WorldWideScience

Sample records for professional-provides expert information

  1. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  2. What Kind of Information does an HCI expert want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yssing, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Working with usability techniques, with focus on how a given technique enables data capture made us ask the question: What kind of information is it an HCI expert want from the user when conducting a usability test? We answer the question by discussing two techniques both relying...... on concurrent data. Think Aloud is one of the most frequently used techniques and almost an institution in itself. Eye-tracking is new in usability testing and still at an experimental level in HCI. We reflect critically upon the two obtrusive techniques. We discuss the usability of concurrent data capture......, suggesting participatory analysis and retrospective verbalisation as a possible step in usability testing. Keywords Concurrent data, usability test, Think Aloud, Eye-tracking, mind, participatory analysis and retrospective verbalisation...

  3. Processes in construction of failure management expert systems from device design information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Lance, Nick

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes the tasks and problem solving methods used by an engineer in constructing a failure management expert system from design information about the device to te diagnosed. An expert test engineer developed a trouble-shooting expert system based on device design information and experience with similar devices, rather than on specific expert knowledge gained from operating the device or troubleshooting its failures. The construction of the expert system was intensively observed and analyzed. This paper characterizes the knowledge, tasks, methods, and design decisions involved in constructing this type of expert system, and makes recommendations concerning tools for aiding and automating construction of such systems.

  4. [Study on Information Extraction of Clinic Expert Information from Hospital Portals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanpeng; Dong, Jiancheng; Qian, Danmin; Geng, Xingyun; Wu, Huiqun; Wang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Clinic expert information provides important references for residents in need of hospital care. Usually, such information is hidden in the deep web and cannot be directly indexed by search engines. To extract clinic expert information from the deep web, the first challenge is to make a judgment on forms. This paper proposes a novel method based on a domain model, which is a tree structure constructed by the attributes of search interfaces. With this model, search interfaces can be classified to a domain and filled in with domain keywords. Another challenge is to extract information from the returned web pages indexed by search interfaces. To filter the noise information on a web page, a block importance model is proposed. The experiment results indicated that the domain model yielded a precision 10.83% higher than that of the rule-based method, whereas the block importance model yielded an F₁ measure 10.5% higher than that of the XPath method.

  5. Information fusion across expert groups with dependent and independent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Victor M.; Xia, Shan; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2009-04-01

    Predicting a single agency's effectiveness to reduce the consequences of a malicious event is a complex problem. It is even more complex to predict the overall effectiveness of a group of agencies considering the possible interdependency of their portfolio of actions. However, this is an essential task in disaster management arena. This work proposes a method to fuse individual effectiveness provided by subject matter experts, considering the dependency among agencies, to predict the holistic effectiveness. It can be applied to agency groups that are dependent, partially dependent, or completely independent. Simulation results illustrate the method.

  6. Integrating Information from Multiple Sources: Expert Decision Making Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    in this procedural and student record sections, this format required a approach to information organization , the clusters of search information...Efficiency Ratio task measures combined to evaluate the effect of 0 48 0 07 0.47 009e 058eO188 information organization of decision making ease of...step I in the procedure. We have seen that an information organization scheme based on procedural knowledge (Condition C) can DISCUSSION facilitate

  7. Timing of in situ visual information pick-up that differentiates expert and near-expert anticipation in a complex motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Simon M; Müller, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The timing of visual information pick-up for visual anticipation was examined by comparing the capability of multiple skill groups, expert and near-expert karate athletes and novices, to block attacks using an in situ temporal occlusion paradigm. Participants stood facing a karate opponent and then attempted to block attacks (kicks and punches), whilst their vision of attacks was occluded: (a) prior to onset of opponent motion (O1), (b) after preparatory head movement (O2), and (c) after initiation of the attacking motion (O3). A no occlusion control condition provided complete vision of attacks (O4). Results revealed that expert anticipation was not significantly different to that of near-experts at O1, but was significantly different to the other group across O2-O4. Expert anticipation, however, was significantly above chance across all occlusion conditions, but near-experts performed above chance at O3 and O4, whilst novices were better than chance at O4. Unexpectedly, unique evidence was found that expert anticipation could be differentiated from near-expert anticipation in the earliest occlusion condition, where it was found that only experts were capable of using visual information from a static opponent to anticipate and block attacks above chance. The findings further understanding of expert visual anticipation to guide motor skills beyond existing expert-novice comparisons.

  8. Expertise in unexpected places: Children's acceptance of information from gender counter-stereotypical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseovski, Janet J; Hughes, Chelsea; Miller, Stephanie E

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children's willingness to accept novel information from expert informants with nontraditional gender role interests. Four- to 8-year-olds heard conflicting information about traditionally feminine or masculine domains from a gender counter-stereotypical expert (e.g., a boy with expertise in ballet) and a layperson of the other gender (e.g., a girl with little knowledge about ballet). Participants were asked which informant was correct, who they would prefer to learn from in the future, and to rate their liking of each informant. Overall, participants selected the gender counter-stereotypical expert as correct. Four- to 5-year-olds reported a preference to learn from same-gender participants in the future irrespective of expertise, whereas 6- to 8-year-olds reported wanting to learn from counter-stereotypical experts. Boys showed relatively greater acceptance of information from a male counter-stereotypical expert than from a female counter-stereotypical expert. Although participants reported greater liking of same-gender informants, liking evaluations were largely positive irrespective of gender norm deviations. Implications for children's acceptance of gender nonconforming activities are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the Effect of Information Order on Expert Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    it was received. Consequently, that research would predict a primacy effect when informatign is presented sequentially, not the recency effect ...the research by Tolcott et al. demonstrating a *confirmati-on bias," was that there would be a primacy --not recency -- effect when information was pro...than prior information, thereby resulting in a recency effect . Moreover, they hypothesized that the larger the anchor, the greater the impact of the

  10. Complex method to calculate objective assessments of information systems protection to improve expert assessments reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdenov, A. Zh; Trushin, V. A.; Abdenova, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper considers the questions of filling the relevant SIEM nodes based on calculations of objective assessments in order to improve the reliability of subjective expert assessments. The proposed methodology is necessary for the most accurate security risk assessment of information systems. This technique is also intended for the purpose of establishing real-time operational information protection in the enterprise information systems. Risk calculations are based on objective estimates of the adverse events implementation probabilities, predictions of the damage magnitude from information security violations. Calculations of objective assessments are necessary to increase the reliability of the proposed expert assessments.

  11. Dealing with Conflicting or Consistent Medical Information on the Web: When Expert Information Breeds Laypersons' Doubts about Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienhues, Dorothe; Stadtler, Marc; Bromme, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how dealing with conflicting versus consistent medical information on the Web impacts on topic-specific and medicine-related epistemic beliefs as well as aspects of health decision making. One hundred mostly female university students were randomly assigned to three groups. Two intervention groups searched the Web…

  12. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Communication at an online infertility expert forum: provider responses to patients' emotional and informational cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, J W M; van Oers, A M; Faber, M J; Cohlen, B J; Nelen, W L D M; Kremer, J A M; van Dulmen, A M

    2015-01-01

    Online patient-provider communication has become increasingly popular in fertility care. However, it is not known to what extent patients express cues or concerns and how providers respond. In this study, we investigated cues and responses that occur in online patient-provider communication at an infertility-specific expert forum. We extracted 106 threads from the multidisciplinary expert forum of two Dutch IVF clinics. We performed the following analyses: (1) thematic analysis of patients' questions; and (2) rating patients' emotional and informational cues and subsequent professionals' responses using an adaptation of the validated Medical Interview Aural Rating Scale. Frequencies of themes, frequencies of cues and responses, and sequences (what cue is followed by what response) were extracted. Sixty-five infertile patients and 19 providers participated. The most common themes included medication and lifestyle. Patients gave more informational than emotional cues (106 versus 64). Responses to informational cues were mostly adequate (61%). The most common response to emotional cues was empathic acknowledgment (72%). Results indicate that an online expert forum could have a positive effect on patient outcomes, which should guide future research. Offering infertile patients an expert forum to communicate with providers can be a promising supplement to usual care in both providing information and addressing patients' concerns.

  14. Elicitation by design in ecology: using expert opinion to inform priors for Bayesian statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Samantha Low; O'Leary, Rebecca; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian statistical modeling has several benefits within an ecological context. In particular, when observed data are limited in sample size or representativeness, then the Bayesian framework provides a mechanism to combine observed data with other "prior" information. Prior information may be obtained from earlier studies, or in their absence, from expert knowledge. This use of the Bayesian framework reflects the scientific "learning cycle," where prior or initial estimates are updated when new data become available. In this paper we outline a framework for statistical design of expert elicitation processes for quantifying such expert knowledge, in a form suitable for input as prior information into Bayesian models. We identify six key elements: determining the purpose and motivation for using prior information; specifying the relevant expert knowledge available; formulating the statistical model; designing effective and efficient numerical encoding; managing uncertainty; and designing a practical elicitation protocol. We demonstrate this framework applies to a variety of situations, with two examples from the ecological literature and three from our experience. Analysis of these examples reveals several recurring important issues affecting practical design of elicitation in ecological problems.

  15. Experts appear to use angle of elevation information in basketball shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, R.F.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket (m) and the angle of elevation (α). In Experiment 1, expert

  16. Experts Appear to Use Angle of Elevation Information in Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket ("m") and the angle of elevation (alpha). In Experiment 1, expert players took jump shots under different…

  17. The relevance of music information representation metadata from the perspective of expert users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Monteiro de Barros

    Full Text Available The general goal of this research was to verify which metadata elements of music information representation are relevant for its retrieval from the perspective of expert music users. Based on a bibliographical research, a comprehensive metadata set of music information representation was developed and transformed into a questionnaire for data collection, which was applied to students and professors of the Graduate Program in Music at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The results show that the most relevant information for expert music users is related to identification and authorship responsibilities. The respondents from Composition and Interpretative Practice areas agree with these results, while the respondents from Musicology/Ethnomusicology and Music Education areas also consider the metadata related to the historical context of composition relevant.

  18. Expert elicitation, uncertainty, and the value of information in controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Bonneau, Mathieu; Martin, Julien; Romagosa, Christina; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Reed, Robert; Eckles, Jennifer Kettevrlin; Vitt, Laurie J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study. We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model in which four age classes of tegus are recognized: hatchlings, 1 year-old, 2 year-olds, and 3 + year-olds. This matrix model was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates in southern Florida from 10 herpetology experts. We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter. Using these distributions, as well as the observed correlations among elicited values, we generated a large sample of matrix population models to infer how the tegu population would respond to control efforts. We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs. We conclude that expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable in conducting an initial assessment of what control strategy, effort, and monetary resources are needed to reduce and eventually eliminate the invader. Scientists, in turn, can use the value of information to focus research in a way that not only increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  19. Let the experts decide? Asymmetric information, abstention, and coordination in standing committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2011-01-01

    the asymmetry in information quality is large, we find that voting groups largely coordinate on the SVC equilibrium which is also Pareto optimal. However, we find that when the asymmetry in information quality is not large and the Pareto optimal equilibrium is for all to participate, significant numbers...... of voters with low-quality information abstain. Furthermore, we find that information asymmetry induces voters with low-quality information to coordinate on a non-equilibrium outcome. This suggests that coordination on "letting the experts" decide is a likely voting norm that sometimes validates SVC......We examine abstention when voters in standing committees are asymmetrically informed and there are multiple pure-strategy equilibria - swing voter's curse (SVC) equilibria where voters with low-quality information abstain and equilibria when all participants vote their information. When...

  20. THE BOTS EXPERTS BASED ON THE PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE CREATION INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Олександрович ТІМОФЄЄВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Now the world web answers the questions "who?", "what?", "where?" and "when?" fast and completely. But not the question "how?", especially "how to settle emergency situation?” (which refers to procedural knowledge usually, private user’s advice from various forums is employed as the response. And this is despite the real boom of bots - programs that mimic human action through the Internet interfaces and of the so-called chatbots, that are the programs to provide answers within individual sites. The differences in knowledge representation forms make it impossible to use existing chatbot creation information technologies for dissemination the procedural knowledge in the bot-experts form via Internet. For the problem solution, the original information technology is offered. The article is addressed to IT-specialists, experts in various areas and to heads of the enterprises to use for creating the Internet consulting business or to solve organizational problems in an existing business.

  1. Bayesian area-to-point kriging using expert knowledge as informative priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Pebesma, Edzer

    2014-08-01

    Area-to-point (ATP) kriging is a common geostatistical framework to address the problem of spatial disaggregation or downscaling from block support observations (BSO) to point support (PoS) predictions for continuous variables. This approach requires that the PoS variogram is known. Without PoS observations, the parameters of the PoS variogram cannot be deterministically estimated from BSO, and as a result, the PoS variogram parameters are uncertain. In this research, we used Bayesian ATP conditional simulation to estimate the PoS variogram parameters from expert knowledge and BSO, and quantify uncertainty of the PoS variogram parameters and disaggregation outcomes. We first clarified that the nugget parameter of the PoS variogram cannot be estimated from only BSO. Next, we used statistical expert elicitation techniques to elicit the PoS variogram parameters from expert knowledge. These were used as informative priors in a Bayesian inference of the PoS variogram from BSO and implemented using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. ATP conditional simulation was done to obtain stochastic simulations at point support. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) atmospheric temperature profile data were used in an illustrative example. The outcomes from the Bayesian ATP inference for the Matérn variogram model parameters confirmed that the posterior distribution of the nugget parameter was effectively the same as its prior distribution; for the other parameters, the uncertainty was substantially decreased when BSO were introduced to the Bayesian ATP estimator. This confirmed that expert knowledge brought new information to infer the nugget effect at PoS while BSO only brought new information to infer the other parameters. Bayesian ATP conditional simulations provided a satisfactory way to quantify parameters and model uncertainty propagation through spatial disaggregation.

  2. Clinic expert information extraction based on domain model and block importance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanpeng; Wang, Li; Qian, Danmin; Geng, Xingyun; Yao, Dengfu; Dong, Jiancheng

    2015-11-01

    To extract expert clinic information from the Deep Web, there are two challenges to face. The first one is to make a judgment on forms. A novel method based on a domain model, which is a tree structure constructed by the attributes of query interfaces is proposed. With this model, query interfaces can be classified to a domain and filled in with domain keywords. Another challenge is to extract information from response Web pages indexed by query interfaces. To filter the noisy information on a Web page, a block importance model is proposed, both content and spatial features are taken into account in this model. The experimental results indicate that the domain model yields a precision 4.89% higher than that of the rule-based method, whereas the block importance model yields an F1 measure 10.5% higher than that of the XPath method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices using expert informed concept mapping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-06-14

    Parents are widely recognized as playing a central role in the development of child behaviors such as physical activity. As there is little agreement as to the dimensions of physical activity-related parenting practices that should be measured or how they should be operationalized, this study engaged experts to develop an integrated conceptual framework for assessing parenting practices that influence multiple aspects of 5 to 12 year old children's participation in physical activity. The ultimate goal of this study is to inform the development of an item bank (repository of calibrated items) aimed at measuring physical activity parenting practices. Twenty four experts from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, England, Scotland, the Netherlands, & United States (US)) sorted 77 physical activity parenting practice concepts identified from our previously published synthesis of the literature (74 measures) and survey of Canadian and US parents. Concept Mapping software was used to conduct the multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and a cluster analysis of the MDS solution of the Expert's sorting which was qualitatively reviewed and commented on by the Experts. The conceptual framework includes 12 constructs which are presented using three main domains of parenting practices (neglect/control, autonomy support, and structure). The neglect/control domain includes two constructs: permissive and pressuring parenting practices. The autonomy supportive domain includes four constructs: encouragement, guided choice, involvement in child physical activities, and praises/rewards for their child's physical activity. Finally, the structure domain includes six constructs: co-participation, expectations, facilitation, modeling, monitoring, and restricting physical activity for safety or academic concerns. The concept mapping analysis provided a useful process to engage experts in re-conceptualizing physical activity parenting practices and identified key constructs to include in

  4. Expert Search Strategies: The Information Retrieval Practices of Healthcare Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Rose, Tony; Chamberlain, Jon

    2017-10-02

    Healthcare information professionals play a key role in closing the knowledge gap between medical research and clinical practice. Their work involves meticulous searching of literature databases using complex search strategies that can consist of hundreds of keywords, operators, and ontology terms. This process is prone to error and can lead to inefficiency and bias if performed incorrectly. The aim of this study was to investigate the search behavior of healthcare information professionals, uncovering their needs, goals, and requirements for information retrieval systems. A survey was distributed to healthcare information professionals via professional association email discussion lists. It investigated the search tasks they undertake, their techniques for search strategy formulation, their approaches to evaluating search results, and their preferred functionality for searching library-style databases. The popular literature search system PubMed was then evaluated to determine the extent to which their needs were met. The 107 respondents indicated that their information retrieval process relied on the use of complex, repeatable, and transparent search strategies. On average it took 60 minutes to formulate a search strategy, with a search task taking 4 hours and consisting of 15 strategy lines. Respondents reviewed a median of 175 results per search task, far more than they would ideally like (100). The most desired features of a search system were merging search queries and combining search results. Healthcare information professionals routinely address some of the most challenging information retrieval problems of any profession. However, their needs are not fully supported by current literature search systems and there is demand for improved functionality, in particular regarding the development and management of search strategies.

  5. Beyond informality : Traders as space experts in their own informal settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, A.A.; Van Nes, A.; Salheen, M.A.

    The spatial layout of built environments influences the distribution of commercial activities. As literature has shown, commercial activities can enhance the process of urban consolidation of informal areas (Hillier et al, 2000; Shafiei, 2007). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the

  6. Which uncertainty? Using expert elicitation and expected value of information to design an adaptive program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Converse, Sarah J.; Lyons, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Natural resource management is plagued with uncertainty of many kinds, but not all uncertainties are equally important to resolve. The promise of adaptive management is that learning in the short-term will improve management in the long-term; that promise is best kept if the focus of learning is on those uncertainties that most impede achievement of management objectives. In this context, an existing tool of decision analysis, the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), is particularly valuable in identifying the most important uncertainties. Expert elicitation can be used to develop preliminary predictions of management response under a series of hypotheses, as well as prior weights for those hypotheses, and the EVPI can be used to determine how much management could improve if uncertainty was resolved. These methods were applied to management of whooping cranes (Grus americana), an endangered migratory bird that is being reintroduced in several places in North America. The Eastern Migratory Population of whooping cranes had exhibited almost no successful reproduction through 2009. Several dozen hypotheses can be advanced to explain this failure, and many of them lead to very different management responses. An expert panel articulated the hypotheses, provided prior weights for them, developed potential management strategies, and made predictions about the response of the population to each strategy under each hypothesis. Multi-criteria decision analysis identified a preferred strategy in the face of uncertainty, and analysis of the expected value of information identified how informative each strategy could be. These results provide the foundation for design of an adaptive management program.

  7. Vaccine Rejecting Parents' Engagement With Expert Systems That Inform Vaccination Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwell, Katie; Leask, Julie; Meyer, Samantha B; Rokkas, Philippa; Ward, Paul

    2017-03-01

    In attempting to provide protection to individuals and communities, childhood immunization has benefits that far outweigh disease risks. However, some parents decide not to immunize their children with some or all vaccines for reasons including lack of trust in governments, health professionals, and vaccine manufacturers. This article employs a theoretical analysis of trust and distrust to explore how twenty-seven parents with a history of vaccine rejection in two Australian cities view the expert systems central to vaccination policy and practice. Our data show how perceptions of the profit motive generate distrust in the expert systems pertaining to vaccination. Our participants perceived that pharmaceutical companies had a pernicious influence over the systems driving vaccination: research, health professionals, and government. Accordingly, they saw vaccine recommendations in conflict with the interests of their child and "the system" underscored by malign intent, even if individual representatives of this system were not equally tainted. This perspective was common to parents who declined all vaccines and those who accepted some. We regard the differences between these parents-and indeed the differences between vaccine decliners and those whose Western medical epistemology informs reflexive trust-as arising from the internalization of countering views, which facilitates nuance.

  8. The use of cloud enabled building information models – an expert analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Redmond

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of today’s construction professionals to use singular commercial applications for design possibilities creates the risk of being dictated by the language-tools they use. This unknowingly approach to converting to the constraints of a particular computer application’s style, reduces one’s association with cutting-edge design as no single computer application can support all of the tasks associated with building-design and production. Interoperability depicts the need to pass data between applications, allowing multiple types of experts and applications to contribute to the work at hand. Cloud computing is a centralized heterogeneous platform that enables different applications to be connected to each other through using remote data servers. However, the possibility of providing an interoperable process based on binding several construction applications through a single repository platform ‘cloud computing’ required further analysis. The following Delphi questionnaires analysed the exchanging information opportunities of Building Information Modelling (BIM as the possible solution for the integration of applications on a cloud platform. The survey structure is modelled to; (i identify the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii detect the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii examine the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, and (iv explore the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information. The anticipated findings will assist in identifying a model that will enhance the standardized passing of information between systems at the feasibility design stage of a construction project.

  9. The use of cloud enabled building information models – an expert analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Redmond

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of today’s construction professionals to use singular commercial applications for design possibilities creates the risk of being dictated by the language-tools they use. This unknowingly approach to converting to the constraints of a particular computer application’s style, reduces one’s association with cutting-edge design as no single computer application can support all of the tasks associated with building-design and production. Interoperability depicts the need to pass data between applications, allowing multiple types of experts and applications to contribute to the work at hand. Cloud computing is a centralized heterogeneous platform that enables different applications to be connected to each other through using remote data servers. However, the possibility of providing an interoperable process based on binding several construction applications through a single repository platform ‘cloud computing’ required further analysis. The following Delphi questionnaires analysed the exchanging information opportunities of Building Information Modelling (BIM as the possible solution for the integration of applications on a cloud platform. The survey structure is modelled to; (i identify the most appropriate applications for advancing interoperability at the early design stage, (ii detect the most severe barriers of BIM implementation from a business and legal viewpoint, (iii examine the need for standards to address information exchange between design team, and (iv explore the use of the most common interfaces for exchanging information. The anticipated findings will assist in identifying a model that will enhance the standardized passing of information between systems at the feasibility design stage of a construction project.

  10. Community-based treatment of late life depression an expert panel-informed literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John T; Steinman, Lesley E; Prohaska, Thomas; Satariano, William A; Bruce, Martha; Bryant, Lucinda; Ciechanowski, Paul; Devellis, Brenda; Leith, Katherine; Leyden, Kevin M; Sharkey, Joseph; Simon, Gregory E; Wilson, Nancy; Unützer, Jurgen; Snowden, Mark

    2007-09-01

    To present findings from an expert panel-informed literature review on community-based treatment of late-life depression. A systematic literature review was conducted to appraise publications on community-based interventions for depression in older adults. The search was conducted between March and October 2005. An expert panel of mental health, aging, health services, and epidemiology researchers guided the review and voted on quality and effectiveness of these interventions. A total of 3,543 articles were found with publication dates from 1967 to October 2005; of these, 116 were eligible for inclusion. Adequate data existed to determine effectiveness for the following interventions: depression care management, group and individual psychotherapy for depression, psychotherapy targeting mental health, psychotherapy for caregivers, education and skills training (to manage health problems besides depression; and for caregivers), geriatric health evaluation and management, exercise, and physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. After reviewing the data, panelists rated the depression care management interventions as effective. Education and skills training, geriatric health evaluation and management, and physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy received ineffective ratings. Other interventions received mixed effectiveness ratings. Insufficient data availability and poor study quality prevented the panelists from rating several reviewed interventions. While several well-described interventions were found to treat depression effectively in community-dwelling older adults, significant gaps still exist. Interventions that did not target depression specifically may be of benefit to older adults, but they should not be presumed to treat depression by themselves. Treating depressed elders may require a multifaceted approach to ensure effectiveness. More research in this area is needed.

  11. METHODS OF IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM TRACTION POWER SUPPLY OF ELECTRIC TRANSPORT BASED ON AN EXPERT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposed the numerous methods of solving the multi-criterion task – increasing of reliability of control system on the basis of expert information. The information, which allows choosing thoughtfully the method of reliability increasing for a control system of electric transport, is considered.

  12. Expert versus novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: Evidence from eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eSheridan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white’s best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa. Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.

  13. Expert vs. novice differences in the detection of relevant information during a chess game: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored the ability of expert and novice chess players to rapidly distinguish between regions of a chessboard that were relevant to the best move on the board, and regions of the board that were irrelevant. Accordingly, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players, while they selected white's best move for a variety of chess problems. To manipulate relevancy, we constructed two different versions of each chess problem in the experiment, and we counterbalanced these versions across participants. These two versions of each problem were identical except that a single piece was changed from a bishop to a knight. This subtle change reversed the relevancy map of the board, such that regions that were relevant in one version of the board were now irrelevant (and vice versa). Using this paradigm, we demonstrated that both the experts and novices spent more time fixating the relevant relative to the irrelevant regions of the board. However, the experts were faster at detecting relevant information than the novices, as shown by the finding that experts (but not novices) were able to distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information during the early part of the trial. These findings further demonstrate the domain-related perceptual processing advantage of chess experts, using an experimental paradigm that allowed us to manipulate relevancy under tightly controlled conditions.

  14. Quick concurrent responses to global and local cognitive information underlie intuitive understanding in board-game experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-07-31

    Experts have the superior cognitive capability of quickly understanding complex information in their domain; however, little is known about the neural processes underlying this ability. Here, using a board game named shogi (Japanese chess), we investigated the brain activity in expert players that was involved in their quick understanding of board-game patterns. The frontal area responded only to meaningful game positions, whereas the temporal area responded to both game and random positions with the same latency (200 ms). Subsequent to these quick responses, the temporal and parietal areas responded only to game positions, with a latency of 700 ms. During the responses, enhanced phase synchronization between these areas was observed. Thus, experts first responded to global cognitive information that was specific to game positions and to local cognitive information that was common to game and random positions concurrently. These types of information were integrated via neural synchronization at the posterior areas. As these properties were specific to experts, much of the experts' advantage in understanding game positions occurred within 1 s of perception.

  15. The effects of rational and experiential information processing of expert testimony in death penalty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Daniel A; Lieberman, Joel D; Olson, Jodi

    2004-01-01

    Past research examining the effects of actuarial and clinical expert testimony on defendants' dangerousness in Texas death penalty sentencing has found that jurors are more influenced by less scientific pure clinical expert testimony and less influenced by more scientific actuarial expert testimony (Krauss & Lee, 2003; Krauss & Sales, 2001). By applying cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST) to juror decision-making, the present study was undertaken in an attempt to offer a theoretical rationale for these findings. Based on past CEST research, 163 mock jurors were either directed into a rational mode or experiential mode of processing. Consistent with CEST and inconsistent with previous research using the same stimulus materials, results demonstrate that jurors in a rational mode of processing more heavily weighted actuarial expert testimony in their dangerousness assessments, while those jurors in the experiential condition were more influenced by clinical expert testimony. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. RESPONSE EXPERT AS THE OBJECT OF THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Ishchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with urgent problems of formalization justified response expert on the question in recognition of the fact that the possibility of establishing methodologies for the application of automated expert systems (software and hardware complexes for the production of economic analysis. The author considers the ways of formalization of the conclusions depending on the obtained results of the research the author comes to the solution of important tasks, allowing to see the opportunity to address important scientific issues, namely the creation of methodology of application of automated systems in practical activities of experts-economists.

  17. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    United Kingdom in two cases. Digital photographs facilitated tentative mushroom identification in two cases. CONCLUSION: Poison information centres should maintain a registry of expert mycologists who are available for consultation following potentially serious mushroom intoxications. Health care workers should not attempt to identify toxic mushroom species using the Internet as erroneous identification can occur. Digital photography may help with mushroom identification when there is likely to be a delay organising a physical examination of mushroom tissue.

  18. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    and the United Kingdom in two cases. Digital photographs facilitated tentative mushroom identification in two cases. Conclusion. Poison information centres should maintain a registry of expert mycologists who are available for consultation following potentially serious mushroom intoxications. Health care workers should not attempt to identify toxic mushroom species using the Internet as erroneous identification can occur. Digital photography may help with mushroom identification when there is likely to be a delay organising a physical examination of mushroom tissue.

  19. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Nicola; Duggan, Edel; Tracey, Joseph A

    2011-03-01

    . Digital photographs facilitated tentative mushroom identification in two cases. Poison information centres should maintain a registry of expert mycologists who are available for consultation following potentially serious mushroom intoxications. Health care workers should not attempt to identify toxic mushroom species using the Internet as erroneous identification can occur. Digital photography may help with mushroom identification when there is likely to be a delay organising a physical examination of mushroom tissue.

  20. Evaluation of using expert system features in information retrieval in Iranian digital library software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shahbazi

    2015-05-01

    Originality/Value: The research prepared a checklist for evaluation of Digital Library software’s in expert systems context. Also the funded results can be helpful for the software providers to resolve the weakness and reinforce the strengths of software’s.

  1. CAH to CAH: EHR implementation advice to critical access hospitals from peer experts and other key informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, C K; Sievert, M C; Hicks, L L; Alexander, G L; Hearne, L B; Holmes, J H

    2014-01-01

    The US government allocated $30 billion to implement electronic health records (EHRs) in hospitals and provider practices through policy addressing Meaningful Use (MU). Most small, rural hospitals, particularly those designated as Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs), comprising nearly a quarter of US hospitals, had not implemented EHRs before. Little is known about implementation in this setting. Socio-technical factors differ between larger hospitals and CAHs, which continue to lag behind other hospitals in EHR adoption. The main objective is to provide EHR implementation advice for CAHs from a spectrum of experts with an emphasis on recommendations from their peers at CAHs that have undertaken the process. The secondary objective is to begin to identify implementation process differences at CAHs v. larger hospitals. We interviewed 41 experts, including 16 CAH staff members from EHR teams at 10 CAHs that recently implemented EHRs. We qualitatively analyzed the interviews to ascertain themes and implementation recommendations. Nineteen themes emerged. Under each theme, comments by experts provide in-depth advice on all implementation stages including ongoing optimization and use. We present comments for three top themes as ranked by number of CAH peer experts commenting - EHR System Selection, EHR Team, and Preparatory Work - and for two others, Outside Partners/Resources and Clinical Decision Support (CDS)/Knowledge Management (KM). Comments for remaining themes are included in tables. CAH experts rank the themes differently from all experts, a likely indication of the differences between hospitals. Comments for each theme indicate the specific difficulties CAHs encountered. CAH staffs have little or no EHR experience before implementation. A factor across themes is insufficient system and process knowledge, compounded by compressed implementation schedules. Increased, proactive self-education, via available outside partners and information resources, will mitigate

  2. Information problem solving by experts and novices: Analysis of a complex cognitive skill.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Vermetten, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    In (higher) education students are often faced with information problems: tasks or assignments that require them to identify information needs, locate corresponding information sources, extract and organize relevant information from each source, and synthesize information from a variety of sources.

  3. Diagnostic thinking and information used in clinical decision-making: a qualitative study of expert and student dental clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Schrader, Stuart; Mannan, Saurabh; Garetto, Lawrence; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn

    2010-05-13

    It is uncertain whether the range and frequency of Diagnostic Thinking Processes (DTP) and pieces of information (concepts) involved in dental restorative treatment planning are different between students and expert clinicians. We video-recorded dental visits with one standardized patient. Clinicians were subsequently interviewed and their cognitive strategies explored using guide questions; interviews were also recorded. Both visit and interview were content-analyzed, following the Gale and Marsden model for clinical decision-making. Limited tests used to contrast data were t, chi2, and Fisher's. Scott's pi was used to determine inter-coder reliability. Fifteen dentists and 17 senior dental students participated in visits lasting 32.0 minutes (+/- 12.9) among experts, and 29.9 +/- 7.1 among students; contact time with patient was 26.4 +/- 13.9 minutes (experts), and 22.2 +/- 7.5 (students). The time elapsed between the first and the last instances of the clinician looking in the mouth was similar between experts and students. Ninety eight types of pieces of information were used in combinations with 12 DTPs. The main differences found in DTP utilization had dentists conducting diagnostic interpretations of findings with sufficient certainty to be considered definitive twice as often as students. Students resorted more often to more general or clarifying enquiry in their search for information than dentists. Differences in diagnostic strategies and concepts existed within clearly delimited types of cognitive processes; such processes were largely compatible with the analytic and (in particular) non-analytic approaches to clinical decision-making identified in the medical field. Because we were focused on a clinical presentation primarily made up of non-emergency treatment needs, use of other DTPs and concepts might occur when clinicians evaluate emergency treatment needs, complex rehabilitative cases, and/or medically compromised patients.

  4. Informational and analytical support of the state bodies activities (on the example of expert surveys in APR countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L S Ruban

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the expert surveys conducted within the international project “Dialogue Partnership as a Factor of Stability and Integration” (“Bridge between East and West” over ten years (2005-2014 and control interviews conducted in 2009 and 2015 in the longitude format (70% of experts were the same the author provides a comprehensive analysis of the situation in the Asia-Pacific region with the help of highly qualified experts and VIP-persons - decision-makers from 16 Asian-Pacific countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, the People’s Republic of China, Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Russian Federation, Singapore, USA, Thailand, the Philippines and Japan. This study is not abstract or theoretical; it is a tool for informational and analytical support of the relevant state bodies of the Russian Federation responsible for the development of the situation in the Asia-Pacific region. The author analyzes the geopolitical balance of power and leadership in the region, its economic and energy situation, the level of security, risks and threats, the possibility of a military conflict so as to identify possible ways for the effective cooperation and coordination of interests of various countries in the region.

  5. College counselors' use of informal language online: student perceptions of expertness, trustworthiness, and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberstroh, Shane

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine language formality and informality in online counseling sessions. Specifically, the author compared undergraduate student (n = 224) perceptions of college counselors' use of informal language and mirroring of client's formality in four mock online counseling scenarios. A multivariate analysis of covariance found significant differences between conditions. Pairwise analyses revealed that counselors who used informal language following their client's formal expressions were perceived as having less expertise. However, language mirroring seemed to moderate perceptions of expertise when counselors followed their client's informal language use.

  6. Informed consent in clinical research: Consensus recommendations for reform identified by an expert interview panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorell, Beverly H; Mikita, J Stephen; Anderson, Annick; Hallinan, Zachary P; Forrest, Annemarie

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent is the cornerstone for protection of human subjects in clinical trials. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that reform of the informed consent process in the United States is needed. The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative conducted interviews with 25 experienced observers of the informed consent process to identify limitations and actionable recommendations for change. There was broad consensus that current practices often fail to meet the ethical obligation to inform potential research participants during the informed consent process. The most frequent single recommendation, which would affect all participants in federally regulated clinical research, was reform of the informed consent document. The interviews also identified the need for reform of clinical research review by institutional review boards, including transitioning to a single institutional review board for multi-site trials. The consensus recommendations from the interviewees provide a framework for meaningful change in the informed consent process. Although some proposed changes are feasible for rapid implementation, others such as substantive reform of the informed consent document may require change in federal regulations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Health literacy skills for informed decision making in colorectal cancer screening: Perceptions of screening invitees and experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Anke J; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M; Uiters, Ellen; Dekker, Evelien; Smets, Ellen M A; Fransen, Mirjam P

    2017-12-20

    The process of informed decision making (IDM) requires an adequate level of health literacy. To ensure that all individuals have equal opportunity to make an informed decision in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, it is essential to gain more insight into which health literacy skills are needed for IDM. Our aims were (i) to explore how individuals make a decision about CRC screening and (ii) to explore which skills are needed for IDM in CRC screening and (iii) to integrate these findings within a conceptual framework. We conducted 3 focus groups with individuals eligible for CRC screening (n = 22) and 2 focus groups with experts in the field of health literacy, oncology and decision making, including scientific researchers and health-care professionals (n = 17). We used framework analysis to analyse our data. We identified and specified ten health literacy skills, which varied from the ability to read and understand CRC screening information to the ability to weigh up pros and cons of screening for personal relevance. The skills were linked to 8 decision-making stages in CRC screening within a conceptual framework. We found differences in perceptions between screening invitees and experts, especially in the perceived importance of CRC screening information for IDM. This study provides insight into the decision-making stages and health literacy skills that are essential for IDM in CRC screening. The proposed conceptual framework can be used to inform the development of context-based measurement of health literacy and interventions to support IDM in cancer screening. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Design of Mobile Expert System for Diabetes Risk Diagnosis and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Anindito Yoga; R., Dewi Agushinta; Senjaya, Remi

    2013-01-01

    Along with the development of information technology, mobile applications are widely applied to various fields. The use of mobile applications is considered effective to help user in understanding the problem. One example of the application of mobile applications needed today is an application that can help to determine a wide range of health. The designs discussed in this paper are the structure of the navigation and layout design of mobile applications created. There is a navigation structu...

  9. Local Climate Experts: The Influence of Local TV Weather Information on Climate Change Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodhart, Brittany; Maibach, Edward; Myers, Teresa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who identify changes in their local climate are also more likely to report that they have personally experienced global climate change. One way that people may come to recognize that their local climate is changing is through information provided by local TV weather forecasters. Using random digit dialing, 2,000 adult local TV news viewers in Virginia were surveyed to determine whether routine exposure to local TV weather forecasts influences their perceptions of extreme weather in Virginia, and their perceptions about climate change more generally. Results indicate that paying attention to TV weather forecasts is associated with beliefs that extreme weather is becoming more frequent in Virginia, which in turn is associated with stronger beliefs and concerns about climate change. These associations were strongest for individuals who trust their local TV weathercaster as a source of information about climate change, and for those who identify as politically conservative or moderate. The findings add support to the literature suggesting that TV weathercasters can play an important role in educating the public about climate change. PMID:26551357

  10. Local Climate Experts: The Influence of Local TV Weather Information on Climate Change Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodhart, Brittany; Maibach, Edward; Myers, Teresa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who identify changes in their local climate are also more likely to report that they have personally experienced global climate change. One way that people may come to recognize that their local climate is changing is through information provided by local TV weather forecasters. Using random digit dialing, 2,000 adult local TV news viewers in Virginia were surveyed to determine whether routine exposure to local TV weather forecasts influences their perceptions of extreme weather in Virginia, and their perceptions about climate change more generally. Results indicate that paying attention to TV weather forecasts is associated with beliefs that extreme weather is becoming more frequent in Virginia, which in turn is associated with stronger beliefs and concerns about climate change. These associations were strongest for individuals who trust their local TV weathercaster as a source of information about climate change, and for those who identify as politically conservative or moderate. The findings add support to the literature suggesting that TV weathercasters can play an important role in educating the public about climate change.

  11. Naming it 'nano': Expert views on 'nano' terminology in informed consent forms of first-in-human nanomedicine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satalkar, Priya; Elger, Bernice Simone; Shaw, David

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining valid informed consent (IC) can be challenging in first-in-human (FIH) trials in nanomedicine due to the complex interventions, the hype and hope concerning potential benefits, and fear of harms attributed to 'nano' particles. We describe and analyze the opinions of expert stakeholders involved in translational nanomedicine regarding explicit use of 'nano' terminology in IC documents. We draw on content analysis of 46 in-depth interviews with European and North American stakeholders. We received a spectrum of responses (reluctance, ambivalence, absolute insistence) on explicit mention of 'nano' in IC forms with underlying reasons. We conclude that consistent, clear and honest communication regarding the 'nano' dimension of investigational product is critical in IC forms of FIH trials.

  12. Nuclear expert web mining system: monitoring and analysis of nuclear acceptance by information retrieval and opinion extraction on the Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Thiago; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Imakuma, Kengo, E-mail: thiagoreis@usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: kimakuma@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a research initiative that aims to collect nuclear related information and to analyze opinionated texts by mining the hypertextual data environment and social networks web sites on the Internet. Different from previous approaches that employed traditional statistical techniques, it is being proposed a novel Web Mining approach, built using the concept of Expert Systems, for massive and autonomous data collection and analysis. The initial step has been accomplished, resulting in a framework design that is able to gradually encompass a set of evolving techniques, methods, and theories in such a way that this work will build a platform upon which new researches can be performed more easily by just substituting modules or plugging in new ones. Upon completion it is expected that this research will contribute to the understanding of the population views on nuclear technology and its acceptance. (author)

  13. How Experts' Use of Medical Technical Jargon in Different Types of Online Health Forums Affects Perceived Information Credibility: Randomized Experiment With Laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Maria; Jucks, Regina

    2018-01-23

    Online health forums are widely used, but the quality of advice differs as much as the knowledge backgrounds of the audience members who receive the advice. It is important to understand how people judge the information given online. In line with the communication accommodation theory (CAT), online forums represent specific social contexts of communication which can present either accommodative or nonaccommodative language to an audience. Accordingly, use of accommodative or nonaccommodative language might affect people's perceived trust in the communicator. The objective of this study was to investigate how experts who use accommodative (vs nonaccommodative) language are evaluated by passive users of an online forum. Participants (n=98) took part in an online experiment and read experts' posts about 10 nutrition myths. Following a 2 x 2 mixed design, experts' posts were written using either low or high amounts of medical technical jargon (MTJ) (within factor) and were directed at different audiences (mainly other medical experts [in a professional forum] vs a user group mainly comprising laypersons [in an advisory forum]) (between factor). Accommodation occurred where experts used high amounts of MTJ to address other medical experts in the professional forum; it also occurred when experts used low amounts of MTJ to address laypersons in the advisory forum. Conversely, nonaccommodation occurred when experts used high amounts of MTJ in the advisory forum and low amounts of MTJ in the professional forum. In each condition, participants evaluated the credibility of the information, the trustworthiness of the experts, and the accommodation by the experts. Overall, participants judged the credibility of information to be higher when experts used MTJ that was accommodative to the designated audience, F1,95=3.10, P=.04, ηp2=.031. In addition, participants judged the experts in professional forums to be more trustworthy than experts in advisory forums (all F1,96≥3.54, P

  14. Material science. For electricians, information experts and electrical engineers; Werkstoffkunde. Fuer Elektrotechniker, Informationstechniker und Elektromaschinenbauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegismund, H.

    1999-10-01

    This book of the series ``Die Meisterpruefung in der Elektrotechnik`` provides information on material science and components. Low redundancy in the subject matter enables efficient learning for examinations as well as fast access for the practician. Each chapter contains questions and answers for checking up on the knowledge gained. Subjects: Fundamentals; Materials and components in electrical engineering; Joints and contacts; Ferrous materials; Lubricants and roller bearings; Materials in electromechanical engineering; Gypsum and cement; Corrosion and corrosion protection. [Deutsch] Dieser vorliegende Band aus der Fachbuchreihe `Die Meisterpruefung in der Elektrotechnik` vermittelt die bei der Anwendung von Werkstoffen und Baulementen noetige Sachkenntnis. Die redundanzarme Stoffvermittlung ermoeglicht eine effiziente Pruefungsvorbereitung, aber auch dem Praktiker den schnellen Zugriff. Mit Fragen und Antworten zu jedem Kapitel kann eine Eigenkontrolle des erworbenen Wissens erfolgen. 1. Grundlagen, 2. Werkstoffe und Bauelemente der Elektrotechnik, 3. Verbindungen und Kontakte, 4. Eisenwerkstoffe, 5. Schmierstoffe und Waelzlager, 6. Werkstoffe im Elektromaschinenbau, 7. Gips und Zement und 8. Korrosion und Korrosionsschutz. (orig.)

  15. An efficient representation of spatial information for expert reasoning in robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Steven; Interrante, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The previous generation of robotic vehicles and drones was designed for a specific task, with limited flexibility in executing their mission. This limited flexibility arises because the robotic vehicles do not possess the intelligence and knowledge upon which to make significant tactical decisions. Current development of robotic vehicles is toward increased intelligence and capabilities, adapting to a changing environment and altering mission objectives. The latest techniques in artificial intelligence (AI) are being employed to increase the robotic vehicle's intelligent decision-making capabilities. This document describes the design of the SARA spatial database tool, which is composed of request parser, reasoning, computations, and database modules that collectively manage and derive information useful for robotic vehicles.

  16. Selection Input Output by Restriction Using DEA Models Based on a Fuzzy Delphi Approach and Expert Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsad, Roslah; Nasir Abdullah, Mohammad; Alias, Suriana; Isa, Zaidi

    2017-09-01

    Stock evaluation has always been an interesting problem for investors. In this paper, a comparison regarding the efficiency stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia were made through the application of estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). One of the interesting research subjects in DEA is the selection of appropriate input and output parameter. In this study, DEA was used to measure efficiency of stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia in terms of the financial ratio to evaluate performance of stocks. Based on previous studies and Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), the most important financial ratio was selected. The results indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share, price to earnings and debt to equity were the most important ratios. Using expert information, all the parameter were clarified as inputs and outputs. The main objectives were to identify most critical financial ratio, clarify them based on expert information and compute the relative efficiency scores of stocks as well as rank them in the construction industry and material completely. The methods of analysis using Alirezaee and Afsharian’s model were employed in this study, where the originality of Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) with the assumption of Constant Return to Scale (CSR) still holds. This method of ranking relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs) was value-added by the Balance Index. The interested data was made for year 2015 and the population of the research includes accepted companies in stock markets in the construction industry and material (63 companies). According to the ranking, the proposed model can rank completely for 63 companies using selected financial ratio.

  17. Nutrition advice during pregnancy: do women receive it and can health professionals provide it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Catherine; Charlton, Karen E; Yeatman, Heather

    2014-12-01

    A healthy diet during pregnancy is essential for normal growth and development of the foetus. Pregnant women may obtain nutrition information from a number of sources but evidence regarding the adequacy and extent of this information is sparse. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify sources of nutrition information accessed by pregnant women, their perceived needs for nutrition education, the perceptions of healthcare providers about nutrition education in pregnancy, and to assess the effectiveness of public health programs that aim to improve nutritional practices. The Scopus data base was searched during January, 2013 and in February 2014 to access both qualitative and quantitative studies published between 2002 and 2014 which focused on healthy pregnant women and their healthcare providers in developed countries. Articles were excluded if they focused on the needs of women with medical conditions, including obesity, gestational diabetes or malnutrition. Of 506 articles identified by the search terms, 25 articles were deemed to be eligible for inclusion. Generally, women were not receiving adequate nutrition education during pregnancy. Although healthcare practitioners perceived nutrition education to be important, barriers to providing education to clients included lack of time, lack of resources and lack of relevant training. Further well designed studies are needed to identify the most effective nutrition education strategies to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviours for women during antenatal care.

  18. Primary care professionals providing non-urgent care in hospital emergency departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khangura, Jaspreet K; Flodgren, Gerd; Perera, Rafael; Rowe, Brian H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries emergency departments (EDs) are facing an increase in demand for services, long-waits and severe crowding. One response to mitigate overcrowding has been to provide primary care services alongside or within hospital EDs for patients with non-urgent problems. It is not known, however, how this impacts the quality of patient care, the utilisation of hospital resources, or if it is cost-effective. Objectives To assess the effects of locating primary care professionals in the hospital ED to provide care for patients with non-urgent health problems, compared with care provided by regular Emergency Physicians (EPs), Search methods We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialized register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane library, 2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to March 21 2012); EMBASE (1980 to April 28 2011); CINAHL (1980 to April 28 2011); PsychINFO (1967 to April 28 2011); Sociological Abstracts (1952 to April 28 2011); ASSIA (1987 to April 28 2011); SSSCI (1945 to April 28 2011); HMIC (1979 to April 28 2011), sources of unpublished literature, reference lists of included papers and relevant systematic reviews. We contacted experts in the field for any published or unpublished studies, and hand searched ED conference abstracts from the last three years. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials, non-randomised studies, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies that evaluated the effectiveness of introducing primary care professionals to hospital EDs to attend to non-urgent patients, as compared to the care provided by regular EPs. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias for each included study. We contacted authors of included studies to obtain additional data. Dichotomous outcomes are presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and continuous

  19. Report on the Expert Forum on using Information Technology to Facilitate Uptake and Impact of Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida J Sewitch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report summarizes the proceedings of the pan-Canadian Expert Forum on Using Information Technology to Facilitate Uptake and Impact of Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines, which was held in Montreal, Quebec, November 18 to 19, 2011. The meeting assembled a multidisciplinary group of family physicians, gastroenterologists, nurses, patients, foundation representatives, screening program administrators and researchers to discuss the development of a mechanism or strategy that would permit the collection of comparable data by all colorectal cancer (CRC screening programs, which would not only support the needs of each program but also provide a national perspective. The overarching theme of the meeting was ‘designing a national approach to computerized electronic data collection and dissemination for CRC screening that would improve knowledge transfer across the continuum of preventive health care’. The forum encouraged presentations on clinical, research and technical topics. The meeting fostered valuable cross-disciplinary communication and delivered the message that it is essential to develop a national health informatics approach for CRC screening data collection and dissemination to support provincial CRC screening programs.

  20. Report on the expert forum on using information technology to facilitate uptake and impact of colorectal cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewitch, Maida J; Jiang, Mengzhu; Barkun, Alan N; Armstrong, David; Manca, Donna; Rossos, Peter; Stein, Barry; Attendees, Meeting

    2012-12-01

    The present report summarizes the proceedings of the pan-Canadian Expert Forum on Using Information Technology to Facilitate Uptake and Impact of Colorectal Cancer Screening Guidelines, which was held in Montreal, Quebec, November 18 to 19, 2011. The meeting assembled a multidisciplinary group of family physicians, gastroenterologists, nurses, patients, foundation representatives, screening program administrators and researchers to discuss the development of a mechanism or strategy that would permit the collection of comparable data by all colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs, which would not only support the needs of each program but also provide a national perspective. The overarching theme of the meeting was 'designing a national approach to computerized electronic data collection and dissemination for CRC screening that would improve knowledge transfer across the continuum of preventive health care'. The forum encouraged presentations on clinical, research and technical topics. The meeting fostered valuable cross-disciplinary communication and delivered the message that it is essential to develop a national health informatics approach for CRC screening data collection and dissemination to support provincial CRC screening programs.

  1. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    discipline that permits them to testify to an opinion that will aid a judge or jury in resolving a question that is beyond the understanding or competence of laypersons. An expert witness is an expert who makes his or her knowledge available to a court (a tribunal or any other forum where formal rules of evidence apply) to help ...

  2. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge...... base of expert systems is often given in terms of an ontology, extracted and built from various data sources by employing natural language-processing and statistics. To emphasize such capabilities, the term “expert” is now often replaced by “cognitive,” “knowledge,” “knowledge-based,” or “intelligent......” system. With very few exceptions, general-purpose expert systems have failed to emerge so far. However, expert systems are applied in specialized domains, particularly in healthcare. The increasing availability of large quantities of data to organizations today provides a valuable opportunity...

  3. Tuberculosis-Diagnostic Expert System: an architecture for translating patients information from the web for use in tuberculosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Victor C; Azeta, Ambrose A; Ajulo, Oluseyi O

    2014-12-01

    Over 1.5-2 million tuberculosis deaths occur annually. Medical professionals are faced with a lot of challenges in delivering good health-care with unassisted automation in hospitals where there are several patients who need the doctor's attention. To automate the pre-laboratory screening process against tuberculosis infection to aid diagnosis and make it fast and accessible to the public via the Internet. The expert system we have built is designed to also take care of people who do not have access to medical experts, but would want to check their medical status. A rule-based approach has been used, and unified modeling language and the client-server architecture technique were applied to model the system and to develop it as a web-based expert system for tuberculosis diagnosis. Algorithmic rules in the Tuberculosis-Diagnosis Expert System necessitate decision coverage where tuberculosis is either suspected or not suspected. The architecture consists of a rule base, knowledge base, and patient database. These units interact with the inference engine, which receives patient' data through the Internet via a user interface. We present the architecture of the Tuberculosis-Diagnosis Expert System and its implementation. We evaluated it for usability to determine the level of effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. The result of the usability evaluation reveals that the system has a usability of 4.08 out of a scale of 5. This is an indication of a more-than-average system performance. Several existing expert systems have been developed for the purpose of supporting different medical diagnoses, but none is designed to translate tuberculosis patients' symptomatic data for online pre-laboratory screening. Our Tuberculosis-Diagnosis Expert System is an effective solution for the implementation of the needed web-based expert system diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. A center for commercial development of space: Real-time satellite mapping. Remote sensing-based agricultural information expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipriono, Fabian C.; Diaz, Carlos F.; Merritt, Earl S.

    1989-01-01

    The research project results in a powerful yet user friendly CROPCAST expert system for use by a client to determine the crop yield production of a certain crop field. The study is based on the facts that heuristic assessment and decision making in agriculture are significant and dominate much of agribusiness. Transfer of the expert knowledge concerning remote sensing based crop yield production into a specific expert system is the key program in this study. A knowledge base consisting of a root frame, CROP-YIELD-FORECAST, and four subframes, namely, SATELLITE, PLANT-PHYSIOLOGY, GROUND, and MODEL were developed to accommodate the production rules obtained from the domain expert. The expert system shell Personal Consultant Plus version 4.0. was used for this purpose. An external geographic program was integrated to the system. This project is the first part of a completely built expert system. The study reveals that much effort was given to the development of the rules. Such effort is inevitable if workable, efficient, and accurate rules are desired. Furthermore, abundant help statements and graphics were included. Internal and external display routines add to the visual capability of the system. The work results in a useful tool for the client for making decisions on crop yield production.

  5. Challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luke Robertshaw; Surindar Dhesi; Laura L Jones

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies that explore challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries...

  6. Geographic information systems-based expert system modelling for shoreline sensitivity to oil spill disaster in Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Lawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of adequate and appropriate actions, hazards often result in disaster. Oil spills across any environment are very hazardous; thus, oil spill contingency planning is pertinent, supported by Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI mapping. However, a significant data gap exists across many low- and middle-income countries in aspect of environmental monitoring. This study developed a geographic information system (GIS-based expert system (ES for shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It focused on the biophysical attributes of the shoreline with Rivers State as a case study. Data on elevation, soil, relative wave exposure and satellite imageries were collated and used for the development of ES decision rules within GIS. Results show that about 70% of the shoreline are lined with swamp forest/mangroves/nympa palm, and 97% have silt and clay as dominant sediment type. From the ES, six ranks were identified; 61% of the shoreline has a rank of 9 and 19% has a rank of 3 for shoreline sensitivity. A total of 568 km out of the 728 km shoreline is highly sensitive (ranks 7–10. There is a clear indication that the study area is a complex mixture of sensitive environments to oil spill. GIS-based ES with classification rules for shoreline sensitivity represents a rapid and flexible framework for automatic ranking of shoreline sensitivity to oiling. It is expected that this approach would kick-start sensitivity index mapping which is comprehensive and openly available to support disaster risk management around the oil producing regions of the country.

  7. ExpertFOAF recommends experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iofcu, Tereza; Diederich, Joerg; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    the GrowBag approach [1]. The main assumption is that such user profiles can provide good hints about users' expertise. Such extended FOAF files (called ExpertFOAF) can be published on a user's home page, on web pages of institutions or conferences to characterize them. They can be crawled by distributed...

  8. ESCAP/POPIN Expert Working Group on Development of Population Information Centres and Networks, 20-23 June 1984, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    An overview of current population information programs at the regional, national, and global level was presented at a meeting of the Expert Working Group on Development of Population Information Centres and Networks. On the global level, the decentralized Population Information Network (POPIN) was established, consisting of population libraries, clearinghouses, information systems, and documentation centers. The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Regional Population Information Centre (PIC) has actively promoted the standardization of methodologies for the collection and processing of data, the use of compatible terminology, adoption of classification systems, computer-assisted data and information handling, and improved programs of publication and infomration dissemination, within and among national centers. Among the national PICs, 83% are attached to the primary national family planning/fertility control unit and 17% are attached to demographic data, research, and analysis units. Lack of access to specialized information handling equipment such as microcomputers, word processors, and computer terminals remains a problem for PICs. Recommendations were made by the Expert Working Group to improve the functions of PICs: 1) the mandate and resoponsibilities of the PIC should be explicilty stated; 2) PICs should collect, process, and disseminate population information in the most effective format to workers in the population feild; 3) PICs should be given flexibility in the performance of activitites by their governing bodies; 4) short-term training should be provided in computerization and dissemination of information; 5) research and evaluation mechanisms for PIC activities should be developed; 6) PIC staff should prepare policy briefs for decision makers; 7) access to parent organizations should be given to nongovernment PICs; 8) study tours to foreign PICs should be organized for PIC staff; and 9) on-the-job training in indexing and

  9. Health literacy skills for informed decision making in colorectal cancer screening: Perceptions of screening invitees and experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, Anke J.; Timmermans, Daniëlle R. M.; Uiters, Ellen; Dekker, Evelien; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Fransen, Mirjam P.

    2017-01-01

    The process of informed decision making (IDM) requires an adequate level of health literacy. To ensure that all individuals have equal opportunity to make an informed decision in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, it is essential to gain more insight into which health literacy skills are needed for

  10. METHODOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF EXPERT ESTIMATION OF INITIAL DATA COMPLETENESS AND QUALITY ACCORDING TO THE CERTIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Fisenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of information security systems certification is analyzed and the tasks of initial data analysis are carried out. The objectives, indices and decision making criteria, as well as the challenges to be addressed are formulated. It is shown that, in order to improve quality, reduce time and cost of preparation for certification, it is reasonable to use software system for automatization of the process of initial data analysis, presented by the owner of the information system.

  11. Comparing the Use of an Online Expert Health Network against Common Information Sources to Answer Health Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Martijn D. F.; Lenderink, Annet F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily

  12. Many Experts, Many Audiences: Public Engagement with Science and Informal Science Education. A CAISE Inquiry Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallie, Ellen; Bell, Larry; Lohwater, Tiffany; Falk, John H.; Lehr, Jane L.; Lewenstein, Bruce V.; Needham, Cynthia; Wiehe, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Science and technology are embedded in every aspect of modern life. This report describes how Public Engagement with Science (PES), in the context of informal science education (ISE), can provide opportunities for public awareness of and participation in science and technology. PES refers to seeking public input into policy decisions about the…

  13. The Development of Expert Face Processing: Are Infants Sensitive to Normal Differences in Second-Order Relational Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Angela; Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Reed, Andrea; Corbly, Christine R.; Joseph, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity to second-order relational information (i.e., spatial relations among features such as the distance between eyes) is a vital part of achieving expertise with face processing. Prior research is unclear on whether infants are sensitive to second-order differences seen in typical human populations. In the current experiments, we examined…

  14. The Effect of Examinee Pass/Fail Information on the Level of Passing Score Set by Expert Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Joseph C.; Linton, Dan L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect on passing scores of providing judges with pass/fail data for the various possible cut-off score levels was studied. Passing scores produced by individual judges using a modified version of the procedure of W. H. Angoff (1971) were compared with the same judges' passing scores as revised after considering information on the number of…

  15. Let the Experts Decide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    in information quality is large, we find that voting groups largely coordinate on the SVC equilibrium which is also Pareto Optimal. However, we find that when the asymmetry in information quality is not large and the Pareto Optimal equilibrium is for all to participate, significant numbers of voters with low...... quality information abstain. Furthermore, we find that information asymmetry induces voters with low quality information to coordinate on a non-equilibrium outcome. This suggests that coordination on "letting the experts" decide is a likely voting norm that sometimes validates SVC equilibrium predictions......We examine abstention when voters in standing committees are asymmetrically informed and there are multiple pure strategy equilibria-swing voter's curse (SVC) equilibria where voters with low quality information abstain and equilibria when all participants vote their information. When the asymmetry...

  16. Capital Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  17. Engineering monitoring expert system's developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to apply artificial intelligence technology including expert systems, dynamic interface of neural networks, and hypertext to construct an expert system developer. The developer environment is specifically suited to building expert systems which monitor the performance of ground support equipment for propulsion systems and testing facilities. The expert system developer, through the use of a graphics interface and a rule network, will be transparent to the user during rule constructing and data scanning of the knowledge base. The project will result in a software system that allows its user to build specific monitoring type expert systems which monitor various equipments used for propulsion systems or ground testing facilities and accrues system performance information in a dynamic knowledge base.

  18. Expert witness perceptions of bias in experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, Michael Lamport; Miller, Patrice Marie; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study of perceptions of different sources of expert bias, as well as of personal investment in case outcomes, was performed among attendees at a workshop at an annual meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Participants were asked to rate hypothetical responses by experts to various case outcomes and the biasing potential of different kinds of situations for opposing or other experts. A factor analysis produced two factors. Factor 1 included questions about situations that were obviously biasing (such as working only for the defense). Factor 2 included questions assessing the potential of certain situations to cause bias in experts, or how likely experts thought other experts were to be biased. In general, experts identified only four areas to be overtly biasing. All occurred within situations in which experts worked only for one or the other side of civil or criminal cases. Experts otherwise thought other experts were reasonably bias free and well able to compensate for any bias when it occurred. The data suggest that experts may deal with bias by turning down cases that may cause them personal discomfort.

  19. The influence of cost-per-DALY information in health prioritisation and desirable features for a registry: a survey of health policy experts in Vietnam, India and Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Tantivess, Sripen; Yamabhai, Inthira; Tritasavit, Nattha; Walker, Damian G; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J

    2016-12-03

    Economic evaluation has been implemented to inform policy in many areas, including coverage decisions, technology pricing, and the development of clinical practice guidelines. However, there are barriers to evidence-based policy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that include limited stakeholder awareness, resources and data availability, as well as the lack of capacity to conduct country-specific economic evaluations. This study aims to survey health policy experts' opinions on barriers to use of cost-effectiveness data in these settings and to obtain their advice on how to make a new cost-per-DALY database being developed by Tufts Medical Center more relevant to LMICs. It also identifies the factors influencing transferability. In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 participants, including policymakers, technical advisors, and researchers in Health Ministries, universities and non-governmental organisations in Bangladesh, India (New Delhi, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka) and Vietnam. The survey revealed that, in all settings, the use of cost-effectiveness information in policy development is lacking, owing to limited knowledge among policymakers and inadequate human resources with health economics expertise in the government sector. Furthermore, researchers in universities do not have close connections with health authorities. In India and Vietnam, the demand for evidence to inform coverage decisions tends to increase as the countries are moving towards universal health coverage. The informants in all countries argue that cost-effectiveness data are useful for decision-makers; however, most of them do not perform data searches by themselves but rely on the information provided by the technical advisor counterparts. Most interviewees were familiar with using evidence from other countries and were also aware of the influences of contextual elements as a limitation of transferability. Finally, strategies to promote the newly developed database include

  20. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A.; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  1. Valoración del Informe Pericial sobre la Custodia de Menores en Sentencias Judiciales: Estudio comparativo entre informes privados y oficiales (Expert Assessment Report on Child Custody in Court Judgments: Comparative study between private and official reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rodríguez-Domínguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, divorce with children involved has led to a substantial increase in demand for expert reports. The aim was to analyse the valuation judgments of private forensic expert reports with specific training, private forensic expert reports without specific training and, expert reports of psychosocial teams of the Courts on the custody and visitation of the parent no custodian. Ad hoc protocol made by the authors to 111 litigation files of Family Courts was applied. Significant differences in the evaluations expressed by judicial decisions on private expert reports and the expert reports of psychosocial teams were found. Analysis suggests that the judgments expressed a favourable opinion with preference for expert reports made by employees assigned to family courts psychosocial teams. Direct empirical evidence is provided. 56.8% of the judgments expressed a favourable opinion of the expert reports and urged the parties to follow the recommendations of the expert report.

  2. Image-based medical expert teleconsultation in acute care of injuries. A systematic review of effects on information accuracy, diagnostic validity, clinical outcome, and user satisfaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hasselberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on image-based telemedicine for medical expert consultation in acute care of injuries, considering system, user, and clinical aspects. DESIGN: Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles. DATA SOURCES: Searches of five databases and in eligible articles, relevant reviews, and specialized peer-reviewed journals. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies were included that covered teleconsultation systems based on image capture and transfer with the objective of seeking medical expertise for the diagnostic and treatment of acute injury care and that presented the evaluation of one or several aspects of the system based on empirical data. Studies of systems not under routine practice or including real-time interactive video conferencing were excluded. METHOD: The procedures used in this review followed the PRISMA Statement. Predefined criteria were used for the assessment of the risk of bias. The DeLone and McLean Information System Success Model was used as a framework to synthesise the results according to system quality, user satisfaction, information quality and net benefits. All data extractions were done by at least two reviewers independently. RESULTS: Out of 331 articles, 24 were found eligible. Diagnostic validity and management outcomes were often studied; fewer studies focused on system quality and user satisfaction. Most systems were evaluated at a feasibility stage or during small-scale pilot testing. Although the results of the evaluations were generally positive, biases in the methodology of evaluation were concerning selection, performance and exclusion. Gold standards and statistical tests were not always used when assessing diagnostic validity and patient management. CONCLUSIONS: Image-based telemedicine systems for injury emergency care tend to support valid diagnosis and influence patient management. The evidence relates to a few clinical fields, and has substantial methodological

  3. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling....

  4. Medical Expert Systems Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; There is an increase interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert system is a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology of ...

  5. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  6. Challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertshaw, Luke; Dhesi, Surindar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies that explore challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries. Design Systematic review and qualitative thematic synthesis. Methods Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science. Search terms were combined for qualitative research, primary healthcare professionals, refugees and asylum seekers, and were supplemented by searches of reference lists and citations. Study selection was conducted by two researchers using prespecified selection criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool was conducted by the first author. A thematic synthesis was undertaken to develop descriptive themes and analytical constructs. Results Twenty-six articles reporting on 21 studies and involving 357 participants were included. Eleven descriptive themes were interpreted, embedded within three analytical constructs: healthcare encounter (trusting relationship, communication, cultural understanding, health and social conditions, time); healthcare system (training and guidance, professional support, connecting with other services, organisation, resources and capacity); asylum and resettlement. Challenges and facilitators were described within these themes. Conclusions A range of challenges and facilitators have been identified for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers that are experienced in the dimensions of the healthcare encounter, the healthcare system and wider asylum and resettlement situation. Comprehensive understanding of these challenges and facilitators is important to shape policy, improve the quality of services and provide more equitable health services for this vulnerable group. PMID:28780549

  7. A pilot training programme for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to lesbian, gay and bisexual patients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reygan, Finn C G

    2012-05-09

    OBJECTIVE: The international literature points to the specific cancer risks and palliative care needs of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) populations. However, with the exception of a programme in the USA, there is a lack of training internationally for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to LGB patients. In Ireland, a training project funded by the Irish Cancer Society, the Irish Hospice Foundation and the Health Service Executive developed a training pilot programme for health and social care professionals providing oncological and palliative care to LGB patients. METHODS: Over 200 (N = 201) oncology and palliative care staff participated in 17 brief, 50-min trainings in pilot sites. Evaluation of the training included self-report questionnaires at the end of each training and an evaluation interview with one participant from each of the four sites. RESULTS: The majority of participants reported that they would recommend the training to their colleagues, were interested in further training in the area and found the training useful for their practice. They also reported becoming more familiar with LGB-related language and terminology, became more knowledgeable of LGB health issues and reported becoming more confident in providing care to LGB patients. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are that the training be made available across the health services in Ireland and included in postgraduate courses for trainee health and social care professionals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling....

  9. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390......, reasoning and learning, network management and mobile systems, expert systems and decision support, and information modelling.......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  10. Eliciting expert knowledge in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tara G; Burgman, Mark A; Fidler, Fiona; Kuhnert, Petra M; Low-Choy, Samantha; McBride, Marissa; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-02-01

    Expert knowledge is used widely in the science and practice of conservation because of the complexity of problems, relative lack of data, and the imminent nature of many conservation decisions. Expert knowledge is substantive information on a particular topic that is not widely known by others. An expert is someone who holds this knowledge and who is often deferred to in its interpretation. We refer to predictions by experts of what may happen in a particular context as expert judgments. In general, an expert-elicitation approach consists of five steps: deciding how information will be used, determining what to elicit, designing the elicitation process, performing the elicitation, and translating the elicited information into quantitative statements that can be used in a model or directly to make decisions. This last step is known as encoding. Some of the considerations in eliciting expert knowledge include determining how to work with multiple experts and how to combine multiple judgments, minimizing bias in the elicited information, and verifying the accuracy of expert information. We highlight structured elicitation techniques that, if adopted, will improve the accuracy and information content of expert judgment and ensure uncertainty is captured accurately. We suggest four aspects of an expert elicitation exercise be examined to determine its comprehensiveness and effectiveness: study design and context, elicitation design, elicitation method, and elicitation output. Just as the reliability of empirical data depends on the rigor with which it was acquired so too does that of expert knowledge. ©2011 Australian Governmemt Conservation Biology©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Expert auditors’ services classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Wisniewska

    2013-01-01

    The profession of an expert auditor is a public trust occupation with a distinctive feature of taking responsibility for actions in the public interest. The main responsibility of expert auditors is performing financial auditing; however, expert auditors are prepared to carry out different tasks which encompass a wide plethora of financial and auditing services for different kinds of institutions and companies. The aim of the article is first of all the description of expert auditors’ service...

  12. Expert and Competent Non-Expert Visual Cues during Simulated Diagnosis in Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare eMcCormack

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the information acquisition strategies of expert and competent non-expert intensive care physicians during two simulated diagnostic scenarios involving respiratory distress in an infant. Specifically, the information acquisition performance of six experts and 12 competent non-experts was examined using an eye tracker during the initial 90 seconds of the assessment of the patient. The results indicated that, in comparison to competent non-experts, experts recorded longer mean fixations, irrespective of the scenario. When the dwell times were examined against specific areas of interest, the results revealed that competent non-experts recorded greater overall dwell times on the nurse, where experts recorded relatively greater dwell times on the head and face of the manikin. In the context of the scenarios, experts recorded differential dwell times, spending relatively more time on the head and face during the seizure scenario than during the coughing scenario. The differences evident between experts and competent non-experts were interpreted as evidence of the relative availability of task-specific cues or heuristics in memory that might direct the process of information acquisition amongst expert physicians. The implications are discussed for the training and assessment of diagnostic skills.

  13. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOFTLINKS DIGITAL

    This paper model an expert system called LAPTEX for troubleshooting LaserJet printers' faults. Today, with the innumerable advances in information technologies, computerizing printer's fault troubleshooting and identifying faults is far becoming so vital. Also, printers' fault detection is a complicated process that requires a ...

  14. Challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertshaw, Luke; Dhesi, Surindar; Jones, Laura L

    2017-08-04

    To thematically synthesise primary qualitative studies that explore challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries. Systematic review and qualitative thematic synthesis. Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science. Search terms were combined for qualitative research, primary healthcare professionals, refugees and asylum seekers, and were supplemented by searches of reference lists and citations. Study selection was conducted by two researchers using prespecified selection criteria. Data extraction and quality assessment using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool was conducted by the first author. A thematic synthesis was undertaken to develop descriptive themes and analytical constructs. Twenty-six articles reporting on 21 studies and involving 357 participants were included. Eleven descriptive themes were interpreted, embedded within three analytical constructs: healthcare encounter (trusting relationship, communication, cultural understanding, health and social conditions, time); healthcare system (training and guidance, professional support, connecting with other services, organisation, resources and capacity); asylum and resettlement. Challenges and facilitators were described within these themes. A range of challenges and facilitators have been identified for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers that are experienced in the dimensions of the healthcare encounter, the healthcare system and wider asylum and resettlement situation. Comprehensive understanding of these challenges and facilitators is important to shape policy, improve the quality of services and provide more equitable health services for this vulnerable group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  15. Expert status and performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Burgman

    Full Text Available Expert judgements are essential when time and resources are stretched or we face novel dilemmas requiring fast solutions. Good advice can save lives and large sums of money. Typically, experts are defined by their qualifications, track record and experience. The social expectation hypothesis argues that more highly regarded and more experienced experts will give better advice. We asked experts to predict how they will perform, and how their peers will perform, on sets of questions. The results indicate that the way experts regard each other is consistent, but unfortunately, ranks are a poor guide to actual performance. Expert advice will be more accurate if technical decisions routinely use broadly-defined expert groups, structured question protocols and feedback.

  16. Forensic experts' perceptions of expert bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, Michael Lamport; Miller, Patrice Marie; Li, Eva Yujia; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    How do expert witnesses perceive the possible biases of their fellow expert witnesses? Participants, who were attendees at a workshop at the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law were asked to rate for their biasing potential a number of situations that might affect the behavior of an opposing expert. A Rasch analysis produced a linear scale as to the perceived biasing potential of these different kinds of situations from the most biasing to the least biasing. Working for only one side in both civil and criminal cases had large scaled values and also were the first factor. In interesting contrast, a) an opposing expert also serving as the litigant's treater and b) an opposing expert being viewed as a "hired gun" (supplying an opinion only for money) were two situations viewed as not very biasing. Order of Hierarchical Complexity also accounted for items from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd factors. The result suggests that the difficulty in understanding the conceptual basis of bias underlies the perception of how biased a behavior or a situation is. The more difficult to understand the questionnaire item, the less biasing its behavior or situation is perceived by participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Image-Based Medical Expert Teleconsultation in Acute Care of Injuries. A Systematic Review of Effects on Information Accuracy, Diagnostic Validity, Clinical Outcome, and User Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Hasselberg; Netta Beer; Lisa Blom; Wallis, Lee A; Lucie Laflamme

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on image-based telemedicine for medical expert consultation in acute care of injuries, considering system, user, and clinical aspects. DESIGN: Systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles. DATA SOURCES: Searches of five databases and in eligible articles, relevant reviews, and specialized peer-reviewed journals. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies were included that covered teleconsultation systems based on image capture and transfer with th...

  18. Introduction to expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.

    1986-01-01

    Expert systems have become one of the most exciting applications within the domain of artificial intelligence. Further interest has been provoked by Japan's Fifth Generation Project, which identifies expert or knowledge-based systems as a key element in the computer systems of the future. This book presents an introduction to expert systems at a level suited to the undergraduate student and the interested layman. It surveys the three main techniques for knowledge representation - rules, frames and logic. and describes in detail the expert systems which employ them. Contents: Expert systems and artificial intelligence; Formalisms for knowledge representation; MYCIN; Medical diagnosis using rules. MYCIN derivatives; TEIRESIAS, EMYCIN, and GUIDON; RI: recognition as a problem-solving strategy; CENTAUR: a combination of frames metalevel inference and commonsense reasoning in MECHO; Tools for building expert systems; Summary and conclusions; Exercises.

  19. Expert systems to improve plant operability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopocy, D.M.; Glazer, A.R. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (USA)); Jonas, O. (Jonas, Inc., Wilmington, DE (US)); Rice, J.K. (James K. Rice, Chartered, Olney, MD (US))

    1988-01-01

    Prospective expert system applications in the power industry generally are in one of the following categories:esign, information management, plant operations, and equipment diagnostics. Many power facility expert system efforts are four plant operations. Several of these applications help optimize plant operation and also detect developing problems and suggest remedial action before the occurrence of any serious consequences. Many types of plant processes and equipment can benefit from routine trending and evaluation of operating data by this type of expert system. This paper discusses a variety of special considerations for the development and implementation of expert systems for plant operations, both in general and as exemplified by CYCLEXPRT.

  20. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  1. How Expert Designers Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Peter Sloep; J. van Merrienboer; C. Carr; P. Kirschner

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses two studies - the one in a business context, the other in a university context - carried out with expert educational designers. The studies aimed to determine the priorities experts claim to employ when designing competence-based learning environments. Designers in both contexts

  2. Expert Systems in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartschuh, Wayne

    This paper argues that the concepts and techniques used in the development of expert systems should be expanded and applied to the field of education, particularly in the area of intelligent tutoring systems. It is noted that expert systems are a well known area of artificial intelligence and have been proven effective in well-defined topic areas.…

  3. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  4. Expert F# 20

    CERN Document Server

    Syme, Don; Cisternino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Expert F# 2.0 is about practical programming in a beautiful language that puts the power and elegance of functional programming into the hands of professional developers. In combination with .NET, F# achieves unrivaled levels of programmer productivity and program clarity. Expert F# 2.0 is * The authoritative guide to F# by the inventor of F# * A comprehensive reference of F# concepts, syntax, and features * A treasury of expert F# techniques for practical, real-world programming F# isn't just another functional programming language. It's a general-purpose language ideal for real-world develop

  5. Benchmarking expert system tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  6. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

    2013-12-01

    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  7. Practical problems in aggregating expert opinions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.M.; Picard, R.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1993-11-01

    Expert opinion is data given by a qualified person in response to a technical question. In these analyses, expert opinion provides information where other data are either sparse or non-existent. Improvements in forecasting result from the advantageous addition of expert opinion to observed data in many areas, such as meteorology and econometrics. More generally, analyses of large, complex systems often involve experts on various components of the system supplying input to a decision process; applications include such wide-ranging areas as nuclear reactor safety, management science, and seismology. For large or complex applications, no single expert may be knowledgeable enough about the entire application. In other problems, decision makers may find it comforting that a consensus or aggregation of opinions is usually better than a single opinion. Many risk and reliability studies require a single estimate for modeling, analysis, reporting, and decision making purposes. For problems with large uncertainties, the strategy of combining as diverse a set of experts as possible hedges against underestimation of that uncertainty. Decision makers are frequently faced with the task of selecting the experts and combining their opinions. However, the aggregation is often the responsibility of an analyst. Whether the decision maker or the analyst does the aggregation, the input for it, such as providing weights for experts or estimating other parameters, is imperfect owing to a lack of omniscience. Aggregation methods for expert opinions have existed for over thirty years; yet many of the difficulties with their use remain unresolved. The bulk of these problem areas are summarized in the sections that follow: sensitivities of results to assumptions, weights for experts, correlation of experts, and handling uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the sources of these problems and describe their effects on aggregation.

  8. Expert System for Data Security Risk Management for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Janulevičius

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of expertise and expert inferences is one of the key factors for appropriate expert evaluation. Appropriate and timely expert information allows a smooth process of expertise. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs have limited possibilities to acquire professional expertise for data security risk analysis due to limited finances. A risk management expert system is developed for SMEs with the ability to adapt to various subject domains using ontologies of the field.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Soft Expert Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem.

  10. Task shifting of triage to peer expert informal care providers at a tertiary referral HIV clinic in Malawi: a cross-sectional operational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Megan; Thompson, Courtney; Mwinjiwa, Edson; Thaulo, Edith; Gondwe, Chrissie; Akello, Harriet; Chan, Adrienne K

    2017-05-09

    HIV treatment models in Africa are labour intensive and require a high number of skilled staff. In this context, task-shifting is considered a feasible alternative for ART service delivery. In 2006, a lay health cadre of expert patients (EPs) at a tertiary referral HIV clinic in Zomba, Malawi was capacitated. There are few evaluations of EP program efficacy in this setting. Triage is the process of prioritizing patients in terms of the severity of their condition and ensures that no harmful delays occur to treatment and care. This study evaluates the safety of task-shifting triage, in an ambulatory low resource setting, to EPs. As a quality improvement exercise in April 2010, formal triage training was conducted by adapting the World Health Organization Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment Triage Module Guidelines. A cross sectional observation study was conducted 2 years after the intervention. Triage assessments performed by EPs were repeated by a clinical officer (gold standard) to assess sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values for EP triage scores. Proportions were calculated for categories of disposition by stratifying by EP and clinician triage scores. A total of 467 patients were triaged by 7 EPs and re-triaged by clinical officers. With combined triage scores for emergency and priority patients we report a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 74% for the EP scoring, with a low positive predictive value (41%) and a high negative predictive value (96%). We calculate a serious miss rate of EP scoring (i.e. missed priority or emergency patients) as 2.2%. Admission rates to hospital were highest among those patients triaged as emergency cases either by the EP's (21%) or the clinicians (83%). Fewer patients triaged as priority by either EPs (5%) or clinicians (15%) were admitted to hospital, however these patients had the highest prevalence of same day lab testing and/or specialty referral. Our study provides reassurance that

  11. Expert Oracle application express

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John Edward

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express brings you groundbreaking insights into developing with Oracle's enterprise-level, rapid-development tool from some of the best practitioners in the field today. Oracle Application Express (APEX) is an entirely web-based development framework that is built into every edition of Oracle Database. The framework rests upon Oracle's powerful PL/SQL language, enabling power users and developers to rapidly develop applications that easily scale to hundreds, even thousands of concurrent users. The 13 authors of Expert Oracle Application Express build their careers aro

  12. Planning and Designing Academic Library Learning Spaces: Expert Perspectives of Architects, Librarians, and Library Consultants. Project Information Literacy Research Report. The Practitioner Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies approaches, challenges, and best practices related to planning and designing today's academic library learning spaces. As part of the Project Information Literacy (PIL) Practitioner Series, qualitative data is presented from 49 interviews conducted with a sample of academic librarians, architects, and library consultants.…

  13. Introduction of Information Science into Library Training in Eastern Africa. Expert Meeting (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, February 26-29, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, S. A. H.; Moeller, T.

    In 1978 a team of three people was formed to survey the existing library training facilities in East Africa and to suggest possibilities as to how the elements of information science could be introduced either into existing programs or into special courses organized for the purpose. The team submitted its report to a joint meeting of the…

  14. Information Communication Technology in the Form of an Expert System Shell as a Cognitive Tool to Facilitate Higher-Order Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gary W.; Knoetze, Johan G.

    2014-01-01

    Information communication technology is capable of contributing supplementary teaching and learning strategies that can be used to address various educational challenges faced by higher education. Students who enter South African higher education institutions are often academically under-prepared and have not developed the cognitive skills…

  15. Expert judgement models in quantitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosqvist, T. [VTT Automation, Helsinki (Finland); Tuominen, R. [VTT Automation, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    Expert judgement is a valuable source of information in risk management. Especially, risk-based decision making relies significantly on quantitative risk assessment, which requires numerical data describing the initiator event frequencies and conditional probabilities in the risk model. This data is seldom found in databases and has to be elicited from qualified experts. In this report, we discuss some modelling approaches to expert judgement in risk modelling. A classical and a Bayesian expert model is presented and applied to real case expert judgement data. The cornerstone in the models is the log-normal distribution, which is argued to be a satisfactory choice for modelling degree-of-belief type probability distributions with respect to the unknown parameters in a risk model. Expert judgements are qualified according to bias, dispersion, and dependency, which are treated differently in the classical and Bayesian approaches. The differences are pointed out and related to the application task. Differences in the results obtained from the different approaches, as applied to real case expert judgement data, are discussed. Also, the role of a degree-of-belief type probability in risk decision making is discussed.

  16. Expert Script Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Nancy E.; Cooper, Eric G.

    1991-01-01

    Program provides additional level of interface to facilitate use of telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is software package automatically generating high-level task objective commands from complex menu-driven language of the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Laboratory (ISRL). Makes telerobotics laboratory accessible to researchers not familiar with comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with various systems of ISRL test bed. Incorporates expert-system technology to capture typical rules of operation that skilled operator uses. Result: operator interfact optimizing ability of system to perform task remotely in hazardous environment, in timely manner, and without undue stress to operator, while minimizing change for operator erros that damage equipment. Written in CLIPS.

  17. Bioethics for Technical Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    Along with rapidly expanding applications of life science and technology, technical experts have been implicated more and more often with ethical, social, and legal problems than before. It should be noted that in this background there are scientific and social uncertainty elements which are inevitable during the progress of life science in addition to the historically-established social unreliability to scientists and engineers. In order to solve these problems, therefore, we should establish the social governance with ‘relief’ and ‘reliance’ which enables for both citizens and engineers to share the awareness of the issues, to design social orders and criterions based on hypothetical sense of values for bioethics, to carry out practical use management of each subject carefully, and to improve the sense of values from hypothetical to universal. Concerning these measures, the technical experts can learn many things from the present performance in the medical field.

  18. Expert PLSQL Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Beresniewicz, John

    2011-01-01

    Expert PL/SQL Practices is a book of collected wisdom on PL/SQL programming from some of the best and the brightest in the field. Each chapter is a deep-dive into a specific problem, technology, or feature set that you'll face as a PL/SQL programmer. Each author has chosen their topic out of the strong belief that what they share can make a positive difference in the quality and scalability of code that you write. The path to mastery begins with syntax and the mechanics of writing statements to make things happen. If you've reached that point with PL/SQL, then let the authors of Expert PL/SQL

  19. Evolution of expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancoli, L.

    1984-03-01

    A brief exposition of the nature and functions of expert systems (knowledge based systems) and some remarks upon the way in which they resemble, but fall far short of, the very largely intuitive action of the human brain are given. The remainder of the article consists of summaries of the work being done in this field by organisations in Italy, namely: ISPRA; Delphi Electronic Design Systems, VIAREGGIO; SPL Italia SPA, (VA), Milan; Italservice Srl, Milan; and Artificial Intelligence Software, Rovigo.

  20. At-risk adolescents as experts in a new requirements elicitation procedure for the development of a smart phone psychoeducational trauma-informed care application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Schug, Seran; Zhu, Jichen; Smith, T J; Senathirajah, Yalini; Bloom, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents from urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities of color encounter high rates of adverse childhood experiences. To address the resulting multidimensional problems, we developed an innovative approach, Experiential Participatory and Interactive Knowledge Elicitation (EPIKE), using remote experiential needs elicitation methods to generate design and content requirements for a mobile health (mHealth) psychoeducational intervention. At a community-based organization in a northeastern city, the research team developed EPIKE by incorporating elicitation of input on the graphics and conducting remotely recorded experiential meetings and iterative reviews of the design to produce an mHealth smartphone story application (app) prototype for the participants to critique. The 22 participants were 13- to 17-year-olds, predominantly African American and female, from underresourced communities. The four goals of the design process were attained: 1) story development from participant input; 2) needs-elicitation that reflected the patient-centered care approach; 3) interactive story game creation that accommodates the participants' emotional and cognitive developmental needs; 4) development of a game that adolescents can relate to and that which matches their comfort levels of emotional intensity. The EPIKE approach can be used successfully to identify the needs of adolescents across the digital divide to inform the design and development of mHealth apps.

  1. ALICE Expert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ionita, C

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN employs a number of human operators (shifters), who have to make sure that the experiment is always in a state compatible with taking Physics data. Given the complexity of the system and the myriad of errors that can arise, this is not always a trivial task. The aim of this paper is to describe an expert system that is capable of assisting human shifters in the ALICE control room. The system diagnoses potential issues and attempts to make smart recommendations for troubleshooting. At its core, a Prolog engine infers whether a Physics or a technical run can be started based on the current state of the underlying sub-systems. A separate C++ component queries certain SMI objects and stores their state as facts in a Prolog knowledge base. By mining the data stored in dierent system logs, the expert system can also diagnose errors arising during a run. Currently the system is used by the on-call experts for faster response times, but we expect it to be adopted as a standard tool by reg...

  2. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    schemata, query evaluation, semantic processing, information retrieval, temporal and spatial databases, querying XML, organisational aspects of databases, natural language processing, ontologies, Web data extraction, semantic Web, data stream management, data extraction, distributed database systems......This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications, DEXA 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005.The 92 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 390...... submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  3. [Expert Opinions in Court: Liability of the Expert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Beckmann, Nickolas; Gaidzik, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Experts in criminal, civil and, increasingly, in social court cases have to present their expert opinions in court. This should be regarded not only as a burden, even if this may at times appear superfluous to the expert, perhaps because the discussion is mere repetition of the opinion he has already written, or because the questions appear to be biased against the expert. Nonetheless, the expert is always advised to appear calm and objective during the interrogation by judges and parties or participants and their legal representatives, and should not allow himself or herself to be provoked by questioning. Furthermore, it may be necessary to correct the written expert statement in the course of the interrogation, but this can be a sign of a truly competent medical expert. The expert consulted can be held liable for adverse health effects resulting from the interrogation and investigation, as well as for deliberate or grossly faulty reports. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. A Combinatorial Auction among Versatile Experts and Amateurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takayuki; Yokoo, Makoto; Matsubara, Shigeo

    Auctions have become an integral part of electronic commerce and a promising field for applying multi-agent technologies. Correctly judging the quality of auctioned goods is often difficult for amateurs, in particular, in Internet auctions. However, experts can correctly judge the quality of goods. In this situation, it is difficult to make experts tell the truth and attain an efficient allocation, since experts have a clear advantage over amateurs and they would not reveal their valuable information without some reward. In our previous work, we have succeeded in developing such auction protocols under the following two cases: (1) the case of a single-unit auction among experts and amateurs, and (2) the case of a combinatorial auction among single-skilled experts and amateurs. In this paper, we focus on versatile experts. Versatile experts have an interest in, and expert knowledge on the qualities of several goods. In the case of versatile experts, there would be several problems, e.g., free riding problems, if we simply extended the previous VCG-style auction protocol. Thus, in this paper, we employ PORF (price-oriented, rationing-free) protocol for designing our new protocol to realize a strategy-proof auction protocol for experts. In the protocol, the dominant strategy for experts is truth-telling. Also, for amateurs, truth-telling is the best response when two or more experts select the dominant strategy. Furthermore, the protocol is false-name-proof.

  5. Transfer of expert visual anticipation to a similar domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Moore, Christopher; Müller, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The experiment reported in this paper examined the capability of expert and near-expert baseball batters and novices to transfer anticipatory skill to a cricket batting prediction task. A video-simulation temporal occlusion paradigm was used to first assess the anticipatory skill of expertise groups in a baseball batting prediction task (learning sport) and, second, to assess the capability of expertise groups to transfer anticipation skill to a cricket batting prediction task (transfer sport). Results showed that expert and near-expert baseball batters were superior to novices at anticipating pitch type based upon pre-ball-flight advance information. Only expert baseball batters were capable of transferring their anticipatory skill to predict delivery type based upon advance information in the bowler's action, whilst near-experts and novices relied upon ball-flight information. The findings extend understanding of transfer of learning in the motor domain and some theoretical/empirical concepts of transfer.

  6. Bipolar Neutrosophic Soft Expert Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Mehmet; Deli, İrfan; Uluçay, Vakkas

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce concept of bipolar neutrosophic soft expert set and its some operations. Also, we propose score, certainty and accuracy functions to compare the bipolar neutrosophic soft expert sets. We give examples for these concepts. 

  7. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Salaçin

    1997-01-01

    Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerin...

  8. Expert Oracle Exadata

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, advances in technology have come in spurts. A single great idea can often spur rapid change as the idea takes hold and is propagated, often in totally unexpected directions. Exadata embodies such a change in how we think about and manage relational databases. The key change lies in the concept of offloading SQL processing to the storage layer. That concept is a huge win, and its implementation in the form of Exadata is truly a game changer. Expert Oracle Exadata will give you a look under the covers at how the combination of hardware and software that comprise Exadata actua

  9. Expert Systems - A Natural History

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the origins, current state and future prospects for expert systems. The origins are traced from the schism with classic Artificial Intelligence. The characteristics of early expert systems are described and contrasted with more recent developments. A number of influential forces operating on present day systems are reviewed. The future trends in the evolution of expert systems are discussed.

  10. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System | Adesola | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper model an expert system called LAPTEX for troubleshooting LaserJet printers' faults. Today, with the innumerable advances in information technologies, computerizing printer's fault troubleshooting and identifying faults is far becoming so vital. Also, printers' fault detection is a complicated process that requires a ...

  11. Applications of artificial intelligence and expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 30 papers. Some of the titles are: operating systems for CD/ROM; the impact of optical storage technology on education; the future of expert systems in the financial services industry; the future of compact disk/DC-1 explosive ordinance disposal rendered safe information system; and will artificial intelligence improve computer based training (CBT) development process.

  12. Integrating Methodologists into Teams of Substantive Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    higher-order princi ples to solve problems.7 A novice, for example, might group objects together by color or size, whereas an expert would group the...informal I Stibiec live, impressionistic) and Formal (Mechani cal, Algorithmic) Piediction Procedures� The clinical-Statistical Coniro~�ersy,� Psicholog

  13. Interventions to improve the self-management support health professionals provide for people with progressive neurological conditions: protocol for a realist synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Freya; Wood, Fiona; Bullock, Alison; Wallace, Carolyn; Edwards, Adrian

    2017-03-20

    Supporting self-management among people with long-term conditions is recognised as an important component of healthcare. Progressive neurological conditions (PNCs), for example, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis are associated with problems such as fatigue and cognitive impairment which may make self-management more challenging. Health professionals may need to develop specific skills in order to provide effective self-management support for these patients. The review aims to develop explanatory theories about how health professional-targeted interventions to improve self-management support provision for people with PNCs operate in different circumstances. A realist synthesis of the evidence is proposed. There are 2 priority questions for the review to address. These relate to the role of a shared concept of self-management support within the healthcare team, and the need to tailor the support provided to the requirements of people with PNCs. Key stakeholders will be involved throughout the process. The initial search strategy uses terms relating to (1) self-management, (2) health professionals and (3) PNCs. Searching, data extraction and synthesis will occur in parallel. Studies will be prioritised for inclusion based on anticipated contribution to generating explanatory theories. Key informant interviews are planned to direct supplementary searches and help further refine the theories developed. Results will be expressed in the form of context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Publication guidelines on realist synthesis will be followed. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and made available to organisations involved in the provision of health professional training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Accuracy and interobserver agreement between MR-non-expert radiologists and MR-experts in reading MRI for suspected appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M.N., E-mail: m.m.leeuwenburgh@amc.uva.nl [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wiarda, Bart M. [Department of Radiology, Alkmaar Medical Center, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Jensch, Sebastiaan [Department of Radiology, Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wouter van Es, H. [Department of Radiology, Sint Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Stockmann, Hein B.A.C. [Department of Surgery, Kennemer Gasthuis, Haarlem (Netherlands); Gratama, Jan Willem C. [Department of Radiology, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Cobben, Lodewijk P.J. [Department of Radiology, Haaglanden Medical Center, Leidschendam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M.M. [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boermeester, Marja A. [Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: To compare accuracy and interobserver agreement between radiologists with limited experience in the evaluation of abdominal MRI (non-experts), and radiologists with longer MR reading experience (experts), in reading MRI in patients with suspected appendicitis. Methods: MR imaging was performed in 223 adult patients with suspected appendicitis and read independently by two members of a team of eight MR-inexperienced radiologists, who were trained with 100 MR examinations previous to this study (non-expert reading). Expert reading was performed by two radiologists with a larger abdominal MR experience (>500 examinations) in consensus. A final diagnosis was assigned after three months based on all available information, except MRI findings. We estimated MRI sensitivity and specificity for appendicitis and for all urgent diagnoses separately. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa statistics. Results: Urgent diagnoses were assigned to 147 of 223 patients; 117 had appendicitis. Sensitivity for appendicitis was 0.89 by MR-non-expert radiologists and 0.97 in MR-expert reading (p = 0.01). Specificity was 0.83 for MR-non-experts versus 0.93 for MR-expert reading (p = 0.002). MR-experts and MR-non-experts agreed on appendicitis in 89% of cases (kappa 0.78). Accuracy in detecting urgent diagnoses was significantly lower in MR-non-experts compared to MR-expert reading: sensitivity 0.84 versus 0.95 (p < 0.001) and specificity 0.71 versus 0.82 (p = 0.03), respectively. Agreement on urgent diagnoses was 83% (kappa 0.63). Conclusion: MR-non-experts have sufficient sensitivity in reading MRI in patients with suspected appendicitis, with good agreement with MR-expert reading, but accuracy of MR-expert reading was higher.

  15. ESG - EXPERT SCRIPT GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA's Langley Research Center is employing increasingly complex degrees of operator/robot cooperation (telerobotics). A good relationship between the operator and computer is essential for smooth performance by a telerobotic system. ESG (Expert Script Generator) is a software package that automatically generates high-level task objective commands from the NASA Intelligent Systems Research Lab's (ISRL's) complex menu-driven language. ESG reduces errors and makes the telerobotics lab accessible to researchers who are not familiar with the comprehensive language developed by ISRL for interacting with the various systems of the ISRL testbed. ESG incorporates expert system technology to capture the typical rules of operation that a skilled operator would use. The result is an operator interface which optimizes the system's capability to perform a task remotely in a hazardous environment, in a timely manner, and without undue stress to the operator, while minimizing the chance for operator errors that may damage equipment. The intricate menu-driven command interface which provides for various control modes of both manipulators and their associated sensors in the TeleRobotic System Simulation (TRSS) has a syntax which is both irregular and verbose. ESG eliminates the following two problems with this command "language": 1) knowing the correct command sequence to accomplish a task, and 2) inputting a known command sequence without typos and other errors. ESG serves as an additional layer of interface, working in conjunction with the menu command processor, not supplanting it. By specifying task-level commands, such as GRASP, CONNECT, etc., ESG will generate the appropriate menu elements to accomplish the task. These elements will be collected in a script file which can then be executed by the ISRL menu command processor. In addition, the operator can extend the list of task-level commands to include customized tasks composed of sub

  16. Supporting experts to handle tweet collections about significant events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hürriyetoglu, Ali; Oostdijk, Nelleke; Basar, Erkan; van den Bosch, A.; Frasincar, F.; Ittoo, A.; Nguyen, L.; Metais, E.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce Relevancer that processes a tweet set and enables generating an automatic classifier from it. Relevancer satisfies information needs of experts during significant events. Enabling experts to combine automatic procedures with expertise is the main contribution of our approach and the

  17. The development of an expert system for arid rangeland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, the expert system uses wiki technology, as this allows a high level of interaction between user and administrator. The expert system includes embedded links to photographs and additional information. It allows easy updating of the knowledge base. An additional booklet was also developed, since access to ...

  18. Web-based tool for expert elicitation of the variogram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, N.P.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Gosling, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert

  19. Handbook of VLSI chip design and expert systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, A F

    1993-01-01

    Handbook of VLSI Chip Design and Expert Systems provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of expert systems, which provides a knowledge-based approach to problem solving. This book discusses the use of expert systems in every possible subtask of VLSI chip design as well as in the interrelations between the subtasks.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of design automation, which can be identified as Computer-Aided Design of Circuits and Systems (CADCAS). This text then presents the progress in artificial intelligence, with emphasis on expert systems.

  20. Expert systems for satellite stationkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaru, M. M.; Wright, M. A.

    The feasibility of implementing artificial intelligence on satellites is evaluated, with the aim of using an onboard expert system to perform effective stationkeeping functions without assistance from the ground. The Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS III) is used as an example. The cost for implementing a satellite stationkeeping expert system is analyzed. A ground-based expert system could reduce the current number of support personnel for the stationkeeping task. Results of analyzing a possible flight system are quite promising. An expert system for satellite stationkeeping seems feasible, appears cost-effective, and offers increased satellite endurance through autonomous operations.

  1. Informe pericial psicológico en tribunales de familia: análisis de su estructura, metodología y contenido (Expert psychological reports in family courts: Evaluating their structure, methodology, and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rodríguez-Domínguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, contested divorces involving children are frequent and entail an increased demand for expert psychological reports. This article describes the structure, methodology, and content of psychological reports provided to family courts by private expert psychologists and the family court’s expert psychosocial team. The aim was to analyse the formal structure of the reports, their demographic and professional characteristics, methodology, assessment content, guarantees and limitations of the results, professional evaluation of the informant’s statements during interviews, recommendations, and psychometric tests used. The reports from the private expert psychologists and those from the expert psychosocial teams were compared and contrasted. A template constructed by the authors was used to analyse 111 family court records of contested divorces. The results showed significant differences between the two types of report in their structure, methodology, assessment content, and psychometric tests. Highly qualified women provided the majority of the expert opinions. The reports were well-structured and included recommendations on the type of custody and custody regime for the non-custodial parent, the evaluation of parental competence, and the relationship of the children with their families.

  2. A new Expert Finding model based on Term Correlation Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Pornour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the enormous volume of unstructured information available on the Web and inside organization, finding an answer to the knowledge need in a short time is difficult. For this reason, beside Search Engines which don’t consider users individual characteristics, Recommender systems were created which use user’s previous activities and other individual characteristics to help users find needed knowledge. Recommender systems usage is increasing every day. Expert finder systems also by introducing expert people instead of recommending information to users have provided this facility for users to ask their questions form experts. Having relation with experts not only causes information transition, but also with transferring experiences and inception causes knowledge transition. In this paper we used university professors academic resume as expert people profile and then proposed a new expert finding model that recommends experts to users query. We used Term Correlation Matrix, Vector Space Model and PageRank algorithm and proposed a new hybrid model which outperforms conventional methods. This model can be used in internet environment, organizations and universities that experts have resume dataset.

  3. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  4. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    attempt to present the necessity and importance of implementing expert systems in agricultural insurance as a solution of development of the Romanian agricultural sector since insurance play an important role in the stimulation of investments in agriculture and in the stabilization of agricultural producers incomes. The results of the study, at a conceptual level, confirms the necessity of aplying expert systems in agricultural insurance because of the benefits which would be created (informing agricultural producers about the existence and importance of agricultural insurance, the development of the insurance market which would lead to the development of agriculture, creation of new insurance products adapted to the needs of the farmers.

  5. Expert systems for on line security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, R.D.; Talukdar, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    This paper argues that automatic security assessment schemes cannot generate information of high quality until their architectures, which are now wholly algorithmic, are changed to hybrids combining algorithms with expert systems. In particular, numerical algorithms should continue to be used for simulating the effects of contingencies, but expert systems should be developed for selecting the contingencies and interpreting the simulation results. These changes will make automatic schemes more closely resemble the manual schemes that are used off line too generate assessment information of high quality. The problems of integrating hybrid software into existing Energy Management Systems (EMSs) are far from trivial. The paper goes on to discuss these problems and suggest a solution, namely the use of a network of workstations tied to existing EMS computers.

  6. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Harold O.; Burford, Anna Marie

    1990-01-01

    Delineates artificial intelligence/expert systems (AI/ES) concepts; provides an exposition of some business application areas; relates progress; and creates an awareness of the benefits, limitations, and reservations of AI/ES. (Author)

  7. Experts views' on Digital Competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2013-01-01

    Janssen, J., & Stoyanov, S. (2012, 20 November). Online Consultation for a Digital Competence Framework: Experts' views on Digital Competence. Workshop presentation at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Seville, Spain.

  8. A theory of expert leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Goodall, Amanda H.

    2012-01-01

    How much knowledge should leaders have of their organization's core business? This is an important question but not one that has been addressed in the management literature. In a new 'theory of expert leadership' (TEL), this paper blends conceptual work with recent empirical evidence. It suggests that organizations perform more effectively when led by individuals who have a deep understanding of the core business of their organization. Being a capable general manager is not sufficient. Expert...

  9. Experts in science and society

    CERN Document Server

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In today's complex world, we have come to rely increasingly on those who have expertise in specific areas and can bring their knowledge to bear on crucial social, political and scientific questions. Taking the viewpoint that experts are consulted when there is something important at stake for an individual, a group, or society at large, Experts in Science and Society explores expertise as a relational concept. How do experts balance their commitment to science with that to society? How does a society actually determine that a person has expertise? What personal traits are valued in an expert? From where does the expert derive authority? What makes new forms of expertise emerge? These and related questions are addressed from a wide range of areas in order to be inclusive, as well as to demonstrate similarities across areas. Likewise, in order to be culturally comparative, this volume includes examples and discussions of experts in different countries and even in different time periods. The topics include the r...

  10. Comparing the quality of crowdsourced data contributed by expert and non-experts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda See

    Full Text Available There is currently a lack of in-situ environmental data for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed products and for the development and verification of models. Crowdsourcing is increasingly being seen as one potentially powerful way of increasing the supply of in-situ data but there are a number of concerns over the subsequent use of the data, in particular over data quality. This paper examined crowdsourced data from the Geo-Wiki crowdsourcing tool for land cover validation to determine whether there were significant differences in quality between the answers provided by experts and non-experts in the domain of remote sensing and therefore the extent to which crowdsourced data describing human impact and land cover can be used in further scientific research. The results showed that there was little difference between experts and non-experts in identifying human impact although results varied by land cover while experts were better than non-experts in identifying the land cover type. This suggests the need to create training materials with more examples in those areas where difficulties in identification were encountered, and to offer some method for contributors to reflect on the information they contribute, perhaps by feeding back the evaluations of their contributed data or by making additional training materials available. Accuracies were also found to be higher when the volunteers were more consistent in their responses at a given location and when they indicated higher confidence, which suggests that these additional pieces of information could be used in the development of robust measures of quality in the future.

  11. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Salaçin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerinin sınırlarının tartışılması amaçlanmış.Seksen altı sayfadan oluşan kitabın fiatı on iki İngiliz Sterlini. Kitap üç bölüm ve bunların altında toplanan on ana başlıktan oluşmakta. Elinize aldığınızda küçük boyutu ve anlaşılır dili ile hemen okunup bitirelecek kitaplardan sanılıyor. En azından ben böyle düşünmüştüm. Ancak daha L A Tuınberg ve A J Bellinham’ın ön yazısında ben çarpıldım. Değerli yazarların kaleme aldığı başlıklar ve gündeme getirdiği tartışmaların tüm Adli Bilimlerle uğraşanların dikkatle okuması gereken cinsten olduğu kanısındayım. Birinci bölüm The Legal Perspective iki anabaşlıktan oluşuyor, The Criminal legal perspective Honour Judje Martin Stephens tarafından yazılmış,bilirkişi olarak görev yapabilmek için belgelenmiş bir eğitim olması gerektiği, mahkemelerde ya da yazılı raporlarda verilebilecek görüşlerin incelikleri tartışılmış. Bu bölümün ikinci anabaşlığı The civil legal perspective avukat Jennifer Cummin tarafından yazılmış. Toplum gözünde bilirkişinin anlamı ve mahkemenin bilirkişi görüşünü değişmez bilimsel doğru gibi algılayarak düştüğü bilimsel yanılgı ve raporlardaki kavram farkı dile getirilmiş. İkinci Bölüm The Medical And Scientific Perspective başlığı altında Roger C Evans MD Clinical evidence başlığında toplumun hasta tedavisi ve bilirkişilik hizmetinden beklentilerinin unrealistik olduğu ve

  12. Enhancing Transparency in Multidisciplinary Expert Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukki, Kristiina; Pulkkinen, Urho [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2003-10-01

    Faced with problems of public acceptance most nuclear waste management organisations now acknowledge the importance of transparency in their pursuit of solutions for high-level nuclear waste disposal. To make progress the implementing organizations need the trust of other stakeholders in the decision-making process. For such trust these outside stakeholders need knowledge on the grounds for the judgments and decisions made in different scientific and technical disciplines. Transparency is, however, at least as important for the multidisciplinary expert communication itself. As a matter of fact, the transparency of the internal expert interaction processes is a prerequisite for the true transparency of the communication between the implementer and the external stakeholder groups. The introduced conceptual framework has been developed for the identification of the requirements of safety-informed communication in multidisciplinary expert work in nuclear waste management. The framework offers a common thinking model and common concepts which can be utilized in the development of the communication practices. The basis of the framework is on the possibility to understand the safety-critical significance of one's work. The transparency of communication is, for its part, based on making explicit the relevant knowledge necessary for gaining the understanding. This supplementary knowledge, which is related to the substance issues but is not scientific-technical by nature, enhances the experts' awareness of the context of their own contribution and of the background of the other experts' contributions. The common conceptualization and modelling of the knowledge-related dependencies between the tasks make it possible to realize the significance of the supplementary knowledge for transparent communication in actual situations. They also facilitate the recognition of the need for different types of supplementary knowledge in the interfaces between the tasks. By

  13. Librarians as Experts: Using the Web to Assert Our Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Lauren; Gilbertson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    People see challenges to libraries in funding, in ebooks, and in the internet. However, in this information-rich age, librarians' roles are even more important. They are information experts. They know how to think about the changing information environment, and they know the impact--both positive and negative--it can have on people whose jobs…

  14. Expert system application education project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzelez, Avelino J.; Ragusa, James M.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) technology, and in particular expert systems, has shown potential applicability in many areas of operation at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In an era of limited resources, the early identification of good expert system applications, and their segregation from inappropriate ones can result in a more efficient use of available NASA resources. On the other hand, the education of students in a highly technical area such as AI requires an extensive hands-on effort. The nature of expert systems is such that proper sample applications for the educational process are difficult to find. A pilot project between NASA-KSC and the University of Central Florida which was designed to simultaneously address the needs of both institutions at a minimum cost. This project, referred to as Expert Systems Prototype Training Project (ESPTP), provided NASA with relatively inexpensive development of initial prototype versions of certain applications. University students likewise benefit by having expertise on a non-trivial problem accessible to them at no cost. Such expertise is indispensible in a hands-on training approach to developing expert systems.

  15. Development of a Spacecraft Materials Selector Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, G.; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report contains a description of the knowledge base tool and examples of its use. A downloadable version of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base is available through the NASA Space Environments and Effects Program. The "Spacecraft Materials Selector" knowledge base is part of an electronic expert system. The expert system consists of an inference engine that contains the "decision-making" code and the knowledge base that contains the selected body of information. The inference engine is a software package previously developed at Boeing, called the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST) kit.

  16. A Phenomenology of Expert Musicianship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    This dissertation develops a phenomenology of expert musicianship through an interdisciplinary approach that integrates qualitative interviews with the Danish String Quartet with philosophical analyses drawing on ideas and theses found in phenomenology, philosophy of mind, cognitive science...... and psychology of music. The dissertation is structured through the asking, analyzing and answering of three primary questions, namely: 1) What is it like to be an expert? 2) What is the general phenomenology of expert musicianship? 3) What happens to the self in deep musical absorption? The first question...... targets a central debate in philosophy and psychology on whether reflection is conducive for, or detrimental to, skillful performance. My analyses show that the concepts assumed in the literature on this question are poorly defined and gloss over more important features of expertise. The second question...

  17. Quantitative knowledge acquisition for expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Brenda L.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    A common problem in the design of expert systems is the definition of rules from data obtained in system operation or simulation. While it is relatively easy to collect data and to log the comments of human operators engaged in experiments, generalizing such information to a set of rules has not previously been a direct task. A statistical method is presented for generating rule bases from numerical data, motivated by an example based on aircraft navigation with multiple sensors. The specific objective is to design an expert system that selects a satisfactory suite of measurements from a dissimilar, redundant set, given an arbitrary navigation geometry and possible sensor failures. The systematic development is described of a Navigation Sensor Management (NSM) Expert System from Kalman Filter convariance data. The method invokes two statistical techniques: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the ID3 Algorithm. The ANOVA technique indicates whether variations of problem parameters give statistically different covariance results, and the ID3 algorithms identifies the relationships between the problem parameters using probabilistic knowledge extracted from a simulation example set. Both are detailed.

  18. Advanced biofuels: Future perspectives from an expert elicitation survey

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorese, Giulia; Catenacci, Michela; Verdolini, Elena; Bosetti, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the main results of an expert elicitation survey on advanced (second and third generation) biofuel technologies. The survey focuses on eliciting probabilistic information on the future costs of advanced biofuels and on the potential role of RD&D (Research, Development and Demonstration) efforts in reducing these costs and in supporting the deployment of biofuels in OECD and non-OECD countries. Fifteen leading experts from different EU member states provide insights on t...

  19. A Phenomenology of Expert Musicianship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    targets a central debate in philosophy and psychology on whether reflection is conducive for, or detrimental to, skillful performance. My analyses show that the concepts assumed in the literature on this question are poorly defined and gloss over more important features of expertise. The second question...... and psychology of music. The dissertation is structured through the asking, analyzing and answering of three primary questions, namely: 1) What is it like to be an expert? 2) What is the general phenomenology of expert musicianship? 3) What happens to the self in deep musical absorption? The first question...

  20. Expert and novice facilitated modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Papadopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical study based on action research in which expert and novice facilitators in facilitated modelling workshops are compared. There is limited empirical research analysing the differences between expert and novice facilitators. Aiming to address this gap we study......, and empirically supports the claim that facilitation skills can be taught to participants to enable them to self-facilitate workshops. Differences were also found, which led to the introduction of a new dimension—‘internal versus external’ facilitation. The implications of our findings for effective training...

  1. A Phenomenology of Expert Musicianship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    and psychology of music. The dissertation is structured through the asking, analyzing and answering of three primary questions, namely: 1) What is it like to be an expert? 2) What is the general phenomenology of expert musicianship? 3) What happens to the self in deep musical absorption? The first question...... targets a central debate in philosophy and psychology on whether reflection is conducive for, or detrimental to, skillful performance. My analyses show that the concepts assumed in the literature on this question are poorly defined and gloss over more important features of expertise. The second question...

  2. The expert advantage in dynamic pattern recall persists across both attended and unattended display elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2013-01-01

    We examined how differences in attention influence how expert and novice basketball players encode into memory the specific structural information contained within patterns of play from their sport...

  3. Expert Oracle Application Express Plug-Ins

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Martin Giffy

    2011-01-01

    Expert Oracle Application Express Plugins is your "go to" book on the groundbreaking plugin architecture introduced in Oracle Application Express 4.0. Using the new APEX functionality, you can create well-packaged, documented, reusable components and reliably leverage your coding investments across many applications. Components you create can define new item and region types, specify validation processes, and present dynamic actions to client applications. You can design innovative and colorful ways to display information, such as displaying the temperature using an image of a thermometer, or

  4. QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perre, M.

    1991-01-01

    TNO Physics and Electronics laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Limburg and the Research Institute for Knowledge Systems, worked on a technology project named 'QUEST: Quality of Expert Systems' [FEL90]. QUEST was carried out under commision of the Dutch Ministry of Defence. A strong

  5. Computers that Think Like Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of expert systems, including various techniques they use to represent knowledge (such as production rules, semantic networks, frames, first-order logic, and others), system interactions, and such problem domains as science, medicine, computer configuration, trouble-shooting/repair, and oil/mineral exploration. Also discusses…

  6. The Naive Expert and the Gifted Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpson, William M.; Jones, Christine

    1989-01-01

    Mentorship programs are described which involve gifted students and subject experts with no prior knowledge about students' personalities or preconceptions about their abilities, known as "naive experts." The students are challenged by the experts' high expectations and respond to the experts' enthusiasm for sharing their knowledge and…

  7. Making a team of experts into an expert team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charney, Carol

    2011-10-01

    Health care has traditionally been delivered primarily by experts working individually in a decentralized system lacking cohesive organization among professional disciplines. Only recently have the advantages of teamwork training been acknowledged in health care. This article explores the history, benefits, and recommendations for team training in neonatal care. TeamSTEPPS (Rockville, MD) and the revised Neonatal Resuscitation Program are cited as promising models for improved neonatal outcomes through professional teamwork.

  8. Expert system for controlling plant growth in a contained environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George A. (Inventor); Lanoue, Mark Allen (Inventor); Bethel, Matthew (Inventor); Ryan, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    In a system for optimizing crop growth, vegetation is cultivated in a contained environment, such as a greenhouse, an underground cavern or other enclosed space. Imaging equipment is positioned within or about the contained environment, to acquire spatially distributed crop growth information, and environmental sensors are provided to acquire data regarding multiple environmental conditions that can affect crop development. Illumination within the contained environment, and the addition of essential nutrients and chemicals are in turn controlled in response to data acquired by the imaging apparatus and environmental sensors, by an "expert system" which is trained to analyze and evaluate crop conditions. The expert system controls the spatial and temporal lighting pattern within the contained area, and the timing and allocation of nutrients and chemicals to achieve optimized crop development. A user can access the "expert system" remotely, to assess activity within the growth chamber, and can override the "expert system".

  9. An expert system for wind shear avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    The principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's autopilot and flight directors for both automatic and manually controlled flight. The expert system for pilot aiding is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program, a two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data that provides guidelines for this initial development. The Windshear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP Machine.

  10. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expert System for ASIC Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shri N.; Arshak, Khalil I.; McDonnell, Pearse; Boyce, Conor; Duggan, Andrew

    1989-07-01

    With the developments in the techniques of artificial intelligence over the last few years, development of advisory, scheduling and similar class of problems has become very convenient using tools such as PROLOG. In this paper an expert system has been described which helps lithographers and process engineers in several ways. The methodology used is to model each work station according to its input, output and control parameters, combine these work stations in a logical sequence based on past experience and work out process schedule for a job. In addition, all the requirements vis-a-vis a particular job parameters are converted into decision rules. One example is the exposure time, develop time for a wafer with different feature sizes would be different. This expert system has been written in Turbo Prolog. By building up a large number of rules, one can tune the program to any facility and use it for as diverse applications as advisory help, trouble shooting etc. Leitner (1) has described an advisory expert system that is being used at National Semiconductor. This system is quite different from the one being reported in the present paper. The approach is quite different for one. There is stress on job flow and process for another.

  12. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine.

  13. Osteoporosis in Latin America: panel expert review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Clark

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Latin American region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition, which is leading to an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases. Osteoporosis (OP and fragility fractures (FF are emerging as main causes of disease burden with great impact on health institutions. Purpose. This review article provides an updated overview of trends in the epidemiology and economic impact of OP and FF, as well as in diagnosis and available treatments in Latin America, including calcium, vitamin D and prevention programs. Methods. Expert panel. Conclusions. According to this review, there is a lack of epidemiological and economic information in the region. It is desirable to obtain information regarding quality of life in OP and FF as well as to highlight prevention as a tool to reduce FF.

  14. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  15. A local area computer network expert system framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Over the past years an expert system called LANES designed to detect and isolate faults in the Goddard-wide Hybrid Local Area Computer Network (LACN) was developed. As a result, the need for developing a more generic LACN fault isolation expert system has become apparent. An object oriented approach was explored to create a set of generic classes, objects, rules, and methods that would be necessary to meet this need. The object classes provide a convenient mechanism for separating high level information from low level network specific information. This approach yeilds a framework which can be applied to different network configurations and be easily expanded to meet new needs.

  16. Acquisition of Expert/Non-Expert Vocabulary from Reformulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Edwige; Grabar, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Technical medical terms are complicated to be correctly understood by non-experts. Vocabulary, associating technical terms with layman expressions, can help in increasing the readability of technical texts and their understanding. The purpose of our work is to build this kind of vocabulary. We propose to exploit the notion of reformulation following two methods: extraction of abbreviations and of reformulations with specific markers. The segments associated thanks to these methods are aligned with medical terminologies. Our results allow to cover over 9,000 medical terms and show precision of extractions between 0.24 and 0.98. The results and analyzed and compared with the existing work.

  17. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack

  18. Problematic Aspects of the Use of Expert Systems in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Kalinauskas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The usage of expert systems in law brings many problematic questions. Complexity and intricacy of law, combined with limited possibilities of information technologies makes it difficult to create flawlessly working expert systems. In this article the author analyses problematic aspects related to expert system usage in law. Comparisons of various research are made according to analysis of scientific articles. The author analyses practical difficulties of legal norm representation, creation of expert knowledge ontology, expert systems liability issues. Legal responsibility of expert system developers, users, and owners are also covered in this paper. Creation of legal ontologies is a complicated process because of the nature of the subject itself and the complexity and quantity of knowledge which must be represented in order to have fully functional legal expert system. Legal information basically consists of legal norms, doctrine, precedents and expert knowledge. All of these areas have specific representation issues, but the most difficult part is to make ontology and representation of expert knowledge. Different experts may have distinct points of view in some similar cases. Human decisions are made not only by applying certain rules to the problem decision pattern. Providence, analytical skills and critical thinking is required in legal professional work. Human reasoning and decision-making is not only based on symbolic values, it also consists of intermediate symbolic assumptions. So the question is: is it possible to give a clear structure to something which has no permanent state? The other problem which is analyzed in this article is artificial reasoning methods, which are basically different forms of pattern recognition with some specific methods applied to them. The second part of the paper analyses the liability of expert systems. Nowadays expert systems can’t be legally responsible for their decisions. They lack intellectual

  19. Expert – Non-expert differences in visual behaviour during alpine slalom skiing

    OpenAIRE

    Decroix, Marjolein; Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali; Zeuwts, Linus; Deconinck, Frederik; Lenoir, Matthieu; Vansteenkiste, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate visual behaviour of expert and non-expert ski athletes during an alpine slalom. Fourteen non-experts and five expert slalom skiers completed an alpine slalom course in an indoor ski slope while wearing a head-mounted eye tracking device. Experts completed the slalom clearly faster than non-experts, but no significant difference was found in timing and position of the turn initiation. Although both groups already looked at future obstacles approximately...

  20. Nephrology nursing: blurring the boundaries: the reality of expert practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ann; Walker, Annette

    2004-02-01

    Expertise in nursing has been widely studied; there have been no previous studies into what constitute expertise in nephrology (renal) nursing. This paper describes a 'real-world' characteristic of expert nephrology nursing practice. This paper, which is abstracted from a larger study into the acquisition and exercise of nephrology nursing expertise, aims to explore the concept blurring the boundaries. The study utilized grounded theory methodology and symbolic interactionism. The study took place in one renal unit in New South Wales. Sampling was purposive then theoretical; the sample consisting of six non-expert and eleven expert nurses. Simultaneous data collection and analysis using participant observation, review of nursing documentation and semi-structured interviews was undertaken. The study revealed that only expert nephrology nurses 'blurred the boundaries' of professional nursing practice. They did this by moving intermittently and purposefully, for the benefit of particular patients, into medical domains in the areas of prescribing, dispensing and ordering of pathology tests. Non-expert nurses did not cross these professional boundaries. Blurring the boundaries was a significant feature of expert nursing practice, and this study was the first to describe explicitly nursing boundaries as two distinct entities; that is, formal and informal. There are some nephrology nurses who have sufficient knowledge and experience to prescribe some medications and to order certain investigations.

  1. ICADS: A cooperative decision making model with CLIPS experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Jens; Myers, Leonard

    1991-01-01

    A cooperative decision making model is described which is comprised of six concurrently executing domain experts coordinated by a blackboard control expert. The focus application field is architectural design, and the domain experts represent consultants in the area of daylighting, noise control, structural support, cost estimating, space planning, and climate responsiveness. Both the domain experts and the blackboard were implemented as production systems, using an enhanced version of the basic CLIPS package. Acting in unison as an Expert Design Advisor, the domain and control experts react to the evolving design solution progressively developed by the user in a 2-D CAD drawing environment. A Geometry Interpreter maps each drawing action taken by the user to real world objects, such as spaces, walls, windows, and doors. These objects, endowed with geometric and nongeometric attributes, are stored as frames in a semantic network. Object descriptions are derived partly from the geometry of the drawing environment and partly from knowledge bases containing prototypical, generalized information about the building type and site conditions under consideration.

  2. A diagnostic expert system for digital circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, R. W.; Wilson, J. D.

    1992-04-01

    A scheme is presented for a diagnostic expert system which is capable of troubleshooting a faulty digital circuit or producing a reduced test vector set for a non-faulty digital circuit. It is based on practical fault-finding logic and utilizes artificial intelligence techniques. The program uses expert knowledge comprised of two components: that which is contained within the program in the form of rules and heuristics, and that which is derived from the circuit under test in the form of specific device information. Using both forward and backward tracking algorithms, signal paths comprised of device and gate interconnections are identified from each output pin to the primary input pins which have effect on them. Beginning at the output, the program proceeds to validate each device in each signal path by forward propagating test values through the device to the output, and backward propagating the same values to the primary inputs. All devices in the circuit are monitored for each test applied and their performance is recorded. Device or gate validation occurs when the recorded history shows that a device has been toggled successfully through all necessary states. When run on a circuit which does not contain a fault, the program determines a reduced test vector set for that circuit.

  3. Expert SQL Server 2008 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Machanic, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Expert SQL Server 2008 Development is aimed at SQL Server developers ready to move beyond Books Online. Author and experienced developer Alastair Aitchison shows you how to think about SQL Server development as if it were any other type of development. You'll learn to manage testing in SQL Server and to properly deal with errors and exceptions. The book also covers critical, database-centric topics such as managing concurrency and securing your data and code through proper privileges and authorization. Alastair places focus on sound development and architectural practices that will help you be

  4. Expert Oracle RAC 12c

    CERN Document Server

    Shamsudeen, Riyaj; Yu, Kai; Farooq, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Expert Oracle RAC 12c is a hands-on book helping you understand and implement Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), and to reduce the total-cost-of-ownership (TCO) of a RAC database. As a seasoned professional, you are probably aware of the importance of understanding the technical details behind the RAC stack. This book provides deep understanding of RAC concepts and implementation details that you can apply toward your day-to-day operational practices. You'll be guided in troubleshooting and avoiding trouble in your installation. Successful RAC operation hinges upon a fast-performing netwo

  5. The World (of Warcraft through the eyes of an expert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri Marzouki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations between pupil size and the tendency to look at salient locations were found in recent studies (e.g., Mathôt et al., 2015. It is hypothesized that this negative correlation might be explained by the mental effort put by participants in the task that leads in return to pupil dilation. Here we present an exploratory study on the effect of expertise on eye-movement behavior. Because there is no available standard tool to evaluate WoW players’ expertise, we built an off-game questionnaire testing players’ knowledge about WoW and acquired skills through completed raids, highest rated battlegrounds, Skill Points, etc. Experts (N = 4 and novices (N = 4 in the massively multiplayer online role-playing game World of Warcraft (WoW viewed 24 designed video segments from the game that differ in regards with their content (i.e, informative locations and visual complexity (i.e, salient locations. Consistent with previous studies, we found a negative correlation between pupil size and the tendency to look at salient locations (experts, r =  − .17, p < .0001, and novices, r =  − .09, p < .0001. This correlation has been interpreted in terms of mental effort: People are inherently biased to look at salient locations (sharp corners, bright lights, etc., but are able (i.e., experts to overcome this bias if they invest sufficient mental effort. Crucially, we observed that this correlation was stronger for expert WoW players than novice players (Z =  − 3.3, p = .0011. This suggests that experts learned to improve control over eye-movement behavior by guiding their eyes towards informative, but potentially low-salient areas of the screen. These findings may contribute to our understanding of what makes an expert an expert.

  6. Enhancing the Learning Process with Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karake, Zeinab A.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of artificial intelligence and expert system shells to enhance the learning process of graduate or undergraduate statistics students. A student exercise is described using STAT-EXPERT, an expert system designed to help students select the appropriate statistical analysis technique. (25 references) (LRW)

  7. Differentiating Experts' Anticipatory Skills in Beach Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Bruland, Rouwen; Mooren, Merel; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined how perceptual-motor expertise and watching experience contribute to anticipating the outcome of opponents' attacking actions in beach volleyball. To this end, we invited 8 expert beach volleyball players, 8 expert coaches, 8 expert referees, and 8 control participants with no beach volleyball experience to watch videos…

  8. Fire Effects, Education, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    Predicting the effects of fires in the year 2000 and beyond will be enhanced by the use of expert systems. Although our predictions may have broad confidence limits, expert systems should help us to improve the predictions and to focus on the areas where improved knowledge is most needed. The knowledge of experts can be incorporated into previously existing knowledge...

  9. Evaluating Econometric Models and Expert Intuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Legerstee (Rianne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about forecasting situations which involve econometric models and expert intuition. The first three chapters are about what it is that experts do when they adjust statistical model forecasts and what might improve that adjustment behavior. It is investigated how expert

  10. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts...

  11. Expert system validation in prolog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Todd; Stachowitz, Rolf; Chang, Chin-Liang; Combs, Jacqueline

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the Expert System Validation Assistant (EVA) is being implemented in Prolog at the Lockheed AI Center. Prolog was chosen to facilitate rapid prototyping of the structure and logic checkers and since February 1987, we have implemented code to check for irrelevance, subsumption, duplication, deadends, unreachability, and cycles. The architecture chosen is extremely flexible and expansible, yet concise and complementary with the normal interactive style of Prolog. The foundation of the system is in the connection graph representation. Rules and facts are modeled as nodes in the graph and arcs indicate common patterns between rules. The basic activity of the validation system is then a traversal of the connection graph, searching for various patterns the system recognizes as erroneous. To aid in specifying these patterns, a metalanguage is developed, providing the user with the basic facilities required to reason about the expert system. Using the metalanguage, the user can, for example, give the Prolog inference engine the goal of finding inconsistent conclusions among the rules, and Prolog will search the graph intantiations which can match the definition of inconsistency. Examples of code for some of the checkers are provided and the algorithms explained. Technical highlights include automatic construction of a connection graph, demonstration of the use of metalanguage, the A* algorithm modified to detect all unique cycles, general-purpose stacks in Prolog, and a general-purpose database browser with pattern completion.

  12. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Dianne [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  13. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  14. An Expert System for Concrete Bridge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, J. de; Branco, F. A.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    The importance of bridge repair versus new bridge construction has risen in recent decades due to high deterioration rates that have been observed in these structures. Budgets both for building new bridges and keeping the existing ones are always limited. To help rational decision-making, bridge...... management systems are presently being implemented by bridge authorities in several countries. The prototype of an expert system for concrete bridge management is presented in this paper, with its functionality relying on two modules. The inspection module relies on a periodic acquisition of field...... information complemented by a knowledge-based interactive system, BRIDGE-1. To optimize management strategies at the headquarters, the BRIDGE-2 module was implemented, including three submodules: inspection strategy, maintenance and repair....

  15. Blood Donor Deferrals by Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace, James M.; Berman, Jules J.; Brown, Lawrence A.; Moore, G. William

    1990-01-01

    Blood collection facilities have recently witnessed a substantial increase in the number of different tests used to detect infectious disease in donor populations. These facilities are also experiencing an increasingly stringent regulatory effort on the part of the Food and Drug Administration to determine the validity of the software used to handle this information. This report describes a precedence-based inference program (PRELOG) and a modular expert system used to determine a donor's suitability for continued donations (donor deferrals), and whether the donated unit can be released for transfusion. PRELOG accepts ternary logic input, in which test results are allowed to be positive, negative, or undetermined; and allows one to assign precedence values to the logic rules. These features enable programs to be written in a shorter, more error-resistant manner. A comparison between PRELOG and PROLOG is included, and the utility of this approach in producing and validating blood bank software is discussed.

  16. Operational expert system applications in Canada

    CERN Document Server

    Suen, Ching Y

    1992-01-01

    This book is part of a new series on operational expert systems worldwide. Expert systems are now widely used in different parts of the world for various applications. The past four years have witnessed a steady growth in the development and deployment of expert systems in Canada. Research in this field has also gained considerable momentum during the past few years. However, the field of expert systems is still young in Canada. This book contains 13 chapters contributed by 31 experts from both universities and industries across Canada covering a wide range of applications related to electric

  17. The making of expert witness: the valuers' perspective | Babawale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role of the expert witness in the process of justice administration. As the saying goes, not all 'experts' make good 'expert witness' as there is more to being an 'expert witness' than there is to being an 'expert'. That is, being an 'expert witness' does not necessarily connote that the witness is an expert ...

  18. An expert system for the calculation of sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebell, M H; Neale, A V; Hodgkins, B J

    1994-06-01

    Calculation of sample size is a useful technique for researchers who are designing a study, and for clinicians who wish to interpret research findings. The elements that must be specified to calculate the sample size include alpha, beta, Type I and Type II errors, 1- and 2-tail tests, confidence intervals, and confidence levels. A computer software program written by one of the authors (MHE), Sample Size Expert, facilitates sample size calculations. The program uses an expert system to help inexperienced users calculate sample sizes for analytic and descriptive studies. The software is available at no cost from the author or electronically via several on-line information services.

  19. Consumer versus expert hazard identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Novel foods have been the object of intense public debate in recent years. Despite efforts to communicate the outcomes of risk assessments to consumers, public confidence in the management of potential risks has been low. Various reasons behind this have been identified, chiefly a disagreement...... between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. Whilst previous research has almost exclusively focused on genetically modified foods, the present paper...... of uncertainty. Furthermore, a number of misconceptions became apparent in the study of laypeople's mental models, often related to the regulatory system governing risk assessments of novel foods. Critical issue are outlined and communication needs are discussed....

  20. Language theory and expert systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Agodi

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Some remarks on the problem of knowledge representation and processing, as recognized in connection with the use of computers in the scientific research work, emphasizes the relevance of these problems for the studies on both the theory of languages and the expert system. A consideration of the common traits in the recent history of these studies, with reference to the use of computers on texts in natural language motivates the introduction of set theoretic and algebraic methods, suitable for applications in the analysis and in the automatic treatment of languages, based on the concept of model sets and on relational structures suggested from the connections between syntax and semantics evidenced in some example of sub-languages corresponding to theories of different classes of physical phenomena. Some details of these methods are evidenced, which have already successfully used or whose applications appears suggestive of interesting development.

  1. Comparison expert and novice scan behavior for using e-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novita Sari, Felisia; Insap Santosa, Paulus; Wibirama, Sunu

    2017-06-01

    E-Learning is an important media that an educational institution must have. Successful information design for e-learning depends on its user's characteristics. This study explores differences between novice and expert users' eye movement data. This differences between expert and novice users were compared and identified based on gaze features. Each participant must do three main tasks of e-learning. This paper gives the result that there are differences between gaze features of experts and novices.

  2. The future prospect of PV and CSP solar technologies: An expert elicitation survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bosetti, Valentina; Catenacci, Michela; Fiorese, Giulia; Verdolini, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the results of an expert elicitation survey on solar technologies. Sixteen leading European experts from the academic world, the private sector and international institutions took part in this expert elicitation survey on Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies. The survey collected probabilistic information on (1) how Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) investments will impact the future costs of solar technologies and...

  3. Expert systems guide biological phosphorus removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichten, D.J.; Wilson, K.D.; Tracy, K.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    There is a large body of knowledge regarding optimum control strategies for new secondary wastewater treatment technology using an anaerobic selector to provide biological phosphorus removal. However, because the selector technology is new and the concepts differ somewhat from those used in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment, a method of communicating this knowledge to plant operators is needed. Traditional methods such as classroom training and operating manuals are of limited effectiveness. The commonplace availability and low cost of the personal computer (PC) makes it practical to use a computer program to communicate the type of information required to control a wastewater treatment plant. Knowledge-based systems technology, commonly referred to as expert systems (ES) technology, is easy to use, provides useful information regarding a consistent control strategy, relieves the anxiety associated with learning a new process,' and provides instruction for inexperienced personnel. ES technology does not require special formatted input and is therefore easily accessible. All information required by the program is readily available through routine laboratory analysis, common plant instrumentation, or direct user observation. The program was designed for all levels of computer users and will run on all IBM-compatible or Apple MacIntosh systems.

  4. Risk taking in adversarial situations: Civilization differences in chess experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassy, Philippe; Gobet, Fernand

    2015-08-01

    The projections of experts in politics predict that a new world order will emerge within two decades. Being multipolar, this world will inevitably lead to frictions where civilizations and states will have to decide whether to risk conflict. Very often these decisions are informed if not taken by experts. To estimate risk-taking across civilizations, we examined strategies used in 667,599 chess games played over eleven years by chess experts from 11 different civilizations. We show that some civilizations are more inclined to settle for peace. Similarly, we show that once engaged in the battle, the level of risk taking varies significantly across civilizations, the boldest civilization using the riskiest strategy about 35% more than the most conservative civilization. We discuss which psychological factors might underpin these civilizational differences. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Methods for combining experts' probability assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, R A

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews statistical techniques for combining multiple probability distributions. The framework is that of a decision maker who consults several experts regarding some events. The experts express their opinions in the form of probability distributions. The decision maker must aggregate the experts' distributions into a single distribution that can be used for decision making. Two classes of aggregation methods are reviewed. When using a supra Bayesian procedure, the decision maker treats the expert opinions as data that may be combined with its own prior distribution via Bayes' rule. When using a linear opinion pool, the decision maker forms a linear combination of the expert opinions. The major feature that makes the aggregation of expert opinions difficult is the high correlation or dependence that typically occurs among these opinions. A theme of this paper is the need for training procedures that result in experts with relatively independent opinions or for aggregation methods that implicitly or explicitly model the dependence among the experts. Analyses are presented that show that m dependent experts are worth the same as k independent experts where k < or = m. In some cases, an exact value for k can be given; in other cases, lower and upper bounds can be placed on k.

  6. PROTOTYPE WEB-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDALRHMAN MILAD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of a prototype web-based expert knowledge system that can be used to maintain flexible pavement within a tropical region. This prototype system provides the advantages of using existing web-based expert system technology. Currently, deterioration of asphalt pavement layers is one of the biggest problems in Malaysia and requires maintenance to ensure that the roads remain open and able to guarantee the regularity, punctuality, and safety of all transport services. According to this process, the knowledge collection that has acquired and the date concerning to domain expert system of the development web-based system was launched with knowledge representation IF and THEN rules and coded by PHP programming. The web pages that support the user interface are created using a framework consisting of HTML, CSS, and J-Query. The prototype web-based expert system uses the knowledge of a pavement maintenance expert, or a specialist in pavement problem remediation, to emulate a portion of their professional reasoning abilities, which it can then use to assist with the maintenance of existing roads and enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the professional engineers tasked with the assessment of all available remedies. Thus, the system increases the performance level of the engineers in analysing, discerning and customising the information that will assist decision makers throughout the project, so the probability that the right decision and treatment are implemented at the right time is increased.

  7. Football experts versus sports economists: Whose forecasts are better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Bernd; Wicker, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    Given the uncertainty of outcome in sport, predicting the outcome of sporting contests is a major topic in sport sciences. This study examines the accuracy of expert predictions in the German Bundesliga and compares their predictions to those of sports economists. Prior to the start of each season, a set of distinguished experts (head coaches and players) express their subjective evaluations of the teams in school grades. While experts may be driven by irrational sentiments and may therefore systematically over- or underestimate specific teams, sports economists use observable characteristics to predict season outcomes. The latter typically use team wage bills given the positive pay-performance relationship as well as other factors (average team age, tenure, appearances on national team, and attendance). Using data from 15 consecutive Bundesliga seasons, the predictive accuracy of expert evaluations and sports economists is analysed. The results of separate estimations show that relative grade and relative wage bill significantly affect relative points, while age, tenure, appearances, and attendance are insignificant. In a joint model, relative grade and relative wage bill are still statistically significant, suggesting that the two types of predictions are complements rather than substitutes. Consequently, football experts and sports economists seem to rely on completely different sources of information when making their predictions.

  8. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  9. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-09-12

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  10. Expert judgment and uncertainty regarding the protection of imperiled species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexander; Karns, Gabriel; Bruskotter, Jeremy; Toman, Eric; Wilson, Robyn; Szarek, Harmony

    2017-06-01

    Decisions concerning the appropriate listing status of species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) can be controversial even among conservationists. These decisions may determine whether a species persists in the near term and have long-lasting social and political ramifications. Given the ESA's mandate that such decisions be based on the best available science, it is important to examine what factors contribute to experts' judgments concerning the listing of species. We examined how a variety of factors (such as risk perception, value orientations, and norms) influenced experts' judgments concerning the appropriate listing status of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Experts were invited to complete an online survey examining their perceptions of the threats grizzly bears face and their listing recommendation. Although experts' assessments of the threats to this species were strongly correlated with their recommendations for listing status, this relationship did not exist when other cognitive factors were included in the model. Specifically, values related to human use of wildlife and norms (i.e., a respondent's expectation of peers' assessments) were most influential in listing status recommendations. These results suggest that experts' decisions about listing, like all human decisions, are subject to the use of heuristics (i.e., decision shortcuts). An understanding of how heuristics and related biases affect decisions under uncertainty can help inform decision making about threatened and endangered species and may be useful in designing effective processes for protection of imperiled species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Application of expert system technology to nondestructive waste assay - initial prototype model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Expert system technology has been identified as a technique useful for filling certain types of technology/capability gaps in existing waste nondestructive assay (NDA) applications. In particular, expert system techniques are being investigated with the intent of providing on-line evaluation of acquired data and/or directed acquisition of data in a manner that mimics the logic and decision making process a waste NDA expert would employ. The space from which information and data sources utilized in this process is much expanded with respect to the algorithmic approach typically utilized in waste NDA. Expert system technology provides a mechanism to manage and reason with this expanded information/data set. The material presented in this paper concerns initial studies and a resultant prototype expert system that incorporates pertinent information, and evaluation logic and decision processes, for the purpose of validating acquired waste NDA measurement assays. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Expert Meeting Report: Foundations Research Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Huelman, P.; Carmody, J.

    2013-05-01

    In the Expert Meeting Plan, the NorthernSTAR Team proposed to host two Expert Meetings in calendar year 2011. Invitees to the meetings would include experts in the current field of study, other BA team members, and representatives from DOE and NREL. They will invite leading industry experts to present at these meetings. The Expert Meetings will focus on key systems areas that will be required to meet the Building America performance goals and shall be sufficiently narrow in scope that specific conclusions, action items, and delegation of future tasks can be identified and completed. The two expert meeting topics are 'Foundations' and 'Window Retrofit.' The first session is designed as a webinar only and the second will be a live meeting.

  13. Research and development for Onboard Navigation (ONAV) ground based expert/trainer system: Preliminary ascent knowledge requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary version of expert knowledge for the Onboard Navigation (ONAV) Ground Based Expert Trainer Ascent system for the space shuttle is presented. Included is some brief background information along with the information describing the knowledge the system will contain. Information is given on rules and heuristics, telemetry status, landing sites, inertial measurement units, and a high speed trajectory determinator (HSTD) state vector.

  14. What Do Experts Know About Forecasting Journal Quality? A Comparison with ISI Research Impact in Finance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractExperts possess knowledge and information that are not publicly available. The paper is concerned with forecasting academic journal quality and research impact using a survey of international experts from a national project on ranking academic finance journals in Taiwan. A comparison is

  15. What do Experts Know About Ranking Journal Quality? A Comparison with ISI Research Impact in Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractExperts possess knowledge and information that are not publicly available. The paper is concerned with the ranking of academic journal quality and research impact using a survey of experts from a national project on ranking academic finance journals. A comparison is made with publicly

  16. What Do Experts Know About Forecasting Journal Quality? A Comparison with ISI Research Impact in Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractExperts possess knowledge and information that are not publicly available. The paper is concerned with forecasting academic journal quality and research impact using a survey of international experts from a national project on ranking academic finance journals in Taiwan. A comparison is

  17. A 16th Suggestions for Educational Curriculum Improvement in Jordan, from the Experts Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The present research was conducted to identify the most important suggestions for educational curriculum improvement in Jordan, from the expert's point of view. A descriptive survey through data and information collection tool (questionnaire) was used as an approach. The study sample consisted of (620) educational experts in the field of…

  18. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert's statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values....... Equal weights combinations were also calculated. The main conclusions on expert performance are: (1) SEJ does provide a science-based method for attribution of the global burden of foodborne diseases; (2) equal weighting of experts per panel increased statistical accuracy to acceptable levels...

  19. Succession planning for technical experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cain, Ronald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dewji, Shaheen A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Agreda, Carla L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes a methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mitigating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. The methodology can be adapted for application within regulatory authorities and research and development organizations, and can be directly applied by international engagement partners of the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The resultant product will be of direct benefit to two types of NNSA missions: (1) domestic human capital development programs tasked to provide focused technical expertise to succeed an aging nuclear operations workforce, and (2) international safeguards programs charged with maintaining operational safeguards for developing/existing nuclear power program in nations where minimal available resources must be used effectively. This report considers succession planning and the critical skills necessary to meet an institution’s goals and mission. Closely tied to succession planning are knowledge management and mentorship. In considering succession planning, critical skill sets are identified and are greatly dependent on the subject matter expert in question. This report also provides examples of critical skills that are job specific.

  20. Operational expert system applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    1992-01-01

    Operational Expert System Applications in Europe describes the representative case studies of the operational expert systems (ESs) that are used in Europe.This compilation provides examples of operational ES that are realized in 10 different European countries, including countries not usually examined in the standard reviews of the field.This book discusses the decision support system using several artificial intelligence tools; expert systems for fault diagnosis on computerized numerical control (CNC) machines; and expert consultation system for personal portfolio management. The failure prob

  1. EXPLICIT: a feasibility study of remote expert elicitation in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Bogdan; Peters, Jaime; Hyde, Christopher; Stein, Ken

    2017-09-04

    Expert opinion is often sought to complement available information needed to inform model-based economic evaluations in health technology assessments. In this context, we define expert elicitation as the process of encoding expert opinion on a quantity of interest, together with associated uncertainty, as a probability distribution. When availability for face-to-face expert elicitation with a facilitator is limited, elicitation can be conducted remotely, overcoming challenges of finding an appropriate time to meet the expert and allowing access to experts situated too far away for practical face-to-face sessions. However, distance elicitation is associated with reduced response rates and limited assistance for the expert during the elicitation session. The aim of this study was to inform the development of a remote elicitation tool by exploring the influence of mode of elicitation on elicited beliefs. An Excel-based tool (EXPLICIT) was developed to assist the elicitation session, including the preparation of the expert and recording of their responses. General practitioners (GPs) were invited to provide expert opinion about population alcohol consumption behaviours. They were randomised to complete the elicitation by either a face-to-face meeting or email. EXPLICIT was used in the elicitation sessions for both arms. Fifteen GPs completed the elicitation session. Those conducted by email were longer than the face-to-face sessions (13 min 30 s vs 10 min 26 s, p = 0.1) and the email-elicited estimates contained less uncertainty. However, the resulting aggregated distributions were comparable. EXPLICIT was useful in both facilitating the elicitation task and in obtaining expert opinion from experts via email. The findings support the opinion that remote, self-administered elicitation is a viable approach within the constraints of HTA to inform policy making, although poor response rates may be observed and additional time for individual sessions may be required.

  2. Recognizing the importance of conversation between experts and non-experts in science communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Soderquist, B.; Cohn, T.; Eitel, K.

    2016-12-01

    Science communication is often perceived by scientists as the flow of information from experts to non-experts, and institutions have responded by providing science communication training that focuses on best practices for disseminating information. This unidirectional approach neglects a key component of science communication: scientists must understand the needs and values of the stakeholders for whom they are producing information, whether the stakeholders are community members, resource managers, or policy makers. We designed an activity for graduate students enrolled in a science communication class at the McCall Outdoor Science School to both alert them to this misconception, and to give them an opportunity to rectify it. Over the course of 24-hours, we challenged students to have a conversation about climate change with someone they encountered in the community of McCall, ID. Using material from their conversations, students created a story in podcast or video form to share with the class. Through reflecting on this activity, students experienced a change in their perceptions of their identities as science communicators. Many students expressed an increased interest in listening to the stories of community members to learn more about the community's needs and values. We repeated the activity with early career scientists attending a climate workshop in McCall offered by the USGS Northwest Climate Science Center, focusing our evaluation around the science identity model of Carlone and Johnson (2007). Evaluations suggest that participants recognized their role as scientists in not only to providing information, but also in listening to the values and needs of the people for whom they are working. We believe this understanding is fundamental to being a good science communicator and ensuring that science remains relevant to communities.

  3. Interactional Alarms: Experts' Framing of Health Risks in Live Broadcast News Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Rony

    2017-08-23

    This study examined how experts frame health risks in real-time interactions with journalists. Though there is evidence that experts influence media framing of health risks, the ways they respond to journalists' agendas in real-time interactions have yet to be explored. This paper examines instances of risk assessment extracted from a corpus of news interviews to determine how expert assessments were requested and provided. The analysis reveals that experts rarely deliver their assessments neutrally but rather treat these exchanges as opportunities for framing or reframing the topic. Their framing is shown to be responsive to journalistic agendas and to those who experts understand to be accountable when their assessment is elicited. These findings suggest ways in which news interviews can be useful in health communication. The implications for experts, journalists, and public information officers who plan to use interviews for this purpose are discussed.

  4. Expert Recommendations on Treating Psoriasis in Special Circumstances (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, J M; Galán, M; de Lucas, R; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Ribera, M; Yanguas, I

    2016-11-01

    There is insufficient information on how best to treat moderate to severe psoriasis in difficult clinical circumstances. We considered 5 areas where there is conflicting or insufficient evidence: pediatric psoriasis, risk of infection in patients being treated with biologics, psoriasis in difficult locations, biologic drug survival, and impact of disease on quality of life. Following discussion of the issues by an expert panel of dermatologists specialized in the management of psoriasis, participants answered a questionnaire survey according to the Delphi method. Consensus was reached on 66 (70.9%) of the 93 items analyzed; the experts agreed with 49 statements and disagreed with 17. It was agreed that body mass index, metabolic comorbidities, and quality of life should be monitored in children with psoriasis. The experts also agreed that the most appropriate systemic treatment for this age group was methotrexate, while the most appropriate biologic treatment was etanercept. Although it was recognized that the available evidence was inconsistent and difficult to extrapolate, the panel agreed that biologic drug survival could be increased by flexible, individualized dosing regimens, continuous treatment, and combination therapies. Finally, consensus was reached on using the Dermatology Quality of Life Index to assess treatment effectiveness and aid decision-making in clinical practice. The structured opinion of experts guides decision-making regarding aspects of clinical practice for which there is incomplete or conflicting information. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Barriers to treatment-seeking among German veterans: expert interviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan; Rau, Heinrich; Dors, Simone; Brants, Loni; Börner, Michaela; Mahnke, Manuel; Zimmermann, Peter L; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The number of service members of the German armed forces suffering from deployment-related mental health problems is increasing. However, less than 50 % seek professional help, and there is little knowledge about the barriers to treatment-seeking. The article presents data gathered by the Delphi technique combined with focus groups from 55 health service experts regarding the evaluated barriers to treatment-seeking among German veterans. According to the interviewed experts, major contextual barriers to treatment-seeking include: 1) intimidating processes and structures, 2) actual stigmatization and discrimination, and 3) health service deficits. Major individual barriers to treatment were: 4) health beliefs, self-perception and fear of stigmatization, and 5) avoidance behavior related to psychopathology. In addition, there is another both contextual and individual barrier, i.e., 6) information deficits. Individual internal factors like the soldiers' self-perception and their fear of being stigmatized were considered important barriers to treatment-seeking. The experts' opinion about avoidance behavior related to psychopathology and deficits in health services and information coincides with international findings. Compared to research in other countries, actual stigmatization and discrimination were regarded to be an important barrier in itself. According to our findings daunting/intimidating processes and structures like time-consuming and complex expert medical reports rather seem to be a German phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  7. Experts bodies, experts minds: How physical and mental training shape the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula eDebarnot

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Skill learning is the improvement in perceptual, cognitive, or motor performance following practice. Expert performance levels can be achieved with well-organized knowledge, using sophisticated and specific mental representations and cognitive processing, applying automatic sequences quickly and efficiently, being able to deal with large amounts of information, and many other challenging task demands and situations that otherwise paralyze the performance of novices. The neural reorganizations that occur with expertise reflect the optimization of the neurocognitive resources to deal with the complex computational load needed to achieve peak performance. As such, capitalizing on neuronal plasticity, brain modifications take place over time-practice and during the consolidation process. One major challenge is to investigate the neural substrates and cognitive mechanisms engaged in expertise, and to define expertise from its neural and cognitive underpinnings. Recent insights showed that many brain structures are recruited during task performance, but only activity in regions related to domain-specific knowledge distinguishes experts from novices. The present review focuses on three expertise domains placed across a motor to mental gradient of skill learning: sequential motor skill, mental simulation of the movement (motor imagery, and meditation as a paradigmatic example of pure mental training. We first describe results on each specific domain from the initial skill acquisition to the achieving of expert performance, including recent results on the corresponding underlying neural mechanisms. We then discuss differences and similarities between these domains with the aim to identify the highlights of the neurocognitive processes underpinning expertise, and conclude with suggestions for future research.

  8. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  9. Foodborne proportion of gastrointestinal illness: estimates from a Canadian expert elicitation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, André; Davidson, Valerie J; Ruzante, Juliana M; Fazil, Aamir

    2010-12-01

    The study used a structured expert elicitation survey to derive estimates of the foodborne attributable proportion for nine illnesses caused by enteric pathogens in Canada. It was based on a similar study conducted in the United States and focused on Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Norwalk-like virus. For each pathogen, experts were asked to provide their best estimate and low and high limits for the proportion of foodborne illness relative to total cases. In addition, they provided background information with regard to food safety experience, including self-evaluated expertise for each pathogen on a 5-point scale. A snowball approach was used to identify 152 experts within Canada. The experts' background details were summarized using descriptive statistics. Factor analysis was used to determine whether the variability in best estimates was related to self-assessed level of expertise or other background information. Cluster analysis followed by beta function fitting was undertaken on best estimates from experts who self-evaluated their expertise 3 or higher. In parallel, Monte Carlo resampling was run using triangular distributions based on each expert's best estimate and its limits. Sixty-six experts encompassing various academic backgrounds, fields of expertise, and experiences relevant to food safety provided usable data. Considerable variation between experts in their estimated foodborne attributable proportions was observed over all diseases, without any relationship to the expert's background. Uncertainty about their estimate (measured by the low and high limits) varied between experts and between pathogens as well. Both cluster analysis and Monte Carlo resampling clearly indicated disagreement between experts for Campylobacter, E. coli O157, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, Vibrio, and Y. enterocolitica. In the

  10. Database and Expert Systems Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg Andersen, Kim; Debenham, John; Wagner, Roland

    submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on workflow automation, database queries, data classification and recommendation systems, information retrieval in multimedia databases, Web applications, implementational aspects of databases, multimedia databases, XML processing, security, XML...

  11. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  12. 40 CFR 194.26 - Expert judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40... judgment elicitation processes and the reasoning behind those results. Documentation of interviews used to... and technical views to expert panels as input to any expert elicitation process. ...

  13. Knowledge acquisition for a simple expert controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, B.

    1987-01-01

    A method is presented for process control which has the properties of being incremental, cyclic and top-down. It is described on the basis of the development of an expert controller for a simple, but nonlinear control route. A quality comparison between expert controller and process operator shows the ability of the method for knowledge acquisition.

  14. Experts' Opinion: A Powerful Evaluation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, David

    Experts' opinion is proposed as a valuable evaluation tool. Advantages of this method include the relative cost effectiveness when compared with other data collection methods. It is a time-saving method important in formative evaluation when a decision must be made concerning implementation of a course of action. When experts are carefully…

  15. [How to expose fraudulent expert witnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, W

    1990-01-01

    In our courtrooms you can meet, up to this day, experts of dubious qualities if not mere shams and deceivers. They are found in all sciences, but also in pseudo-sciences as paramedicine and parapsychology. In any case such expert pretenders must be exposed by the judge to prevent dangerous miscarriage of justice. Examples are given how to unmask the fraudulent rascals.

  16. Contextual factors for finding similar experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Balog, K.; Bogers, T.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a

  17. Expert systems in treating substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, D R; Hink, R H

    1990-05-01

    Computer programs can assist humans in solving complex problems that cannot be solved by traditional computational techniques using mathematic formulas. These programs, or "expert systems," are commonly used in finance, engineering, and computer design. Although not routinely used in medicine at present, medical expert systems have been developed to assist physicians in solving many kinds of medical problems that traditionally require consultation from a physician specialist. No expert systems are available specifically for drug abuse treatment, but at least one is under development. Where access to a physician specialist in substance abuse is not available for consultation, this expert system will extend specialized substance abuse treatment expertise to nonspecialists. Medical expert systems are a developing technologic tool that can assist physicians in practicing better medicine.

  18. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  19. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    to empower women making an informed consent. Information on Down syndrome is often confined and limitations of screenings tests rarely mentioned.  Understanding is better achieved by presenting the risk estimate as a numerical probability compared to a verbal explanation. Rates are better understood than......Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored...

  20. Can experts judge elections? Testing the validity of expert judgments for measuring election integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez i Coma, F.; van Ham, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Expert surveys have been used to measure a wide variety of phenomena in political science, ranging from party positions, to corruption, to the quality of democracy and elections. However, expert judgments raise important validity concerns, both about the object being measured as well as the experts.

  1. Inter-expert and intra-expert reliability in sleep spindle scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Welinder, Peter; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure the inter-expert and intra-expert agreement in sleep spindle scoring, and to quantify how many experts are needed to build a reliable dataset of sleep spindle scorings. Methods The EEG dataset was comprised of 400 randomly selected 115 s segments of stage 2 sleep from 110 sl...

  2. Good expert knowledge, small scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Horst

    2014-01-01

    During many years of occupational stress research, mostly within the German governmental program for "Humanization of Work Life'', remarkable deficits concerning visual work were seen, the most striking being the lack of cooperation between the different experts. With regard to this article hard arguments and ideas for solutions had to be found. A pilot study in 21 enterprises was realized (1602 employees with different visual work tasks). A test set of screening parameters (visual acuity, refraction, phoria, binocular cooperation and efficiency, accommodation range and color vision) were measured. The glasses and/or contact lenses worn were registered and the visual tasks analyzed. In work at visual display units (VDU) the eye movements were recorded and standardized questionnaires were given (health, stress, visual work situation). Because of the heterogeneity of the sample only simple statistics were applied: in groups of different visual work the complaints, symptoms, hassles and uplifts were clustered (SAS software) and correlated with the results of the visual tests. Later a special project in 8 companies (676 employees) was carried out. The results were published in [14]. Discomfort and asthenopic symptoms could be seen as an interaction of the combination of tasks and working conditions with the clusters of individual functionalisms, frequently originating in postural compromises. Mainly three causes for stress could be identified: 1. demands inadequate with regard to intensity, resolution, amount and/or time structure; 2. prevention of elementary perceptive needs; 3. entire use of partial capacities of the visual organ. Symptoms also were correlated with heteronomy. Other findings: influence of adaptation/accommodation ratio, the distracting role of attractors, especially in multitasking jobs; influence of high luminance differences. Dry eyes were very common, they could be attributed to a high screen position, low light, monotonous tasks and office

  3. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  4. [Expert systems in medicine: possible uses in anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J; Kochs, E; Kochs, H D

    1994-04-01

    The euphoric assumption that powerful computers fed with sophisticated software programmes may serve as a substitute for human knowledge and decision making has been replaced by a more realistic concept of how computers may help in collecting data and their interpretation on the basis of human knowledge and experience. The computer is now used as a dedicated tool to support man in overtaking cumbersome and monotonous processes and tedious calculations. Running 24 hours a day, a specific feature of the computer is that depending on unequivocal software programmes it does neither forget or alter commands and information. Computer programmes imitating human thinking and information processing are called expert or knowledge based systems. These are especially useful when multiple possible combinations of data make a given task very complex. This review presents several systems used in different medical disciplines to describe fundamental ideas, different problem-solving methods, techniques and possible working fields including anaesthesia. It is made clear why computers have found widespread use in all administrative areas. In contrast, no system comparable in potency has been developed for use in clinical medicine in spite of 25 years of research in expert systems. This review starts with a definition of expert knowledge and the appropriate transformation of this knowledge to the computer. In addition, a general survey about the structure of expert systems and a state of the art in some current problem solving methods is given. Additional aspects and restrictions including technical, psychological and legal problems which seem to be unimportant from the outside but are essential for the development of expert systems are presented.

  5. Novices and Experts in Geoinformatics: the Cognitive Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, M.

    2012-04-01

    Modern geoinformatics is an extremely powerful tool for problem analysis and decision making in various fields. Currently general public uses geoinformatics predominantly for navigating (GPS) and sharing information about particular places (GoogleMaps, Wikimapia). Communities also use geoinformatics for particular purposes: fans of history use it to correspond historical and actual maps (www.retromap.ru), birdwatchers point places where they met birds (geobirds.com/rangemaps) etc. However the majority of stakeholders local authorities are not aware of advantages and possibilities of geoinformatics. The same problem is observed for students. At the same time many professional geoinformatic tools are developed, but sometimes the experts even can't explain their purpose to non-experts. So the question is how to shrink the gap between experts and non-experts in understanding and application of geoinformatics. We think that this gap has a cognitive basis. According to modern cognitive theories (Shiffrin-Atkinson and descending) the information primary has to pass through the perceptual filter that cuts off the information that seems to be irrelevant. The mind estimates the relevance implicitly (unconsciously) basing on previous knowledge and judgments what is important. Then it comes to the working memory which is used (a) for proceeding and (b) for problem solving. The working memory has limited capacity and can operate only with about 7 objects simultaneously. Then information passes to the long-term memory that is of unlimited capacity. There it is stored as more or less complex structures with associative links. When necessary it is extracted into the working memory. If great amount of information is linked ("chunked") the working memory operates with it as one object of seven thus overcoming the limitations of the working memory capacity. To adopt any information it should (a) pass through the perceptual filter, (b) not to overload the working memory and (c) to be

  6. Cloud-Based Environmental Impact Assessment Expert System – A Case Study of Fiji

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Goundar

    2013-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments [EIA] involve identifying, measuring, and assessing impacts. This complex process deals with considerable amount of information and requires processing and analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information as well as expert human judgements. Often, available information is incomplete, subjective, and inconsistent. This challenge of collecting, processing, analyzing, and reporting EIA information can be met by computer systems. A Cloud-based Environmental ...

  7. Poor need knowledge not only technology to bridge digital divide: experts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Developing countries need to gain knowledge rather than technology to latch onto the booming information society, experts said Monday ahead of a major conference on bridging the digital divide between rich and poor" (1/2 page).

  8. An Expert System for Searching in Full-Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    systems are the STAIRS system from IBM and the WESTLAW database of legal Gauch 3 information distributed by the West Publishing Company. Other, more recent...passages in large full-text databases . Our expert system automatically reformulates contextual Boolean queries to improve search results and presents...retrieved passages in decreasing order of estimated relevance. It differs from other intelligent database functions in two ways: it works with

  9. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes an expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  10. Alternative Theories of Inference in Expert Systems for Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    the literal "transfer" of information, or rules, from expert to system. Much of the relevant knowledge is (as yet) unverbalized and only implicit in...In part, this can be attributed to the pragmatic urgency of get- * ting systems up and running. In part, it may be due to a bias against numerical... pragmatic aspect, on the other. Thus, under semantics, we indicate the desirability of an explicit be- havioral specification for the requi ed inputs. For

  11. Risk Reduction with a Fuzzy Expert Exploration Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, William W.; Broadhead, Ron

    2002-06-27

    In the first three years of the Fee Tool Project, an immense amount of data on the Delaware Basin has been accumulated. Data on geology, structure, production, regional information such as gravity as well as local data, such as well logs. This data, organized and cataloged into several online databases, is available for the Expert System and users as needed and as appropriate in analyzing production potential.

  12. A method for knowledge acquisition in diagnostic expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weishi; Li, Aiping; Li, Shudong

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition plays very important role in the diagnostic expert system. It usually takes a long period to acquire disease knowledge using the traditional methods. To solve this problem, this paper describes relations between rough set theory and rule-based description of diseases, which corresponds to the process of knowledge acquisition of diagnostic expert system. Then the exclusive rules, inclusive rules and disease images of disease are built based on the PDES diagnosis model, and the definition of probability rule is put forward. At last, the paper presents the rule-based automated induction reasoning method, including exhaustive search, post-processing procedure, estimation for statistic test and the bootstrap and resampling methods. We also introduce automated induction of the rule-based description, which is used in our diseases diagnostic expert system. The experimental results not only show that rough set theory gives a very suitable framework to represent processes of uncertain knowledge extraction, but also that this method induces diagnostic rules correctly. This method can act as the assistant tool for development of diagnosis expert system, and has an extensive application in intelligent information systems.

  13. What defines an Expert? - Uncertainty in the interpretation of seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    Studies focusing on the elicitation of information from experts are concentrated primarily in economics and world markets, medical practice and expert witness testimonies. Expert elicitation theory has been applied in the natural sciences, most notably in the prediction of fluid flow in hydrological studies. In the geological sciences expert elicitation has been limited to theoretical analysis with studies focusing on the elicitation element, gaining expert opinion rather than necessarily understanding the basis behind the expert view. In these cases experts are defined in a traditional sense, based for example on: standing in the field, no. of years of experience, no. of peer reviewed publications, the experts position in a company hierarchy or academia. Here traditional indicators of expertise have been compared for significance on affective seismic interpretation. Polytomous regression analysis has been used to assess the relative significance of length and type of experience on the outcome of a seismic interpretation exercise. Following the initial analysis the techniques used by participants to interpret the seismic image were added as additional variables to the analysis. Specific technical skills and techniques were found to be more important for the affective geological interpretation of seismic data than the traditional indicators of expertise. The results of a seismic interpretation exercise, the techniques used to interpret the seismic and the participant's prior experience have been combined and analysed to answer the question - who is and what defines an expert?

  14. An expert system for diagnosing environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolincik, Mark; Lauriente, Michael; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1992-01-01

    A new rule-based, machine independent analytical tool was designed for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies using an expert system. Expert systems provide an effective method for saving knowledge, allow computers to sift through large amounts of data pinpointing significant parts, and most importantly, use heuristics in addition to algorithms, which allow approximate reasoning and inference and the ability to attack problems not rigidly defined. The knowledge base consists of over two-hundred (200) rules and provides links to historical and environmental databases. The environmental causes considered are bulk charging, single event upsets (SEU), surface charging, and total radiation dose. The system's driver translates forward chaining rules into a backward chaining sequence, prompting the user for information pertinent to the causes considered. The use of heuristics frees the user from searching through large amounts of irrelevant information and allows the user to input partial information (varying degrees of confidence in an answer) or 'unknown' to any question. The modularity of the expert system allows for easy updates and modifications. It not only provides scientists with needed risk analysis and confidence not found in algorithmic programs, but is also an effective learning tool, and the window implementation makes it very easy to use. The system currently runs on a Micro VAX II at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The inference engine used is NASA's C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS).

  15. Sherlock Holmes: an expert's view of expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Didierjean; Fernand, Gobet

    2008-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an intense research effort to understand the cognitive processes and structures underlying expert behaviour. Work in different fields, including scientific domains, sports, games and mnemonics, has shown that there are vast differences in perceptual abilities between experts and novices, and that these differences may underpin other cognitive differences in learning, memory and problem solving. In this article, we evaluate the progress made in the last years through the eyes of an outstanding, albeit fictional, expert: Sherlock Holmes. We first use the Sherlock Holmes character to illustrate expert processes as described by current research and theories. In particular, the role of perception, as well as the nature and influence of expert knowledge, are all present in the description of Conan Doyle's hero. In the second part of the article, we discuss a number of issues that current research on expertise has barely addressed. These gaps include, for example, several forms of reasoning, the influence of emotions on cognition, and the effect of age on experts' knowledge and cognitive processes. Thus, although nearly 120-year-old, Conan Doyle's books show remarkable illustrations of expert behaviour, including the coverage of themes that have mostly been overlooked by current research.

  16. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-05-20

    To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts' reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts' arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts' overall views on breast cancer screening. Experts' positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and provide a mechanism for responding to these differences. Published by

  17. Analysis of the drilling sound component from expert performance in a maxillo-facial surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Gosselin, Florian; Taha, Farid

    2009-01-01

    Auditory displays can have a great potential in surgical simulators that aim at training skills associated to the correct interpretation of auditory information. Here, we present preliminary results in the analysis of the sound produced by the drilling procedure in a maxillo-facial surgery when...... performed by expert surgeons. The motivation of this work is to find relevant acoustic parameters that allow for an efficient synthesis method of auditory displays so that they can effectively convey information on expert surgical drilling....

  18. Expert witness testimony in ophthalmology malpractice litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Friedman, Remy; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Langer, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relative qualifications of expert witnesses testifying on behalf of plaintiffs vs defendants in ophthalmology malpractice litigation. Correlational and descriptive study; analysis of expert witness and physician demographic data available on several databases. The Westlaw legal database was searched for ophthalmologist expert witness testimony from January 2006 to June 2014. Physician demographic data were used as the main outcome measures, including length of experience, scholarly impact (as measured by the h-index), practice setting, and fellowship training status and were obtained from state medical licensing board sites and online medical facility and practice sites. H-indices were obtained from the Scopus database. Defendant and plaintiff expert witnesses had comparable mean years of experience (32.9 and 35.7, respectively) (P = .12) and scholarly impact (h-index = 8.6 and 8.3, respectively) (P = .42). Cases tended to resolve on the side of the expert witness with the higher h-index (P = .04). Significantly higher proportions of defendant witnesses were in academic practice (P < .05) and underwent fellowship training (P < .001). Ophthalmologist expert witnesses testifying for both plaintiffs and defendants had over 30 years of experience and high scholarly impact. Practitioners testifying on behalf of plaintiffs were statistically less likely to work in an academic setting and have subspecialty training. Scholarly impact of expert witnesses appeared to affect trial outcomes. Surgical societies should stringently police for appropriate expert witness testimony given by both plaintiff and defense experts in malpractice litigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M Granger

    2014-05-20

    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making.

  20. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1–2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522–528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points Structured expert judgment is applied to quantify uncertainty in Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie Calibration variables from the experts' field are used to enable performance-based combination In sample validation is applied to the combination of expert judgments and to the experts Out-of-sample validation is applied to the performance-based combination method PMID:25044130

  1. Entity Framework 41 Expert's Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Liles, Devlin

    2012-01-01

    This book takes a step-by-step problem solving approach that leads you through a problem and explains each step in detail to accomplish the goal. This books gives you concrete code examples as well as detailed information on the decisions involved. This book is for intermediate to advanced .NET developers who have used LINQ to SQL or Entity Framework in some form but want to have more control over the implementation.

  2. Expert systems and ballistic range data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Wayne; Steinhoff, Mark; Whyte, Robert; Brown, David; Choate, Jeff; Adelgren, Russ

    1992-07-01

    A program aimed at the development of an expert system for the reduction of ballistic range data is described. The program applies expert system and artificial intelligence techniques to develop a mathematically complex state-of-the-art spark range data reduction procedure that includes linear theory and six-degree-of-freedom analysis. The scope of the knowledge base includes both spin and statically stable vehicles. The expert system is expected to improve the quality of the data reduction process while reducing the work load on the senior range engineer.

  3. GEST = The Generic Expert System Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Ho, David; Howard, Chuck

    1986-03-01

    The development cycle of an expert system can be decreased if an effective expert system tool (EST) is used. This paper describes the Generic Expert System Tool (GEST) developed by the Artificial Intelligence Branch of the Georgia Tech Research Institute. GEST was developed to be as general purpose as possible while incorporating all of the basic features required of an EST used for real world applications. This paper outlines GEST's basic software architecture and highlights a variety of it's processing elements. A discussion of future enhancement currently being implemented to increase GEST's application domains is also provided.

  4. Psychiatric expert witnesses in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G

    2006-09-01

    We may anticipate changes in who is the expert in terms of gender, ethnicity, and professional discipline. We anticipate elaboration of training approaches. We foresee emergence of the "forensic tutor" role. We expect expansion of expert roles outside the courtroom. We expect demands for more constraint of expert roles, increased rigor, and empiric support. We expect vast expansion of technologic approaches to assessment and presentation. We expect evolution of ethical issues with preservation of core forensic values but changes in confidentiality, due process, and the nature of assessments. We expect extreme expansion of hard sciences in relation to understanding psychopathology.

  5. Expert - Non-expert differences in visual behaviour during alpine slalom skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Marjolein; Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir Norjali; Zeuwts, Linus; Deconinck, Frederik F J A; Lenoir, Matthieu; Vansteenkiste, Pieter

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate visual behaviour of expert and non-expert ski athletes during an alpine slalom. Fourteen non-experts and five expert slalom skiers completed an alpine slalom course in an indoor ski slope while wearing a head-mounted eye tracking device. Experts completed the slalom clearly faster than non-experts, but no significant difference was found in timing and position of the turn initiation. Although both groups already looked at future obstacles approximately 0,5s before passing the upcoming pole, the higher speed of experts implied that they shifted gaze spatially earlier in the bend than non-experts. Furthermore, experts focussed more on the second next pole while non-expert slalom skiers looked more to the snow surface immediately in front of their body. No difference was found in the fixation frequency, average fixation duration, and quiet eye duration between both groups. These results suggest that experts focus on the timing of their actions while non-experts still need to pay attention to the execution of these actions. These results also might suggest that ski trainers should instruct non-experts and experts to focus on the next pole and, shift their gaze to the second next pole shortly before reaching it. Based on the current study it seems unadvisable to instruct slalom skiers to look several poles ahead during the actual slalom. However, future research should test if these results still hold on a real outdoor slope, including multiple vertical gates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Artificial Intelligence Information Sources for the Beginner and Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    associations, and a calendar of events for the subjects such as machine vision and artificial intelligence. Annotated bibliography on the foundations of Al...requestlvuse.vanderbilt.edu Al in United Kingdom ikbsbb-request@informatics.rutherford.ac.uk AI Vision research vision -listads.cm Artificial Life alife...ries IV. IFIP World Computer Congress. Annual Review of Computer science. Industrial Robot Applied Arificial Intelligence Inference Engine Applied

  7. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2000-12-31

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This third of ten semi-annual reports contains an account of the progress, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress.

  8. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2003-04-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  9. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2001-09-30

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. As a result, today's pool of experts is much reduced. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the May 2001 through September 2001 was directed toward development of rules for the fuzzy system.

  10. EXPERT SYSTEMS USED IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Constantin Dima; Mariana Man; Ciurea Vergil; Iwona Grabara

    2010-01-01

    In the conditions of computing the human society, the operational management activities can be improved by using artificial intelligence. Therefore, an expert system is proposed, for the metallurgical industry, for the casting activity for parts necessary in mining industry.

  11. School Construction Management: Expert Administrators Speak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents expert opinion on school construction management communication concerning educational needs, obtaining consensus among diverse groups, and envisioning what schools must offer in the future. Why furniture issues are also important is highlighted. (GR)

  12. Implicit Communication in Novice and Expert Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swain, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    ... (military, sporting or business teams). This suggests that expert teams may be utilising shared mental models of both the roles of their teammates and how they should be working together in a group situation...

  13. Quantifying catchment water balances and their uncertainties by expert elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Eva; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Warmink, Jord J.; Stisen, Simon; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand on water resources necessitates a more responsible and sustainable water management requiring a thorough understanding of hydrological processes both on small scale and on catchment scale. On catchment scale, the characterization of hydrological processes is often carried out by calculating a water balance based on the principle of mass conservation in hydrological fluxes. Assuming a perfect water balance closure and estimating one of these fluxes as a residual of the water balance is a common practice although this estimate will contain uncertainties related to uncertainties in the other components. Water balance closure on the catchment scale is also an issue in Denmark, thus, it was one of the research objectives of the HOBE hydrological observatory, that has been collecting data in the Skjern river catchment since 2008. Water balance components in the 1050 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and the nested 120 km2 Holtum catchment, located in the glacial outwash plan of the Skjern catchment, were estimated using a multitude of methods. As the collected data enables the complex assessment of uncertainty of both the individual water balance components and catchment-scale water balances, the expert elicitation approach was chosen to integrate the results of the hydrological observatory. This approach relies on the subjective opinion of experts whose available knowledge and experience about the subject allows to integrate complex information from multiple sources. In this study 35 experts were involved in a multi-step elicitation process with the aim of (1) eliciting average annual values of water balance components for two nested catchments and quantifying the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty in these average annual estimates; (2) calculating water balances for two catchments by reaching consensus among experts interacting in form of group discussions. To address the complex problem of water balance closure

  14. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  15. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  16. Expert views on societal responses to different applications of nanotechnology: a comparative analysis of experts in countries with different economic and regulatory environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Nidhi, E-mail: guptanidhi12@gmail.com; Fischer, Arnout R. H., E-mail: arnout.fischer@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group (Netherlands); George, Saji, E-mail: saji_george@nyp.gov.sg [Nanyang Polytechnic, Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences (Singapore); Frewer, Lynn J., E-mail: lynn.frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The introduction of different applications of nanotechnology will be informed by expert views regarding which (types of) application will be most societally acceptable. Previous research in Northern Europe has indicated that experts believe that various factors will be influential, predominant among these being public perceptions of benefit, need and consumer concern about contact with nanomaterials. These factors are thought by experts to differentiate societal acceptance and rejection of nanotechnology applications. This research utilises a larger sample of experts (N = 67) drawn from Northern America, Europe, Australasia, India and Singapore to examine differences in expert opinion regarding societal acceptance of different applications of nanotechnology within different technological environments, consumer cultures and regulatory regimes. Perceived risk and consumer concerns regarding contact with nano-particles are thought by all experts to drive rejection, and perceived benefits to influence acceptance, independent of country. Encapsulation and delivery of nutrients in food was thought to be the most likely to raise societal concerns, while targeted drug delivery was thought most likely to be accepted. Lack of differentiation between countries suggests that expert views regarding social acceptance may be homogenous, independent of local contextual factors.

  17. Expert and exceptional performance: evidence of maximal adaptation to task constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K A; Lehmann, A C

    1996-01-01

    Expert and exceptional performance are shown to be mediated by cognitive and perceptual-motor skills and by domain-specific physiological and anatomical adaptations. The highest levels of human performance in different domains can only be attained after around ten years of extended, daily amounts of deliberate practice activities. Laboratory analyses of expert performance in many domains such as chess, medicine, auditing, computer programming, bridge, physics, sports, typing, juggling, dance, and music reveal maximal adaptations of experts to domain-specific constraints. For example, acquired anticipatory skills circumvent general limits on reaction time, and distinctive memory skills allow a domain-specific expansion of working memory capacity to support planning, reasoning, and evaluation. Many of the mechanisms of superior expert performance serve the dual purpose of mediating experts' current performance and of allowing continued improvement of this performance in response to informative feedback during practice activities.

  18. Helping operators improve plant performance emdash HEATXPRT; An on-line expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R.E.; Sopocy, D.M.; Montanus, J.A. (Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (US)); Blanco, M.A. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US)); Bleakley, K.W. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (US)); Perry, S.A. (Will County Station, Commonwealth Edison Co., Romeoville, IL (US))

    1992-01-01

    An on-line expert system for fossil fuel power plants, Heat Rate Degradation Advisor, or HEATXPRT, is being developed. This expert system will be used to automate the interpretation of plant operating data using available on-line plant physical and performance data, along with manual input of additional measurements and observations when necessary. This expert system will operate on a microcomputer and will interface with existing plant data acquisition and/or thermal performance monitoring systems, which presents a variety of design challenges. Several significant features of this expert system are discussed in this paper, including the design of a modular expert system architecture, design of a consistent user interface, development of a standard specification for information transfer, application of sensor validation techniques, and development of a knowledge base suitable for the interpretation of on-line data.

  19. Moody experts --- How mood and expertise influence judgmental anchoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Englich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring effects, the assimilation of numerical estimates to previously considered standards, are highly robust. Two studies examined whether mood and expertise jointly moderate the magnitude of anchoring. Previous research has demonstrated that happy mood induces judges to process information in a less thorough manner than sad mood, which means that happy judges tend to be more susceptible to unwanted influences. However, this may not be true for anchoring effects. Because anchoring results from an elaborate process of selective knowledge activation, more thorough processing should lead to more anchoring; as a result, sad judges should show stronger anchoring effects than happy judges and happy judges may even remain uninfluenced by the given anchors. Because information processing of experts may be relatively independent of their mood, however, mood may influence anchoring only in non-experts. Results of two studies on legal decision-making (Study 1 and numeric estimates (Study 2 are consistent with these expectations. These findings suggest that, at least for non-experts, positive mood may eliminate the otherwise robust anchoring effect.

  20. Research and development for Onboard Navigation (ONAV) ground based expert/trainer system: ONAV entry knowledge requirements specification update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsler, Daniel C.

    1988-01-01

    A revised version of expert knowledge for the onboard navigation (ONAV) entry system is given. Included is some brief background information together with information describing the knowledge that the system does contain.

  1. Expert assessment of exposure to carcinogens in Norway's offshore petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente; Austgulen, Li V-Torill; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Haaland, Inger Margrethe; Naerheim, Jakob; Svendsen, Kristin; Kromhout, Hans

    2008-03-01

    This study presents and evaluates an expert group's assessment of exposure to carcinogens for defined job categories in Norway's offshore petroleum industry, 1970-2005, to provide exposure information for a planned cohort study on cancer. Three university and five industry experts in occupational hygiene individually assessed the likelihood of exposure to 1836 combinations of carcinogens (n=17), job categories (n=27) and time periods (n=4). In subsequent plenary discussions, the experts agreed on exposed combinations. Agreement between the individual and the panel assessments was calculated by Cohen's kappa index. Using the panel assessment as reference, sensitivity and specificity were estimated. The eight experts assessed 63% of the 1836 combinations in plenary, resulting in 265 (14%) convened exposed combinations. Chlorinated hydrocarbons, benzene and inhalation of mineral oils had the highest number of exposed job categories (n=14, 9 and 10, respectively). The job categories classified as exposed to the highest numbers of carcinogens were the mechanics (n=10), derrick workers (n=6) and process technicians (n=5). The agreement between the experts' individual assessments and the panel assessment was kappa=0.53-0.74. The sensitivity was 0.55-0.86 and specificity 0.91-0.97. For these parameters, there were no apparent differences between the university experts and the industry experts. The resulting 265 of 1836 possible exposure combinations convened as "exposed" by expert assessment is presented in this study. The experts' individual ratings highly agreed with the succeeding panel assessment. Correlation was found between years of experience of the raters and agreement with the panel. The university experts and the industry experts' assessments had no apparent differences. Further validation of the exposure assessment is suggested, such as by new sampling data or observational studies.

  2. Teaching statistics to nursing students: an expert panel consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Eckardt, Patricia; Higgins, Melinda; Kim, MyoungJin; Schmiege, Sarah J

    2013-06-01

    Statistics education is a necessary element of nursing education, and its inclusion is recommended in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing guidelines for nurse training at all levels. This article presents a cohesive summary of an expert panel discussion, "Teaching Statistics to Nursing Students," held at the 2012 Joint Statistical Meetings. All panelists were statistics experts, had extensive teaching and consulting experience, and held faculty appointments in a U.S.-based nursing college or school. The panel discussed degree-specific curriculum requirements, course content, how to ensure nursing students understand the relevance of statistics, approaches to integrating statistics consulting knowledge, experience with classroom instruction, use of knowledge from the statistics education research field to make improvements in statistics education for nursing students, and classroom pedagogy and instruction on the use of statistical software. Panelists also discussed the need for evidence to make data-informed decisions about statistics education and training for nurses. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Technical experts in public communication - the Yucca Mountain experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, J.H.; Hill, C.R. [SAIC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Yucca Mountain Project has developed a public outreach program that includes science centers and facility tours.The results of having technical experts engage the public and do the talking for the project have been very positive. The perspective of people has changed significantly after touring the site and meeting the scientists. Conversations with members of the public indicate that one of the most impressive things about the presentations, exhibits, and tours is the chance to talk with the people who are doing the work. Informal questionnaires show a major change in perspective about the project by members of the public, and they indicate that briefings by the experts is a prime reason.

  4. Expert Seeker: A People-Finder Knowledge Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Fernandez, Irma

    2000-01-01

    The first objective for this report was to perform a comprehensive research of industry models currently being used for similar purposes, in order to provide the Center with ideas of what is being done in area by private companies and government agencies. The second objective was to evaluate the use of taxonomies or ontologies to describe and catalog the areas of expertise at GSFC. The creation of a knowledge taxonomy is necessary for information extraction in order for The Expert Seeker to adequately search and find experts in a particular area of expertise. The requirements to develop a taxonomy are: provide minimal descriptive text; have the appropriate level of abstration; facilitate browsing; ease of use and speed of data entry are critical for success; customized to the organization and its culture; extent of knowledge areas; expandable, so new skills could be develop; could be complemented with free text fields to allow users the option to describe their knowledge in detail.

  5. Christiano’s Deliberative Expertism and Choice Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ivanković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores Thomas Christiano’s account of the moral division of labor in democracy. Christiano’s incorporation of experts serves the purpose of alleviating the epistemic burdens of ordinary citizens in the decision-making process and decreasing the amount of work they would otherwise be required to take on in a modern democracy. The gist of my contribution to the debate is assessing whether Christiano’s account successfully tackles the issues brought about by cognitive biases that people suffer from in communicating their values in decision-making. I argue that Christiano’s notion of experts needs to be extended to choice architects, who possess the knowledge on methods for influencing choice. I also claim that choice architecture is a social fact that an informed deliberative democratic theory needs to deal with.

  6. Expert review on coronary calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Budoff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Matthew J Budoff, Khawar M GulDivision of Cardiology, Saint John’s Cardiovascular Research Center, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA, Torrance, California, USAAbstract: While there is no doubt that high risk patients (those with >20% ten year risk of future cardiovascular event need more aggressive preventive therapy, a majority of cardiovascular events occur in individuals at intermediate risk (10%–20% ten year risk. Accurate risk assessment may be helpful in decreasing cardiovascular events through more appropriate targeting of preventive measures. It has been suggested that traditional risk assessment may be refined with the selective use of coronary artery calcium (CAC or other methods of subclinical atherosclerosis measurement. Coronary calcification is a marker of atherosclerosis that can be quantified with the use of cardiac CT and it is proportional to the extent and severity of atherosclerotic disease. The published studies demonstrate a high sensitivity of CAC for the presence of coronary artery disease but a lower specificity for obstructive CAD depending on the magnitude of the CAC. Several large clinical trials found clear, incremental predictive value of CAC over the Framingham risk score when used in asymptomatic patients. Based on multiple observational studies, patients with increased plaque burdens (increased CAC are approximately ten times more likely to suffer a cardiac event over the next 3–5 years. Coronary calcium scores have outperformed conventional risk factors, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP and carotid intima media thickness (IMT as a predictor of cardiovascular events. The relevant prognostic information obtained may be useful to initiate or intensify appropriate treatment strategies to slow the progression of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Current data suggests intermediate risk patients may benefit most from further risk stratification with cardiac CT, as CAC testing is

  7. Learning from Expert Elicitation in Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007

  8. Comparison of plaintiff and defendant expert witness qualification in malpractice litigation in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Patel, Dharti; Setzen, Michael; Baredes, Soly

    2013-05-01

    Malpractice litigation contributes to rising health care costs in the United States. The role of expert witness testimony has been controversial in the past, with medical professional societies issuing statements regarding ethical obligations of physicians. Our objectives were to examine the relative qualifications of expert witnesses testifying on behalf of plaintiffs vs defendants. Analysis of expert witness and physician demographic data available on several databases. The Westlaw legal database (Thomson Reuters, New York, New York) was searched for otolaryngologist expert witness testimony. Length of experience, practice setting, and subspecialty training information were obtained from hospital, practice, departmental, and state licensing board sites. Scholarly impact was assessed using calculation of the h-index from the Scopus database. Plaintiff expert witnesses had significantly less experience than those testifying for defendants (31.8 vs 35.4 years, P = .047) and lower scholarly impact (h = 6.3 vs 10, P = .045). A significantly higher proportion of defendant witnesses were in academic practice (49.3% vs 31.7%, P = .042). No differences were detected in postresidency fellowship training patterns. Upon comparison of otolaryngologist expert witnesses, practitioners testifying on behalf of plaintiffs had statistically fewer years of experience, had a lower scholarly impact, and were less likely to work in an academic setting. Otolaryngologists who repeatedly served as expert witnesses were more likely to be testifying on behalf of plaintiffs than defendants. Professional societies need to frequently update guidelines on expert witness testimony and address the ethical obligations of practitioners.

  9. Expert consultation on risk factors for introduction of infectious pathogens into fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oidtmann, Birgit C; Peeler, Edmund J; Thrush, Mark A; Cameron, Angus R; Reese, R Allan; Pearce, Fiona M; Dunn, Peter; Lyngstad, Trude M; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Brun, Edgar; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2014-08-01

    An expert consultation was conducted to provide quantitative parameters required to inform risk-based surveillance of aquaculture holdings for selected infectious hazards. The hazards were four fish diseases endemic in some or several European countries: infectious salmon anaemia (ISA), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN), and koi herpes virus disease (KHD). Experts were asked to provide estimates for the relative importance of 5 risk themes for the hazard to be introduced into and infect susceptible fish at the destination. The 5 risk themes were: (1) live fish and egg movements; (2) exposure via water; (3) on-site processing; (4) short distance mechanical transmission and (5) distance independent mechanical transmission. The experts also provided parameter estimates for hazard transmission pathways within the themes. The expert consultation was undertaken in a 2 step approach: an online survey followed by an expert consultation meeting. The expert opinion indicated that live fish movements and exposure via water were the major relevant risk themes. Experts were recruited from several European countries and thus covered a range of farming systems. Therefore, the outputs from the expert consultation have relevance for the European context. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating Expert Estimators Based on Elicited Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Karna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of expert effort estimation approach shows promising results when it is applied to software development process. It is based on judgment and decision making process and due to comparative advantages extensively used especially in situations when classic models cannot be accounted for. This becomes even more accentuated in today’s highly dynamical project environment. Confronted with these facts companies are placing ever greater focus on their employees, specifically on their competences. Competences are defined as knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform job assignments. During effort estimation process different underlying expert competences influence the outcome i.e. judgments they express. Special problem here is the elicitation, from an input collection, of those competences that are responsible for accurate estimates. Based on these findings different measures can be taken to enhance estimation process. The approach used in study presented in this paper was targeted at elicitation of expert estimator competences responsible for production of accurate estimates. Based on individual competences scores resulting from performed modeling experts were ranked using weighted scoring method and their performance evaluated. Results confirm that experts with higher scores in competences identified by applied models in general exhibit higher accuracy during estimation process. For the purpose of modeling data mining methods were used, specifically the multilayer perceptron neural network and the classification and regression decision tree algorithms. Among other, applied methods are suitable for the purpose of elicitation as in a sense they mimic the ways human brains operate. Data used in the study was collected from real projects in the company specialized for development of IT solutions in telecom domain. The proposed model, applied methodology for elicitation of expert competences and obtained results give evidence that in

  11. Auditory memory function in expert chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.

  12. Optical Design Using an Expert System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, S A

    2003-08-01

    We present, as a different perspective on optimization, an expert system for optimization of optical systems that can be used in conjunction with damped least squared methods to find minima for specific design forms. Expert system optimization differs from global optimization in that it preserves the basic structure of the optical system and limits its search for a minima to a relatively small portion of the design space. In general, the high density of local minima obscures the general trend of the merit function in the region of interest for systems with a large number of variables and constraints. Surprisingly, there may be a potential decrease of an order a magnitude in the merit function for a region of solution space. While global optimization is well-suited to identifying design forms of interest, expert system optimization can be used for in-depth optimization of such forms. An expert system based upon such techniques was used to obtain the winning entry for the 2002 IODC lens design problem. The expert system used is discussed along with other design examples.

  13. Rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, A P

    1990-08-01

    Behavioral science studies conducted on rape victims reveal a posttraumatic stress disorder which follows the attack known as rape trauma syndrome. Evidence of rape trauma syndrome can be very useful in explaining the behavior of rape victims. Rape trauma syndrome can help corroborate the victim's assertion of lack of consent and also help the jury understand the typical reactions of rape victims. Courts have held that expert testimony of rape trauma syndrome is admissible as evidence of (i) lack of consent, (ii) the amount of damages in civil suits, (iii) a defense to culpable behavior, and (iv) an explanation for behavior of the victim that is inconsistent with the claim of rape. Rape trauma syndrome meets the requirements for admissibility when it is used for the proper purpose and with adequate safeguards to prevent any unfair prejudice. Based on case precedent on the admissibility of rape trauma syndrome as scientific expert testimony, rape trauma syndrome should be admissible if (i) the evidence presented only shows the typical reactions to rape and does not make any legal conclusions as to whether the victim was raped, (ii) the expert is qualified, (iii) a proper foundation is laid, (iv) liberal cross-examination of the expert is allowed, and (v) the defense can introduce its own expert testimony on rape trauma syndrome.

  14. Expert Elicitation Methods in Quantifying the Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance from Offshore Renewable Energy Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carl; Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Caneco, Bruno; Walker, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    There are many developments for offshore renewable energy around the United Kingdom whose installation typically produces large amounts of far-reaching noise, potentially disturbing many marine mammals. The potential to affect the favorable conservation status of many species means extensive environmental impact assessment requirements for the licensing of such installation activities. Quantification of such complex risk problems is difficult and much of the key information is not readily available. Expert elicitation methods can be employed in such pressing cases. We describe the methodology used in an expert elicitation study conducted in the United Kingdom for combining expert opinions based on statistical distributions and copula-like methods.

  15. For Non-expert Clinical Searches, Google Scholar Results are Older with Higher Impact while PubMed Results Offer More Breadth. A Review of: Nourbakhsh, E. F., Nugent, R. F., Wang, H. F., Cevik, C. F., & Nugent, K. (2012. Medical literature searches: A comparison of PubMed and Google Scholar. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 29(3, 214-222.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – To compare PubMed and Google Scholar results for content relevance and article qualityDesign – Bibliometric study.Setting – Department of Internal Medicine at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center.Methods – Four clinical searches were conducted in both PubMed and Google Scholar. Search methods were described as “real world” (p. 216 behaviour, with the searchers familiar with content, though not expert at retrieval techniques. The first 20 results from each search were evaluated forrelevance to the initial question, as well as for quality.Relevance was determined based on one author’s subjective assessment of information in the title and abstract, when available, and then tested by two other authors, with discrepancies discussed and resolved. Items were assigned to one of three categories: relevant, possibly relevant, and not relevant to the question, with reviewer agreement measured using a weighted kappa statistic. The quality of items found to be ‘relevant’ and ‘possibly relevant’ was measured by impact factor ratings from Thomsen Reuters (ISI Web of Knowledge, when available, as well as information obtained by SCOPUS on the number of times items were cited.Main Results – Google Scholar results were judged to be more relevant and of higher quality than results obtained from PubMed. Google Scholar results are also older on average, while PubMed retrieved items from a larger number of unique journals.Conclusion – In agreement with earlier research, the authors recommended that searchers use both PubMed and Google Scholar to improve on the quality and relevance of results. Searches in the two resources identify unique items based upon the ranking algorithms involved.

  16. Experts' Views Regarding the Conceptualization of Narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A; Hands, Aaron J; Donnellan, M Brent; Hopwood, Christopher J; Witt, Edward A

    2017-06-01

    There is debate over the definition of narcissism across social/personality and clinical psychology. The current article aims to quantify the level of disagreement by measuring experts' opinions concerning the attributes most central to narcissism. Accordingly, we developed a comprehensive list of attributes associated with narcissism and had 49 self-identified experts (among them 17 women, 23 psychologists from clinical psychology and 22 from social/personality psychology) rate these characteristics and provide their opinions on several issues related to the conceptualization of narcissism. Experts generally believe that the grandiose features of narcissism are more central than the vulnerable features. However, differences between clinical and social/personality psychologists were evident, especially regarding the relevance of self-esteem. Given the results, we suggest that researchers specify the kind of narcissism being assessed in a given study and consider using assessments of the full range of narcissistic features in future research to provide a more comprehensive perspective on the construct.

  17. Unintended Side Effects of Digital Transition: Perspectives of Japanese Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sugiyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The core of the digital transition is the representation of all kinds of real-world entities and processes and an increasing number of cognitive processes by digital information and algorithms on computers. These allow for seemingly unlimited storage, operation, retrieval, and transmission capacities that make digital tools economically available for all domains of society and empower human action, particularly combined with real-world interfaces such as displays, robots, sensors, 3D printers, etc. Digital technologies are general-purpose technologies providing unprecedented potential benefits for sustainability. However, they will bring about a multitude of potential unintended side effects, and this demands a transdisciplinary discussion on unwanted societal changes as well as a shift in science from analog to digital modeling and structure. Although social discourse has begun, the topical scope and regional coverage have been limited. Here, we report on an expert roundtable on digital transition held in February 2017 in Tokyo, Japan. Drawing on a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, our discussions highlight the importance of cultural contexts and the need to bridge local and global conversations. Although Japanese experts did mention side effects, their focus was on how to ensure that AI and robots could coexist with humans. Such a perspective is not well appreciated everywhere outside Japan. Stakeholder dialogues have already begun in Japan, but greater efforts are needed to engage a broader collection of experts in addition to stakeholders to broaden the social debate.

  18. Reduced attentional focus and the influence on expert anticipatory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2018-01-01

    The anticipatory memory encodings of expert and novice basketball players were examined under conditions of both full (attended condition) and reduced (unattended condition) attention (see also Gorman, Abernethy, & Farrow in Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75, 835-844, 2013a). Participants completed a typical pattern recall task using dynamic playing sequences from basketball, and their responses were compared to both the original target pattern as well as to the series of patterns that occurred immediately after and immediately before the target image. The latter had not previously been employed in a pattern recall task when examining the anticipatory encoding of pattern information. Results revealed that the overall extent of the forward displacement for both the attended and unattended patterns was generally significantly greater for the experts, with the expert advantage tending to be most prominent for the attacking patterns. The novel addition of both forward and backward scenes may provide a more precise measure of the anticipatory effect, suggesting that future research in this domain should use a similar methodological design.

  19. An expert display system and nuclear power plant control rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1988-04-01

    General topics for consideration when designing expert display systems and nuclear power plant control room displays are summarized. A system is proposed in which the display of segments (a combined series of graphic primitives or a reusable collection of graphic primitives and primitives attributes stored in memory) controls a cathode-ray-tube's screen to form an image of plant operations. The image consists of an icon of: (1) the process (heat engine cycle), (2) plant control systems, and (3) safety systems. A set of data-driven, forward-chaining computer-stored rules control the display segments. As plant operation changes, measured plant data are processed through the rules, and the results control the deletion and addition of segments to the display format. The icon contains information needed by control rooms operators to monitor plant operations. One example of an expert display is illustrated for the operator's task of monitoring leakage from a safety valve in a steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). In another example, the use of an expert display to monitor plant operations during pre-trip, trip, and post-trip operations is discussed as a universal display.

  20. An expert EFL teacher’s class management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Yazdanmehr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research sought to investigate how expert EFL teachers manage their class and keep its discipline. To this aim, the existing prior ELT (English Language Teaching research on exemplary teachers’ practices were reviewed and the typical class management strategies used were extracted. Moreover, 20 ELT specialists including teacher educators, university professors of applied linguistics, mentor teachers and language institute supervisors were selected through purposive snowball and convenience sampling methods, and were interviewed. Since they were directly dealing with teachers as trainers, supervisors, and mentors, they were considered as qualified informants. There were finally 4 themes and 3 sub-themes extracted from the qualitative content analysis of the interviews, which were presented in this paper along with sample extracts of the actual interview content. The themes included: expert teachers’ identification power, use of external control, use of preventive management strategies and monitoring student behavior. The 3 sub-themes of the second theme were: clarification of expectations, use of body language and establishing rules and routines. Knowledge of these themes and sub-themes can shed light on a key behavioral aspect of expert English language teachers in class. These strategies, if followed properly, can set good examples for novice teachers and those who have problem managing their classes.

  1. Expert System Diagnosis Dental Disease Using Certainty Factor Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whisnu Ulinnuha Setiabudi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological development is growing rapidly among with the increasing of human needs especially in mobile technology where the technology that often be used is android. The existence of this android facilitates the user in access of information. This android can be used for healthy needs, for example is detecting dental disease. One of the branches of computer science that can help society in detecting dental disease is expert system. In this research, making expert system to diagnosis dental disease by using certainty factor method. Dental disease diagnosis application can diagnose the patient based on griping of the patient about dental disease so it can be obtained diseases possibility of the patient itself. This application is an expert system application that operates on android platform. Furthermore, in the measurement accuracy of the system test performed by 20 patients, there were 19 cases of corresponding and 1 cases that do not fit. So, from system testing performed by 20 patients resulted in a 95% accuracy rate. 

  2. Expert witness testimony in urology malpractice litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaryo, Peter L; Svider, Peter F; Jackson-Rosario, Imani; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the credentials of urologists choosing to testify as expert witnesses. As health care reform has become an increasingly important topic in national debate, medical malpractice and related issues have come to the forefront of topics for discussion by the medical community. Physicians are often recruited to testify as expert witnesses in malpractice cases. Defining what constitutes an expert in this setting has been an area of controversy. The Westlaw legal database was searched for medical malpractice litigation. Data regarding number of years of experience and practice setting were obtained for urologists using private practice and hospital listings, academic faculty profiles, and state medical licensing databases. Scholarly impact, as measured by the h-index, was calculated by the Scopus database. Plaintiff expert witnesses were found to have slightly more years of experience vs defendant expert witnesses (35.7 vs 32.2 years, P = .01), but had a lower h-index (6.8 vs 10.2, P = .03), were less likely to practice in the academic setting (39% vs 60%, P = .001), and were more likely to testify multiple times. Urologists testifying for plaintiffs and defendants both had over 30 years of experience on average, with those in the latter having slightly less experience. Defendant witnesses, however, had greater scholarly impact and were more likely to practice in an academic setting. Organizations such as the American Urological Association may wish to re-evaluate guidelines on expert witness testimony, particularly regarding those who testify frequently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. When experts are oceans apart: comparing expert performance values for proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Rovers, M.M.; Alken, A.P.; Kengen, B.; Goor, H. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical training is moving away from the operating room toward simulation-based skills training facilities. This has led to the development of proficiency-based training courses in which expert performance data are used for feedback and assessment. However, few expert value data sets

  4. JCOMM/IODE Expert Team on Data Management Practices First Session

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The 1st Session of the JCOMM/IODE Expert Team on Data Management Practices (ETDMP) was held in Oostende, Belgium between 15 and 18 September 2003. The ETDMP members discussed the requirements for end-to-end data management (E2EDM); existing and planned data management mechanisms and practices; cooperation with other programmes and expert teams; the strategy for the development of E2EDM; and future cooperation with the Ocean Information Technology (OIT) Pilot Project. The Group ...

  5. Expert Meeting: Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2013-07-01

    The topic of this Building America expert meeting was 'Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes,' which was held on October 16, 2012, in Westford, MA, and brought together experts in the field of residential humidity control to address modeling issues for dehumidification. The presentations and discussions centered on computer simulation and field experience with these systems, with the goal of developing foundational information to support the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  6. Expert system terms and building tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of an Expert System Building Tool (ESBT) capable of inference and hypothetical reasoning are discussed. The inference capabilities of ESBTs allow such functions as classification, design-synthesis, forecasting, decision-aiding, scheduling and planning, real-time monitoring, situation assessment, the discovery of novel relations, and debugging. ESBTs are noted to have made possible order-of-magnitude improvements in expert system construction. Higher-end ESBTs are moving from LISP machines to less expensive workstations, and lower-end ones are appearing on PCs.

  7. Oracle Hyperion Interactive Reporting 11 Expert Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    This book is written in a simple, easy to understand format with screenshots, code samples, and step-by-step explanations that will guide you through the advanced techniques used by the experts. If you are an Oracle Hyperion Interactive reporting user or developer looking to become an expert in the product, then this book is for you. You will require a basic knowledge of Interactive Reporting, as this book starts with a brief overview and then dives into advanced techniques, functions, and best practices. Beginner users should consult The Business Analyst's Guide to Oracle Hyperion Interactive

  8. Expert PHP and MySQL

    CERN Document Server

    Curioso, Andrew; Galbraith, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Expert PHP and MySQL targets developers who work on mission-critical and high-traffic applications on a daily basis. There are plenty of books that teach people the basics of PHP and MySQL. This book takes a different approach and focuses on best practices and expert techniques that can be applied directly to today's most demanding MySQL-driven PHP applications. The book begins with an overview of PHP, MySQL, and regular expressions. These chapters will not only be a foundation for the rest of the book but also provide tips and tricks that the readers can immediately apply to their projects. I

  9. [Medico-expert qualification of iatrogenic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, E S

    1998-01-01

    Medical expert qualification of iatrogenic disease is developed on the basis of insurance assessment of events (accident, realized risk, error) and classification of their causes according to the principle of the triad patient-medical professional-environment taking into account medical technology (diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, prophylaxis). Medical error is considered as an integral term and include inadequate (erroneous) professional thinking and/or action. Therefore, it is suggested to qualify a medical error either as a fallacy, or negligence, or omission. Medical-technological standards, apart from legitimacy, are necessary for realization of an expert activity.

  10. CONNAISSANCES ET RECONNAISSANCE DE L'EXPERT

    OpenAIRE

    Sébastien Dubois; Najoua Mohib; David Oget; Eric Schenk; Michel Sonntag

    2006-01-01

    Les experts sont des acteurs centraux de cette société de la connaissance. L'expert est supposé posséder à la fois les connaissances et le savoir faire qui devraient permettre de résoudre le problème ou nous aider à prendre les bonnes décisions. De plus sa légitimité et ses connaissances sont rassurantes. Il devient la figure emblématique de celui qui non seulement sait, mais sait aussi comment faire, sait conseiller pour les décisions à prendre... Homme de connaissance et d'action, il incarn...

  11. Teaching Empirical Software Engineering Using Expert Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco

    2017-01-01

    are utilized to carry out mini-projects, i.e., students learn about scientific work by doing scientific work. To manage the high number of about 70 students enrolled in this course, a seminar-like learning model is used in which students form expert teams. Beyond the base knowledge, expert teams obtain...... an extra specific expertise that they offer as service to other teams, thus, fostering cross-team collaboration. The paper outlines the general course setup, topics addressed, and it provides initial lessons learned....

  12. Commercial Expert-System-Building Software Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Report evaluates commercially-available expert-system-building tools in terms of structures, representations of knowledge, inference mechanisms, interfaces with developers and end users, and capabilities of performing such functions as diagnosis and design. Software tools commercialized derivatives of artificial-intelligence systems developed by researchers at universities and research organizations. Reducing time to develop expert system by order of magnitude compared to that required with such traditional artificial development languages as LISP. Table lists 20 such tools, rating attributes as strong, fair, programmable by user, or having no capability in various criteria.

  13. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2004-04-08

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  14. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2003-10-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This ninth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through September 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  15. Détection des experts dans un cadre incertain

    OpenAIRE

    Attiaoui, Dorra; Martin, Arnaud; Ben Yaghlane, Boutheina

    2015-01-01

    International audience; RÉSUMÉ. Dans cet article nous proposons une modélisation statistique des utilisateurs dans les sites communautaires de questions réponses fondée sur les théories de l'incertain. Nous utili-sons une méthode de prise de décision crédibiliste fondée sur la combinaison des informations relatives à chaque type d'utilisateur. Cette approche utilise les probabilités pignistiques pour identifier chaque classe et ainsi permettre une détection des experts selon un thème spécifiq...

  16. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in-flight software testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasie, M. P.; Muratore, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the introduction of advanced information systems technologies such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and advanced human-computer interfaces directly into Space Shuttle software engineering. The reconfiguration automation project (RAP) was initiated to coordinate this move towards 1990s software technology. The idea behind RAP is to automate several phases of the flight software testing procedure and to introduce AI and ES into space shuttle flight software testing. In the first phase of RAP, conventional tools to automate regression testing have already been developed or acquired. There are currently three tools in use.

  17. The end of the art connoisseur? Experts and knowledge production in the visual arts in the digital age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this digital age, declarations surface on the death of the expert and the democratization of information. Crowd wisdom is seen as the new guide in constructing and evaluating knowledge. In the context of the art world, this tension between the amateurs and the experts becomes

  18. The intermediate effect and the diagnostic accuracy in clinical case recall of students and experts in dental medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Eberhard (J.); H.-J. Klomp (H.); M. Föge (M.); J. Hedderich (J.); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The extensive knowledge of experts facilitates the solving of domain- specific problems. In general, this is due to the fact that experts recall more detailed information than do novices or even advanced students. However, if physicians of different expertise levels are

  19. Using expert systems in industrial production management

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Constantin Dima; Codruţa Dura

    2002-01-01

    The expert system aiming the moulded pieces production management improving is designed to assist maintenance and operation personal in the process of diagnosis of complex defects which may appear during the technological process, but the system must also contribute to technical measurements adopted after these distortions have emerged

  20. Expert Behavior in Children's Video Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeventer, Stephanie S.; White, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the display of expert behavior by seven outstanding video game-playing children ages 10 and 11. Analyzes observation and debriefing transcripts for evidence of self-monitoring, pattern recognition, principled decision making, qualitative thinking, and superior memory, and discusses implications for educators regarding the development…

  1. EXPERT SYSTEMS SHOW PROMISE FOR CUSTOMER INQUIRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes results of an agreement between the North Penn Water Authority in Lansdale, Pa., and the US Environmental Protection Agency, Drinking Water Research Division, Cincinnati, Ohio, to study use of expert systems technology in a water utility. The threeyear stud...

  2. Narcissistic dimensions of expert witness practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G; Simon, Robert I

    2005-01-01

    The authors review narcissism as it relates to expert witness practice. The review addresses stable versus unstable narcissism, normal confidence, perspective taking, the effect of flattery, the will to win, mirror transference, narcissistic excitement, narcissistic rage, narcissistic injury, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The article closes with recommendations for resisting narcissistic pitfalls and achieving the egoless state.

  3. Expert system support and juridical quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Marga M.; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Breuker, J.; Leenes, R.E.; Winkels, R.

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the use of expert systems as a means of achieving juridical quality within administrative organisations. Do these systems really improve the quality of decision making and provide the desired guarantees with respect to the correct treatment of clients?

  4. Fuzzy Expert System to Characterize Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, T.

    2011-01-01

    Students wanting to succeed in higher education are required to adopt an adequate learning approach. By analyzing individual learning characteristics, teachers can give personal advice to help students identify their learning success factors. An expert system based on fuzzy logic can provide economically viable solutions to help students identify…

  5. PLEXUS--The Expert System for Referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, A.; Brooks, H. M.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a description of PLEXUS, an expert system on gardening designed as a referral tool for public libraries by the University of London. Highlights include determining user characteristics, developing the problem statement, the use of semantic categories, and search strategies that modify the original problem statement using Boolean…

  6. ROSIE: A Programming Environment for Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    ence on Artificial Inteligence , Tbilisi, USSR, 1975. Fain, J., D. Gorlin, F. Hayes-Roth, S. Rosenschein, H. Sowizral, and D. Waterman, The ROSIE Language...gramming environment for artificial intelligence (AI) applications. It provides particular support for designing expert systems, systems that embody

  7. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  8. Eliciting and using expert knowledge in metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    The expression of uncertainty has hitherto been seen as an add-on—first an estimate is obtained and then uncertainty in that estimate is evaluated. We argue that quantification of uncertainty should be an intrinsic part of measurement and that the measurement result should be a probability distribution for the measurand. Full quantification of uncertainties in measurement, recognizing and quantifying all sources of uncertainty, is rarely simple. Many potential sources of uncertainty can effectively only be quantified by the application of expert judgement. Scepticism about the validity or reliability of expert judgement has meant that these sources of uncertainty have often been overlooked, ignored or treated in a qualitative, narrative way. But the consequence of this is that reported expressions of uncertainty regularly understate the true degree of uncertainty in measurements. This article first discusses the concept of quantifying uncertainty in measurement, and then considers some of the areas where expert judgement is needed in order to quantify fully the uncertainties in measurement. The remainder of the article is devoted to describing methodology for eliciting expert knowledge.

  9. Expert opinions on SME Transfers Hazards for policymakers and entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lex van Teeffelen

    2009-01-01

    The EU and national governments rely on expert panels and opinions for their policies (EU, 2003; EU, 2006a; EU, 2006b) on SME ownership transfers. Also entrepreneurs depend on expert opinions and advice. We know from expert studies that expert judgment may lead to confusion and conflicting results.

  10. Plant Distribution Data Show Broader Climatic Limits than Expert-Based Climatic Tolerance Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Curtis

    Full Text Available Although increasingly sophisticated environmental measures are being applied to species distributions models, the focus remains on using climatic data to provide estimates of habitat suitability. Climatic tolerance estimates based on expert knowledge are available for a wide range of plants via the USDA PLANTS database. We aim to test how climatic tolerance inferred from plant distribution records relates to tolerance estimated by experts. Further, we use this information to identify circumstances when species distributions are more likely to approximate climatic tolerance.We compiled expert knowledge estimates of minimum and maximum precipitation and minimum temperature tolerance for over 1800 conservation plant species from the 'plant characteristics' information in the USDA PLANTS database. We derived climatic tolerance from distribution data downloaded from the Global Biodiversity and Information Facility (GBIF and corresponding climate from WorldClim. We compared expert-derived climatic tolerance to empirical estimates to find the difference between their inferred climate niches (ΔCN, and tested whether ΔCN was influenced by growth form or range size.Climate niches calculated from distribution data were significantly broader than expert-based tolerance estimates (Mann-Whitney p values << 0.001. The average plant could tolerate 24 mm lower minimum precipitation, 14 mm higher maximum precipitation, and 7° C lower minimum temperatures based on distribution data relative to expert-based tolerance estimates. Species with larger ranges had greater ΔCN for minimum precipitation and minimum temperature. For maximum precipitation and minimum temperature, forbs and grasses tended to have larger ΔCN while grasses and trees had larger ΔCN for minimum precipitation.Our results show that distribution data are consistently broader than USDA PLANTS experts' knowledge and likely provide more robust estimates of climatic tolerance, especially for

  11. An expert system for diagnostics and estimation of steam turbine components condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmansky, B. E.; Aronson, K. E.; Brodov, Yu. M.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes an expert system of probability type for diagnostics and state estimation of steam turbine technological subsystems components. The expert system is based on Bayes’ theorem and permits to troubleshoot the equipment components, using expert experience, when there is a lack of baseline information on the indicators of turbine operation. Within a unified approach the expert system solves the problems of diagnosing the flow steam path of the turbine, bearings, thermal expansion system, regulatory system, condensing unit, the systems of regenerative feed-water and hot water heating. The knowledge base of the expert system for turbine unit rotors and bearings contains a description of 34 defects and of 104 related diagnostic features that cause a change in its vibration state. The knowledge base for the condensing unit contains 12 hypotheses and 15 evidence (indications); the procedures are also designated for 20 state parameters estimation. Similar knowledge base containing the diagnostic features and faults hypotheses are formulated for other technological subsystems of turbine unit. With the necessary initial information available a number of problems can be solved within the expert system for various technological subsystems of steam turbine unit: for steam flow path it is the correlation and regression analysis of multifactor relationship between the vibration parameters variations and the regime parameters; for system of thermal expansions it is the evaluation of force acting on the longitudinal keys depending on the temperature state of the turbine cylinder; for condensing unit it is the evaluation of separate effect of the heat exchange surface contamination and of the presence of air in condenser steam space on condenser thermal efficiency performance, as well as the evaluation of term for condenser cleaning and for tube system replacement and so forth. With a lack of initial information the expert system enables to formulate a diagnosis

  12. EXPERT MODEL OF CHILDREN'S HEALTH AS A BASIS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF INTERDISCIPLINARY MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Chechel’nitskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of provision of wide range of specialists with authentic information about health state of children and ado les cents it's necessary to create new systems of their observation, based on interdisciplinary principles. An expert model of health, which gives a basis for a construction of such systems, is described in this article. 132 experts took part in this trial; they were doctors, psychologists, teachers, philosophers, sociologists, and elder adolescents and adults independently of their profession. A del phi method was used in this expert model. A factorial analysis was used for a classification of health indicators and factors, which influence on it. A detailed nominal expert classification was suggested, and the state of health can be estimated on the basis of it as an object, having definite behaviors and depending of some external factors. A nominal expert classification includes 36 indices of state of health and 37 factors, influencing on it. An ordinal expert classification was obtained as a result of factorial analysis, which allows estimation of significance level of every index.Key words: health, monitoring, expert questionnaires, heath monitoring.

  13. Palliative care in Germany from a public health perspective: qualitative expert interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmann, Mareike; Lückmann, Sara Lena; Schneider, Nils

    2009-06-30

    Improving palliative care is a public health priority. However, little is known about the views of public health experts regarding the state of palliative care in Germany and the challenges facing it. The main aim of this pilot study was to gather information on the views of internationally experienced public health experts with regard to selected palliative care issues, with the focus on Germany, and to compare their views with those of specialist palliative care experts. Qualitative guided interviews were performed with ten experts (five from palliative care, five from public health). The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Older people and non-cancer patients were identified as target groups with a particular priority for palliative care. By contrast to the public health experts, the palliative care experts emphasized the need for rehabilitative measures for palliative patients and the possibilities of providing these. Significant barriers to the further establishment of palliative care were seen, amongst other things, in the powerful lobby groups and the federalism of the German health system. The findings suggest that from the experts' point of view (1) palliative care should focus on the needs of older people particularly in view of the demographic changes; (2) more attention should be paid to rehabilitative measures in palliative care; (3) rivalries among different stakeholders regarding their responsibilities and the allocation of financial resources have to be overcome in Germany.

  14. Palliative care in Germany from a public health perspective: qualitative expert interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Nils

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving palliative care is a public health priority. However, little is known about the views of public health experts regarding the state of palliative care in Germany and the challenges facing it. The main aim of this pilot study was to gather information on the views of internationally experienced public health experts with regard to selected palliative care issues, with the focus on Germany, and to compare their views with those of specialist palliative care experts. Qualitative guided interviews were performed with ten experts (five from palliative care, five from public health. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Findings Older people and non-cancer patients were identified as target groups with a particular priority for palliative care. By contrast to the public health experts, the palliative care experts emphasized the need for rehabilitative measures for palliative patients and the possibilities of providing these. Significant barriers to the further establishment of palliative care were seen, amongst other things, in the powerful lobby groups and the federalism of the German health system. Conclusion The findings suggest that from the experts' point of view (1 palliative care should focus on the needs of older people particularly in view of the demographic changes; (2 more attention should be paid to rehabilitative measures in palliative care; (3 rivalries among different stakeholders regarding their responsibilities and the allocation of financial resources have to be overcome in Germany.

  15. The contribution of research on expertise to understanding of expert thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaić Zora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expertise is determined based on the high level of mastery of knowledge and skills in different areas of human activities (science, art, sports and other less formal domains. This paper explores the contribution of empirical research on expertise to understanding of the nature of expert thinking. For that purpose we have compiled an overview and performed an analysis of the findings of relevant research on expertise based on different approaches and paradigms. We have included the studies that researched experts singled out based on their exceptional performances in different domains (absolute expertise and the studies based on comparing experts with novices (relative expertise. We have analyzed the studies using different paradigms: psychometric and cognitive paradigms, as well as the new offshoot, the paradigm based on viewing giftedness as developing expertise. Research results provide empirically grounded findings on the characteristics of expert thinking and consistently point to the fact that knowledge is the core of expertise. The characteristics of expert knowledge are operationalized via the quantity and organization of knowledge and the mastery of deep contents and knowledge systems, which enables the recognition of rules, models and information sets, as well as the use of knowledge in further studying, detecting and solving different problems. It can be concluded that research findings on expertise are one of the foundations in the conceptualization of expert thinking. They significantly contribute to obtaining an insight into the way in which knowledge shapes thought and into understanding the mechanisms of demonstrating knowledge in the mental processes of experts.

  16. Epilepsy treatment in adults and adolescents: Expert opinion, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jerry J; Whitlock, Julia B; Chimato, Nicole; Vargas, Emily; Karceski, Steven C; Frank, Ryan D

    2017-04-01

    oxcarbazepine were considered drugs of choice for initial treatment of focal seizures. Lamotrigine and levetiracetam were the drugs of choice for women of child-bearing age with either genetic generalized epilepsy or focal epilepsy. Lamotrigine and levetiracetam were the drugs of choice in the elderly population. Lamotrigine was preferred in patients with co-morbid depression. Levetiracetam was the drug of choice in treating patients with hepatic failure, or who have undergone organ transplantation. Compared to the 2005 and 2001 surveys, there was increased preference for the use of levetiracetam and lamotrigine, and decreased preference for the use of phenytoin, gabapentin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine. The study presented here provides a "snapshot" of the clinical practices of experts in the treatment of epilepsy. The experts were very often in agreement, and reached consensus in 81% of the possible responses. However, expert opinion does not replace the medical literature; instead, it acts to supplement existing information. Using the study results is similar to requesting an expert consultation. Our findings suggest options that the clinician should consider to achieve best practice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. REXS : A financial risk diagnostic expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Richter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Artificial intelligence techniques are rapidly emerging as important contributors to more effective management. One of the greatest growth areas probably lies in the use of Expert System methodology for supporting managerial decision processes.
    Existing Decision Support Systems often attempt to apply analytical techniques in combination with traditional data access and retrieval functions. One of the problems usually encountered while developing such decision support systems is the need to transform an unstructured problem environment into a structured analytical model. Using an expert system approach to strategic decision making in such unstructured problem environments may provide significant advantages.
    The financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS concentrates on Financial Risk Analysis. Based on a Forecasting Model the system will, with the support of several expert system knowledge bases, attempt to evaluate the financial risk of a business and provide guidelines for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Tegnieke gebaseer op Kunsmatige Intelligensie toon tans die belofte om belangrike bydraes te maak tot meerBestaande Besluitsteunstelsels poog dikwels om analitiese tegnieke en lradisionele datatoegang- en onttrekkingsfunksies te kombineer. Een van die probleme wat gewoonlik ondervind word gedurende die ontwikkeling van '0 besluitsteunstelsel bestaan uit die behoefte om 'n ongestruktueerde probleemomgewing te transformeer na 'n gestruktueerde analitiese model. 'n Ekspertstelselbenadering lot strategiese besluitneming in 'n ongeSlruktureerde probleemomgewing mag betekenisvolle voordele inhou.
    Die "financial Risk diagnostic EXpert System (REXS" konsentreer op fmansiele risiko-analise. Uitgaande vanaf 'n Vooruitskattingsmode~ en deur gebruik te maak van verskeie ekspertstelselkennisbasisse, poog die stelsel om die fmansiele risiko van 'n onderneming te evalueer en riglyne vir moontlike verbetering

  18. [Cases from the expert commission of the North Rhine medical council: expert commissions and arbitration boards by medical councils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannappel, J; Weber, B; Smentkowski, U

    2012-11-01

    Following a description of the structure and function of the expert commission for medical malpractice of the North Rhine medical council, important legal technical terms and the consequences, such as the definition of accusable medical malpractice and severe (in legal terms gross) negligence will be presented. The article reports on the legal consequences of the lack of informed consent, on the significance of insufficient informed consent and under which conditions a transfer of liability becomes valid. From the statistical information in the archives of the expert commission it can be seen that in processes against urologists approximately 31% of urologists in private practice were affected compared to 69% of hospital urologists. Approximately 20% involved accusations of false diagnosis and 80% involved accusations of false treatment. Of the processes involving urological diagnostic errors prostate cancer was at the forefront, followed by processes involving delayed or falsely diagnosed bladder cancer. For processes due to operative treatment errors prostate cancer also occupied first place, followed by accusations of treatment errors involving penile and urethral operations. A differentiated presentation of processes involving non-operative treatment errors revealed an accumulation of accusations for mistakes in the treatment of urolithiasis, in medicinal treatment and also in tumor therapy. Following a description of typical individual cases, indications for avoidance of legal proceedings will be given.

  19. An Expert System for Diagnosis of Diseases in Rice Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Shikhar Kr. Sarma; Kh. Robindro Singh; Abhijeet Singh

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural framework of an Expert System in the area of agriculture and describes the design and development of the rule based expert system, using the shell ESTA (Expert System for Text Animation). The designed system is intended for the diagnosis of common diseases occurring in the rice plant. An Expert System is a computer program normally composed of a knowledge base, inference engine and user-interface. The proposed expert system facilitates different components...

  20. Guess-And-Verify Heuristics for Reducing Uncertainties in Expert Classification Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Yuping; Cox, JR; Davis, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    An expert classification system having statistical information about the prior probabilities of the different classes should be able to use this knowledge to reduce the amount of additional information that it must collect, e.g., through questions, in order to make a correct classification. This paper examines how best to use such prior information and additional information-collection opportunities to reduce uncertainty about the class to which a case belongs, thus minimizing the average cos...

  1. The anatomy of EU policy-making: Appointing the experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Field

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At 38,000, the total number of staff at the European Commission is relatively small for a body representing half a billion citizens. Likewise, the 3,500 strong research and statistical team is modest in size given that it operates across the Directorates General and other services. In order to assist policy-makers, the Commission supplements this research base by using outside expertise to advise at all stages of the policy-making process. For many years, those who observe the European Union’s institutions have recognised that this use of outside expertise to assist with the shaping of policy presents a potential democratic shortfall. The 2001 White Paper on Governance acknowledged that the line between expertise and political authority had become blurred and that, increasingly, the public questioned the independence of expert advice. The following year, the Commission published its first set of guidelines on the collection and use of expertise, listing ‘openness’ as one of three core principles. Despite considerable changes that have occurred in the transparency landscape in the intervening period, the Commission’s commitment to this core principle of expertise remains. This article investigates the measures the Commission introduced specifically to facilitate this openness. Applying a structure-agency approach, the article characterises an expert group as a ‘community of knowledge’ and contrasts the transparency of the Commission’s formal appointment procedures with the less visible but frequently used informal measures through which individuals are identified and approached. Based on a recent and highly relevant case, the article employs data gathered from the near contemporaneous accounts of expert group members and Commission officials. It finds that the reported appointment processes do not reflect the widespread incidence of individuals selected based on previous contact or personal recommendation and argues that this may

  2. Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development sponsored by the UN, an expert group met in June 1992 in Botswana to consider issues related to population and women. Particular attention was devoted to gender equality, population, and development; reproductive health and the health of families; adolescent fertility, marriage, and reproductive health; family planning (FP) and FP programs; education of girls and women and the relationship of education to fertility, health, and welfare; women's economic activity and its relationship to demographic factors; and the relationship between women, population, and the environment. While both developed and developing countries were considered, the emphasis was on the latter. 32 recommendations for action were addressed primarily to governments and other social institutions and also to funding agencies. The recommendations call for a recognization that health and education are particularly critical for women. They ask for the development of gender-based analysis and assessment of development policies to discover their impact on women. Service delivery to women should be culturally appropriate, and women should be integrated into development initiatives and into management and policy-making levels of social institutions. Responsible parenthood should be promoted as should the assumption of familiar responsibilities by men. Women should have access to safe abortion services. Adolescents should receive the education necessary to protect their reproductive health, and a minimum marriage age should be adopted. FP programs should be appropriate to their clients and should provide safe methods of fertility regulation. Improved and safe contraceptives and pharmaceuticals which will protect against sexually transmitted diseases should be developed, with renewed emphasis placed on new contraceptives for men. Safe sex measures should be promoted. The health of girls and women should

  3. MANOVA for distinguishing experts' perceptions about entrepreneurship using NES data from GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Aldina; Costa e Silva, Eliana; Lopes, Isabel C.; Braga, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Global Entrepreneurship Monitor is a large scale database for internationally comparative entrepreneurship that includes information about many aspects of entrepreneurship activities, perceptions, conditions, national and regional policy, among others, of a large number of countries. This project has two main sources of primary data: the Adult Population Survey and the National Expert Survey. In this work the 2011 and 2012 National Expert Survey datasets are studied. Our goal is to analyze the effects of the different type of entrepreneurship expert specialization on the perceptions about the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions. For this purpose the multivariate analysis of variance is used. Some similarities between the results obtained for the 2011 and 2012 datasets were found, however the differences between experts still exist.

  4. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence: the precautionary principle applied to GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops.

  5. Women's status in disasters: A gap between experts' desk and affected fields of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz

    Although international agreements have achieved significant milestones in the improvement of women's status, experiences from the fields show a discrepancy between words and actions. The aim of this brief communication was to identify the gap between experts' perceptions and the findings of a large qualitative field survey on women's status in the recent natural disasters of Iran. A total of 10 experts were asked to fill a checklist, which consisted of the concepts extracted from field data. The range of agreement between experts' perceptions and field data was between 40 and 100 percent. In conclusion, although literature review and international research papers can provide appropriate information for both experts and managers, meeting the various needs of women living in the affected regions requires field-based surveys.

  6. Circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program (CBMP): Coastal expert workshop meeting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rebecca D.; McLennan, Donald; Thomson, Laura; Wegeberg, Susse; Pettersvik Arvnes, Maria; Sergienko, Liudmila; Behe, Carolina; Moss-Davies, Pitseolak; Fritz, Stacey; Christensen, Thomas K.; Price, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    The Coastal Expert Workshop, which took place in Ottawa, Canada from March 1 to 3, 2016, initiated the development of the Arctic Coastal Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (Coastal Plan). Meeting participants, including northern residents, representatives from industry, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), academia, and government regulators and agencies from across the circumpolar Arctic, discussed current biodiversity monitoring efforts, key issues facing biodiversity in Arctic coastal areas, and collectively identified monitoring indicators, or Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs). On February 29, the day before the workshop, a full day was allocated to Traditional Knowledge (TK) holders to meet and elucidate how this important knowledge can be included in the process of building the Coastal Plan and monitoring biodiversity in Arctic coastal areas, along with scientific data and variables. This document provides 1) background information about the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Programme and the Coastal Expert Monitoring Group, 2) overviews on workshop presentations and breakout sessions, and 3) details regarding outcomes of the workshop that will inform the drafting of the Coastal Plan.

  7. Reference manual for the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Rachel A.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides technical information and programming guidance for the maintenance and future development of the Thermal Analyst's Help Desk. Help Desk is an expert system that operates within the EXSYSTM expert system shell, and is used to determine first approximations of thermal capacity for spacecraft and instruments. The five analyses supported in Help Desk are: (1) surface area required for a radiating surface, (2) equilibrium temperature of a surface, (3) enclosure temperature and heat loads for a defined position in orbit, (4) enclosure temperature and heat loads over a complete orbit and, (5) selection of appropriate surface properties. The two geometries supported by Help Desk are a single flat plate and a rectangular box enclosure. The technical information includes the mathematical approach and analytical derivations used in the analyses such as: radiation heat balance, view factor calculation, and orbit determination with coordinate transformation. The programming guide for developers describes techniques for enhancement of Help Desk. Examples are provided showing the addition of new features, user interface development and enhancement, and external program interfaces.

  8. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The Expert Project Management System (EPMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Barry G.; Diakite, Coty

    1986-01-01

    Successful project managers (PMs) have been shown to rely on 'intuition,' experience, and analogical reasoning heuristics. For new PMs to be trained and experienced PMs to avoid repeating others' mistakes, it is necessary to make the knowledge and heuristics of successful PMs more widely available. The preparers have evolved a model of PM thought processes over the last decade that is now ready to be implemented as a generic PM aid. This aid consists of a series of 'specialist' expert systems (CRITIC, LIBRARIAN, IDEA MAN, CRAFTSMAN, and WRITER) that communicate with each other via a 'blackboard' architecture. The various specialist expert systems are driven to support PM training and problem solving since any 'answers' they pass to the blackboard are subjected to conflict identification (AGENDA FORMULATOR) and GOAL SETTER inference engines.

  10. Accelerator shielding experts meet at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen years after its first CERN edition, the Shielding Aspects of Accelerator, Targets and Irradiation Facility (SATIF) conference was held again here from 2-4 June. Now at its 10th edition, SATIF10 brought together experts from all over the world to discuss issues related to the shielding techniques. They set out the scene for an improved collaboration and discussed novel shielding solutions.   This was the most attended meeting of the series with more than 65 participants from 34 institutions and 14 countries. “We welcomed experts from many different laboratories around the world. We come from different contexts but we face similar problems. In this year’s session, among other things, we discussed ways for improving the effectiveness of calculations versus real data, as well as experimental solutions to investigate the damage that radiation produces on various materials and the electronics”, says Marco Silari, Chair of the conference and member of the DGS/RP gro...

  11. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  12. A comparison of two methods for expert elicitation in health technology assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Grigore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When data needed to inform parameters in decision models are lacking, formal elicitation of expert judgement can be used to characterise parameter uncertainty. Although numerous methods for eliciting expert opinion as probability distributions exist, there is little research to suggest whether one method is more useful than any other method. This study had three objectives: (i to obtain subjective probability distributions characterising parameter uncertainty in the context of a health technology assessment; (ii to compare two elicitation methods by eliciting the same parameters in different ways; (iii to collect subjective preferences of the experts for the different elicitation methods used. Methods Twenty-seven clinical experts were invited to participate in an elicitation exercise to inform a published model-based cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative treatments for prostate cancer. Participants were individually asked to express their judgements as probability distributions using two different methods – the histogram and hybrid elicitation methods – presented in a random order. Individual distributions were mathematically aggregated across experts with and without weighting. The resulting combined distributions were used in the probabilistic analysis of the decision model and mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and the expected values of perfect information (EVPI were calculated for each method, and compared with the original cost-effectiveness analysis. Scores on the ease of use of the two methods and the extent to which the probability distributions obtained from each method accurately reflected the expert’s opinion were also recorded. Results Six experts completed the task. Mean ICERs from the probabilistic analysis ranged between £162,600–£175,500 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY depending on the elicitation and weighting methods used. Compared to having no information, use of expert opinion

  13. EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  14. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca

  15. Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    OpenAIRE

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert...

  16. A distributed expert system for fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, E.; Talukdar, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes a hybrid approach to synthesizing solutions for diagnosis and set covering problems from the area of power system operations. The approach combines expert systems written in a rule-based language (OPS5) with algorithmic programs written in C and Lisp. An environment called DPSK has been developed to allow these programs to be run in parallel in a network of computers. Speeds sufficient for real-time applications can thereby be obtained.

  17. [Expert assessment in cases of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K

    2007-10-01

    There are about 8 million people in German-speaking countries who suffer from osteoporosis, making it the most common bone disease. Osteoporotic fractures can significantly impair quality of life and working ability in those affected, and they also give rise to huge expenditures in the healthcare system. Expert assessments should be based on estimated risk of fracture, risk of falling, pain, fitness for work, degree of disability, need for rehabilitation, and causality.

  18. Knowledge-Acquisition Tool For Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disbrow, James D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Regenie, Victoria A.

    1988-01-01

    Digital flight-control systems monitored by computer program that evaluates and recommends. Flight-systems engineers for advanced, high-performance aircraft use knowlege-acquisition tool for expert-system flight-status monitor suppling interpretative data. Interpretative function especially important in time-critical, high-stress situations because it facilitates problem identification and corrective strategy. Conditions evaluated and recommendations made by ground-based engineers having essential knowledge for analysis and monitoring of performances of advanced aircraft systems.

  19. Expert care of the performing artist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Howard; Macdonald, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Compared to elite athletes, elite performers, especially musicians and dancers, invariably lack expert medical backup even though their needs are just as great as the sportspeople. In some countries, this is now being realised and addressed. It is hoped that a new MSc in Performing Arts Medicine, recently introduced in the UK, will go some way towards correcting this, and its syllabus has provided the catalyst for this themed issue.

  20. Developing Expert Tools for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Banjac, Jelena; Timkó, Helga

    2017-10-12

    This Thesis describes software tools developed for automated, precision setting-up of low-power level radio frequency (LLRF) loops, which will help expert users to have better control and faster setting-up of the radio-frequency (RF) system in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment. The aim was to completely redesign the software architecture, to add new features, to improve certain algorithms, and to increase the automation.

  1. SENSAT(C) prototype expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Joseph A.

    1994-06-01

    The Sensor Satellite Expert System (SENSAT)TM is an application of the concurrent engineering simulation methodology which utilizes fuzzy logic in an object-oriented programming environment. Several unique characteristics of SENSAT includes the implementation team, mission system parameters, and priority optimization with respect to mission, cost, schedule, technology, and funding levels. SENSAT operates within a WINDOWSTM environment and a `simulation tour' is included in this paper along with a video to be shown with an actual SENSAT prototype simulation.

  2. Building America Expert Meeting. Combustion Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This is an overview of "The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World," held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, TX. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  3. Building America Expert Meeting: Combustion Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.

    2013-03-01

    This is a meeting overview of 'The Best Approach to Combustion Safety in a Direct Vent World', held June 28, 2012, in San Antonio, Texas. The objective of this Expert Meeting was to identify gaps and barriers that need to be addressed by future research, and to develop data-driven technical recommendations for code updates so that a common approach for combustion safety can be adopted by all members of the building energy efficiency and code communities.

  4. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2001-05-17

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This second annual report contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. During the second year of the project, data acquisition of the Brushy Canyon Formation was completed with the compiling and analyzing of well logs, geophysical data, and production information needed to characterize production potential in the Delaware Basin. A majority of this data now resides in several online databases on our servers and is in proper form to be accessed by external

  5. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2000-06-30

    Incomplete or sparse information on geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. Expert systems have been developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, with favorable results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. This project will develop an Artificial Intelligence system that will draw upon a wide variety of information to provide realistic estimates of risk. ''Fuzzy logic,'' a system of integrating large amounts of inexact, incomplete information with modern computational methods to derive usable conclusions, has been demonstrated as a cost-effective computational technology in many industrial applications. During project year 1, 90% of geologic, geophysical, production and price data were assimilated for installation into the database. Logs provided geologic data consisting of formation tops of the Brushy Canyon, Lower Brushy Canyon, and Bone Springs zones of 700 wells used to construct regional cross sections. Regional structure and isopach maps were constructed using kriging to interpolate between the measured points. One of the structure derivative maps (azimuth of curvature) visually correlates with Brushy Canyon fields on the maximum change contours. Derivatives of the regional geophysical data also visually correlate with the location of the fields. The azimuth of maximum dip approximately locates fields on the maximum change contours. In a similar manner the second derivative in the x-direction of the gravity map visually correlates with the alignment of the known fields. The visual correlations strongly suggest that neural network architectures will be

  6. Fuzzy Expert System for Heart Attack Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norlida; Arbaiy, Nureize; Shah, Noor Aziyan Ahmad; Afizah Afif@Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    Heart attack is one of the serious illnesses and reported as the main killer disease. Early prevention is significant to reduce the risk of having the disease. The prevention efforts can be strengthen through awareness and education about risk factor and healthy lifestyle. Therefore the knowledge dissemination is needed to play role in order to distribute and educate public in health care management and disease prevention. Since the knowledge dissemination in medical is important, there is a need to develop a knowledge based system that can emulate human intelligence to assist decision making process. Thereby, this study utilized hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to develop a Fuzzy Expert System for Diagnosing Heart Attack Disease (HAD). This system integrates fuzzy logic with expert system, which helps the medical practitioner and people to predict the risk and as well as diagnosing heart attack based on given symptom. The development of HAD is expected not only providing expert knowledge but potentially become one of learning resources to help citizens to develop awareness about heart-healthy lifestyle.

  7. IMBA Expert: internal dosimetry made simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchall, A; Puncher, M; James, A C; Marsh, J W; Jarvis, N S; Peace, M S; Davis, K; King, D J

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, a collaboration between British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), Westlakes Research Institute and NRPB started, with the aim of producing IMBA (Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis), a suite of software modules that implement the new ICRP models for estimation of intakes and doses. This was partly in response to new UK regulations, and partly due to the requirement for a unified approach in estimating intakes and doses from bioassay measurements within the UK. Over the past 5 years, the IMBA modules have been developed further, have gone through extensive quality assurance, and are now used for routine dose assessment by approved dosimetry services throughout the UK. More recently, interest in the IMBA methodology has been shown by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), and in 2001 an ambitious project to develop a software package (IMBA Expert USDOE Edition) which would meet the requirements of all of the major USDOE sites began. Interest in IMBA Expert is now being expressed in many other countries. The aim of this paper is to outline the origin and evolution of the IMBA modules (the past); to describe the full capabilities of the current IMBA Expert system (the present) and to indicate possible future directions in terms of capabilities and availability (the future).

  8. PERSON-Personalized Expert Recommendation System for Optimized Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Han; Karvela, Maria; Sohbati, Mohammadreza; Shinawatra, Thaksin; Toumazou, Christofer

    2018-02-01

    The rise of personalized diets is due to the emergence of nutrigenetics and genetic tests services. However, the recommendation system is far from mature to provide personalized food suggestion to consumers for daily usage. The main barrier of connecting genetic information to personalized diets is the complexity of data and the scalability of the applied systems. Aiming to cross such barriers and provide direct applications, a personalized expert recommendation system for optimized nutrition is introduced in this paper, which performs direct to consumer personalized grocery product filtering and recommendation. Deep learning neural network model is applied to achieve automatic product categorization. The ability of scaling with unknown new data is achieved through the generalized representation of word embedding. Furthermore, the categorized products are filtered with a model based on individual genetic data with associated phenotypic information and a case study with databases from three different sources is carried out to confirm the system.

  9. Revolutionizing Healthcare Through Information Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The Presidents Information Technology Advisory Committee PITAC is appointed by the President to provide independent expert advice on maintaining Americas preeminence...

  10. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-20

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also

  11. Enhancement of information and communications technologies (ICTs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore examines one of these possibilities by the development of Instruction Delivery Expert System for Teachers and also the need and benefits of the proposed expert system. KEYWORDS: Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), Expert System, Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Base, Inference Engine, ...

  12. Rank aggregation of local expert knowledge for conservation planning of the critically endangered saola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Nicholas M; Van Duc, Luong

    2017-06-01

    There has been much recent interest in using local knowledge and expert opinion for conservation planning, particularly for hard-to-detect species. Although it is possible to ask for direct estimation of quantities such as population size, relative abundance is easier to estimate. However, an expert's knowledge is often geographically restricted relative to the area of interest. Combining (or aggregating) experts' assessments of relative abundance is difficult when each expert only knows a part of the area of interest. We used Google's PageRank algorithm to aggregate ranked abundance scores elicited from local experts through a rapid rural-appraisal method. We applied this technique to conservation planning for the saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a poorly known bovid. Near a priority landscape for the species, composed of 3 contiguous protected areas, we asked groups of local people to indicate relative abundances of saola and other species by placing beans on community maps. For each village, we used this information to rank areas within the knowledge area of that village for saola abundance. We used simulations to compare alternative methods to aggregate the rankings from the different villages. The best-performing method was then used to produce a single map of relative abundance across the entire landscape, an area larger than that known to any one village. This map has informed prioritization of surveys and conservation action in the continued absence of direct information about the saola. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Analysis and Lessons Learned from an Online, Consultative Dialogue between Community Leaders and Climate Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylak-Glassman, E.; Clavin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Common approaches to climate resilience planning in the United States rely upon participatory planning approaches and dialogues between decision-makers, science translators, and subject matter experts. In an effort to explore alternative approaches support community climate resilience planning, a pilot of a public-private collaboration called the Resilience Dialogues was held in February and March of 2016. The Resilience Dialogues pilot was an online, asynchronous conversation between community leaders and climate experts, designed to help communities begin the process of climate resilience planning. In order to identify lessons learned from the pilot, we analyzed the discourse of the facilitated dialogues, administered surveys and conducted interviews with participants. Our analysis of the pilot suggests that participating community leaders found value in the consultative dialogue with climate experts, despite limited community-originated requests for climate information. Community leaders most often asked for advice regarding adaptation planning, including specific engineering guidance and advice on how to engage community members around the topic of resilience. Community leaders that had access to downscaled climate data asked experts about how to incorporate the data into their existing planning processes. The guidance sought by community leaders during the pilot shows a large range of hurdles that communities face in using climate information to inform their decision-making processes. Having a forum that connects community leaders with relevant experts and other community leaders who have familiarity with both climate impacts and municipal planning processes would likely help communities accelerate their resilience efforts.

  14. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of

  15. Developing and using expert systems and neural networks in medicine: a review on benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Hashemi Dehaghi, Zahra

    2014-09-01

    Complicacy of clinical decisions justifies utilization of information systems such as artificial intelligence (e.g. expert systems and neural networks) to achieve better decisions, however, application of these systems in the medical domain faces some challenges. We aimed at to review the applications of these systems in the medical domain and discuss about such challenges. Following a brief introduction of expert systems and neural networks by representing few examples, the challenges of these systems in the medical domain are discussed. We found that the applications of expert systems and artificial neural networks have been increased in the medical domain. These systems have shown many advantages such as utilization of experts' knowledge, gaining rare knowledge, more time for assessment of the decision, more consistent decisions, and shorter decision-making process. In spite of all these advantages, there are challenges ahead of developing and using such systems including maintenance, required experts, inputting patients' data into the system, problems for knowledge acquisition, problems in modeling medical knowledge, evaluation and validation of system performance, wrong recommendations and responsibility, limited domains of such systems and necessity of integrating such systems into the routine work flows. We concluded that expert systems and neural networks can be successfully used in medicine; however, there are many concerns and questions to be answered through future studies and discussions.

  16. Are Expert Patients an Untapped Resource for ART Provision in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Decroo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of antiretroviral treatment, HIV/AIDS can be framed as a chronic lifelong condition, requiring lifelong adherence to medication. Reinforcement of self-management through information, acquisition of problem solving skills, motivation, and peer support is expected to allow PLWHA to become involved as expert patients in the care management and to decrease the dependency on scarce skilled medical staff. We developed a conceptual framework to analyse how PLWHA can become expert patients and performed a literature review on involvement of PLWHA as expert patients in ART provision in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper revealed two published examples: one on trained PLWHA in Kenya and another on self-formed peer groups in Mozambique. Both programs fit the concept of the expert patient and describe how community-embedded ART programs can be effective and improve the accessibility and affordability of ART. Using their day-to-day experience of living with HIV, expert patients are able to provide better fitting solutions to practical and psychosocial barriers to adherence. There is a need for careful design of models in which expert patients are involved in essential care functions, capacitated, and empowered to manage their condition and support fellow peers, as an untapped resource to control HIV/AIDS.

  17. Stronger activation and deactivation in archery experts for differential cognitive strategy in visuospatial working memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeehye; Kim, Yang-Tae; Song, Hui-Jin; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jongmin; Jung, Tae-Du; Lee, Gunyoung; Kwon, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that elite athletes have higher performance in perception, planning, and execution in sports activities relative to novices. It remains controversial, however, whether any differences in basic cognitive functions between experts and novices exist. Furthermore, few studies have directly used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation and deactivation differences between experts and novices while performing visuospatial working memory (WM) tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine possible differences in neural activation and deactivation associated with working memory components in processing visuospatial information between archery experts and novices. To this end, we employed a judgment of line orientation (JLO) task, which has a strong WM component. With regard to brain activation, archery experts displayed higher activation in cortical areas associated with visuospatial attention and working memory, including the middle frontal cortex, supplemental motor area, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex than that of the novices during the performance of the JLO task. With regard to brain deactivation, archery experts exhibited stronger task-related deactivation in cortical areas, such as the paracentral cortex/precuneus and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex related to the default network, than that of the novices. These results suggest that the archery experts have a strategy that demands greater use of neural correlates associated with visuospatial working memory and attention in addition to greater use of DMN in visuospatial working memory task not directly tied to their domain of expertise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expert system application for prioritizing preventive actions for shift work: shift expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Hatice; Hatipoğlu, Tuğçen; Cihan, Ahmet; Fiğlali, Nilgün

    2017-09-19

    Shift patterns, work hours, work arrangements and worker motivations have increasingly become key factors for job performance. The main objective of this article is to design an expert system that identifies the negative effects of shift work and prioritizes mitigation efforts according to their importance in preventing these negative effects. The proposed expert system will be referred to as the shift expert. A thorough literature review is conducted to determine the effects of shift work on workers. Our work indicates that shift work is linked to demographic variables, sleepiness and fatigue, health and well-being, and social and domestic conditions. These parameters constitute the sections of a questionnaire designed to focus on 26 important issues related to shift work. The shift expert is then constructed to provide prevention advice at the individual and organizational levels, and it prioritizes this advice using a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process model, which considers comparison matrices provided by users during the prioritization process. An empirical study of 61 workers working on three rotating shifts is performed. After administering the questionnaires, the collected data are analyzed statistically, and then the shift expert produces individual and organizational recommendations for these workers.

  19. The basics of formation of expert systems for industry and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyaev Igor G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the basics of development of a practice-oriented information system of examination of industrial and scientific projects realized in the field of machine building. The first part of the paper is devoted to the main problems which are necessary to solve while designing such systems. The methods of self-organisation and adaptation, the use of expert evaluations and other approaches, for instance, those connected with the study of various fundamental and applied aspects of intelligence control systems, were considered. The main problems that are solved when creating an effective system of the expert selection were structured and expounded. In addition, the information, based both on already existing models (DFD, BPMN and on modern approaches (a system approach, Delphi technique, artificial neural networks, concerning the creation of an effective system of expert evaluations was presented. A combination of the approved methods and new approaches allows adapting the system to different conditions of use.

  20. Learning from experts on public engagement with CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenias, Dimitrios; Whitmarsh, Lorraine

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage is a key technology for the transition to a low carbon economy. There are thus strong normative, substantive and instrumental rationales for public acceptance of large scale CCS. In this study, we interviewed 12 experts in CCS from the UK, the Netherlands, and Germany. The experts had previous experience on public engagement on CCS, and were asked to identify barriers and drivers for CCS deployment and public engagement with CCS. Interviews lasted between 40 and 70 minutes. Thematic analysis revealed a small number of recurrent issues, including: (a) lack of political leadership on the matter; (b) lack of public knowledge on relevant technologies, which may not however always be necessary; and (c) difficulty communicating why CCS is not a direct substitute for renewable energy generation. Despite the recent government disengagement from CCS funding in the UK, another surprise finding was that lack of funding and political leadership was a perceived barrier internationally. These emergent views inform a follow-up online survey with the UK public, currently in preparation, which will expand on and triangulate the present findings and lead to development of a toolkit for the benefit of those involved with public engagement with CCS.

  1. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible....... The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally...

  2. Resource allocations and expert systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-12

    The work performed to meet the requirement of this task is a continuing effort, evolving toward a general-purpose reasoning tool. The idea here is to build a more-powerful general expert system than the previous one. Towards that, this new Bayesian inference engine is based on the work done by Pearl and Kim. The advantages of this new inference engine over the previous one are that the representation of the knowledge is more compact and the inferencing is suitable for parallel processing. The inference engine is written in Franz lisp on VAX machine. All the code and a typescript of how to load and use the system is attached.

  3. Toward an expert project management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Barry G.; Murray, Arthur; Diakite, Coty; Feggos, Kostas

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the research effort is to prescribe a generic reusable shell that any project office can install and customize for the purposes of advising, guiding, and supporting project managers in that office. The prescribed shell is intended to provide both: a component that generates prescriptive guidance for project planning and monitoring activities, and an analogy (intuition) component that generates descriptive insights of previous experience of successful project managers. The latter component is especially significant in that it has the potential to: retrieve insights, not just data, and provide a vehicle for expert PMs to easily transcribe their current experiences in the course of each new project managed.

  4. Introduction to information science

    CERN Document Server

    Bawden, David

    2012-01-01

    This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,

  5. Qpais: A Web-Based Expert System for Assistedidentification of Quarantine Stored Insect Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Shengfang

    Stored insect pests can seriously depredate stored products causing worldwide economic losses. Pests enter countries traveling with transported goods. Inspection and Quarantine activities are essential to prevent the invasion and spread of pests. Identification of quarantine stored insect pests is an important component of the China's Inspection and Quarantine procedure, and it is necessary not only to identify whether the species captured is an invasive species, but determine control procedures for stored insect pests. With the development of information technologies, many expert systems that aid in the identification of agricultural pests have been developed. Expert systems for the identification of quarantine stored insect pests are rare and are mainly developed for stand-alone PCs. This paper describes the development of a web-based expert system for identification of quarantine stored insect pests as part of the China 11th Five-Year National Scientific and Technological Support Project (115 Project). Based on user needs, textual knowledge and images were gathered from the literature and expert interviews. ASP.NET, C# and SQL language were used to program the system. Improvement of identification efficiency and flexibility was achieved using a new inference method called characteristic-select-based spatial distance method. The expert system can assist identifying 150 species of quarantine stored insect pests and provide detailed information for each species. The expert system has also been evaluated using two steps: system testing and identification testing. With a 85% rate of correct identification and high efficiency, the system evaluation shows that this expert system can be used in identification work of quarantine stored insect pests.

  6. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts’ reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Design Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. Participants 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Setting Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Results Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts’ arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts’ overall views on breast cancer screening. Conclusions Experts’ positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and

  7. Development of the Expert System Domain Advisor and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    systems. 3. Educational background a. General b. Expert Systems 98 Description of ’ome expert systems worked on. For eacn of the Expert Systems discussed...of an ES to evaluate the suitability of a project for using ES tecnology is not recxzmrxded because the wide variation in projects wold reqdir

  8. The Development of Expert Learners in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Saemah; Mahmud, Zuria; Yassin, Siti Fatimah Mohd; Amir, Ruslin; Ilias, Khadijah Wan

    2010-01-01

    The term "expert learner" refers to students who are actively engaged with the materials learned and take responsibility for their own learning. Literature reviews suggested the use of metacognitive approach to help develop students to become expert learners. Research on development of expert learners can be traced from movements that…

  9. An Analysis of the Working Memories of Expert Sport Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullick, Bryan; Schempp, Paul; Hsu, Shan-Hui; Jung, Jin Hong; Vickers, Brad; Schuknecht, Greg

    2006-01-01

    A distinguishing characteristic of expert teachers appears to be an excellent memory (Berliner, 1986; Tan, 1997). Possessing an excellent memory aids experts in building a substantial knowledge base relative to teaching and learning. Despite its importance, the memory skills of expert teachers have yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of…

  10. Computer Guided Educational Diagnosis: A Prototype Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbourn, Marlene; McLeod, John

    1983-01-01

    The article reviews some recent literature pertaining to development and use of expert systems (automated consulting systems, which provide expert advice within particular domains). The design and implementation of an expert system developed to guide a teacher diagnostician through the various stages of diagnosing reading difficulities are…

  11. The Most Quoted Danish Economic Expert and the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    It is well-known that economic experts (as well as other experts) are biased. However, it is not normally demonstrated systematically. By identifying and analyzing the viewpoints of the most quoted Danish expert on five characteristic debates bias is demonstrated. The character of the bias...

  12. Expert Review of Pedagogical Activities at Therapeutic Recreation Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, N. N.; Kiseleva, E. V.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of pedagogical expert reviews at children's therapeutic recreation camps in Novosibirsk Region shows that it is necessary to implement an expert review system that plays a supporting and developmental role. Such a system should allow teams of teachers to submit their work to expert review and to move forward by reflecting on their…

  13. Expert opinion on detecting and treating depression in palliative care: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotopf Matthew

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of data regarding the optimal method of detecting and treating depression in palliative care. This study applied the Delphi method to evaluate expert opinion on choice of screening tool, choice of antidepressant and choice of psychological therapy. The aim was to inform the development of best practice recommendations for the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative clinical practice guideline on managing depression in palliative care. Methods 18 members of an international, multi-professional expert group completed a structured questionnaire in two rounds, rating their agreement with proposed items on a scale from 0-10 and annotating with additional comments. The median and range were calculated to give a statistical average of the experts' ratings. Results There was contention regarding the benefits of screening, with 'routine informal asking' (median 8.5 (0-10 rated more highly than formal screening tools such as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (median 7.0 (1-10. Mirtazapine (median 9 (7-10 and citalopram (median 9 (5-10 were the considered the best choice of antidepressant and cognitive behavioural therapy (median 9.0 (3-10 the best choice of psychological therapy. Conclusions The range of expert ratings was broad, indicating discordance in the views of experts. Direct comparative data from randomised controlled trials are needed to strengthen the evidence-base and achieve clarity on how best to detect and treat depression in this setting.

  14. How Does Visual Attention Differ Between Experts and Novices on Physics Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Adrian; Larson, Adam; Gire, Elizabeth; Loschky, Lester; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Research in many disciplines has used eye-tracking technology to investigate the differences in the visual attention of experts and novices. For example, it has been shown that experts in art and chess spend more time than novices looking at relevant information. Thus, it may be helpful to give novices more direct insight into the way experts allocate their visual attention, for example using attentional cueing techniques. However, not much is known about how experts allocate their attention on physics problems. More specifically, we look at physics problems where the critical information needed to answer the problem is contained in a diagram. This study uses eye movements to investigate how the allocation of visual attention differs between experts and novices on these types of physics problems. We find that in several problems tested, those who answered a question correctly spend more time looking at thematically relevant areas while those who answer incorrectly spend more time looking at perceptually salient areas of the diagram.

  15. Expert searching in health librarianship: a literature review to identify international issues and Australian concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Kaye

    2012-03-01

    The traditional role of health librarians as expert searchers is under challenge. The purpose of this review is to establish health librarians' views, practices and educational processes on expert searching. The search strategy was developed in LISTA and then customised for ten other databases: ALISA, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. The search terms were (expert search* OR expert retriev* OR mediated search* OR information retriev*) AND librar*. The searches, completed in December 2010 and repeated in May 2011, were limited to English language publications from 2000 to 2011 (unless seminal works). Expert searching remains a key role for health librarians, especially for those supporting systematic reviews or employed as clinical librarians answering clinical questions. Although clients tend to be satisfied with searches carried out for them, improvements are required to effectively position the profession. Evidence-based guidelines, adherence to transparent standards, review of entry-level education requirements and a commitment to accredited, rigorous, ongoing professional development will ensure best practice. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Expert Discussion on Taking a Spiritual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paal, Piret; Frick, Eckhard; Roser, Traugott; Jobin, Guy

    2017-01-01

    This article elaborates on the hazards of spiritual history taking. It provides expert insights to consider before entering the field. In summer 2012, a group of spiritual care experts were invited to discuss the complexity of taking spiritual histories in a manner of hermeneutic circle. Thematic analysis was applied to define the emerging themes. The results demonstrate that taking a spiritual history is a complex and challenging task, requiring a number of personal qualities of the interviewer, such as 'being present', 'not only hearing, but listening', 'understanding the message beyond the words uttered', and 'picking up the words to respond'. To 'establish a link of sharing', the interviewer is expected 'to go beyond the ethical stance of neutrality'. The latter may cause several dilemmas, such as 'fear of causing more problems', 'not daring to take it further', and above all, 'being ambivalent about one's role'. Interviewer has to be careful in terms of the 'patient's vulnerability'. To avoid causing harm, it is essential to propose 'a follow-up contract' that allows responding to 'patient's yearning for genuine care'. These findings combined with available literature suggest that the quality of spiritual history taking will remain poor unless the health-care professionals revise the meaning of spirituality and the art of caring on individual level.

  17. WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD) is responsible for assessing psychoactive substances for possible control under the international drug control conventions. The ECDD reviews the therapeutic usefulness, the liability for abuse and dependence, and the public health and social harm potential of each substance under review. After the ECDD advises the Director-General of WHO as to whether to schedule or to amend the scheduling status of a substance, the Director-General will, as appropriate, communicate the recommendations to the United Nations Secretary-General. The Secretary-General communicates the advice to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), as appropriate. This report presents the recommendations of the thirty-seventh meeting of the WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. The report summarizes the review of nine substances and the ECDD’s recommendations for the scheduling of seven substances. The report also provides updates on ketamine and cannabis, as requested byresolutions of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. It contains updates on the work of international bodies concerned with controlled substances, as well as summaries of the follow-up discussions on recommendations made at the previous ECDD meeting, and on the discussions on criteria for assessing new psychoactive substances and on terminology.

  18. Expert Oracle SQL optimization, deployment, and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hasler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Expert Oracle SQL: Optimization, Deployment, and Statistics is about optimizing individual SQL statements, especially on production database systems. This Oracle-specific book begins by assuming you have already identified a particular SQL statement and are considering taking steps to improve its performance. The book describes a systematic process by which to diagnose a problem statement, identify a fix, and to implement that fix safely in a production system. You'll learn not only to improve performance when it is too slow, but also to stabilize performance when it is too variable. You'll learn about system statistics and how the Cost-Based Optimizer uses them to determine a suitable execution plan for a given statement. That knowledge provides the foundation from which to identify the root cause, and to stabilize and improve performance. Next after identifying a problem and the underlying root cause is to put in place a solution. Expert Oracle SQL: Optimization, Deployment, and Statistics explains how to ...

  19. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  20. The Expert Patient and Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “expert patient” has been developed in the last two decades to define a patient who has a significant knowledge of his/her disease and treatment in addition to self-management skills. However, this concept has evolved over the last years, and these patients are now considered, not only to be more efficient in the management of their own condition and communicating effectively with health professionals, but to also act as educators for other patients and as resources for the last, provide feedback on care delivery, and be involved in the production and implementation of practice guidelines, as well as in the development and conduct of research initiatives. There are some barriers, however, to the integration of this new contributor to the health care team, and specific requirements need to be considered for an individual to be considered as an expert. This new player has, however, a potentially important role to improve current care, particularly in respiratory health.

  1. Healthy eating at school: consensus among experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Guimarães Moraes CAMARGO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify attributes that promote healthy eating in order to support a study for the Quality Index for School Meal Menus content validity. Methods: This study used the Delphi technique to consult school nutrition experts in Brazil. These experts were selected among the authors of articles published between 2010 and 2015 that were identified by searching the Web of Science database, using the keywords 'school feeding', 'school nutrition program', and 'school food program', as well as the authors of official documents on this topic. The Likert method was used to record respondent perceptions in two analytical dimensions: foods that are part of a healthy menu for school feeding, and composition of an indicator of nutritional quality for school feeding menus. Results: Most respondents (n=27 were affiliated with public institutions (92.59% and had over six years of experience in the area (70.36%. Assertions resulted in consensus according to the analysis criteria. A consensus was established for fresh food, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, beans, meat and eggs, and a schedule compatible with the meal as promoters of healthy eating, and processed foods, sweets, and fat excess as risk attributes. Conclusion: Since a consensus was not reached in the first round, there is a need to broaden the debate on issues related to foods rich in sugar, replacement of meals by sweets, and foods rich in fat.

  2. 76 FR 54466 - Request for Nominations of Experts for the Science Advisory Board's Animal Feeding Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... AGENCY Request for Nominations of Experts for the Science Advisory Board's Animal Feeding Operation... at [email protected] . General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found..., subcommittees and advisory panels; and, (f) for the Panel as a whole, diversity of expertise and viewpoints. The...

  3. Expert methods in control systems of deep oil and gas holes building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sementsov, G.; Fadeeva, I.; Chigur, I. [State Technical Univ. of Oil and Gas, Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Attempts to provide self-control of process of long holing on oil and gas have not given due effect owing to complication of object, it fuzzy and equivocation of the information. In this connection it is offered to use for management of drilling expert systems, which one use fuzzy models and methods of the theory of fuzzy control systems. (orig.)

  4. Guidelines for Service as an Expert Witness in Civil Suits Pertaining to School Desegregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, John E.

    In this speech, testing experts or clinical psychologists called to give evidence in court cases on segregation either in the school or the classroom are provided with guidelines in preparing their case in document form with sources ready at hand. It is suggested that as much information as possible be available to the lawyer for whom the…

  5. Towards a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors: A survey of views of experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karbasioun, M.; Mulder, M.; Biemans, H.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A project is carried out for instructors in the agricultural extension service in Esfahan. Part of the project is study, conducted to inform the process of competency profile development for the instructors. The study, reported in this contribution, focuses on views of experts about competencies

  6. Implementation of a Workflow Management System for Non-Expert Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongejan, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In the Danish CLARIN-DK infrastructure, chaining language technology (LT) tools into a workflow is easy even for a non-expert user, because she only needs to specify the input and the desired output of the workflow. With this information and the registered input and output profiles of the available...

  7. FOREX - an expert system for managing even-aged upland oak forests on steep terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; B. Gopalakrishnan; K. Lankalapalli

    1995-01-01

    An expert system, FOREX, was developed to access the data from the database management provided by MANAGE. For a specific site index, the user of FOREX can obtain information on present net worth, optimal thinning entry timing, optimal stand rotation age, diameter at breast height, volume by grade and value of the trees harvested, and based on the cable yarder used,...

  8. Expert Meeting. Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This meeting was held on October 16, 2012, in Westford, MA, and brought together experts in the field of residential humidity control to address modeling issues for dehumidification. The presentations and discussions centered on computer simulation and field experience with these systems, with the goal of developing foundational information to support the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  9. Expert Meeting Report. Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Van Straaten, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011, at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  10. Expert Meeting Report: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-02-01

    The Building Science Consortium held an Expert Meeting on Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies on July 30, 2011 at the Westford Regency Hotel in Westford, MA. This report outlines the extensive information that was presented on assessment of risk factors for premature building deterioration due to interior insulation retrofits, and methods to reduce such risks.

  11. Expert Meeting Report. Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Osser, R. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This Building America expert meeting was held on 7/31/2011, in Westford, Massachusetts. Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  12. Understanding ethics guidelines using an internet-based expert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, G; Simmons, A

    2009-01-01

    National and international guidelines outlining ethical conduct in research involving humans and animals have evolved into large and complex documents making the process of gaining ethics approval a complicated task for researchers in the area. Researchers, in particular those who are relatively new to the ethics approval process, can struggle to understand the parts of an ethics guideline that apply to their research and the nature of their ethical obligations to trial participants. With the scope of medical research likely to continue to expand in the future, it is clear that ethics guidelines will only increase in complexity and number. This paper describes one possible solution to the the use of an internet-based expert system to intelligently and interactively distribute the information stored in ethics guidelines to individual researchers. This paper also details how one such system was designed and tested with respect to Australian medical research ethics guidelines.

  13. European Network of Bipolar Research Expert Centre (ENBREC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henry, Chantal; Andreassen, Ole A; Barbato, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    clinical decision-making as well as being applicable to research. Reliable, established measures have been prioritised, and instruments have been translated and validated when necessary. An electronic healthcare record and monitoring system (e-ENBREC©) has been developed to collate the data. Protocols...... of a critical mass of expertise and multicentre collaborative projects. Within the framework of the European FP7 programme, we developed a European Network of Bipolar Research Expert Centres (ENBREC) designed specifically to facilitate EU-wide studies. ENBREC provides an integrated support structure...... facilitating research on disease mechanisms and clinical outcomes across six European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Spain and the UK). The centres are adopting a standardised clinical assessment that explores multiple aspects of bipolar disorder through a structured evaluation designed to inform...

  14. Naturalistic decision-making in expert badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, A C; Fleurance, P

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports on a study of naturalistic decision-making in expert badminton players. These decisions are frequently taken under time-pressured conditions, yet normally lead to successful performance. Two male badminton teams participated in this study. Self-confrontation interviews were used to collect data. Inductive data analysis revealed three types of intentions during a rally: to maintain the rally; to take the advantage; and to finish the point. It also revealed eight types of decision taken in this situation: to ensure an action; to observe the opponent's response to an action; to realize a limited choice; to influence the opponent's decision; to put pressure on an opponent; to surprise the opponent; to reproduce an efficient action; and to play wide. A frequent decision was to put pressure on the opponent. Different information and knowledge was linked to specific decisions. The results are discussed in relation to research that has considered naturalistic decision-making.

  15. Expert-view creation system for data base design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, V.C.

    1986-01-01

    The process of generating user views during logical data base design is formalized and expressed as a set of rules that comprise the knowledge base of an expert system. This system, called the View Creation System, engages the user in a dialogue to determine information requirements. These requirements are then translated into a set of Fourth Normal Form relations representing a view. The data model on which the system is based is the Entity-Relationship Model. Using this model, the system elicits entities, attributes, and relationships while trying to detect and rectify inconsistencies and ambiguities in the user's input. With the aid of the user, functional dependencies are isolated and resolved before the final set of relations is produced.

  16. Expert systems in power substation operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme Moutinho; Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    With digital technology being increasingly adopted in power substations (SE), perspectives are created for integration of supervision, control and protection systems in addition to making its process automation feasible. Once a SE is digitalized, the systems which previously were implemented physically will be able to be implemented by means of computer programs (software), allowing the expansion of its scope of operation. Studies and research performed at the international level have pointed to the utilization of Expert Systems (ES) as a more suitable alternative for representation and solution of the operation and control problems, especially those which do not have an established theory, which are provided with diagnosis characteristics and that associate themselves with fuzzy data and information. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs.

  17. The network management expert system prototype for Sun Workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Albert

    1990-01-01

    Networking has become one of the fastest growing areas in the computer industry. The emergence of distributed workstations make networking more popular because they need to have connectivity between themselves as well as with other computer systems to share information and system resources. Making the networks more efficient and expandable by selecting network services and devices that fit to one's need is vital to achieve reliability and fast throughput. Networks are dynamically changing and growing at a rate that outpaces the available human resources. Therefore, there is a need to multiply the expertise rapidly rather than employing more network managers. In addition, setting up and maintaining networks by following the manuals can be tedious and cumbersome even for an experienced network manager. This prototype expert system was developed to experiment on Sun Workstations to assist system and network managers in selecting and configurating network services.

  18. The Application of Big-Neuron Theory in Expert Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛

    2001-01-01

    With a new way of knowledge representation and acquirement, inference, and building an expert system based on big-neurons composed of different field expert knowledge presented, the fundamental theory and architecture of expert system based upon big-neuron theory has thus been built. It is unnecessary to organize a large number of production rules when using big-neurons to build an expert system. The facts and rules of an expert system have already been hidden in big-neurons. And also, it is unnecessary to do a great quantity of tree searching when using this method to do logic reasoning. Machine can do self-organizing and self-learning.

  19. Swarm intelligence in animal groups: when can a collective out-perform an expert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V; King, Andrew J

    2010-11-24

    An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i) individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their 'collective cognition', or (ii) interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific 'leaders', those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information) under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions - where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes - the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated.

  20. Swarm intelligence in animal groups: when can a collective out-perform an expert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Katsikopoulos

    Full Text Available An important potential advantage of group-living that has been mostly neglected by life scientists is that individuals in animal groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations. Social interaction can provide a solution to a cognitive problem that is not available to single individuals via two potential mechanisms: (i individuals can aggregate information, thus augmenting their 'collective cognition', or (ii interaction with conspecifics can allow individuals to follow specific 'leaders', those experts with information particularly relevant to the decision at hand. However, a-priori, theory-based expectations about which of these decision rules should be preferred are lacking. Using a set of simple models, we present theoretical conditions (involving group size, and diversity of individual information under which groups should aggregate information, or follow an expert, when faced with a binary choice. We found that, in single-shot decisions, experts are almost always more accurate than the collective across a range of conditions. However, for repeated decisions - where individuals are able to consider the success of previous decision outcomes - the collective's aggregated information is almost always superior. The results improve our understanding of how social animals may process information and make decisions when accuracy is a key component of individual fitness, and provide a solid theoretical framework for future experimental tests where group size, diversity of individual information, and the repeatability of decisions can be measured and manipulated.

  1. Outlier Detection and Explanation for Domain Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micenková, Barbora

    In many data exploratory tasks, extraordinary and rarely occurring patterns called outliers are more interesting than the prevalent ones. For example, they could represent frauds in insurance, intrusions in network and system monitoring, or motion in video surveillance. Decades of research have...... produced various outlier detection algorithms. It is commonly known that these algorithms are difficult to apply and interpret in practice for a variety of reasons. In this thesis we propose novel algorithms that provide robust performance, support for validation and interpretability for outlier detection...... in practice and we empirically evaluate them on synthetic and real world data sets. First, we tackle the problem that most algorithms leave the end user without any explanation of how or why the identified outliers deviate. Such knowledge is important for domain experts in order to be able to validate...

  2. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  3. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  4. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  5. Expert Meeting Report. Foundations Research Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Carmody, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an expert meeting on Foundations–Research Results on November 15, 2011, in Minneapolis, MN. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover needs and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals. Key results were: greater understanding of the role of moisture transport through foundation and insulation materials and its potential impact on building durability; greater understanding of the role of foundation type in the process of selecting an insulation system for energy performance and building durability; need for research to quantify the risks associated with insulation processes to better enable users to weigh costs and benefits against the existing conditions of a home; need for improved performance modeling capabilities that address variations in foundation types and soil conditions.

  6. Expert chess memory: revisiting the chunking hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, F; Simon, H A

    1998-05-01

    After reviewing the relevant theory on chess expertise, this paper re-examines experimentally the finding of Chase and Simon (1973a) that the differences in ability of chess players at different skill levels to copy and to recall positions are attributable to the experts' storage of thousands of chunks (patterned clusters of pieces) in long-term memory. Despite important differences in the experimental apparatus, the data of the present experiments regarding latencies and chess relations between successively placed pieces are highly correlated with those of Chase and Simon. We conclude that the two-second inter-chunk interval used to define chunk boundaries is robust, and that chunks have psychological reality. We discuss the possible reasons why Masters in our new study used substantially larger chunks than the Master of the 1973 study, and extend the chunking theory to take account of the evidence for large retrieval structures (templates) in long-term memory.

  7. Expert system for spacecraft command and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. E.

    The application of AI techniques to the automation of ground control functions in the defense satellite communication system (DSCS) is described. The aim of this effort is to lower the vulnerability of the DSCS to attack; a first step is the design of software for spacecraft maintenance and control. The benefits of automation and the need for high-level implementation are reviewed. A knowledge-based or expert approach was chosen to automate telemetry-interpretation, trend-analysis, anomaly-resolution, and status-maintenance functions now performed solely by operators; and a design concept was developed to meet the requirements of extendability, simplicity, and explicitness. Rule-based and logic-based knowledge-representation schemes, and data-driven and goal-driven control strategies are compared. The programming tools developed by the different organizations participating in the AI effort are indicated in a table.

  8. Glyphosate rodent carcinogenicity bioassay expert panel review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary M; Berry, Colin; Burns, Michele; de Camargo, Joao Lauro Viana; Greim, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate has been rigorously and extensively tested for carcinogenicity by administration to mice (five studies) and to rats (nine studies). Most authorities have concluded that the evidence does not indicate a cancer risk to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), however, evaluated some of the available data and concluded that glyphosate probably is carcinogenic to humans. The expert panel convened by Intertek assessed the findings used by IARC, as well as the full body of evidence and found the following: (1) the renal neoplastic effects in males of one mouse study are not associated with glyphosate exposure, because they lack statistical significance, strength, consistency, specificity, lack a dose-response pattern, plausibility, and coherence; (2) the strength of association of liver hemangiosarcomas in a different mouse study is absent, lacking consistency, and a dose-response effect and having in high dose males only a significant incidence increase which is within the historical control range; (3) pancreatic islet-cell adenomas (non-significant incidence increase), in two studies of male SD rats did not progress to carcinomas and lacked a dose-response pattern (the highest incidence is in the low dose followed by the high dose); (4) in one of two studies, a non-significant positive trend in the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas in male rats did not lead to progression to carcinomas; (5) in one of two studies, the non-significant positive trend in the incidence of thyroid C-cell adenomas in female rats was not present and there was no progression of adenomas to carcinomas at the end of the study. Application of criteria for causality considerations to the above mentioned tumor types and given the overall weight-of-evidence (WoE), the expert panel concluded that glyphosate is not a carcinogen in laboratory animals.

  9. Expert opinion on landslide susceptibility elicted by probabilistic inversion from scenario rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Katy; Dashwood, Claire; Lark, Murray

    2016-04-01

    For many natural hazards the opinion of experts, with experience in assessing susceptibility under different circumstances, is a valuable source of information on which to base risk assessments. This is particularly important where incomplete process understanding, and limited data, limit the scope to predict susceptibility by mechanistic or statistical modelling. The expert has a tacit model of a system, based on their understanding of processes and their field experience. This model may vary in quality, depending on the experience of the expert. There is considerable interest in how one may elicit expert understanding by a process which is transparent and robust, to provide a basis for decision support. One approach is to provide experts with a set of scenarios, and then to ask them to rank small overlapping subsets of these with respect to susceptibility. Methods of probabilistic inversion have been used to compute susceptibility scores for each scenario, implicit in the expert ranking. It is also possible to model these scores as functions of measurable properties of the scenarios. This approach has been used to assess susceptibility of animal populations to invasive diseases, to assess risk to vulnerable marine environments and to assess the risk in hypothetical novel technologies for food production. We will present the results of a study in which a group of geologists with varying degrees of expertise in assessing landslide hazards were asked to rank sets of hypothetical simplified scenarios with respect to land slide susceptibility. We examine the consistency of their rankings and the importance of different properties of the scenarios in the tacit susceptibility model that their rankings implied. Our results suggest that this is a promising approach to the problem of how experts can communicate their tacit model of uncertain systems to those who want to make use of their expertise.

  10. Expert financial advice neurobiologically "Offloads" financial decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Capra, C Monica; Noussair, Charles; Berns, Gregory S

    2009-01-01

    Financial advice from experts is commonly sought during times of uncertainty. While the field of neuroeconomics has made considerable progress in understanding the neurobiological basis of risky decision-making, the neural mechanisms through which external information, such as advice, is integrated during decision-making are poorly understood. In the current experiment, we investigated the neurobiological basis of the influence of expert advice on financial decisions under risk. While undergoing fMRI scanning, participants made a series of financial choices between a certain payment and a lottery. Choices were made in two conditions: 1) advice from a financial expert about which choice to make was displayed (MES condition); and 2) no advice was displayed (NOM condition). Behavioral results showed a significant effect of expert advice. Specifically, probability weighting functions changed in the direction of the expert's advice. This was paralleled by neural activation patterns. Brain activations showing significant correlations with valuation (parametric modulation by value of lottery/sure win) were obtained in the absence of the expert's advice (NOM) in intraparietal sulcus, posterior cingulate cortex, cuneus, precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Notably, no significant correlations with value were obtained in the presence of advice (MES). These findings were corroborated by region of interest analyses. Neural equivalents of probability weighting functions showed significant flattening in the MES compared to the NOM condition in regions associated with probability weighting, including anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral PFC, thalamus, medial occipital gyrus and anterior insula. Finally, during the MES condition, significant activations in temporoparietal junction and medial PFC were obtained. These results support the hypothesis that one effect of expert advice is to "offload" the calculation of value of decision options from the

  11. Measuring Laypeople's Trust in Experts in a Digital Age: The Muenster Epistemic Trustworthiness Inventory (METI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Friederike; Kienhues, Dorothe; Bromme, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Given their lack of background knowledge, laypeople require expert help when dealing with scientific information. To decide whose help is dependable, laypeople must judge an expert's epistemic trustworthiness in terms of competence, adherence to scientific standards, and good intentions. Online, this may be difficult due to the often limited and sometimes unreliable source information available. To measure laypeople's evaluations of experts (encountered online), we constructed an inventory to assess epistemic trustworthiness on the dimensions expertise, integrity, and benevolence. Exploratory (n = 237) and confirmatory factor analyses (n = 345) showed that the Muenster Epistemic Trustworthiness Inventory (METI) is composed of these three factors. A subsequent experimental study (n = 137) showed that all three dimensions of the METI are sensitive to variation in source characteristics. We propose using this inventory to measure assignments of epistemic trustworthiness, that is, all judgments laypeople make when deciding whether to place epistemic trust in-and defer to-an expert in order to solve a scientific informational problem that is beyond their understanding.

  12. Forecasting the use of electronic health records: an expert opinion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavin, Fredric Evan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes

    2013-01-01

    To promote the widespread adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs), in 2011, CMS started making Medicare and Medicaid incentive payments to providers who demonstrate that they are "meaningful users" of certified EHR systems. This paper combines an expert opinion method, a modified Delphi technique, with a technological diffusion framework to create a forecast of the percent of office-based physicians who will become adopters and "meaningful users" of health information technology from 2012 to 2019. The panel consisted of 18 experts from industry, academia, and government who are knowledgeable about the adoption and use of EHRs in office-based settings and are recognized as opinion leaders in their respective professions. Overall, the expert panel projected that primary care physicians in large group practices are more likely to achieve the meaningful use of EHRS relative to primary care physicians in small group practices and all other specialists: the group projected that 65 percent of primary care physicians in large group practices, 45 percent of primary care physicians in small group practices, and 44 percent of all other specialists could achieve meaningful use by 2015. In 2019, these projections increase to 80 percent, 65 percent, and 66 percent for these three groups, respectively. The information from this study is especially valuable when there is a lack of data and a high degree of uncertainty in a new policy environment and could help inform and evaluate government programs, such as the Regional Extension Centers (REC), by providing data from leading experts.

  13. Expert knowledge maps for knowledge management: a case study in Traditional Chinese Medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Yang, Shuo; Yu, Tong; Yang, Ce; Gao, Yonghong; Zhu, Haiyan

    2013-10-01

    To design a model to capture information on the state and trends of knowledge creation, at both an individual and an organizational level, in order to enhance knowledge management. We designed a graph-theoretic knowledge model, the expert knowledge map (EKM), based on literature-based annotation. A case study in the domain of Traditional Chinese Medicine research was used to illustrate the usefulness of the model. The EKM successfully captured various aspects of knowledge and enhanced knowledge management within the case-study organization through the provision of knowledge graphs, expert graphs, and expert-knowledge biography. Our model could help to reveal the hot topics, trends, and products of the research done by an organization. It can potentially be used to facilitate knowledge learning, sharing and decision-making among researchers, academicians, students, and administrators of organizations.

  14. NEUREX: a tutorial expert system for the diagnosis of neurogenic diseases of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, A; Majidi, D; Giordano, A; Battaglia, M; Cioni, R

    1995-02-01

    Specialist tutors have to transfer two types of knowledge to doctors who are specialising in a particular clinic: public declarative knowledge, including facts, notions, principles in that particular field; and their own private procedural knowledge acquired in years of direct experience. Embodying this knowledge into an expert system means that this information can be shared more rapidly, and tutoring is easier. This paper presents a tutorial expert system for neurological clinics which can emulate the diagnostic process of an expert neurologist for neurogenic diseases of the lower limbs, assist users in planning the optimal sequence of NG and EMG tests, interpret the results of these tests, and help users to achieve the most suitable diagnosis.

  15. A Semiautomated Framework for Integrating Expert Knowledge into Disease Marker Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Hoidal, John R.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Pounds, Joel G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Rodland, Karin D.; McDermott, Jason E.

    2013-10-01

    Background. The availability of large complex data sets generated by high throughput technologies has enabled the recent proliferation of disease biomarker studies. However, a recurring problem in deriving biological information from large data sets is how to best incorporate expert knowledge into the biomarker selection process. Objective. To develop a generalizable framework that can incorporate expert knowledge into data-driven processes in a semiautomated way while providing a metric for optimization in a biomarker selection scheme. Methods. The framework was implemented as a pipeline consisting of five components for the identification of signatures from integrated clustering (ISIC). Expert knowledge was integrated into the biomarker identification process using the combination of two distinct approaches; a distance-based clustering approach and an expert knowledge-driven functional selection. Results. The utility of the developed framework ISIC was demonstrated on proteomics data from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Biomarker candidates were identified in a mouse model using ISIC and validated in a study of a human cohort. Conclusions. Expert knowledge can be introduced into a biomarker discovery process in different ways to enhance the robustness of selected marker candidates. Developing strategies for extracting orthogonal and robust features from large data sets increases the chances of success in biomarker identification.

  16. The Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Apparel Recommend Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now with the rapid development of information science and technology, intelligent apparel recommend has drawn wide attention in apparel retail industry. Intelligent management and effective recommend are two issues of crucial importance for the retail store to enhance its corporate influence and increase its economic benefits. This paper proposes an intelligent recommend system design scheme for apparel retail which is based on expert system. By comprehensive utilization of database management and expert system technology, the proposed system provides a solid solution in improving the customer shopping experience. This paper presents a kind of object-oriented blackboard structure, which is applied in the apparel recommend expert system and establishes expert rule on the basis of apparel characteristic elements. Through the establishment of the rule base, the system generates personal recommend list by positive rule reasoning mechanism engine. The proposed method thus gives dress collocation scheme for the customer through the human-machine interaction from the point of view of the apparel experts. This design scheme avails the customers to experience targeted service with intellectualization, and personalization and it has certain reference significance for promoting apparel retail intelligence development.

  17. NESSUS/expert and NESSUS/FPI in the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, O. H.

    1987-01-01

    The Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures under Stress (NESSUS) is the primary computer code being developed in the NASA Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) project. It consists of four modules NESSUS/EXPERT, NESSUS/FPI, NESSUS/PRE and NESSUS/FEM. This presentation concentrates on EXPERT and FPI. To provide an effective interface between NESSUS and the user, an expert system module called NESSUS/EXPERT is being developed. That system uses the CLIPS artificial intelligence code developed to NASA-JSC. The code is compatible with FORTRAN, the standard language for codes in PSAM. The user interacts with the CLIPS inference engine, which is linked to the knowledge database. The perturbation database generated by NESSUS/FEM and managed in EXPERT is used to develop the so-called response or performance model in the random variables. Two independent probabilistic methods are available in PSAM for the computation of the probabilistic structural response. These are the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) method and Monte Carlo simulation. FPI is classified as an advanced reliability method and has been developed over the past ten years by researchers addressing the reliability of civil engineering structures. Monte Carlo is a well-established technique for computing probabilities by conducting a number of deterministic analyses with specified input distributional information.

  18. Information security management principles

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andy; Finch, Amanda; Sutton, David; Taylor, Andy

    2013-01-01

    In today's technology-driven environment, there is an ever-increasing demand for information delivery. A compromise has to be struck between security and availability. This book is a pragmatic guide to information assurance for both business professionals and technical experts. This second edition includes the security of cloud-based resources.

  19. Experts correctly describe demography associated with historical decline of the endangered Indiana bat, but not recent period of stationarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Szymanski, Jennifer; Pruitt, Lori; Runge, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Demographic characteristics of bats are often insufficiently described for modeling populations. In data poor situations, experts are often relied upon for characterizing ecological systems. In concert with the development of a matrix model describing Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) demography, we elicited estimates for parameterizing this model from 12 experts. We conducted this elicitation in two stages, requesting expert values for 12 demographic rates. These rates were adult and juvenile seasonal (winter, summer, fall) survival rates, pup survival in fall, and propensity and success at breeding. Experts were most in agreement about adult fall survival (3% Coefficient of Variation) and least in agreement about propensity of juveniles to breed (37% CV). The experts showed greater concordance for adult ( mean CV, adult = 6.2%) than for juvenile parameters ( mean CV, juvenile = 16.4%), and slightly more agreement for survival (mean CV, survival = 9.8%) compared to reproductive rates ( mean CV, reproduction = 15.1%). However, survival and reproduction were negatively and positively biased, respectively, relative to a stationary dynamic. Despite the species exhibiting near stationary dynamics for two decades prior to the onset of a potential extinction-causing agent, white-nose syndrome, expert estimates indicated a population decline of -11% per year (95% CI = -2%, -20%); quasi-extinction was predicted within a century ( mean = 61 years to QE, range = 32, 97) by 10 of the 12 experts. Were we to use these expert estimates in our modeling efforts, we would have errantly trained our models to a rapidly declining demography asymptomatic of recent demographic behavior. While experts are sometimes the only source of information, a clear understanding of the temporal and spatial context of the information being elicited is necessary to guard against wayward predictions.

  20. Experts' attitudes towards medical futility: an empirical survey from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current debate about medical futility is mostly driven by theoretical and personal perspectives and there is a lack of empirical data to document experts and public attitudes towards medical futility. Methods To examine the attitudes of the Japanese experts in the fields relevant to medical futility a questionnaire survey was conducted among the members of the Japan Association for Bioethics. A total number of 108 questionnaires returned filled in, giving a response rate of 50.9%. Among the respondents 62% were healthcare professionals (HCPs and 37% were non-healthcare professionals (Non-HCPs. Results The majority of respondents (67.6 % believed that a physician's refusal to provide or continue a treatment on the ground of futility judgment could never be morally justified but 22.2% approved such refusal with conditions. In the case of physiologically futile care, three-quarters believed that a physician should inform the patient/family of his futility judgment and it would be the patient who could decide what should be done next, based on his/her value judgment. However more than 10% said that a physician should ask about a patient's value and goals, but the final decision was left to the doctor not the patient. There was no statistically significant difference between HCPs and Non-HCPs (p = 0.676. Of respondents 67.6% believed that practical guidelines set up by the health authority would be helpful in futility judgment. Conclusion The results show that there is no support for the physicians' unilateral decision- making on futile care. This survey highlights medical futility as an emerging issue in Japanese healthcare and emphasizes on the need for public discussion and policy development.

  1. Expert operator preferences in remote manipulator control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundstrom, E. [Human Machine Interfaces, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fausz, A.; Woods, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This report describes a survey of expert remote manipulator operators designed to identify features of control systems related to operator efficiency and comfort. It provides information for designing the control center for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System (TWRMS) Test Bed, described in a separate report. Research questions concerned preferred modes of control, optimum work sessions, sources of operator fatigue, importance of control system design features, and desired changes in control rooms. Participants comprised four expert remote manipulator operators at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who individually have from 9 to 20 years of experience using teleoperators. The operators had all used rate and position control, and all preferred bilateral (force-reflecting) position control. They reported spending an average of 2.75 h in control of a teleoperator system during a typical shift. All were accustomed to working in a crew of two and alternating control and support roles in 2-h rotations in an 8-h shift. Operators reported that fatigue in using remote manipulator systems came mainly from watching TV monitors and making repetitive motions. Three of four experienced symptoms, including headaches and sore eyes, wrists, and back. Of 17 features of control rooms rated on importance, highest ratings went to comfort and support provided by the operator chair, location of controls, location of video monitors, video image clarity, types of controls, and control modes. When asked what they wanted to change, operators said work stations designed for comfort; simpler, lighter hand-controls; separate controls for each camera; better placement of remote camera; color monitors; and control room layouts that support crew interaction. Results of this small survey reinforced the importance of ergonomic factors in remote manipulation.

  2. Expert recommendations on treating psoriasis in special circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, J M; Belinchón, I; de-la-Cueva, P; Izu, R; Luelmo, J; Ruiz-Villaverde, R

    2015-05-01

    A great amount of information on systemic and biologic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis is now available. However, applying the evidence in numerous clinical scenarios has engendered debate; under these circumstances, the consensus of experts is useful. A scientific committee systematically reviewed the literature relevant to 5 clinical scenarios. An online Delphi survey of dermatologists with experience treating moderate to severe psoriasis was then carried out in order to shed light on questions that remained unresolved by the available evidence. Twenty-three dermatologists responded to the survey and consensus was reached on 37 (56%) of the 66 statements proposed. These results led to consensus on various clinical situations even though firm evidence was lacking. Thus, intermittent therapeutic regimens and strategies for reducing the intensity of treatment are considered appropriate for optimizing biologic treatment and reducing costs. The measurement of drug and antidrug antibody levels should be included routinely when following patients on biologics to treat psoriasis. Concomitant psoriatic arthritis or a history of cardiovascular conditions will influence the choice of biologic; in these situations, an agent with anti-tumor necrosis factor properties will be preferred. Tailored management is important when the patient is pregnant or intends to conceive; drug half-life and disease severity are important factors to take into consideration in these scenarios. A combination of systematic review of the literature and structured discussion of expert opinion facilitates decision-making in specific clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Ask-the-expert: Active Learning Based Knowledge Discovery Using the Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kamalika; Avrekh, Ilya; Matthews, Bryan; Sharma, Manali; Oza, Nikunj

    2017-01-01

    Often the manual review of large data sets, either for purposes of labeling unlabeled instances or for classifying meaningful results from uninteresting (but statistically significant) ones is extremely resource intensive, especially in terms of subject matter expert (SME) time. Use of active learning has been shown to diminish this review time significantly. However, since active learning is an iterative process of learning a classifier based on a small number of SME-provided labels at each iteration, the lack of an enabling tool can hinder the process of adoption of these technologies in real-life, in spite of their labor-saving potential. In this demo we present ASK-the-Expert, an interactive tool that allows SMEs to review instances from a data set and provide labels within a single framework. ASK-the-Expert is powered by an active learning algorithm for training a classifier in the backend. We demonstrate this system in the context of an aviation safety application, but the tool can be adopted to work as a simple review and labeling tool as well, without the use of active learning.

  4. Applicability of tunnel boring Machine and its expert system. Tunnel kusshinki no tekiyosei to expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, S. (Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-06-11

    A tunnel boring machine (TBM) shows extreme lowering in mean penetration rate if it is not properly applied and used, therefore, it is required to discuss the applicability of TBM in advance. In this papaer, the work results presented up to now and knowledge concerning to TBM performances are collected and implemented in a computer program which is called an expert system for applicability of TBM. In this expert system, input parameters are tunnel length, tunnel diameter, maximum curvature, dip, uniaxial compressive strength etc., and penetration rate, normal force, rolling force etc. are deduced together with the appraisal and recommendation for users. Through the several case studies, it was found that the developed expert system gives the appropriate results specially for the tunnels excavated in North America and Europe. In cases of tunnels excavated in Japan, the estimated penetration rate is far less than the actual result. Consideration for complicated environments and surroundings differing from country to country may be remained for future. 31 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Rule Based Expert System for Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Borgohain, Rajdeep; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence is finding prominence not only in core computer areas, but also in cross disciplinary areas including medical diagnosis. In this paper, we present a rule based Expert System used in diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy. The expert system takes user input and depending on the symptoms of the patient, diagnoses if the patient is suffering from Cerebral Palsy. The Expert System also classifies the Cerebral Palsy as mild, moderate or severe based on the presented symptoms.

  6. The Delphi Method Online: Medical Expert Consensus Via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Cam, Kenneth M.; McKnight, Patrick E.; Doctor, Jason N

    2002-01-01

    Delphi is an expert consensus method. The theory behind the Delphi method is that the interaction of experts may lead to a reduction in individual bias. We have developed software that carries out all aspects of the Delphi method via the Internet. The Delphi method online consists of three components: 1) authorship, 2) interactive polling, and 3) reporting/results. We hope that researchers use this tool in future medical expert systems.

  7. Expert system to control a fusion energy experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques by encoding the behavior of several experts as a set of if-then rules in an expert system. One of the functions of the expert system is to control an adaptive controller that, in turn, controls the neutral beam source. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  8. The problem of evasive testimony: the expert "waffle".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Confronted with a difficult, unexpected, or confrontational question, an expert witness may answer by attempting to overwhelm the questioner with words, sometimes highly evasive ones, that avoid, rather than actually address, the question asked. Such a discursive response is sometimes called a "waffle," as in "The expert's answer was a waffle." This review notes some examples of this phenomenon and attempts to categorize them in a meaningful way. An ancillary goal of this discussion may be to aid experts in focusing their answers.

  9. Differential diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and sinusitis an expert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creider, R.D.; Sundar Singh, P.S. [Texas A& M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Nasal congestion is a common problem for many people. It is a symptom of chronic sinusitis and also a characteristic of allergic rhinitis. Individuals frequently confuse sinusitis and allergic rhinitis. The expert system described below will diagnose the problem to be either rhinitis or sinusitis. In this paper we describe the expert system, the need for such an expert system and the process of developing the system.

  10. Expert System for Determination of Type Lenses Glasses Using Forward Chaining Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikah Ari Pramesti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the branches of computer science that is widely used by humans to help her work is the establishment of an expert system. In this study we will design an expert system for determining the type of spectacle lenses using a forward chaining method. In forward chaining method, starting with the initial information (early symptoms and moved forward to fit more information to find the information in accordance with the rules of the knowledge base and production, and will be concluded in the form of the type of disorder diagnosis of eye disorders and provide solutions in the form of lenses of eyeglasses. Result from this study is that the match calculation of algorithm of forward chaining method between system and manual calculations produce the same output.

  11. Expert System For Diagnosis Of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.L.C. Amarathunga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dermatology is a one of major session of medicine that concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. Skin diseases are the most common form of disease in humans. Recently many of researchers have advocated and developed the imaging of human vision or in the loop approach to visual object recognition. This research paper presents a development of a skin diseases diagnosis system which allows user to identify diseases of the human skin and to provide advises or medical treatments in a very short time period. For this purpose user will have to upload an image of skin disease to our system and answer questions based on their skin condition or symptoms. It will be used to detect diseases of the skin and offer a treatment recommendation. This system uses technologies such as image processing and data mining for the diagnosis of the disease of the skin. The image of skin disease is taken and it must be subjected to various preprocessing for noise eliminating and enhancement of the image. This image is immediately segmentation of images using threshold values. Finally data mining techniques are used to identify the skin disease and to suggest medical treatments or advice for users. This expert system exhibits disease identification accuracy of 85 for Eczema 95 for Impetigo and 85 for Melanoma.

  12. CERN safety expert receives international award

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On 18 December 2004, the President of the Swiss Electro-technical Committee, Martin Reichle (left), presented the award to Helmut Schönbacher. Helmut Schönbacher, of the Safety Commission at CERN, has received, the "1906 Award" of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for his standardisation work on the influence of ionizing radiation on insulating materials. From 1986 until 2004, Schönbacher was leader of a working group on radiation composed of internationally recognised experts. It edited standards of the IEC 60544 series on the determination of the effects of ionizing radiation on electrical insulating materials. The working group also edited three IEC Technical Reports on the determination of long-term radiation ageing in polymers. This standardisation work and long-term experience from CERN on the radiation ageing of materials also contributed to research coordination programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). From 1968 until 1988, Schönbacher was a member of the Rad...

  13. Securing Information Technology in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Denise; Campbell, Andrew T; Candon, Thomas; Gettinger, Andrew; Kotz, David; Marsch, Lisa A; Molina-Markham, Andrés; Page, Karen; Smith, Sean W; Gunter, Carl A; Johnson, M Eric

    2013-08-08

    Dartmouth College's Institute for Security, Technology, and Society conducted three workshops on securing information technology in healthcare, attended by a diverse range of experts in the field. This article summarizes the three workshops.

  14. Securing Information Technology in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Denise; Andrew T. Campbell; Candon, Thomas; Gettinger, Andrew; Kotz, David; Marsch, Lisa A.; Molina-Markham, Andrés; Page, Karen; Smith, Sean W.; Gunter, Carl A.; Johnson, M. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Dartmouth College’s Institute for Security, Technology, and Society conducted three workshops on securing information technology in healthcare, attended by a diverse range of experts in the field. This article summarizes the three workshops.

  15. A Reasoning Architecture for Expert Troubleshooting of Complex Processes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper introduces a novel reasoning methodology, in combination with appropriate models and measurements (data) to perform accurately and expeditiously expert...

  16. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  17. Expert Panel Elicitation of Seismicity Following Glaciation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael (eds.)

    2005-12-15

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle.

  18. Health Experts' Opinions about Tobacco Control Activities in Iran: Results from a Delphi Panel of National Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hooman; Hessami, Zahra; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Iran signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on June 16, 2003 and it was ratified by the parliament and the House of Representatives on November 6, 2005. Finally, it came into force on February 4, 2006. In this study, we aimed to evaluate health experts' opinion about tobacco control activities in Iran. This was a qualitative case study. We used a series of open-ended questionnaires to assess important information regarding Iranian National Tobacco Control law and FCTC implementation. The study population comprised of health experts. Use of this method ensured the validity of questionnaires' contents. The first round of the questionnaire had been pre-tested in a pilot study. The final structure and lay out of questionnaires consisted of three main parts. The first part was designed with 7 multiple choice questions. Participants were able to rank answers from five (the most important) to one (the least important). The second part comprised four questions mainly on National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) and the final part was about FCTC. Data collection was carried out between May 2010 and May 2011. In the analysis process each interview was considered as a separate case and then compared to other cases to ascertain variations in answers. All 40 members (100%) of the panel completed the entire process. All the participants had a consensus on tobacco control program in Iran. They believed the prevention programs to be important priorities in this regard. Tobacco Company as a governmental organization is believed to be the main barrier against tobacco control activities in Iran, and banning sales of tobacco to minors and controlling its smuggling are important factors for decreasing the supply of tobacco products. It is essential to implement comprehensive tobacco control law in Iran. It is essential to implement comprehensive tobacco control law in Iran that covers all the priorities mentioned above. Considering the chronological aspect of law

  19. Rule-based expert system for maritime anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean

    2010-04-01

    Maritime domain operators/analysts have a mandate to be aware of all that is happening within their areas of responsibility. This mandate derives from the needs to defend sovereignty, protect infrastructures, counter terrorism, detect illegal activities, etc., and it has become more challenging in the past decade, as commercial shipping turned into a potential threat. In particular, a huge portion of the data and information made available to the operators/analysts is mundane, from maritime platforms going about normal, legitimate activities, and it is very challenging for them to detect and identify the non-mundane. To achieve such anomaly detection, they must establish numerous relevant situational facts from a variety of sensor data streams. Unfortunately, many of the facts of interest just cannot be observed; the operators/analysts thus use their knowledge of the maritime domain and their reasoning faculties to infer these facts. As they are often overwhelmed by the large amount of data and information, automated reasoning tools could be used to support them by inferring the necessary facts, ultimately providing indications and warning on a small number of anomalous events worthy of their attention. Along this line of thought, this paper describes a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system implementing automated rule-based reasoning in support of maritime anomaly detection.

  20. How should complementary and alternative medicine be taught to medical students in Switzerland? A survey of medical experts and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolao, Marie; Täuber, Martin G; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In Switzerland and in the whole western world, the growing popularity of CAM is calling for its implementation in the undergraduate medical curriculum. To determine whether medical experts and medical students are favorable to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) education at Swiss medical schools and to investigate their opinion about its form, content and goals. Experts in the fields of conventional medicine (COM, n = 106), CAM experts (n = 29) and senior medical students (n = 640) were surveyed by an online questionnaire. 48.7% of the COM experts, 100% of the CAM experts, and 72.6% of the students are favorable to CAM education at Swiss medical schools. The most requested disciplines are acupuncture, phytotherapy, and homeopathy; the most recommended characteristics of CAM education are elective courses, during the clinical years, in the format of seminars and lectures. For the CAM experts, the priority is to improve the students' knowledge of CAM, whereas for the COM experts and the students, the priority is to analyze efficiency, security, interactions, and secondary effects of CAM. CAM courses should be informative, giving the students sufficient knowledge to provide a critical analysis of efficiency and security of different CAM modalities.

  1. Expert opinions of demographic rates of Argentine black and white tegus in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study.  We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model, which was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates from herpetology experts.  We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter.  Using these distributions, we generated a large sample of matrix models to infer how the tegu population might respond to control efforts.  We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs.  Expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable for conducting an initial assessment of the effort needed to control the invader.  The value of information can be used to focus research in a way that not only helps increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  2. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrakal, Suna [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  3. Data for comparison of climate envelope models developed using expert-selected variables versus statistical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Benscoter, Allison; Harvey, Rebecca G.; Speroterra, Carolina; Bucklin, David N.; Romanach, Stephanie; Watling, James I.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    The data we used for this study include species occurrence data (n=15 species), climate data and predictions, an expert opinion questionnaire, and species masks that represented the model domain for each species. For this data release, we include the results of the expert opinion questionnaire and the species model domains (or masks). We developed an expert opinion questionnaire to gather information on expert opinion regarding the importance of climate variables in determining a species geographic range. The species masks, or model domains, were defined separately for each species using a variation of the “target-group” approach (Phillips et al. 2009), where the domain was determined using convex polygons including occurrence data for at least three phylogenetically related and similar species (Watling et al. 2012). The species occurrence data, climate data, and climate predictions are freely available online, and therefore not included in this data release. The species occurrence data were obtained from the online database Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF; http://www.gbif.org/), and from scientific literature (Watling et al. 2011). Climate data were obtained from the WorldClim database (Hijmans et al. 2005) and climate predictions were obtained from the Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Prediction Studies (COAPS) at Florida State University (https://floridaclimateinstitute.org/resources/data-sets/regional-downscaling). See metadata for references.

  4. Comparative analysis of web search trends between experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Sang-Jun; Jang, Yunji; Seong, BoSeok; Kim, Chul

    2015-12-24

    The information and knowledge about ethno-medicinal herbs are getting stronger interest in Global and Korea after the agreement of the Nagoya Protocol. However, it is known that there is a serious asymmetry of ethno-medicinal information between experts and public, thus this study aimed to analyze the similarities and differences in interest between experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea through big data analysis. The medicinal herbs selected in this study were the top 10 herbs in terms of the amounts purchased by TKM centers. And two representative web search engines were selected to collect the web search logs, i.e. big data, of experts and public for medicinal herbs in Korea. Comparative analysis was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and time-series graph analysis. The web search traffic logs were collected for the past three years (2012-2014) from OASIS and NAVER, which are the representative web search engines of experts and public respectively in Korea. First, regarding OASIS, the most searched medicinal herb was Angelicae Gigantis Radix while the least searched was Alismatis Rhizoma; for NAVER, the most searched medicinal herb was Paeoniae Radix, unlike OASIS, and the least searched was Alismatis Rhizoma, as with OASIS. The coefficient between rank of herbs and OASIS was -0.401, and that between rank of herbs and NAVER was -0.387, and the correlational coefficient for web search trends of OASIS and NAVER during the past three years was 0.438. Also the correlation of interest between experts and public for each herb on monthly web trends basis was similar with regard to Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Angelicae Gigantis Radix, but different with regard to the other 8 medicinal herbs. Finally, significant outcomes or suggestions were figured out through time-series graph analysis. This study presents meaningful results concerning the similarities and differences in interest between experts and

  5. Practical ontologies for information professionals

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071712

    2016-01-01

    Practical Ontologies for Information Professionals provides an introduction to ontologies and their development, an essential tool for fighting back against information overload. The development of robust and widely used ontologies is an increasingly important tool in the fight against information overload. The publishing and sharing of explicit explanations for a wide variety of conceptualizations, in a machine readable format, has the power to both improve information retrieval and identify new knowledge. This new book provides an accessible introduction to the following: * What is an ontology? Defining the concept and why it is increasingly important to the information professional * Ontologies and the semantic web * Existing ontologies, such as SKOS, OWL, FOAF, schema.org, and the DBpedia Ontology * Adopting and building ontologies, showing how to avoid repetition of work and how to build a simple ontology with Protege * Interrogating semantic web ontologies * The future of ontologies and the role of the ...

  6. Expert memory: a comparison of four theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, F

    1998-05-01

    This paper compares four current theories of expertise with respect to chess players' memory: Chase and Simon's chunking theory, Holding's SEEK theory, Ericsson and Kintsch's long-term working memory theory, and Gobet and Simon's template theory (Chase, W.G., Simon, H.A., 1973a. Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology 4, 55-81; Holding, D.H., 1985. The Psychology of Chess Skill. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ; Ericsson, K.A., Kintsch, W., 1995. Long-term working memory. Psychological Review 102, 211-245; Gobet, F., Simon, H.A., 1996b. Templates in chess memory: a mechanism for recalling several boards. Cognitive Psychology 31, 1-40). The empirical areas showing the largest discriminative power include recall of random and distorted positions, recall with very short presentation times, and interference studies. Contrary to recurrent criticisms in the literature, it is shown that the chunking theory is consistent with most of the data. However, the best performance in accounting for the empirical evidence is obtained by the template theory. The theory, which unifies low-level aspects of cognition, such as chunks, with high-level aspects, such as schematic knowledge and planning, proposes that chunks are accessed through a discrimination net, where simple perceptual features are tested, and that they can evolve into more complex data structures (templates) specific to classes of positions. Implications for the study of expertise in general include the need for detailed process models of expert behavior and the need to use empirical data spanning the traditional boundaries of perception, memory, and problem solving.

  7. Expert views from Poland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Põlluste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Home care (HC is placed between the health and social welfare systems, and the clients of HC mostly need health services. Along with other providers, family doctors (FDs are usually involved in the provision of care. Objectives. This paper aims to describe and compare the involvement of HC providers to elderly and disabled persons in Poland and Estonia. Material and methods . This study is part of the international project EURHOMA P (Mapping Professional Home Care in Europe. Data was collected in 2008–2010. Experts from different areas of health and social care were queried by using a questionnaire containing structured case narratives, which were hypothetical descriptions of the situations of elderly or disabled persons living at home and in need of care. Results. There are a number of HC services, e.g. nursing, medical and social, available in both countries. The application for HC is mostly made by the patient or a close family member; the point of entry to HC can differ and depends on the client’s primary problem. FDs, together with social workers, play an important role in the provision of HC services in both countries. However, due to a shortage of round-the-clock professional services at a client’s home, families are also expected to play a large role in providing HC . Conclusions . Health care professionals, mainly those working in primary health care, play a remarkable role in access to and provision of HC services. Nevertheless, responsibility for 24-hour care lies, to a large extent, with the client’s immediate family. This situation seems to be typical in Eastern European countries.

  8. International recommendations for national patient safety incident reporting systems: an expert Delphi consensus-building process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ann-Marie; Burns, Elaine M; Hull, Louise; Mayer, Erik; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara

    2017-02-01

    Patient safety incident reporting systems (PSRS) have been established for over a decade, but uncertainty remains regarding the role that they can and ought to play in quantifying healthcare-related harm and improving care. To establish international, expert consensus on the purpose of PSRS regarding monitoring and learning from incidents and developing recommendations for their future role. After a scoping review of the literature, semi-structured interviews with experts in PSRS were conducted. Based on these findings, a survey-based questionnaire was developed and subsequently completed by a larger expert panel. Using a Delphi approach, consensus was reached regarding the ideal role of PSRSs. Recommendations for best practice were devised. Forty recommendations emerged from the Delphi procedure on the role and use of PSRS. Experts agreed reporting system should not be used as an epidemiological tool to monitor the rate of harm over time or to appraise the relative safety of hospitals. They agreed reporting is a valuable mechanism for identifying organisational safety needs. The benefit of a national system was clear with respect to medication error, device failures, hospital-acquired infections and never events as these problems often require solutions at a national level. Experts recommended training for senior healthcare professionals in incident investigation. Consensus recommendation was for hospitals to take responsibility for creating safety solutions locally that could be shared nationally. We obtained reasonable consensus among experts on aims and specifications of PSRS. This information can be used to reflect on existing and future PSRS, and their role within the wider patient safety landscape. The role of PSRS as instruments for learning needs to be elaborated and developed further internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Short-term Forecasting of the Prevalence of Trachoma: Expert Opinion, Statistical Regression, versus Transmission Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengchen; Porco, Travis C; Amza, Abdou; Kadri, Boubacar; Nassirou, Baido; West, Sheila K; Bailey, Robin L; Keenan, Jeremy D; Solomon, Anthony W; Emerson, Paul M; Gambhir, Manoj; Lietman, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Trachoma programs rely on guidelines made in large part using expert opinion of what will happen with and without intervention. Large community-randomized trials offer an opportunity to actually compare forecasting methods in a masked fashion. The Program for the Rapid Elimination of Trachoma trials estimated longitudinal prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection from 24 communities treated annually with mass azithromycin. Given antibiotic coverage and biannual assessments from baseline through 30 months, forecasts of the prevalence of infection in each of the 24 communities at 36 months were made by three methods: the sum of 15 experts' opinion, statistical regression of the square-root-transformed prevalence, and a stochastic hidden Markov model of infection transmission (Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible, or SIS model). All forecasters were masked to the 36-month results and to the other forecasts. Forecasts of the 24 communities were scored by the likelihood of the observed results and compared using Wilcoxon's signed-rank statistic. Regression and SIS hidden Markov models had significantly better likelihood than community expert opinion (p = 0.004 and p = 0.01, respectively). All forecasts scored better when perturbed to decrease Fisher's information. Each individual expert's forecast was poorer than the sum of experts. Regression and SIS models performed significantly better than expert opinion, although all forecasts were overly confident. Further model refinements may score better, although would need to be tested and compared in new masked studies. Construction of guidelines that rely on forecasting future prevalence could consider use of mathematical and statistical models. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00792922.

  10. An exploration of partnership through interactions between young 'expert' patients with cystic fibrosis and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kath; Irvine, Lindesay; Smith, Margaret Coulter

    2015-12-01

    To explore how young 'expert patients' living with Cystic Fibrosis and the healthcare professionals with whom they interact perceive partnership and negotiate care. Modern healthcare policy encourages partnership, engagement and self-management of long-term conditions. This philosophy is congruent with the model adopted in the care of those with Cystic Fibrosis, where self-management, trust and mutual respect are perceived to be integral to the development of the ongoing patient/professional relationship. Self-management is associated with the term; 'expert patient'; an individual with a long-term condition whose knowledge and skills are valued and used in partnership with healthcare professionals. However, the term 'expert patient' is debated in the literature as are the motivation for its use and the assumptions implicit in the term. A qualitative exploratory design informed by Interpretivism and Symbolic Interactionism was conducted. Thirty-four consultations were observed and 23 semi-structured interviews conducted between 10 patients, 2 carers and 12 healthcare professionals. Data were analysed thematically using the five stages of 'Framework' a matrix-based qualitative data analysis approach and were subject to peer review and respondent validation. The study received full ethical approval. Three main themes emerged; experiences of partnership, attributes of the expert patient and constructions of illness. Sub-themes of the 'ceremonial order of the clinic', negotiation and trust in relationships and perceptions of the expert patient are presented. The model of consultation may be a barrier to person-centred care. Healthcare professionals show leniency in negotiations, but do not always trust patients' accounts. The term 'expert patient' is unpopular and remains contested. Gaining insight into structures and processes that enable or inhibit partnership can lead to a collaborative approach to service redesign and a revision of the consultation model. © 2015

  11. Integration of expert knowledge and uncertainty in natural risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mirko; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and

  12. Matrix Failure Modes and Effects Analysis as a Knowledge Base for a Real Time Automated Diagnosis Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Stephanie; Iverson, David; Spukovska, Lilly; Souza, Kenneth A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis contain a wealth of information that can be used to create the knowledge base required for building automated diagnostic Expert systems. A real time monitoring and diagnosis expert system based on an actual NASA project's matrix failure modes and effects analysis was developed. This Expert system Was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. This system was first used as a case study to monitor the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), a Space Shuttle payload that is used to house and monitor animals in orbit so the effects of space flight and microgravity can be studied. The techniques developed for the RAHF monitoring and diagnosis Expert system are general enough to be used for monitoring and diagnosis of a variety of other systems that undergo a Matrix FMEA. This automated diagnosis system was successfully used on-line and validated on the Space Shuttle flight STS-58, mission SLS-2 in October 1993.

  13. Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); DeWispelare, A.R. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE`s license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE`s experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC`s geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs.

  14. Expert performance on a virtual reality simulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierinck, Els R; Puttemans, Veerle; Swinnen, Stephan P; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if the essence of expert performance could be captured on a virtual reality simulation system. Six experts in operative dentistry, six experts in periodontology, and six novice dental students performed a Class II tooth preparation task on the lower left second premolar. All subjects performed a pre-test to assess the basic skill level of each group. During the (limited) training component of the study, the three groups practiced three tooth preparations and received augmented feedback. At both a one-minute and one-day interval, subjects performed a final test in the absence of augmented feedback. All preparations were graded by the simulation system. The results showed at pre-test a significantly better performance of the experts in operative dentistry as compared to the novices. During the practice (acquisition) phase, the experts in operative dentistry outperformed both the periodontologists and novices, whereas the experts in periodontology performed more accurately than the novices. After one minute and one day following practice, similar results were obtained. Retention performance was most accurate after a one-day delay. Based on these results, the simulator appears to be a valid and reliable tool to capture expert performance. It is an effective screening device for assessing the level of expert performance.

  15. The BRIEFER project: using expert systems as theory construction tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W J; de Shazer, S

    1991-06-01

    This article describes the development of BRIEFER I and BRIEFER II, expert systems that advise the therapist on selecting, designing, and developing an intervention at the end of the first therapy session. The process of developing expert systems has aided us in describing what brief therapists do, in modeling the intervention design process, and in training brief therapists.

  16. The Role of Experts in Local Government in Transitional Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.S. de; Sobis, I.; Jenei, G.; Barbashev, A.; Berg, F. van den

    2005-01-01

    Th is paper addresses the role of experts in decision-making in local government. Departing from theories about professionals and technocrats in decision-making processes, the question arises as to how much infl uence these experts have in policymaking processes. Th e paper addresses this question

  17. Expert Systems--A Competent Tool for Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Jean; Smith, P. J.

    Expert systems, rule-based knowledge systems, have been widely heralded as an important tool in management and accounting. Expert system shells have become available for personal computers, and accountants are investing in systems which are supposed to be capable of intelligent decisions. The limitations of rule-based knowledge systems are…

  18. Curricula for Media Literacy Education According to International Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexander; Levitskaya, Anastasia; Camarero, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the results of the international experts' survey regarding the curriculum of media literacy education, which was administrated by the authors in September-October 2015. The expert panel includes specialists actively involved in the real process of media literacy education in schools, universities and other educational…

  19. Expert System for Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Ibrahim Mailafiya, Fatima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expert System for Diagnosis of Hepatitis B. Ibrahim Mailafiya, Fatima Isiaka. Department of Computer Science,. Nasarawa State University, Keffi. Abstract. This paper is a preview of the work so far concluded on Expert Systems implementation for the diagnosis of hepatitis B, which is one of the most common of all hepatitis ...

  20. Voluntary Standards, Expert Knowledge and the Governance of Sustainability Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Cheyns, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    them, to shape standard setting and management to their advantage depends not only on overcoming important structural differences in endowments and access to resources, but also on more subtle games. These include promoting the enrolment of one expert group or kind of expert knowledge over another...

  1. Expert systems applications for space shuttle payload integration automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Keith

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems technologies have been and are continuing to be applied to NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter payload integration problems to provide a level of automation previously unrealizable. NASA's Space Shuttle orbiter was designed to be extremely flexible in its ability to accommodate many different types and combinations of satellites and experiments (payloads) within its payload bay. This flexibility results in differnet and unique engineering resource requirements for each of its payloads, creating recurring payload and cargo integration problems. Expert systems provide a successful solution for these recurring problems. The Orbiter Payload Bay Cabling Expert (EXCABL) was the first expert system, developed to solve the electrical services provisioning problem. A second expert system, EXMATCH, was developed to generate a list of the reusable installation drawings available for each EXCABL solution. These successes have proved the applicability of expert systems technologies to payload integration problems and consequently a third expert system is currently in work. These three expert systems, the manner in which they resolve payload problems and how they will be integrated are described.

  2. Supplement to a Methodology for Succession Planning for Technical Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cain, Ronald A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Agreda, Carla L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This report complements A Methodology for Succession Planning for Technical Experts (Ron Cain, Shaheen Dewji, Carla Agreda, Bernadette Kirk, July 2017), which describes a draft methodology for identifying and evaluating the loss of key technical skills at nuclear operations facilities. This report targets the methodology for identifying critical skills, and the methodology is tested through interviews with selected subject matter experts.

  3. Proceedings of the second international expert systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on knowledge engineering. Topics considered at the conference included data base management, real time process control, artificial intelligence, decision making, expert systems in the nuclear sector, the uses of expert systems in education and training, radar applications, software and knowledge engineering methods, uncertainty, natural language, and man-machine systems.

  4. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is ... The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation.

  5. Sources of correlation between experts: Empirical results from two extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1987-04-01

    Through two studies, this report seeks to identify the sources of correlation, or dependence, between experts' estimates. Expert estimates are relied upon as sources of data whenever experimental data is lacking, such as in risk analyses and reliability assessments. Correlation between experts is a problem in the elicitation and subsequent use of subjective estimates. Until now, there have been no data confirming sources of correlation, although the experts' background is commonly speculated to be one. Two different populations of experts were administered questions in their areas of expertise. Data on their professional backgrounds and means of solving the questions were elicited using techniques from educational psychology and ethnography. The results from both studies indicate that the way in which an expert solves the problem is the major source of correlation. The experts' background can not be shown to be an important source of correlation nor to influence his choice of method for problem solution. From these results, some recommendations are given for the elicitation and use of expert opinion.

  6. Expert System Techniques and Applications in AEC-Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tom

    This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain.......This part of a book presents expert system techniques applicable to building design and construction, and it reports and evaluates on systems developed in thar domain....

  7. Self-Monitoring: Demystifying the Wonder of Expert Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Schempp, Paul G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research indicates that self-monitoring is a common practice of expert teachers. Through self-monitoring, experts identify their strengths and weaknesses in teaching and devise strategies that help them to continue on a path of professional excellence. The purpose of this article is to propose effective self-monitoring practices for…

  8. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  9. 42 CFR 411.377 - Expert opinions from outside sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expert opinions from outside sources. 411.377... SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM EXCLUSIONS FROM MEDICARE AND LIMITATIONS ON MEDICARE PAYMENT Financial... from outside sources. (a) CMS may request expert advice from qualified sources if CMS believes that the...

  10. The Expert Mathematician. Revised. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "The Expert Mathematician" is designed to help middle school students develop the thinking processes for mathematical applications and communication. A three-year program of instruction, "The Expert Mathematician" uses a software and consumable print materials package with 196 lessons that teach the "Logo" programming…

  11. Domestic violence: the role of the mental health expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, I K

    1990-01-01

    Mental health experts are often called upon to testify in trials of battered woman who have killed their husbands. Such experts have an important role to play in educating both the public and the legal profession about the Battered Woman Syndrome.

  12. The Role of Experts in a Democratic Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cerovac

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Democratic procedures are characterized by the equal status of all citizens participating in the decision-making process. This procedural fairness represents one of the central aspects of democracy's legitimacy-generating potential and should not be rejected or weakened. However, citizens specialize in different areas and inevitably some citizens become more competent (i.e. become experts regarding some political issues. Democratic procedure would loose much of its appeal if it would be unable to take advantage of the experts' knowledge. In this paper I follow Kitcher and Christiano in embracing a form of division of epistemic (and political labour - citizens and their political representatives should deliberate and set aims the political community is to pursue, while experts and policy-makers should devise means (laws, public policies and political decisions needed to achieve the aims set by citizens. However, citizens should not blindly trust the experts - their epistemic authority is derivative and social and academic networks and structures should be employed in order to enable citizens to assess and evaluate experts' competence, but experts' impartiality regarding the issue at hand as well. Consequently, the process should not be unidirectional: experts should be able to help citizens select feasible and coherent aims, while citizens should be able to help experts in creating policies and decisions. Deliberative democracy is an appropriate political setting for this kind of bidirectional communication.

  13. Artificial Experts: The Computer as Diagnostician Has Definite Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournelle, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Argues that, although expert systems--which are supposed to give users all the advantages of consulting with human experts--can be useful for medical diagnosis, where tests tend to be reliable, they can be hazardous in such areas as psychological testing, where test reliability is difficult to measure. (MBR)

  14. Expert Systems the Old Fashioned Way: Person to Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Hunter; Mayer, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the services of Teltech, Inc., which mimic the desirable attributes of artificial intelligence and expert systems via a "database" of 5,000 experts in technical areas and interactive literature searches executed by staff. Advantages and shortcomings of the network are exemplified by sample searches. Several sample menus and…

  15. SCREW SELECTION FOR SCREW OPERATION USING EXPERT SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdayim BAŞAK

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a expert system has been developed using Leonardo expert system package programming for screw operation, According to DIN standard norm. The designed program decide the most suitable screw type considering to material, cutting speed, working condition etc. This program also directs to user.

  16. Winter Reads: Your expert guide to the best history books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newby, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Review of K. Barclay, 'Love, Intimacy and Power' as part of a feature in which experts on Scottish History were asked to choose their book of the year.......Review of K. Barclay, 'Love, Intimacy and Power' as part of a feature in which experts on Scottish History were asked to choose their book of the year....

  17. The Principles of Designing an Expert System in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekhova, Lailya; Nurgaliev, Albert; Zaripova, Rinata; Khakimullina, Nailya

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals general didactic concepts of the Expert Systems (ES) development process in the educational area. The proof of concept is based on the example of teaching the 8th grade Algebra subject. The main contribution in this work is the implementation of innovative approaches in analysis and processing of data by expert system as well as…

  18. Competence and confidence effects in experts' forecast adjustments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Legerstee (Rianne); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIt frequently occurs that experts adjust forecasts from statistical models. There is some evidence that such adjusted forecasts can lead to substantially better performance. Little is known about competence and confidence effects in what these experts do. Theoretical and experimental

  19. Neural expert decision support system for stroke diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupershtein, Leonid M.; Martyniuk, Tatiana B.; Krencin, Myhail D.; Kozhemiako, Andriy V.; Bezsmertnyi, Yurii; Bezsmertna, Halyna; Kolimoldayev, Maksat; Smolarz, Andrzej; Weryńska-Bieniasz, RóŻa; Uvaysova, Svetlana

    2017-08-01

    In the work the hybrid expert system for stroke diagnosis was presented. The base of expert system consists of neural network and production rules. This program can quickly and accurately set to the patient preliminary and final diagnoses, get examination and treatment plans, print data of patient, analyze statistics data and perform parameterized search for patients.

  20. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggermont, G

    2000-07-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised.