show how the model has been applied to describe and analyze the tasks designed for the KPG oral exams at levels B1 and B2. The analysis of the oral task rubrics shows that the generic process specified by the task is likely to lead test takers to particular lexicogrammatical choices, which, in turn, cause differences in the expected language performance. Implications for future research, language teaching and testing are mentioned.

  18. Are factors related to dual-task performance in people with Parkinson's disease dependent on the type of dual task?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strouwen, C.; Molenaar, E.A.; Keus, S.H.; Munks, L.; Heremans, E.; Vandenberghe, W.; Bloem, B.R.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired dual-task performance significantly impacts upon functional mobility in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify determinants of dual-task performance in people with PD in three different dual tasks to assess their possible task-dependency.

  19. Manipulating perceptual parameters in a continuous performance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Nir; Humphreys, Glyn; Demeyere, Nele

    2017-03-31

    Sustained attention (SA) is among the most studied faculties of human cognition, and thought to be crucial for many aspects of behavior. Measuring SA often relies on performance on a continuous, low-demanding task. Such continuous performance tasks (CPTs) have many variations, and sustained attention is typically estimated based on variability in reaction times. While relying on reaction times may be useful in some cases, it can pose a challenge when working with clinical populations. To increase interpersonal variability in task parameters that do not rely on speed, researchers have increased demands for memory and response inhibition. These approaches, however, may be confounded when used to assess populations that suffer from multiple cognitive deficits. In the current study, we propose a new approach for increasing task variability by increasing the attentional demands. In order to do so, we created a new variation of a CPT - a masked version, where inattention is more likely to cause misidentifying a target. After establishing that masking indeed decreases target detection, we further investigated which task parameter may influence response biases. To do so, we contrasted two versions of the CPT with different target/distractor ratio. We then established how perceptual parameters can be controlled independently in a CPT. Following the experimental manipulations, we tested the MCCPT with aging controls and chronic stroke patients to assure the task can be used with target populations. The results confirm the MCCPT as a task providing high sensitivity without relying on reaction speed, and feasible for patients.

  20. Impact of tasks and users' characteristics on virtual reality performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndiuk, F; Lespinet-Najib, V; Thomas, G; Schlick, C

    2007-06-01

    A better understanding of how users perform virtual reality (VR) tasks may help build better VR interfaces. In this study, we concentrated on the compensatory behavior in VR depending on the tasks and users' characteristics. The tasks characteristics considered were display size (large display vs. desktop monitor) and tasks types (manipulation and travel). The users' characteristics studied were the visual attention abilities and users' satisfaction. Ninety-five subjects participated in the experimentation composed of two parts: the first one consisted in cognitive tests used to evaluate visual attention abilities, and the second one was based on a set of VR tasks. Our result showed that large displays positively affect on performance for some kinds of VR tasks. Moreover, this impact was linked to users' satisfaction and visual attention abilities. Indeed, users with low-level attention abilities and users who preferred the large display took more advantage of large displays. We concluded that large displays can be considered cognitive aids depending on the tasks and users' characteristics.

  1. Does Degree of Work Task Completion Influence Retrieval Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Bogers, Toine; Lykke, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    their perception of task completion. Also, with the exception of full text records and across all document types, both measured at rank 10, no statistically significant correlation is observed with respect to retrieval performance influenced by degrees of perceived work task completion or individual types......In this contribution we investigate the potential influence between assessors’ perceived completion of their work task at hand and their actual assessment of usefulness of the retrieved information. The results indicate that the number of useful documents found by assessors does not influence...

  2. Manipulator Performance Evaluation Using Fitts' Taping Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.; Jared, B.C.; Noakes, M.W.

    1999-04-25

    Metaphorically, a teleoperator with master controllers projects the user's arms and hands into a re- mote area, Therefore, human users interact with teleoperators at a more fundamental level than they do with most human-machine systems. Instead of inputting decisions about how the system should func- tion, teleoperator users input the movements they might make if they were truly in the remote area and the remote machine must recreate their trajectories and impedance. This intense human-machine inter- action requires displays and controls more carefully attuned to human motor capabilities than is neces- sary with most systems. It is important for teleoperated manipulators to be able to recreate human trajectories and impedance in real time. One method for assessing manipulator performance is to observe how well a system be- haves while a human user completes human dexterity tasks with it. Fitts' tapping task has been, used many times in the past for this purpose. This report describes such a performance assessment. The International Submarine Engineering (ISE) Autonomous/Teleoperated Operations Manipulator (ATOM) servomanipulator system was evalu- ated using a generic positioning accuracy task. The task is a simple one but has the merits of (1) pro- ducing a performance function estimate rather than a point estimate and (2) being widely used in the past for human and servomanipulator dexterity tests. Results of testing using this task may, therefore, allow comparison with other manipulators, and is generically representative of a broad class of tasks. Results of the testing indicate that the ATOM manipulator is capable of performing the task. Force reflection had a negative impact on task efficiency in these data. This was most likely caused by the high resistance to movement the master controller exhibited with the force reflection engaged. Measurements of exerted forces were not made, so it is not possible to say whether the force reflection helped

  3. Balance Performance of Professional Footballers with Long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore investigated balance performance (BPf) in professional footballers with longterm LLMI, the effect of limb dominance on BPf and comparison of BPf in injured footballers with their uninjured counterparts. A sample of 115 professional footballers – 104 males and 11 females, participated in the study and ...

  4. Emotional intelligence and stress in medical students performing surgical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sonal; Russ, Stephanie; Petrides, K V; Sirimanna, Pramudith; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Darzi, Ara; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-10-01

    Poor stress management skills can compromise performance in the operating room, particularly in inexperienced trainees. Little is known about individual differences in managing stress. This study aimed to explore the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and objective and subjective measures of stress in medical students faced with unfamiliar surgical tasks. Seventeen medical undergraduates completed an unfamiliar laparoscopic task on a simulator during January to April 2008. Subjective stress before, during (retrospectively), and after the task was measured using the self-report State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Objective stress was measured using continuous heart rate (HR) monitoring. Participants also completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire short form (TEIQue-SF). The authors computed scores for global trait EI and the TEIQue-SF four factors and carried out descriptive and correlational analyses. The highest levels of subjective stress were reported during the task and correlated positively with trait EI as well as with the trait EI factors of well-being and emotionality. Objective stress (mean HR) during the task was positively related to the sociability factor of trait EI. Higher trait EI scores were also associated with better after-task recovery from stress experienced during the task. Students with higher trait EI are more likely to experience stress during unfamiliar surgical scenarios but are also more likely to recover better compared with their lower-trait-EI peers. Trait EI has implications for the design of effective stress management training tailored to individual needs and potential applications to surgical trainee selection and development.

  5. Chimpanzee intellect: personality, performance and motivation with touchscreen tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Drew M; Wallace, Emma K; Sonnweber, Ruth; Tomonaga, Masaki; Weiss, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Human intellect is characterized by intercorrelated psychological domains, including intelligence, academic performance and personality. Higher openness is associated with higher intelligence and better academic performance, yet high performance among individuals is itself attributable to intelligence, not openness. High conscientiousness individuals, although not necessarily more intelligent, are better performers. Work with other species is not as extensive, yet animals display similar relationships between exploration- and persistence-related personality traits and performance on cognitive tasks. However, previous studies linking cognition and personality have not tracked learning, performance and dropout over time-three crucial elements of cognitive performance. We conducted three participatory experiments with touchscreen cognitive tasks among 19 zoo-housed chimpanzees, whose personalities were assessed 3 years prior to the study. Performance and participation were recorded across experiments. High conscientiousness chimpanzees participated more, dropped out less and performed better, but their performance could be explained by their experience with the task. High openness chimpanzees tended to be more interested, perform better and continue to participate when not rewarded with food. Our results demonstrate that chimpanzees, like humans, possess broad intellectual capacities that are affected by their personalities.

  6. Highly automated driving, secondary task performance, and driver state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merat, Natasha; Jamson, A Hamish; Lai, Frank C H; Carsten, Oliver

    2012-10-01

    A driving simulator study compared the effect of changes in workload on performance in manual and highly automated driving. Changes in driver state were also observed by examining variations in blink patterns. With the addition of a greater number of advanced driver assistance systems in vehicles, the driver's role is likely to alter in the future from an operator in manual driving to a supervisor of highly automated cars. Understanding the implications of such advancements on drivers and road safety is important. A total of 50 participants were recruited for this study and drove the simulator in both manual and highly automated mode. As well as comparing the effect of adjustments in driving-related workload on performance, the effect of a secondary Twenty Questions Task was also investigated. In the absence of the secondary task, drivers' response to critical incidents was similar in manual and highly automated driving conditions. The worst performance was observed when drivers were required to regain control of driving in the automated mode while distracted by the secondary task. Blink frequency patterns were more consistent for manual than automated driving but were generally suppressed during conditions of high workload. Highly automated driving did not have a deleterious effect on driver performance, when attention was not diverted to the distracting secondary task. As the number of systems implemented in cars increases, an understanding of the implications of such automation on drivers' situation awareness, workload, and ability to remain engaged with the driving task is important.

  7. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE AND TASK-CONTEXTUAL PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Aykan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the relationships between the emotional competence and task-contextual performance of employees. Data were gathered from 342 employees working in state and private banks. Relationships between the variables, significant relationships between the emotional competence dimensions and performance dimensions were observed in this study. No relationship was observed between the “guilty” dimension of emotional competence and task performance.Non-hierarchical cluster analysis was selected and K-means cluster analysis was performed to determine the emotional competence levels of participant banking professionals. The seven pre-specified emotional competences were classified by using Ward’s method. Cluster analysis revealed that the emotional competences of the participants were clustered in two groups as high and low. Regression analyses revealed insignificant relationships between the emotional competence and task performance of employees, but positive significant relationships between emotional competence and contextual performance. Significant differences were also observed in the emotional competence levels and task-contextual performances of employees. In other words, individuals with high emotional competence levels also exhibited high performances.

  8. Development of a formative assessment tool for measurement of performance in multi-professional resuscitation teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Oluf; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Treating cardiac arrest is linked to the mutual performance of several health-care individuals' task coordination. Non-technical skills, including communication, leadership and team interaction, could improve sequencing the tasks in the cardiac arrest algorithm. Non-technical skills have been...... a part of crew resource management training, created to improve safety in aviation. This study aimed, first, to establish crew resource management and non-technical skill-based learning objectives and behavioural markers for the performance of multi-professional resuscitation teams; second, to develop...

  9. Stress appraisals and training performance on a complex laboratory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Kevin M; Schneider, Tamara R; Shebilske, Wayne L

    2007-08-01

    We investigated whether training performance on a complex laboratory task differs for trainees whose stress appraisals denote challenge or threat. Past research outside a training context found better performance on tasks when stress appraisals denoted challenge (in which perceived situational demands are commensurate with perceived resources) as opposed to threat (in which perceived coping resources fall short of the demands of the stressor). College students performed Space Fortress during 80 3-min practice trials, 20 tests, and posttests (retention, transfer, secondary task interference). Stress appraisals were measured with a two-item scale (Experiments 1-3) or an eight-item scale (Experiment 3) with (Study 1) or without (Experiments 2 and 3) brief hands-on experience. In all experiments, training improved performance and challenged trainees outperformed threatened trainees throughout training as well as on some baseline and posttraining tests. These studies are the first to document that stress appraisals predict training performance. They suggest that little information about a task is needed for appraisals to account for a significant amount of variance (11%) in training performance. Investigating the dynamic interplay of stress appraisals and training will increase the understanding of stress appraisals and of training. Stress appraisals may improve training if used as a screening tool and/or by implementing interventions aimed at changing appraisals from threat to challenge.

  10. Ranking Performance Measures in Multi-Task Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Sabac, Florin; Tian, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for ranking performance evaluation systems in multi-task agency models (using both optimal and linear contracts) in terms of a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) condition on the likelihood ratios. The SSD condition can be replaced by a variance-covariance mat......We derive sufficient conditions for ranking performance evaluation systems in multi-task agency models (using both optimal and linear contracts) in terms of a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) condition on the likelihood ratios. The SSD condition can be replaced by a variance...

  11. Teacher Self-Efficacy, Professional Development and Student Reading Performance in Persistently Low-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Vanassa

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this quantitative non-experimental study was to investigate the degree to which content-focused professional development, active based-learning professional development and teacher self-efficacy predict student performance in reading, within persistently low-performing schools. The need to investigate professional development in…

  12. Beyond task performance: the concept of organizational citizenship performance

    OpenAIRE

    Walter C. Borman; Dan Ispas

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the construct of citizenship performance and briefly review some of the industrial and organizational psychology research on organizational citizenship. We discuss the history, the dimensionality, the antecedents, consequences and implications for practice, and also provide a critical analysis. The conclusions of this review are that citizenship performance is important for contemporary organizations and contemporary trends suggest it will continue to be important i...

  13. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Auditor professional commitment and performance: An ethical issue role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kusumastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores to what extent the auditor’s idealism and relativism ethical orientation influences the professional commitment and the auditor’s performance. This study uses questionnaire’s survey from the auditors who work for Public Accountant Office in Indonesia. The data is analyzed by using the Structural Equation Model. The study reveals that the idealism and relativism ethical orientation have a significant influence to the professional commitment and the auditors’ performance

  15. TASK RELEVANCE IN THE DESIGN OF ONLINE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR TEACHERS OF ELLs: A Q Methodology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. COLLINS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Online professional development (oPD for teachers should focus on designing web-based learning opportunities that help practicing educators solve the tough problems of practice when working in their schools. Technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge can be integrated in the design of online professional development modules to enhance task relevance for maximum learning and transformation. The purpose of this study was to learn which tasks in an online professional development module were ranked by in-service educators as relevant to their work with English language learners (ELLs. Using Q methodology, the researcher asked participants to rank the relevancy of 36 online tasks from an online professional development module designed and developed at an American university. Participants used a -5 to 5 forced distribution to rank online activities from “Least relevant to my work with ELLs” to “Most relevant to my work with ELLs” followed by a semi-structured interview to explain their decisions. After data analysis, two factors emerged, indicating that participants’ perceptions on task relevance differed by professional roles and educational settings. The participants also favored didactic online tasks over interactive tasks. The findings from the oPD participants’ responses have the potential to serve as the basis for future online professional development design and for planning other relevant activities to be applied to the e-learning environment.

  16. Computer-mediated communication: task performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Andrew F

    2006-06-01

    The author assessed satisfaction and performance on 3 tasks (idea generation, intellective, judgment) among 75 dyads (N = 150) working through 1 of 3 modes of communication (instant messaging, videoconferencing, face to face). The author based predictions on the Media Naturalness Theory (N. Kock, 2001, 2002) and on findings from past researchers (e.g., D. M. DeRosa, C. Smith, & D. A. Hantula, in press) of the interaction between tasks and media. The present author did not identify task performance differences, although satisfaction with the medium was lower among those dyads communicating through an instant-messaging system than among those interacting face to face or through videoconferencing. The findings support the Media Naturalness Theory. The author discussed them in relation to the participants' frequent use of instant messaging and their familiarity with new communication media.

  17. Music and Spatial Task Performance: A Causal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.; And Others

    This research paper reports on testing the hypothesis that music and spatial task performance are causally related. Two complementary studies are presented that replicate and explore previous findings. One study of college students showed that listening to a Mozart sonata induces subsequent short-term spatial reasoning facilitation and tested the…

  18. Influence of separated homes on task performance and personality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked into the influence of separated homes on task performance and personality development of school children in Ondo State metropolis with particular focus on the Okitipupa Local Government Area. While undertaking the study, three null hypotheses were formulated and tested. The sample for the study ...

  19. Learner Creativity and Performance in Written Narrative Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Mehr, Fatemh Javdan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at examining the relationship between learner creativity and performance in written narrative tasks in the context of Iranian EFL students. To this end, a sample of 222 EFL students from four universities in Mashhad (Iran) participated in this study. Our study involved measuring the participants' creativity using creativity test…

  20. Ranking Performance Measures in Multi-Task Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Sabac, Florin; Tian, Joyce

    We derive sufficient conditions for ranking performance evaluation systems in multi-task agency models using both optimal and linear contracts in terms of a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) condition on the likelihood ratios. The SSD condition can be replaced by a variance-covariance matrix...

  1. Monitoring User-System Performance in Interactive Retrieval Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boldareva, L.; de Vries, A.P.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    Monitoring user-system performance in interactive search is a challenging task. Traditional measures of retrieval evaluation, based on recall and precision, are not of any use in real time, for they require a priori knowledge of relevant documents. This paper shows how a Shannon entropy-based

  2. Task-Irrelevant Auditory Feedback Facilitates Motor Performance in Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Virginia; Altenmüller, Eckart; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Behaviorally, we found that auditory feedback reinforced SRTT performance of the right hand (referring to absolute response speed) while learning capabilities remained unchanged. This finding highlights a potential important role for task-irrelevant auditory feedback in motor performance in musicians, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory–motor integration independent of the trained musical context. PMID:22623920

  3. Strategic Performance Options in Professional Service Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Meihuizen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the current debate on HRM and organisational performance (Mahoney and Pandian, 1992; Storey, 1992; Paauwe, 1994; Wright et al, 1994; Flood et al, 1995; Becker and Gerhardt, 1996; Boxall, 1996; Mueller, 1996; Beatty and Schneider, 1997; Coff, 1997; Guest, 1997; Paauwe and Richardson, 1997;

  4. Working memory task performance and chunking in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Jonathan; Bor, Daniel; Hampshire, Adam; Owen, Adrian; Howard, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Chunking is a powerful encoding strategy that significantly improves working memory performance in normal young people. To investigate chunking in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and in a control group of elderly people without cognitive impairment. People with mild Alzheimer's disease (n = 28) were recruited and divided according to Mini-Mental State Examination score into mild and very mild disease groups. A control group of 15 elderly individuals was also recruited. All participants performed digit and spatial working memory tasks requiring either unstructured sequences or structured sequences (which encourage chunking of information) to be recalled. The control group and both disease groups performed significantly better on structured trials of the digit working memory tasks, indicating successful use of chunking strategies to improve verbal working memory performance. The control and very mild disease groups also performed significantly better on structured trials of the spatial task, whereas those with mild disease demonstrated no significant difference between the structured and unstructured spatial conditions. The ability to use chunking as an encoding strategy to improve verbal working memory performance is preserved at the mild stage of Alzheimer's disease, whereas use of chunking to improve spatial working memory is impaired by this stage. Simple training in the use of chunking might be a beneficial therapeutic strategy to prolong working memory functioning in patients at the earliest stage of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Task-irrelevant auditory feedback facilitates motor performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia eConde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT. Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have a superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Here we provide novel evidence that task-irrelevant auditory feedback is capable to reinforce SRTT performance but not learning, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory-motor integration in musicians on a behavioral level.

  6. Quality of E-Learners’ Time and Learning Performance Beyond Quantitative Time-on-Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAlong with the amount of time spent learning (or time-on-task, the quality of learning time has a real influence on learning performance. Quality of time in online learning depends on students’ time availability and their willingness to devote quality cognitive time to learning activities. However, the quantity and quality of the time spent by adult e-learners on learning activities can be reduced by professional, family, and social commitments. Considering that the main time pattern followed by most adult e-learners is a professional one, it may be beneficial for online education programs to offer a certain degree of flexibility in instructional time that might allow adult learners to adjust their learning times to their professional constraints. However, using the time left over once professional and family requirements have been fulfilled could lead to a reduction in quality time for learning. This paper starts by introducing the concept of quality of learning time from an online student-centred perspective. The impact of students’ time-related variables (working hours, time-on-task engagement, time flexibility, time of day, day of week is then analyzed according to individual and collaborative grades achieved during an online master’s degree program. The data show that both students’ time flexibility (r = .98 and especially their availability to learn in the morning are related to better grades in individual (r = .93 and collaborative activities (r = .46.

  7. "Just do it when you get a chance": the effects of a background task on primary task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Durst, Moritz

    2014-11-01

    Two experiments investigated multitasking performance with a new "prioritized-processing paradigm" in which participants responded only to a high-priority primary task when this task required some action, responding to a low-priority background task only when no action was required for the primary task. In both experiments, performance was worse on the primary task than on the same task performed in isolation, indicating that this attempt to give absolute priority to the primary task is not sufficient to protect it from multitasking interference. Multitasking interference was present for task-repetition trials as well as task-alternation trials, so the interference could not be completely explained as a task-switching cost. In addition, responses to the primary task were influenced by their compatibility with the responses associated with the stimulus for the background task, indicating that there was some activation of S-R associations within the background task even when this task did not require any response. The findings generalize a number of effects from the psychological refractory period and task-switching paradigms to the prioritized-processing paradigm, thereby providing hints as to the underlying mechanisms responsible for those effects. The "prioritized-processing paradigm" appears to have several desirable features for the study of multitasking interference.

  8. Evaluation of high-definition television for remote task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, J.V.; Fujita, Y.; Herndon, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution TV) of horizontal scan lines that standard-resolution TV provides. The improvement in picture quality (compared to standard-resolution TV) that the extra scan lines provide is impressive. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate reproduction of shading and color patterns than do those in the standard-resolution TV picture. Because the TV viewing system is a key component for teleoperator performance, an improvement in TV picture quality could mean an improvement in the speed and accuracy with which teleoperators perform tasks. This report describes three experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The performance of HDTV was compared to that of standard-resolution, monochromatic TV and standard-resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic TV in the context of judgment of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection of an object, and performance of a typical remote handling task. The results of the three experiments show that in some areas HDTV can lead to improvement in teleoperator performance. Observers inspecting a small object for a flaw were more accurate with HDTV than with either of the standard-resolution systems. High resolution is critical for detection of small-scale flaws of the type in the experiment (a scratch on a glass bottle). These experiments provided an evaluation of HDTV television for use in tasks that must be routinely performed to remotely maintain a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. 5 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  10. Predicting subsequent task performance from goal motivation and goal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Laura C.; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Stewart, Brandon D.; Duda, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50) completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 min. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving. PMID:26191029

  11. Embodied Information in Cognitive Tasks: Haptic Weight Sensations Affect Task Performance and Processing Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Kai; Vennekötter, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of embodied cognition showed that incidental weight sensations influence peoples' judgments about a variety of issues and objects. Most studies found that heaviness compared to lightness increases the perception of importance, seriousness, and potency. In two experiments, we broadened this scope by investigating the impact of weight sensations on cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, we found that the performance in an anagram task was reduced when participants held a heavy versus a light clipboard in their hands. Reduced performance was accompanied by an increase in the perceived effort. In Experiment 2, a heavy clipboard elicited a specific response heuristic in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Participants showed a significant right side bias when holding a heavy clipboard in their hands. After the task, participants in the heavy clipboard condition reported to be more frustrated than participants in the light clipboard condition. In both experiments, we did not find evidence for mediated effects that had been proposed by previous literature. Overall, the results indicate that weight effects go beyond judgment formation and highlight new avenues for future research.

  12. Factors affecting jump performance in professional Australian rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M A; Watsford, M L; Cavanagh, B P; Pruyn, E C

    2015-10-01

    This study examined factors contributing to jump performance in professional Australian Rules Football (ARF) players. Thirty-two ARF players performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and were divided into groups based on jump performance: high calibre (HC) or low calibre (LC). During CMJ assessment, force, rate of force development, movement velocity and power were measured. Physical measures included mass, height, age, lower body strength, eccentric utilization ratio and leg stiffness (Kleg). HC and LC groups were compared to determine the variables contributing to jump performance and correlation and regression analyses also aided in identifying such variables. CMJ height was higher in the HC group (Pjump height and strength, velocity and power, while the regression analysis revealed velocity was the sole predictive variable of jump performance. Jumping performance clearly differs within a group of professional ARF athletes. Movement velocity appears to be an important factor contributing to jump performance; however, lower body power and Kleg are also important for jump performance.

  13. Some Reflections on Task-Based Language Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses problems in task-based language assessment, including the definition and sampling of tasks, generalizations across tasks, interpretations about broad ability and language use domains, and the notion of task difficulty. (Author/VWL)

  14. Professionalism score and academic performance in osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Johnson, Jane C

    2014-11-01

    During the first 2 years of osteopathic medical school, osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) courses use an objective professionalism score to measure student timeliness and appropriate dress for learning activities. To assess for correlations between this score and the numeric course grades of all first- and second-year basic science and clinical courses at a single osteopathic medical school. The professionalism scores obtained for each of the 7 quarters of the OMM course (2007-2012) were compared with the students' numeric final course grades and combined grade point average (GPA) of all courses in the corresponding quarter. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to determine the strength of the relationship between the professionalism score and the final course grades and the combined GPA. The mean (SD) professionalism score was 98.6% (3.3%), and scores ranged from 23.1% to 100%. Excluding the OMM course, the professionalism score was positively correlated with 29% of first-year course grades and 65% of second-year course grades. The professionalism score was predictive of academic performance in 16 of 23 clinical courses with the highest correlation for Principles of Medicine and Dermatology (ρ=0.28 and ρ=0.25, respectively). The OMM professionalism score was positively associated with GPA for quarters 1, 6, and 7 (P=.006, Posteopathic medical school courses, particularly clinical courses in the second-year curriculum. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  15. Task experience influences coordinative structures and performance variables in learning a slalom ski-simulator task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt-Mazumder, A; Newell, K M

    2018-01-29

    The experiment investigated the progressions of the qualitative and quantitative changes in the movement dynamics of learning the ski-simulator as a function of prior-related task experience. The focus was the differential timescales of change in the candidate collective variable, neuromuscular synergies, joint motions, and task outcome as a function of learning over 7 days of practice. Half of the novice participants revealed in day 1 a transition of in-phase to anti-phase coupling of center of mass (CoM)-platform motion whereas the remaining novices and experienced group all produced on the first trial an anti-phase CoM-platform coupling. The experienced group also had initially greater amplitude and velocity of platform motion-a performance advantage over the novice group that was reduced but not eliminated with 7 days of practice. The novice participants who had an in-phase CoM-platform coupling on the initial trials of day 1 also showed the most restricted platform motion in those trials. Prior-related practice experience differentially influenced the learning of the task as evidenced by both the qualitative organization and the quantitative motion properties of the individual degrees of freedom (dof) to meet the task demands. The findings provide further evidence to the proposition that CoM-platform coupling is a candidate collective variable in the ski-simulator task that provides organization and boundary conditions to the motions of the individual joint dof and their couplings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  17. Observer analysis and its impact on task performance modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Eddie L.; Brown, Jeremy B.

    2014-05-01

    Fire fighters use relatively low cost thermal imaging cameras to locate hot spots and fire hazards in buildings. This research describes the analyses performed to study the impact of thermal image quality on fire fighter fire hazard detection task performance. Using human perception data collected by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for fire fighters detecting hazards in a thermal image, an observer analysis was performed to quantify the sensitivity and bias of each observer. Using this analysis, the subjects were divided into three groups representing three different levels of performance. The top-performing group was used for the remainder of the modeling. Models were developed which related image quality factors such as contrast, brightness, spatial resolution, and noise to task performance probabilities. The models were fitted to the human perception data using logistic regression, as well as probit regression. Probit regression was found to yield superior fits and showed that models with not only 2nd order parameter interactions, but also 3rd order parameter interactions performed the best.

  18. The Effect of Task Type and Pre-task Planning Condition on the Accuracy of Intermediate EFL Learners' Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyeed Mohammad Alavi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Task-based language teaching, which requires learners to transact tasks resembling their real life language needs, demands language learners to perform planning at different stages of their learning. Since various types of tasks can be used in task-based instruction, the present study examined the effect of task types and various participatory structures during pre-task planning on the quality of learners' writing performance, (i.e., accuracy. Towards this end, 120 intermediate EFL students were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups and one control group. While the experimental groups were subjected to different pre-task planning conditions, (i.e., individual, pair, and group, the control group performed tasks without any planning. During the treatment, they experienced task modeling, presentation and completion. A factorial design was followed in the present study, and the collected data were analyzed through ANOVAs that revealed task type and pre-task planning condition influenced the writing accuracy of the participants in a way that resulted in greater accuracy in the decision-making task in the experimental groups, thereby ensuring the effectiveness of the treatment in mitigating the long-standing problem of EFL learners in achieving higher levels of accuracy when a specific task type is concerned.

  19. Comparisons of population subgroups performance on a keyboard psychomotor task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleford, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Response time and pass/fail data were obtained from 163 subjects performing a psychomotor task. The basic task comprised a random five digit number briefly displayed to the subject at the start of each trail, and the keyboard on which the subject was to enter the number as fast as he could accurately do so after the display was extinguished. Some tests were run with the addition of a secondary task which required the subject to respond to a displayed light appearing at a random time. Matched pairs of subjects were selected from the group to analyze the effects of age, sex, intelligence, prior keyboard skill, and drinking habits. There was little or no effect due to age or drinking habits. Differences in response time were: average IQ subjects faster than low IQ subjects by 0.5 to 0.6 sec; subjects with prior keyboard skill faster by 0.4 to 0.5 sec; and female subjects faster by 0.2 to 0.3 sec. These effects were generally insensitive to the presence of the secondary task.

  20. Task complexity and interaction: (combined) effects on task-based performance in Dutch as a second language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M.C.; Kuiken, F.; Vedder, I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the overarching conclusions of three consecutive investigations into task-based L2 performance. It aims at giving a better understanding of how changes in the number of elements referred to in a task affect L2 production, and how this relates to cognitive task complexity.

  1. Left-handedness in professional basketball: prevalence, performance, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Tyler P; Lawler, Frank H

    2011-12-01

    Performance and handedness data were examined for 3,647 professional basketball players who participated in at least five games during the period between 1946 and 2009. Left-handed players comprised 5.1% of all professional basketball players compared to the 11% prevalence in the general population. Left-handers had better performance averages, in terms of the number of points, rebounds, and blocks over their careers, as well as other measures, and had significantly longer careers than right-handed players. Handedness was not significantly related to mean or median life expectancy.

  2. Music Performance Trust Funds: Bringing Professional Performances to School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Jeffrey H.

    1985-01-01

    The Music Performance Trust Funds (MPTF) is a national agency that sponsors live musical performances in schools, hospitals, clinics, senior citizen centers, penal institutions, and the like. In this interview a trustee for MPTF talks about the group's history and its commitment to quality performances in the schools. (RM)

  3. Effects of multitasking on operator performance using computational and auditory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanya, Bankole K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of multiple cognitive tasks on human performance. Twenty-four students at North Carolina A&T State University participated in the study. The primary task was auditory signal change perception and the secondary task was a computational task. Results showed that participants' performance in a single task was statistically significantly different from their performance in combined tasks: (a) algebra problems (algebra problem primary and auditory perception secondary); (b) auditory perception tasks (auditory perception primary and algebra problems secondary); and (c) mean false-alarm score in auditory perception (auditory detection primary and algebra problems secondary). Using signal detection theory (SDT), participants' performance measured in terms of sensitivity was calculated as -0.54 for combined tasks (algebra problems the primary task) and -0.53 auditory perceptions the primary task. During auditory perception tasks alone, SDT was found to be 2.51. Performance was 83% in a single task compared to 17% when combined tasks.

  4. Questionnaire assessment of estimated radiation effects upon military task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickman, A.S.; Winne, P.S.; Morgan, B.B. Jr.; Moe, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    One hundred twenty-five supervisors in four types of U.S. Army combat systems estimated the degree of degradation of military tasks for 30 descriptive symptom complexes associated with various radiation exposures. Results indicated that (a) the relative order of symptom effects were highly consistent across positions and the types of systems, (b) performances were expected to be deleteriously affected under most illness conditions, even mild ones, but incapacitation was not anticipated until illness conditions became quite severe, and (c) the most important factors in estimating performances were fluid loss and fatigability/weakness.

  5. Dual-task performance involving hand dexterity and cognitive tasks and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Yi-fang; Chen, I-chen; Tsai, Pei-luen; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated separate and concurrent performance on cognitive and hand dexterity tasks and the relationship to daily functioning in 16 people with schizophrenia and 16 healthy control participants. Participants performed the Purdue Pegboard Test and the Serial Seven Subtraction Test under single- and dual-task conditions and completed two daily functioning evaluations. The hand dexterity of all participants declined in the dual-task condition, but the discrepancy between single-task and dual-task hand dexterity was greater in the schizophrenia group than in the control group (p.70, for all). The extent of discrepancy in hand dexterity was negatively correlated with daily functioning in the schizophrenia group (rs=-.3 to -.5, ps=.04-.26). Ability to perform dual tasks may be an indicator of daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Use of dual-task training may be considered as a therapeutic activity with these clients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. Self-associations influence task-performance through Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L Bengtsson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The way we think about ourselves impacts greatly on our behaviour. This paper describes a behavioural study and a computational model that sheds new light on this important area. Participants were primed 'clever' and 'stupid' using a scrambled sentence task, and we measured the effect on response time and error-rate on a rule-association task. First, we observed a confirmation bias effect in that associations to being 'stupid' led to a gradual decrease in performance, whereas associations to being 'clever' did not. Second, we observed that the activated self-concepts selectively modified attention towards one's performance. There was an early to late double dissociation in RTs in that primed 'clever' resulted in RT increase following error responses, whereas primed 'stupid' resulted in RT increase following correct responses. We propose a computational model of subjects' behaviour based on the logic of the experimental task that involves two processes; memory for rules and the integration of rules with subsequent visual cues. The model also incorporates an adaptive decision threshold based on Bayes rule, whereby decision thresholds are increased if integration was inferred to be faulty. Fitting the computational model to experimental data confirmed our hypothesis that priming affects the memory process. This model explains both the confirmation bias and double dissociation effects and demonstrates that Bayesian inferential principles can be used to study the effect of self-concepts on behaviour.

  7. Visual Motor and Perceptual Task Performance in Astigmatic Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if spectacle corrected and uncorrected astigmats show reduced performance on visual motor and perceptual tasks. Methods. Third through 8th grade students were assigned to the low refractive error control group (astigmatism < 1.00 D, myopia < 0.75 D, hyperopia < 2.50 D, and anisometropia < 1.50 D or bilateral astigmatism group (right and left eye ≥ 1.00 D based on cycloplegic refraction. Students completed the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI and Visual Perception (VMIp. Astigmats were randomly assigned to testing with/without correction and control group was tested uncorrected. Analyses compared VMI and VMIp scores for corrected and uncorrected astigmats to the control group. Results. The sample included 333 students (control group 170, astigmats tested with correction 75, and astigmats tested uncorrected 88. Mean VMI score in corrected astigmats did not differ from the control group (p=0.829. Uncorrected astigmats had lower VMI scores than the control group (p=0.038 and corrected astigmats (p=0.007. Mean VMIp scores for uncorrected (p=0.209 and corrected astigmats (p=0.124 did not differ from the control group. Uncorrected astigmats had lower mean scores than the corrected astigmats (p=0.003. Conclusions. Uncorrected astigmatism influences visual motor and perceptual task performance. Previously spectacle treated astigmats do not show developmental deficits on visual motor or perceptual tasks when tested with correction.

  8. Task performance in spinal cord injury: effect of helplessness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, R N; Siegel, D; Fine, P R

    1980-07-01

    The effects of failure or helplessness training on the task performance of recently injured spinal cord patients were assessed using the learned helplessness theory as a model. The theory states that individuals who experience uncontrollable failure become depressed and feel helpless, while those who experience self-controlled success develop a sense of competence and feel industrious. To provide validation of the learned helplessness theory, 24 recently injured spinal cord patients were interviewed and then tested for helplessness effects and depression on 2 standard learned helplessness tasks. Results suggest that it may be possible to immunize spinal cord injured patients against debilitating emotional reactions to paralysis with a success-oriented rehabilitation regime during the initial stages of recovery.

  9. Professionalism & Performance-based Contracting : Transparency, accountability or interference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomkens, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is an intense debate on the “marketization” of health care and its consequences for the work of professionals. With the introduction of performance-based contracting, health insurers in the Netherlands are now expected to transform from passive payers to prudent and critical

  10. Enabling performance measurement in a small professional service firm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.A.C.; van de Belt, Mirthe; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show why developing an enabling performance measurement system (PMS) can be useful to small professional service firms (PSFs) and how small PSFs can develop such an enabling PMS. Design/methodology/approach – The authors used a process‐consultation type of

  11. Teacher Professionalism and Team Performance Pay: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to explore teachers' perceptions of their professional behaviors when they worked in schools that awarded team performance pay. Teachers' archival responses from two questionnaires were analyzed using mixed methods data analysis techniques (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Most teachers had…

  12. Enhancing Teacher Performance: The Role of Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Sears, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Current teacher accountability initiatives such as those included in the "No Child Left Behind" legislation in the United States create particular difficulties that impact deleteriously on the performance of professional educators. The quality of public education is undermined when teachers are held accountable to an external authority…

  13. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore a pair of glasses with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera.

  14. Prediction of performance on two stretcher-carry tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, V J; Sharp, M A

    1994-01-01

    Pre-placement screening for physically demanding jobs should result in better job performance and fewer injuries, if the test components reflect job demands. The purpose of this study was to determine how seven strength measures, three Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores, and three physical descriptors relate to performance on two stretcher-carry tasks: 1) a repeated short-distance carry and 2) a continuous long-distance carry. Twelve men and 11 women completed both tasks with and without (hand-carry) a shoulder harness. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients compared independent variables and forward stepwise multiple regression analyses were used for predictions. For repeated short distance stretcher-carrying, two-mile run time and handgrip were the best predictors of performance (hand-carry: r2=0.79, p<0.01; harness-carry: r2=0.75, p<0.01). The grip, which was more predictive during the hand-carry, required a sudden maximal contraction to peak force, followed by immediate release, while a sudden maximal contraction to peak force maintained for four seconds, was more predictive of the harness-carry. For the continuous hand-carry, the best predictor was a gradual buildup to a 6-second sustained grip strength (r2=0.74, p<0.01). These results illustrate the necessity for tailoring preplacement tests to accurately reflect job demands.

  15. Performance in complex motor tasks deteriorates in hyperthermic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Jacob Feder; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Trangmar, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    ) or control condition (20°C) with testing at baseline (seated rest) and similar seated position, following exercise-induced hyperthermia (core temperature ∼ 39.5°C in the heat and 38.2°C in control condition). All task scores were unaffected by control exercise or passive heat exposure, but visuo......-motor tracking performance was reduced by 10.7 ± 6.5% following exercise-induced hyperthermia when integrated in the multipart protocol and 4.4 ± 5.7% when tested separately (bothP

  16. SANDROS: A motion planner with performance proportional to task difficulty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pang C.; Hwang, Yong K.

    1991-09-10

    To address the need of a practical motion planner for manipulators, we present an efficient and resolution-complete algorithm that has performance commensurate with task difficulty. The algorithm uses SANDROS, a new search strategy that combines hierarchical, nonuniform-multi-resolution, and best-fit search to find a near-optimal solution in the configuration space. This algorithm can be applied to any manipulator, and has been tested with 5 and 6-degree-of-freedom robots, with execution time ranging from 20 seconds to 10 minutes on a 16 MIPS workstation. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The impact of fear words in a secondary task on complex motor performance: a dual-task climbing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander L; Draper, Nick; Helton, William S

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between emotion and motor action has been previously examined using relatively simple motor tasks. However, there has been limited research using more complex physical tasks. One such complex physical task is high-angle climbing. In this experiment, we examined the performance of climbers in a dual climbing and word memory task, in which they were asked to recall fear-related or neutral words after the climb, as well as single-task performance. Climbing distance, efficiency, and word recall all significantly decreased in the dual-task conditions, relative to the single tasks. Climbing distance and efficiency also decreased in the fear word dual task, relative to the neutral word memory dual task. Subjective measures of performance indicated that climbers were aware of impaired climbing performance in the dual tasks, relative to the climbing-only condition, but that they were not aware of the increased impairment caused by the fear words. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications, particularly in occupational settings requiring climbing-like operations, such as fire-fighting and search and rescue.

  18. Factors affecting match performance in professional Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cianciosi, Michael; Hocking, Joel; Cordy, Justin T; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-05-01

    To determine the physical activity measures and skill-performance characteristics that contribute to coaches' perception of performance and player performance rank in professional Australian Football (AF). Prospective, longitudinal. Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (GPS and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill-performance measure and player-rank scores (Champion Data Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical-performance variables, skill involvements, and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. A stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the contribution of physical activity and skill involvements to coaches' perception of performance and player rank in AF. Stepwise multiple-regression analysis revealed that 42.2% of the variance in coaches' perception of a player's performance could be explained by the skill-performance characteristics (player rank/min, effective kicks/min, pressure points/min, handballs/min, and running bounces/ min), with a small contribution from physical activity measures (accelerations/min) (adjusted R2 = .422, F6,282 = 36.054, P < .001). Multiple regression also revealed that 66.4% of the adjusted variance in player rank could be explained by total disposals/min, effective kicks/min, pressure points/min, kick clangers/min, marks/min, speed (m/min), and peak speed (adjusted R2 = .664, F7,281 = 82.289, P < .001). Increased physical activity throughout a match (speed [m/min] β - 0.097 and peak speed β - 0.116) negatively affects player rank in AF. Skill performance rather than increased physical activity is more important to coaches' perception of performance and player rank in professional AF.

  19. Psychomotor vigilance task performance during and following chronic sleep restriction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurveilher, Samuel; Bush, Jacquelyn E; Rusak, Benjamin; Eskes, Gail A; Semba, Kazue

    2015-04-01

    Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) impairs sustained attention in humans, as commonly assessed with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). To further investigate the mechanisms underlying performance deficits during CSR, we examined the effect of CSR on performance on a rat version of PVT (rPVT). Adult male rats were trained on a rPVT that required them to press a bar when they detected irregularly presented, brief light stimuli, and were then tested during CSR. CSR consisted of 100 or 148 h of continuous cycles of 3-h sleep deprivation (using slowly rotating wheels) alternating with a 1-h sleep opportunity (3/1 protocol). After 28 h of CSR, the latency of correct responses and the percentages of lapses and omissions increased, whereas the percentage of correct responses decreased. Over 52-148 h of CSR, all performance measures showed partial or nearly complete recovery, and were at baseline levels on the first or second day after CSR. There were large interindividual differences in the magnitude of performance impairment during CSR, suggesting differential vulnerability to the effects of sleep loss. Wheel-running controls showed no changes in performance. A 28-h period of the 3/1 chronic sleep restriction (CSR) protocol disrupted performance on a sustained attention task in rats, as sleep deprivation does in humans. Performance improved after longer periods of CSR, suggesting allostatic adaptation, contrary to some reports of progressive deterioration in psychomotor vigilance task performance during CSR in humans. However, as observed in humans, there were individual differences among rats in the vulnerability of their attention performance to CSR. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Communication during haematological consultations; patients' preferences and professionals' performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruinessen, Inge R; van der Hout, Lotte E; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Many patients with haematological malignancies experience barriers in clinical communication. Reaching effective communication is of great importance as it has been linked to a range of improved patient outcomes such as satisfaction, compliance to treatment, perceived quality of life and physical and mental health. To get a better understanding how communication in haematological consultations can be improved, the current study focussed on patients' preferences and perceived performances regarding the communicative behaviour of their health care professional. Secondly, the mediation of an online communication tool for patients was analysed. Within a controlled pre- post-test design, 78 datasets of clinical consultations could be analysed. Patients considered both affective and instrumental communication aspects important. The affective communication behaviour of the health care professional met the patients' pre-visit preferences well. In the information exchange, more variability and discrepancies were found. Overall, the online intervention did not seem to influence the patients' perceived communication performance of their health care professional much. To further improve the communication during clinical consultations, health care professionals should inquire about patients' expectations, especially during the exchange of information and advices. At the same time, patients should be supported to express their preferences at the start of the consultation. The study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register, number 3779.

  1. Professional Task-Based Curriculum Development for Distance Education Practitioners at Master's Level: A Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoying; Lu, Guangxin; Yao, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum development for distance education (DE) practitioners is more and more focusing on practical requirements and competence development. Delphi and DACUM methods have been used at some universities. However, in the competency-based development area, these methods have been taken over by professional-task-based development in the last…

  2. Interactions of task and subject variables among continuous performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Colin B; Rapport, Mark D; Chung, Kyong-Mee

    2005-04-01

    Contemporary models of working memory suggest that target paradigm (TP) and target density (TD) should interact as influences on error rates derived from continuous performance tests (CPTs). The present study evaluated this hypothesis empirically in a typically developing, ethnically diverse sample of children. The extent to which scores based on different combinations of these task parameters showed different patterns of relationship to age, intelligence, and gender was also assessed. Four continuous performance tests were derived by combining two target paradigms (AX and repeated letter target stimuli) with two levels of target density (8.3% and 33%). Variations in mean omission (OE) and commission (CE) error rates were examined within and across combinations of TP and TD. In addition, a nested series of structural equation models was utilized to examine patterns of relationship among error rates, age, intelligence, and gender. Target paradigm and target density interacted as influences on error rates. Increasing density resulted in higher OE and CE rates for the AX paradigm. In contrast, the high density condition yielded a decline in OE rates accompanied by a small increase in CEs using the repeated letter CPT. Target paradigms were also distinguishable on the basis of age when using OEs as the performance measure, whereas combinations of age and intelligence distinguished between density levels but not target paradigms using CEs as the dependent measure. Different combinations of target paradigm and target density appear to yield scores that are conceptually and psychometrically distinguishable. Consequently, developmentally appropriate interpretation of error rates across tasks may require (a) careful analysis of working memory and attentional resources required for successful performance, and (b) normative data bases that are differently stratified with respect to combinations of age and intelligence.

  3. The Effect of Prior Task Success on Older Adults' Memory Performance: Examining the Influence of Different Types of Task Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; Hughes, Matthew L; Miller, Tyler M; De Forrest, Ross L

    2016-01-01

    Negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. Yet, memory performance can be improved if older adults have a single successful experience on a cognitive test prior to participating in a memory experiment (Geraci & Miller, 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 340-345). The current study examined the effects of different types of prior task experience on subsequent memory performance. Before participating in a verbal free recall experiment, older adults in Experiment 1 successfully completed either a verbal or a visual cognitive task or no task. In Experiment 2, they successfully completed either a motor task or no task before participating in the free recall experiment. Results from Experiment 1 showed that relative to control (no prior task), participants who had prior success, either on a verbal or a visual task, had better subsequent recall performance. Experiment 2 showed that prior success on a motor task, however, did not lead to a later memory advantage relative to control. These findings demonstrate that older adults' memory can be improved by a successful prior task experience so long as that experience is in a cognitive domain.

  4. Physicians' professional performance: an occupational health psychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Renée A

    2017-12-01

    Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be facilitated by work engagement and how work engagement is facilitated by job resources and personality traits. First, we conducted a systematic review on the impact of physician work engagement and related constructs (e. g. job satisfaction) on physicians' performance in patient care. We additionally investigated physician work engagement and job resources in relation to patient care experience with physicians' performance at ten outpatient clinics covering two hospitals. In a following multicentre survey involving 61 residency training programs of 18 hospitals, we studied associations between physician work engagement and personality traits with resident evaluations of physicians' teaching performance. The findings showed that physician work engagement was associated with fewer reported medical errors and that job satisfaction was associated with better communication and patient satisfaction. Autonomy and learning opportunities were positively associated with physician work engagement. Work engagement was positively associated with teaching performance. In addition, physician work engagement was most likely supported by personality trait conscientiousness (e. g. responsibility). Given the reported associations of physician work engagement with aspects of their professional performance, hospitals could support physician work engagement in service of optimal performance in residency training and patient care. This could be facilitated by worker health surveillance, peer support or promoting job crafting at the individual or team level.

  5. Burnout in teachers: shattered dreams of impeccable professional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I A

    2000-05-01

    Burnout usually is conceptualized as a work-related syndrome stemming from the individual's perception of a significant gap between expectations of successful professional performance and an observed, far less satisfying reality. The article examines this perception as a discrepancy between expected and observed levels of the individual's professional self-efficacy. The teaching profession and its service providers--teachers--serve as a model to illustrate and support this examination. Self-reports of novice teachers' experiences in their first year of teaching are given, reflecting a world of shattered dreams of idealistic performance. Finally, a number of suggestions for programs and activities that have proven helpful in alleviating stress and burnout among teachers are described.

  6. Age-related decrements in dual-task performance: Comparison of different mobility and cognitive tasks. A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo Riccardo; Magistro, Daniele; Zecca, Massimiliano; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica Emma

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the age-related differences in dual-task performance both in mobility and cognitive tasks and the additive dual-task costs in a sample of older, middle-aged and young adults. 74 older adults (M = 72.63±5.57 years), 58 middle-aged adults (M = 46.69±4.68 years) and 63 young adults (M = 25.34±3.00 years) participated in the study. Participants performed different mobility and subtraction tasks under both single- and dual-task conditions. Linear regressions, repeated-measures and one-way analyses of covariance were used, The results showed: significant effects of the age on the dual and mobility tasks (pperformance under dual-task conditions in all groups (pperformance in the older group (pperformance, especially in older adults who showed a higher dual-task cost, suggesting that dual-tasks activities are affected by the age and consequently also mobility and cognitive tasks are negatively influenced.

  7. Boon and Bane of Being Sure: The Effect of Performance Certainty and Expectancy on Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Dickhäuser, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested certainty to be an important factor when investigating effects of level of expectancies on future behavior. With the present study, we addressed the interplay of expectancy certainty and level of expectancies regarding task performance. We assumed that certain performance expectancies provide a better basis for the…

  8. Roles of Working Memory Performance and Instructional Strategy in Complex Cognitive Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, V.; Altun, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how working memory (WM) performances and instructional strategy choices affect learners' complex cognitive task performance in online environments. Three different e-learning environments were designed based on Merrill's (2006a) model of instructional strategies. The lack of experimental research on his framework is…

  9. An efficient approach to understanding and predicting the effects of multiple task characteristics on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles

    2017-04-01

    In ergonomics there is often a need to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance. A cost-effective fractional factorial approach to understanding the relationship between task characteristics and task performance is presented. The method has been shown to provide sufficient independent variability to reveal and predict the effects of task characteristics on performance in two domains. The five steps outlined are: selection of performance measure, task characteristic identification, task design for user trials, data collection, regression model development and task characteristic analysis. The approach can be used for furthering knowledge of task performance, theoretical understanding, experimental control and prediction of task performance. Practitioner Summary: A cost-effective method to identify and predict the separate effects of multiple factors on performance is presented. The five steps allow a better understanding of task factors during the design process.

  10. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  11. Modeling the Cognitive Task Load and Performance of Naval Operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Kennedie, S.; Grootjen, M.; Grootjen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Operators on naval ships have to act in dynamic, critical and highdemand task environments. For these environments, a cognitive task load (CTL) model has been proposed as foundation of three operator support functions: adaptive task allocation, cognitive aids and resource feedback. This

  12. Prevention of and dealing with poor performance: an interview study about how professional associations aim to support healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weenink, Jan-Willem; Kool, Rudolf B; Hesselink, Gijs; Bartels, Ronald H; Westert, Gert P

    2017-09-07

    To explore how professional associations of nine healthcare professions aim to support professionals to prevent and deal with poor performance. Qualitative interview study. The Netherlands. Representatives of professional associations for dentists, general practitioners, medical specialists, midwives, nurses, pharmacists, physiotherapists, psychologists and psychotherapists. During nine face-to-face semi-structured interviews we asked how associations aim to support professionals in prevention of and dealing with poor performance. Following the first interview, we monitored new initiatives in support over a 2.5-year period, after which we conducted a second interview. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Available policy and support regarding poor performance. Three themes emerged from our data (i.e. elaborating on professional performance, performance insight and dealing with poor performance) for which we identified a total of 10 categories of support. Support concerned professional codes, guidelines and codes of conduct, quality registers, individual performance assessment, peer consultation, practice evaluation, helpdesk and expert counselling, a protocol for dealing with poor performance, a place for support and to report poor performance, and internal disciplinary procedures. This study provides an overview of support given to nine healthcare professions by their associations regarding poor performance, and identifies gaps that associations could follow up on, such as clarifying what to do when confronted with a poorly performing colleague, supporting professionals that poorly perform, and developing methods for individual performance assessment to gain performance insight. A next step would be to evaluate the use and effect of different types of support.

  13. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog” is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ, a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks.

  14. Influence of gender on psychomotor vigilance task performance by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beijamini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, the sleep phase delay associated with early school times increases daytime sleepiness and reduces psychomotor performance. Some studies have shown an effect of gender on psychomotor performance in adults and children. Males present faster reaction times (RT compared with females. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gender on Palm psychomotor vigilance task (PVT performance in adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents (19 girls, 13 to 16 years old attending morning school classes of a public school in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, participated in the study. Sleep patterns were measured using actigraphy and sleepiness data were accessed with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. KSS and PVT measurements were collected at two times in the morning (8:00 and 11:00 h. The data were compared using one-way ANOVA, considering gender as a factor. ANOVA indicated that gender did not affect sleep patterns and subjective somnolence; however, a statistically significant effect of gender was detected for PVT performance. Boys presented faster RT (RT-PVT1: 345.51 ms, F = 6.08, P < 0.05; RT-PVT2: 343.30 ms, F = 6.35, P < 0.05 and fewer lapses (lapses-PVT1: 8.71, F = 4.45, P < 0.05; lapses-PVT2: 7.82, F = 7.06, P < 0.05 compared with girls (RT-PVT1: 402.96; RT-PVT2: 415.70; lapses-PVT1: 16.33; lapses-PVT2: 17.80. These results showed that this effect of gender, already reported in adults and children, is also observed in adolescents. The influence of gender should be taken into account in studies that use Palm PVT to evaluate psychomotor performance in this age range.

  15. Predicting High-Power Performance in Professional Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dajo; Heijboer, Mathieu; Akubat, Ibrahim; Meijer, Kenneth; Hesselink, Matthijs K

    2017-03-01

    To assess if short-duration (5 to ~300 s) high-power performance can accurately be predicted using the anaerobic power reserve (APR) model in professional cyclists. Data from 4 professional cyclists from a World Tour cycling team were used. Using the maximal aerobic power, sprint peak power output, and an exponential constant describing the decrement in power over time, a power-duration relationship was established for each participant. To test the predictive accuracy of the model, several all-out field trials of different durations were performed by each cyclist. The power output achieved during the all-out trials was compared with the predicted power output by the APR model. The power output predicted by the model showed very large to nearly perfect correlations to the actual power output obtained during the all-out trials for each cyclist (r = .88 ± .21, .92 ± .17, .95 ± .13, and .97 ± .09). Power output during the all-out trials remained within an average of 6.6% (53 W) of the predicted power output by the model. This preliminary pilot study presents 4 case studies on the applicability of the APR model in professional cyclists using a field-based approach. The decrement in all-out performance during high-intensity exercise seems to conform to a general relationship with a single exponential-decay model describing the decrement in power vs increasing duration. These results are in line with previous studies using the APR model to predict performance during brief all-out trials. Future research should evaluate the APR model with a larger sample size of elite cyclists.

  16. Episodic future thinking improves children's prospective memory performance in a complex task setting with real life task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer-Trendowicz, A; Schnitzspahn, K M; Reuter, L; Altgassen, M

    2017-08-31

    Research on children's prospective memory (PM) shows an increase of performance across childhood and provides first evidence that encoding strategies such as episodic future thinking (EFT; i.e., engaging in a vivid prospection of oneself performing future tasks) may improve performance. The present study aimed at testing whether the beneficial effects of EFT extend from typical lab-based tasks to more complex tasks with real life demands. Further, it was tested whether children's ability to project themselves into different perspectives (i.e., self-projection) moderates the effects of EFT encoding on PM. Overall, 56 children (mean age: M = 10.73 years) were included in this study who were randomly assigned to either an EFT or control condition. Children participated in a 'sightseeing tour' (ongoing activity) inside the lab with various socially relevant and neutral PM tasks embedded. Results showed significantly higher PM performance in the EFT compared to the control group. There was no difference between neutral and social PM tasks and no interaction between type of PM tasks with encoding condition. Further, self-projection did not moderate the effects of EFT encoding on PM. Results suggest that EFT is an effective strategy to improve children's everyday PM. These beneficial effects seem to occur independent from children's general ability to change perspectives and for different types of PM tasks.

  17. A Nonverbal False Belief Task: The Performance of Children and Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Compared performance of preschool children, chimpanzees, and orangutans on nonverbal task of false-belief understanding and tested children's performance on a verbal version of the same task. Found that children's performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks were highly correlated, and no chimp or orangutan succeeded in the nonverbal false-belief…

  18. Young L2 learners' performance on a novel morpheme task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Danahy, Kerry

    2007-07-01

    The teaching of an invented language rule has been proposed as a possible non-biased, language-independent assessment technique useful in differentiating young L2 learners with specific language impairment from their typically developing peers. The current study explores these notions by testing typically developing sequential bilingual children's ability to learn an invented language rule in either L1 (Spanish) or L2 (English). Participants were 20 children, age 3:6-5:8, who attended a Head Start programme. For all children, Spanish was the primary language spoken in the home and English was the primary language of instruction. Children were randomly assigned two groups. Group L1 was taught the novel language rule in Spanish; Group L2 was taught the novel language rule in English. Performance was better for the L1 group than for the L2 group. Moreover, not all of these typical language learners were able to learn the new rule, even in their strongest language. These findings suggest that even for typically developing children, specific language proficiency as well as individual differences are closely linked to performance on this novel morpheme learning task.

  19. Teamwork education improves trauma team performance in undergraduate health professional students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie O’Toole Baker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Effective trauma resuscitation requires efficient and coordinated care from a team of providers; however, providers are rarely instructed on how to be effective members of trauma teams. Team-based learning using Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS has been shown to improve team dynamics among practicing professionals, including physicians and nurses. The impact of TeamSTEPPS on students being trained in trauma management in an undergraduate health professional program is currently unknown. We sought to determine the impact of TeamSTEPPS on team dynamics among undergraduate students being trained in trauma resuscitation. Methods: We enrolled teams of undergraduate health professional students from four programs: nursing, physician assistant, radiologic science, and respiratory care. After completing an online training on trauma resuscitation principles, the participants completed a trauma resuscitation scenario. The participants then received teamwork training using TeamSTEPPS and completed a second trauma resuscitation scenario identical to the first. All resuscitations were recorded and scored offline by two blinded research assistants using both the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM and Trauma Team Performance Observation Tool (TPOT scoring systems. Pre-test and post-test TEAM and TPOT scores were compared. Results: We enrolled a total of 48 students in 12 teams. Team leadership, situational monitoring, and overall communication improved with TeamSTEPPS training (P=0.04, P=0.02, and P=0.03, respectively, as assessed by the TPOT scoring system. TeamSTEPPS also improved the team’s ability to prioritize tasks and work together to complete tasks in a rapid manner (P<0.01 and P=0.02, respectively as measured by TEAM. Conclusions: Incorporating TeamSTEPPS into trauma team education leads to improved TEAM and TPOT scores among undergraduate health professionals.

  20. Learners Performing Tasks in a Japanese EFL Classroom: A Multimodal and Interpersonal Approach to Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I describe and analyse learner task-based interactions from a multimodal perspective with the aim of better understanding how learners' interpersonal relationships might affect task performance. Task-based pedagogy is focused on classroom interaction between learners, yet analysis of tasks has often neglected the analysis of this…

  1. Context-Sensitive Adjustment of Cognitive Control in Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Gottschalk, Caroline; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-01-01

    Performing 2 highly similar tasks at the same time requires an adaptive regulation of cognitive control to shield prioritized primary task processing from between-task (cross-talk) interference caused by secondary task processing. In the present study, the authors investigated how implicitly and explicitly delivered information promotes the…

  2. Modeling Operator Performance in Low Task Load Supervisory Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    PDF Probability Distribution Function SAFE System for Aircrew Fatigue Evaluation SAFTE Sleep, Activity, Fatigue, and Task Effectiveness SCT...over time. Several studies on ATC monitoring tasks determined that the time it takes to detect conflict and the frequency of missed conflict...patterns to predict fatigue. One of the most popular models, Sleep, Activity, Fatigue, and Task Effectiveness ( SAFTE ), is presented below, while a

  3. Rate of learning and asymptotic performance in an automatization task and the relation to reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Rozalia; Crewther, David; Crewther, Sheila

    2004-12-01

    In the present study, direct evidence was sought linking cognitive automatic processing with reading in the general adult population. Reading speed on single-task performance and dual-task performance were compared. A total of 18 adults without dyslexia participated (7 men and 11 women, age M=25.3 yr., SD=2.7). Participants initially were trained in single-task mode on two types of tasks. The first was a central alphanumeric equation task (true or false), which comprised 3 subtests of increasing difficulty, ranging from an easily automated task to a varied and unpredictable mathematical operation. The second task was a peripheral pattern subitization task for which stimulus exposure time was related to performance. Finally, participants received dual-task training, which required simultaneous processing of both tasks. Slower reading speed was significantly related to rate of learning and speed of performance on predictable alphanumeric operations in dual-task conditions. There was no effect of reading speed on performance in the varied alphanumeric task. Faster readers were no better than slower readers on the pattern-subitization task. These findings suggest that faster readers automatized the predictable alphanumeric task more rapidly than slower readers and hence were better able to cope with the dual-task condition.

  4. Collective Efficacy and Group Functioning: The Effect of Performance Feedback on Efficacy Assessments, Goal Setting, Task Persistence and Overall Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meisenhelder, Helen

    2002-01-01

    .... Specifically, this experiment used performance feedback to manipulate efficacy levels in order to investigate the effect of efficacy on group goal setting, task persistence, and overall performance...

  5. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Sensory enhancing insoles improve athletic performance during a hexagonal agility task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Daniel L; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Gravelle, Denise C; Petersen, Kelsey; Ryzman, Rachael; Niemi, James; Lesniewski-Laas, Nicholas

    2016-05-03

    Athletes incorporate afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors of their plantar feet to provide information about posture, stability, and joint position. Sub-threshold stochastic resonance (SR) sensory enhancing insoles have been shown to improve balance and proprioception in young and elderly participant populations. Balance and proprioception are correlated with improved athletic performance, such as agility. Agility is defined as the ability to quickly change direction. An athlete's agility is commonly evaluated during athletic performance testing to assess their ability to participate in a competitive sporting event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SR insoles during a hexagonal agility task routinely used by coaches and sports scientists. Twenty recreational athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Each athlete was asked to perform a set of hexagonal agility trials while SR stimulation was either on or off. Vicon motion capture was used to measure feet position during six successful trials for each stimulation condition. Stimulation condition was randomized in a pairwise fashion. The study outcome measures were the task completion time and the positional accuracy of footfalls. Pairwise comparisons revealed a 0.12s decrease in task completion time (p=0.02) with no change in hopping accuracy (p=0.99) when SR stimulation was on. This is the first study to show athletic performance benefits while wearing proprioception and balance improving equipment on healthy participants. With further development, a self-contained sensory enhancing insole device could be used by recreational and professional athletes to improve movements that require rapid changes in direction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Group cohesion, task performance, and the experimenter expectancy effect.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstraten, J.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    1978-01-01

    Studied the effects of cohesion on task fulfillment and explored the influence of task fulfillment on the initial level of cohesion. Within 4-person groups of undergraduates, cohesion was manipulated successfully by a triple procedure. The level of cohesion was ascertained directly after the

  8. Stability and performance of ant queue inspired task partitioning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidler, Alexander; Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we consider computing systems that have autonomous helper components which fulfill support functions and that possess reconfigurable hardware so that they can specialize to different types of service tasks. Several self-organized task partitioning methods are proposed that can be used by the helper components to decide how to reconfigure and which service tasks to execute. The proposed task partitioning methods are inspired by the so-called ant queue system that can be found in real ants for partitioning tasks between the individuals. The aim of this study is to investigate basic properties of the task partitioning methods, like stability and efficiency, in order to obtain basic insights into the design of task partitioning methods in self-organized service systems. More precisely, the investigations are threefold: (1) discrete event simulations are used to investigate systems, (2) for a simple version of the task partitioning system analytical stability results are obtained by means of delay differential equation systems and (3) by numerically solving initial value problems.

  9. Differential effects of emotionally versus neutrally cued autobiographical memories on performance of a subsequent cognitive task: Effects of task difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberly eYoung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a limited resource, and in order to improve processing of the attended information, competing processes must be suppressed. Although it is well established that an experimentally induced change in mood state comprises one type of competing process that can impair performance on a subsequent task, no study has investigated whether an emotionally valenced autobiographical memory (AM also can alter performance on a subsequent task. We therefore examined the effects of AM recall on cognitive performance. Healthy participants (n=20 per experiment recalled AMs in response to positive, negative, and neutral cue words. Following each AM participants completed a simple perceptual task (Experiment 1 or solved moderately difficult subtraction problems (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1 participants performed less accurately following exposure to positive or negative versus neutral cue words (ps<0.001, and also were less accurate following negative versus positive cue words (p<0.001. In Experiment 2, in contrast, no difference in accuracy or response times reached statistical significance. Performance accuracy even trended towards being higher following exposure to negative versus neutral cue words (p=0.08. The results of Experiment 1 suggested that recalling emotionally salient AMs reduces the attention directed toward a simple continuous performance task administered immediately following the AM task, conceivably due to persistent contemplation of the AM. The negative results of Experiment 2 suggested that the effect of AMs on attention was attenuated, however, by increasing the difficulty of the subsequent task. Our results have implications for patients with MDD, as performing cognitively demanding tasks may allow them to attenuate the impairing effects of negative rumination on cognition.

  10. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  11. Professional Development: A Six-Year Data Evaluation of HIDTA Law Enforcement Task Force Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This is a nationwide six-year data study of law enforcement training and professional development in relationship to workplace productivity. Why do we care about law enforcement training and professional development? Because the law enforcement environment is not standing still. Unlawful activity, and in particular drug trafficking strategies,…

  12. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  13. The effects of tournament incentive contracts and relative performance feedback on task effort, learning effort, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, George

    2015-01-01

    When employees work hard, they exert more effort on job tasks (task effort); and when employees learn hard, they exert more effort to learn (learning effort). Task effort and learning effort are important causes of improved performance. This thesis investigates whether the use of tournament schemes motivates employees to work harder and learn harder, and also whether providing performance feedback in tournament schemes has any impact on task effort and learning effort.This thesis has three go...

  14. The Performance of Edge Organizations in a Collaborative Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Kok M

    2005-01-01

    .... In this thesis, the author investigates how the various characteristics of agents influence the efficiency of an edge organization in an intelligence-gathering task using an agent-based simulation...

  15. Task-shifting of HIV/AIDS services down the professional ladder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Abstract. This review tried to bring to light success stories and challenges of other African countries on the same topic as lesson for current endeavors in Ethiopia where the process of implementation of task shifting is in its early stage. It concluded that task shifting can help improve access, coverage and quality of HIV/AIDS ...

  16. Cerebral activations related to audition-driven performance imagery in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n = 12). The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically appraising the performance or imagining they were performing themselves. Two-part polyphonic audition and bimanual motor imagery circumvented a hemisphere bias associated with the convention of playing the melody with the right hand. Both tasks activated ventral premotor and auditory cortices, bilaterally, and the right anterior parietal cortex, when contrasted to 12 musically unskilled controls. Although left ventral premotor activation was increased during imagery (compared to judgment), bilateral dorsal premotor and right posterior-superior parietal activations were quite unique to motor imagery. The latter suggests that musicians not only recruited their manual motor repertoire but also performed a spatial transformation from the vertically perceived pitch axis (high and low sound) to the horizontal axis of the keyboard. Imagery-specific activations in controls were seen in left dorsal parietal-premotor and supplementary motor cortices. Although these activations were less strong compared to musicians, this overlapping distribution indicated the recruitment of a general 'mirror-neuron' circuitry. These two levels of sensori-motor transformations point towards common principles by which the brain organizes audition-driven music performance and visually guided task performance.

  17. Cerebral activations related to audition-driven performance imagery in professional musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harris

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n = 12. The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically appraising the performance or imagining they were performing themselves. Two-part polyphonic audition and bimanual motor imagery circumvented a hemisphere bias associated with the convention of playing the melody with the right hand. Both tasks activated ventral premotor and auditory cortices, bilaterally, and the right anterior parietal cortex, when contrasted to 12 musically unskilled controls. Although left ventral premotor activation was increased during imagery (compared to judgment, bilateral dorsal premotor and right posterior-superior parietal activations were quite unique to motor imagery. The latter suggests that musicians not only recruited their manual motor repertoire but also performed a spatial transformation from the vertically perceived pitch axis (high and low sound to the horizontal axis of the keyboard. Imagery-specific activations in controls were seen in left dorsal parietal-premotor and supplementary motor cortices. Although these activations were less strong compared to musicians, this overlapping distribution indicated the recruitment of a general 'mirror-neuron' circuitry. These two levels of sensori-motor transformations point towards common principles by which the brain organizes audition-driven music performance and visually guided task performance.

  18. Development of Higher Education teaching: visibility and professional performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Aparecida Behrens

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This text presents some reflections based on a thorough review of studies carried out by the PEFOP (Educational Paradigms and Teacher Education group on teaching performance in higher education. The complex scenario of teaching activity and the challenges imposed by daily academic tasks were investigated in order to specify some indicators used by students to qualify teaching activity at university. It could be observed that such indicators interfere with the evaluation of the professors’ performance. The investigation also showed how professors deal with the required institutional evaluations, whose indicators and metric indices cause concern. Finally, a qualitative field research based on a semi-open-ended questionnaire was carried out with 89 students from a community university.

  19. Vitamin D and exercise performance in professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos E Koundourakis

    Full Text Available The current study had two aims. The primary purpose was to examine the association between serum vitamin D levels and the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and speed in professional soccer players. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of the soccer off-season period on serum vitamin D levels.Sixty-seven Caucasian male soccer players (age 25.6 ± 6.2 and height 1.81 ± 0.08 m, members of two Greek Superleague Soccer teams and one Football-league championship team participated in this study. Exercise performance testing for the determination of squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, 10 (10 m and 20 meters (20 m sprint performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before (pre and after (post the six-week off-season period.Analysis of our results showed the following: (a a significant correlations between serum vitamin D levels and performance parameters in both pre (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, VO2max; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 and post (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P<0.001, VO2max; P = 0.006, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 experimental sessions. (b Vitamin D concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001 following the six-week off-season period compared to baseline, while at the same time all measured performance parameters decreased (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, 20 m; P < 0.001, VO2max; P<0.001.Our findings suggest that vitamin D levels are associated with the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, as expressed by SJ and CMJ, sprinting capacity, and VO2max in professional soccer players, irrespective the levels of performance. Furthermore, our data reaffirm the importance of UVB on serum vitamin D levels. Moreover, reductions in exercise training stress may also have beneficial effects on vitamin D levels, suggesting a possible association of its levels and the training-induced stress. Our results indicate a

  20. Factors Affecting Match Running Performance in Professional Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Samuel; Coutts, Aaron J; Hocking, Joel; Kempton, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    To examine the influence of a range of individual player characteristics and match-related factors on activity profiles during professional Australian football matches. Global positioning system (GPS) profiles were collected from 34 professional Australian football players from the same club over 15 competition matches. GPS data were classified into relative total and high-speed running (HSR; >20 km/h) distances. Individual player aerobic fitness was determined from a 2-km time trial conducted during the preseason. Each match was classified according to match location, season phase, recovery length, opposition strength, and match outcome. The total number of stoppages during the match was obtained from a commercial statistics provider. A linear mixed model was constructed to examine the influence of player characteristics and match-related factors on both relative total and HSR outputs. Player aerobic fitness had a large effect on relative total and HSR distances. Away matches and matches lost produced only small reductions in relative HSR distances, while the number of rotations also had a small positive effect. Matches won, more player rotations, and playing against strong opposition all resulted in small to moderate increases in relative total distance, while early season phase, increased number of stoppages, and away matches resulted in small to moderate reductions in relative total distance. There is a likely interplay of factors that influence running performance during Australian football matches. The results highlight the need to consider a variety of contextual factors when interpreting physical output from matches.

  1. Performance monitoring and response conflict resolution associated with choice stepping reaction tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Tsutou, Kotaro; Saito, Kotaro; Ishida, Kazuto; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2016-11-01

    Choice reaction requires response conflict resolution, and the resolution processes that occur during a choice stepping reaction task undertaken in a standing position, which requires maintenance of balance, may be different to those processes occurring during a choice reaction task performed in a seated position. The study purpose was to investigate the resolution processes during a choice stepping reaction task at the cortical level using electroencephalography and compare the results with a control task involving ankle dorsiflexion responses. Twelve young adults either stepped forward or dorsiflexed the ankle in response to a visual imperative stimulus presented on a computer screen. We used the Simon task and examined the error-related negativity (ERN) that follows an incorrect response and the correct-response negativity (CRN) that follows a correct response. Error was defined as an incorrect initial weight transfer for the stepping task and as an incorrect initial tibialis anterior activation for the control task. Results revealed that ERN and CRN amplitudes were similar in size for the stepping task, whereas the amplitude of ERN was larger than that of CRN for the control task. The ERN amplitude was also larger in the stepping task than the control task. These observations suggest that a choice stepping reaction task involves a strategy emphasizing post-response conflict and general performance monitoring of actual and required responses and also requires greater cognitive load than a choice dorsiflexion reaction. The response conflict resolution processes appear to be different for stepping tasks and reaction tasks performed in a seated position.

  2. THE ROLE OF EMAIL IN IMPROVING TASK PERFORMANCE AMONG THE EXECUTIVES IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Narges Baninajarian; Zulhamri Abdullah; Jusang Bolong

    2011-01-01

    As new technologies that support managerial communication became widely used, the question of how they influence task performance increases in importance. This study aims to examine the role of email in improvingtask performance. Specifically, this study attempts to look at how email richness and ease of use can affect task performance. The results of this study revealed that the executives experienced moderate to high level of task performance while using email. The results also showed that ...

  3. Effect of aging on performance, muscle activation and perceived stress during mentally demanding computer tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Pilegaard, Marianne; Bakke, Merete

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of age on performance, muscle activation, and perceived stress during computer tasks with different levels of mental demand. METHODS: Fifteen young and thirteen elderly women performed two computer tasks [color word test and reference task] with different......' perception of the stress and difficulty related to the tasks. RESULTS: Performance decreased significantly in both groups during the color word test in comparison with performance on the reference task. However, the performance reduction was more pronounced in the elderly group than in the young group...... demands affect young and elderly women differently. Thus the mentally demanding computer task had a more pronounced effect on the elderly than on the young. In contrast to the results in the reference task, the same level of muscle activity for most muscles and the same level of self-reported difficulty...

  4. Musicians’ Online Performance during Auditory and Visual Statistical Learning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandikal Vasuki, Pragati R.; Sharma, Mridula; Ibrahim, Ronny K.; Arciuli, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Musicians’ brains are considered to be a functional model of neuroplasticity due to the structural and functional changes associated with long-term musical training. In this study, we examined implicit extraction of statistical regularities from a continuous stream of stimuli—statistical learning (SL). We investigated whether long-term musical training is associated with better extraction of statistical cues in an auditory SL (aSL) task and a visual SL (vSL) task—both using the embedded triplet paradigm. Online measures, characterized by event related potentials (ERPs), were recorded during a familiarization phase while participants were exposed to a continuous stream of individually presented pure tones in the aSL task or individually presented cartoon figures in the vSL task. Unbeknown to participants, the stream was composed of triplets. Musicians showed advantages when compared to non-musicians in the online measure (early N1 and N400 triplet onset effects) during the aSL task. However, there were no differences between musicians and non-musicians for the vSL task. Results from the current study show that musical training is associated with enhancements in extraction of statistical cues only in the auditory domain. PMID:28352223

  5. Multitasking and aging: do older adults benefit from performing a highly practiced task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip A; Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Voss, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: The present study examined the effect of training on age differences in performing a highly practiced task using the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm (Pashler, 1984, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 358-377). Earlier training studies have concentrated on tasks that are not already overlearned. The present question of interest is whether task dual-task integration will be more efficient when single-task performance is approaching asymptotic levels. Task 1 was red/green signal discrimination (green = "go" and red = "wait"; analogous to pedestrian signals) and Task 2 was tone discrimination (white noise vs. a horn "honk"; analogous to traffic sound). The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between Task 1 and Task 2 was varied (50, 150, 600, and 1000 ms). All individuals participated in eight sessions spread over 8 weeks (one session per week). Participants completed a dual-task pretest (Week 1), followed by 6 weeks of single-task testing (Weeks 2-7), followed by a dual-task posttest (Week 8). Although older adults showed larger overall dual-task costs (i.e., PRP effects), they were able to reduce the costs with practice as much as younger adults. However, even when training on Task 1 results in asymptotic performance, this still did not lead to an appreciable reduction in dual-task costs. Also, older adults, but not younger adults, responded more rapidly to green stimuli than to red stimuli in the Task 1 training latency data. The authors confirmed this green/go bias using diffusion modeling, which takes into account response time and error rates at the same time. This green/go bias is potentially dangerous at crosswalks, especially when combined with large dual-task interference, and might contribute to the high rate of crosswalk accidents in the elderly.

  6. [Effects of motor activity on cognitive performance of patients with traumatic brain injury during dual tasking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useros-Olmo, A I; Perianez, J A; Miangolarra-Page, J C

    2015-09-01

    The use of dual task paradigms has revealed behavioural interactions between certain motor tasks, like standing or walking, and cognitive tasks when performed simultaneously. Despite the potential relevance of these findings accounting for certain neurological symptoms (i.e., falls), or for the design of new therapeutic interventions, there is few information available about such interaction effects in traumatic brain injury (TBI). To assess the presence of cognitive-motor interactions during dual tasking in TBI patients. Twenty TBI patients and 19 healthy matched controls performed two attentional and two working memory tasks (simple reaction times, complex reaction times, 1-back numeric, 1-back spatial) during dual task conditions, that is, at the same time than one motor task (standing and walking), and during single task conditions (without a motor task). Reaction times were recorded in response to all cognitive tasks. Patients exhibit slower performance than controls in all cognitive tasks (p cognitive-motor interactions during simultaneous execution of motor-working memory tasks in TBI patients are discussed, as well as the potential therapeutic value of dual task paradigms in the rehabilitation of these patients.

  7. Assessment Of Professional Tour Guides’ Performances By Local Tourists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atınç Olcay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the help of internet and other social networks, a more conscious tourist profile has gained momentum in this new tourism era. The professional tour guide (PTG services, one of the most important components of the tourism services, have been inspired due to these developments. The PTG contributes tremendously to the success of packaged tours. As such, this research aims to determine the importance levels of the expected PTG's qualifications and assessing the performance of PTG’s from the local tourists’ perspectives. In order to ascertain the aim, survey was conducted with 472 local tourists that visited Gaziantep in 2014 with guided package tours in the months of March and April. The findings indicated that the ratings give PTGs’ performances were lower than that of their qualifications’ importance level. From this point of view, it can be suggested that PTGs’ performance levels stay under local tourists’ expectations within the research framework. The results also indicate statistically significant differences with %5 significance level between local tourists’ assessments on knowledge, abilities/skills and characteristics of PTGs and local tourist’ education levels, genders and package tour participation frequencies

  8. Increasing On-Task Performance for Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity are the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the day-to-day grind of teaching, when problems emerge, the teachers' best intentions and sensitivities are tested. Fidgety, loud, disorganized, disruptive, hurried, careless, and off-task behavior coupled with messy,…

  9. Performance of healthy participants on the Iowa Gambling Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingroever, H.; Wetzels, R.; Horstmann, A.; Neumann, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994) is often used to assess decision-making deficits in clinical populations. The interpretation of the results hinges on 3 key assumptions: (a) healthy participants learn to prefer the good options over the bad options; (b)

  10. Ready to rumble: how team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bret H; Klotz, Anthony C; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Brown, Kenneth G

    2013-03-01

    Although prior work has proposed a number of conditions under which task conflict in teams may improve performance, composition variables have been left unexplored. Given the effects of personality traits on team processes and outcomes demonstrated in prior work, investigating whether specific personality compositions influence the effect of task conflict on team performance is critical to researchers' understanding of conflict in teams. Our results indicate that team-level averages of both openness to experience and emotional stability function as moderators of the relationship between task conflict and team performance. Specifically, task conflict had a positive impact on performance in teams with high levels of openness or emotional stability; in contrast, task conflict had a negative impact on performance in teams with low levels of openness or emotional stability. Thus, when task conflict emerges, teams composed of members who are open minded or emotionally stable are best able to leverage conflict to improve performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  11. Dual task performance in Parkinson's disease: a sensitive predictor of impairment and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rebecca L; Van Winkle, Elizabeth P; Anderson, Karen E; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Hill, Terra; Zampieri, Cris; Weiner, William J; Shulman, Lisa M

    2013-03-01

    Dual task (DT) performance assesses the ability to perform two tasks simultaneously. Difficulty with DT performance may be a sensitive indicator of early Parkinson's disease (PD) impairment. The objective of this study was to assess what elements of a DT performance (cognition or gait) are most associated with impairment and disability in PD. Performance in single and DT conditions was examined in 154 PD patients. The single task assessments included the time required to walk 50 feet (gait speed) and the number of words generated in a verbal fluency task (word generation). The DT comprised simultaneous performance of the single tasks. Impairment and disability were measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn &Yahr, Berg Balance Scale, and Older Americans Resource and Services Scale. Age, education, and gender were control variables. Standardized residuals from regressions of DT upon single task performance were computed separately for word and gait, indicating the extent that the individual performed proportionally better/worse than predicted in DT considering their single task performance. Multiple regressions revealed that individuals who performed worse than expected in DT-word had greater impairment and disability. Dual task-gait was not significant in any model. Verbal fluency during DT performance is more closely associated with PD-related impairment and disability than gait speed during DT. This suggests that subjects prioritize gait performance at the expense of cognitive performance, and that DT word generation may be a sensitive indicator of early PD impairment and disability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of emotional intelligence on employee task performance though the moderation of proactive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shazma Ahmad Khan; Faryal Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the association between emotional intelligence (EI) and employee task performance and to check the partial or full moderation of proactive behavior. The study concludes that there exist a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and employee task performance. By developing Proactive behavior in leaders and employees organizational task performance can be enhanced in the workplace. The factors of emotional intelligence (Cognitive Ability, Inte...

  13. The Relationships Between Need for Cognition, Boredom Proneness, Task Engagement, and Test Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia A. Diehl; Matthew Wyrick

    2015-01-01

    Participants read a procedural text describing how to make a wind-up spool toy while only reading, reading and watching the experimenter do the task, or reading and doing the task themselves. Afterward, task performance (measured by time to complete the task without the instructions and number of errors) and memory for/understanding of the text (measured with a Multiple Choice Test) were assessed. Participants then com...

  14. Age-related differences in dual task performance: A cross-sectional study on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo R; Magistro, Daniele; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica E

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous performances of motor and attention-demanding tasks are common in activities of everyday life. The present cross-sectional study examined the changes and age-related differences on mobility performance with an additional cognitive or motor task, and evaluated the relative dual-task cost (DTC) on the motor performance in young, middle-aged and older women. A total of 30 young (mean age 25.12 ± 3.00 years), 30 middle-aged (mean age 47.82 ± 5.06 years) and 30 older women (mean age 72.74 ± 5.95 years) were recruited. Participants carried out: (i) single task: Timed Up & Go Test; (ii) cognitive dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while counting backwards by three; (iii) manual dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while carrying a glass of water. A repeated measures anova with between-factor as age groups and within-factor as tasks was carried out to assess the effect of aging on the performance of mobility tasks. DTC was calculated as ([performance in single-task - performance in dual-task] / performance in single task) × 100%. One-way ancova were carried out to compare the DTC among the three age groups. A significant interaction between age groups and task (F4,172  = 6.716, P performance under dual-task condition compared with young and middle-aged groups. Furthermore, DTC differences in cognitive task were observed in older women compared with younger and middle-aged women (F2,86  = 7.649, P performance differently across the lifespan, and could be particularly challenging in older women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 315-321. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Absorbed in the task : Personality measures predict engagement during task performance as tracked by error negativity and asymmetrical frontal activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that interactions between traits and context predict task engagement, as measured by the amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN), performance, and relative frontal activity asymmetry (RFA). In Study 1, we found that drive for reward, absorption, and constraint independently

  16. Modeling the Psychometric Properties of Complex Performance Assessment Tasks Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis: A Multistage Model for Calibrating Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; De Champlain, Andre; Raymond, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Item-level information, such as difficulty and discrimination are invaluable to the test assembly, equating, and scoring practices. Estimating these parameters within the context of large-scale performance assessments is often hindered by the use of unbalanced designs for assigning examinees to tasks and raters because such designs result in very…

  17. Effect of a Body Model on Performance in a Virtual Environment Search Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singer, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ...) in training dismounted soldiers. This experiment investigated full body representation (generic) versus a hand linked pointer on movement performance in an office building interior during a search task...

  18. [Professional or household performance of patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Ferreira Filho, Celso; Del Giglio, Auro; Munhoes, Daniela Armonia; Trevizan, Lígia Lopes Balsalobre; Herbst, Lívia Grigoriitchuk; Viera, Mariana da Cunha; Taranto, Patrícia; Pachon, Susy Cunha

    2009-01-01

    Evaluate patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy with respect to their epidemiologic and clinical variables as well as performance at work or at home. this was a cross-sectional study including 52 women interviewed during breast cancer chemotherapy, stratified in two groups: those who continued to work and do household tasks, and did not continue to work or do household tasks. Patients were from two public hospitals in the State of São Paulo, one in Santo Andre and the other in São Bernardo do Campo. The WPAI - GH (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment) questionnaire was used to evaluate work and household performance of professionals or housewives, respectively. Mean age of the patients was 55.7 (SD=13.8), most were Caucasian (88.5%), married (55.8%), employed (65.3%) and the majority had to stop working because of treatment (51.0%), at more advanced stage (p<0.05), fatigue and nausea (p<0.05). Mean WPAI - GH was 67.04 (|SD = 5.62) for patients who stopped working and 49.17 (SD = 6.89) for those who continued to work (Mann-Whitney U test: p = 0.04). Chemotherapy leads to a decrease in performance of a sizable fraction of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. A more advanced stage of neoplasia was positively associated with withdrawal from these activities probably due to side effects such as fatigue and nausea.

  19. Children's Sleep, Sleepiness, and Performance on Cognitive Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    While causal connections between sleep deprivation and attention, learning, and memory have been well established in adults, much less research has been done with children. Relations between the amount and quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness have been found for a number of cognitive and academic tasks in several groups of children. These relations have been found for children who have sleep disorders, for children with disorders involving cognitive impairment, and for typically developing children with no known disorders. The research is reviewed here with a focus on the types of cognitive and academic tasks that have been related to insufficient sleep. A series of studies is described that relates sleep parameters to the Woodcock-Johnson® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and other, similar measures. Implications for educators and psychologists who work with children are discussed.

  20. Intrusive Thought and Relativity Associated with Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-23

    found that the use of soundtracks along with the "Subincision " film produced a greater physiological stress response, indicated by heart rate and...between men and women (Matthews et al. , 1991) For the purposes of this dissertation, a stressor/task was chosen that has no history of gender...traumatic history questionnaire (THO) was used to determine the occurrence of traumatic events in the participant 1 s lifetime (Norris, 1990). Eight

  1. Short-Term Effects of Chewing on Task Performance and Task-Induced Mydriasis: Trigeminal Influence on the Arousal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti Fantozzi, Maria Paola; De Cicco, Vincenzo; Barresi, Massimo; Cataldo, Enrico; Faraguna, Ugo; Bruschini, Luca; Manzoni, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Trigeminal input to the ascending activating system is important for the maintenance of arousal and may affect the discharge of the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC), whose activity influences both vigilance state and pupil size, inducing mydriasis. For this reason, pupil size evaluation is now considered an indicator of LC activity. Since mastication activates trigeminal afferent neurons, the aims of the present study, conducted on healthy adult participants, were to investigate whether chewing a bolus of different hardness may: (1) differentially affect the performance on a cognitive task (consisting in the retrieval of specific target numbers within numerical matrices) and (2) increase the dilatation of the pupil (mydriasis) induced by a haptic task, suggesting a change in LC activation. Results show that chewing significantly increased both the velocity of number retrieval (without affecting the number of errors) and the mydriasis associated with the haptic task, whereas simple task repetition did not modify either retrieval or mydriasis. Handgrip exercise, instead, significantly decreased both parameters. Effects were significantly stronger and longer lasting when subjects chewed hard pellets. Finally, chewing-induced improvements in performance and changes in mydriasis were positively correlated, which suggests that trigeminal signals enhanced by chewing may boost the cognitive performance by increasing LC activity.

  2. Short-Term Effects of Chewing on Task Performance and Task-Induced Mydriasis: Trigeminal Influence on the Arousal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Tramonti Fantozzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal input to the ascending activating system is important for the maintenance of arousal and may affect the discharge of the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC, whose activity influences both vigilance state and pupil size, inducing mydriasis. For this reason, pupil size evaluation is now considered an indicator of LC activity. Since mastication activates trigeminal afferent neurons, the aims of the present study, conducted on healthy adult participants, were to investigate whether chewing a bolus of different hardness may: (1 differentially affect the performance on a cognitive task (consisting in the retrieval of specific target numbers within numerical matrices and (2 increase the dilatation of the pupil (mydriasis induced by a haptic task, suggesting a change in LC activation. Results show that chewing significantly increased both the velocity of number retrieval (without affecting the number of errors and the mydriasis associated with the haptic task, whereas simple task repetition did not modify either retrieval or mydriasis. Handgrip exercise, instead, significantly decreased both parameters. Effects were significantly stronger and longer lasting when subjects chewed hard pellets. Finally, chewing-induced improvements in performance and changes in mydriasis were positively correlated, which suggests that trigeminal signals enhanced by chewing may boost the cognitive performance by increasing LC activity.

  3. Pretenders and performers: professional responses to the commodification of healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkens, E.; Bröer, C.; van Sambeek, N.; van Hassel, D.

    2013-01-01

    How do professionals respond to the commodification of health care? Using an interactionist perspective, we answer this question by referring to the findings of five qualitative studies of hospital surgeons, mental health-care professionals, emergency and ambulance personnel, and youth workers in

  4. Testing-the-limits of optimizing dual-task performance in younger and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Impaired dual-task performance in younger and older adults can be improved with practice. Optimal conditions even allow for a (near elimination of this impairment in younger adults. However, it is unknown whether such (near elimination is the limit of performance improvements in older adults. The present study tests this limit in older adults under conditions of (A an extremely high amount of dual-task practice and (B practice with extremely simple component tasks in dual-task situations. The data showed that an extremely high amount of dual-task practice in older adults provided no evidence for an improvement of dual-task performance in older compared with younger adults. However, practice with extremely simple component tasks in dual-task situations during older adults’ practice provided a similar level of improved dual-task performance in both age groups. Thus, applying a testing-the-limits approach, we demonstrated that older adults improve dual-task performance to the same level as younger adults under very specific conditions.

  5. Reframing professional boundaries in healthcare : A systematic review of facilitators and barriers to task reallocation from the domain of medicine to the nursing domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niezen, M.G.H.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To explore the main facilitators and barriers to task reallocation. Background One of the innovative approaches to dealing with the anticipated shortage of physicians is to reallocate tasks from the professional domain of medicine to the nursing domain. Various (cost-)effectiveness studies

  6. Test of a model linking employee positive moods and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Chi; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Liu, Hui-Lu

    2007-11-01

    Past empirical evidence has demonstrated that employees' positive mood states predict task performance. This study extends previous research by proposing and testing a model that examines mediating processes underlying the relationship between employee positive moods and task performance. Two longitudinal studies used data collected from 306 (Study 1) and 263 (Study 2) insurance sales agents in Taiwan. The results showed that employee positive moods predicted task performance indirectly through both interpersonal (helping other coworkers and coworker helping and support) and motivational (self-efficacy and task persistence) processes. (c) 2007 APA

  7. Identification of tasks performed by stroke patients using a mobility assistive device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hester, Todd; Sherrill, Delsey M; Hamel, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    of these devices. In this study, we propose the use of wearable sensors to identify tasks performed by stroke patients with a mobility assistive device. Subjects performed ten tasks with a three-axis accelerometer attached to their ankle and a neural network was trained to identify the task being performed....... Results from 15 stroke patients indicated that these motor tasks can be reliably identified with a median sensitivity of 90 % at a median specificity of 95%. These results indicate that it is possible to use a single module with a three-axis accelerometer attached to the ankle to reliably identify motor...

  8. Average and Quantile Decomposition : the Gender Gap in Student Performance and the Household Tasks in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Sumida, Sugata; Kawata, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Gender gap of student performance is one of the remaining challenge in Mozambique. This study shed light on the role of household tasks in gender gap of student performance and examine whether the gender gap comes as a result of difference in engaging household tasks. We employ the decomposition techniques with the SACMEQ III data for 3360 pupils in Mozambique. Our result by mean and quantile decomposition analysis shows that there is little evidence that the difference of household tasks eng...

  9. Chew on this: No support for facilitating effects of gum on spatial task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Ingo W; Gittler, Georg; Waldherr, Karin; Pietschnig, Jakob

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether chewing of gum facilitates spatial task performance in healthy participants, two behavioral experiments were performed. In the first experiment, spatial task performance of 349 men and women preceding and after treatment administration (saccharated chewing gum, sugar-free chewing gum, no chewing gum) was assessed using effect modeling by means of Item Response Theory. In the second experiment, another 100 participants were either administered sugar-free chewing gum or no chewing gum during spatial task performance. Effects of gum in the second study were assessed by standard means of data analysis. Results indicated no significant effects of either chewing gum or sugar on spatial task performance in either experiment. Our findings are consistent with recent studies investigating the influences of chewing gum on various memory functions, extending them by another measure of cognitive ability. Thus, further doubt is cast on enhancing effects of chewing gum on cognitive task performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of Bony Stress Injuries on Professional Basketball Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury

  11. The Effects of Background Music on Primary School Pupils' Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Price, John; Katsarou, Georgia

    2002-01-01

    Presents two studies that explored the effects of music perceived as calming and relaxing on arithmetic and memory performance tasks of 10- to 12-year-old children. Reports that the calming music led to better performance on both tasks when compared with the non-music condition. Includes references. (CMK)

  12. The effect of caffeine on cognitive task performance and motor fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Hiske; Lorist, Monicque M.; Zijdewind, Inge

    Rationale: In everyday life, people are usually capable of performing two tasks simultaneously. However, in a previous study we showed that during a fatiguing motor task, cognitive performance declined progressively. There is extensive literature on the ( positive) effects of caffeine on cognitive

  13. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Intervention to Improve Task Performance for Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongil; Kwon, Miyoung

    2018-01-01

    Background: Task performance is a critical factor for learning in individuals with intellectual disabilities. This study aimed to examine mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) to improve task performance for children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Three elementary school children with ID participated in the study. A multiple baseline…

  14. Development and Validation of an Admission Test Designed to Assess Samples of Performance on Academic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanilon, Jenny; Segers, Mien; Vedder, Paul; Tillema, Harm

    2009-01-01

    This study illustrates the development and validation of an admission test, labeled as Performance Samples on Academic Tasks in Educational Sciences (PSAT-Ed), designed to assess samples of performance on academic tasks characteristic of those that would eventually be encountered by examinees in an Educational Sciences program. The test was based…

  15. What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Z.; Janse, E.; Visser, K.; Meyer, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of verbal ability and executive control to verbal fluency performance in older adults (n=82). Verbal fluency was assessed in letter and category fluency tasks, and performance on these tasks was related to indicators of vocabulary size, lexical access speed,

  16. Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive…

  17. Effects of transportation noise and attitudes on noise annoyance and task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.; Meeter, M.; Bronkhorst, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effects on task performance and annoyance by aircraft and road traffic noise and attitudes towards these noise sources were addressed in a lab-setting. On day 1 of the study, participants performed a 3-back working memory task in silence and with noise samples played over a headphone

  18. Self-reported and Observed Quality of ADL Task Performance in Adults with Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva

    chosen. Aims • To investigate which information can be obtained about the quality of ADL task performance based on self-report and observation, respectively • To examine the relationship between measures of self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance. Subjects Twenty patients >18 years......Introduction Limited relationship between measures of self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance has been revealed in a rheumatologic population, stressing the need to apply both self-report and observation in that population when evaluating ADL task performance. As occupational...... therapists offer their services to a wide range of diagnostic groups, it was decided to investigate if a similar pattern would show, when examining the relationship between self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance in a different population. For this purpose, adults with depression were...

  19. Thermal effects on human performance in office environment measured by integrating task speed and accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    only proceed when the errors are corrected. Traditionally, the tasks are presented without giving this feedback and thus the speed and accuracy are treated separately. The method was examined in a subjective experiment with thermal environment as the prototypical example. During exposure in an office......We have proposed a method in which the speed and accuracy can be integrated into one metric of human performance. This was achieved by designing a performance task in which the subjects receive feedback on their performance by informing them whether they have committed errors, and if did, they can......, 12 subjects performed tasks under two thermal conditions (neutral & warm) repeatedly. The tasks were presented with and without feedback on errors committed, as outlined above. The results indicate that there was a greater decrease in task performance due to thermal discomfort when feedback was given...

  20. Effects of mental resource availability on looming task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Austen B; Gillath, Omri; Vitevitch, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Past research has shown that the looming bias-the tendency to judge one's distance to an approaching object as shorter than in actuality-is stronger among people who are physically weak or vulnerable. The current study examined whether the looming bias would also be stronger among people who are mentally weak or vulnerable. We tested that hypothesis by subjecting 46 young adults to cognitive load and examining their perceptions of approaching objects distance. Participants completed two blocks of the looming task, once under high cognitive load (memorizing a seven-digit number) and once under low load (memorizing a two-digit number). Participants exhibited a stronger looming bias under high load than under low load. These findings support the hypothesis that the looming bias will be stronger when people are weak or vulnerable-either physically or mentally-and in need of a larger margin-of-safety.

  1. The assessment of risky decision making: a factor analysis of performance on the Iowa Gambling Task, Balloon Analogue Risk Task, and Columbia Card Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Blaine, Amber L

    2015-09-01

    Researchers and clinicians frequently use behavioral measures to assess decision making. The most common task that is marketed to clinicians is the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), thought to assess risky decision making. How does performance on the IGT relate to performance on other common measures of decision making? The present study sought to examine relationships between the IGT, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and the Columbia Card Task (CCT). Participants were 390 undergraduate students who completed the IGT, BART, and either the "hot" or "cold" CCT. Principal components factor analysis on the IGT, BART, and CCT-cold (n = 112) indicated that the IGT measures a different component of decision making than the BART, and the CCT-cold weakly correlated with early IGT trials. Results of the exploratory factor analysis on the IGT, BART, and CCT-hot (n = 108) revealed a similar picture: the IGT and BART assessed different types of decision making, and the BART and CCT-hot were weakly correlated. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 170) indicated that a 3-factor model without the CCT-cold (Factor 1: later IGT trials; Factor 2: BART; and Factor 3: early IGT trials) was a better fitting model than one that included the CCT-cold and early IGT trials on the same factor. Collectively, the present results suggest that the IGT, BART, and CCT all measure unique, nonoverlapping decision making processes. Further research is needed to more fully understand the neuropsychological construct of decision making. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Association between educational status and dual-task performance in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Pimentel Piemonte, Maria Elisa; Castelli, Lilian Zanchetta; Andrade Machado, Mariane Silva; Dos Santos Teixeira, Patrícia Pereira; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Ribeiro Do Valle, Luiz Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The influence of educational status on perceptual-motor performance has not been investigated. The single- and dual-task performances of 15 Low educated adults (9 men, 6 women; M age=24.1 yr.; 6-9 yr. of education) and 15 Higher educated adults (8 men, 7 women; M age=24.7 yr.; 10-13 yr. of education) were compared. The perceptual task consisted of verbally classifying two figures (equal or different). The motor task consisted of alternating steps from the floor to a stool. Tasks were assessed individually and simultaneously. Two analyses of variance (2 groups×4 blocks) compared the errors and steps. The Low education group committed more errors and had less improvement on the perceptual task than the High education group. During and after the perceptual-motor task performance, errors increased only in the Low education group. Education correlated to perceptual and motor performance. The Low education group showed more errors and less step alternations on the perceptual-motor task compared to the High education group. This difference on the number of errors was also observed after the dual-task, when the perceptual task was performed alone.

  3. Detection of auditory signals in quiet and noisy backgrounds while performing a visuo-spatial task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha W Rawool

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The ability to detect important auditory signals while performing visual tasks may be further compounded by background chatter. Thus, it is important to know how task performance may interact with background chatter to hinder signal detection. Aim: To examine any interactive effects of speech spectrum noise and task performance on the ability to detect signals. Settings and Design: The setting was a sound-treated booth. A repeated measures design was used. Materials and Methods: Auditory thresholds of 20 normal adults were determined at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz in the following conditions presented in a random order: (1 quiet with attention; (2 quiet with a visuo-spatial task or puzzle (distraction; (3 noise with attention and (4 noise with task. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA with three repeated factors (quiet versus noise, visuo-spatial task versus no task, signal frequency. Results: MANOVA revealed significant main effects for noise and signal frequency and significant noise–frequency and task–frequency interactions. Distraction caused by performing the task worsened the thresholds for tones presented at the beginning of the experiment and had no effect on tones presented in the middle. At the end of the experiment, thresholds (4 kHz were better while performing the task than those obtained without performing the task. These effects were similar across the quiet and noise conditions. Conclusion: Detection of auditory signals is difficult at the beginning of a distracting visuo-spatial task but over time, task learning and auditory training effects can nullify the effect of distraction and may improve detection of high frequency sounds.

  4. Absorbed in the task: Personality measures predict engagement during task performance as tracked by error negativity and asymmetrical frontal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A S

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that interactions between traits and context predict task engagement, as measured by the amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN), performance, and relative frontal activity asymmetry (RFA). In Study 1, we found that drive for reward, absorption, and constraint independently predicted self-reported persistence. We hypothesized that, during a prolonged monotonous task, absorption would predict initial ERN amplitudes, constraint would delay declines in ERN amplitudes and deterioration of performance, and drive for reward would predict left RFA when a reward could be obtained. Study 2, employing EEG recordings, confirmed our predictions. The results showed that most traits that have in previous research been related to ERN amplitudes have a relationship with the motivational trait persistence in common. In addition, trait-context combinations that are likely associated with increased engagement predict larger ERN amplitudes and RFA. Together, these results support the hypothesis that engagement may be a common underlying factor predicting ERN amplitude.

  5. Effect of temperature on task performance in officeenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Lei, Q.H.

    2006-07-01

    Indoor temperature is one of the fundamental characteristics of the indoor environment. It can be controlled with a degree of accuracy dependent on the building and its HVAC system. The indoor temperature affects several human responses, including thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance at work. In this study, we focused on the effects of temperature on performance at office work. We included those studies that had used objective indicators of performance that are likely to be relevant in office type work, such as text processing, simple calculations (addition, multiplication), length of telephone customer service time, and total handling time per customer for call-center workers. We excluded data from studies of industrial work performance. We calculated from all studies the percentage of performance change per degree increase in temperature, and statistically analyzed measured work performance with temperature. The results show that performance increases with temperature up to 21-22 C, and decreases with temperature above 23-24 C. The highest productivity is at temperature of around 22 C. For example, at the temperature of 30 C, the performance is only 91.1% of the maximum i.e. the reduction in performance is 8.9%

  6. What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Janse, Esther; Visser, Karina; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of verbal ability and executive control to verbal fluency performance in older adults (n = 82). Verbal fluency was assessed in letter and category fluency tasks, and performance on these tasks was related to indicators of vocabulary size, lexical access speed, updating, and inhibition ability. In regression analyses the number of words produced in both fluency tasks was predicted by updating ability, and the speed of the first response was predicted by vocabulary size and, for category fluency only, lexical access speed. These results highlight the hybrid character of both fluency tasks, which may limit their usefulness for research and clinical purposes.

  7. Spatial Reasoning Influences Students' Performance on Mathematics Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Although the psychological literature has demonstrated that spatial reasoning and mathematics performance are correlated, there is scant research on these relationships in the middle years. The current study examined the commonalities and differences in students' performance on instruments that measured three spatial reasoning constructs and two…

  8. Attention tasks as skills performance measures of drug effects

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, H.

    1984-01-01

    1 Both empirical epidemiological data on the causes of traffic accidents and conceptual models of skilled human performance stress the central role of perception and cognition. This paper examines the effects of drugs on two major components of cognitive perceptual performance, namely, concentrated attention or vigilance and divided attention.

  9. Robot Control for Task Performance and Enhanced Safety under Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis eKarayiannidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A control law combining motion performance quality and low stiffness reaction to unintended contacts is proposed in this work. It achieves prescribed performance evolution of the position error under disturbances up to a level related to model uncertainties and responds compliantly and with low stiffness to significant disturbances arising from impact forces. The controller employs a velocity reference signal in a model-based control law utilizing a nonlinear time-dependent term which embeds prescribed performance specifications and vanishes in case of significant disturbances. Simulation results with a three degrees of freedom (DOF robot illustrate the motion performance and self-regulation of the output stiffness achieved by this controller under an external force, and highlights its advantages with respect to constant and switched impedance schemes. Experiments with a KUKA LWR4+ demonstrate its performance under impact with a human while following a desired trajectory.

  10. Effect of aging on performance, muscle activation and perceived stress during mentally demanding computer tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Pilegaard, Marianne; Bakke, Merete; Jensen, Bente R

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the effects of age on performance, muscle activation, and perceived stress during computer tasks with different levels of mental demand. Fifteen young and thirteen elderly women performed two computer tasks [color word test and reference task] with different levels of mental demand but similar physical demands. The performance (clicking frequency, percentage of correct answers, and response time for correct answers) and electromyography from the forearm, shoulder, and neck muscles were recorded. Visual analogue scales were used to measure the participants' perception of the stress and difficulty related to the tasks. Performance decreased significantly in both groups during the color word test in comparison with performance on the reference task. However, the performance reduction was more pronounced in the elderly group than in the young group. Likewise, a higher level of self-reported stress was found for the elderly participants after the color word test. During the reference task higher electromyographic levels and reported difficulty were recorded for the elderly group than for the young group. The findings suggest that mental demands affect young and elderly women differently. Thus the mentally demanding computer task had a more pronounced effect on the elderly than on the young. In contrast to the results in the reference task, the same level of muscle activity for most muscles and the same level of self-reported difficulty was found in the two groups during the color word test. The elderly probably compensated for age-related changes by reducing their work speed markedly.

  11. Task-focused behavior mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and students' academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-04-01

    In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks.

  12. Effects of Unilateral Muscle Fatigue on Performance and Force Coordination in Bimanual Manipulation Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Daniel; Jelaska, Igor; Uygur, Mehmet; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of unilateral muscle fatigue on the performance and coordination of grip (GF; normal component acting between the hand and object) and load force (LF; tangential component) in bimanual manipulation tasks, as well as the associated lateral differences. Eleven participants performed various symmetric bimanual tasks either without fatigue, or after fatiguing the GF producing muscles of either the nondominant or dominant hand. The GF/LF ratio of the fatigued and nonfatigued hand decreased and increased, respectively, while the neither the effects of fatigue on the task performance and GF-LF coordination, nor the lateral differences were revealed. The lack of the fatigue associated effects on most of the tested variables typically observed from unimanual tasks could be explained by bimanual assimilation. The findings also suggest that in daily life switching to bimanual tasks when one hand becomes fatigued could be beneficial regarding preserving the high level of both the manipulation performance and force coordination.

  13. Measuring working memory in aphasia: Comparing performance on complex span and N-back tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivanova

    2014-04-01

    No significant correlations were observed between performance on complex span task and N-back tasks.Furthermore, performance on the modified listening span was related to performance on the comprehension subtest of the QASA, while no relationship was found for 2-back and 0-back tasks.Our results mirror studies in healthy controls that demonstrated no relationship between performance on the two tasks(Jaeggi et al., 2010; Kane et al., 2007. Thus although N-back tasks seem similar to traditional complex span measures and may also index abilities related to cognitive processing, the evidence to date does not warrant their direct association with the construct of WM. Implications for future investigation of cognitive deficits in aphasia will be discussed.

  14. Time estimation as a secondary task to measure workload. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S. G.

    1975-01-01

    Variation in the length of time productions and verbal estimates of duration was investigated to determine the influence of concurrent activity on operator time perception. The length of 10-, 20-, and 30-sec intervals produced while performing six different compensatory tracking tasks was significantly longer, 23% on the average, than those produced while performing no other task. Verbal estimates of session duration, taken at the end of each of 27 experimental sessions, reflected a parallel increase in subjective underestimation of the passage of time as the difficulty of the task performed increased. These data suggest that estimates of duration made while performing a manual control task provide stable and sensitive measures of the workload imposed by the primary task, with minimal interference.

  15. Organizational citizenship behavior and performance evaluations: exploring the impact of task interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Daniel G; Powell, Benjamin C; Bendoly, Elliot; Richey, R Glenn

    2006-01-01

    The influence of task interdependence on the importance attributed to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in evaluations of employee performance was investigated in 3 studies. In Study 1,238 undergraduates were exposed to a task interdependence manipulation and a unit-level performance manipulation and provided citizenship ratings. In Study 2,148 master of business administration students were exposed to a task interdependence manipulation and then rated the importance of OCB in their evaluations of employee performance. In Study 3,130 managers rated the task interdependence in their unit of principal responsibility and the importance of OCB in their overall evaluations of employee performance. The results suggest task interdependence may affect the importance attributed to OCB by evaluators. Implications of these results are explored. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara M Wall-Scheffler

    Full Text Available Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  17. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Scheffler, Cara M; Wagnild, Janelle; Wagler, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females) walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  18. Uncovering the relationship between transformational leaders and followers' task performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A. B.; Demerouti, E.; Sleebos, D. M.; Maduro, V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying the relationship between transformational leadership, follower work engagement, and follower job performance and to investigate a possible boundary condition of transformational leadership. We used structural equation modeling

  19. High temperature and performance in a flight task simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-01

    The effects of high cockpit temperature on physiological responses and performance were determined on pilots in a general aviation simulator. The pilots (all instrument rated) 'flew' an instrument flight while exposed to each of three cockpit tempera...

  20. Effect of pre-task music on sports or exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, Bruno P

    2017-01-01

    Pre-task music is a very common strategy among sports competitors. However, as opposed to in-task music, the scientific evidence to support its ergogenic effects on either sports or exercise performance is limited. This brief review critically addresses the existing literature investigating the effects of pre-task music on sports and exercise performance, focusing on the methods and results of experimental studies, and offers basic and practical recommendations. In July 2015, a comprehensive literature search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar using the following key words in combination: "pre-task music," "pre-test music," "pre-exercise music," "exercise performance," "sports performance." The literature search was further expanded by both hand searching review articles on the topic and by searching the reference lists from the articles retrieved for any relevant references. Overall, a total of 15 studies in 14 articles were included. Pre-task music research has been unsystematic, methodologically limited and infrequent. Using this review as a starting point to overcome previous methodological limitations when designing future experiments may contribute to the development of pre-task music research, which is still in its infancy. Currently, there is no sufficient evidence to support the overall ergogenic effects of pre-task music on sports or exercise performance. Nonetheless, pre-task music has showed a likely ergogenic effect on shorter and predominantly anaerobic tasks such as grip strength, Wingate test, and short-duration sports or sports-like tasks, in contrast to longer and predominantly aerobic tasks.

  1. Cognitive performance under motor demands - On the influence of task difficulty and postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebherr, Magnus; Weiland-Breckle, Hanna; Grewe, Tanja; Schumacher, Petra B

    2018-01-30

    We often walk around when we have to think about something, but suddenly stop when we are confronted with a demanding cognitive task, such as calculating 1540∗24. While previous neurophysiological research investigated cognitive and motor performance separately, findings that combine both are rare. To get a deeper understanding of the influence of motor demands as well as the difficulty of a simultaneously performed cognitive task, we investigated 20 healthy individuals. Participants performed two cognitive tasks with different levels of difficulty while sitting or standing on one leg. In addition to behavioral data, we recorded the electroencephalogram from 26Ag/AgCI scalp electrodes. The critical time-windows, predefined by visual inspection, yielded an early (200-300 ms, P2) and a subsequent positivity (350-500 ms, P3). Statistical analysis of the early time window registered a motor x cognition interaction. Resolution of this interaction revealed an effect of the cognitive task in the one-legged stance motor condition, with a more pronounced positivity for the difficult task. No significant differences between cognitive tasks emerged for the simple motor condition. The time-window between 350 and 500 ms registered main effects of the motor task and a trend for the cognitive task. While the influence of cognitive task difficulty (in the P3) is in accordance with previous studies, the motor task effect is specific to one-legged stance (cf. no effects for running in previous research). The motor-cognition interaction found in the P2 indicates that the more difficult motor task (one-legged stance) facilitates cognitive task performance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Preempting Performance Challenges: The Effects of Inoculation Messaging on Attacks to Task Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Whiddett, Ryan; Anthony, David R.; Dimmock, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy). Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance) task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16) were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness), participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy) than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task. PMID:25898287

  3. Preempting performance challenges: the effects of inoculation messaging on attacks to task self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Whiddett, Ryan; Anthony, David R; Dimmock, James A

    2015-01-01

    Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy). Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance) task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16) were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness), participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy) than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task.

  4. Preempting performance challenges: the effects of inoculation messaging on attacks to task self-efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jackson

    Full Text Available Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy. Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16 were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness, participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task.

  5. Machine Learning Based Online Performance Prediction for Runtime Parallelization and Task Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J; Ma, X; Singh, K; Schulz, M; de Supinski, B R; McKee, S A

    2008-10-09

    With the emerging many-core paradigm, parallel programming must extend beyond its traditional realm of scientific applications. Converting existing sequential applications as well as developing next-generation software requires assistance from hardware, compilers and runtime systems to exploit parallelism transparently within applications. These systems must decompose applications into tasks that can be executed in parallel and then schedule those tasks to minimize load imbalance. However, many systems lack a priori knowledge about the execution time of all tasks to perform effective load balancing with low scheduling overhead. In this paper, we approach this fundamental problem using machine learning techniques first to generate performance models for all tasks and then applying those models to perform automatic performance prediction across program executions. We also extend an existing scheduling algorithm to use generated task cost estimates for online task partitioning and scheduling. We implement the above techniques in the pR framework, which transparently parallelizes scripts in the popular R language, and evaluate their performance and overhead with both a real-world application and a large number of synthetic representative test scripts. Our experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly improves task partitioning and scheduling, with maximum improvements of 21.8%, 40.3% and 22.1% and average improvements of 15.9%, 16.9% and 4.2% for LMM (a real R application) and synthetic test cases with independent and dependent tasks, respectively.

  6. Performance of visually guided tasks using simulated prosthetic vision and saliency-based cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, N.; Itti, L.; Humayun, M.; Weiland, J.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the benefits provided by a saliency-based cueing algorithm to normally sighted volunteers performing mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. Approach. Human subjects performed mobility and search tasks using simulated prosthetic vision. A saliency algorithm based on primate vision was used to detect regions of interest (ROI) in an image. Subjects were cued to look toward the directions of these ROI using visual cues superimposed on the simulated prosthetic vision. Mobility tasks required the subjects to navigate through a corridor, avoid obstacles and locate a target at the end of the course. Two search task experiments involved finding objects on a tabletop under different conditions. Subjects were required to perform tasks with and without any help from cues. Results. Head movements, time to task completion and number of errors were all significantly reduced in search tasks when subjects used the cueing algorithm. For the mobility task, head movements and number of contacts with objects were significantly reduced when subjects used cues, whereas time was significantly reduced when no cues were used. The most significant benefit from cues appears to be in search tasks and when navigating unfamiliar environments. Significance. The results from the study show that visually impaired people and retinal prosthesis implantees may benefit from computer vision algorithms that detect important objects in their environment, particularly when they are in a new environment.

  7. Structural Design of HRA Database using generic task for Quantitative Analysis of Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Yo Chan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung Won Dea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes a design of generic task based HRA database for quantitative analysis of human performance in order to estimate the number of task conductions. The estimation method to get the total task conduction number using direct counting is not easy to realize and maintain its data collection framework. To resolve this problem, this paper suggests an indirect method and a database structure using generic task that enables to estimate the total number of conduction based on instructions of operating procedures of nuclear power plants. In order to reduce human errors, therefore, all information on the human errors taken by operators in the power plant should be systematically collected and examined in its management. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out a research to develop a data collection framework to establish a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) database that could be employed as technical bases to generate human error probabilities (HEPs) and performance shaping factors (PSFs)]. As a result of the study, the essential table schema was designed to the generic task database which stores generic tasks, procedure lists and task tree structures, and other supporting tables. The number of task conduction based on the operating procedures for HEP estimation was enabled through the generic task database and framework. To verify the framework applicability, case study for the simulated experiments was performed and analyzed using graphic user interfaces developed in this study.

  8. Performance appraisal: match the tool to the task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, J D; Doyel, H W

    1980-01-01

    Performance appraisals can be vital tools in administering an effective human resources program if they're used properly, although they're particularly useful in salary administration, incentive award determination, and promotability assessment, selecting the method or methods that best meet your needs may not be easy. John D. McMillan, director of compensation services, and Hout W. Doyel, consultant, of A.S. Hansen, Inc., explain the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of four major types of performance appraisal methods: the trait checklist, the management by objectives approach, the free-form approach, and the responsibility rating system. The authors note, for instance, that the most frequently used method, the trait checklist, has these major disadvantages: Traits that are rated tend to be general and don't relate specifically to job performance. The tendency of raters is to focus on personal characteristics rather than job performance results. And the method makes no sense where different levels in a job family are rated on the same form.

  9. Relationships among gender, cognitive style, academic major, and performance on the Piaget water-level task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, R E; Hoffer, N; King, W L

    1995-06-01

    Many researchers have found that more college-age adults than would be expected fail Piaget's water-level task, with women failing more frequently than men. It has been hypothesized that differences in cognitive style may account for performance differences on the water-level task. In the present study, 27 male and 27 female architectural students and 27 male and 27 female liberal-arts students were assessed for their performance on both Piaget's Water-level Task and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test. No difference was found in performance of male and female architectural students on either task, but male liberal-arts students scored significantly higher than female liberal-arts students on both measures. A disembedding cognitive style predicted success on the water-level task for the architectural students but not for the liberal arts students.

  10. Do medical residents perform patient-centered medical home tasks? A mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Lauren; LaVine, Nancy; Verbsky, Jennifer; Sagar, Ankita; Smith, Miriam A.; Lane, Susan; Conigliaro, Joseph; Chaudhry, Saima A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Increasingly, residents are being trained in Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) settings. A set of PCMH entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for residents has been defined but not evaluated in practice. Objective: To understand whether residents trained at PCMH sites reported higher likelihood of engaging in PCMH tasks than those training in non-PCMH sites. Design: Survey and nominal group data from post-graduate trainees at three residency programs. Results: A to...

  11. Reframing professional boundaries in healthcare: a systematic review of facilitators and barriers to task reallocation from the domain of medicine to the nursing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezen, Maartje G H; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P

    2014-08-01

    To explore the main facilitators and barriers to task reallocation. One of the innovative approaches to dealing with the anticipated shortage of physicians is to reallocate tasks from the professional domain of medicine to the nursing domain. Various (cost-)effectiveness studies demonstrate that nurse practitioners can deliver as high quality care as physicians and can achieve as good outcomes. However, these studies do not examine what factors may facilitate or hinder such task reallocation. A systematic literature review of PubMed and Web of Knowledge supplemented with a snowball research method. The principles of thematic analysis were followed. The 13 identified relevant papers address a broad spectrum of task reallocation (delegation, substitution and complementary care). Thematic analysis revealed four categories of facilitators and barriers: (1) knowledge and capabilities, (2) professional boundaries, (3) organisational environment, and (4) institutional environment. Introducing nurse practitioners in healthcare requires organisational redesign and the reframing of professional boundaries. Especially the facilitators and barriers in the analytical themes of 'professional boundaries' and 'organisational environment' should be considered when reallocating tasks. If not, these factors might hamper the cost-effectiveness of task reallocation in practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Water Immersion on Dual-task Performance: Implications for Aquatic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y; Louder, Talin J; Foster, Shayla; Bressel, Eadric

    2016-09-01

    Much is known about cardiovascular and biomechanical responses to exercise during water immersion, yet an understanding of the higher-order neural responses to water immersion is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive and motor performance between land and water environments using a dual-task paradigm, which served as an indirect measure of cortical processing. A quasi-experimental crossover research design is used. Twenty-two healthy participants (age = 24.3 ± 5.24 years) and a single-case patient (age = 73) with mild cognitive impairment performed a cognitive (auditory vigilance) and motor (standing balance) task separately (single-task condition) and simultaneously (dual-task condition) on land and in chest-deep water. Listening errors from the auditory vigilance task and centre of pressure (CoP) area for the balance task measured cognitive and motor performance, respectively. Listening errors for the single-task and dual-task conditions were 42% and 45% lower for the water than land condition, respectively (effect size [ES] = 0.38 and 0.55). CoP area for the single-task and dual-task conditions, however, were 115% and 164% lower on land than in water, respectively, and were lower (≈8-33%) when balancing concurrently with the auditory vigilance task compared with balancing alone, regardless of environment (ES = 0.23-1.7). This trend was consistent for the single-case patient. Participants tended to make fewer 'cognitive' errors while immersed chest-deep in water than on land. These same participants also tended to display less postural sway under dual-task conditions, but more in water than on land. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Complex Skill Training Transfers to Improved Performance and Control of Simpler Tasks After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Shailesh S; Zahedi, Nazaneen; McGrath, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Given limited therapy time, it is important to practice tasks that optimize transfer to other tasks that cannot be practiced during therapy. However, little is known about how tasks can be selected for practice to optimize generalization. One dimension of task selection is the complexity of the task. The purpose of the current study was to test if learning of a complex motor skill with the paretic arm would transfer to a simpler unpracticed goal-directed reaching task. This is an observational study, repeated measures design. Fifteen participants with mild-to-moderate stroke practiced a complex motor skill using their paretic arm for 2 consecutive days. Complex skill learning was quantified using change in the speed-accuracy trade-off from baseline to 1 day and 1 month post-practice. Motor transfer was assessed as the change in goal-directed planar reaching performance and kinematics from 2 baselines to 1 day and 1 month post-practice. Nine additional participants with stroke were recruited as the test-alone group who only participated in the transfer tests to rule out the effects of repeated testing. Practice improved the speed-accuracy trade-off for the practiced complex skill that was retained over a period of 1 month. Importantly, complex skill practice, but not repeated testing alone, improved the long-term performance and kinematics of the unpracticed simpler goal-directed planar reaching task. Improvements in the unpracticed transfer task (reaching) strongly correlated with improvements in the practiced complex motor skill. We did not have a comparison stroke group that practiced task-specific reaching movements. Given the limited number of tasks that can be practiced during therapy, training complex tasks may have an added advantage of transfer to improved simpler task performance.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the influence of various rests on task performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Hirose, Ayako [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    This report deals with the result of the experiment that 8 subjects had executed adding task and search task. They executed each task in 80 minutes under 5 conditions: (1) with no rest, and with 4 kinds of 20 minutes rests, in which they (2) opened eyes, (3) closed eyes, (4) closed eyes with listening classic music and (5) closed eyes with feet massage, in the middle of the task. The results of analysis of variance with the task performance in the latter half, there were significant differences between each condition with every subject in adding task, and with 6 subjects in search task. However, the orders of the task performance with each condition were not the same by each subject. It was suggested that transition of the arousal levels under the rest was related to the effects of the rest rather than the subjects' taste in rests. In the rest, the percentage of {alpha} wave of electroencephalogram and the coefficient of variation of R-R interval (time interval of heart beats) were increased than in executing task. The mean Kendall's rank correlation of coefficient with the order of increase rate of {alpha}/{beta} wave and the task performance in the latter half was slightly negative in adding task, but was about 0.4 in search task. From these results, about six requirements for 'an effective rest' were able to be mentioned, for example, 'the devices that raises the arousal levels is carried out just before a rest end'. (author)

  15. The performance of college students on piaget-type tasks dealing with distance, time, and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduska, Ervin; Phillips, Darrell G.

    Research was done to probe and extend Piaget's theory of the conception of speed. Specifically tested was the hypothesis that there is no hierarchical relationship in performance on the following Piaget-type tasks: conservation of distance, asymmetric series of speeds, one-to-many (circular) speeds, symmetric speeds, time, and proportional reasoning. The research also tested the gender-related performance on these six tasks. One hundred freshman and sophomore college students were shown demonstrations of equipment individually for each of the six tasks. A set of open-ended questions based on the demonstrations was administered to each subject in a 45-minute interview. Subjects were scored as pass on a given task if they manipulated objects in certain ways and gave specific types of explanations. A scalogram analysis of the data yielded a z-score of - 3.7 which indicated that subjects passed the task in a certain sequence. The tasks were found to form a unidimensional scale and to be increasingly difficult in the order listed above. A chi-square test for two independent samples showed a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) in performance between males and females on all speed tasks. No significant differences in performance between males and females were found for the distance and time tasks.

  16. An Analysis of Certain Job Tasks Performed by Selected Ohio Industrial Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William Joseph

    Using a pretested questionnaire, a survey was made of specific task performance and educational needs of first-line industrial supervisors in Ohio. The questionnaire, consisting of 120 task items under the headings of Transmission of Communications, Building of Management Skills, and Change in Attitudes, was administered to 472 supervisors, 194…

  17. The Developmental Dynamics of Task-Avoidant Behavior and Math Performance in Kindergarten and Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Besides cognitive factors, children's learning at school may be influenced by more dynamic phenomena, such as motivation and achievement-related task-avoidant behavior. The present study examined the developmental dynamics of task-avoidant behavior and math performance from kindergarten to Grade 4. A total of 225 children were tested for their…

  18. Student Engagement: A Framework for On-Demand Performance Assessment Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine; Kokka, Kari; Darling-Hammond, Linda; Dieckmann, Jack; Pacheco, Vivian Santana; Sandler, Susan; Bae, Soung

    2016-01-01

    Engaging students in meaningful applications of their knowledge is a key aspect of both addressing the standards and providing greater access. Not only do the standards emphasize the importance of meaningful engagement in real-world tasks, but evidence shows that engagement is strongly related to student performance on assessment tasks, especially…

  19. Effects of four types of non-obtrusive feedback on computer behaviour, task performance and comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, E.M.; Huijsmans, M.A.; de Jong, A.M.; van de Ven, J.G.M.; Ruijsendaal, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of non-obtrusive feedback on continuous lifted hand/finger behaviour, task performance and comfort. In an experiment with 24 participants the effects of two visual and two tactile feedback signals were compared to a no-feedback condition in a computer task.

  20. The Effect of Background Music and Background Noise on the Task Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Gianna; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of music with high arousal potential and negative affect (HA), music with low arousal potential and positive affect (LA), and everyday noise, on the cognitive task performance of introverts and extraverts. Forty participants completed five cognitive tasks: immediate recall, free recall, numerical and delayed…

  1. Examining the Interface between Metalinguistic Task Performance and Oral Production in a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joanna; Ranta, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Different theories of second language acquisition offer conflicting views of the relationship between metalinguistic task performance and oral production. Examined this relationship with respect to the possessive determiners "his/her" in English. Learners' oral production was elicited using a picture description task and described according to…

  2. Data from 617 healthy participants performing the Iowa gambling task: A "many labs" collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steingroever, H.; Fridberg, D.; Horstmann, A.; Kjome, K.; Kumari, V.; Lane, S.D.; Maia, T.; McClelland, J.; Pachur, T.; Premkumar, P.; Stout, J.; Wetzels, R.; Wood, S.; Worthy, D.A.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This data pool (N = 617) comes from 10 studies assessing performance of healthy participants (i.e., no known neurological impairments) on the Iowa gambling task (IGT)—a task measuring decision making under uncertainty in an experimental context. Participants completed a computerized version of the

  3. Effects of a standing and three dynamic workstations on computer task performance and cognitive function tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Könemann, R.; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S.; Burford, E.M.; Botter, J.; Douwes, M.; Ellegast, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary work entails health risks. Dynamic (or active) workstations, at which computer tasks can be combined with physical activity, may reduce the risks of sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to evaluate short term task performance while working on three dynamic workstations: a

  4. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  5. Does previous presentation of verbal fluency tasks affect verb fluency performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Costa Beber

    Full Text Available Background : Performance on the verb fluency (VF task may be influenced by administration procedures and demographic factors of each population. Objective : The aim of this study was to verify whether the previous administration of semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks can influence performance on VF; and to analyze the correlation of VF performance with education, age and type of errors in Brazilian healthy elderly. Methods : Sixty-two participants were subdivided into experimental (semantic and the phonemic fluency tasks were administered before the VF and control groups (VF only. The total score and the types of errors on the VF task were determined. Additional information was computed for the correlational analysis. Results : VF performance did not differ statistically between experimental and control groups, but correlated positively with education and negatively with intrusions. Conclusion : The lack of influence of other verbal fluency tasks on performance of the VF task in elderly individuals allows the use of this order of administration. A strong influence of educational level on VF task performance reinforces the need for further studies in different populations.

  6. Re-Envisioning Professional Learning in Mathematics: Teachers' Performance, Perceptions, and Practices in Blended Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebeck, Jennifer; Roscoe, Matt; Cobbs, Georgia; Diemert, Kacey; Scott, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study that followed K-12 mathematics teachers through the components of a blended professional development program, highlighting their engagement in a series of online modules that connect face-to-face gatherings across the school year. Data collected over four years illuminate the teachers' performance,…

  7. Wrist kinematic coupling and performance during functional tasks: effects of constrained motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rohit; Kraszewski, Andrew P; Stoecklein, Holbrook H; Syrkin, Grisha; Hillstrom, Howard J; Backus, Sherry; Lenhoff, Mark L; Wolff, Aviva L; Crisco, Joseph J; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-04-01

    To quantify the coupled motion of the wrist during selected functional tasks and to determine the effects of constraining this coupled motion using a radial-ulnar deviation blocking splint on performance of these tasks. Ten healthy, right-handed men performed 15 trials during selected functional tasks with and without a splint, blocking radial and ulnar deviation. The following tasks were performed: dart throwing, hammering, basketball free-throw, overhand baseball and football throwing, clubbing, and pouring. Kinematic coupling parameters (coupling, kinematic path length, flexion-extension range of motion, radial-ulnar deviation range of motion, flexion-extension offset, and radial-ulnar deviation offset) and performance were determined for each functional task. A generalized estimation equation model was used to determine whether each kinematic coupling parameter was significantly different across tasks. A repeated-measures generalized estimation equation model was used to test for differences in performance and kinematic coupling parameters between the free and splinted conditions. Wrist motion exhibited linear coupling between flexion-extension and radial-ulnar deviation, demonstrated by R(2) values from 0.70 to 0.99. Average wrist coupling and kinematic path lengths were significantly different among tasks. Coupling means and kinematic path lengths were different between free and splinted conditions across all tasks other than pouring. Performance was different between wrist conditions for dart throwing, hammering, basketball shooting, and pouring. Wrist kinematic coupling parameters are task specific in healthy individuals. Functional performance is decreased when wrist coupling is constrained by an external splint. Surgical procedures that restrict wrist coupling may have a detrimental effect on functional performance as defined in the study. Patients may benefit from surgical reconstructive procedures and wrist rehabilitation protocols designed to restore

  8. Training and qualification of the auxiliaries of operation using the methodology On the Job Training (OJT) and Task Performance Evaluation (TPE); Formacion y culificacion de los auxiliares de operacion mediante la metodologia On the Job Training (OJT) y Task Performance Evaluation (TPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Casado, J.

    2015-07-01

    On the Job Training (OJT) and Task Performance Evaluation (TPE). This plan has been developed and put in practice entirely, by a group of experienced auxiliary operation that have distinguished themselves by their professionalism, knowledge of the work, technical expertise and commitment to nuclear safety. (Author)

  9. Impact of time on task on ADHD patient's performances in a virtual classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioulac, Stéphanie; Lallemand, Stéphanie; Rizzo, Albert; Philip, Pierre; Fabrigoule, Colette; Bouvard, Manuel Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Use of virtual reality tool is interesting for the evaluation of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patients. The virtual environment offers the opportunity to administer controlled task like the typical neuropsychological tools, but in an environment much more like standard classroom. Previous studies showed that a virtual classroom was able to distinguish performances of children with and without ADHD, but the evolution of performances over time has not been explored. The aim of this work was to study time on task effects on performances of ADHD children compared to controls in a virtual classroom (VC). 36 boys aged from 7 to 10 years completed the virtual classroom task. We compared the performance of the children diagnosed with ADHD with those of the control children. We also compared attentional performances recorded in the virtual classroom with measures of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT II). Our results showed that patients differ from control subjects in term of time effect on performances. If controls sustained performances over time in the virtual reality task, ADHD patients showed a significant performance decrement over time. Performances at the VC correlated with CPT II measures. ADHD children are vulnerable to a time on task effect on performances which could explain part of their difficulties. Virtual reality is a reliable method to test ADHD children ability to sustain performances over time. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  11. The Implementation of Graduate Education to Professional Performance: Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkant, Hasan Güner; Baysal, Seda

    2017-01-01

    One of the core figures of education system is undoubtfully the teacher who is expected to contribute dramatically to the qualified learning environment both with professional skills and with personal characteristics. Therefore, the need for graduate education and its significance to specialize in maintaining education after Bachelor's degree has…

  12. Path Analysis Examining Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Performance on a Simulated Baseball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…

  13. The Effect of Personality on Collaborative Task Performance and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givney, Sinéad Mc; Smeaton, Alan F.; Lee, Hyowon

    Collocated, multi-user technologies, which support group-work are becoming increasingly popular. Examples include MERL’s Diamondtouch and Microsoft’s Surface, both of which have evolved from research prototypes to commercial products. Many applications have been developed for such technologies which support the work and entertainment needs of small groups of people. None of these applications however, have been studied in terms of the interactions and performances of their users with regards to their personality. In this paper, we address this research gap by conducting a series of user studies involving dyads working on a number of multi-user applications on the DiamondTouch tabletop device.

  14. Neuronal Substrates Underlying Performance Variability in Well-Trained Skillful Motor Task in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Mizuguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials. We found that the activity in a broader range of frontoparietocerebellar network, including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, and left cerebellar hemisphere, was negatively correlated with the task performance. We further showed in another transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS experiment that task performance deteriorated, when we applied anodal tDCS to the right DLPFC. These results indicate that fluctuation of brain activity in the nonmotor frontoparietocerebellar network may underlie trial-by-trial performance variability even in a well-trained motor skill, and its neuromodulation with tDCS may affect the task performance.

  15. Cognitive demand of human sensorimotor performance during an extended space mission: a dual-task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar; Weigelt, Cornelia; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2010-09-01

    Two previous single-case studies found that the dual-task costs of manual tracking plus memory search increased during a space mission, and concluded that sensorimotor deficits during spaceflight may be related to cognitive overload. Since dual-task costs were insensitive to the difficulty of memory search, the authors argued that the overload may reflect stress-related problems of multitasking, rather than a scarcity of specific cognitive resources. Here we expand the available database and compare different types of concurrent task. Three subjects were repeatedly tested before, during, and after an extended mission on the International Space Station (ISS). They performed an unstable tracking task and four reaction-time tasks, both separately and concurrently. Inflight data could only be obtained during later parts of the mission. The tracking error increased from pre- to in flight by a factor of about 2, both under single- and dual-task conditions. The dual-task costs with a reaction-time task requiring rhythm production was 2.4 times higher than with a reaction-time task requiring visuo-spatial transformations, and 8 times higher than with a regular choice reaction-time task. Long-term sensorimotor deficits during spaceflight may reflect not only stress, but also a scarcity of resources related to complex motor programming; possibly those resources are tied up by sensorimotor adaptation to the space environment.

  16. Human Error Probabilites (HEPs) for generic tasks and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) selected for railway operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    at task level, which can be performed with fewer resources than a more detailed analysis of specific errors for each task. The generic tasks are presented with estimated Human Error Probabili-ties (HEPs) based on and extrapolated from the HRA literature, and estimates are compared with samples of measures...... on estimates derived from industries other than rail and the general warning that a task-based analysis is less precise than an error-based one. The authors recommend that estimates be adjusted to actual measures of task failures when feasible....... collaboration with Banedanmark. The estimates provided are based on HRA literature and primarily the HEART method, being recently been adapted for railway tasks by the British Rail Safety and Stan-dards Board (RSSB). The method presented in this report differs from the RSSB tool by supporting an analysis...

  17. A meta-analysis of reinforcement sensitivity theory: on performance parameters in reinforcement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Beauducel, André

    2008-11-01

    J. A. Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has produced a wealth of quasi-experimental studies in more than 35 years of research on personality and reinforcement sensitivity. The present meta-analysis builds on this literature by investigating RST in conflict and nonconflict reinforcement tasks in humans. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, we confirmed RST predictions of performance parameters (e.g., number of responses, reaction time) in reinforcement tasks for impulsivity- and anxiety-related traits. In studies on anxiety-related traits, the effect size variance was smaller for conflict tasks than for nonconflict tasks. A larger mean effect size and a larger variability of effect sizes were found for conflict compared to nonconflict tasks in studies on impulsivity-related traits. Our results suggest that problems with RST confirmation in reinforcement tasks are at least partly caused by insufficient statistical power of primary studies, and thus, encourage future research on RST.

  18. Cognitive dissonance induced by writing a counterattitudinal essay facilitates performance on simple tasks but not on complex tasks that involve working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martinie, Marie-Amélie; Olive, Thierry; Milland, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article examines how performance is facilitated with simple tasks and is impaired with complex ones in individuals experiencing dissonance. Experiment 1 measured the performance of dissonance participants at a simple reaction time task. Reaction times were shortest in the dissonance condition. This facilitation effect was interpreted as resulting from increased arousal with dissonance. In Experiment 2, participants performed a more complex secondary memory task that r...

  19. Emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks: a comparison between four rat strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Reenen Cornelis G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive function might be affected by the subjects' emotional reactivity. We assessed whether behavior in different tests of emotional reactivity is correlated with performance in aversively motivated learning tasks, using four strains of rats generally considered to have a different emotional reactivity. Methods The performance of male Brown Norway, Lewis, Fischer 344, and Wistar Kyoto rats in open field (OF, elevated plus-maze (EPM, and circular light-dark preference box (cLDB tasks, which are believed to provide measures of emotional reactivity, was evaluated. Spatial working and reference memory were assessed in two aversively motivated learning and memory tasks: the standard and the "repeated acquisition" versions of the Morris water maze escape task, respectively. All rats were also tested in a passive avoidance task. At the end of the study, levels of serotonin (5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and 5-HT turnover in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were determined. Results Strain differences showed a complex pattern across behavioral tests and serotonergic measures. Fischer 344 rats had the poorest performance in both versions of the Morris water escape task, whereas Brown Norway rats performed these tasks very well but the passive avoidance task poorly. Neither correlation analysis nor principal component analysis provided convincing support for the notion that OF, EPM, and cLDB tasks measure the same underlying trait. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that the level of emotional reactivity modulates cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks. Concepts such as "emotional reactivity" and "learning and memory" cannot adequately be tapped with only one behavioral test. Our results emphasize the need for multiple testing.

  20. How age affects memory task performance in clinically normal hearing persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Charlotte; Goossens, Tine; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate memory task performance in different age groups, irrespective of hearing status. Data are collected on a short-term memory task (WAIS-III Digit Span forward) and two working memory tasks (WAIS-III Digit Span backward and the Reading Span Test). The tasks are administered to young (20-30 years, n = 56), middle-aged (50-60 years, n = 47), and older participants (70-80 years, n = 16) with normal hearing thresholds. All participants have passed a cognitive screening task (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)). Young participants perform significantly better than middle-aged participants, while middle-aged and older participants perform similarly on the three memory tasks. Our data show that older clinically normal hearing persons perform equally well on the memory tasks as middle-aged persons. However, even under optimal conditions of preserved sensory processing, changes in memory performance occur. Based on our data, these changes set in before middle age.

  1. Formal Derivation of Lotka-Volterra-Haken Amplitude Equations of Task-Related Brain Activity in Multiple, Consecutively Performed Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.

    The Lotka-Volterra-Haken equations have been frequently used in ecology and pattern formation. Recently, the equations have been proposed by several research groups as amplitude equations for task-related patterns of brain activity. In this theoretical study, the focus is on the circular causality aspect of pattern formation systems as formulated within the framework of synergetics. Accordingly, the stable modes of a pattern formation system inhibit the unstable modes, whereas the unstable modes excite the stable modes. Using this circular causality principle it is shown that under certain conditions the Lotka-Volterra-Haken amplitude equations can be derived from a general model of brain activity akin to the Wilson-Cowan model. The model captures the amplitude dynamics for brain activity patterns in experiments involving several consecutively performed multiple-choice tasks. This is explicitly demonstrated for two-choice tasks involving grasping and walking. A comment on the relevance of the theoretical framework for clinical psychology and schizophrenia is given as well.

  2. Effects on Task Performance and Psychophysiological Measures of Performance During Normobaric Hypoxia Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Chad; Kennedy, Kellie; Napoli, Nicholas; Demas, Matthew; Barnes, Laura; Crook, Brenda; Williams, Ralph; Last, Mary Carolyn; Schutte, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Human-autonomous systems have the potential to mitigate pilot cognitive impairment and improve aviation safety. A research team at NASA Langley conducted an experiment to study the impact of mild normobaric hypoxia induction on aircraft pilot performance and psychophysiological state. A within-subjects design involved non-hypoxic and hypoxic exposures while performing three 10-minute tasks. Results indicated the effect of 15,000 feet simulated altitude did not induce significant performance decrement but did produce increase in perceived workload. Analyses of psychophysiological responses evince the potential of biomarkers for hypoxia onset. This study represents on-going work at NASA intending to add to the current knowledge of psychophysiologically-based input to automation to increase aviation safety. Analyses involving coupling across physiological systems and wavelet transforms of cortical activity revealed patterns that can discern between the simulated altitude conditions. Specifically, multivariate entropy of ECG/Respiration components were found to be significant predictors (ppsychophysiological responses evince the potential of biomarkers for mild hypoxia onset.The potential for identifying shifts in underlying cortical and physiological systems could serve as a means to identify the onset of deteriorated cognitive state. Enabling such assessment in future flightdecks could permit increasingly autonomous systems-supported operations. Augmenting human operator through assessment of cognitive impairment has the potential to further improve operator performance and mitigate human error in safety critical contexts. This study represents ongoing work at NASA intending to add to the current knowledge of psychophysiologically-based input to automation to increase aviation safety.

  3. Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping - particularly if leaders have high performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrek, Christine J; Antoni, Conny H

    2014-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between time pressure and unfinished tasks as work stressors on employee well-being. Relatively little is known about the effect of unfinished tasks on well-being. Specifically, excluding the impact of time pressure, we examined whether the feeling of not having finished the week's tasks fosters perseverative cognitions and impairs sleep. Additionally, we proposed that leader performance expectations moderate these relationships. In more detail, we expected the detrimental effect of unfinished tasks on both rumination and sleep would be enhanced if leader expectations were perceived to be high. In total, 89 employees filled out online diary surveys both before and after the weekend over a 5-week period. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that time pressure and unfinished tasks impacted rumination and sleep on the weekend. Further, our results supported our hypothesis that unfinished tasks explain unique variance in the dependent variables above and beyond the influence of time pressure. Moreover, we found the relationship between unfinished tasks and both rumination and sleep was moderated by leader performance expectations. Our results emphasize the importance of unfinished tasks as a stressor and highlight that leadership, specifically in the form of performance expectations, contributes significantly to the strength of this relationship.

  4. The Relationships Between Need for Cognition, Boredom Proneness, Task Engagement, and Test Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia A. Diehl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Participants read a procedural text describing how to make a wind-up spool toy while only reading, reading and watching the experimenter do the task, or reading and doing the task themselves. Afterward, task performance (measured by time to complete the task without the instructions and number of errors and memory for/understanding of the text (measured with a Multiple Choice Test were assessed. Participants then completed a packet that included the Need for Cognition and Boredom Proneness scales. Task performance was better under the Read & Do and Read & Watch conditions, indicating that those participants were more engaged in the task than Read Only. Need for Cognition was positively related to Multiple Choice Test score (after controlling for boredom proneness and task experience only under the Read & Do conditions (and marginally for Read & Watch. This suggests that level of task engagement may moderate the relationship between need for cognition and test performance. The Boredom Proneness subscales of Perception of Time and Affective Responses were negatively related to need for cognition.

  5. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen eRinghof

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers – seven with sleep bruxism and seven without – randomly performing golf shots over 60 m, 160 m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60 m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were, also, not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however

  6. The effect of oral motor activity on the athletic performance of professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhof, Steffen; Hellmann, Daniel; Meier, Florian; Etz, Eike; Schindler, Hans J; Stein, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Human motor control is based on complex sensorimotor processes. Recent research has shown that neuromuscular activity of the craniomandibular system (CMS) might affect human motor control. In particular, improvements in postural stability and muscle strength have been observed as a result of voluntary jaw clenching. Potential benefits of jaw aligning appliances on muscle strength and golf performance have also been described. These reports are highly contradictory, however, and the oral motor task performed is often unclear. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of submaximum biting on golf performance via shot precision and shot length over three different distances. Participants were 14 male professional golfers - seven with sleep bruxism and seven without - randomly performing golf shots over 60m, 160m, or driving distance while either biting on an oral splint or biting on their teeth; habitual jaw position served as the control condition. Statistical analysis revealed that oral motor activity did not systematically affect golf performance in respect of shot precision or shot length for 60m, 160 m, or driving distance. These findings were reinforced by impact variables such as club head speed and ball speed, which were also not indicative of significant effects. The results thus showed that the strength improvements and stabilizing effects described previously are, apparently, not transferable to such coordination-demanding sports as golf. This could be due to the divergent motor demands associated with postural control and muscle strength on the one hand and the complex coordination of a golf swing on the other. Interestingly, subjects without sleep bruxism performed significantly better at the short distance (60 m) than those with bruxism. Because of the multifactorial etiology of parafunctional CMS activity, conclusions about the need for dental treatment to improve sports performance are, however, completely unwarranted.

  7. Performance comparison of heuristic algorithms for task scheduling in IaaS cloud computing environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hamid Hussain Madni

    Full Text Available Cloud computing infrastructure is suitable for meeting computational needs of large task sizes. Optimal scheduling of tasks in cloud computing environment has been proved to be an NP-complete problem, hence the need for the application of heuristic methods. Several heuristic algorithms have been developed and used in addressing this problem, but choosing the appropriate algorithm for solving task assignment problem of a particular nature is difficult since the methods are developed under different assumptions. Therefore, six rule based heuristic algorithms are implemented and used to schedule autonomous tasks in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments with the aim of comparing their performance in terms of cost, degree of imbalance, makespan and throughput. First Come First Serve (FCFS, Minimum Completion Time (MCT, Minimum Execution Time (MET, Max-min, Min-min and Sufferage are the heuristic algorithms considered for the performance comparison and analysis of task scheduling in cloud computing.

  8. Performance comparison of heuristic algorithms for task scheduling in IaaS cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Syed Hamid Hussain; Abd Latiff, Muhammad Shafie; Abdullahi, Mohammed; Abdulhamid, Shafi'i Muhammad; Usman, Mohammed Joda

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing infrastructure is suitable for meeting computational needs of large task sizes. Optimal scheduling of tasks in cloud computing environment has been proved to be an NP-complete problem, hence the need for the application of heuristic methods. Several heuristic algorithms have been developed and used in addressing this problem, but choosing the appropriate algorithm for solving task assignment problem of a particular nature is difficult since the methods are developed under different assumptions. Therefore, six rule based heuristic algorithms are implemented and used to schedule autonomous tasks in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments with the aim of comparing their performance in terms of cost, degree of imbalance, makespan and throughput. First Come First Serve (FCFS), Minimum Completion Time (MCT), Minimum Execution Time (MET), Max-min, Min-min and Sufferage are the heuristic algorithms considered for the performance comparison and analysis of task scheduling in cloud computing.

  9. Performance of children with autism spectrum disorder on advanced theory of mind tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Ella; Rios, Patricia; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2004-09-01

    Although a number of advanced theory of mind tasks have been developed, there is sparse information on whether performance on different tasks is associated. The study examined the performance of 20 high-functioning 6- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 controls on three high-level theory of mind tasks: Strange Stories, Cartoons and the children's version of the Eyes task. The pattern of findings suggests that the three tasks may share differing, non-specific, information-processing requirements in addition to tapping any putative mentalizing ability. They may also indicate a degree of dissociation between social-cognitive and social-perceptual or affective components of the mentalizing system.

  10. Functional performance comparison between real and virtual tasks in older adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ítalla Maria Pinheiro; Crocetta, Tânia Brusque; Massetti, Thais; Silva, Talita Dias da; Guarnieri, Regiani; Meira, Cassio de Miranda; Arab, Claudia; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Araujo, Luciano Vieira de; Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira de Mello

    2018-01-01

    Ageing is usually accompanied by deterioration of physical abilities, such as muscular strength, sensory sensitivity, and functional capacity, making chronic diseases, and the well-being of older adults new challenges to global public health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a task practiced in a virtual environment could promote better performance and enable transfer to the same task in a real environment. The study evaluated 65 older adults of both genders, aged 60 to 82 years (M = 69.6, SD = 6.3). A timing coincident task was applied to measure the perceptual-motor ability to perform a motor response. The participants were divided into 2 groups: started in a real interface and started in a virtual interface. All subjects improved their performance during the practice, but improvement was not observed for the real interface, as the participants were near maximum performance from the beginning of the task. However, there was no transfer of performance from the virtual to real environment or vice versa. The virtual environment was shown to provide improvement of performance with a short-term motor learning protocol in a timing coincident task. This result suggests that the practice of tasks in a virtual environment seems to be a promising tool for the assessment and training of healthy older adults, even though there was no transfer of performance to a real environment. ISRCTN02960165. Registered 8 November 2016.

  11. The effect of context priming and task type on augmentative communication performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, D Jeffery; Bisantz, Ann M; Sunm, Michelle; Adams, Kim; Yik, Fen

    2009-03-01

    Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices include special purpose electronic devices that generate speech output and are used by individuals to augment or replace vocal communication. Word prediction, including context specific prediction, has been proposed to help overcome barriers to the use of these devices (e.g., slow communication rates and limited access to situation-related vocabulary), but has not been tested in terms of effects during actual task performance. In this study, we compared AAC device use, task performance, and user perceptions across three tasks, in conditions where the AAC device used either was, or was not, primed with task specific vocabularies. The participants in this study were adults with normal physical, cognitive, and communication abilities. Context priming had a marginally significant effect on AAC device use as measured by keystroke savings; however, these advantages did not translate into higher level measures of rate, task performance, or user perceptions. In contrast, there were various statistically significant process and performance differences across task type. Additionally, results for two different emulations of human performance showed significant keystroke savings across context conditions. However, these effects were mitigated in actual performance and did not translate into keystroke savings. This indicates to AAC device designers and users that keystroke-based measures of device use may not be predictive of high level performance.

  12. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.

  13. Combining shared control with variability over surface features: Effects on transfer test performance and task involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Corbalan, G., Kester, L., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2009). Combining shared control with variability over surface features: Effects on transfer test performance and task involvement. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 290-298.

  14. Training Sequences and their Effects on Task Performance and User Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of information technology (IT) training sequencesand examines how sequencing of conceptual and procedural training impact IT task performance, user satisfaction and users' self-efficacy. Using assimilation theory, we develop four hypotheses related to training...

  15. Investigating conversational dynamics: Interactive alignment, Interpersonal synergy, and collective task performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates interpersonal processes underlying dialog by comparing two approaches, interactive alignment and interpersonal synergy, and assesses how they predict collective performance in a joint task. While the interactive alignment approach highlights imitative patterns between inte...

  16. The Cognitive Reflection Test as a predictor of performance on heuristics-and-biases tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toplak, Maggie E; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2011-01-01

    .... In this study, we showed that the CRT is a more potent predictor of performance on a wide sample of tasks from the heuristics-and-biases literature than measures of cognitive ability, thinking...

  17. Individual Differences in Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities and Team Performance in Dynamic Task Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    The specific goal of this research was to examine the role of individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive abilities on individual and team performance in a real-time dynamic team-task environment...

  18. Performance in a planning task: The (ir)relevance of interface style and users’ cognitive style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nimwegen, Christof; Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This research investigates whether interface style (internalization or externalization) influences performance in a problem solving task. Assistance from a user interface during problem solving is often thought to make interactions easier. Interfaces often display relevant information, making recall

  19. Ability of aphasic individuals to perform numerical processing and calculation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela De Luccia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare performance on EC301 battery calculation task between aphasic subjects and normal controls of the same sex, age, and education. Method Thirty-two aphasic patients who had suffered a single left hemisphere stroke were evaluated. Forty-four healthy volunteers were also selected. All subjects underwent a comprehensive arithmetic battery to assess their numerical and calculation skills. Performances on numerical processing and calculation tasks were then analyzed. Results Aphasic individuals showed changes in their ability to perform numerical processing and calculation tasks that were not observed in the healthy population. Conclusion Compared with healthy subjects of the same age and education level, individuals with aphasia had difficulty performing various tasks that involved numerical processing and calculation.

  20. INFLUENCE OF SEPARATED HOMES ON TASK PERFORMANCE AND PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN ONDO METROPOLIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akindele Oluwafemi; Iwayemi Ayodeji; Idoko O Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The study looked into the influence of separated homes on task performance and personality development of school children in Ondo State metropolis with particular focus on the Okitipupa Local Government Area...

  1. Influence of stereoscopic vision on task performance with an operating microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Wanders, Wouter; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which stereoscopic depth perception influences the performance of tasks executed under an operating microscope. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Medical

  2. Effect of intrinsic rewards on task performance of employees: Mediating role of motivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rizwan Qaiser Danish; Muhammad Khalid Khan; Ahmad Usman Shahid; Iram Raza; Asad Afzal Humayon

    2015-01-01

      The basic purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reward management system, especially intrinsic rewards on task performance with the mediating role of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation...

  3. A multilevel approach to relating subjective workload to performance after shifts in task demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, Derek L; Arsenault, Matthew L; Day, Eric Anthony; Hardy, Jay H; Terry, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this laboratory experiment was to demonstrate how taking a longitudinal, multilevel approach can be used to examine the dynamic relationship between subjective workload and performance over a given period of activity involving shifts in task demand. Subjective workload and conditions of the performance environment are oftentimes examined via cross-sectional designs without distinguishing within-from between-person effects. Given the dynamic nature of performance phenomena, multilevel designs coupled with manipulations of task demand shifts are needed to better model the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. With a sample of 75 college students and a computer game representing a complex decision-making environment, increases and decreases in task demand were counterbalanced and subjective workload and performance were measured concurrently in regular intervals within performance episodes. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Both between- and especially within-person effects were dynamic. Nevertheless, at both levels of analysis, higher subjective workload reflected performance problems, especially more downstream from increases in task demand. As a function of cognitive-energetic processes, shifts in task demand are associated with changes in how subjective workload is related to performance over a given period of activity. Multilevel, longitudinal approaches are useful for distinguishing and examining the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. The findings of this research help to improve the understanding of how a sequence of demands can exceed a performer's capability to respond to further demands.

  4. Skill memory escaping from distraction by sleep--evidence from dual-task performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Ertelt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep facilitates off-line consolidation of memories, as shown for learning of motor skills in the absence of concomitant distractors. We often perform complex tasks focusing our attention mostly on one single part of them. However, we are equally able to skillfully perform other concurrent tasks. One may even improve performance on disregarded parts of complex tasks, which were learned implicitly. In the present study we investigated the role of sleep in the off-line consolidation of procedural skills when attention is diverted from the procedural task because of interference from a concurrent task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a dual-task paradigm containing (i procedural serial reaction time task (SRTT, which was labeled as subordinate and unimportant and (ii declarative word-pair association task (WPAT, performed concomitantly. The WPAT served as a masked distractor to SRTT and was strongly reinforced by the instructions. One experimental and three control groups were tested. The experimental group was re-tested after two nights of sleep (sleep group, SG. The first control group had sleep deprivation on the first post-learning night (nighttime-awake group, NA, the second control group was tested in the morning and then re-tested after 12-hours (daytime-awake group, DA; the third one had the same assignments as DA but with a subsequent, instead of a concomitant, WPAT (daytime-awake-subsequent-WPAT group, DAs. We found SRTT performance gains in SG but not in NA and DA groups. Furthermore, SG reached similar learning gains in SRTT as the DAs group, which gained in SRTT performance because of post-training interference from the declarative task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that sleep allows off-line consolidation, which is resistant to deteriorating effects of a reinforced distractor on the implicit procedural learning and allowing for gains which are consistent with those produced when inhibited

  5. Balance Performance Is Task Specific in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsky, Ayelet; Zeev, Aviva; Netz, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Balance ability among the elderly is a key component in the activities of daily living and is divided into two types: static and dynamic. For clinicians who wish to assess the risk of falling among their elderly patients, it is unclear if more than one type of balance test can be used to measure their balance impairment. In this study, we examined the association between static balance measures and two dynamic balance field tests. One hundred and twelve community-dwelling older adults (mean age 74.6) participated in the study. They underwent the Tetrax static postural assessment and then performed the Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Functional Reach (FR) Test as dynamic balance tests. In general, low-moderate correlations were found between the two types of balance tests. For women, age and static balance parameters explained 28.1-40.4% of the variance of TUG scores and 14.6-24% of the variance of FR scores. For men, age and static balance parameters explained 9.5-31.2% of the variance of TUG scores and 23.9-41.7% of the variance of FR scores. Based on our findings, it is suggested that a combination of both static and dynamic tests be used for assessing postural balance ability.

  6. Balance Performance Is Task Specific in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Dunsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance ability among the elderly is a key component in the activities of daily living and is divided into two types: static and dynamic. For clinicians who wish to assess the risk of falling among their elderly patients, it is unclear if more than one type of balance test can be used to measure their balance impairment. In this study, we examined the association between static balance measures and two dynamic balance field tests. One hundred and twelve community-dwelling older adults (mean age 74.6 participated in the study. They underwent the Tetrax static postural assessment and then performed the Timed Up and Go (TUG and the Functional Reach (FR Test as dynamic balance tests. In general, low-moderate correlations were found between the two types of balance tests. For women, age and static balance parameters explained 28.1–40.4% of the variance of TUG scores and 14.6–24% of the variance of FR scores. For men, age and static balance parameters explained 9.5–31.2% of the variance of TUG scores and 23.9–41.7% of the variance of FR scores. Based on our findings, it is suggested that a combination of both static and dynamic tests be used for assessing postural balance ability.

  7. Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals Project: Multifamily Job Task Analyses Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirr, N.; Hepinstall, D.; Douglas, M.; Buck, S.; Larney, C.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the efforts carried out to determine whether there is a need to develop separate, multifamily-specific JTAs for the four proposed job categories. The multifamily SWS market committee considered these job designations to be the best candidates for developing JTAs and certification blueprints, as well as having the greatest potential for promoting job growth in the multifamily home performance industry.

  8. Exposure to Blue Light Increases Subsequent Functional Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex During Performance of a Working Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Pisner, Derek A; Vanuk, John R; Berryhill, Sarah M; Fridman, Andrew; Shane, Bradley R; Knight, Sara A; Killgore, William D S

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged exposure to blue wavelength light has been shown to have an alerting effect, and enhances performance on cognitive tasks. A small number of studies have also shown that relatively short exposure to blue light leads to changes in functional brain responses during the period of exposure. The extent to which blue light continues to affect brain functioning during a cognitively challenging task after cessation of longer periods of exposure (i.e., roughly 30 minutes or longer), however, has not been fully investigated. A total of 35 healthy participants (18 female) were exposed to either blue (469 nm) (n = 17) or amber (578 nm) (n = 18) wavelength light for 30 minutes in a darkened room, followed immediately by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while undergoing a working memory task (N-back task). Participants in the blue light condition were faster in their responses on the N-back task and showed increased activation in the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex compared to those in the amber control light condition. Furthermore, greater activation within the VLPFC was correlated with faster N-back response times. This is the first study to suggest that a relatively brief, single exposure to blue light has a subsequent beneficial effect on working memory performance, even after cessation of exposure, and leads to temporarily persisting functional brain changes within prefrontal brain regions associated with executive functions. These findings may have broader implication for using blue-enriched light in a variety of work settings where alertness and quick decision-making are important. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. How are task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity related to the academic performance of MBA students?

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities - task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It was hypothesised that in an intercultural learning environment, task reflexivity would be associated with higher academic performance, and that th...

  10. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies...... blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50...

  11. Effects of age and auditory and visual dual tasks on closed-road driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Alex; Wood, Joanne M; Carberry, Trent

    2005-08-01

    This study investigated how driving performance of young and old participants is affected by visual and auditory secondary tasks on a closed driving course. Twenty-eight participants comprising two age groups (younger, mean age = 27.3 years; older, mean age = 69.2 years) drove around a 5.1-km closed-road circuit under both single and dual task conditions. Measures of driving performance included detection and identification of road signs, detection and avoidance of large low-contrast road hazards, gap judgment, lane keeping, and time to complete the course. The dual task required participants to verbally report the sums of pairs of single-digit numbers presented through either a computer speaker (auditorily) or a dashboard-mounted monitor (visually) while driving. Participants also completed a vision and cognitive screening battery, including LogMAR visual acuity, Pelli-Robson letter contrast sensitivity, the Trails test, and the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) test. Drivers reported significantly fewer signs, hit more road hazards, misjudged more gaps, and increased their time to complete the course under the dual task (visual and auditory) conditions compared with the single task condition. The older participants also reported significantly fewer road signs and drove significantly more slowly than the younger participants, and this was exacerbated for the visual dual task condition. The results of the regression analysis revealed that cognitive aging (measured by the DSS and Trails test) rather than chronologic age was a better predictor of the declines seen in driving performance under dual task conditions. An overall z score was calculated, which took into account both driving and the secondary task (summing) performance under the two dual task conditions. Performance was significantly worse for the auditory dual task compared with the visual dual task, and the older participants performed significantly worse than the young subjects. These findings demonstrate

  12. Advancement of flash hydrogasification: Task VIII. Performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, A.Y.; Schuman, M.D.; Kahn, D.R.

    1986-06-01

    This topical report documents the technical effort required to investigate and verify the reaction chemistry associated with the Rockwell Advanced Flash Hydropyrolysis (AFHP) concept for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The testing phase of the program included 5 preburner performance evaluation tests (14 test conditions) and 11 coal-fed reactor tests (19 test conditions). The reactor test parameters investigated spanned exist temperatures from 1775 to 2050/sup 0/F, residence times from 2 to 8 s, inlet gas-to-coal ratios from 0.15 to 0.27 lb-mole/lb, and inlet-steam-to-H/sub 2/ mole ratios from 0.15 to 0.86. One test was conducted to investigate the effect of CH/sub 4/ addition to the hydrogen feed stream (22 mole % CH/sub 4/), with subsequent partial oxidation of the CH/sub 4/ to CO/sub x/ in the preburner system, on the AFHP reactor chemistry and product gas composition. Overall carbon conversion and total carbon conversion to gases (namely, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, CO, and CO/sub 2/) ranged from 53 to 68% and 35 to 68%, respectively. The gas produced was primarily CH/sub 4/ (31 to 53% carbon conversion to CH/sub 4/). Carbon conversion to total liquids was strongly dependent on reactor exit temperature and to a lesser extent on residence time, with values ranging from about 20% to 1775/sup 0/F and 2-S residence time to zero at 1975/sup 0/F and residence times greater than 5 s. Carbon conversion to C/sub 6/H/sub 6/ asd high as 11.2% was obtained. Carbon conversion to CO/sub x/ ranged from 3.5 to 29.4%. Methane addition was found not to significantly affect the AFHP reactor chemistry. As a result of this program, Rockwell has expanded its data base and significantly improved its correlation model describing the processes occurring during flash hydropyrolysis. The correlation provides an excellent tool for subsequent process evaluations to determine the economic potential of the Rockwell coal hydrogasification process. 23 refs., 51 figs

  13. The effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a novel motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Morris, Rebecca L; Ring, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of trichotomous achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a golf-putting task. Male (n = 39) and female (n = 63) undergraduate students participated in the experiment in exchange for course credit. Participants were assigned to a mastery, performance-approach, or performance-avoidance goal condition and completed seven blocks of 10 trials (one for baseline, four for the experimental phase, and two for the transfer phase) of a golf-putting task. Distance from the target was measured and performance measures of accuracy and consistency were calculated. Self-reported enjoyment during the baseline and experimental phases and practice during a 5-min period before and following the experimental task were also assessed. Performance accuracy and consistency improved similarly among the three groups. Individuals in all three conditions reported enjoying the task to the same extent. Mastery participants practiced for longer than performance-approach participants during the practice period. Performance-avoidance participants did not differ significantly from the other two groups. The three goals were equally effective in promoting performance and enjoyment of the golf-putting task. The differential practice results for the two performance goals suggest that they should be considered separately.

  14. Effects of an indoor plant on creative task performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Seiji; Suzuki, Naoto

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of an indoor plant on task performance and on mood. Three room arrangements were used as independent variables: a room with (1) a plant, or (2) a magazine rack with magazines placed in front of the participants, or (3) a room with neither of these objects. Undergraduate students (M= 35, F= 55) performed a task of associating up to 30 words with each of 20 specified words in a room with one of the three room arrangements. Task performance scores showed that female participants performed better in view of the plant in comparison to the magazine rack (p mood was better with the plant or the magazine rack in the room compared to the no object condition (p < 0.05). However, the difference in task performance was highly influenced by the evaluation about the plant or the magazine rack. It is suggested that the compatibility between task demand and the environment is an important factor in facilitating task performances.

  15. Time-on-task decrements in "steer clear" performance of patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, L. J.; Suratt, P. M.; Dinges, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of attention with time-on-task reflects the increasing instability of the waking state during performance in experimentally induced sleepiness. To determine whether patients with disorders of excessive sleepiness also displayed time-on-task decrements indicative of wake state instability, visual sustained attention performance on "Steer Clear," a computerized simple RT driving simulation task, was compared among 31 patients with untreated sleep apnea, 16 patients with narcolepsy, and 14 healthy control subjects. Vigilance decrement functions were generated by analyzing the number of collisions in each of six four-minute periods of Steer Clear task performance in a mixed-model analysis of variance and linear regression equations. As expected, patients had more Steer Clear collisions than control subjects (p=0.006). However, the inter-subject variability in errors among the narcoleptic patients was four-fold that of the apnea patients, and 100-fold that of the controls volunteers; the variance in errors among untreated apnea patients was 27-times that of controls. The results of transformed collision data revealed main effects for group (p=0.006), time-on-task (p=0.001), and a significant interaction (p=0.022). Control subjects showed no clear evidence of increasing collision errors with time-on-task (adjusted R2=0.22), while apnea patients showed a trend toward vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.42, p=0.097), and narcolepsy patients evidenced a robust linear vigilance decrement (adjusted R2=0.87, p=0.004). The association of disorders of excessive somnolence with escalating time-on-task decrements makes it imperative that when assessment of neurobehavioral performance is conducted in patients, it involves task durations and analyses that will evaluate the underlying vulnerability of potentially sleepy patients to decrements over time in tasks that require sustained attention and timely responses, both of which are key components in safe driving performance.

  16. Evaluating the Relationship between Change in Performance on Training Tasks and on Untrained Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Zelinski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Training interventions for older adults are designed to remediate performance on trained tasks and to generalize, or transfer, to untrained tasks. Evidence for transfer is typically based on the trained group showing greater improvement than controls on untrained tasks, or on a correlation between gains in training and in transfer tasks. However, this ignores potential correlational relationships between trained and untrained tasks that exist before training. By accounting for crossed (trained and untrained and lagged (pretraining and posttraining and cross-lagged relationships between trained and untrained scores in structural equation models, the training-transfer gain relationship can be independently estimated. Transfer is confirmed if only the trained but not control participants’ gain correlation is significant. Modeling data from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT study (Smith, et al., 2009, transfer from speeded auditory discrimination and syllable span to list and text memory and to working memory was demonstrated in 487 adults aged 65-93. Evaluation of age, sex, and education on pretest scores and on change did not alter this. The overlap of the training with transfer measures was also investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that performance gains in a nonverbal speeded auditory discrimination task may be associated with gains on fewer tasks than gains in a verbal working memory task. Gains in speeded processing were associated with gains on one list memory measure. Syllable span gains were associated with improvement in difficult list recall, story recall, and working memory factor scores. Findings confirmed that more overlap with task demands was associated with gains to more of the tasks assessed, suggesting that transfer effects are related to task overlap in multimodal training.

  17. Central as well as peripheral attentional bottlenecks in dual-task performance activate lateral prefrontal cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre J Szameitat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human information processing suffers from severe limitations in parallel processing. In particular, when required to respond to two stimuli in rapid succession, processing bottlenecks may appear at central and peripheral stages of task processing. Importantly, it has been suggested that executive functions are needed to resolve the interference arising at such bottlenecks. The aims of the present study were to test whether central attentional limitations (i.e., bottleneck at the decisional response selection stage as well as peripheral limitations (i.e., bottleneck at response initiation both demand executive functions located in the lateral prefrontal cortex. For this, we re-analysed two previous studies, in which a total of 33 participants performed a dual-task according to the paradigm of the psychological refractory period (PRP during fMRI. In one study (N=17, the PRP task consisted of two two-choice response tasks known to suffer from a central bottleneck (CB group. In the other study (N=16, the PRP task consisted of two simple-response tasks known to suffer from a peripheral bottleneck (PB group. Both groups showed considerable dual-task costs in form of slowing of the second response in the dual-task (PRP effect. Imaging results are based on the subtraction of both single-tasks from the dual-task within each group. In the CB group, the bilateral middle frontal gyri and inferior frontal gyri were activated. Higher activation in these areas was associated with lower dual-task costs. In the PB group, the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus were activated. Here, higher activation was associated with higher dual-task costs. In conclusion we suggest that central and peripheral bottlenecks both demand executive functions located in lateral prefrontal cortices. Differences between the CB and PB groups with respect to the exact prefrontal areas activated and the correlational patterns suggest that the executive functions resolving

  18. The Effect of Performance-Contingent Incentives when Task Complexity is Manipulated through Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Wynder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When, and how, performance-contingent incentives improve performance is an important question fororganisations. Empirical results have been mixed – performance-contingent incentives sometimes increaseperformance, sometimes decrease performance, and sometimes have no effect. Theorists have called forfurther research to identify the effect of various moderating variables, including knowledge and taskcomplexity. This study responds by considering the role of instruction in providing the necessary knowledgeto reduce task complexity. The results suggest that a performance-contingent penalty can be a particularlyeffective means of directing effort for a simple task. For a complex task, performance can be improvedthrough instruction. The type of instruction is important – with rule-based instruction effectively directingeffort – however principle-based instruction is necessary to facilitate problem investigation and problemsolving.

  19. Increasing optimism abolishes pain-induced impairments in executive task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Smeets, Tom; Peters, Madelon L

    2014-02-01

    Coping with the demands of pain diminishes self-regulatory capacity and causes self-regulatory fatigue, which then leads to deteriorated executive task performance. It has been suggested that optimism can counteract the depletion of self-regulatory capacity. This study employed a 2 (optimism/no optimism)×2 (pain/no pain) between-subjects design to explore whether (1) experimentally induced pain (cold pressor task) deteriorates subsequent executive task performance, and (2) whether an optimism induction can counteract this sustained deteriorating effect of pain on executive task performance. Results indicated that although pain led to significantly worse performance on the executive functioning task in the no optimism condition, this sustained deteriorating effect of pain on task performance was abolished in the optimism condition. This finding is imperative because it suggests that optimism may be an important factor to implement in current psychological treatment approaches to diminish the negative impact of chronic pain on the ability to function in daily life. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. When co-action eliminates the Simon effect: disentangling the impact of co-actor's presence and task sharing on joint-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaro, Roberta; Treccani, Barbara; Rubichi, Sandro; Cubelli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing whether the mere belief of performing a task with another person, who is in charge of the complementary part of the task, is sufficient for the so-called joint Simon effect to occur. In all three experiments of the study, participants sat alone in a room and underwent two consecutive Go/NoGo tasks that were identical except for the instructions. In Experiment 1, participants performed the task first individually (baseline task), and then either co-acting with another person who responded from an unknown location to the NoGo stimuli (joint task) or imaging themselves responding to the NoGo stimuli (imaginative task). Relative to the baseline, the instructions of the imaginative task made the Simon effect occur, while those of the joint task were ineffective in eliciting the effect. This result suggests that sharing a task with a person who is known to be in charge of the complementary task, but is not physically present, is not sufficient to induce the representation of an alternative response able to produce interference, which happens instead when the instructions explicitly require to imagine such a response. Interestingly, we observed that when the Simon effect was already present in the baseline task (i.e., when the response alternative to the Go response was represented in the individual task due to non-social factors), it disappeared in the joint task. We propose that, when no information about the co-actor's position is available, the division of labor between the participant and co-actor allows participants to filter out the possible (incidental) representation of the alternative response from their task representation, thus eliminating potential sources of interference. This account is supported by the results of Experiments 2 and 3 and suggests that under certain circumstances task-sharing may reduce the interference produced by the irrelevant information, rather than increase it. PMID:24312066

  1. Using Hybrid Model to Evaluate Performance of Innovation and Technology Professionals in Marine Logistics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of marine logistics industry to grow, the government and corporate more and more attach importance to the performance evaluation of innovation and technology professionals. Combine the characteristics of marine logistics industry and innovative technology professionals to design a performance evaluation index of marine logistics industry in innovation and technology professionals, with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to determine the weights of the various performance indicatorsf and through the establishment of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to make the problems of complex performance evaluation quantification and then come to their performance evaluation results, and provide reference methods and recommendations for innovation and technology professionals in performance evaluation theory and practice of marine logistics industry.

  2. Whole-body task energy metrics for robots performing useful work in unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Theobald, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    When considering energy requirements and optimization for robots, it is important to consider mission requirements, and the type of robot performing the mission. For example, the small robots used in today's reconnaissance and explosive ordnance disposal applications have weak manipulators, and do not perform significant physical work on their surrounding environment. In this paper, we focus on robots that will be required to do much more physically demanding tasks, such as manipulating large heavy objects in unstructured environments, and carrying such objects over challenging terrain. Energy considerations for such systems must include models of physical work performed for basic manipulation, pose transition, and locomotion maneuvers. Given the scarcity of robots that can perform useful work in unstructured environments, it is useful to begin the investigation of energy optimization for such robots by considering typical tasks they might perform. This paper makes three contributions in this direction. First, we develop a set of standard tasks that would be useful in unstructured environments. The tasks are expressed in terms of the objects being manipulated, and the work being done, so they are independent of robot morphology. Second, we develop energy metrics and analytical results for theoretical energy requirements for these tasks. These requirements assume no losses due to friction, so they give a best-case estimate of what is achievable. Such metrics are useful in subsequent evaluation of real systems that are not as efficient. Third, we perform preliminary comparisons between different actuation technologies in performing these tasks. These actuation technologies will include electro-mechanical and hydraulic systems. We compare these technologies in terms of power density, and evaluate expected energy efficiency when performing the metric tasks.

  3. Modelling the effect of perceived interdependence among mental healthcare professionals on their work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals). We wanted to examine the effect of perceived interdependence among MHCPs on their work role performance in the context of mental healthcare. For this purpose, we developed and tested a model coherent with the Input-Mediator-Outcome-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness. Data from questionnaires administered to 315 MHCPs from four local health service networks in Quebec, Canada were analysed through structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data and explained 51% of the variance of work role performance. Perceived collaboration, confidence in the advantages of interprofessional collaboration, involvement in the decision process, knowledge sharing, and satisfaction with the nature of the work partially mediated the effect of perceived interdependence among team members on work role performance. Therefore, perceived interdependence among team members had a positive impact on the work role performance of MHCPs mostly through its effect on favourable team functioning features. This implies, in practice, that increased interdependence of MHCPs would be more likely to truly enhance work role performance if team-based interventions to promote collaborative work and interprofessional teaching and training programs to support work within interprofessional teams were jointly implemented. Participation in the decision process and knowledge sharing should

  4. Do medical residents perform patient-centered medical home tasks? A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lauren; LaVine, Nancy; Verbsky, Jennifer; Sagar, Ankita; Smith, Miriam A; Lane, Susan; Conigliaro, Joseph; Chaudhry, Saima A

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, residents are being trained in Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) settings. A set of PCMH entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for residents has been defined but not evaluated in practice. To understand whether residents trained at PCMH sites reported higher likelihood of engaging in PCMH tasks than those training in non-PCMH sites. Survey and nominal group data from post-graduate trainees at three residency programs. A total of 179 residents responded (80% response). Over half (52%) cared for patients at PCMH sites. Residents at PCMH sites were more likely to report engaging in tasks in the NCQA domains of enhancing access and continuity (p office inefficiencies as barriers to care. Residents trained at PCMH sites were more likely to engage in tasks in several NCQA domains, but not care coordination and quality assessment. Similar facilitators and barriers to trainee provision of patient-centered care were cited regardless of PCMH status. Curricula on PCMH principles and workflows that foster continuity and communication may help to inform residents on PCMH tenets and incorporate residents into team-based care. EPA: Entrustable professional activity; GIM: General Internal Medicine; NCQA: National Center for Quality Assurance; PCMH: Patient-centered medical home.

  5. Presurgical language fMRI in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy: effects of task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernd; Wellmer, Jörg; Schür, Simone; Dinkelacker, Vera; Ruhlmann, Jürgen; Mormann, Florian; Axmacher, Nikolai; Elger, Christian E; Fernández, Guillén

    2006-05-01

    To determine whether language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before epilepsy surgery can be similarly interpreted in patients with greatly different performance levels. An fMRI paradigm using a semantic decision task with performance control and a perceptual control task was applied to 226 consecutive patients with drug-resistant localization-related epilepsy during their presurgical evaluations. The volume of activation and lateralization in an inferior frontal and a temporoparietal area was assessed in correlation with individual performance levels. We observed differential effects of task performance on the volume of activation in the inferior frontal and the temporoparietal region of interest, but performance measures did not correlate with the lateralization of activation. fMRI, as applied here, in patients with a wide range of cognitive abilities, can be interpreted regarding language lateralization in a similar way.

  6. Crossing Borders: New Teachers Co-Constructing Professional Identity in Performative Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Busher, Hugh; Kakos, Michalis; Mohamed, Carmen; Smith, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on a range of theoretical perspectives on the construction of new teachers' professional identity. It focuses particularly on the impact of the development in many national education systems of a performative culture of the management and regulation of teachers' work. Whilst the role of interactions with professional colleagues…

  7. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals. Individual and Team Performance Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conway, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tobey, D. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greitzer, Frank L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dalton, Angela C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pusey, Portia K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Individual and Team Performance Guidelines. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  8. Board task performance: An exploration of micro- and macro-level determinants of board effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Huse, Morten

    2012-02-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro-macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), we identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings influence board tasks, and how the context moderates the relationship between processes and tasks. Our hypotheses are tested on a survey-based dataset of 535 medium-sized and large industrial firms in Italy and Norway, which are considered to substantially differ along legal and cultural dimensions. The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes and board task performance. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Thinking about the weather: How display salience and knowledge affect performance in a graphic inference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Mary; Canham, Matt S; Fabrikant, Sara I

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments examined how bottom-up and top-down processes interact when people view and make inferences from complex visual displays (weather maps). Bottom-up effects of display design were investigated by manipulating the relative visual salience of task-relevant and task-irrelevant information across different maps. Top-down effects of domain knowledge were investigated by examining performance and eye fixations before and after participants learned relevant meteorological principles. Map design and knowledge interacted such that salience had no effect on performance before participants learned the meteorological principles; however, after learning, participants were more accurate if they viewed maps that made task-relevant information more visually salient. Effects of display design on task performance were somewhat dissociated from effects of display design on eye fixations. The results support a model in which eye fixations are directed primarily by top-down factors (task and domain knowledge). They suggest that good display design facilitates performance not just by guiding where viewers look in a complex display but also by facilitating processing of the visual features that represent task-relevant information at a given display location. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Influence of visual feedback on human task performance in ITER remote handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schropp, Gwendolijn Y.R., E-mail: g.schropp@heemskerk-innovative.nl [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Heemskerk, Cock J.M. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Tiest, Wouter M. Bergmann [Helmholtz Institute-Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Elzendoorn, Ben S.Q. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM/FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Clusterand ITER-NL, PO box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bult, David [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM/FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Clusterand ITER-NL, PO box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The performance of human operators in an ITER-like test facility for remote handling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different sources of visual feedback influence how fast one can complete a maintenance task. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insights learned could be used in design of operator work environment or training procedures. - Abstract: In ITER, maintenance operations will be largely performed by remote handling (RH). Before ITER can be put into operation, safety regulations and licensing authorities require proof of maintainability for critical components. Part of the proof will come from using standard components and procedures. Additional verification and validation is based on simulation and hardware tests in 1:1 scale mockups. The Master Slave manipulator system (MS2) Benchmark Product was designed to implement a reference set of maintenance tasks representative for ITER remote handling. Experiments were performed with two versions of the Benchmark Product. In both experiments, the quality of visual feedback varied by exchanging direct view with indirect view (using video cameras) in order to measure and analyze its impact on human task performance. The first experiment showed that both experienced and novice RH operators perform a simple task significantly better with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. A more complex task showed a large variation in results and could not be completed by many novice operators. Experienced operators commented on both the mechanical design and visual feedback. In a second experiment, a more elaborate task was tested on an improved Benchmark product. Again, the task was performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance.

  11. Increasing Optimism Protects Against Pain-Induced Impairment in Task-Shifting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselie, Jantine J L M; Vancleef, Linda M G; Peters, Madelon L

    2017-04-01

    Persistent pain can lead to difficulties in executive task performance. Three core executive functions that are often postulated are inhibition, updating, and shifting. Optimism, the tendency to expect that good things happen in the future, has been shown to protect against pain-induced performance deterioration in executive function updating. This study tested whether this protective effect of a temporary optimistic state by means of a writing and visualization exercise extended to executive function shifting. A 2 (optimism: optimism vs no optimism) × 2 (pain: pain vs no pain) mixed factorial design was conducted. Participants (N = 61) completed a shifting task once with and once without concurrent painful heat stimulation after an optimism or neutral manipulation. Results showed that shifting performance was impaired when experimental heat pain was applied during task execution, and that optimism counteracted pain-induced deterioration in task-shifting performance. Experimentally-induced heat pain impairs shifting task performance and manipulated optimism or induced optimism counteracted this pain-induced performance deterioration. Identifying psychological factors that may diminish the negative effect of persistent pain on the ability to function in daily life is imperative. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Variations in task constraints shape emergent performance outcomes and complexity levels in balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Sánchez, Carla; Barbado Murillo, David; Davids, Keith; Moreno Hernández, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which specific interacting constraints of performance might increase or decrease the emergent complexity in a movement system, and whether this could affect the relationship between observed movement variability and the central nervous system's capacity to adapt to perturbations during balancing. Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed eight trials where different performance constraints were manipulated: task difficulty (three levels) and visual biofeedback conditions (with and without the center of pressure (COP) displacement and a target displayed). Balance performance was assessed using COP-based measures: mean velocity magnitude (MVM) and bivariate variable error (BVE). To assess the complexity of COP, fuzzy entropy (FE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were computed. ANOVAs showed that MVM and BVE increased when task difficulty increased. During biofeedback conditions, individuals showed higher MVM but lower BVE at the easiest level of task difficulty. Overall, higher FE and lower DFA values were observed when biofeedback was available. On the other hand, FE reduced and DFA increased as difficulty level increased, in the presence of biofeedback. However, when biofeedback was not available, the opposite trend in FE and DFA values was observed. Regardless of changes to task constraints and the variable investigated, balance performance was positively related to complexity in every condition. Data revealed how specificity of task constraints can result in an increase or decrease in complexity emerging in a neurobiological system during balance performance.

  13. Skylab task and work performance /Experiment M-151 - Time and motion study/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Mclaughlin, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The primary objective of Experiment M151 was to study the inflight adaptation of Skylab crewmen to a variety of task situations involving different types of activity. A parallel objective was to examine astronaut inflight performance for any behavioral stress effects associated with the working and living conditions of the Skylab environment. Training data provided the basis for comparison of preflight and inflight performance. Efficiency was evaluated through the adaptation function, namely, the relation of performance time over task trials. The results indicate that the initial changeover from preflight to inflight was accompanied by a substantial increase in performance time for most work and task activities. Equally important was the finding that crewmen adjusted rapidly to the weightless environment and became proficient in developing techniques with which to optimize task performance. By the end of the second inflight trial, most of the activities were performed almost as efficiently as on the last preflight trial. The analysis demonstrated the sensitivity of the adaptation function to differences in task and hardware configurations. The function was found to be more regular and less variable inflight than preflight. Translation and control of masses were accomplished easily and efficiently through the rapid development of the arms and legs as subtle guidance and restraint systems.

  14. Gender differences in performance for young adults in cognitive tasks under emotional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangling; Wu, Wen; Zhong, Haili; Cheng, Jian

    2017-11-20

    Previous studies have shown that men and women behave differently on diverse cognitive tasks. However, gender differences in recognizing and memorizing faces when in emotional conflict situations are unknown. Therefore, a face-word Stroop task (emotional conflict) and subsequent memory task were used in the present study to examine gender differences among young adults in an emotional conflict situation. Behavioural data showed that men were better able to recognize faces while in emotional conflict, whereas women performed better at the memorization task. Emotional conflict had different effects on memorization performance between men and women. Women memorized more incongruent faces and men more congruent ones. The results confirm the need for further neural study in this area. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Operator performance and localized muscle fatigue in a simulated space vehicle control task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Fourier transforms in a special purpose computer were utilized to obtain power spectral density functions from electromyograms of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, brachioradialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, brachialis, and pronator teres in eight subjects performing isometric tracking tasks in two directions utilizing a prototype spacecraft rotational hand controller. Analysis of these spectra in general purpose computers aided in defining muscles involved in performing the task, and yielded a derived measure potentially useful in predicting task termination. The triceps was the only muscle to show significant differences in all possible tests for simple effects in both tasks and, overall, was the most consistently involved of the six muscles. The total power monitored for triceps, biceps, and brachialis dropped to minimal levels across all subjects earlier than for other muscles. However, smaller variances existed for the biceps, brachioradialis, brachialis, and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles and could provide longer predictive times due to smaller standard deviations for a greater population range.

  16. [Effects of different explanations for performance on a learned helplessness task in undergraduates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Y

    2000-02-01

    Two groups of undergraduates were asked to solve anagrams and arithmetic problems. All the anagrams were solvable but part of the arithmetic problems was insolvable. After the preliminary task, one of the two explanations was given; internal attribution participants (Internal group, N = 22) were told that their failure was due to their problem-solving ability, while external attribution participants (External group, N = 21) were told that they failed because some of the problems had no solution. After the explanations, the groups worked on another set of solvable problems. The test task performance of internal group was significantly lower than that of External group (p = .05), and it was significantly lower than the group's preliminary task (p learned helplessness theory by Abramson, Seligman, and Teasdale (1978). In addition, relationships between performance and participants' attitude such as attributional style and optimism were examined with measurement before and after the task, but no significant correlation was found.

  17. Staff Perceptions of Professional Development and Empowerment as Long-Term Leadership Tasks of School Principals in South African Schools: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Eldridge; Muller, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the perceptions of school staff of professional development and empowerment as part of the long-term leadership task of principals. The long-term leadership model was used as a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the perceptions of 118 teachers and education managers in approximately 100 schools throughout…

  18. Seeking value in Medicare: performance measurement for clinical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lisa

    2013-10-30

    The Medicare program, despite its reputation of being a bill payer with little regard to the worth of the services it buys, has begun to put in place a range of programs aimed at assessing quality and value, with more to come. Attention to resource use and cost is nascent. The issues are complex, and it is no surprise that there is a level of contention between providers and regulators, even though both profess commitment to improved quality. This paper summarizes the quality and value programs that apply to physicians and other clinical professionals, as well as programs designed to encourage the adoption of technology to support quality improvement. Participation in all is voluntary. However, a decision not to participate increasingly carries a financial penalty, as Congress (and, by extension, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS) tries to encourage behavior it cannot force.

  19. Easy and difficult performance-approach goals : Their moderating effect on the link between task interest and performance attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaga, Monica; Van Yperen, N.W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the positive link between task interest and performance attainment can he negatively affected by the pursuit of difficult performance-approach goals. This was tested in a sample of 60 undergraduate Students at a Dutch university, In line with

  20. Performance-Approach Goals, Task-Avoidant Behaviour and Conceptual Knowledge as Predictors of First Graders' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Katrin; Haidkind, Pille; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to examine the relationship between first grade children's performance-approach goal orientation, task-avoidant behaviours, conceptual knowledge and their achievement in maths and literacy. The sample consisted of 174 first grade children and their class teachers. Children's self reports of their performance-approach goals…

  1. Exposure to Unsolvable Anagrams Impairs Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Starcke; Agorku, Janet D.; Matthias Brand

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that external manipulations, such as stress or mood induction, can affect decision-making abilities. In the current study, we investigated whether the exposure to an unsolvable task affected subsequent performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which they were exposed to unsolvable anagrams (n = 20), or a condition in which they worked on solvable anagrams (n = 22). Afterwards, all participants played the Iowa Gamblin...

  2. Location versus task relevance: The impact of differing internal focus of attention instructions on motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelleck, Valerie; Passmore, Steven R

    2017-05-01

    Impaired performance while executing a motor task is attributed to a disruption of normal automatic processes when an internal focus of attention is used. What remains unclear is whether the specificity of internally focused task instructions may impact task performance. The present study assessed the implications of changing the attentional focus of novice and skilled golfers by measuring behavioural, neurophysiological and kinematic changes during a golf putting task. Over six blocks of ten putting trials each, attention was directed either externally (towards the target) or internally in one of two ways: 1) proximal (keeping the elbows extended and the hands gripping the putter); or 2) distal (keeping the weight evenly distributed between both legs) to the critical elements of the task. Results provided evidence that when novice participants use an internal focus of attention more closely associated with task performance that their: 1) execution; 2) accuracy; 3) variability of surface electromyography (sEMG) activity; and 4) kinematics of the putter movement are all adversely affected. Skilled golfers are much more resilient to changes in attentional focus, while all participants interpret a distal internal focus of attention similar to an external focus. All participants produced decreased activity in the muscle (tibialis anterior) associated with the distal (less task relevant) focus of attention even when the "internal" focus was on the lower extremity. Our results provide evidence that the skill level of the participant and the distance of the internal focus of attention from the key elements of a motor skill directly impact the execution, muscle activity, and movement kinematics associated with skilled motor task performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using nature-based soundscapes to support task performance and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Newbold, J. W.; Luton, J.; Cox, A.L.; Gould, S. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone apps that enable workers to listen to nature soundscapes are increasingly popular. There is, however, little evidence that these soundscapes have the effects that they claim to have. Previous research exploring the effect of listening to background music during tasks has shown that while such music may have a positive effect on emotional state, it can disrupt reading and memory-based tasks. This paper explores the effects of nature soundscapes on mood and performance. A diary study...

  4. The cortisol awakening response is associated with performance of a serial sequence reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Schneider, Luke; Vallence, Ann-Maree; Clow, Angela; Ridding, Michael C; Pitcher, Julia B

    2016-02-01

    There is emerging evidence of a relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether the CAR is associated with acquisition, retention and overnight consolidation or improvement of a serial sequence reaction time task. Salivary samples were collected at 0, 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening in 39 healthy adults on 2 consecutive days. The serial sequence reaction time task was repeated each afternoon. Participants completed the perceived stress scale and provided salivary samples prior to testing for cortisol assessment. While the magnitude of the CAR (Z score) was not associated with either baseline performance or the timed improvement during task acquisition of the serial sequence task, a positive correlation was observed with reaction times during the stable performance phase on day 1 (r=0.373, p=0.019). Residuals derived from the relationship between baseline and stable phase reaction times on day 1 were used as a surrogate for the degree of learning: these residuals were also correlated with the CAR mean increase on day 1 (r=0.357, p=0.048). Task performance on day 2 was not associated with the CAR obtained on this same day. No association was observed between the perceived stress score, cortisol at testing or task performance. These data indicate that a smaller CAR in healthy adults is associated with a greater degree of learning and faster performance of a serial sequence reaction time task. These results support recognition of the CAR as an important factor contributing to cognitive performance throughout the day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep restriction during simulated wildfire suppression: effect on physical task performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Vincent

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of sleep restriction on firefighters' physical task performance during simulated wildfire suppression. METHODS: Thirty-five firefighters were matched and randomly allocated to either a control condition (8-hour sleep opportunity, n = 18 or a sleep restricted condition (4-hour sleep opportunity, n = 17. Performance on physical work tasks was evaluated across three days. In addition, heart rate, core temperature, and worker activity were measured continuously. Rate of perceived and exertion and effort sensation were evaluated during the physical work periods. RESULTS: There were no differences between the sleep-restricted and control groups in firefighters' task performance, heart rate, core temperature, or perceptual responses during self-paced simulated firefighting work tasks. However, the sleep-restricted group were less active during periods of non-physical work compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Under self-paced work conditions, 4 h of sleep restriction did not adversely affect firefighters' performance on physical work tasks. However, the sleep-restricted group were less physically active throughout the simulation. This may indicate that sleep-restricted participants adapted their behaviour to conserve effort during rest periods, to subsequently ensure they were able to maintain performance during the firefighter work tasks. This work contributes new knowledge to inform fire agencies of firefighters' operational capabilities when their sleep is restricted during multi-day wildfire events. The work also highlights the need for further research to explore how sleep restriction affects physical performance during tasks of varying duration, intensity, and complexity.

  6. Self-Paced Preparation for a Task Switch Eliminates Attentional Inertia but Not the Performance Switch Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Cai S.; Lavric, Aureliu; Monsell, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The performance overhead associated with changing tasks (the "switch cost") usually diminishes when the task is specified in advance but is rarely eliminated by preparation. A popular account of the "residual" (asymptotic) switch cost is that it reflects "task-set inertia": carry-over of task-set parameters from the…

  7. Processing of global and selective stop signals: application of Donders’ subtraction method to stop-signal task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, M.C.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applied Donders’ subtraction method to examine the processing of global and selective stop signals in the stop-signal paradigm. Participants performed on three different versions of the stop task: a global task and two selective tasks. A global task required participants to inhibit their

  8. Children's Performance on a False-belief Task Is Impaired by Activation of an Evolutionarily-Canalized Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Thomas; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examined how task content that activates predator-avoidance affects preschool children's performance on a false-belief task. Findings indicated that the proportion of correct answers on the playmate-avoidance task was greater than that for the predator-avoidance task, suggesting that activation of the predator-avoidance system…

  9. When the going gets tough the beautiful get going: aesthetic appeal facilitates task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppa, Irene; McDougall, Siné

    2015-10-01

    The current studies examined the effect of aesthetic appeal on performance. According to one hypothesis, appeal would lead to overall decrements or enhancements in performance [e.g. Sonderegger & Sauer, (Applied Ergonomics, 41, 403-410, 2010)]. Alternatively, appeal might influence performance only in problem situations, such as when the task is difficult [e.g. Norman, (2004)]. The predictions of these hypotheses were examined in the context of an icon search-and-localisation task. Icons were used because they are well-defined stimuli and pervasive to modern everyday life. When search was made difficult using visually complex stimuli (Experiment 1), or abstract and unfamiliar stimuli (Experiment 2), icons that were appealing were found more quickly than their unappealing counterparts. These findings show that in a low-level visual processing task, with demand characteristics related to appeal eliminated, appeal can influence performance, especially under duress.

  10. Self-reported quality of ADL task performance among patients with COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Hans Jørgen; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Wilcke, Jon Torgny

    2014-01-01

    concerning age, gender, and routine COPD characteristics were drawn from the patients' medical records. RESULTS: The patients reported being inefficient to markedly inefficient when performing ADL tasks within the personal hygiene, toileting, dressing, household, mobility, and transportation domains. While...... more than 90% of the participants reported increased effort and/or fatigue when performing the ADL tasks, up to 88% of the participants relied on help from others in the performance of general household chores like cooking and shopping. Self-reported ADL ability did not correlate with age, gender...

  11. The variable and chaotic nature of professional golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Michael; Lamb, Peter F

    2018-05-01

    In golf, unlike most other sports, individual performance is not the result of direct interactions between players. Instead decision-making and performance is influenced by numerous constraining factors affecting each shot. This study looked at the performance of PGA TOUR golfers in 2011 in terms of stability and variability on a shot-by-shot basis. Stability and variability were assessed using Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and standard deviation, respectively. About 10% of all shots comprised short stable phases of performance (3.7 ± 1.1 shots per stable phase). Stable phases tended to consist of shots of typical performance, rather than poor or exceptional shots; this finding was consistent for all shot categories. Overall, stability measures were not correlated with tournament performance. Variability across all shots was not related to tournament performance; however, variability in tee shots and short approach shots was higher than for other shot categories. Furthermore, tee shot variability was related to tournament standing: decreased variability was associated with better tournament ranking. The findings in this study showed that PGA TOUR golf performance is chaotic. Further research on amateur golf performance is required to determine whether the structure of amateur golf performance is universal.

  12. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter "k," "f," verbs, "animals," "vehicles," "joy," and "fear." The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety.

  13. "A Change of Paradigm" in Developing Land Forces Officers' Professional Skills in Accordance with Hybrid Warfare Task-Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Rizescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In future conflicts, not only traditional or asymmetric actions will be used, but also a combination of the two in order to solve the disputes involving national and international actors, materialized today in different manifestation forms called hybrid war. The hybrid threats tell about the evolution of the contemporary and future threats, about the necessity of a national effort concerted towards providing an immediate effective response to these threats. From a different perspective, the diversity and the complexity of the issues raised by the hybrid threats prove that it is necessary to go beyond the technical or sequential nowadays answers. It results first that it is required to develop an appropriate security strategy which will make possible the efficient action against hybrid risks and threats, in an effective, operational and unitary manner. Therefore, the present article aims at sequentially highlighting the aspects supporting the need to correlate the coordinates of the national security strategy to the planning, conduct and quality assessment of the process of training officers from the “change of paradigm” perspective, in order to acquire the professional skills conforming to the task-requirements specific to the hybrid war. Nothing more natural, more necessary and at the same time more current in this perspective than modernizing the military continuous education system in accordance with the strategic norm of competence.

  14. Relationships Among Lower Body Strength, Power, and Performance of Functional Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Ryder, J.; Hackney, K.; Scott-Pandorf, M.; Redd, E.; Buxton, R.; Bloomberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large degree of variability among crewmembers with respect to decrements in muscle strength and power following long duration spaceflight, ranging from 0 to approx.30% reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of varying decrements in lower body muscle strength and power (relative to body weight) on the performance of 2 occupationally relevant tasks (ladder climb and supine egress & walk). Seventeen participants with leg strength similar to US crewmembers performed a leg press power test, an isokinetic knee extension strength test and they were asked to complete the 2 functional tasks as quickly as possible. On additional test days the participants were asked to repeat the functional tasks under 3 conditions where a different external load was applied each time using a weighted suit in order to experimentally manipulate participants strength/body weight and power/body weight ratios. The weight in the suit ranged from 20-120% of body weight and was distributed in proportion to limb segment weights to minimize changes in center of gravity. The ladder task consisted of climbing 40 rungs on a ladder treadmill as fast as possible. The supine egress & walk task consisted of rising from a supine position and walking through an obstacle course. Results show a relatively linear relationship between strength/body weight and task time and power/body weight with task time such that the fastest performance times are associated with higher strength and power with about half the variance in task time is accounted for by a single variable (either strength or power). For the average person, a 20% reduction in power/body weight (from 18 to 14.4 W/kg) induces an increase (slowing) of about 10 seconds in the ladder climb task from 14 to 24 seconds (approx.70%) and a slowing of the supine egress & walk task from 14 to 21 seconds (approx.50%). Similar relationships were observed with strength/body weight and task performance. For the average

  15. Assessing air medical crew real-time readiness to perform critical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Darren; Goldsmith, Timothy; Weiss, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Air medical transport has had problems with its safety record, attributed in part to human error. Flight crew members (FCMs) must be able to focus on critical safety tasks in the context of a stressful environment. Flight crew members' cognitive readiness (CR) to perform their jobs may be affected by sleep deprivation, personal problems, high workload, and use of alcohol and drugs. The current study investigated the feasibility of using a computer-based cognitive task to assess FCMs' readiness to perform their job. The FCMs completed a short questionnaire to evaluate their physiologic and psychological state at the beginning and end of each shift. The FCMs then performed 3 minutes of a computer-based cognitive task called synthetic work environment (SYNWIN test battery). Task performance was compared with the questionnaire variables using correlation and regression analysis. Differences between the beginning and end of each shift were matched and compared using a paired Students t test. SYNWIN performance was significantly worse at the end of a shift compared with the beginning of the shift (p = 0.028) primarily because of decrement in the memory component. The SYNWIN composite scores were negatively correlated to degree of irritability felt by the participant, both before (r = -0.25) and after (r = -0.34) a shift and were significantly correlated with amount of sleep (0.22), rest (0.30), and life satisfaction (0.30). Performance by FCMs on a simple, rapid, computer-based psychological test correlates well with self-reported sleep, rest, life satisfaction, and irritability. Although further studies are warranted, these findings suggest that assessment of the performance of FCMs on a simple, rapid, computer-based, multitasking battery is feasible as an approach to determine their readiness to perform critical safety tasks through the SYNWIN task battery.

  16. Does complexity matter? Meta-analysis of learner performance in artificial grammar tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Katan, Pesia

    2014-01-01

    Complexity has been shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks (categorization of test items as grammatical/ungrammatical according to the implicitly trained grammar rules). However, previously published AGL experiments did not utilize consistent measures to investigate the comprehensive effect of grammar complexity on task performance. The present study focused on computerizing Bollt and Jones's (2000) technique of calculating topological entropy (TE), a quantitative measure of AGL charts' complexity, with the aim of examining associations between grammar systems' TE and learners' AGL task performance. We surveyed the literature and identified 56 previous AGL experiments based on 10 different grammars that met the sampling criteria. Using the automated matrix-lift-action method, we assigned a TE value for each of these 10 previously used AGL systems and examined its correlation with learners' task performance. The meta-regression analysis showed a significant correlation, demonstrating that the complexity effect transcended the different settings and conditions in which the categorization task was performed. The results reinforced the importance of using this new automated tool to uniformly measure grammar systems' complexity when experimenting with and evaluating the findings of AGL studies.

  17. Does Complexity Matter? Meta-Analysis of Learner Performance in Artificial Grammar Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eSchiff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Complexity has been shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning (AGL tasks (categorization of test items as grammatical/ungrammatical according to the implicitly trained grammar rules. However, previously published AGL experiments did not utilize consistent measures to investigate the comprehensive effect of grammar complexity on task performance. The present study focused on computerizing Bollt and Jones's (2000 technique of calculating topological entropy (TE, a quantitative measure of AGL charts' complexity, with the aim of examining associations between grammar systems' TE and learners’ AGL task performance. We surveyed the literature and identified 56 previous AGL experiments based on 10 different grammars that met the sampling criteria. Using the automated matrix-lift-action method, we assigned a TE value for each of these 10 previously used AGL systems and examined its correlation with learners' task performance. The meta-regression analysis showed a significant correlation, demonstrating that the complexity effect transcended the different settings and conditions in which the categorization task was performed. The results reinforced the importance of using this new automated tool to uniformly measure grammar systems’ complexity when experimenting with and evaluating the findings of AGL studies.

  18. The relationship between event-based prospective memory and ongoing task performance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie; Beran, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory is remembering to do something at a future time. A growing body of research supports that prospective memory may exist in nonhuman animals, but the methods used to test nonhuman prospective memory differ from those used with humans. The current work tests prospective memory in chimpanzees using a method that closely approximates a typical human paradigm. In these experiments, the prospective memory cue was embedded within an ongoing task. Tokens representing food items could be used in one of two ways: in a matching task with pictures of items (the ongoing task) or to request a food item hidden in a different location at the beginning of the trial. Chimpanzees had to disengage from the ongoing task in order to use the appropriate token to obtain a higher preference food item. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees effectively matched tokens to pictures, when appropriate, and disengaged from the ongoing task when the token matched the hidden item. In Experiment 2, performance did not differ when the target item was either hidden or visible. This suggested no effect of cognitive load on either the prospective memory task or the ongoing task, but performance was near ceiling, which may have contributed to this outcome. In Experiment 3, we created a more challenging version of the task. More errors on the matching task occurred before the prospective memory had been carried out, and this difference seemed to be limited to the hidden condition. This finding parallels results from human studies and suggests that working memory load and prospective memory may have a similar relationship in nonhuman primates.

  19. The relationship between event-based prospective memory and ongoing task performance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore A Evans

    Full Text Available Prospective memory is remembering to do something at a future time. A growing body of research supports that prospective memory may exist in nonhuman animals, but the methods used to test nonhuman prospective memory differ from those used with humans. The current work tests prospective memory in chimpanzees using a method that closely approximates a typical human paradigm. In these experiments, the prospective memory cue was embedded within an ongoing task. Tokens representing food items could be used in one of two ways: in a matching task with pictures of items (the ongoing task or to request a food item hidden in a different location at the beginning of the trial. Chimpanzees had to disengage from the ongoing task in order to use the appropriate token to obtain a higher preference food item. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees effectively matched tokens to pictures, when appropriate, and disengaged from the ongoing task when the token matched the hidden item. In Experiment 2, performance did not differ when the target item was either hidden or visible. This suggested no effect of cognitive load on either the prospective memory task or the ongoing task, but performance was near ceiling, which may have contributed to this outcome. In Experiment 3, we created a more challenging version of the task. More errors on the matching task occurred before the prospective memory had been carried out, and this difference seemed to be limited to the hidden condition. This finding parallels results from human studies and suggests that working memory load and prospective memory may have a similar relationship in nonhuman primates.

  20. Effect of distraction on the performance of endourological tasks: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, M.C.; Putten, K. van; Muijtjens, A.M.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Hendrikx, A.J.M.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: * To establish the effect of distraction on the performance of cystoscopy and basic endourological tasks by using a virtual reality (VR) simulator. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: * A total of 86 third-year medical students from Maastricht University, who had no previous experience in performing

  1. Presurgical language fMRI in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy: effects of task performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, B.; Wellmer, J.; Schur, S.; Dinkelacker, V.; Ruhlmann, J.; Mormann, F.; Axmacher, N.; Elger, C.E.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before epilepsy surgery can be similarly interpreted in patients with greatly different performance levels. METHODS: An fMRI paradigm using a semantic decision task with performance control and a perceptual control

  2. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  3. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schropp, G.Y.R.; Hermes, H.V.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Magielsen, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators

  4. LMS Use and Instructor Performance: The Role of Task-Technology Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Tanya; Klobas, Jane; Renzi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of learning management systems (LMS) has changed the way in which instructors work. This paper uses Goodhue and Thompson's (1995) technology-to-performance chain (TPC) to explore the roles of task-technology fit (TTF) and level of LMS use in the performance impacts of LMS for instructors. A mixed method approach was used: an…

  5. Task interest and actual performance: The moderating effects of assigned and adopted purpose goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yperen, N.W. van

    2003-01-01

    This research examined whether and which purpose goals moderate the relationship between task interest and actual performance and whether assigned goals have different effects (Study 1) than adopted goals (Study 2). Two studies were conducted using a full 2 × 2 design of the performance-mastery and

  6. Student Musicians' Self- and Task-Theories of Musical Performance: The Influence of Primary Genre Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Allan

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-five undergraduate music students studying in Scotland completed a 30-statement Q-sort to describe their self- and task-theories of musical performance. Statements reflected the importance of effort, confidence, technical ability, significant others and luck/chance in determining a successful performance. The Q-sorts were…

  7. The Relationship of Estimated Learning Potential to Performance on a Learning Task and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, Reesa Guller; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined Estimated Learning Potential (ELP) and IQ scores as predictors of learning task performance in 31 Black and 32 White educable mentally retarded children. ELP did not correlate more highly with performance than did IQ score, yet ELP may be more differentially sensitive to declassifying Blacks as retarded. (NRB)

  8. Mutual interaction effects between discomfort and cognitive task performance in clothing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Koerhuis, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this study was to establish a relationship between physical discomfort and performance. Eleven healthy male subjects participated in this pilot study. The subjects performed a 2-h protocol without and with significant thermal and mechanical discomfort. Various cognitive tasks were

  9. The Development of an Individuals-within-Dyads Multilevel Performance Measure for an Interactive Cheerleading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeeb, Christine M.; Eklund, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Dyadic interactions generate direct relationships in which interdependent sport behaviors can be destructured. The focus of this investigation was to develop a two-level performance framework and corresponding measures of individual- and dyad-level sport performance. The described procedures surrounded a male-female cheerleading paired-stunt task,…

  10. "How To" Videos Improve Residents Performance of Essential Perioperative Electronic Medical Records and Clinical Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoghbi, Veronica; Caskey, Robert C; Dumon, Kristoffel R; Soegaard Ballester, Jacqueline M; Brooks, Ari D; Morris, Jon B; Dempsey, Daniel T

    2017-08-08

    The ability to use electronic medical records (EMR) is an essential skill for surgical residents. However, frustration and anxiety surrounding EMR tasks may detract from clinical performance. We created a series of brief, 1-3 minutes "how to" videos demonstrating 7 key perioperative EMR tasks: booking OR cases, placing preprocedure orders, ordering negative-pressure wound dressing supplies, updating day-of-surgery history and physical notes, writing brief operative notes, discharging patients from the postanesthesia care unit, and checking vital signs. Additionally, we used "Cutting Insights"-a locally developed responsive mobile application for surgical trainee education-as a platform for providing interns with easy access to these videos. We hypothesized that exposure to these videos would lead to increased resident efficiency and confidence in performing essential perioperative tasks, ultimately leading to improved clinical performance. Eleven surgery interns participated in this initiative. Before watching the "how to" videos, each intern was timed performing the aforementioned 7 key perioperative EMR tasks. They also underwent a simulated perioperative emergency requiring the performance of 3 of these EMR tasks in conjunction with 5 other required interventions (including notifying the chief resident, the anesthesia team, and the OR coordinator; and ordering fluid boluses, appropriate laboratories, and blood products). These simulations were scored on a scale from 0 to 8. The interns were then directed to watch the videos. Two days later, their times for performing the 7 tasks and their scores for a similar perioperative emergency simulation were once again recorded. Before and after watching the videos, participants were surveyed to assess their confidence in performing each EMR task using a 5-point Likert scale. We also elicited their opinions of the videos and web-based mobile application using a 5-point scale. Statistical analyses to assess for

  11. Performance-based contracting in home-care work in The Netherlands : Professionalism under pressure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomkens, Rosanne; Hoogenboom, Marcel; Knijn, Trudie

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to improve the understanding of the relationships between performance-based contracting, management supportiveness and professionalism in home care. Using path analysis, this article explores the relationships between home-care workers' perceptions of management support, implementation

  12. Evaluation of physicians' professional performance: an iterative development and validation study of multisource feedback instruments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, K.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Arah, O.A.; Cruijsberg, J.K.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Lombarts, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a global need to assess physicians' professional performance in actual clinical practice. Valid and reliable instruments are necessary to support these efforts. This study focuses on the reliability and validity, the influences of some sociodemographic biasing factors,

  13. Teachers’ Professional Development and Students’ Mathematics Performance: Findings from TIMSS 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ünal, Hasan; Demir, Ibrahim; Kiliç, Serpil

    2011-01-01

    ... was to examine the effect of professional development of mathematics teachers on students’ performance in mathematics. A total of 4498 8 th grade students and 146 school teachers from Turkey participated ...

  14. Performance of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism on advanced theory of mind tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaland, Nils; Callesen, Kirsten; Møller-Nielsen, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Although a number of advanced theory of mind tasks have been developed, there is a dearth of information on whether performances on different tasks are associated. The present study examined the performance of 21 children and adolescents with diagnoses of Asperger syndrome (AS) and 20 typically developing controls on three advanced theory of mind tasks: The Eyes Task, the Strange Stories, and the Stories from Everyday Life. The participants in the clinical group demonstrated lower performance than the controls on all the three tasks. The pattern of findings, however, indicates that these tasks may share different information-processing requirements in addition to tapping different mentalizing abilities.

  15. The Impact of Circadian Misalignment on Athletic Performance in Professional Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, RS; Efron, B; Mah, CD; Malhotra, A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that professional football teams would perform better than anticipated during games occurring close to their circadian peak in performance. Design: We reviewed the past 40 years of evening and daytime professional football games between west coast and east coast United States teams. In order to account for known factors influencing football game outcomes we compared the results to the point spread which addresses all significant differences between opposing teams fo...

  16. The effect of music performance on the transcriptome of professional musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarthi Kanduri; Tuire Kuusi; Minna Ahvenainen; Philips, Anju K.; Harri Lähdesmäki; Irma Järvelä

    2015-01-01

    Music performance by professional musicians involves a wide-spectrum of cognitive and multi-sensory motor skills, whose biological basis is unknown. Several neuroscientific studies have demonstrated that the brains of professional musicians and non-musicians differ structurally and functionally and that musical training enhances cognition. However, the molecules and molecular mechanisms involved in music performance remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the effect of music performa...

  17. The Relationship Between Endurance Of Periscapular Muscles, Anaerobic Performance And Agility In Professional Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Zorlular, Ali; ?obano?lu, Gamze; Keklik, Sinem Suner; G?kdo?an, ?a?atay M?slim; Akaras, Esedullah; Polat, Elif Ayg?n; Kafa, Nihan; G?zel, Nevin Atalay

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between endurance of periscapular muscle, anaerobic performance and agility in professional athletes. Methods: 70 professional basketball, volleyball, and handball players (male: 25 female: 45 age 20.41?5.72, BMI: 21.70?2.51) were included to this study. Anaerobic performance was assessed with vertical jump test. Periscapular muscles endurance was evaluated using scapular muscle endurance test and agility was measured hexagona...

  18. Relationships between Contextual and Task Performance and Interrater Agreement: Are There Any?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Díaz-Vilela

    Full Text Available Work performance is one of the most important dependent variables in Work and Organizational Psychology. The main objective of this paper was to explore the relationships between citizenship performance and task performance measures obtained from different appraisers and their consistency through a seldom-used methodology, intraclass correlation coefficients. Participants were 135 public employees, the total staff in a local government department. Jobs were clustered into job families through a work analysis based on standard questionnaires. A task description technique was used to develop a performance appraisal questionnaire for each job family, with three versions: self-, supervisor-, and peer-evaluation, in addition to a measure of citizenship performance. Only when the self-appraisal bias is controlled, significant correlations appeared between task performance rates. However, intraclass correlations analyses show that only self- (contextual and task performance measures are consistent, while interrater agreement disappears. These results provide some interesting clues about the procedure of appraisal instrument development, the role of appraisers, and the importance of choosing adequate consistency analysis methods.

  19. Relationships between Contextual and Task Performance and Interrater Agreement: Are There Any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vilela, Luis F; Delgado Rodríguez, Naira; Isla-Díaz, Rosa; Díaz-Cabrera, Dolores; Hernández-Fernaud, Estefanía; Rosales-Sánchez, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Work performance is one of the most important dependent variables in Work and Organizational Psychology. The main objective of this paper was to explore the relationships between citizenship performance and task performance measures obtained from different appraisers and their consistency through a seldom-used methodology, intraclass correlation coefficients. Participants were 135 public employees, the total staff in a local government department. Jobs were clustered into job families through a work analysis based on standard questionnaires. A task description technique was used to develop a performance appraisal questionnaire for each job family, with three versions: self-, supervisor-, and peer-evaluation, in addition to a measure of citizenship performance. Only when the self-appraisal bias is controlled, significant correlations appeared between task performance rates. However, intraclass correlations analyses show that only self- (contextual and task) performance measures are consistent, while interrater agreement disappears. These results provide some interesting clues about the procedure of appraisal instrument development, the role of appraisers, and the importance of choosing adequate consistency analysis methods.

  20. Relationships between Contextual and Task Performance and Interrater Agreement: Are There Any?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cabrera, Dolores; Hernández-Fernaud, Estefanía; Rosales-Sánchez, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Work performance is one of the most important dependent variables in Work and Organizational Psychology. The main objective of this paper was to explore the relationships between citizenship performance and task performance measures obtained from different appraisers and their consistency through a seldom-used methodology, intraclass correlation coefficients. Participants were 135 public employees, the total staff in a local government department. Jobs were clustered into job families through a work analysis based on standard questionnaires. A task description technique was used to develop a performance appraisal questionnaire for each job family, with three versions: self-, supervisor-, and peer-evaluation, in addition to a measure of citizenship performance. Only when the self-appraisal bias is controlled, significant correlations appeared between task performance rates. However, intraclass correlations analyses show that only self- (contextual and task) performance measures are consistent, while interrater agreement disappears. These results provide some interesting clues about the procedure of appraisal instrument development, the role of appraisers, and the importance of choosing adequate consistency analysis methods. PMID:26473956

  1. Performance-dependent inhibition of pain by an executive working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhle, Jason; Wager, Tor D

    2010-04-01

    It is widely assumed that distraction reduces pain. Similarly, it is assumed that pain distracts from concurrent, unrelated cognitive processing, reducing performance on difficult tasks. Taken together, these assumptions suggest pain processing and cognitive function engage an overlapping set of domain-general, capacity-limited mental resources. However, experimental tests of this proposal have yielded mixed results, leading to alternative proposals that challenge the common model of a bidirectional relationship between concurrent pain and task performance. We tested these contrasting positions using a novel concurrent pain and executive working memory paradigm. Both task difficulty and nociceptive stimulus intensity were individually calibrated for each participant. Participants reported less pain during the working memory task than a visually matched control condition. Conversely, increasing levels of heat incrementally reduced task performance. Path analyses showed that variations in pain completely mediated this effect, and that even within a given heat level, trial-by-trial fluctuations in pain predicted decrements in performance. In sum, these findings argue that overlapping cognitive resources play a role in both pain processing and executive working memory. Future studies could use this paradigm to understand more precisely which components of executive function or other cognitive resources contribute to the experience of pain. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Do absorption and realistic distraction influence performance of component task surgical procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluyter, Jon R; Buzink, Sonja N; Rutkowski, Anne-F; Jakimowicz, Jack J

    2010-04-01

    Surgeons perform complex tasks while exposed to multiple distracting sources that may increase stress in the operating room (e.g., music, conversation, and unadapted use of sophisticated technologies). This study aimed to examine whether such realistic social and technological distracting conditions may influence surgical performance. Twelve medical interns performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy task with the Xitact LC 3.0 virtual reality simulator under distracting conditions (exposure to music, conversation, and nonoptimal handling of the laparoscope) versus nondistracting conditions (control condition) as part of a 2 x 2 within-subject experimental design. Under distracting conditions, the medical interns showed a significant decline in task performance (overall task score, task errors, and operating time) and significantly increased levels of irritation toward both the assistant handling the laparoscope in a nonoptimal way and the sources of social distraction. Furthermore, individual differences in cognitive style (i.e., cognitive absorption and need for cognition) significantly influenced the levels of irritation experienced by the medical interns. The results suggest careful evaluation of the social and technological sources of distraction in the operation room to reduce irritation for the surgeon and provision of proper preclinical laparoscope navigation training to increase security for the patient.

  3. The effect of self-management strategies on improving task performance in students with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bahri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral self-management approach offers some promising implications for improving independent task performance in all students particularly ones with learning disabilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-management training on task performance in students diagnosed as learning disabled. Methods: The participants were five students with learning disabilities attending in sub-specialty psychological clinics in Tabriz, Iran. Changing criterion design as a type of single-subject design applied, and data were gathered during each baseline and treatment sessions. Results: Training in self-management strategies was conducted in 12 sessions of 45 minutes. The self-management training improved students’ task performance and increased their academic productivity and accuracy. Conclusion: Practical implications and recommendations for school psychologists, teachers, and clinicians for appropriate application of self-management strategies are discussed.

  4. Self-reported and Observed Quality of ADL Task Performance in Adults with Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva

    2014-01-01

    therapists offer their services to a wide range of diagnostic groups, it was decided to investigate if a similar pattern would show, when examining the relationship between self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance in a different population. For this purpose, adults with depression were...... diagnosed with depression (range 19-79, median 45,5) Procedure In order to evaluate the participants’ self-reported and observed quality of ADL task performance the ADL-Interview (ADL-I) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) were chosen. Both instruments are developed to evaluate and measure...... on self-report and observation to some extent provide similar information related to quality of ADL task performance in adults with depression. Thus, at group level problems in terms of increased physical effort and/or fatigue, inefficient use of time, some safety risk and/or need for assistance were both...

  5. The effect of a simple intraprocedural checklist on the task performance of laparoscopic novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Boghdady, Michael; Tang, Benjie; Tait, Iain; Alijani, Afshin

    2017-08-01

    Surgical checklists are used for error reduction. Checklists are infrequently applied during procedures and have been limited to lists of procedural steps as aid memoires. We aimed to study the effect of a self-administered checklist on the laparoscopic task performance of novices during a standardized task. Twenty novices were randomized into 2 equal groups, those receiving paper feedback (control group) and those receiving paper feedback and the checklist (checklist group). Subjects performed laparoscopic double knots, repeated over 5 separate stages. Human reliability assessment technique was used for error analysis. 2,341 errors were detected during the 5 stages. During the first stage, the errors were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The checklist group committed significantly fewer errors as compared with the control group during all the later 4 stages (P checklist significantly improved the laparoscopic task performance and the learning curve of laparoscopic novices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implicit Motives, Explicit Traits, and Task and Contextual Performance at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, J.W.B.; Zettler, Ingo; Ewen, C.

    2012-01-01

    for implicit achievement). As a test of these theoretical ideas, we report a study in which employees (N = 241) filled out a questionnaire booklet and worked on an improved modern implicit motive measure, the operant motive test. Their supervisors rated their task and contextual performance. Results support 4...... of the 6 theoretical predictions and show that interactions between implicit motives and explicit traits increase the explained criterion variance in both task and contextual performance....... apply these ideas in the context of industrial and organizational psychology and propose that 2 explicit traits work as channels for the expression of 3 core implicit motives in task and contextual job performance (extraversion for implicit affiliation and implicit power; explicit achievement...

  7. Performance monitoring and analysis of task-based OpenMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    Full Text Available OpenMP, a typical shared memory programming paradigm, has been extensively applied in high performance computing community due to the popularity of multicore architectures in recent years. The most significant feature of the OpenMP 3.0 specification is the introduction of the task constructs to express parallelism at a much finer level of detail. This feature, however, has posed new challenges for performance monitoring and analysis. In particular, task creation is separated from its execution, causing the traditional monitoring methods to be ineffective. This paper presents a mechanism to monitor task-based OpenMP programs with interposition and proposes two demonstration graphs for performance analysis as well. The results of two experiments are discussed to evaluate the overhead of monitoring mechanism and to verify the effects of demonstration graphs using the BOTS benchmarks.

  8. Development of a formative assessment tool for measurement of performance in multi-professional resuscitation teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Oluf; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Treating cardiac arrest is linked to the mutual performance of several health-care individuals' task coordination. Non-technical skills, including communication, leadership and team interaction, could improve sequencing the tasks in the cardiac arrest algorithm. Non-technical skills have been...

  9. The effect of divided attention on novices and experts in laparoscopic task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfar, Mudassar Ali; Cook, Malcolm; Tang, Benjie; Tait, Iain; Alijani, Afshin

    2015-03-01

    Attention is important for the skilful execution of surgery. The surgeon's attention during surgery is divided between surgery and outside distractions. The effect of this divided attention has not been well studied previously. We aimed to compare the effect of dividing attention of novices and experts on a laparoscopic task performance. Following ethical approval, 25 novices and 9 expert surgeons performed a standardised peg transfer task in a laboratory setup under three randomly assigned conditions: silent as control condition and two standardised auditory distracting tasks requiring response (easy and difficult) as study conditions. Human reliability assessment was used for surgical task analysis. Primary outcome measures were correct auditory responses, task time, number of surgical errors and instrument movements. Secondary outcome measures included error rate, error probability and hand specific differences. Non-parametric statistics were used for data analysis. 21109 movements and 9036 total errors were analysed. Novices had increased mean task completion time (seconds) (171 ± 44SD vs. 149 ± 34, p 0.05). Divided attention conditions in theatre environment require careful consideration during surgical training as the junior surgeons are less able to focus their attention during these conditions.

  10. The Effect of Corrective Feedback on Performance in Basic Cognitive Tasks: An Analysis of RT Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Moret-Tatay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the effect of trial-by-trial feedback about correct and error responding on performance in two basic cognitive tasks: a classic Stroop task (n = 40 and a color-word matching task ('n' = 30. Standard measures of both RT and accuracy were examined in addition to measures obtained from fitting the ex-Gaussian distributional model to the correct RTs. For both tasks, RTs were faster in blocks of trials with feedback than in blocks without feedback, but this difference was not significant. On the other hand, with respect to the distributional analyses, providing feedback served to significantly reduce the size of the tails of the RT distributions. Such results suggest that, for conditions in which accuracy is fairly high, the effect of corrective feedback might either be to reduce the tendency to double-check before responding or to decrease the amount of attentional lapsing.

  11. Developmental dynamics between mathematical performance, task motivation, and teachers' goals during the transition to primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2006-03-01

    It has been suggested that children's learning motivation and interest in a particular subject play an important role in their school performance, particularly in mathematics. However, few cross-lagged longitudinal studies have been carried out to investigate the prospective relationships between academic achievement and task motivation. Moreover, the role that the classroom context plays in this development is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental dynamics of maths-related motivation and mathematical performance during children's transition to primary school. The role of teachers' pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics on this development was also investigated. A total of 196 Finnish children were examined four times: (0) in October during their preschool year; (1) in October and (2) April during their first grade of primary school; and (3) in October during their second grade. Children's mathematical performance was tested at each measurement point. Task motivation was examined at measurement points 2, 3, and 4 using the Task-value scale for children. First-grade teachers were interviewed in November about their pedagogical goals and classroom characteristics. The results showed that children's mathematical performance and related task motivation formed a cumulative developmental cycle: a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the first grade increased subsequent task motivation towards mathematics, which further predicted a high level of maths performance at the beginning of the second grade. The level of maths-related task motivation increased in those classrooms where the teachers emphasized motivation or self-concept development as their most important pedagogical goal.

  12. Gaming is related to enhanced working memory performance and task-related cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2017-01-15

    Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A training tool to assess laparoscopic image navigation task performance in novice camera assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub; Wilson, Michael S J; Tang, Benjie; Tait, Iain S; Alijani, Afshin

    2017-11-01

    A number of tools for assessing task performance of the laparoscopic camera assistant have been described, but few focus on the acquisition and assessment of the attainment of proficiency in novice laparoscopic camera assistants. Our aim was to develop a simulated objective assessment tool for a novice camera assistant. A 10-cycle image navigation task tool was developed. This involved a series of 360° clockwise and anticlockwise rotation maneuvers of a 30° laparoscope along its shaft, focusing on a predefined geometric target on a 45° fixed slope in a laparoscopic box trainer. The tasks were to simultaneously maintain neutral horizon, optimum distance, and centering. Task accuracy and time to completion were assessed objectively at 3-s intervals on an unedited video recording. Twenty-nine novice medical students were assessed. Novices improved mean total error and task completion time (first versus fifth cycle, mean errors 15.4 versus 8.4, P = 0.048; mean task time 158.1 versus 92.9 s, P = 0.04). This improvement continued until the task cycle was completed (sixth versus 10th cycles, 7.9 versus 6.2, P = 0.01; 91.9 versus 76.6 s, P camera navigation tasks. There was improvement in errors related to maintaining horizon, optimum distance, and centering. Mean task completion time also decreased. This tool could be used as an additional mean of assessment and training in novice surgical trainees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Worms under cover: relationships between performance in learning tasks and personality in great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, Mathieu; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2012-09-01

    In animals, individual differences in learning ability are common and are in part explained by genetic differences, developmental conditions and by general experience. Yet, not all variations in learning are well understood. Individual differences in learning may be associated with elementary individual characteristics that are consistent across situations and over time, commonly referred to as personality or temperament. Here, we tested whether or not male great tits (Parus major) from two selection lines for fast or slow exploratory behaviour, an operational measure for avian personality, vary in their learning performance in two related consecutive tasks. In the first task, birds had to associate a colour with a reward whereas in the second task, they had to associate a new colour with a reward ignoring the previously rewarded colour. Slow explorers had shorter latencies to approach the experimental device compared with fast explorers in both tasks, but birds from the two selection lines did not differ in accomplishing the first task, that is, to associate a colour with a reward. However, in the second task, fast explorers had longer latencies to solve the trials than slow explorers. Moreover, relative to the number of trials needed to reach the learning criteria in the first task, birds from the slow selection line took more trials to associate a new colour with a reward while ignoring the previously learned association compared with birds from the fast selection line. Overall, the experiments suggest that personality in great tits is not strongly related to learning per se in such an association task, but that birds from different selection lines might express different learning strategies as birds from the different selection lines were differently affected by their previous learning performance.

  15. Cerebral blood flow, fatigue, mental effort, and task performance in offices with two different pollution loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishihara, Naoe; Wargocki, Pawel; Tanabe, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of indoor air quality on symptoms, perceptions, task performance, cerebral blood flow, fatigue, and mental effort of individuals working in an office were investigated. Twenty-four right-handed Danish female subjects in an office were exposed in groups of two at a time to two air...... any effects caused by modifying pollution exposure, they were well correlated with increased mental effort when the tasks were performed at maximum pace and subjectively reported fatigue, which increased during the course of exposure, respectively....

  16. Data from 617 Healthy Participants Performing the Iowa Gambling Task: A “Many Labs” Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Steingroever

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This data pool (N = 617 comes from 10 independent studies assessing performance of healthy participants (i.e., no known neurological impairments on the Iowa gambling task (IGT—a task measuring decision making under uncertainty in an experimental context. Participants completed a computerized version of the IGT consisting of 95 – 150 trials. The data consist of the choices of each participant on each trial, and the resulting rewards and losses. The data are stored as .rdata, .csv, and .txt files, and can be reused to (1 analyze IGT performance of healthy participants; (2 create a “super control group”; or (3 facilitate model-comparison efforts.

  17. The effect of the external regulator's absence on children's speech use, manifested self-regulation, and task performance during learning tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agina, Adel M.; Agina, Adel Masaud; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Steehouder, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effect of the absence of the external regulators on children’s use of speech (private/social), task performance, and self-regulation during learning tasks. A novel methodology was employed through a computer-based learning environment that proposed

  18. Behavior of personality type toward stress and job performance: a study of healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjhua, Yasmin; Chandrakanta

    2012-07-01

    The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI), Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals' response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.

  19. Sex differences in spatial task performance of patients with and without unilateral cerebral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R S; Kamptner, N L

    1987-04-01

    Two visuospatial tasks, the WAIS Block Design and the Street Gestalt Completion Test, were administered to men and women with and without unilateral cerebral lesions. These two tasks represent different categories of visuospatial functions. The Street test is a visual-perceptual gestalt task, requiring the closure of fragmented pictures, whereas Block Design is an analytical, manipulospatial task requiring rotation of spatial coordinates. For the non-brain-damaged group, the men showed a nonsignificant trend toward better Block Design performance relative to the women, whereas there was no sex-related difference in Street performance. For the brain-damaged groups, patients with right hemisphere lesions performed significantly worse than patients with left hemisphere lesions on both the Street test and Block Design, indicating that both tasks were more sensitive to right hemisphere functioning. There was, however, a significant sex X side of lesion interaction on Block Design only, with the men showing a more asymmetrical pattern of scores. These results suggest that sex differences in functional lateralization may underlie sex differences in visuospatial ability, and that sex differences in functional lateralization may be present for only certain visuospatial processes.

  20. An investigation on task-technology fit of mobile nursing information systems for nursing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ju-Ling; Chen, Rai-Fu

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates factors affecting the fit between nursing tasks and mobile nursing information systems and the relationships between the task-technology fit of mobile nursing information systems and nurse performance from the perspective of task-technology fit. Survey research recruited nursing staffs as subjects from selected case hospital. A total of 310 questionnaires were sent out, and 219 copies were obtained, indicating a valid response rate of 70.6%. Collected data were analyzed using the structural equation modeling technique. Our study found that dependence tasks have positive effects on information acquisition (γ=0.234, Pinformation identification (γ=0.478, Pinformation acquisition (γ=0.213, Pintroduction of mobile nursing information systems in assisting nursing practices can help facilitate both independent and dependent nursing tasks. Our study discovered that the supporting functions of mobile nursing information systems have positive effects on information integration and interpretation (γ=0.365, Pinformation acquisition (γ=0.253, Pinformation systems have positive effects on information acquisition (γ=0.318, Pinformation integration and interpretation (γ=0.143, Pinformation identification (β=.055, Pinformation acquisition (β=.176, Pinformation integration and interpretation (β=.706, Pinformation systems have positive effects on nursing performance, indicating 83.2% of totally explained variance. As shown, the use of mobile nursing information systems could provide nursing staffs with real-time and accurate information to increase efficiency and effectiveness in patient-care duties, further improving nursing performance.

  1. Neurofeedback training improves the dual-task performance ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Bae, Sea-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Hee; Kim, Kyung-Yoon

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the reduced capacity for information processing following a stroke, patients commonly present with difficulties in performing activities of daily living that combine two or more tasks. To address this problem, in the present study, we investigated the effects of neurofeedback training on the abilities of stroke patients to perform dual motor tasks. We randomly assigned 20 patients who had sustained a stroke within the preceding 6 months to either a pseudo-neurofeedback (n = 10) or neurofeedback (n = 10) group. Both groups participated in a general exercise intervention for 8 weeks, three times a week for 30 min per session, under the same conditions. An electrode was secured to the scalp over the region of the central lobe (Cz), in compliance with the International 10-20 System. The electrode was inactive for the pseudo-training group. Participants in the neurofeedback training group received the 30-min neurofeedback training per session for reinforcing the sensorimotor rhythm. Electroencephalographic activity of the two groups was compared. In addition, selected parameters of gait (velocity, cadence [step/min], stance phase [%], and foot pressure) were analyzed using a 10-m walk test, attention-demanding task, walk task and quantified by the SmartStep system. The neurofeedback group showed significantly improved the regulation of the sensorimotor rhythm (p neurofeedback training is effective to improve the dual-task performance in stroke patients.

  2. A Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler for High Performance Image Processing Workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Timothy; Keyrouz, Walid; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Halem, Milton; Brady, Mary

    2017-12-01

    Designing applications for scalability is key to improving their performance in hybrid and cluster computing. Scheduling code to utilize parallelism is difficult, particularly when dealing with data dependencies, memory management, data motion, and processor occupancy. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) improves programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for multi-core and multi-GPU systems. The Hybrid Task Graph Scheduler (HTGS) is an abstract execution model, framework, and API that increases programmer productivity when implementing hybrid workflows for such systems. HTGS manages dependencies between tasks, represents CPU and GPU memories independently, overlaps computations with disk I/O and memory transfers, keeps multiple GPUs occupied, and uses all available compute resources. Through these abstractions, data motion and memory are explicit; this makes data locality decisions more accessible. To demonstrate the HTGS application program interface (API), we present implementations of two example algorithms: (1) a matrix multiplication that shows how easily task graphs can be used; and (2) a hybrid implementation of microscopy image stitching that reduces code size by ≈ 43% compared to a manually coded hybrid workflow implementation and showcases the minimal overhead of task graphs in HTGS. Both of the HTGS-based implementations show good performance. In image stitching the HTGS implementation achieves similar performance to the hybrid workflow implementation. Matrix multiplication with HTGS achieves 1.3× and 1.8× speedup over the multi-threaded OpenBLAS library for 16k × 16k and 32k × 32k size matrices, respectively.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of surgical task performance by remote-access endoscopic telemanipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Jensen, J; Hill, J; Bowersox, J C

    2000-05-01

    The performance limitations inherent in minimally invasive surgery may be overcome by using an interface that provides intuitive orientation for video display and tool manipulation. A prototype remote-access endoscopic telemanipulator was designed to fulfill these requirements and used for a surgical anastomosis task. A remote-access telemanipulator system, employing remote center-of-motion geometry, was used to complete distant in vitro tubular anastomoses. The performance of four surgeons using this system was compared with that achieved in completing the same anastomosis task in an open environment using open surgical techniques and in a minimally invasive environment using standard laparoscopic methods. The average performance times for completion of the anastomosis task was 1448 +/- 130 s using the telemanipulator system compared with 2108 +/- 291 s with laparoscopic instruments and 296 +/- 25 s with conventional techniques. Leakage rates from the tubular anastomoses were 5.2 +/- 1.4 ml/s in the telemanipulator group, 6.9 +/- 2.0 ml/s in the laparoscopic group, and 3.2 +/- 0.9 ml/s in the conventional methods group. All experimental subjects were able to complete the assigned task in each experimental condition successfully without complications. Our results in this pilot study suggest that remote-access endoscopic telemanipulation can execute complex three-dimensional manipulations, and that the intuitive orientation of the surgeon's workstation may contribute to easier task completion.

  4. A Decline in Response Variability Improves Neural Signal Detection during Auditory Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Trapp, Gardiner; Buran, Bradley N; Sen, Kamal; Semple, Malcolm N; Sanes, Dan H

    2016-10-26

    The detection of a sensory stimulus arises from a significant change in neural activity, but a sensory neuron's response is rarely identical to successive presentations of the same stimulus. Large trial-to-trial variability would limit the central nervous system's ability to reliably detect a stimulus, presumably affecting perceptual performance. However, if response variability were to decrease while firing rate remained constant, then neural sensitivity could improve. Here, we asked whether engagement in an auditory detection task can modulate response variability, thereby increasing neural sensitivity. We recorded telemetrically from the core auditory cortex of gerbils, both while they engaged in an amplitude-modulation detection task and while they sat quietly listening to the identical stimuli. Using a signal detection theory framework, we found that neural sensitivity was improved during task performance, and this improvement was closely associated with a decrease in response variability. Moreover, units with the greatest change in response variability had absolute neural thresholds most closely aligned with simultaneously measured perceptual thresholds. Our findings suggest that the limitations imposed by response variability diminish during task performance, thereby improving the sensitivity of neural encoding and potentially leading to better perceptual sensitivity. The detection of a sensory stimulus arises from a significant change in neural activity. However, trial-to-trial variability of the neural response may limit perceptual performance. If the neural response to a stimulus is quite variable, then the response on a given trial could be confused with the pattern of neural activity generated when the stimulus is absent. Therefore, a neural mechanism that served to reduce response variability would allow for better stimulus detection. By recording from the cortex of freely moving animals engaged in an auditory detection task, we found that variability

  5. Documenting Teacher Candidates' Professional Growth through Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Suh, Jennifer; Parsons, Seth A.; Parker, Audra K.; Ramirez, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, colleges of education are responding to demands for increased accountability. The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's implementation of a performance evaluation tool during final internship that measures teacher candidates' development across four domains: Planning and Preparation,…

  6. Designing Professional Learning Tasks for Mathematics Learning Trajectories (Diseño de tareas de aprendizaje profesional para trayectorias de aprendizaje de matemáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Holt Wilson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an emerging set of learning conjectures and design principles to be used in the development of professional learning tasks that support elementary teachers’ learning of mathematics learning trajectories. We outline our theoretical perspective on teacher knowledge of learning trajectories, review the literature concerning mathematics professional learning tasks, offer a set of initial conjectures about teacher learning of learning trajectories, and articulate a set of principles to guide the design of tasks. We conclude with an example of one learning trajectory professional learning task taken from our current research project. En este artículo, presentamos un conjunto emergente de conjeturas de aprendizaje y de principios de diseño para ser empleados en el desarrollo de tareas de aprendizaje profesional que apoyan el aprendizaje de trayectorias de aprendizaje de matemáticas de maestros de primaria. Describimos brevemente nuestra perspectiva teórica sobre el conocimiento del profesor acerca de trayectorias de aprendizaje; revisamos la literatura sobre tareas de aprendizaje profesional, presentamos un conjunto de conjeturas iniciales acerca del aprendizaje del profesor sobre trayectorias de aprendizaje; y articulamos un conjunto de principios para guiar el diseño de tareas. Concluimos con un ejemplo de una tarea de aprendizaje profesional que ha sido tomada de nuestro proyecto de investigación actual.

  7. Correlations between the simulated military tasks performance and physical fitness tests at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the Correlations between the Simulated Military Tasks Performance and Physical Fitness Tests at high altitude. This research is part of a project to modernize the physical fitness test of the Colombian Army. Data collection was performed at the 13th Battalion of Instruction and Training, located 30km south of Bogota D.C., with a temperature range from 1ºC to 23ºC during the study period, and at 3100m above sea level. The sample was composed by 60 volunteers from three different platoons. The volunteers start the data collection protocol after 2 weeks of acclimation at this altitude. The main results were the identification of a high positive correlation between the 3 Assault wall in succession and the Simulated Military Tasks performance (r = 0.764, p<0.001, and a moderate negative correlation between pull-ups and the Simulated Military Tasks performance (r = -0.535, p<0.001. It can be recommended the use of the 20-consecutive overtaking of the 3 Assault wall in succession as a good way to estimate the performance in operational tasks which involve: assault walls, network of wires, military Climbing Nets, Tarzan jump among others, at high altitude.

  8. The role of spatial abilities and age in performance in an auditory computer navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Richard; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2006-01-01

    Age-related differences in spatial ability have been suggested as a mediator of age-related differences in computer-based task performance. However, the vast majority of tasks studied have primarily used a visual display (e.g., graphical user interfaces). In the current study, the relationship between spatial ability and performance in a non-visual computer-based navigation task was examined in a sample of 196 participants ranging in age from 18 to 91. Participants called into a simulated interactive voice response system and carried out a variety of transactions. They also completed measures of attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. The results showed that age-related differences in spatial ability predicted a significant amount of variance in performance in the non-visual computer task, even after controlling for other abilities. Understanding the abilities that influence performance with technology may provide insight into the source of age-related performance differences in the successful use of technology.

  9. Combined effects of attention and motivation on visual task performance: transient and sustained motivational effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Damaraju, Eswar; Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how the brain integrates motivational and attentional signals by using a neuroimaging paradigm that provided separate estimates for transient cue- and target-related signals, in addition to sustained block-related responses. Participants performed a Posner-type task in which an endogenous cue predicted target location on 70% of trials, while motivation was manipulated by varying magnitude and valence of a cash incentive linked to task performance. Our findings revealed increased detection performance (d') as a function of incentive value. In parallel, brain signals revealed that increases in absolute incentive magnitude led to cue- and target-specific response modulations that were independent of sustained state effects across visual cortex, fronto-parietal regions, and subcortical regions. Interestingly, state-like effects of incentive were observed in several of these brain regions, too, suggesting that both transient and sustained fMRI signals may contribute to task performance. For both cue and block periods, the effects of administering incentives were correlated with individual trait measures of reward sensitivity. Taken together, our findings support the notion that motivation improves behavioral performance in a demanding attention task by enhancing evoked responses across a distributed set of anatomical sites, many of which have been previously implicated in attentional processing. However, the effect of motivation was not simply additive as the impact of absolute incentive was greater during invalid than valid trials in several brain regions, possibly because motivation had a larger effect on reorienting than orienting attentional mechanisms at these sites.

  10. Combined effects of attention and motivation on visual task performance: transient and sustained motivational effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Engelmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how the brain integrates motivational and attentional signals by using a neuroimaging paradigm that provided separate estimates for transient cue- and target-related signals, in addition to sustained block-related responses. Participants performed a Posner-type task in which an endogenous cue predicted target location on 70% of trials, while motivation was manipulated by varying magnitude and valence of a cash incentive linked to task performance. Our findings revealed increased detection performance (d’ as a function of incentive value. In parallel, brain signals revealed that increases in absolute incentive magnitude led to cue- and target-specific response modulations that were independent of sustained state effects across visual cortex, fronto-parietal regions, and subcortical regions. Interestingly, state-like effects of incentive were observed in several of these brain regions, too, suggesting that both transient and sustained fMRI signals may contribute to task performance. For both cue and block periods, the effects of administering incentives were correlated with individual trait measures of reward sensitivity. Taken together, our findings support the notion that motivation improves behavioral performance in a demanding attention task by enhancing evoked responses across a distributed set of anatomical sites, many of which have been previously implicated in attentional processing. However, the effect of motivation was not simply additive as the impact of absolute incentive was greater during invalid than valid trials in several brain regions, possibly because motivation had a larger effect on reorienting than orienting attentional mechanisms at these sites.

  11. Cognitive task performance and symptoms contribute to personality abnormalities in first hospitalized schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrera, Ronald J; McCarley, Robert W; Salisbury, Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chronic schizophrenia patients have personality abnormalities and cognitive deficits that are associated with poor clinical, social, and vocational outcomes. Very few studies have examined relationships between personality and cognitive function, and chronic illness effects may have confounded those studies. In this study personality traits in clinically stable first episode schizophrenia patients (21M, 9F) and psychiatrically healthy controls (38M, 24F) were measured with the NEO-FFI, a self-report measure of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. All subjects completed the Information, Digit Span, Vocabulary, and Digit Symbol subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; and Trails A and B. Standard statistical techniques were used to quantify relationships between personality and symptom levels and/or task performance, and relative contributions of diagnosis and task performance to personality variance. Patients showed elevated mean neuroticism and openness, and reduced mean extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Task performance and negative symptoms contributed significantly and uniquely to most personality dimensions in patients. Task performance accounted for significant amounts of personality variance even after accounting for diagnosis, and it also contributed to personality variance in controls. These results suggest that cognitive deficits and negative symptoms contribute to consistently observed personality abnormalities in this disorder, and that the contribution of neuropsychological performance to personality variance may be independent of diagnostic classification. Personality abnormalities in schizophrenia may stem from the neurocognitive deficits associated with this disorder, and add to their adverse effects on social and vocational functioning. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sleep restriction and cognitive load affect performance on a simulated marksmanship task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl D; Cooper, Adam D; Merullo, Donna J; Cohen, Bruce S; Heaton, Kristin J; Claro, Pedro J; Smith, Tracey

    2017-11-24

    Sleep restriction degrades cognitive and motor performance, which can adversely impact job performance and increase the risk of accidents. Military personnel are prone to operating under sleep restriction, and previous work suggests that military marksmanship may be negatively affected under such conditions. Results of these studies, however, are mixed and have often incorporated additional stressors (e.g. energy restriction) beyond sleep restriction. Moreover, few studies have investigated how the degree of difficulty of a marksmanship task impacts performance following sleep restriction. The purpose of the current experiment was to study the effects of sleep restriction on marksmanship while minimizing the potential influence of other forms of stress. A friend-foe discrimination challenge with greater or lesser degrees of complexity (high versus low load) was used as the primary marksmanship task. Active duty Soldiers were recruited, and allowed 2 h of sleep every 24 h over a 72-h testing period. Marksmanship tasks, cognitive assessment metrics and the NASA-Task Load Index were administered daily. Results indicated that reaction times to shoot foe targets and signal friendly targets slowed over time. In addition, the ability to correctly discriminate between friend and foe targets significantly decreased in the high-cognitive-load condition over time despite shot accuracy remaining stable. The NASA-Task Load Index revealed that, although marksmanship performance degraded, participants believed their performance did not change over time. These results further characterize the consequences of sleep restriction on marksmanship performance and the perception of performance, and reinforce the importance of adequate sleep among service members when feasible. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M., E-mail: c.heemskerk@heemskerk-innovative.nl [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Eendebak, P.T. [TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (Netherlands); Schropp, G.Y.R. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Hermes, H.V. [TU Eindhoven (Netherlands); Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Magielsen, A.J. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Operators regard lack of 3D perception as primary factor hindering remote maintenance. ► Promising techniques to improve depth perception are depth gauges and stereo vision. ► First experiment shows artificial depth gauges need to be designed with care. ► Second experiment shows that stereo vision improves task performance significantly. -- Abstract: Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance. This paper discusses various techniques to improve depth perception in teleoperation, including stereo vision, head tracking, virtual camera views and depth gauges. The most promising techniques were tested. Performance metrics included time-to-complete, path analysis and operator work-load. In a first experiment, artificial depth gauges views were tested in a 1:1 scale hardware testbed with mechanical master-slave manipulators handled by experienced operators. Robust real-time image processing was achieved with marker-based objects. The simple depth gauge and graphical overlay did not significantly improve task performance. Operators commented on their view of the task being “obstructed” by the graphical overlay, and the depth gauge was judged not very informative. In a second experiment, real time tracking was combined with VR display including stereo and head tracking. While stereo was found to improve the task performance significantly over the 1 camera (mono) condition, head tracking unexpectedly did not.

  14. Effects of reaction time variability and age on brain activity during Stroop task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Angela; Luedke, Angela C; Walsh, Jeremy J; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Garcia, Angeles

    2015-09-01

    Variability in reaction time during task performance may reflect fluctuations in attention and cause reduced performance in goal-directed tasks, yet it is unclear whether the mechanisms behind this phenomenon change with age. Using fMRI, we tested young and cognitively healthy older adults with the Stroop task to determine whether aging affects the neural mechanisms underlying intra-individual reaction time variability. We found significant between-group differences in BOLD activity modulated by reaction time. In older adults, longer reaction times were associated with greater activity in frontoparietal attentional areas, while in younger adults longer reaction times were associated with greater activity in default mode network areas. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of reaction time variability change with healthy aging, reinforcing the concept of functional plasticity to maintain high cognitive function throughout the lifespan.

  15. Predicting performance on the Columbia Card Task: effects of personality characteristics, mood, and executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T

    2015-04-01

    Behavioral measures of risky decision making are frequently used by researchers and clinicians; however, most of these measures are strongly associated with personality characteristics and state mood. The present study sought to examine personality, mood, and executive function predictors of performance on a newer measure of decision making, the Columbia Card Task (CCT). Participants were 489 undergraduate students who completed either the hot or cold version of the CCT as well as measures of state mood, impulsive sensation seeking, behavioral inhibition and activation systems, and executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sort Task; Digit Span). Results indicated that performance on the CCT-cold was predicted by Wisconsin Card Sort Task errors, and Digit Span predicted the CCT-hot. In addition, significant correlations were found between the CCT information use variables and the predictor variables. Implications for the utility of the CCT as a clinical instrument and its relationship with other measures of decision making are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Physiological fitness and professional classical ballet performance: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchett, Emily A; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A

    2009-12-01

    Although classical ballet is an artistic expression through the use of the body, there is a real opportunity to improve and extend the dancer's career by simply applying sports science principles to dance training and performance. Dance training is a long process of physical, intellectual, and psychological preparation, through physical exercise, often beginning in childhood and continuing until retirement. Fitness programs, supplementary to traditional dance classes, have only recently been considered as a part of this process; it may be suggested that this cross-training has generally been avoided thus far because of tradition and a reluctance to follow principles associated with sport. Classical ballet training, rehearsal, and performance do not elicit significant stimulus to result in increased aerobic fitness levels. Therefore, dancers often demonstrate low levels of aerobic fitness even though a strong aerobic foundation is necessary to meet the required workload. Dancers have greater than average range of motion and strength at the hip joint but weaknesses in the upper body, torso, hamstrings, and quadriceps. In the past, dancers have been wary of strength training because they perceive this leads to aesthetically undesirable hypertrophy. Dancers also have low body weights and low percentage body fat. Given that training does not provide the opportunity to expend enough energy to maintain these aesthetic demands, this aesthetic demand may be met by caloric restriction, which may lead to subsequent increased injury risk. It has been hypothesized that a "fit for purpose" body can help improve performance, reduce the risk of injury, and ensure prolonged dance careers. This review aims to explore the extent to which physical fitness components relate to dance performance, in particular classical ballet.

  17. Professional performance evaluation within the Romanian administrative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina MANOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis, manifested in the entire world, highlights the need for sustained involvement of the local and regional authorities in each country, in conceiving and implementing Community policies (which already exist at European level having an essential role in implementing the economic plans achievement. This view was shared by all European Union Member States, of which Romania is part, since 2007. Therefore, the economic crisis which is reflected in the Romanian society today, requires prompt and sustained intervention by the authorities in the execution of the economic recovery plan, implying the community strategies, due to sharply budgetary expenses cut, which is found in all European countries. In order to achieve this major objective, the Romanian authorities should have qualified and properly motivated personnel through an adequate remuneration, according to the training, skills, responsibilities and especially individual performance obtained at each position, as it happens in most developed countries of the European Union. In this context, this study approaches the issues related to the performance evaluation of the public sector’s employees. Considering the fact that strengthening and developing the human resources segment is a strategic goal of the Romanian administration for the period 2008 - 2013, which will lead to modernizing it and making it more efficient (at both central and local level, the personnel performance evaluation, at the organizational level represents a fundamental activity from the human resources’ management perspective.

  18. Serial or overlapping processing in multitasking as individual preference: Effects of stimulus preview on task switching and concurrent dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, Jessika; Manzey, Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and performance consequences of multitasking has long been in focus of scientific interest, but has been investigated by three research lines more or less isolated from each other. Studies in the fields of the psychological refractory period, task switching, and interruptions have scored with a high experimental control, but usually do not give participants many degrees of freedom to self-organize the processing of two concurrent tasks. Individual strategies as well as their impact on efficiency have mainly been neglected. Self-organized multitasking has been investigated in the field of human factors, but primarily with respect to overall performance without detailed investigation of how the tasks are processed. The current work attempts to link aspects of these research lines. All of them, explicitly or implicitly, provide hints about an individually preferred type of task organization, either more cautious trying to work strictly serially on only one task at a time or more daring with a focus on task interleaving and, if possible, also partially overlapping (parallel) processing. In two experiments we investigated different strategies of task organization and their impact on efficiency using a new measure of overall multitasking efficiency. Experiment 1 was based on a classical task switching paradigm with two classification tasks, but provided one group of participants with a stimulus preview of the task to switch to next, enabling at least partial overlapping processing. Indeed, this preview led to a reduction of switch costs and to an increase of dual-task efficiency, but only for a subgroup of participants. They obviously exploited the possibility of overlapping processing, while the others worked mainly serially. While task-sequence was externally guided in the first experiment, Experiment 2 extended the approach by giving the participants full freedom of task organization in concurrent performance of the same tasks. Fine

  19. Exposure to Unsolvable Anagrams Impairs Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Agorku, Janet D; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Recent research indicates that external manipulations, such as stress or mood induction, can affect decision-making abilities. In the current study, we investigated whether the exposure to an unsolvable task affected subsequent performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which they were exposed to unsolvable anagrams (n = 20), or a condition in which they worked on solvable anagrams (n = 22). Afterwards, all participants played the Iowa Gambling Task, a prominent task that measures decision making under uncertain conditions with no explicit rules for gains and losses. In this task, it is essential to process feedback from previous decisions. The results demonstrated that participants who worked on unsolvable anagrams made more disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task than the other participants. In addition, a significant gender effect was observed: Males who worked on unsolvable anagrams made a more disadvantageous decisions than the other male participants. Females who worked on unsolvable anagrams also made more disadvantageous decision than the other female participants, but differences were small and not significant. We conclude that the exposure to unsolvable anagrams induced the experience of uncontrollability which can elicit stress and learned helplessness. Stress and learned helplessness might have reduced the ability to learn from the given feedback, particularly in male participants. We assume that in real life, uncontrollable challenges that last longer than a single experimental manipulation can affect decision making severely, at least in males.

  20. Exposure to Unsolvable Anagrams Impairs Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Starcke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that external manipulations, such as stress or mood induction, can affect decision-making abilities. In the current study, we investigated whether the exposure to an unsolvable task affected subsequent performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which they were exposed to unsolvable anagrams (n = 20, or a condition in which they worked on solvable anagrams (n = 22. Afterwards, all participants played the Iowa Gambling Task, a prominent task that measures decision making under uncertain conditions with no explicit rules for gains and losses. In this task, it is essential to process feedback from previous decisions. The results demonstrated that participants who worked on unsolvable anagrams made more disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task than the other participants. In addition, a significant gender effect was observed: Males who worked on unsolvable anagrams made a more disadvantageous decisions than the other male participants. Females who worked on unsolvable anagrams also made more disadvantageous decision than the other female participants, but differences were small and not significant. We conclude that the exposure to unsolvable anagrams induced the experience of uncontrollability which can elicit stress and learned helplessness. Stress and learned helplessness might have reduced the ability to learn from the given feedback, particularly in male participants. We assume that in real life, uncontrollable challenges that last longer than a single experimental manipulation can affect decision making severely, at least in males.

  1. Psychomotor Vigilance Task Performance During and Following Chronic Sleep Restriction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurveilher, Samuel; Bush, Jacquelyn E.; Rusak, Benjamin; Eskes, Gail A.; Semba, Kazue

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic sleep restriction (CSR) impairs sustained attention in humans, as commonly assessed with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). To further investigate the mechanisms underlying performance deficits during CSR, we examined the effect of CSR on performance on a rat version of PVT (rPVT). Design: Adult male rats were trained on a rPVT that required them to press a bar when they detected irregularly presented, brief light stimuli, and were then tested during CSR. CSR consisted of 100 or 148 h of continuous cycles of 3-h sleep deprivation (using slowly rotating wheels) alternating with a 1-h sleep opportunity (3/1 protocol). Measurements and Results: After 28 h of CSR, the latency of correct responses and the percentages of lapses and omissions increased, whereas the percentage of correct responses decreased. Over 52–148 h of CSR, all performance measures showed partial or nearly complete recovery, and were at baseline levels on the first or second day after CSR. There were large interindividual differences in the magnitude of performance impairment during CSR, suggesting differential vulnerability to the effects of sleep loss. Wheel-running controls showed no changes in performance. Conclusions: A 28-h period of the 3/1 chronic sleep restriction (CSR) protocol disrupted performance on a sustained attention task in rats, as sleep deprivation does in humans. Performance improved after longer periods of CSR, suggesting allostatic adaptation, contrary to some reports of progressive deterioration in psychomotor vigilance task performance during CSR in humans. However, as observed in humans, there were individual differences among rats in the vulnerability of their attention performance to CSR. Citation: Deurveilher S, Bush JE, Rusak B, Eskes GA, Semba K. Psychomotor vigilance task performance during and following chronic sleep restriction in rats. SLEEP 2015;38(4):515–528. PMID:25515100

  2. Hydrocortisone Counteracts Adverse Stress Effects on Dual-Task Performance by Improving Visual Sensory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckesser, Lisa J; Alexander, Nina C; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Mennigen, Eva; Miller, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The impact of acute stress on executive processes is commonly attributed to glucocorticoid-induced disruptions of the pFC. However, the occipital cortex seems to express a higher density of glucocorticoid receptors. Consequently, acute stress effects on executive processes could as well be mediated by glucocorticoid (e.g., cortisol)-induced alterations of visual sensory processes. To investigate this alternative route of stress action by demarcating the effects of acute stress and cortisol on executive from those on visual sensory processes, 40 healthy young men completed a standardized stress induction (i.e., the Trier Social Stress Test) and control protocol in two consecutive sessions. In addition, they received either a placebo or hydrocortisone (0.12-mg/kg bodyweight) pill and processed a dual and a partial report task to assess their executive and visual sensory processing abilities, respectively. Hydrocortisone administration improved both partial report and dual-task performance as indicated by increased response accuracies and/or decreased RTs. Intriguingly, the hydrocortisone-induced increase in dual-task performance was completely mediated by its impact on partial report performance (i.e., visual sensory processes). Moreover, RT measures in both tasks shared approximately 26% of variance, which was only in part attributable to hydrocortisone administration (ΔR(2) = 8%). By contrast, acute stress selectively impaired dual-task performance (i.e., executive processes), presumably through an alternative route of action. In summary, the present results suggest that cortisol secretion (as mimicked by hydrocortisone administration) may counteract adverse residual stress effects on executive processes by improving visual sensory processes (e.g., the maintenance and amplification of task-relevant sensory information).

  3. Treatment with electromagnetic fields improves dual-task performance (talking while walking) in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandyk, R

    1997-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with an increased risk of falling resulting from visual disturbances, difficulties with gait and balance, apraxia of gait and peripheral neuropathy. These factors often interact synergistically to compromise the patient's gait stability. It has long been recognized that walking involves a cognitive component and that simultaneous cognitive and motor operations (dual-task) such as talking while walking may interfere with normal ambulation. Talking while walking reflects an example of a dual-task which is frequently impaired in MS patients. Impaired dual-task performance during walking may compromise the patient's gait and explain why in some circumstances, MS patients unexpectedly lose their balance and fall. Frontal lobe dysfunction, which commonly occurs in MS patients, may disrupt dual-task performance and increase the risk of falling in these patients. This report concerns a 36 old man with remitting-progressive MS with an EDSS score of 5.5 who experienced marked increase in spasticity in the legs and trunk and worsening of his gait and balance, occasionally resulting in falling, when talking while walking. His gait and balance improved dramatically after he received two successive transcranial treatments, each of 45 minutes, with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of 7.5 picotesla flux density. Simultaneously, there was improvement in dual-task performance to the extent that talking while walking did not adversely affect his ambulation. In addition, neuropsychological testing revealed an almost 5-fold increase in word output on the Thurstone's Word-Fluency Test, which is sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction. It is suggested that facilitation of dual-task performance during ambulation contributes to the overall improvement of gait and balance observed in MS patients receiving transcranial treatment with AC pulsed EMFs.

  4. Assessment of Spatial Navigation and Docking Performance During Simulated Rover Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Dean, S. L.; De Dios, Y. E.; Moore, S. T.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Following long-duration exploration transits, pressurized rovers will enhance surface mobility to explore multiple sites across Mars and other planetary bodies. Multiple rovers with docking capabilities are envisioned to expand the range of exploration. However, adaptive changes in sensorimotor and cognitive function may impair the crew s ability to safely navigate and perform docking tasks shortly after transition to the new gravitoinertial environment. The primary goal of this investigation is to quantify post-flight decrements in spatial navigation and docking performance during a rover simulation. METHODS: Eight crewmembers returning from the International Space Station will be tested on a motion simulator during four pre-flight and three post-flight sessions over the first 8 days following landing. The rover simulation consists of a serial presentation of discrete tasks to be completed within a scheduled 10 min block. The tasks are based on navigating around a Martian outpost spread over a 970 sq m terrain. Each task is subdivided into three components to be performed as quickly and accurately as possible: (1) Perspective taking: Subjects use a joystick to indicate direction of target after presentation of a map detailing current orientation and location of the rover with the task to be performed. (2) Navigation: Subjects drive the rover to the desired location while avoiding obstacles. (3) Docking: Fine positioning of the rover is required to dock with another object or align a camera view. Overall operator proficiency will be based on how many tasks the crewmember can complete during the 10 min time block. EXPECTED RESULTS: Functionally relevant testing early post-flight will develop evidence regarding the limitations to early surface operations and what countermeasures are needed. This approach can be easily adapted to a wide variety of simulated vehicle designs to provide sensorimotor assessments for other operational and civilian populations.

  5. Methylphenidate decreased the amount of glucose needed by the brain to perform a cognitive task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamine as cognitive enhancers by the general public is increasing and is controversial. It is still unclear how they work or why they improve performance in some individuals but impair it in others. To test the hypothesis that stimulants enhance signal to noise ratio of neuronal activity and thereby reduce cerebral activity by increasing efficiency, we measured the effects of methylphenidate on brain glucose utilization in healthy adults. We measured brain glucose metabolism (using Positron Emission Tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in 23 healthy adults who were tested at baseline and while performing an accuracy-controlled cognitive task (numerical calculations given with and without methylphenidate (20 mg, oral. Sixteen subjects underwent a fourth scan with methylphenidate but without cognitive stimulation. Compared to placebo methylphenidate significantly reduced the amount of glucose utilized by the brain when performing the cognitive task but methylphenidate did not affect brain metabolism when given without cognitive stimulation. Whole brain metabolism when the cognitive task was given with placebo increased 21% whereas with methylphenidate it increased 11% (50% less. This reflected both a decrease in magnitude of activation and in the regions activated by the task. Methylphenidate's reduction of the metabolic increases in regions from the default network (implicated in mind-wandering was associated with improvement in performance only in subjects who activated these regions when the cognitive task was given with placebo. These results corroborate prior findings that stimulant medications reduced the magnitude of regional activation to a task and in addition document a "focusing" of the activation. This effect may be beneficial when neuronal resources are diverted (i.e., mind-wandering or impaired (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but it could be detrimental when

  6. Clinical predictors of the optimal spectacle correction for comfort performing desktop tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T; Davenport, Byrd; Rentz, Jodi; Miller, Amy; Benson, William

    2008-11-01

    The best strategy for spectacle correction of presbyopia for near tasks has not been determined. Thirty volunteers over the age of 40 years were tested for subjective accommodative amplitude, pupillary size, fusional vergence, interpupillary distance, arm length, preferred working distance, near and far visual acuity and preferred reading correction in the phoropter and trial frames. Subjects performed near tasks (reading, writing and counting change) using various spectacle correction strengths. Predictors of the correction maximising near task comfort were determined by multivariable linear regression. The mean age was 54.9 years (range 43 to 71) and 40 per cent had diabetes. Significant predictors of the most comfortable addition in univariate analyses were age (p0.15). The preferred addition wearing trial frames holding a reading target at a distance selected by the patient was the only independent predictor. Excluding this variable, distance visual acuity was predictive independent of age or near vision wearing distance correction. The distance selected for task performance was predicted by vision wearing distance correction at near and at distance. Multivariable linear regression can be used to generate tables based on distance visual acuity and age or near vision wearing distance correction to determine tentative near spectacle addition. Final spectacle correction for desktop tasks can be estimated by subjective refraction with trial frames.

  7. Household task demands for quiet and focused behavior facilitate performance by ADHD youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Guimarães Mendes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the associations among symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD in children and adolescents’ performance in household tasks and assistance provided by caregivers. Parents of children from 6 to 14 years old with ADHD (n = 67 were interviewed with the Children Helping Out: Responsibilities, Expectations, and Supports (CHORES instrument. Significant correlations were found between symptoms of ODD and assistance in self-care tasks (r = −0.31; p = 0.01; symptoms of hyperactivity correlated with assistance in self-care (r = −0.30, p = 0.01; and family-care (r = −0.25, p = 0.04 tasks. Age was directly associated with the number of tasks performed by children and inversely related to the assistance provided by caregivers. A greater number of ODD symptoms resulted in more household assistance from caregivers. Characteristics of ODD symptoms, such as disobedience and hostility in the face of authority, may limit these children in accessing household tasks by their own initiative, requiring assistance from caregivers.

  8. Effect of Assessment Task and Letter Writing Ability on Preschool Children's Spelling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia; Apel, Kenn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether spelling performance in preschool children varied as a function of the method of assessment and letter writing ability. The authors manipulated the motoric element and memory demands of the task by having children spell single words using letter tiles, orally, and by writing. The authors also…

  9. Interindividual Differences in Learning Performance: The Effects of Age, Intelligence, and Strategic Task Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Altgassen, Mareike

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as strategic task approaches as potential sources of age-related differences in adult learning performance. Therefore, 45 young and 45 old adults were asked to learn pictured objects. Overall, young participants outperformed old participants in this learning test. However,…

  10. A meta-analysis of the impact of situationally induced achievement goals on task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to meta-analyze studies which experimentally induced an achieve- ment goal state to examine its causal effect on the individual’s performance at the task at hand, and to investigate the moderator effects of feedback anticipation and time pressure. The data set

  11. Performance of Children with Developmental Dyslexia on High and Low Topological Entropy Artificial Grammar Learning Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Pesia; Kahta, Shani; Sasson, Ayelet; Schiff, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Graph complexity as measured by topological entropy has been previously shown to affect performance on artificial grammar learning tasks among typically developing children. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of graph complexity on implicit sequential learning among children with developmental dyslexia. Our goal was to determine…

  12. In search of design principles for developing digital learning & performance support for a student design task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Lars; Van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Henny; McKenney, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of

  13. In search of design principles for developing digital learning & performance support for a student design task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Lars; van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Hendrik H.; McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of

  14. Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders on the Dimension-Change Card Sort Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Radonovich, Krestin J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Holtzclaw, Tia N.; Bodfish, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders have been conceptualized to reflect impaired executive functions. In the present study, we investigated the performance of 6-17-year-old children with and without an autism spectrum disorder on a dimension-change card sort task that explicitly indicated sorting rules on every trial.…

  15. Effects of environmental enrichment on cognitive performance of pigs in a spatial holeboard discrimination task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimberg-Henrici, Charlotte G E; Vermaak, Paul; Elizabeth Bolhuis, J; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, F Josef

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on the cognitive performance of female conventional farm (growing) pigs in a spatial holeboard task. Ten pairs of littermates matched for weight were used. From each litter, one piglet was randomly assigned to a barren environment; the

  16. Individual differences and the effects of an information aid in performance of a fault diagnosis task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Verduyn, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that investigated the performance of operators in a fault diagnosis task. Naval engineers working in the Ship's Control Centre (SCC) on board of frigates of the Royal Netherlands Navy were asked to solve a number of unfamiliar fault problems. In the first experiment, it

  17. Relations among Parental Causal Attributions and Children's Math Performance and Task Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõeväli, Paula-Karoliina; Kikas, Eve

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the cross-lagged relations between parental causal attributions of children's math success to children's ability, parental help, children's math performance and task persistence. A total of 735 children, their mothers, fathers and teachers were assessed twice--at the end of the second and the third grades.…

  18. Teachers' Ability and Help Attributions and Children's Math Performance and Task Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõeväli, Paula-Karoliina; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the reciprocal relationships between teachers' causal attributions and children's math performance and task persistence. In total, 760 elementary school children and their teachers participated in this study. The children were tested in math twice, at the end of the second and third grades. At both time…

  19. Autonomy and Task Performance: Explaining the Impact of Grades on Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulfrey, Caroline; Darnon, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The use of grades to motivate constitutes an unresolved theoretical controversy. In 2 experiments carried out with different age groups and academic tracks, a standard-grade condition was compared with a condition in which differential scoring engendered higher grades and with a no-grade condition. The relative power of task performance and task…

  20. The Impact of Feedback Frequency on Learning and Task Performance: Challenging the "More Is Better" Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chak Fu; DeRue, D. Scott; Karam, Elizabeth P.; Hollenbeck, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on feedback frequency suggests that more frequent feedback improves learning and task performance (Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984). Drawing from resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989), we challenge the "more is better" assumption and propose that frequent feedback can overwhelm an individual's cognitive resource…

  1. Do absorption and realistic distraction influence performance of component task surgical procedure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluyter, J.R.; Buzink, S.N.; Rutkowski, A.F.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Surgeons perform complex tasks while exposed to multiple distracting sources that may increase stress in the operating room (e.g., music, conversation, and unadapted use of sophisticated technologies). This study aimed to examine whether such realistic social and technological

  2. Emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks: a comparison between four rat strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staay, van der F.J.; Schuurman, T.; Reenen, van C.G.; Korte, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Cognitive function might be affected by the subjects' emotional reactivity. We assessed whether behavior in different tests of emotional reactivity is correlated with performance in aversively motivated learning tasks, using four strains of rats generally considered to have a different

  3. Evaluation of an Adaptive Automation Trigger Based on Task Performance, Priority, and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    physiological state, or some mixture (Parasuraman, Barnes & Cosenzo, 2007). Of these adaptive triggers, performance-based adaptive approaches...manipulation of task LOA ( ORCA ; Johnson, Leen, & Goldberg, 2007). This Adaptive Levels of Automation (ALOA, Version 3.0) test bed also incorporates the ORCA

  4. Measuring Teaching Ability with the Rasch Model by Scaling a Series of Product and Performance Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Judy R.; Lang, William Steve

    2004-01-01

    Rasch measurement can provide a much needed solution to scaling teacher ability. Typically, decisions about teacher ability are based on dichotomously scored certification tests focused on knowledge of content or pedagogy. This paper presents early developmental work of a partial credit teacher ability scale of 42 tasks (performances and…

  5. The Effects Of Expectations Upon Task Performance As Moderated By Levels Of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raben, Chalres S.; Klimoski, Richard J.

    1973-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of expectations upon task performance in a simulated work environment. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, individuals of high and low self-esteem responded to either a favorable or unfavorable expectation. The results were discussed relative to self-consistency formulations and implications for organizational behavior…

  6. Business administration postgraduates’ authentic task performance in the transition from university to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, Monique; Van der Klink, Marcel; Boshuizen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Bijker, M. M., Van der Klink, M. R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012). Business administration postgraduates’ authentic task performance in the transition from university to work. Paper presented at the EARLI-SIG14 Conference August 22-24, Antwerp, Belgium.

  7. Crowded task performance in visually impaired children : Comparing magnifier and large print

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F. Nienke; Verezen, Cornelis A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Rens, Ger; Cox, Ralf F. A.

    This study compares the influence of two different types of magnification (magnifier versus large print) on crowded near vision task performance. Fifty-eight visually impaired children aged 4-8 years participated. Participants were divided in two groups, matched on age and near visual acuity (NVA):

  8. THE CAPABILITIES USING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING SYSTEM AUTOCAD IN TEACHING TO PERFORM GRAPHICS TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Krasnyuk

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional design possibilities of the AutoCAD system for performing graphic tasks are presented in the article. On the basis of the studies conducted the features of application of computer-aided design system are noted and the methods allowing to decrease considerably the quantity of errors at making the drawings are offered.

  9. Midwives Performance in Early Detection of Growth and Development Irregularities of Children Based on Task Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sri; Nursalam; Hargono, Rachmat; Susilaningrum, Rekawati

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance of midwives based on the task commitment. This was an observational analytic with cross sectional approach. Multistage random sampling was used to determine the public health center, proportional random sampling to selected participants. The samples were 222 midwives in the public health…

  10. Isolating the Neural Mechanisms of Interference During Continuous Multisensory Dual-task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    waveforms. Psychophysiology, 39, 236–245. Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., & Crouch, D. J. (2006). A comparison of the cell phone driver and the drunk driver...related potentials and secondary task performance during simulated driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 40, 1–7. Woldorff, M. G., Gallen, C. C

  11. Investigating Student Choices in Performing Higher-Level Comprehension Tasks Using TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Francesca; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes a first experiment in the use of TED talks and open tagging exercises to train higher-level comprehension skills, and of automatic logging of the student's actions to investigate the student choices while performing analytical tasks. The experiment took advantage of an interactive learning platform--LearnWeb--that…

  12. Performance-Based Task Assessment of Higher-Order Proficiencies in Redesigned STEM High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Glennie, Elizabeth; Li, Songze

    2017-01-01

    This study explored student abilities in applying conceptual knowledge when presented with structured performance tasks. Specifically, the study gauged proficiency in higher-order applications of students enrolled in earth and environmental science or biology. The student sample was drawn from a Redesigned STEM high school model where a tested…

  13. The effects of physical threat on team processes during complex task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Vogelaar, A.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Teams have become the norm for operating in dangerous and complex situations. To investigate how physical threat affects team performance, 27 threeperson teams engaged in a complex planning and problem-solving task, either under physical threat or under normal conditions. Threat consisted of the

  14. Investigating Sentence Processing and Language Segmentation in Explaining Children's Performance on a Sentence-Span Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Misra, Maya; Miller, Carol; Poll, Gerard H.; Park, Ji Sook

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with poor language abilities tend to perform poorly on verbal working memory tasks. This result has been interpreted as evidence that limitations in working memory capacity may interfere with the development of a mature linguistic system. However, it is possible that language abilities, such as the efficiency of sentence…

  15. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Language Learners' Writing Task Representation and Its Effect on Written Performance in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Gholam Reza; Pourghasemian, Hossein; Jalali, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The present study attempts to give an account of how students represent writing task in an EAP course. Further, the study is intended to discover if learners' mental representation of writing would contribute to their written performance. During a 16-week term, students were instructed to practice writing as a problem solving activity. At almost…

  17. Unwanted effects in aiming actions: The relationship between gaze behavior and performance in golf putting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsch, O.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Bakker, F.C.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Instructions to avoid an action may increase the tendency to engage in the action (ironic effects) or cause an undesirable increase in the opposing action (overcompensation). The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between gaze behavior and performance in a golf putting task

  18. Implementation of a Performance Task for Developing the Value of Love of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktepe, Vedat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the love of nature performance task on the opinions and attitudes of 4th grade primary school students at the Science and Art center towards their value of love of nature. The mixed method was used by means of both quantitative and qualitative research models. The experimental group…

  19. How Are Task Reflexivity and Intercultural Sensitivity Related to the Academic Performance of MBA Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities--task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It…

  20. The effect of dynamic workstations on the performance of various computer and office-based tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burford, E.M.; Botter, J.; Commissaris, D.; Könemann, R.; Hiemstra-Van Mastrigt, S.; Ellegast, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different workstations, conventional and dynamic, on different types of performance measures for several different office and computer based task was investigated in this research paper. The two dynamic workstations assessed were the Lifespan Treadmill Desk and the RightAngle

  1. Task and person-focused leadership behaviors and team performance : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceri-Booms, Meltem; Curseu, P.L.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a meta-analytic review of the relationship between person and task oriented leader behaviors, on the one hand, and team performance, on the other hand. The results, based on 89 independent samples, show a moderate positive (ρ=.33) association between both types of

  2. Performance of a visuomotor walking task in an augmented reality training setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, Juliet A.M.; Choi, Julia T.; Buurke, Jaap H.; Rietman, Johan S.; Reenalda, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Visual cues can be used to train walking patterns. Here, we studied the performance and learning capacities of healthy subjects executing a high-precision visuomotor walking task, in an augmented reality training set-up. A beamer was used to project visual stepping targets on the walking surface of

  3. Poor Performance on Serial Visual Tasks in Persons with Reading Disabilities: Impaired Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…

  4. Effects of Two Practice Style Formats on Fifth Grade Students' Motor Skill Performance and Task Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoupis, Constantine C.; Vagenas, George

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two teaching formats that fall under the canopy of Mosston and Ashworth's (2008) practice style, on fifth grade students' motor skill performance and task engagement. Both formats are also known as station teaching or learning centers. In the teacher-rotated format (TR), the teacher decides the amount of time…

  5. Interindividual differences in learning performance: The effects of age, intelligence, and strategic task approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliegel, M.; Altgassen, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as strategic task approaches as potential sources of age-related differences in adult learning performance. Therefore, 45 young and 45 old adults were asked to learn pictured objects. Overall, young participants outperformed

  6. Effects of "Game" versus "Test" Portrayal on Performance of a Complex Cognitive Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanos, Spyros D.

    1979-01-01

    High and low academic achievers from each of two grades, fourth and seventh, were assigned to one of two experimental conditions. Some were told they were going to take a test. Others were told they would play a game. Findings suggest that game task-definition does not always enhance performance. (Author/BEF)

  7. Phonological and Executive Working Memory in L2 Task-Based Speech Planning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study sets out to explore the distinctive roles played by two working memory (WM) components in various aspects of L2 task-based speech planning and performance. A group of 40 post-intermediate proficiency level Chinese EFL learners took part in the empirical study. Following the tenets and basic principles of the…

  8. Impaired task switching performance in children with dyslexia but not in children with autism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Simon, S.; Ringlever, L.; Kalcik, D.; Groen, W.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    Problems with cognitive control in both autism and dyslexia have already been reported in different studies. The present study specifically examined task-switching performance in children with autism and dyslexia. For this purpose, a multiple-trial paradigm was used with cues for colour- and

  9. Impaired task switching performance in children with dyslexia but not in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Simon, S.; Ringlever, L.; Kalcik, D.; Groen, W.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Bekkering, H.

    2010-01-01

    Problems with cognitive control in both autism and dyslexia have already been reported in different studies. The present study specifically examined task-switching performance in children with autism and dyslexia. For this purpose, a multiple-trial paradigm was used with cues for colour- and

  10. Age Differences in Speech Motor Performance on a Novel Speech Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadagopan, Neeraja; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study was aimed at characterizing age-related changes in speech motor performance on a nonword repetition task as a function of practice and nonword length and complexity. Method: Nonword repetition accuracy, lip aperture coordination, and nonword production durations were

  11. Female and male pigs' performance in a spatial holeboard and judgment bias task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Sanne; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2017-01-01

    Studies of the cognitive abilities of pigs are increasing in number, due to their relevance for the fields of animal welfare and biomedical research. While both female and male pigs have been used in cognitive tasks, possible sex differences in performance have not yet received extensive attention.

  12. Evoked Potentials in Motor Cortical Local Field Potentials Reflect Task Timing and Behavioral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confais, Joachim; Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; Diesmann, Markus; Riehle, Alexa

    2010-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are observed in motor cortical local field potentials (LFPs) during movement execution (movement-related potentials [MRPs]) and in response to relevant visual cues (visual evoked potentials [VEPs]). Motor cortical EPs may be directionally selective, but little is known concerning their relation to other aspects of motor behavior, such as task timing and performance. We recorded LFPs in motor cortex of two monkeys during performance of a precued arm-reaching task. A time cue at the start of each trial signaled delay duration and thereby the pace of the task and the available time for movement preparation. VEPs and MRPs were strongly modulated by the delay duration, VEPs being systematically larger in short-delay trials and MRPs larger in long-delay trials. Despite these systematic modulations related to the task timing, directional selectivity was similar in short and long trials. The behavioral reaction time was positively correlated with MRP size and negatively correlated with VEP size, within sessions. In addition, the behavioral performance improved across sessions, in parallel with a slow decrease in the size of VEPs and MRPs. Our results clearly show the strong influence of the behavioral context and performance on motor cortical population activity during movement preparation and execution. PMID:20884766

  13. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  14. The Effects of Alternative Flowcharting Techniques on Performance on Procedural Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Timothy L.; Quinn, James

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the effects of flowcharts utilizing maplike symbols on performer efficiency in completing a complex procedural task. The effectiveness of instructional flowcharts is discussed; map learning is examined; and data on response times for three presentation formats (i.e., map, flowchart, and list) and four levels of…

  15. Performance on two Reasoning Tasks in Relation to Intelligence, Divergence and Interference Proneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate performance on two reasoning tasks extensively studied by experimental psychologists (Wason and Johnson-Laird, 1972), to that on three mental tests, namely, the AH 5, Uses of Objects and the Stroop test. (Author)

  16. A Bayesian Network Approach to Modeling Learning Progressions and Task Performance. CRESST Report 776

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Patti; Rutstein, Daisy Wise; Mislevy, Robert J.; Liu, Junhui; Choi, Younyoung; Levy, Roy; Crawford, Aaron; DiCerbo, Kristen E.; Chappel, Kristina; Behrens, John T.

    2010-01-01

    A major issue in the study of learning progressions (LPs) is linking student performance on assessment tasks to the progressions. This report describes the challenges faced in making this linkage using Bayesian networks to model LPs in the field of computer networking. The ideas are illustrated with exemplar Bayesian networks built on Cisco…

  17. Attention, spatial integration, and the tail of response time distributions in Stroop task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    A few studies have examined selective attention in Stroop task performance through ex-Gaussian analyses of response time (RT) distributions. It has remained unclear whether the tail of the RT distribution in vocal responding reflects spatial integration of relevant and irrelevant attributes, as

  18. Frontopolar cortex and decision-making efficiency: comparing brain activity of experts with different professional background during an exploration-exploitation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureiro-Martínez, Daniella; Canessa, Nicola; Brusoni, Stefano; Zollo, Maurizio; Hare, Todd; Alemanno, Federica; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2014-01-01

    An optimal balance between efficient exploitation of available resources and creative exploration of alternatives is critical for adaptation and survival. Previous studies associated these behavioral drives with, respectively, the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system and frontopolar-intraparietal networks. We study the activation of these systems in two age and gender-matched groups of experienced decision-makers differing in prior professional background, with the aim to understand the neural bases of individual differences in decision-making efficiency (performance divided by response time). We compare brain activity of entrepreneurs (who currently manage the organization they founded based on their venture idea) and managers (who are constantly involved in making strategic decisions but have no venture experience) engaged in a gambling-task assessing exploitative vs. explorative decision-making. Compared with managers, entrepreneurs showed higher decision-making efficiency, and a stronger activation in regions of frontopolar cortex (FPC) previously associated with explorative choice. Moreover, activity across a network of regions previously linked to explore/exploit tradeoffs explained individual differences in choice efficiency. These results suggest new avenues for the study of individual differences in the neural antecedents of efficient decision-making. PMID:24478664

  19. Frontopolar cortex and decision-making efficiency: comparing brain activity of experts with different professional background during an exploration-exploitation task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella eLaureiro-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal balance between efficient exploitation of available resources and creative exploration of alternatives is critical for adaptation and survival. Previous studies associated these behavioral drives with, respectively, the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system and frontopolar-intraparietal networks. We study the activation of these systems in two age and gender-matched groups of experienced decision-makers differing in prior professional background, with the aim to understand the neural bases of individual differences in decision-making efficiency (performance divided by response time. We compare brain activity of entrepreneurs (who currently manage the organization they founded based on their venture idea and managers (who are constantly involved in making strategic decisions but have no venture experience engaged in a gambling-task assessing exploitative vs. explorative decision-making. Compared with managers, entrepreneurs showed higher decision-making efficiency, and a stronger activation in regions of frontopolar cortex previously associated with explorative choice. Moreover, activity across a network of regions previously linked to explore/exploit tradeoffs explained individual differences in choice efficiency. These results suggest new avenues for the study of individual differences in the neural antecedents of efficient decision-making.

  20. Trait anxiety modulates brain activity during performance of verbal fluency tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eGawda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter ‘k’, ‘f’, verbs, ‘animals’, ‘vehicles’, ‘joy’ and ‘fear’. The results of 35 subjects (whole sample, and 17 subjects (9 men, 8 women selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety.