San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis
Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare instituti...
San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis
Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina. Internal reliability was calculated. Gender and discipline were used as explanatory variables in comparison analysis. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine differences due to the main effects of the gender, and discipline, and to determine possible combined effects. Correlation analysis was performed to measure associations between collateral effects and age, and between collateral effects and professionalism. Results: A total of 353 (68%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. No differences were found among countries for collateral effects. Correlation analysis confirmed in physicians an inverse association between empathy and collateral effects (P = -0.16; p professionalism and in its effects on occupational well-being appeared associated to inter-professional collaboration and work roles. An inverse correlation between age and collateral effects was confirmed in physicians (P = -0.22; p exhaustion and alienation in physicians than in nurses (p professional models and social stereotypes, play in the interaction between
San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis
Context: Empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning are described as key elements of professionalism. The first recipients of their benefits are professionals themselves. Paradoxically, scarce studies have reported association between professionalism and occupational well-being. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the influence that empathy, teamwork, and lifelong learning, play in the occupational well-being of physicians and nurses working in Latin American healthcare institutions. Materials and Methods: The Jefferson Scale of Empathy, the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration, the Jefferson Scale of Physicians Lifelong Learning, and the Scale of Collateral Effects (somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation), were administered to 522 physicians and nurses working in institutions of Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, and Argentina. Internal reliability was calculated. Gender and discipline were used as explanatory variables in comparison analysis. Two-way analysis of variance was performed to examine differences due to the main effects of the gender, and discipline, and to determine possible combined effects. Correlation analysis was performed to measure associations between collateral effects and age, and between collateral effects and professionalism. Results: A total of 353 (68%) surveys were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed in all instruments. No differences were found among countries for collateral effects. Correlation analysis confirmed in physicians an inverse association between empathy and collateral effects (P = -0.16; p effects and lifelong learning (P = -0.18; p effects on occupational well-being appeared associated to inter-professional collaboration and work roles. An inverse correlation between age and collateral effects was confirmed in physicians (P = -0.22; p gender confirmed higher somatization in women physicians and nurses than in men groups (p role that cultural behaviors
Measuring the perception of professional well-being appears as a problematic issue in past studies. Literature reviews show that previous studies have not yet reached an agreement on measures of teachers' professional well-being. Furthermore, when we consider the cultural context, a research gap becomes clearer. The aim of this study was to…
Rose, Jayln; Glass, Nel
This study set out to explore the relationship between emotional work, emotional well-being and professional practice of generalist community health nurses who provided palliative care to clients living at home. Research suggests that palliative care practice is emotionally demanding and at times challenging. Whilst nurses find their palliative practice a source of job satisfaction the associated stresses can impact on nurses emotional well-being. A qualitative emancipatory methodology informed this study. Semi-structured interviews/storytelling and reflective journaling were the two methods applied. Sixteen community health nurses including the researcher participated. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. The concept of emotional well-being is associated with nurses' feelings of being balanced or out of balance. There is a pervasive interconnectedness between emotional work, emotional well-being and professional practice that is influenced by factors such as organisational and workplace issues; communication with health professionals, professional boundaries; education and professional development. Three major interwoven themes emerged highlighting that palliative care provision was demanding and rewarding, yet dependent on the nurse's comfortability within practice. Self-care is also important to the generalist nurses and strategies to enhance well-being include healthy lifestyle choices, debriefing, self-validation, assertiveness and emotional support. Emotional well-being is complex and multifaceted. The value of emotional well-being to professional practice is important. Palliative care provision is associated with demands, rewards and comfortability. It is essential that attention be given to the experiences of generalist community health nurses who engage in palliative care provision. As the demand for community palliative care increases, the issues that limit and enhance the emotional well-being of generalist palliative care nurses' become critical
Bassal, Catherine; Czellar, Judith; Kaiser, Susanne; Dan-Glauser, Elise S
So far, limited research has been carried out to better understand the interplay between the emotions, the use of emotion regulation strategies, and the well-being of professional caregivers of People with Dementia (PwD). This pilot study (N = 43 professional caregivers) aimed to (1) describe the type and frequency of emotions experienced at work; (2) analyze the associations between experienced emotions, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being; and (3) test whether the use of specific emotion regulation strategies moderates the relationship between experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. In the challenging context of professionally caring for PwD, results suggest that (1) caregivers experience positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions; (2) caregivers using relatively inappropriate regulation strategies are more likely to experience negative emotions, less likely to experience positive emotions, and have poorer physical and mental health; and (3) expressive suppression significantly moderates the relationship between positive experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The empirically established decline in law student well-being during the first year of law school is a red-flagged imprimatur for first year curriculum change. This article suggests that by engaging law students with the concept of a positive professional identity, student engagement and intrinsic motivation will increase because they are working towards a career goal that has meaning and purpose. Law school is a time of professional transformation and the legal academy can take steps to ensure that this transformation is inculcated with positive messages. Literature from the fields of law and psychology is analysed in this article, to explain how a positive conception of the legal profession (and a student’s future role within it can increase a student’s psychological well-being – at law school and beyond.
Fowler, Kelly L
The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the relations between professional well-being (as characterized by positive attitudes toward work and longevity as a practicing music therapist) and the following factors: age, level of education, income, attitudes regarding the workplace (e.g., perceived control, feeling valued, as well as the amount of perceived comfort and input into administrative policies), attitudes toward work as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986a), and measures of stress and stress management as measured by the Stress Profile (Nowack, 1999a). Participants included 49 music therapists who had between one to 36 years of work experience. Correlations indicated that those respondents with greatest professional longevity tended to have higher ratings on items regarding cognitive coping strategies (e.g., positive appraisal and threat minimization) and greater perception of personal achievement. These correlational results are related to psychological theories regarding occupational burnout and cognitive hardiness.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the predictors of job satisfaction and subjective well-being in health professionals. We worked with a sample of 99 nurses and 97 doctors from Rosario city (Argentina. The subjects completed a questionnaire of personal data, two scales developed for this study (Care Stressors, and Coping with Care Stress, Job Satisfaction Scale (Shouksmith, 1990, and Subjective Well-being Inventory (Nacpal & Shell, 1992. Number of weekly working hours, problem-solving coping, satisfaction with life, and some dimensions of well-being (such as correspondence between expectations and achievements, the adequate mental management, and emotional support of family group, emerged as the strongest predictors of work satisfaction. Differences in function of the profession showed that, the best predictors, among physicians, are family and organizational support, and coherence between expectations and achievements (regarding salaries and promotion opportunities. In contrast, among nurses, only highlighted the use of cooperative coping as an explanatory variable. In relation to subjective well-being, the results showed that the best predictors are the following: having children, working more hours per week, perceiving organizational justice, using problem-solving coping, and being satisfied with their development of skills and capacities. The only difference in function of the profession shows that nurses respond to stressors using emotional distance and recreational leisure more often than doctors do.
Atanes, Ana C M; Andreoni, Solange; Hirayama, Marcio S; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Barros, Viviam V; Ronzani, Telmo M; Kozasa, Eliza H; Soler, Joaquim; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo M P
Primary health care professionals (PHPs) usually report high levels of distress and burnout symptoms related to job strain. Mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental-present-moment awareness, seems to be a moderator in the causal association between life stressors and well-being. This study aimed to verify correlations among self-reported mindfulness, perceived stress (PS), and subjective well-being (SW) in Brazilian PHPs. We performed a correlational cross-sectional study in a purposive sample of Brazilian PHPs (physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, and community health workers), working in community-oriented primary care programs (known locally as "Family Health Programs"). We used validated self-reporting instruments: the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Subjective Well-being Scale (SWS). We performed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), through regression coefficients (beta) in relation to the professional category (nursing assistant), in addition to the length of time in the same job (under than 6 months) that had indicated the lowest level of PS. Participants (n=450) comprised community health workers (65.8%), nursing assistants (18%), registered nurses (10.0%), and doctors (family physicians) (6.0%); 94% were female and 83.1% had worked in the same position for more than one year. MANOVA regression analysis showed differences across professional categories and length of time in the same job position in relation to mindfulness, PS, and SW. Nurses demonstrated lower levels of mindfulness, higher PS, and SW negative affect, as well as lower SW positive affect. Being at work for 1 year or longer showed a clear association with higher PS and lower SW positive affect, and no significance with mindfulness levels. Pearson's coefficient values indicated strong negative correlations between mindfulness and PS, and medium correlations between mindfulness and SW. In this study, there were clear correlations
Full Text Available In the present study we were interested in how coping styles relate to different indicators of well- and ill-being. We assumed that coping styles are differently related to well- and ill-being indicators because they are theoretically and empirically independent from each other. To examine this assumption we asked 139 professional firemen to fill in measures of coping styles (COPE, EAS, well-being (PANAS, SWLS and ill-being (IES-R, PANAS. The results confirmed the overall importance of non-constructive coping for illbeing and well-being, whereas constructive coping predicted only positive emotionality. The prototypical masculine working environment characteristic for our sample could be the cause that socially/emotionally oriented coping is the weakest predictor of well-being, although other studies report the adaptive role of conscientious dealing with individual’s own emotions as a coping style. Both well- and ill-being measures should be used to get an insight into a complex area of individual’s adaptation to stress.
J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective To investigate patient–professional interactions and identify the association between quality of care, productivity of patient–professional interaction, and chronically ill patients’ well-being. Methods Questionnaires were distributed to chronically ill
Kloos, Noortje; Trompetter, H.R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Westerhof, Gerben Johan
With major job demands such as workload, professional caregivers in nursing homes are at increased risk for stress related problems like burnout. As such job demands will most likely not decrease in the near future, attention should be shifted towards resilience of all professional caregivers by
This study examined the association between perceived discrimination, workplace racial composition, and three outcomes--psychological distress, life dissatisfaction, and job dissatisfaction--among a sample of professional Black (n=72) and White (n=74) women. As a comparison, these relationships were analyzed to determine if they varied from those observed in more traditionally studied populations: Whites and non-professional Blacks, using data from a population of working women in the 1995 De...
This study examined the association between perceived discrimination, workplace racial composition, and three outcomes-psychological distress, life dissatisfaction, and job dissatisfaction-among a sample of Black (n = 72) and White (n = 74) professional women. As a comparison, these relationships were analyzed to determine if they varied from those observed in more traditionally studied populations: Whites and non-professional Blacks, using data from a population of working women in the 1995 Detroit Area Study (N = 533). Perceived discrimination was associated with differences in psychological distress and job dissatisfaction but not with life dissatisfaction. The correlation between perceived discrimination and psychological distress was larger for White professional women than for Black professional women (White women odds ratio [OR]: 1.99; Black women OR: 0.80). A larger correlation between race and job dissatisfaction was observed for Black professional women than for Black non-professional women. The racial composition of the workplace was unrelated to any of the outcomes. Study results emphasized the importance of decreasing the frequency of discrimination for positive mental health and underscored the need for more systematic research on discrimination and health among Black women of higher socioeconomic status, a growing sub-population in the United States.
Full Text Available Previous research has shown a positive relation between character strengths, well-being and health. The aim of this analysis was to identify relations between the application of signature character strengths (ASCS at work, and well-being and health, among medical students (Study 1 and resident physicians (Study 2. We expected positive direct links between the constructs and indirect effects through emotional exhaustion. To test these hypotheses, 387 medical students in their first year and 136 resident physicians completed five scales measuring well-being, mental/physical health, character strengths, the application of their five individual signature strengths, and emotional exhaustion as an indicator of burnout. Partial correlations were examined, and mediation analyses performed. ASCS at work was positively linked with well-being and mental health but not with physical health. All links were mediated by emotional exhaustion in Study 1 and (except for mental health also in Study 2. Future studies would therefore do well to investigate the promotion of ASCS at work of people operating in medical education and its potential in fostering well-being and preventing burnout from the outset.
Hausler, Melanie; Strecker, Cornelia; Huber, Alexandra; Brenner, Mirjam; Höge, Thomas; Höfer, Stefan
Previous research has shown a positive relation between character strengths, well-being and health. The aim of this analysis was to identify relations between the application of signature character strengths (ASCS) at work, and well-being and health, among medical students (Study 1) and resident physicians (Study 2). We expected positive direct links between the constructs and indirect effects through emotional exhaustion. To test these hypotheses, 387 medical students in their first year and 136 resident physicians completed five scales measuring well-being, mental/physical health, character strengths, the application of their five individual signature strengths, and emotional exhaustion as an indicator of burnout. Partial correlations were examined, and mediation analyses performed. ASCS at work was positively linked with well-being and mental health but not with physical health. All links were mediated by emotional exhaustion in Study 1 and (except for mental health) also in Study 2. Future studies would therefore do well to investigate the promotion of ASCS at work of people operating in medical education and its potential in fostering well-being and preventing burnout from the outset.
This thesis presents research on mental well-being of veterinary professionals at the beginning of their professional career. It aims to assess the prevalence of burnout and work engagement and to identify its work and person related antecedents in this specific group of professionals. Additionally
Ala-Kortesmaa, Sanna; Isotalus, Pekka
This qualitative cross-cultural study sought to contribute to the understanding of listening competence, dialogic listening, and the use of human agency in promoting well-being at work. The participant groups ("N" = 103) consisted of "n" = 76 U.S.-American and "n" = 27 Finnish attorneys. Results suggest that in order…
Kemeny, Elizabeth; Mabry, J. Beth
This study addresses the transfer of training to quality care practices among leisure services professionals who serve older adults by applying the Social Structure and Personality approach, a social psychology framework that accounts for layers of influence in that process. Multiple demographic and policy changes contribute to a need for a…
Por, Jitna; Barriball, Louise; Fitzpatrick, Joanne; Roberts, Julia
Emotional intelligence (EI) has been highlighted as an important theoretical and practical construct. It has the potential to enable individuals to cope better and experience less stress thus contributing to a healthy and stable workforce. The study aimed to explore the EI of nursing students (n=130, 52.0%) and its relationship to perceived stress, coping strategies, subjective well-being, perceived nursing competency and academic performance. Students were on the adult pathway of a nursing diploma or degree programme in one Higher Education Institution (HEI) in the United Kingdom (UK). A prospective correlational survey design was adopted. Three methods of data collection were used: i) A self-report questionnaire; ii) an audit of students' academic performance; and iii) mapping of EI teaching in the curricula. Emotional intelligence was positively related to well-being (pemotional competence assist nursing students to adopt active and effective coping strategies when dealing with stress, which in turn enhances their subjective well-being. This study highlights the potential value of facilitating the EI of students of nursing and other healthcare professions. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Martyn C; Wells, Mary; Gao, Chuan; Cassidy, Bernadette; Davie, Jackie
Staff working in oncology report high levels of work-related stress. This arises partly from the nature of clinical work, including practitioner perceptions of high demand and low control or high effort and low reward. This comparative study investigated the correlates of work stress in a multidisciplinary group of staff and the associations between staff perceptions of the work environment, emotional distress, job satisfaction and work-based social support. This questionnaire study combined quantitative and qualitative assessment in a cohort sample of multidisciplinary staff (N = 85) working in a cancer centre in North East Scotland. Ethical approval was granted by the local Research Ethics Committee. This paper reports on the quantitative element of the study, Response rate was 50.6% (N = 85). Older, female and nursing and support staff were more likely to participate. Support staff reported the lowest perceptions of control, job satisfaction and managerial support. Radiographers reported the highest levels of job satisfaction, co-worker and managerial support. Nurses perceived lower decision control and job satisfaction than allied health professionals or doctors. In general, perceptions of decisional control and reward were protective of job satisfaction, particularly when work demands were high. Co-worker support was associated with perceptions of reduced effort, greater reward and increased satisfaction. Managerial support was also associated with greater control beliefs. Overall, sickness absence exceeded the 5% rates seen in other National Health Service surveys, whereas turnover intention rates were similar. The development and introduction of multilevel strategies to reduce demand, improve control and support perceptions are warranted, particularly for support staff. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
McKenzie, Ellen L; Brown, Patricia M; Mak, Anita S; Chamberlain, Peter
This paper examined the psychological factors that influence the well-being of health professionals who work with people with dementia and the types of care (person-centred or task-oriented) provided to these patients. The literature was reviewed to identify the factors influencing the well-being of, and types of care provided by, health professionals working with people experiencing dementia. Based on our review of the literature, we propose that approaches to care and the well-being of health professionals working with dementia patients are influenced by the characterisation of dementia as a terminal illness that typically occurs in older people. Drawing upon terror management theory, we argue that exposure to dementia patients is likely to promote awareness of one's own mortality and death-related anxiety. A theoretical model is presented which posits that health professionals working in dementia care draw on experiential avoidance to manage this anxiety. Both death anxiety, and coping strategies, such as experiential avoidance, used to manage this anxiety may influence health professionals' approaches to care of, and attitudes towards, dementia patients. We also suggest a bi-directional relationship between health professionals' approaches to care and well-being. Recommendations are made regarding future directions for research and implications for training of health professionals providing direct service or consultation in dementia care.
Höglund, Berit; Larsson, Margareta
to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of professional and social support during pregnancy and childbirth among women with intellectual disability (ID) in Sweden. an interview study among 10 women with ID, who had given birth within seven years. Two interviews were performed with each woman and data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. the overarching theme was: Professional and social support enhances maternal well-being in women with intellectual disability. The women described that the midwife and other caregivers contributed to their own insights and supported their mother-to-be process. They were mostly satisfied with the professional care and support during pregnancy and childbirth, based on aspects such as continuity, competence and professional experience of the midwives but also professional approach and working methods. Dissatisfaction and confusion occurred when questions were left unanswered or when the women׳s special needs were not taken into consideration. Family members, friends and colleagues could also have a supporting role and, together with the health staff, contribute to the well-being of the woman. if professional support and care from midwives and other caregivers is adapted to the special needs of women with ID, it contributes to new insights, enhances well-being and supports the process of becoming a mother. Midwife-led continuity of care together with continuous social support should be offered to pregnant women with ID during pregnancy and childbirth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vanwesenbeeck, I; de Graaf, R; van Zessen, G; Straver, C J; Visser, J H
Professional HIV risk taking (nonconsistent condom use with clients) of female prostitutes in The Netherlands is addressed within the context of (early) experiences with abuse, well-being, coping behavior, job satisfaction, and financial need. Data were gathered from 127 female prostitutes on condom use, financial need, and professional attitude, and on experiences with violence and abuse, physical complaints, psychosocial problems, and coping responses. Violent traumatic experiences were found to relate to more severe complaints and problems, and a higher frequency of emotion-focused coping strategies. A risk-taking protection style (as opposed to consistent condom use and selective risk taking) appeared to be associated with more severe experiences with violence, both in childhood and in adult life, with more frequent dissociation as a coping behavior, and with more psychosomatic complaints. Of all the relationships found, more severe experiences with violence on the job were most strongly related to a higher professional HIV risk.
Gleeson, Aoife; Hazell, Emily
: Sexual well-being is often significantly affected by cancer and its treatments. Previous research shows that a patient's sexual well-being is often overlooked in clinical practice. The aims of this study were twofold. First, to determine the current practice of healthcare professionals (HCPs) working with cancer and palliative care patients in primary and secondary care settings in relation to sexual well-being. Second, to determine the education requirements of HCPs regarding the management of sexual well-being concerns of cancer/palliative care patients. An anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to assess current practice and education needs relating to the management of sexual well-being in cancer and palliative care. The majority of HCPs did not routinely assess sexual well-being in cancer and palliative care patients, with only 13.8% of secondary care staff, 7.9% of district nurses and 4% of general practitioners (GPs) routinely assessing it. The most frequent reason for non-assessment was that it was not the presenting symptom. The majority of respondents felt further support and training would be of benefit, including knowledge of specialist services patients could be referred to, written information for patients and access to assessment tools. This survey identified that sexual well-being in cancer and palliative care patients is not routinely assessed with the majority of respondents stating that further support and training would be beneficial. The results of this questionnaire will be used to inform and develop sexual well-being training for HCPs working with cancer and palliative care patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Human connections are key to the promotion of health and prevention of illness; moreover, illness can cause deterioration of human connections. Healthcare professional–patient relationships are key to ensuring the preservation of adequate human connections. It is important for healthcare professionals to develop their ability to foster satisfactory human connections because: (i they represent social support for patients; and (ii they prevent work-related stress. In this study we assessed the relationship between absence (loneliness and presence (empathy of human connections with the occupational well-being of healthcare professionals. The Scale of Collateral Effects, which measures somatization, exhaustion, and work alienation; the Jefferson Scale of Empathy; and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, were mailed to 628 healthcare professionals working in Spanish public healthcare institutions. The following explanatory variables were used to evaluate work well-being: (a empathy, as a professional competence; (b loneliness, age, and family burden, as psychological indicators; and (c professional experience, work dedication, and salary, as work indicators. Comparison, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to measure the relationships among these variables and occupational well-being. Of 628 surveys mailed, 433 (69% response rate were returned fully completed. Adequate reliability was confirmed for all instruments. The entire sample was divided into four groups, based on the combined variable, “occupation by sex.” Comparative analyses demonstrated differences among “occupation by sex” groups in collateral effects (p = 0.03 and empathy (p = 0.04, but not loneliness (p = 0.84. Inverse associations between empathy and collateral effects were confirmed for somatization (r = -0.16; p < 0.001, exhaustion (r = -0.14; p = 0.003, and work alienation (r = -0.16; p < 0.001. Furthermore, loneliness was positively
Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin
Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.
Blank, Mei-Ling; Connor, Jennie; Gray, Andrew; Tustin, Karen
We aimed to quantify associations between drinking and mental well-being, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among New Zealand university students approaching graduation. A web-based survey was conducted across all eight New Zealand universities in 2011. Participants were enrolled in their final year of a bachelor degree or a higher qualification and were aged 25 years and under (n = 5082, response level 65 %). Measures included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, and items from the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations between the psychological measures and (1) drinking patterns for all participants (abstention/moderate/hazardous); and (2) consumption indicators for non-abstaining participants (frequency/quantity/heavy drinking frequency), adjusting for a range of individual, social and personality characteristics, separately for men and women. Lower mental well-being was associated with a moderate or hazardous drinking pattern for men, and a hazardous pattern for women, compared to abstaining participants. Higher self-esteem was associated with any level of heavy drinking frequency for men, while the heaviest drinking women had a pattern of lower self-esteem. There was a general pattern of higher general self-efficacy for men and women who drank alcohol. We observed that higher levels of drinking were associated with small, yet statistically significant, differences in psychological outcomes for men and women. Our findings are of uncertain clinical significance; however, they underscore the importance of investigating a fuller range of social and personality factors that may confound the association of drinking and psychological outcomes.
Cassidy, Deborah J.; King, Elizabeth K.; Wang, Yudan C.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.
The current study examines the professional well-being of teachers, the classroom emotional support, and the emotional experiences of toddlers in their care. Professional well-being of teachers is conceptualized to include teacher feelings about their work, autonomy in decision-making, actual wages, and perceptions of fairness of wages within the…
Mastenbroek, N. J. J. M.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; van Beukelen, P.; Demerouti, E.; Jaarsma, Debbie
This study examines the role of three personal resources (i.e., proactive behaviour, reflective behaviour, and self-efficacy) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in order to predict self and other ratings of performance. The sample consisted of 860 Dutch veterinary professionals and 170
Mastenbroek, N. J. J. M.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; van Beukelen, P.; Demerouti, E.
This study examines the role of three personal resources (i.e., proactive behaviour, reflective behaviour, and self-efficacy) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in order to predict self and other ratings of performance. The sample consisted of 860 Dutch veterinary professionals and 170
Saaranen, Terhi; Sormunen, Marjorita; Pertel, Tiia; Streimann, Karin; Hansen, Siivi; Varava, Liana; Lepp, Kadi; Turunen, Hannele; Tossavainen, Kerttu
Purpose: This paper aims to present the baseline results of a research and development project targeted to improve the occupational well-being of school staff and maintain their ability to work, in Finland and Estonia. It reveals the most problematic factors in the various aspects of the school community and professional competence and outlines…
Nislin, M.; Sajaniemi, N.; Sims, M.; Suhonen, E.; Maldonado, E. F.; Hyttinen, S.; Hirvonen, A.
The aim of this study was to examine early childhood professionals' (ECPs) work engagement, burnout and stress regulation in integrated special day-care groups. The participants consisted of 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care groups in Helsinki, Finland. ECPs' work-related well-being was assessed using self-report questionnaires that…
Bolier, Linda; Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Smeets, Odile; Gartner, Fania R.; Sluiter, Judith K.
Objective Well-being is an important prerequisite for the mental health and work functioning of nurses and allied health professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) module that offers screening, tailored feedback and online
Rao, Nisha; Kemper, Kathi J
Mind-body practices that intentionally generate positive emotion could improve health professionals' well-being and compassion. However, the feasibility and impact of clinician training in these practices is unknown. Data were analyzed from 3 online modules offered to health professionals: (a) Gratitude, (b) Positive Word, and (c) Loving-kindness/Compassion meditation. Pairedttests were used to assess pre- to posttraining changes in gratitude (Gratitude Questionnaire), well-being (World Health Organization Well-Being Index), self-compassion (Neff's Self-Compassion Scale), and confidence in providing compassionate care (Confidence in Providing Calm, Compassionate Care Scale). The 177 enrollees included diverse practitioners (nurses, physicians, social workers, and others). Training was associated with statistically significant improvements in gratitude (38.3 ± 4.6 to 39.5 ± 3.3), well-being (16.4 ± 4.0 to 17.9 ± 4.2), self-compassion (39.5 ± 8.1 to 43.1 ± 7.6), and confidence in providing compassionate care (73.3 ± 16.4 to 80.9 ± 13.8;Pgratitude, well-being, self-compassion, and confidence in providing compassionate care. © The Author(s) 2016.
Ziegler, Sarah; Merker, Hannes; Schmid, Margareta; Puhan, Milo A
The practice of continuous deep sedation is a challenging clinical intervention with demanding clinical and ethical decision-making. Though current research indicates that healthcare professionals' involvement in such decisions is associated with emotional stress, little is known about sedation-related emotional burden. This study aims to systematically review the evidence on the impact of the inpatient practice of continuous deep sedation until death on healthcare professionals' emotional well-being. A systematic review of literature published between January 1990 and October 2016 was performed following a predefined protocol. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, and PsycINFO were searched using search terms within "end-of-life care", "sedation", and "emotional well-being". Dissertations and reference lists were screened by hand. Two independent reviewers conducted study selection, data extraction and quality assessment. We abstracted measures of psychological outcomes, which were related to the practice of continuous deep sedation until death, including emotional well-being, stress and exhaustion. We used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of evidence. Three studies remained out of 528 publications identified. A total of 3'900 healthcare professionals (82% nurses, 18% physicians) from Japan (n = 3384) and the Netherlands (n = 16) were included. The prevalence of sedation-related burden in nurses varied from 11 to 26%, depending on outcome measure. Physicians showed medium levels of emotional exhaustion and low levels of depersonalization. Common clinical concerns contributing to professionals' burden were diagnosing refractory symptoms and sedation in the context of possibly life-shortening decisions. Non-clinical challenges included conflicting wishes between patients and families, disagreements within the care team, and insufficient professionals' skills and coping. Due to the limited results and heterogeneity in outcome
Post, Stephen G; Roess, Michael
Burnout among physicians, nurses, and students is a serious problem in U.S. healthcare that reflects inattentive management practices, outmoded images of the "good" provider as selflessly ignoring the care of the self, and an overarching rubric of Patient Centered Care (PCC) that leaves professional self-care out of the equation. We ask herein if expanding PCC to Patient and Professional Centered Care (PPCC) would be a useful idea to make provider self-care an explicit part of mission statements, a major part of management strategies and institutional goal setting, and of educational programs. We offer several practical suggestions for PPCC implementation, including structuring healthcare systems so as to nurture professional meaning, integrity, and inter-personal reflective emotional processing as a buffer against burnout and as a key to better patient care. It should not bring into question the primacy of practitioner commitment to the good of patients, nor should it be taken to suggest in any way a shift in focus away from patients' values and respect for patient autonomy. PPCC asserts that the respect for patient's values and autonomous choices properly remains the ethical benchmark of modern healthcare systems, along with altruistic professional commitment to the optimal care of patients. However, it enunciates an explicit commitment to structuring systems that allow for and actively encourage the professional well-being and wellness upon which good patient care depends.
Chmelar, Caroline; Jörres, Rudolf A; Kronseder, Angelika; Müller, Andreas; Nowak, Dennis; Weigl, Matthias
We identified associations between age, psychosocial work characteristics, occupational well-being, and-as a measure of biological age-leukocyte telomere length in geriatric care professionals. This is a multisource study of self-reports on psychosocial work characteristics, standardized physician's evaluations of health, and relative telomere length measures of peripheral blood leukocytes. We included 141 geriatric care professionals. Telomere length was assessed by an improved polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. Increased depersonalization was associated with shorter telomeres. Their association with age was not moderated by psychosocial work conditions. There was, however, a significant three-way interaction of social support and work ability with the age-telomere association. Additionally, social support and adverse general health moderated the age-telomere length relationship. A supportive work environment and work-related health may influence the association between age and telomere length.
An important ele- ment in developing positive psychology within. Ghana is to accumulate indigenous research. ﬁndings. It is in this light that the ﬁndings of this study stimulate further research of context-. speeiﬁe correlates 'of well-being that can help expand the activities of psychologists as not just skilled Ihelpers in problem ...
Sansone, Lori A.
The word “gratitude” has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows—gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude. PMID:21191529
Nadezhda D. Tvorogova
Full Text Available The article considers the role of personal and social values in the regulation of hu¬man behaviour. These values could be unconscious and hiding behind habits and rules, patterns of behavior and thinking, but they can be realized by both an individual and social community and eventually their choice in this case which arises an opportunity to make them manageable. Consideration of the spiritual component of public health has led the author of this article to discuss the concepts of "spiritual well-being" and "spiritual diseases". The article contains data of empirical research of deviant behavior as a consequence of spiritual distress.
Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro
The present study aims to test whether sense of coherence (SOC) acts as a determinant of positive psychological functioning in aid workers directly exposed to warfare. Specifically, we performed multiple regression analyses to compare different groups of aid workers in terms of the effects of SOC and cumulative trauma on their psychological distress. Palestinian helpers, both professional and non-professional (N = 159) completed three self-reported measures: the General Health questionnaire, Sense of Coherence Scale, and Impact of Events Scale. The findings bear out the predictive power of SOC and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to mental health across different professional groups. In particular, volunteers without a specific professional profile, psychiatrists, medical doctors, and less markedly counselors seemed to protect their mental health through a SOC. Clinical implications and recommendations for training and supervision are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Nislin, Mari A.; Sajaniemi, Nina K.; Sims, Margaret; Suhonen, Eira; Maldonado Montero, Enrique F.; Hirvonen, Ari; Hyttinen, Sirpa
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early childhood professionals' (ECPs) stress regulation (using salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase [AA] measurements), work engagement and the quality of their pedagogical work in integrated special day-care groups. Participants were 89 ECPs from 21 integrated special day-care…
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality
Visser, Anja; Garssen, Bert; Vingerhoets, Ad Jjm
Measures of spirituality often contain the dimension existential well-being (EWB). However, EWB has been found to overlap with emotional and psychological well-being. Using the Spiritual Attitude and Involvement List (SAIL), we have further investigated the overlap between aspects of spirituality and of well-being among patients with cancer, by determining a) the divergent validity of the subscales of the SAIL compared with a well-being questionnaire and b) the differences in their associations to changes in pain and fatigue, and the occurrence of negative life events. Our findings suggest that a sense of trust that one is able to cope with difficulties of life belongs to the realm of well-being, instead of spirituality. Other aspects, such as a sense of meaning in life, seem more similar to spirituality than to well-being. These results can bring researchers a step further toward constructing "pure" spirituality and well-being measures, which will allow them to investigate the (causal) relationship between these constructs.
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...... with 22 items and a three-factor model with 12 items). RESULTS: Exploratory factor analyses yielded a three-factor model with 21 items (negative well-being, energy and positive well-being). In the subgroups of group B confirmatory factor analyses only accepted the three-factor model with 12 items....... This factor solution was stable across gender, type of diabetes and level of education. CONCLUSIONS: The best description of the factor structure of the Dutch translation of the W-BQ was given by a three-factor solution with 12 items (W-BQ12), measuring positive well-being (four items), negative well-being...
Full Text Available Improved support for teachers’ professional development is vital during emergency, chronic crisis and early reconstruction contexts as teachers can have a significant impact on their students’ well-being.
In recent years, animal well-being in industrial slaughterhouses has become a significant concern for consumers, farmers, and meat producers. Different groups have different interpretations of animal well-being. For the majority of consumers, animal well-being is highly influenced by their values...... are handled. Ensuring the well-being of such large numbers of pigs using only personnel is a complicated task. Video surveillance of humans has been widely used to ensure safety and order in multiple situations. Methods have been developed to detect individual actions or abnormal behavior in small groups...
Hamilton, Nancy A.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Stevens, Natalie; Nelson, Christy A.; Karlson, Cynthia; McCurdy, Danyale
Most Americans have occasional problems with insomnia. The relationship of insomnia to illness is well known. However, insomnia may also relate to lower levels of well-being. Although there are various definitions of well-being, one of the most clearly articulated and comprehensive models identifies 2 overarching constructs, psychological…
Roeters, Anne; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Voorpostel, Marieke
This study contributes to our knowledge on the association between parenthood and psychological well-being by examining whether pre-parenthood lifestyles (leisure and paid work) moderate the transition to parenthood. We expected that people with less active lifestyles would find it easier to
An overview is given of the strategies individuals use to overcome misfortune and to restore their subjective well-being. Using adaptation-theory as a frame of reference, three groups of adaptive mechanisms are described, i.e., shifting intrapsychic criteria, cognitive reconstruction, and
Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the issue of whether there exists an objective element of well-being, completely independent of anyone’s desires, interests and preferences. After rejecting health-based and convention-based approaches to objectivity, I conclude that the element in question consists in respecting autonomy, voluntariness of every purposive agent and the principle of non-aggression.
Leão, Eliseth Ribeiro; Dal Fabbro, Daniela Reis; Oliveira, Rebeca Barqueiro de; Santos, Ingrid Ribeiro Dos; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Aquarone, Rita Lacerda; Andrade, Cristiane Benvenuto; Ribeiro, Vivian Finotti; Oliveira, Roselaine Coelho de; Friedlander, Rosa; Ferreira, Daniela Santos
Stress levels are evident among health professionals. However, there are few studies on sensory-based self-care aimed at stress management, self-esteem and subjective well-being in this group of professionals. To assess the impact of a self-care intervention mediated by the senses on the stress levels, self-esteem and well-being of health professionals in a hospital environment. A total of 93 health professionals participated in an unblinded clinical trial, randomized into four groups: 1) control (no intervention); 2) Monosensory-daily body moisturizing (DBM) with odorless cream; 3) Bisensory-DBM with scented cream; 4) Multisensory-DBM with scented cream associated with audiovisual material. Participants answered specific questionnaires to assess stress, self-esteem and well-being and cortisol samples were collected at baseline, 15 and 30 days following intervention, and at the 30-day follow-up. Self-care was characterized as neglected, with most participants reporting inadequate hours of sleep (74%), irregular physical activity (68%), and inadequate nutrition (45%). Compared to the other groups, the Bisensory group had lower stress on all three assessments (p = 0.017; 0.012; 0.036), a life satisfaction 8% higher at follow-up than at baseline (95% CI: 2% to 15%, p = 0.016), a 10% increase in positive affect (95% CI: 2% to 19%, p = 0.011) and a 12% reduction in negative affect (95% CI: 3% to 21% less, p = 0.014) after 30 days. The Multisensory group showed improvement in self-esteem (p = 0.012) and reduced cortisol (p = 0.036) after 30 days of intervention. The control group showed no changes in the variables studied, except for cortisol: an increase at the 15-day evaluation (denoting higher risk for stress, p = 0.009) and a reduction at follow-up (p = 0.028), which was nevertheless within normal levels. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02406755.
Szafran, Olga; Woloschuk, Wayne; Torti, Jacqueline M I; Myhre, Douglas
To determine family medicine graduates' professional and personal well-being, general health status, stress levels, coping strategies, and the degree to which they felt supported or isolated in professional life; and to compare findings by sex, practice location, and location of medical school (Canadian medical graduates [CMGs] vs international medical graduates [IMGs]). Retrospective, cross-sectional survey. University of Alberta in Edmonton and the University of Calgary in Alberta. A total of 651 graduates who completed one of the family medicine residency programs during 2006 to 2011. Using a 5-point Likert scale, graduates rated their general health status, their personal and professional well-being, their level of stress, and the degree to which they felt supported or isolated in professional life. Respondents also identified important life events, their caregiving roles, and stress-coping strategies. Of 651 graduates, 307 (47.2%) responded to the survey. Personal and professional well-being and general health status were rated as very good or excellent by 72.0%, 76.6%, and 74.7% of graduates, respectively. Overall, 39.3% reported high or extremely high levels of stress, with CMGs exhibiting significantly higher stress levels than IMGs (P = .02). Stress scores were inversely related to personal and professional well-being and health status. In terms of coping strategies, a significantly greater proportion of female than male graduates reported talking to colleagues (76.5% vs 64.3%; P = .026) and seeking professional counseling (18.7% vs 6.1%; P = .002). Also, a significantly greater proportion of IMGs than CMGs (52.9% vs 32.5%; P = .003), as well as those in rural (35.8%) or urban (49.3%) practices than those in metropolitan locations (30.1%) (P = .03), turned to spiritual or religious practices for stress management. Of all respondents, 54.8% felt highly or extremely supported and 18.4% felt isolated in their professional lives. While family
Paula Bertozzi de Oliveira e Sousa Leão
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Doubts, competitiveness and preparation for the residency examination increase stress and insecurity at the end of medical course. Well-being is very important at this point, but it is known that medical students are reluctant to seek help, particularly for emotional problems. This study investigated the relationship among well-being, perceived needs and help-seeking in final-year students. METHODS: Well-being was assessed using Beck's Inventories of Anxiety (BAI and Depression (BDI and the WHOQOL-brief (quality of life. A questionnaire was used to assess perceived needs and medical school support resources. RESULTS: The students reported good quality of life (68% but presented anxiety (27%, depression (20% and impaired social functioning. Fifty-one percent of the students acknowledged academic needs and 25% psychological needs. Only a portion of the students with anxiety and depression or bad quality of life used the institutional support. Female gender, perceived psychological needs and anxiety symptoms were associated to the use of the Mental Health Service. Satisfaction with mentoring relationships and positive changes were associated to Mentoring attendance. CONCLUSION: There are different factors involved in help-seeking and identifying specificities in the use of institutional support resources can help to develop strategies to sensitize students about help-seeking during the medical courseOBJETIVO: Dúvidas, competição e o exame de residência aumentam o estresse e a insegurança ao final do curso; entretanto, sabe-se que alunos de Medicina são resistentes a procurar ajuda, especialmente para problemas emocionais. Este estudo investigou a relação entre bem-estar, percepção de necessidades e busca de ajuda entre alunos do último ano do curso médico. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os Inventários Beck (ansiedade e depressão, o WHOQOL-breve (qualidade de vida e um questionário para avaliar necessidades e o uso dos recursos de
As we embark on a journey for new homes in the new worlds to lay solid foundations, we should consider not only the survival of frontiers but also well-being of those to live in zero gravity. As a versatile science, architecture encompasses abstract human needs as well. On our new different direction in the course of the Homo sapiens evolution, we can do this with designs addressing both our needs and senses. Well-being of humans can be achieved by creating environments supporting the cognitive and social stages in the evolution process. Space stations are going through their own evolution process. Any step taken can serve as a reference for further attempts. When studying the history of architecture, window designing is discussed in a later phase, which is the case for building a spaceship as well. We lean on the places we live both physically and metaphorically. The feeling of belonging is essential here, entailing trans-humanism, which is significant since the environment therein is like a dress comfortable enough to fit in, meeting needs without any burden. Utilizing the advent of technology, we can create moods and atmospheres to regulate night and day cycles, thus we can turn claustrophobic places into cozy or dream-like places. Senses provoke a psychological sensation going beyond cultural codes as they are rooted within consciousness, which allows designers to create a mood within a space that tells a story and evokes an emotional impact. Color, amount of light, sound and odor are not superficial. As much as intangible, they are real and powerful tools with a physical presence. Tapping into induction, we can solve a whole system based on a part thereof. Therefore, fractal designs may not yield good results unless used correctly in terms of design although they are functional, which makes geometric arrangement critical.
Eliseth Ribeiro Leão
Full Text Available Stress levels are evident among health professionals. However, there are few studies on sensory-based self-care aimed at stress management, self-esteem and subjective well-being in this group of professionals.To assess the impact of a self-care intervention mediated by the senses on the stress levels, self-esteem and well-being of health professionals in a hospital environment.A total of 93 health professionals participated in an unblinded clinical trial, randomized into four groups: 1 control (no intervention; 2 Monosensory-daily body moisturizing (DBM with odorless cream; 3 Bisensory-DBM with scented cream; 4 Multisensory-DBM with scented cream associated with audiovisual material. Participants answered specific questionnaires to assess stress, self-esteem and well-being and cortisol samples were collected at baseline, 15 and 30 days following intervention, and at the 30-day follow-up.Self-care was characterized as neglected, with most participants reporting inadequate hours of sleep (74%, irregular physical activity (68%, and inadequate nutrition (45%. Compared to the other groups, the Bisensory group had lower stress on all three assessments (p = 0.017; 0.012; 0.036, a life satisfaction 8% higher at follow-up than at baseline (95% CI: 2% to 15%, p = 0.016, a 10% increase in positive affect (95% CI: 2% to 19%, p = 0.011 and a 12% reduction in negative affect (95% CI: 3% to 21% less, p = 0.014 after 30 days. The Multisensory group showed improvement in self-esteem (p = 0.012 and reduced cortisol (p = 0.036 after 30 days of intervention. The control group showed no changes in the variables studied, except for cortisol: an increase at the 15-day evaluation (denoting higher risk for stress, p = 0.009 and a reduction at follow-up (p = 0.028, which was nevertheless within normal levels.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02406755.
Mindfulness Training for Health Profession Students-The Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being, Learning and Clinical Performance of Health Professional Students: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Non-randomized Controlled Trials.
McConville, Janet; McAleer, Rachael; Hahne, Andrew
High levels of stress have been identified in medical students and increasingly in other health profession student population groups. As stress can affect psychological well-being and interfere with learning and clinical performance, there is a clear argument for universities to include health professional student well-being as an outcome in core curriculum. Mindfulness training is a potential construct to manage stress and enhance academic success. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness training in medical and other health professional student population groups and to compare the effectiveness of the different mindfulness-based programs. A literature search was completed using The Cochrane library, Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo, and ERIC (proquest) electronic databases from inception to June 2016. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials were included. Of the potential 5355 articles, 19 met the inclusion criteria. Studies focused on medical (n = 10), nursing (n = 4), social work (n = 1), psychology (n = 1), and medical plus other health (n = 3) students. Interventions were based on mindfulness. The 19 studies included 1815 participants. Meta-analysis was performed evaluating the effect of mindfulness training on mindfulness, anxiety, depression, stress, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy. The effect of mindfulness on academic performance was discussed. Mindfulness-based interventions decrease stress, anxiety, and depression and improve mindfulness, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy in health profession students. Due to the range of presentation options, mindfulness training can be relatively easily adapted and integrated into health professional training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The mediating effects of team and self-efficacy on the relationship between transformational leadership, and job satisfaction and psychological well-being in healthcare professionals: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.
Nielsen, Karina; Yarker, Joanna; Randall, Raymond; Munir, Fehmidah
The importance of transformational leadership for the health and well-being of staff in the healthcare sector is increasingly acknowledged, however, there is less knowledge about the mechanisms that may explain the links between transformational leaders and employee health and well-being. To examine two possible psychological mechanisms that link transformational leadership behaviours to employee job satisfaction and well-being. Cross-sectional study design. The study took place in two elderly care centers in large Danish local government. Staff were predominantly healthcare assistants but also nurses and other healthcare-related professions participated in the study. 274 elderly care employees completed the questionnaire. Surveys were sent to all employees working at the centers. 91% were female, the average age was 45 years. A questionnaire was distributed to all members of staff in the elderly care centers and where employees were asked to rate their line manager's leadership style and were asked to evaluate their own level of self-efficacy as well as the level of efficacy in their team (team efficacy) and their job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Both team and self-efficacy were found to act as mediators, however, their effects differed. Self-efficacy was found to fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being and team efficacy was found to partially mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction and fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being. Within the pressurised environment faced by employees in the healthcare sector today transformational leaders may help ensure employees' job satisfaction and psychological well-being. They do so through the establishment of a sense of being in control as individuals but also as being part of a competent group.
Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa
Two cross-sectional studies were conducted to examine the relationships between gratitude and athletes' well-being. Study 1 examines the relationship between dispositional gratitude and well-being, while Study 2 investigates the relationship between sport-domain gratitude and well-being. In Study 1, 169 Taiwanese senior high school athletes (M =…
What are the effects of innovativeness on well-being? This paper argues that research on subjective well-being has progressed to a point where measures of subjective well-being (or: happiness) can usefully be employed to assess the welfare effects of innovative change. Based on a discussion of the prospects and pitfalls associated with subjective…
Dik, Bryan J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.
This article describes the relationship between interests and well-being by conceptualizing interest as both an emotional state and a stable disposition. First, interest is explored as a distinct emotion or affective state, itself a form of well-being that also leads to other forms of well-being by facilitating the development of diverse life…
Li, Xing; Muchie, Mammo
-going endeavours by many scholars in an attempt to contribute to the discussion of social well-being. It has three objectives: 1) to offer a framework of understanding the notion of well-being as essential part of social development; 2) to signify the limits of conventional measures of well-being attainment...... and performance; and 3) to propose an alternative interdisciplinary approach to constructing well-being measures. The overall objective is to formulate conceptual framework and a fresh approach for ranking the different countries in the world not merely on the number of individually reckoned well-being...
Academic research on well-being is pursued in multiple disciplines and currently exploding. Governments are also interested in the topic, as witnessed by their recent efforts to develop statistical measures of progress that include well-being indicators. Combined, this interest opens the door...... to the fruitful application of well-being research to society. Research on well-being, however, is not always well integrated across the disciplines that purport to study it. In particular, there is insufficient communication between the empirical study of well-being, and its normative/conceptual study as pursued...... in philosophy. This state of affairs is lamentable, as it robs science and public policy of the expertise of philosophers, a desirable tool when evaluating empirical claims about well-being promotion. In this article, I examine the reasons for this lack of communication. In particular, I reject the view...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short......-term costs in the form of reductions in people’s sense of well-being....
L. D'Acci (Luca)
textabstractWell-being is becoming a concept which is more and more involved in any world development consideration. A large amount of work is being carried out to study measurements of well-being, including a more holistic vision on the development and welfare of a country. This paper proposes
van Praag, B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-layer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the
Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija
Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre stage as we explore a…
Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.
This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the
Ilies, R.; Pluut, Helen; Aw, S.S.Y.
In this article, we attempt to integrate the commentaries to our position paper on intra-individual models of employee well-being (EWB; Ilies, R., Aw, S. S. Y., & Pluut, H. (2015). Intraindividual models of employee well-being: What have we learned and where do we go from here? European Journal of
Smyth, Russell; Nielsen, Ingrid; Zhai, Qingguo
This article reports the findings of a survey administering the personal well-being index (PWI) in six Chinese cities (N = 3,390) to ascertain the personal well-being of China's urban population. The specific aims of the study were: (a) ascertain whether Chinese urban residents are satisfied with their lives; (b) validate the PWI using an urban…
Ratner, Helene Gad; Gad, Christopher
The concept of well-being has become a key category of social and political imagination, cultivating new understandings of 'what it means to be a capable person' (Corsín Jiménez, 2008, 2). In 2015, the Danish Ministry of Education began conducting national, annual measurements of Danish pupils......' well-being. This measurement recasts the traditionally qualitative psycho-pedagogical concept of well-being in numerical terms. Moreover, different actors with overlapping but competing calculative techniques enters the scene. We investigate well-being as an emerging object of governance in Denmark...... with attention to competing techniques for measuring and calculating well-being: 1) the statistical factor and reliability calculations used by the Danish Ministry of Education, used to turn a 40 questions-questionnaire into a 'quality indicator', which again is used to hold institutions accountable to new...
Mahler, Daniel Gerszon; Ramos, Xavier
A growing literature has tried to measure the extent to which individuals have equal opportunities to acquire income. At the same time, policy makers have doubled down on efforts to go beyond income when measuring well- being. We attempt to bridge these two areas by measuring the extent to which...... individuals have equal opportunities to achieve a high level of well-being. We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to measure well-being in four different ways including incomes. This makes it possible to determine if the way well-being is measured matters for identifying who the opportunity......-deprived are and for tracking inequality of opportunity over time. We find that, regardless of how well-being is measured, the same people are opportunity-deprived and equality of opportunity has improved over the past 20 years. This suggests that going beyond income has little relevance if the objective is to provide equal...
Liu, Chia-Yi; Yu, Chia-Ping
Over the past few decades, the widespread phenomenon of Internet abuse has gained attention from the public, academia, and the media. In a departure from this negative viewpoint, however, researchers and educators have devoted considerable effort in attempting to understand the influence of online communication on people's psychological well-being. This study focuses specifically on Facebook, and proposes a research model to examine the relationships among Facebook use, online social support, general social support, and psychological well-being. Our results show that using Facebook helped college students to obtain online social support, and that online social support is an extension of general social support. However, although general social support contributes to well-being, online social support appears to have little direct effect on well-being. The relationship between online social support and well-being is mediated through the factor of general social support.
This paper introduces the context for young people in the United Kingdom today, identifies some of the key factors associated with well-being, and then focuses on ways spiritual well-being can be promoted through informal education. Informal education is the widely acknowledged primary pedagogical approach for professional youth workers. Using…
Full Text Available The concept of well being has become the main criterion to assess quality of life in contemporary society. Individual well-being describes the individual quality of life, while social well-being refers to quality of life in a society. Given that well-being has a multitude of dimensions, a unique definition of it is elusive to scholars. In this article social well-being is conceptualised as a dynamic process within the context set by social integration as one’s relationship to society and the community. This includes the quality of interaction between the individual and society and one’s ‘social actualisation’ understood as the realisation of one’s social capacities. Social actualisation also involves one’s ability to influence social processes and to benefit from social cohesion, which consists, in any society, of the quality, organisation and functioning of the social world. Hence the ability to impact society is an integral part of individual well being. This paper suggests that philosophical practice as a new paradigm in the humanities holds out promise for the improvement of both individual and social well-being. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities for Social Intervention
Topp, C W; Østergaard, S D; Soendergaard, S
BACKGROUND: The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is among the most widely used questionnaires assessing subjective psychological well-being. Since its first publication in 1998, the WHO-5 has been translated into more than 30 languages and has been used in research studies...... is very high. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO-5 is a short questionnaire consisting of 5 simple and non-invasive questions, which tap into the subjective well-being of the respondents. The scale has adequate validity both as a screening tool for depression and as an outcome measure in clinical trials and has been...
Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Kamp Justesen, Mogens
This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...
Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.
A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... membership and well-being is shaped by (a) the complexity of those groups within the overall self-concept (i.e., social identity complexity: SIC), and (b) the perceived value and visibility of individual group memberships to others (i.e., stigma). Study 1 (N = 112) found a positive relationship between...... multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression...
This study is concerned with the role that achievement goals may play in facilitating the psychological well-being of students. Specifically, we build on "goal theory" analysis of adaptive behavior in examining the relationship between task and ego goals, perceptions of school emphases on task and ego goals, and indices of well-being and disruptive behavior. Generally, task goals and perception of the school as emphasizing task goals were related to positive psychological well-being, and ego goals and perceiving the school as emphasizing ego goals were related to negative psychological well-being. This pattern was found for both African American and Euro-American students. However, path analyses pointed to possible different processes as operating for the African Americans and the Euro-Americans in the sample. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Chico Librán, Eliseo
This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.
Thirafi, Khalish Nadhilah
Psychological well-being adalah suatu kondisi di mana individu memiliki perasaan puas, bahagia, dapat menerima segala aspek baik positif dan negatif dalam dirinya. Psychological well-being dapat dipengaruhi oleh berbagai keadaan. Talasemia adalah kelainan bawaan yang dapat menyebabkan aktivitas sehari-hari terganggu. Selain memerlukan transfusi darah, pasien juga memerlukan pemberian obat yang dapat mengeluarkan zat besi yang berlebih akibat transfusi. Baik transfusi darah maupun pemberian ob...
Full Text Available Persons above age 80 comprise the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and it is estimated that one in four will need long-term care due to increased disabilities and illness. A major concern for residents, families, and providers is to ensure care that “allows the resident to maintain or attain their highest practicable physical, mental and psychosocial well-being.” The challenge is measuring a subjective concept such as well-being. The Eden Alternative is a current initiative aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being of long-term care residents. The initiative consists of providing long-term care environments that emphasize person-directed decision making and well-being. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Eden Alternative Well-Being Assessment Tool (EAWBAT. There are three assessment tools designed to measure the well-being of elders (residents, family members of residents, and employees working in the long-term care environments. The sample consisted of 237 residents, 430 employees, and 134 family members from seven Eden Alternative organizations throughout the United States. Factor analysis was completed to identify the underlying structure in these data for elders, employees, and families. Reliability statistics were computed for each scale. Reliability statistics ranged from .876 (employee assessment tool to .949 (family assessment tool, indicating the potential of the EAWBAT to measure the well-being of residents residing in long-term care environments, employees supporting them, and their family members.
Moreira, Paulo A. S.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Dinis, Liliana; Sá, Laura; Oliveira, João T.; Dias, Adelaide; Oliveira, Joana
Different profiles of the character dimensions of self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence result in different levels of wellbeing among adults. However, the influence of the multidimensional character profiles on adolescents' composite wellbeing remains unexplored. This study builds on previous studies with adults, and examines the linear and non-linear associations between the dimensions of the psychobiological model of personality and well-being in adolescents. Participated in this study 1540 adolescents (M = 15.44, SD = 1.731). Personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Well-being was evaluated in a composite perspective: satisfaction with social support, health-related quality of life, satisfaction with life and affect. Variable-centered and individual-centered analyses were performed. Self-directedness was strongly associated with all dimensions of affective and cognitive well-being regardless of the other two character traits. Cooperativeness was associated with non-affective well-being and with positive affect, but only when associated to elevation of Self-directedness and Self-transcendence. Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness explained 15.5% of the non-affective well-being variance. Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained 10.4% of the variance in affective well-being. This study confirms the tendencies found in previous studies with adults from other societies, where each character dimension gives an independent contribution to well-being depending on the interactions with other Character dimensions. Also, this study highlights the importance of considering the non-linear influences of the character dimensions in understanding of adolescents' wellbeing. These results have strong implications for youth positive mental health promotion, including for school-based policies and practices. PMID:25610408
Rajola, Federico; Frigerio, Chiara; Parrichi, Monica
In developed countries, economic and financial well-being is playing a crucial positive role in ageing and inclusion processes. Due to the complexity and pervasiveness of financial economy in the real life, more and more social as well as individual well-being are perceived as influenced by financial conditions. On the other hand, the demographic circumstances drive scholars as well as politicians to reflect on ageing dynamics. Bridging the two domains, the following research focuses on the role of the financial well-being as a mediating role of general well-being in elder people. The assumption is that elderly people have specific financial needs that sometimes are not covered by financial providers' offers. The motivation is mainly on the role of information asymmetries between elder consumers and financial institutions. On the dynamics of these asymmetries, the research will specifically investigate the role of financial literacy, as the ability of comprehension of elder people of their needs and of financial information. The applicative implication of this research work consists in finding the determinants of financial well-being for elders and the definition of their specific financial competencies, in order to 1) identify educational and regulatory guidelines for policy makers in charge of creating financial market transparency conditions, and to 2) support design of organizational mechanisms as well as financial product/services for this specific target of client. The following chapter presents preliminary explorative results of a survey delivered on 200 elder individuals (65-80 yrs.) leaving in Milan. Findings show that active elders consider the ability of managing personal wealth as one of the core determinant of well-being, although the economic and financial literacy is limited. Furthermore, the chapter proposes a research agenda for scholars interested in exploring the relationship between financial well-being and ageing.
Many among philosophers and non-philosophers would claim that well-being is important in moral theory because it is important to the individual whose well-being it is. The exact meaning of this claim, however, is in need of clarification. Having provided that, I will present a charge against it....... This charge can be found in the recent work of both Joseph Raz and Thomas Scanlon. According to the latter the concept of well-being plays an unimportant role in an agent’s deliberation. As I will show, to claim this much is to undermine our initial claim; and to do that is to undermine some of the most...... central theories in normative ethics. I will focus on Scanlon’s discussion in particular because it affords us with two criteria for the assessment of the importance for a person of a value-concept such as well-being. I will claim that much of Scanlon’s case rests on the idea that well-being...
Helliwell, John F; Putnam, Robert D
Large samples of data from the World Values Survey, the US Benchmark Survey and a comparable Canadian survey are used to estimate equations designed to explore the social context of subjective evaluations of well-being, of happiness, and of health. Social capital, as measured by the strength of family, neighbourhood, religious and community ties, is found to support both physical health and subjective well-being. Our new evidence confirms that social capital is strongly linked to subjective well-being through many independent channels and in several different forms. Marriage and family, ties to friends and neighbours, workplace ties, civic engagement (both individually and collectively), trustworthiness and trust: all appear independently and robustly related to happiness and life satisfaction, both directly and through their impact on health.
Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán
(mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals...... with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...
Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall
The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper...... we focus on the eventual impact on SWB from having children. The dominant result in the rather few studies until now is the finding of no – or even a negative – impact on subjective well being following birth of a child. We focus on the impact from having children using two very big panel data sets...
Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten
Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....
Indicators for Well-Being Assessment- Oxford Poverty Development Initiative (Sammans, 2007) – Satisfaction with Life (Diener, Emmons, & Griffin, 1985... diabetic (FPG ) The AHA 2020 Impact Goal 2011 MHS Conference Cardiovascular Health Metrics Ideal CV Health is the ultimate goal Given current
King, Ronnel B.
Students have various social reasons for doing well in school (social-academic goals). However, most studies have focused on competence-oriented achievement goals with little attention paid to social-academic goals. This study aims to examine the role of social-academic goals in students' general well-being (Study 1) and socioemotional functioning…
Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko
This paper shows that the partisan composition of government is strongly related to the well-being of citizens, measured by the reported level of life satisfaction and suicide rates in industrial countries. Our analysis, using survey data of 14 nations between 1980 and 2002, shows that the presence of left-leaning parties in government is…
Full Text Available The study was conducted on SMA Gita Bahari Semarang analysis from the results of a series of training programs of devotion that researchers do in SMA Gita Bahari. Research subjects consisted of 30 students of class X, amounting to 20 people per class. From the research results obtained Regression Model as follows: -2A-3,65B + 0,49C + 0,514D = Y, with regression coefficient 0,57, strength prediction model 32,5%. The results show the negative effects of emotional expression and resilience on emotional well-being, while future orientation and teacher type improve emotional well-being. Inferior emotional expression instrumental with low scores as well as cultural factors in interpretation Resilience expression becomes the basis of the regression model. Teacher Type and Future Orientation become important for further development considering its positive impact on emotional well-being. Further ediamonic studies on emotional well-being, training, and application of Teacher Type Understanding, and a more intensive Future Orientation are expected to improve Emotional Wellbeing among learners. More number of Subjects is needed to make the conclusions more generalizable to the wider population.
The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…
Battie, C; Verschoore, M
To the extent that they help improve our appearance, cosmetics can affect how we relate to ourselves and to others, and as such can improve quality of life. Such benefits may be objectively demonstrated using validated methods and quality-of-life scales. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of cosmetics on well-being in various situations based on studies using objective measurement methods. Literature review. In pathological settings, the use of cosmetics can significantly improve the quality of life and well-being of patients, resulting in better acceptance of their disease and better therapeutic compliance. The use of cosmetics has also been shown to exert positive effects on self-esteem and social relations. A growing body of studies also demonstrates the beneficial effects of cosmetics on well-being under normal physiological conditions. Today, the effects and benefits of cosmetics can be measured objectively using quality-of-life scales, allowing initiation of actions for the rediscovery of well-being and self-esteem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
As human beings, we have an innate disposition to care about our well-being. We all care about staying alive, as well as about avoiding disease, physical pain, bodily harm, disability and assaults on our dignity. Adequate nourishment, water, shelter, security, satisfying work, autonomy,
van Eerde, W.; Sirois, F.M.; Pychyl, T.A.
This chapter provides an overview of the issues that are important to procrastination and well-being at work. In comparison with academic procrastination, many more issues need to be taken into consideration. These are discussed with the help of a conceptual framework that identifies characteristics
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin
Steen, M.G.D.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Broekman, C.C.M.T.; Prins, S.C.L.
In this paper, we present some of the work that is being done in the WeCare project (in the AAL programme). The project’s goal is to introduce social networking services in the lives of older people, in order to improve their well-being. Participation in social networks, both online and ‘in real
Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.
Full Text Available Although results from several samples of 12 to 16-year-old adolescents in Catalonia (region of N.E. Spain, obtained andpublished between 1999 and 2012, suggesting a constant decrease in adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB with age, untilnow no such data have been available for the general Spanish adolescent population. In this article we present results for arepresentative Spanish sample (N=5934, limited to students in the year of ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria orCompulsory Secondary Education (mean age = 12.09. aims of this article are twofold: (a to validate an adaptationof the PWI for Spanish adolescents of around 12-years-old, which we will call PWI8adp; and (b to identify variables whichshow rences in children’s subjective well-being (SWB – using the PWI8adp as an indicator of SWB – whendichotomically comparing groups or categories of children. With this sample, among other we observe that Spanishadolescents scoring highest in subjective well-being tend to live in semi-urban environments, were born in Spain, have notrepeated a school year, live in only one family household, have two adults at home with paid employment, have parents withsecondary education or higher and have more material and cultural belongings at home compared to children with lower SWB.Furthermore, the adolescents with higher subjective well-being are those that never worry about money, think otherpeople treat them well, feel greater personal safety, feel they are listened to, report doing daily activities together with their family,do physical exercise or sport every day, have been told children have rights, have experienced fewer important recent changes intheir lives and feel their time is well organized.
Full Text Available The Gallup World Poll allows a look at how humanity is flourishing, based on the answers of survey respondents sampled from across the globe. Several conclusions are clear. First, how people are doing depends enormously on the society in which they live, and nations vary from doing very well to extremely poorly. In terms of subjective well-being, nations vary greatly, in both judgments of overall life and in positive and negative emotions. The best predictors of global life judgments were income and ownership of modern conveniences, whereas the best predictors of emotions were social factors such as the control of corruption and being able to count on others, and personal factors such as learning new things and being able to control one’s day. Thus, the answer to the question of whether money makes people happy must be qualified by the measure of well-being that is being used. It is proposed that systematic measures of well-being across and within nations would allow individuals, leaders, and policy makers to make better decisions.
Paavonen, E Juulia; Roine, Mira; Korhonen, Piia; Valkonen, Satu; Pennonen, Marjo; Partanen, Jukka; Lahikainen, Anja Riitta
Watching television, video and computer games, and internet constitute a significant part of children's leisure time. High media exposure, however, increases the risk of psychosocial symptoms in children, such as aggressions, difficulties of behavioral regulation and concentration. In particular, media violence is thought to be harmful for children's well-being. Although the risks associated with media exposure may at least partly reflect the accumulation of social risk factors, they also seem to have an independent role as a factor increasing the symptoms. It is likely that the adverse effects of media can be lessened by providing guidance for parents.
Huttunen, Pirkko; Kokko, Leena; Ylijukuri, Virpi
This study deals with the effects of regular winter swimming on the mood of the swimmers. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and OIRE questionnaires were completed before (October) and after (January) the four-month winter swimming period. In the beginning, there were no significant differences in the mood states and subjective feelings between the swimmers and the controls. The swimmers had more diseases (about 50%) diagnosed by a physician. Tension, fatigue, memory and mood negative state points in the swimmers significantly decreased with the duration of the swimming period. After four months, the swimmers felt themselves to be more energetic, active and brisk than the controls. Vigour-activity scores were significantly greater (p winter swimming had relieved pains. Improvement of general well-being is thus a benefit induced by regular winter swimming.
Adams, Chris W.; Hamilton, George S.
Recent hardware development work at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center creates and argument for the use of a holistic design approach as opposed to a piece part design approach. A piece part design approach being one where individual pieces are developed to their finished state having to meet certain interface and human engineering requirements without much consideration to the final product as a whole. A holistic design approach being one where the final product is evaluated early and frequently during the design process, and individual parts are developed with consideration to how they interact a whole,and how they interact with the user and environment. Examples from the development of the Materials Science Research Rack - 1 will illustrate: a design failure due to piece part design; a design save, due to a failure of piece part design, but saved by evaluating the design holistically; and a design success due to a holistic design approach.
King, L A; Broyles, S J
Study participants (175 men, 230 women) made three wishes and completed measures of the five-factor model of personality, optimism, life satisfaction, and depression. Common wishes were for achievement, affiliation, intimacy, and power as well as for happiness and money. T tests showed women were more likely to wish for improved appearance, happiness, and health; men were more likely to make power wishes and wishes for sex. Among participants who were highly involved in the wishing process, Extraversion was related to making more interpersonal wishes and wishes for positive affect. Neuroticism was related to wishes for emotional stability. Agreeableness and Openness to Experience related to wishes reflective of these traits. Conscientiousness was related to low impulsivity. Depression was related to making highly idiosyncratic, specific wishes, suggesting the use of wishful thinking as a coping mechanism. In addition, happy participants were more likely to rate their wishes as likely to come true. Results indicate that the relatively commonplace process of wishing relates to traits, gender, and well-being.
Weinhold, Diana; Chaloupka, Frank J
A debate is currently underway about the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) methods for evaluating antitobacco regulation. In particular, the US government requires a cost-benefit analysis for significant new regulations, which has led the FDA to consider potential lost subjective well-being (SWB) of ex-smokers as a cost of any proposed antitobacco policy. This practice, which significantly limits regulatory capacity, is premised on the assumption that there is in fact a loss in SWB among ex-smokers. We analyse the relationship between SWB and smoking status using a longitudinal internet survey of over 5000 Dutch adults across 5 years. We control for socioeconomic, demographic and health characteristics, and in a contribution to the literature, we additionally control for two potential confounding personality characteristics, habitual use of external substances and sensitivity to stress. In another contribution, we estimate panel fixed effects models that additionally control for unobservable time-invariant characteristics. We find strong suggestive evidence that ex-smokers do not suffer a net loss in SWB. We also find no evidence that the change in SWB of those who quit smoking under stricter tobacco control policies is different from those who quit under a more relaxed regulatory environment. Furthermore, our cross-sectional estimates suggest that the increase in SWB from quitting smoking is statistically significant and also of a meaningful magnitude. In sum, we find no empirical support for the proposition that ex-smokers suffer lower net SWB compared to when they were smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Past research has revealed that relative importance a person places on extrinsic life goals as oposed to intrinsic ones is related to lower well-being. But sometimes it is more important why a goal is being pursued than the content of the goal. Materialistic aspirations will not decrease people's well-being if they help them to achieve basic financial security or some intrinsic goals. On the other hand, if social comparison or seeking power drives extrinsic orientation, these aspirations may be detrimental for well-being, since they do not satisfy satisfy our basic psychological needs. Research from Croatia and other, less rich countries suggest that extrinsic aspirations are not necessarily deterimental but may even contribute to well-being. This finding suggests that various factors can moderate the relationship between aspirations and well-being. Intrinsic life goals may probably be affordable only for people who are well off enough. The meaning of financial success in transitional and poor countries may not necesseraly be associated with purchase and consumption. On the contrary, it may bring opportunities and possibilities of self-expression and self-growth. Individualistic societies allow individuals to pursue their intrinsic goals while collectivistic cultures stress extrinsic ones. Although this extrinsic orientation may detract their well-being, the sense of individual well-being may not be as important to them as the survival of the group they belong to or so called social well-being.
Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed
Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.
Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L.
BACKGROUND: How is happiness generated via brain function in lucky individuals who have the good fortune to be happy? Conceptually, well-being or happiness has long been viewed as requiring at least two crucial ingredients: positive affect or pleasure (hedonia) and a sense of meaningfulness...... the higher pleasures. This in turn may be linked to how hedonic systems interact with other brain systems relevant to self-understanding and the meaning components of eudaimonic happiness. Finally, we speculate a bit about how brains that generate hedonia states might link to eudaimonia assessments to create...... properly balanced states of positive well-being that approach true happiness....
Wood, Alex M; Froh, Jeffrey J; Geraghty, Adam W A
This paper presents a new model of gratitude incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life", incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others, but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life. Research into individual differences in gratitude and well-being is reviewed, including gratitude and psychopathology, personality, relationships, health, subjective and eudemonic well-being, and humanistically orientated functioning. Gratitude is strongly related to well-being, however defined, and this link may be unique and causal. Interventions to clinically increase gratitude are critically reviewed, and concluded to be promising, although the positive psychology literature may have neglected current limitations, and a distinct research strategy is suggested. Finally, mechanisms whereby gratitude may relate to well-being are discussed, including schematic biases, coping, positive affect, and broaden-and-build principles. Gratitude is relevant to clinical psychology due to (a) strong explanatory power in understanding well-being, and (b) the potential of improving well-being through fostering gratitude with simple exercises. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chessman, Hollie M.
The voice of higher education student affairs professionals is under-represented in the well-being literature even though these campus community members are responsible for providing key programs and services that facilitate the holistic development of students. In order to understand the role of well-being in the work-life of these professionals,…
Hammell, Karen R Whalley
The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.
Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C
We examined associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in public school grades 8, 10, and 12 (n = 10,606). We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to test associations between parental military service and adolescent well-being (quality of life, depressed mood, thoughts of suicide). In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting thoughts of suicide among adolescent girls (odds ratio [OR] = 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19, 2.32) and higher odds of low quality of life (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.43, 3.10) and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.15, 2.67) among adolescent boys. In 10th and 12th grades, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting low quality of life (OR = 2.74; 95% CI = 1.79, 4.20), depressed mood (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.20), and thoughts of suicide (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.38) among adolescent boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of impaired well-being among adolescents, especially adolescent boys. Military, school-based, and public health professionals have a unique opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to improve the well-being of adolescents in military families.
De Witte, Hans
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics (i.e., the validity and the reliability of the Short Inventory on Stress and Well-being (S-ISW, in particular the part of the S-ISW that measures well-being. The S-ISW is developed by ISW Limits in both Dutch and French and measures the following well-being indicators: strain, motivation and negative acts at work, which can be considered as possible outcome variables or employees’ reactions to the perceived work situation. Four samples (N1 = 17,781; N2 = 462; N3 = 264; N4 = 3596 were used to perform analyses, with longitudinal data available for Sample 2 and 3. The results supported the three-factor structure of the S-ISW (factor validity and the invariance of this factor structure between the Dutch and the French S-ISW. Furthermore, we established the content similarity of strain and motivation with negative stress and positive stress, respectively, supporting the construct validity of the S-ISW. The predictive validity of the well-being indicators was established using measures of absenteeism and doctor consultations. Finally, the S-ISW was reliable, as the indicators of well-being showed high test-retest reliability and adequate internal consistency. The part of the S-ISW that measures well-being is thus both valid and reliable, and may be a helpful instrument in conducting research to aid organizations in the development of their well-being policy.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss how everyday life changes for the family in the event of chronic illness or disability. It changes physically due to loss of body function and socially due to time and other constraints related to treatment or lack of mobility. Equally important, there is a psychological impact due to the uncertainty of the future. The article will explore how family participation can help to maintain well-being in everyday life. The family should therefore focus on their own needs as much as on the needs of the family members who are ill. In order to maintain well-being in everyday life, it is crucial for the family to create routines and spend time doing things that they enjoy. By doing this, the family will create a rhythm of well-being regardless of the critical family situation. Family members and professional caregivers also need to come together at the beginning and during the illness or disability event to discuss changes that could be made day-to-day for all those involved, thereby making for an easier transition into care giving.
Lawrence P. Casalino
Full Text Available We present a model of hypothesized relationships between physician satisfaction, physician well-being and the quality of care, in addition to a review of relevant literature. The model suggests that physicians who are stressed, burned out, depressed, and/or have poor self-care are more likely to be dissatisfied, and vice-versa. Both poor physician well-being and physician dissatisfaction are hypothesized to lead to diminished physician concentration, effort, empathy, and professionalism. This results in misdiagnoses and other medical errors, a higher rate of inappropriate referrals and prescriptions, lower patient satisfaction and adherence to physician recommendations, and worse physician performance in areas not observed by others. Research to date largely supports the model, but high quality studies are few. Research should include studies that are prospective, larger, and have a stronger analytic design, ideally including difference in differences analyses comparing quality of care for patients of physicians who become dissatisfied to those who remain satisfied, and vice versa.Keywords: physician satisfaction, physician dissatisfaction, quality of care, physician well-being, physician burnout
Tuomi, Jouni; Aimala, Anna-Mari; Plazar, Nadja; Starčič, Andreja Istenič; Žvanut, Boštjan
Although previously the Job-Demand-Control-Support model has been successfully applied in many studies in the field of health care and education, the model was never used for the evaluation of the nursing students' well-being. The aim of this study was to promote nursing students' well-being. The objective was to verify whether the Job-Demand-Control-Support model is appropriate for the evaluation of their well-being. The Job-Demand-Control-Support model was implemented and investigated in a multiple-case study, which consisted of two phases. In phase I the students' well-being along with the perceived levels of control, support, and demand for each individual student during their study were identified. These results were used in phase II, where the usefulness of the presented model was evaluated. The study was performed at the end of the academic year 2009/2010 in two institutions: Tampere University of Applied Sciences, School of Health Care, Finland (institution 1); and the University of Primorska, Faculty of Health Sciences, Slovenia (institution 2). Participants of the study were nursing graduates who finished their studies in 2009/2010 and the Vice-Deans for education of both institutions. The final sample included 83 students in institution 1 and 79 students in institution 2. The case study was combined with a survey (phase I) and an interview (phase II). Although the students' well-being in these two institutions was different, most students of both institutions perceived their studies as low strain, placid, and only some of the students in both institutions had a high risk of malaise. The Vice-Deans for education of both institutions confirmed that the application of the Job-Demand-Control-Support model provided relevant information on the nursing students' well-being, which helped in planning improved nursing study programmes. This study demonstrated that the Job-Demand-Control-Support model is appropriate for estimating undergraduate nursing students
Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Böhm, Sarah; Keller, Jürgen; Dorst, Johannes; Uttner, Ingo; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée
Despite the fatal outcome and progressive loss of physical functioning in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), many patients maintain contentment in life. It has been shown that non-professionals tend to underestimate the well-being of patients with ALS, but professionals' perspective is yet to be studied. In total, 105 neurologists with varying degrees of experience with ALS were included in an anonymous survey. They were asked to estimate the quality of life and depressiveness of ALS patients with artificial ventilation and nutrition. Physicians' estimations were compared with previously reported subjective ratings of ALS patients with life-prolonging measures. Neurologists with significant experience on ALS and palliative care were able to accurately estimate depressiveness and quality of life of ALS patients with life-prolonging measures. Less experienced neurologists' estimation differed more from patients' reports. Of all life-prolonging measures neurologists regarded invasive ventilation as the measure associated with lowest quality of life and highest depressiveness of the patients. Experienced neurologists as well as neurologists with experience in palliative care are able to better empathize with patients with a fatal illness such as ALS and support important decision processes.
Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M; Aparicio-Zaldívar, E G
To determine differences in social support, resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among intensive care nursing and nursing staff of other hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in these professionals where relevant personal resources to PWB were included. Correlational and cross-sectional study. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n=133), nursing assistants (n=61), and midwives (n=14), of whom 44 worked in intensive care unit, 50 in other special units, and 114 in wards. Social Support Subscale, 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping), Scales of PWB, and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found and showed that social support, resilience, and coping determined PWB of nursing professionals. The most important personal resource was coping strategies, which determined PWB directly (β=0.68). Social support influenced PWB directly (β=0.33), and indirectly (β=0.32), whereas resilience influenced it indirectly (β=0.57). Differences in PWB, coping, social support and resilience are not determined by hospital service. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive), social support, and resilience, constitute three relevant personal resources that determine the PWB of nursing staff, which can be developed and improved by specific programs. The most important PWB dimensions are self-acceptance and environment mastery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.
Litwin, Howard; Stoeckel, Kimberly J
To derive a typology of confidant networks among older adults in Europe and to examine them in relation to country differences and well-being (CASP-12). The study population was composed of persons aged 65 and older in 16 countries from the 4th wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 28,697). K-means cluster analysis was applied to data from a newly implemented name-generating network inventory. CASP-12 scores were regressed on network type controlling for country and potential sociodemographic and health confounders. Six prototypical confidant network types were discerned, including proximal and distal family-based networks of varying configurations, as well as friend-based and other-based network types. Regional country differences in network type constellations were observed. Better well-being was found to be associated with network types with greater social capital. Respondents with no named confidants had the lowest CASP-12 scores, and those embedded in "other" network types also exhibited a negative association with well-being. The study demonstrates the utility of name-generating network inventories in understanding the social capital of older persons. It also shows that accessible family ties are strong correlates of well-being in this population. Finally, it documents the importance of improving the means to detect the small but significant subgroup of isolated older people-those who have no confidants on whom they may rely. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Evaluation of well-being at work among nursing professionals at a University Hospital Evaluación del bienestar en el trabajo entre los profesionales de enfermería de un hospital universitario Avaliação do bem-estar no trabalho entre profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital universitário
Priscila Castro Alves
Full Text Available Well-being at work is based on Positive Psychology, and is defined as a psychological state with positive affective links towards work and also towards the organisation. The purpose of this study was to look at the degree of well-being at work among nursing professionals who work at a University hospital and also identify differences between occupational categories and types of work contracts. The sample was made up of 340 professionals who answered valid scales of the following constructs: Work Satisfaction, Involvement with Work and Affective Organisational Commitment. For the analysis of the data we used SPSS, version 12, for descriptive statistics, and also for testing differences between means. The results showed an average level of well-being in the workplace and also differences between professional categories and work regime, when it comes to satisfaction with salaries and promotions, which can have a reflection in the quality of service provided to the patients of this University hospital.Bienestar en el trabajo se apoya en la Psicología Positiva, siendo definido como un estado psicológico compuesto por vínculos afectivos positivos con el trabajo y con la organización. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo conocer el nivel de bienestar en el trabajo de profesionales de enfermería que actúan en un hospital universitario e identificar diferencias entre categorías ocupacionales y tipos de contrato de trabajo. La muestra fue compuesta por 340 profesionales que contestaron escalas válidas de los constructos: Satisfacción en el Trabajo, Envolvimiento con el Trabajo y Comprometimiento Organizacional Afectivo. Para análisis de los datos se utilizó el programa SPSS, versión 12, para efectuar estadísticas descriptivas y testes de diferencia entre medias. Los resultados indicaron nivel medio de bienestar en el trabajo y diferencias entre las categorías profesionales y régimen de contratación en cuanto a la satisfacción con salario y
Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L
eudaimonic happiness. Finally, we speculate a bit about how brains that generate hedonia states might link to eudaimonia assessments to create properly balanced states of positive well-being that approach true happiness. PMID:22328976
Desiningrum, Dinie Ratri
This study aimed to examine the relationship between goal orientation and subjective well-being in the elderly, which includes psychological well-being, emotional well-being and social well-being. The research subjects consisted of 90 elderly from the elderly group Adi Yuswo and Wulandaru Semarang obtained through simple random sampling. The data were obtained using a measuring instrument goal orientation (18 items, α = .87), psychological well-being (33 items, α = .92), social well-being (33...
Full Text Available The present article makes an introduction for an interdisciplinary theme: the connection between well-being and nature. This theme will be explored starting from highlighting the importance of the concept of well-being in the health and illness models, and the transition it allows from an atomist point of view to a holistic approach. Results of previous academic studies will help understand that, by examining the effects of natural environment on several aspects of psychological and psychosomatic functioning, a holistic approach would become possible. Results of public data will be discussed as a way of expanding the explanation framework. Also a theoretical framework will be presented so that all these would have a meaning for practitioners. Finally, acknowledging the fact that the environments’ benefits have been known and consciously used for human growth in several aspects, as in yoga or martial arts, some recent application will be discussed such as those in psychotherapy (nature psychotherapy or unification experiential psychotherapy.
Smith, Otto R F; Alves, Daniele E; Knapstad, Marit; Haug, Ellen; Aarø, Leif E
Mental well-being is an important, yet understudied, area of research, partly due to lack of appropriate population-based measures. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) was developed to meet the needs for such a measure. This article assesses the psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the WEMWBS, and its short-version (SWEMWBS) among a sample of primary health care patients who participated in the evaluation of Prompt Mental Health Care (PMHC), a novel Norwegian mental health care program aimed to increase access to treatment for anxiety and depression. Forward and back-translations were conducted, and 1168 patients filled out an electronic survey including the WEMWBS, and other mental health scales. The original dataset was randomly divided into a training sample (≈70%) and a validation sample (≈30%). Parallel analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were carried out to assess construct validity and precision. The final models were cross-validated in the validation sample by specifying a model with fixed parameters based on the estimates from the trainings set. Criterion validity and measurement invariance of the (S)WEMWBS were examined as well. Support was found for the single factor hypothesis in both scales, but similar to previous studies, only after a number of residuals were allowed to correlate (WEMWBS: CFI = 0.99; RMSEA = 0.06, SWEMWBS: CFI = .99; RMSEA = 0.06). Further analyses showed that the correlated residuals did not alter the meaning of the underlying construct and did not substantially affect the associations with other variables. Precision was high for both versions of the WEMWBS (>.80), and scalar measurement invariance was obtained for gender and age group. The final measurement models displayed adequate fit statistics in the validation sample as well. Correlations with other mental health scales were largely in line with expectations. No statistically significant differences were found in mean latent
Bruggen, Alida Christina van
Improvement of well-being is a central objective in most policy making and individual behaviour. The pursuit of well-being is so common that it is almost trivial. What well-being is however, and how subjective well-being is affected by objective conditions, are by no means trivial questions. In this
Olthuis, G.J.; Dekkers, W.J.M.
The main measure of quality of life is well-being. The aim of this article is to compare insights about well-being from contemporary philosophy with the practice-related opinions of palliative care professionals. In the first part of the paper two philosophical theories on well-being are introduced:
Romppanen, Johanna; Häggman-Laitila, Arja
To gather, assess and synthesize current research knowledge on the interventions aiming to improve nurses' well-being at work. Previous reviews describe health care professionals' well-being at work from the perspective of burnout. Research on the interventions for and their effectiveness on nurses' well-being at work is sporadic. A quantitative systematic review based on the procedure of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCO, PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus databases were sought from 2009-March 2015. The final data consisted of eight studies described in 10 articles. The study design was RCT in three studies, CBA in three and ITS in two studies. The studies were assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were summarised narratively and displayed in a harvest plot. Two of the six interventions were person-directed, two combined person- and organisation-directed and two organisation-directed interventions. Half of them were mainly targeted at stress management while the others aimed at improving interaction with colleagues, work methods and conditions or at supervision of professional skills. There was a lot variation in the conceptual bases and the use of evaluation measurements in the studies and the interventions were carried out in a heterogeneous way. Moderate evidence was found to support the use of interventions among nurses employed at in-patient and out-patient units in four out of the six interventions. The review pointed out a need for research on standardised interventions on nurses' well-being at work and their effectiveness with long-term follow-ups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Benson, G. John; Rollin, Bernard E
.... The Well-Being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions offers veterinarians, veterinary and agriculture students, animal scientists, and food animal producers both practical methods to enhance farm animal well-being, and greater...
Previous studies have focused on the extent to which job demands affect psychological well-being. However, few studies, especially in Nigeria, have investigated the psychological well-being of police personnel from peace perspective. This study, therefore, investigated the extent to which psychological well-being can be ...
Cuyvers, Katrien; De Weerd, Gio; Dupont, Sanne; Mols, Sophie; Nuytten, Chantal
Research in the field of well-being among Flemish students in secondary schools has shown that age is an important predictor of well-being. What is the impact of school infrastructure on the well-being of students in Flemish secondary schools? A study, commissioned by AGIOn (the Flemish agency that subsidises school buildings), investigated the…
Belasen, Ariel R.; Hafer, R. W.
There is ample evidence that well-being, measured in various ways for a large number of countries, is positively related to the level of general intelligence. Pesta at al. (2010a) verify this close relationship between well-being and IQ across states. There also is evidence that well-being is positively related to economic freedom across…
Price, Deborah; McCallum, Faye
The complex and ever-changing nature of teachers' work challenges their well-being. Teacher well-being and "fitness" includes versatility, mental strength, and commitment to promote effective teaching and learning. In framing this notion, we seek to understand the ecological influences impacting on teacher well-being and…
Graham, Anne; Powell, Mary Ann; Thomas, Nigel; Anderson, Donnah
In Australia and internationally, the well-being of children and young people is a core focus of social policy, with a growing imperative to locate well-being within the sphere of education. However, the term "well-being" remains ambiguous and the implementation of educational approaches to promote and improve it appears fragmented and…
Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.
Objective: This study explored whether specific dimensions of spiritual well-being (religious well-being and existential well-being) relate to reduced suicidal ideation, and whether associations persisted after controlling for religiosity and psychosocial variables associated with suicide. Participants: Participants were 457 college students who…
Meulenbeek, Petrus Antonius Maria
Relapse after treatment of mental disorders is a major problem. Enhancing psychological well-being and resilience may reduce the risk of relapse in patients with mental disorders. Well-being therapy tries to address these factors. The original model of well-being therapy was developed by the Italian
Spanier, Graham B.; Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.
Examined data from a longitudinal study of divorce and remarriage to ascertain whether remarriage is helpful in enhancing one's well-being following marital separation. Concluded that remarriage after divorce is not associated with enhanced well-being. Moreover, no other variables were identified which appear to predict well-being following…
Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin
Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…
Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A
In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Harris, M; Wilson, J C; Holmes, S; Radford, D R
Aims To explore dental hygiene and dental therapy students' (DHDTS') perception of stress and well-being during their undergraduate education and establish base-line data for further studies of this group of dental professionals.Subjects and methods A questionnaire was distributed to Years 1, 2 and 3 DHDTS and final year outreach dental students (DS) (as a comparison group), at the University of Portsmouth Dental Academy (UPDA), during summer 2015. Data were collected on students' perception of levels of stress and well-being. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS software. Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni corrections were used and the level for a statistically significant difference was set at p academic work were perceived as stressful for both DHDTS and DS, with no significant difference between the groups. The majority of respondents reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress to be within the normal range. All students reported high levels of positive well-being, with DHDTS scoring significantly higher than DS in the dimensions of personal growth, purpose in life, self-acceptance and positive relations with others (p stress within their undergraduate education, but also perceived themselves as positively-functioning individuals.
Schulte, Paul; Vainio, Harri
This paper provides an overview of and perspective on the concept of well-being at work. Well-being is a term that reflects not only on one's health but satisfaction with work and life. Well-being is a summative concept that characterizes the quality of working lives, including occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects, and it may be a major determinant of productivity at the individual, enterprise and societal levels. Based on a review of the literature and a recent conference, we suggest a model linking workforce well-being, productivity, and population well-being. To appraise the validity of the model, we consider five questions: (i) is there a robust and usable definition of workplace well-being? (ii) have the variables that influence well-being been aptly described and can they be measured and used in risk assessments? (iii) what is the nature of evidence that well-being is linked to productivity? (iv) what is the state of knowledge on the effectiveness of interventions to promote workplace well-being? and (v) should interventions aimed at improving well-being at work focus on more than work-related factors?
Raj, Kristin S
Rates of physician burnout have increased in recent years, and high burnout levels are reported by physicians in training. This review of the research on resident well-being seeks to identify factors associated with well-being, summarize well-being promotion interventions, and provide a framework for future research efforts. Keywords were used to search PubMed, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. Studies included were conducted between 1989 and 2014. The search yielded 82 articles, 26 which met inclusion criteria, and were assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Articles measured resident well-being and associated factors, predictors, effects, barriers, as well as interventions to improve well-being. Factors identified in psychological well-being research-autonomy, building of competence, and strong social relatedness-are associated with resident well-being. Sleep and time away from work are associated with greater resident well-being. Perseverance is predictive of well-being, and greater well-being is associated with increased empathy. Interventions focused on health and coping skills appear to improve well-being, although the 3 studies that examined interventions were limited by small samples and single site administration. An important step in evolving research in this area entails the development of a clear definition of resident well-being and a scale for measuring the construct. The majority (n = 17, 65%) of existing studies are cross-sectional analyses of factors associated with well-being. The literature summarized in this review suggests future research should focus on factors identified in cross-sectional studies, including sleep, coping mechanisms, resident autonomy, building competence, and enhanced social relatedness.
Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
One important aspect of subjective judgments about one's well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the "the ideal life." In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents' nationality. Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents' psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of subjective well-being and psychological well-being
Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of
Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective
Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe
Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to
Vothknecht, Sylke; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Haan, Lieuwe
Objective: The Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment scale (SWN) is the most widely used self-rating scale in recent research of subjective well-being in schizophrenia. We reviewed all available publications on relevant research of subjective well-being using the SWN, in order to
McMahan, Ethan A.; Estes, David
Conceptions of well-being are cognitive representations of the nature and experience of well-being. These conceptions can be described generally by the degree to which hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions are emphasized as important aspects of the experience of well-being. In two studies, the prediction that eudaimonic dimensions of individual…
Liddle, Ian; Carter, Greg F. A.
The Stirling Children's Well-being Scale (SCWBS) was developed by the Stirling Council Educational Psychology Service (UK) as a holistic, positively worded measure of emotional and psychological well-being in children aged eight to 15 years. Drawing on current theories of well-being and Positive Psychology, the aim was to provide a means of…
Koch, Anette Boye
Child well-being is a major concern in Danish kindergartens, but well-being is a multi-dimensional concept that may be evaluated in a variety of ways. This article explores the well-being of kindergarten children from a methodological perspective. It presents results from a quantitative survey...... study and from a parallel qualitative interview study and discusses how the disparate findings communicate. The strategy of choosing a standard survey did not provide valuable data, but the meaning ascribed to well-being in the two approaches are compared and the article points to development...... of a future mixed methods study, in which child well-being is defined and evaluated with attention to play, social well-being, bodily skills and aesthetics....
Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a novel approach to investigating the nature of well-being and a new theory about well-being. The approach is integrative and naturalistic. It holds that a theory of well-being should account for two different classes of evidence – our commonsense judgments about well-being and the science of well-being (i.e., positive psychology. The network theory holds that a person is in the state of well-being if she instantiates a homeostatically clustered network of feelings, emotions, attitudes, behaviors, traits, and interactions with the world that tends to have a relatively high number of states that feel good, that lead to states that feel good, or that are valued by the agent or her culture.
Jan-Emmanuel De Neve; Ed Diener; Louis Tay; Cody Xuereb
The aim of this paper is to survey the 'hard' evidence on the effects of subjective well-being. In doing so, we complement the evidence on the determinants of well-being by showing that human well-being also affects outcomes of interest such as health, income, and social behaviour. Generally, we observe a dynamic relationship between happiness and other important aspects of our lives, with influence running in both directions.
As people lead longer and generally healthier lives, aspirations and expectations of health care extend to include well-being and enhanced quality of life. Several measurement scales exist to evaluate how well health care reaches these goals. However, the definitions of well-being or quality of life remain open to considerable debate, which complicates the design, validation, and subsequent choice of an appropriate measurement. This article reviews nine measures of psychological well-being, tracing their origins in alternative conceptual approaches to defining well-being. It compares their psychometric properties and suggests how they may be used. The review covers the Life Satisfaction Index, the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale, single-item measures, the Philadelphia Morale scale, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Satisfaction With Life scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the World Health Organization 5-item well-being index, and the Ryff's scales of psychological well-being. Scales range in size from a single item to 22; levels of reliability and validity range from good to excellent, although for some of the newer scales we lack information on some forms of validity. Measures exist to assess several conceptions of psychological well-being. Most instruments perform adequately for survey research, but we know less about their adequacy for use in evaluating health care interventions. There remains active debate over how adequately the questions included portray the theoretical definition of well-being on which they are based. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Cary; Dewe, Philip
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Well-beingabsenteeism, presenteeism, costs and challenges Despite the many initiatives taken to invest in the health and well-being of employees, workplace data...
Ryff, Carol D.
This article reviews the research and interventions that have grown up around a model of psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989) generated more than two decades ago to address neglected aspects of positive functioning, such as purposeful engagement in life, realization of personal talents and capacities, and enlightened self-knowledge. The conceptual origins of this formulation are revisited and scientific products emerging from six thematic areas are examined: (1) how well-being changes across adult development and later life, (2) what are the personality correlates of well-being, (3) how well-being is linked with experiences in family life, (4) how well-being relates to work and other community activities, (5) what are the connections between well-being and health, including biological risk factors, (6) and via clinical and intervention studies, how psychological well-being can be promoted for ever greater segments of society. Together, these topics illustrate flourishing interest across diverse scientific disciplines in understanding adults as striving, meaning-making, proactive organisms who are actively negotiating the challenges of life. A take-home message is that increasing evidence supports the health protective features of psychological well-being in reducing risk for disease and promoting length of life. A recurrent and increasingly important theme is resilience – the capacity to maintain or regain well-being in the face of adversity. Implications for future research and practice are considered. PMID:24281296
Full Text Available ... Informed Consumer What Is Complementary, Alternative or Integrative Health? Safety Information Know the Science For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature ...
Rajaratnam, Augustine S; Sears, Lindsay E; Shi, Yuyan; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E
To evaluate changes in well-being, biometric, and productivity indicators after a well-being intervention. Biometric and self-reported outcomes were assessed among 677 retail distribution center employees before and after a 6-month well-being intervention. Despite lower well-being at baseline compared to an independent random sample of workers, program participants' well-being, productivity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol improved significantly after the intervention, whereas the decline in diastolic blood pressure was not significant. Moreover, participants' specific transition across well-being segments over the intervention period demonstrated more improvement than decline. There is evidence that programs designed to improve well-being within a workforce can be used to significantly and positively impact employee health and productivity, which should result in reduced health care costs, improved employee productivity, and increased overall profitability.
Full Text Available Nicola Gates,1–3 Michael Valenzuela,3 Perminder S Sachdev,1,2,4 Maria A Fiatarone Singh5,61School of Psychiatry, 2Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing (CheBA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Regenerative Neuroscience Group, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Neuropsychiatric Institute, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, NSW, Australia; 6Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, and Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, USAObjectives: Cognitive impairments associated with aging and dementia are major sources of burden, deterioration in life quality, and reduced psychological well-being (PWB. Preventative measures to both reduce incident disease and improve PWB in those afflicted are increasingly targeting individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI at early disease stage. However, there is very limited information regarding the relationships between early cognitive changes and memory concern, and life quality and PWB in adults with MCI; furthermore, PWB outcomes are too commonly overlooked in intervention trials. The purpose of this study was therefore to empirically test a theoretical model of PWB in MCI in order to inform clinical intervention.Methods: Baseline data from a convenience sample of 100 community-dwelling adults diagnosed with MCI enrolled in the Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART trial were collected. A series of regression analyses were performed to develop a reduced model, then hierarchical regression with the Baron Kenny test of mediation derived the final three-tiered model of PWB.Results: Significant predictors of PWB were subjective memory concern, cognitive function, evaluations of quality of life, and negative affect, with a final model explaining 61% of the variance
Colin D. Butler
Full Text Available Ecosystem services are necessary, yet not sufficient for human well-being (however defined. Insufficient access to the ecosystem provisioning service of food is a particularly important factor in the loss of human well-being, but all ecosystem services contribute in some way to well-being. Although perhaps long obvious to ecologists, the links between ecosystems and aspects of human well-being, including health, have been less well understood among the social science community. This situation may now be starting to change, thanks in part to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA. Causality between ecosystem services and well-being is bidirectional; it is increasingly clear that functioning societies can protect or enhance ecosystem services, and accordingly, that societies with impaired well-being (best documented in the case of chronic diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS can also experience a related decline in ecosystem services. The future state of human well-being and of ecosystem services is more than the co-evolution of these two fundamental elements. Human well-being also depends, critically, upon the human institutions that govern relationships between human individuals and groups, and also between humans and ecosystem services. The scenarios working group of the MA found that human well-being is highest in the Global Orchestration scenario, which assumes the fastest evolution of beneficial institutions, and is lowest in the Order from Strength scenario. Human well-being was found to be intermediate in the other two scenarios (Adapting Mosaic and Techno-Garden even though these scenarios share a much greater recognition of the importance of ecosystem services to human well-being.
Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.
Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane
Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…
The primary aim of this research was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being relate to the propensity to use Performance-Enhancing Drugs (PEDs) in a sample of talented young athletes. A secondary aim was to determine how mindfulness and psychological well-being are related. This was a survey ...
Olesen, Martin Hammershøj
Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB).......Autonomous general causality orientation is a unique motivational concept, that mediates the relationship between Extraversion and positive subjective well-being (SWB)....
Hjalager, Anne Mette
This paper provides an outline and analysis of endeavours to invent and implement new well-being activities in the region of Southern Denmark. Based on Anholt's (2005) model, the paper analyses the success of efforts to create a well-being product that might eventually develop into a brand...
Previous studies on the determinants of subjective well-being concur on the importance of relative income, i.e., the fact that individuals' subjective well-being is dependent on how well they are doing in relation to their reference group. Using South African data from 1993, Kingdon and Knight (2006, 2007) found that in ...
in five papers. In conclusion, the overall findings bring together a negative leader-employee circle in terms of stress on one and a positive leader-employee circle in terms of well-being on the other side. Moreover, a cascade model of support illustrates stress and well-being dynamics; showing how...
, well-being in general and South African youth in particular has been relatively neglected. For example, prior to this research the impact of PST on the core health component of psychological well-being had not been evaluated, nor had the
José Mª Peiró
Full Text Available One of the main goals of work and organizational psychology is to promote the well-being and performance of employees. Nevertheless, the yoke of the current economic crisis tyrannizes this aim, mercilessly threating the sustainability of the well-being and performance achieved in previous decades. The decrease in one of these factors may hamper the other, resulting in a vicious circle. In this context, one of the biggest challenges faced by organizational psychologists is to reverse this trend in a virtuous cycle, where promoting high levels of well-being creates a performance improvement and vice-versa, in a “sustainable well-being-productivity synergy sustainable productivity and well-being synergy”. However, previous efforts have shown inconclusive results. We argue that the neglectfulness and lack of rigorousness of the most contemporaneous conceptualizations of well-being and job performance, as common praxis, are part of the reason for these disappointing results. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the contributions and efforts to the new reformulation of the concept of well-being and productivity. It also aims to integrate the most contemporaneous concepts of well-being and job performance, revisiting the “happy productive-worker thesis”, and using as framework Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, where the suitability and sustainability of the alternative models of “unhappy-productive worker” and “happy-unproductive worker” will be discussed.
Ferguson, Leah J.; Kowalski, Kent C.; Mack, Diane E.; Wilson, Philip M.; Crocker, Peter R. E.
In this study, we explored the role of health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA; Miilunpalo, 2001) in women's eudaimonic well being (i.e., psychological flourishing at one's maximal potential; Ryff, 1989). We used a quantitative approach (N = 349) to explore the relationship between HEPA and eudaimonic well being. While HEPA was not related to…
Newland, Lisa A.
Prevention and intervention programmes for children at risk aim to improve child well-being and resilience. They do so using both direct and indirect strategies, intervening with children but also considering broader contextual factors (such as family dynamics). Children's subjective well-being comprises five main components (physical health,…
Laine, Sari; Saaranen, Terhi; Ryhänen, Eva; Tossavainen, Kerttu
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present well-being, leadership, and the development of each from a communal perspective in a Finnish primary school in the years 2000-2009. Design/methodology/approach: The study included five sets of data. The quantitative research data were collected from the school staff using the Well-Being at Your Work…
Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Bullough, Robert V.; MacKay, Kathryn Lake; Marshall, Esther E.
Much is changing in preschool education. Current reform primarily emphasizes standardized practice, academic outcomes, and accountability. Little attention has been given to how these changes are impacting the well-being of teachers. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on preschool teacher well-being and identify…
Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed; Aurora, Raksha; Harter, James
Data from the Gallup World Poll highlighted the differential relations between perceived stress, well-being, and wealth at the individual- versus nation-level. At the nation level, stress was a distinct concept from negative affect (NA). It correlated positively with well-being (positive affect, life satisfaction, and domain satisfaction) and…
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Internet addiction and psychological well-being. Participants were 479 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale and the Scales of Psychological Well-Being. The relationships between Internet addiction and psychological…
Lawrence, A. S. Arul
General well-being is the quality of life of a person/individual in terms of health, happiness and prosperity rather than wealth. The present study aims to probe the General Well-being of Higher Secondary Students. In this normative survey study, the investigator has selected a sample of 200 higher secondary school students who were studying 11th…
Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper
of psychological well-being than those with a marginal identity. Further, it found that additional disability, educational level, and feeling discriminated against significantly and independently explained the degree of psychological well-being. Results are discussed here with respect to social identity theory...
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C.; Wright, Helen R.; Dohnt, Hayley
Aim: Adolescent sleep patterns vary between countries, and these differences influence adolescent functioning and well-being. The present study provides data on the sleep and well-being of Australian adolescents. Methods: 385 adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 8 South Australian schools spanning the socio-economic spectrum.…
Gonzalez, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F; Dale, Jennifer; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Buelna, Christina; Nuñez, Alicia; Espinoza, Rebeca; Talavera, Gregory A
Depression is common among patients diagnosed with cancer and may be inversely associated with spiritual well-being. While numerous strategies are employed to manage and cope with illness, spiritual well-being has become increasingly important in cancer survivorship research. This study examined the association between spiritual well-being and depressive symptoms. This cross-sectional study utilized self-report data from 102 diverse cancer survivors recruited from peer-based cancer support groups in San Diego County. Depression was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8) and spiritual well-being was measured with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp) comprised of two subscales (Meaning/Peace and Faith). Hierarchal regression analysis indicated that Meaning/Peace significantly predicted depressive symptoms after adjusting for socio-demographics, cancer stage, time since diagnosis, and Faith (p Meaning/Peace has a unique advantage over Faith in protecting cancer survivors from the effects of depression symptoms; therefore, turning to Faith as source of strength may improve psychological well-being during survivorship. Future programs and healthcare providers should be cognizant of the influential role of spiritual well-being in depression symptoms in an effort to improve psychological well-being among cancer survivors.
Li, J.; De Ridder, H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Conrado, C.; Martella, C.
This paper investigates the needs or criteria for sustaining well-being in crowded situations through two focus group discussions with a total of ten participants. We conclude that pursuing crowd well-being could be divided into two different cases: one is obtaining the enhancement of the current
Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M; Marsh, Abigail A
Altruistic kidney donation is a form of extraordinary altruism, the antecedents of which are poorly understood. Although well-being is known to increase the incidence of prosocial behaviors and there is significant geographical variation in both well-being and altruistic kidney donation in the United States, it is unknown whether geographical variation in well-being predicts the prevalence of this form of extraordinary altruism. We calculated per capita rates of altruistic kidney donation across the United States and found that an index of subjective well-being predicted altruistic donation, even after we controlled for relevant sociodemographic variables. This relationship persisted at the state level and at the larger geographic regional level. Consistent with hypotheses about the relationship between objective and subjective well-being, results showed that subjective well-being mediated the relationship between increases in objective well-being metrics, such as income, and altruism. These results suggest that extraordinary altruism may be promoted by societal factors that increase subjective well-being.
Driscoll, Anne K.; Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.
This study examines generational patterns of parenting styles, the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent well-being among youth of Mexican origin, and the role of generational parenting style patterns in explaining generational patterns in youth behavior (delinquency and alcohol problems) and psychological well-being (depression…
Momtaz, Yadollah A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku A; Yahaya, Nurizan
Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders. The study included 1415 older Malays (60-100 years, 722 women), randomly selected through a multistage stratified random method from Peninsular Malaysia. WHO-Five well-being index was used to measure psychological well-being. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Using multiple regression analysis a significant model emerged (F(7, 1407) = 20.14, p ≤ 0.001), where age, sex, marital status, and household income were significant predictor variables of psychological well-being among Malay elders. However, level of education, employment status, and place of residence failed to predict psychological well-being. This study showed that the oldest old, elderly women, unmarried, and the poor elderly people are at risk for experiencing low psychological well-being. Therefore, they need special attention from family, policy makers, and those who work with elderly people.
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Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren
A sample of 196 participants (mean age 45.94 years, 54% women) completed inventories assessing upward and downward positive and negative social comparisons and general well-being. Widows and widowers were higher on upward negative comparisons than divorced or married persons while being lower on well-being measures of life satisfaction and…
The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…
S. De Hoon (Sean)
textabstractThis research adopted a life course perspective to provide new insights into the relation between family interdependencies and well-being. In four quantitative studies, it examined how partnerships and parenthood affect people’s well-being and how this is dependent on the national
Conclusion: By identifying the factors that contribute to a nurse's occupational well-being, the nursing management is better able to address the nurse's needs to maintain a positive well-being. This in turn will decrease the burnout and increase retention of experienced nurses, which will raise the quality of patient care.
Sears, Lindsay E.; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Sidney, James A.; Castle, Patricia H.; Coberley, Carter R.; Witters, Dan; Pope, James E.; Harter, James K.
Abstract Building upon extensive research from 2 validated well-being instruments, the objective of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and actionable well-being instrument that informs and facilitates improvement of well-being for individuals, communities, and nations. The goals of the measure were comprehensiveness, validity and reliability, significant relationships with health and performance outcomes, and diagnostic capability for intervention. For measure development and validation, questions from the Well-being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder were simultaneously administered as a test item pool to over 13,000 individuals across 3 independent samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a random selection from the first sample and confirmed in the other samples. Further evidence of validity was established through correlations to the established well-being scores from the Well-Being Assessment and Wellbeing Finder, and individual outcomes capturing health care utilization and productivity. Results showed the Well-Being 5 score comprehensively captures the known constructs within well-being, demonstrates good reliability and validity, significantly relates to health and performance outcomes, is diagnostic and informative for intervention, and can track and compare well-being over time and across groups. With this tool, well-being deficiencies within a population can be effectively identified, prioritized, and addressed, yielding the potential for substantial improvements to the health status, performance, and quality of life for individuals and cost savings for stakeholders. (Population Health Management 2014;17:357–365) PMID:24892873
), will be followed more closely during the second and third waves of fieldwork. The research study is expected to generate experience-near and nuanced accounts of child well-being as an everyday practice influenced and shaped by policy, structural constraints and specific notions of ‘the good childhood...... to interpret and act on matters of child well-being. The research is expected to generate an increased understanding of what is considered ‘good’ in practitioners’ perspectives on child well-being and how these perspectives influence and guide everyday pedagogical practices. The methods applied in the research......The paper discusses perceptions and practices of child well-being in the local setting of the day-care institution, with a particular focus on a recently implemented well-being assessment tool. The paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork and is part of a larger research study that addresses child...
Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether monitoring and discussing psychological well-being in outpatients with diabetes improves mood, glycemic control, and the patient's evaluation of the quality of diabetes care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial of 461...... outpatients with diabetes who were randomly assigned to standard care or to the monitoring condition. In the latter group, the diabetes nurse specialist assessed and discussed psychological well-being with the patient (with an interval of 6 months) in addition to standard care. The computerized Well-being...... reported better mood compared with the standard care group, as indicated by significantly lower negative well-being and significantly higher levels of energy, higher general well-being, better mental health, and a more positive evaluation of the quality of the emotional support received from the diabetes...
The paper discusses perceptions and practices of child well-being in the local setting of the day-care institution, with a particular focus on a recently implemented well-being assessment tool. The paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork and is part of a larger research study that addresses child...... well-being from the perspectives of children, parents and practice. Within recent years, children’s state of well-being in Danish day-care institutions has received heightened political attention and is increasingly approached as a phenomenon to be systematically assessed, evaluated, and acted upon....... In 2007, children’s “well-fare” was written forward as a central aim in the Act on Day-Care Facilities alongside “development” and “learning” (Danish Ministry of Education, 2007) and in 2015 a tool for systematically assessing and hence categorizing all children’s state of well-being was implemented...
Smedegaard, Søren; Christiansen, Lars Breum; Lund-Cramer, Pernille
Background: The benefits of physical activity for the mental health and well-being of children and young people are well-established. Increased physical activity during school hours is associated with better physical, psychological and social health and well-being. Unfortunately many children...... and young people exercise insufficiently to benefit from positive factors like well-being. The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component, school-based, physical activity intervention to improve psychosocial well-being among school-aged children and youths from the 4th...... (general physical self-worth) and secondary outcomes (self-perceived sport competences, body attractiveness, scholastic competences, social competences and global self-worth; enjoyment of PA; self-efficacy; and general well-being) that are both valid and manageable in setting-based research. The RE...
Ryff, Carol D; Singer, Burton H; Dienberg Love, Gayle
Two key types of well-being, eudaimonic and hedonic, are reviewed. The first addresses ideas of self-development, personal growth and purposeful engagement, while the second is concerned with positive feelings such as happiness and contentment. How well-being varies by age and socio-economic standing is briefly summarized, followed by examination of its biological correlates (neuroendocrine, immune, cardiovascular, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep). Preliminary findings on a sample of ageing women showed that those with higher levels of eudaimonic well-being had lower levels of daily salivary cortisol, pro-inflammatory cytokines, cardiovascular risk, and longer duration REM sleep compared with those showing lower levels of eudaimonic well-being. Hedonic well-being, however, showed minimal linkage to biomarker assessments. Future research directions building on these initial findings are discussed. PMID:15347530
Robak, Rostyslaw W; Chiffriller, Sheila H; Zappone, Melinda C
Previous research indicates that, while making money is important to college students, it is negatively correlated with subjective well-being. This study asked 157 undergraduate business and psychology students about the importance of making money, their motives for doing so, and several dimensions of subjective well-being: satisfaction with life, self-actualization, and mood/affect. Making money remains very important to college students. Being motivated to make money was not globally related to subjective well-being, but wanting to make money to help others, to feel secure, and to feel proud of oneself were predictive of happiness or subjective well-being. Motives such as comparing oneself favorably to others, spending impulsively, and overcoming self-doubt were not correlated with subjective well-being. Business students appeared more motivated to make money than other students and also to have more negative affect.
Ben-Zur, Hasida; Michael, Keren
A sample of 196 participants (mean age 45.94 years, 54% women) completed inventories assessing upward and downward positive and negative social comparisons and general well-being. Widows and widowers were higher on upward negative comparisons than divorced or married persons while being lower on well-being measures of life satisfaction and psychosocial adjustment. The divorced were higher than the widowed or married people on upward or downward positive social comparisons. Upward negative social comparisons were associated with lower levels of well-being measures whereas upward positive social comparisons showed an opposite tendency. Upward negative comparisons were found to mediate the effects of widowhood on well-being. It is concluded that cognitive adaptation contributes to the well-being of widowed and divorced persons.
Ellery, Jane; Ellery, Peter; MacKenzie, Annah; Friesen, Carol
For more than a century, improving the quality of life for individuals, families, and communities has been the cornerstone of the work of family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals. This began with our founder, Dr. Ellen Swallow Richards, and it continues today. As FCS professionals, we focus on helping people make wise, informed decisions…
Springer, Ingo N; Schulze, Mareike; Wiltfang, Jorg; Niederberger, Uwe; Russo, Paul A J; Möller, Björn; Wolfart, Stefan
It is controversial whether impaired well-being is associated with (a) an increased likelihood of having a negative body/facial image; or (b) dissatisfaction with the postoperative result following aesthetic surgery. We set out to improve current knowledge in this matter. A total of 324 subjects (n = 162 females, n = 162 males, 18-30 years) were photographed, asked to complete the adjective mood scale and to rate 46 statements regarding their own appearance, and its impact on social functioning as well as their willingness to undergo aesthetic surgery on a visual analog scale. The photographs of these subjects were also assessed by 50 independent judges. Average self-awarded ratings of appearance were significantly more positive in subjects with normal as compared to those with impaired well-being (P = 0.014). Items regarding the impact of appearance on social functioning were answered significantly more negatively by subjects with impaired well-being as compared with those with the normal well-being (P = 0.001). Subjects with impaired well-being did not declare an increased willingness to undergo aesthetic surgery (P > 0.197). Assessment by the independent judges did not reveal differences in the average level of attractiveness of subjects with impaired well-being and those with normal well-being (P = 0.666). Impaired well-being is associated with impaired facial selfperception, independent of attractiveness. Willingness to undergo aesthetic surgery seems not to be affected by one's sense of well-being. In the subjects with impaired well-being who undergo aesthetic surgery, facial self-perception seems unlikely to be improved.
The well-being of nursing students has become crucial because of the multidimensional challenges that nursing professionals have to deal with. A community psychology framework was adopted in this study. The aim of the research was to explore the different dimensions of well-being as described by nursing students.
Decramer, Adelien; Audenaert, Mieke; Van Waeyenberg, Thomas; Claeys, Tine; Claes, Claudia; Vandevelde, Stijn; van Loon, Jos; Crucke, Saskia
This article focuses on employee performance-management practices in the healthcare sector. We specifically aim to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of employee performance-management practices on affective well-being of nurses in hospitals. Theory suggests that the features of employee-performance management (planning and evaluation of individual performances) predict affective well-being (in this study: job satisfaction and affective commitment). Performance-management planning and evaluation and affective well-being were drawn from a survey of nurses at a Flemish hospital. Separate estimations were performed for different aspects of affective well-being. Performance planning has a negative effect on job satisfaction of nurses. Both vertical alignment and satisfaction with the employee performance-management system increase the affective well-being of nurses; however, the impact of vertical alignment differs for different aspects of affective well-being (i.e. job satisfaction and affective commitment). Performance-management planning and evaluation of nurses are associated with attitudinal outcomes. The results indicate that employee performance-management features have different impacts on different aspects of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Migliorini, Christine; Tonge, Bruce
The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with the subjective well-being of individuals with spinal cord injuries, while acknowledging theories that describe the subjective well-being tendency to homeostasis. A representative community cross-sectional cohort of 443 adults with traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injury completed a self-report survey (by internet, telephone or hard copy) that included reliable and valid measures of quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, coping strategies, and emotional consequences. The subjective well-being of half of the population with spinal cord injury lay above the normative subjective well-being set-point threshold. Despite the inclusion of many biopsychosocial factors, only Intimacy, Safety, Acceptance, and Helplessness were significantly associated with normative subjective well-being. Comparatively few factors were significantly associated with normative subjective well-being, but the results help to explain observed contradictions noted in previous research into subjective well-being after spinal cord injuries. The results highlight the resilience of individuals in general and are in keeping with the disability paradox. However, many individuals with spinal cord injuries do not live satisfactory lives. It is for them that further psychological care and rehabilitation is necessary to create a good life after spinal cord injury.
Kennedy-Behr, A; Rodger, S; Mickan, S
Well-being or quality of life is thought to give a more accurate picture of the impact a condition has on day-to-day functioning than traditional outcome measures. This study sought to examine the relationship between engagement in play and well-being for preschool children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A quasi-experimental design was used with two independent groups of preschool children aged 4-6 years with (n=32) and without (n=31) probable DCD. Play skills were assessed using the Play Observation Scale based on 30min of videotape of free-play at preschool. Well-being was assessed using a parent-proxy version of the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (KINDL(R)). Spearman rho correlations were performed to examine the relationship between play and well-being. Well-being at preschool was significantly lower for the children in the DCD group however overall well-being was not significantly different. Engagement in type of social play (solitary, parallel or group) was found to predict well-being for the typically developing children. For the children with DCD, engagement in group play was not associated with well-being. An explanation for this difference may be that children with DCD may not experience free-play at preschool as "play" but rather as hard work. Further research is needed to determine why children with DCD experience lower well-being at preschool than their peers and to investigate children's perceptions of free-play. This may enable teachers and therapists to better support children with DCD in the preschool environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singla, Rashmi; Holm, Dagny
Intermarried couples in Denmark face a range of psychosocial challenges in the context of dominant discourses of homogeneity coexisting with ethnic diversity. This article deals with the couples’ managing of everyday life, mental health, well-being and implications for health promotion and counse......Intermarried couples in Denmark face a range of psychosocial challenges in the context of dominant discourses of homogeneity coexisting with ethnic diversity. This article deals with the couples’ managing of everyday life, mental health, well-being and implications for health promotion...... mental health and well-being over the life course....
Schill, Anita L
Total Worker Health® (TWH) is a paradigm-shifting approach to safety, health, and well-being in the workplace. It is defined as policies, programs, and practices that integrate protection from work-related safety and health hazards with promotion of injury and illness prevention efforts to advance worker well-being. The most current TWH concepts are presented, including a description of issues relevant to TWH and introduction of a hierarchy of controls applied to TWH. Total Worker Health advocates for a foundation of safety and health through which work can contribute to higher levels of well-being.
Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina
-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances (T2). The association between group-level AOC (T1) and psychological well-being (T2) was fully mediated by individual-level AOC (T1), and the associations between group-level AOC (T1) and self-reported sickness absence and sleep......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services...
This paper presents a heuristic mathematical model of the changes over time in the statistical distribution of well-being of individuals in a society. The model predicts that when individuals overvalue the more overtly conspicuous aspects of well-being in their lifestyle choices, then under certain conditions the average well-being of the overall population may experience continuous decline. We investigate the influence of various effects, including the incidence of personal misfortune, heterogeneity in the population, and economic and/or technological progress.
Kim, Tae Sook; Park, Jeong Sook; Kim, Myung Ae
The purpose of this research is to examine the relation of meditation to power and well-being in Korean adults. Using a quasi-experimental design, meditation was provided through a chakra meditation music program over a 4 week period. The Power as Knowing Participation in Change Tool and the Well-Being Picture Scale were used, after being translated into Korean. Statistically significant interaction effects of power and group (ppower and well-being in the human and environmental field patterning process.
Chaiviboontham, Suchira; Phinitkhajorndech, Noppawan; Hanucharurnkul, Somchit; Noipiang, Thaniya
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale in patients with advanced cancer. This cross-sectional study was employed to investigate psychometric properties. Some 196 participants from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok and suburban Thailand were asked to complete a Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Validity was determined by known-group, concurrent, and constructs validity. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficients. Three factors were extracted: so-called existential well-being, religious well-being, and peacefulness accounted for 71.44% of total variance. The Cronbach's α coefficients for total SWB, EWB, RWB, and peacefulness were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively. These findings indicate that the Thai SWBS is a valid and reliable instrument, and it presented one more factor than the original version.
(Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ] and Ryff's Psychological Well- being Scale), and a ... athletes' success in their sport, it can also influence the way they approach training and competition. .... predictive power. Cross tabulations of ...
Cristiane Pimentel Nalin
Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.
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Full Text Available The current paper presents the results from some research on the relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria, and different aspects of well-being. The information available on the Internet, which is not necessarily truthful and accurate, can unreasonably amplify users health concerns. Problematic Internet use, health anxiety aroused by online searches for health information and escalation of health concerns as an indicator of cyberchondria, are all associated with a decrease in subjective and eudaimonic well-being as well as in self-esteem. The analyses indicate positive relationships between depressive symptoms on the one hand, and Internet addiction and health anxiety, on the other. A conclusion regarding the existence of a relationship between Internet addiction, cyberchondria and decreased levels of well-being could be drawn from the research. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-esteem and eudaimonic well-being correlate positively with the number of people with whom users communicate online.
Sidney, James A; Jones, Ashlin; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron
The objective of this research is to advance the evaluation and monetization of well-being improvement programs, offered by population health management companies, by presenting a novel method that robustly monetizes the entirety of well-being improvement within a population. This was achieved by utilizing two employers' well-being assessments with medical and pharmacy administrative claims (2010-2011) across a large national employer (n = 50,647) and regional employer (n = 6170) data sets. This retrospective study sought to monetize both direct and indirect value of well-being improvement across a population whose medical costs are covered by an employer, insurer, and/or government entity. Logistic regression models were employed to estimate disease incidence rates and input-output modelling was used to measure indirect effects of well-being improvement. These methodological components removed the burden of specifying an exhaustive number of regression models, which would be difficult in small populations. Members who improved their well-being were less likely to become diseased. This reduction saved, per avoided occurrence, US$3060 of total annual health care costs. Of the members who were diseased, improvement in well-being equated to annual savings of US$62 while non-diseased members saved US$26. The method established here demonstrates the linkage between improved well-being and improved outcomes while maintaining applicability in varying populations.
Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva; O Gostin, Lawrence
President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?......President Trump has issued executive orders transforming US immigration policy, potentially harming patient health and well-being. Are the president’s orders lawful and ethical, and what are the effects on the health system?...
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was used to assess ab...
Vanhala, Sinikka; Tuomi, Kaija
This paper is dealing with the relationships between HRM, company performance and employee well-being. The relationship between S/HRM and company performance has received much attention in prior literature, while the employee perspective has been widely neglected in this research tradition. The purpose of this paper is two-fold: first, to identify and evaluate how company performance and employee well-being are related, and, secondly, to evaluate the possibilities of HR policies and practices...
Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Arenas, M Dolores; Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, M Dolores; Albaladejo-Blázquez, Natalia; Gil, M Teresa; de la Fuente, Vanesa
Spirituality can be defined as a personal search for meaning and purpose in life that may or may not encompass religion. In this article we report on the development and testing of an instrument for measuring spiritual well-being within a sample of haemodialysis patients. The main instrument, a 21-item Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS), comprises four scales: Life Perspective, Purpose and Goals, Confusion and Lessened Meaning, Harmony and Peace, and Benefits of Spirituality. A total score for spiritual well-being is also produced. We also used the following variables: clinical (time on haemodialysis, modified Charlson comorbidity index), sociodemographic (age, gender), and self-assessments of health, quality of life (general and recent), personal happiness, religiosity, and belief in the afterlife. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 94 haemodialysis patients. This study demonstrates that the MiLS-Sp is a psychometrically sound measure of spiritual well-being for dialysis patients (reliability, validity) as they manage the complex demands of a chronic illness. Spiritual well-being was significantly associated with various quality of life variables, health status, personal happiness, or religiosity in patients on dialysis. There was no relationship between spirituality scores and comorbidity, HD duration, gender, or age. Spiritual well-being is relatively low in dialysis patients. Spirituality may play an important role on psychological well-being, quality of life, and self-rated health for patients on haemodialysis. Spiritual well-being in these patients is relatively low. Results suggest that assessing and addressing spiritual well-being in dialysis patients may be helpful in clinical practice.
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (EPA 2015) developed the Human Well-being Index (HWBI) as an integrative measure of economic, social, and environmental contributions to well-being. The HWBI is composed of indicators and metrics representing eight domains of well-being: connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and security, and social cohesion. The domains and indicators in the HWBI were selected to provide a well-being framework that is broadly applicable to many different populations and communities, and can be customized using community-specific metrics. A primary purpose of this report is to adapt the US Human Well-Being Index (HWBI) to quantify human well-being for Puerto Rico. Additionally, our adaptation of the HWBI for Puerto Rico provides an example of how the HWBI can be adapted to different communities and technical guidance on processing data and calculating index using R.
Full Text Available A major focus of attention in psychology has been on the consequences and determinants of well-being. Religiosity and personality have both been shown to predict mental health and well-being, but the two predictors have not often been investigated together. In 4 studies involving 7 surveys (total N = 1,530 in various social and religious contexts, the relations among well-being, religious orientation, and personality factors were studied. Results showed that Extraversion was the single strongest correlate of higher levels of subjective and psychological well-being. Religiosity had null or weak positive relationships with well-being, and managed to explain variance in some aspects of positive functioning beyond personality factors. The null or week relationship of religiosity with well-being beyond personality was consistent across the HEXACO and the Big Five models of personality structure. It has been suggested that religion is relatively more important for eudaimonic than for hedonic way of living.
Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan
Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context. Practitioner Summary: Nature-based solutions are coming to the fore to address societal challenges such as well-being. As ergonomics is concerned with well-being, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the discipline. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being.
Full Text Available Conventional welfare production is unsustainable. A societal emphasis on (green economic growth may therefore be superseded by an extended concept of well-being. Taking a transformative approach, science may take part in catalysing this challenging transformation of both the understanding and the level of well-being. Instead of economic growth at the expense of sustainability, we aim to cooperatively refocus on integrating economic, social and ecological perspectives into a more holistic, sustainable approach to individual and municipal well-being in Wuppertal (Germany. Therefore, the research team investigates and develops concepts of local sustainable well-being production, e.g., by employing a new indicator system and the real-world laboratory approach. What are the conditions and constraints of transforming well-being in Wuppertal and most particularly of the role of scientists in this endeavour? Answering this research question with a comparative case study approach, we have analysed our resources, processes, contexts and normativity. The results show that the role of ‘transformative scientists’ in Wuppertal faces constraints of timing and funding, as well as challenges from the different demands of science and practice. Hampered co-design interacts with role conflicts. Open-minded stakeholders are crucial for local well-being transformation, as is the awareness that urban residential districts have bottomed out. However, the normative sustainability claims of the transformative research project are not fully shared by all of its stakeholders, which is both necessary and challenging for transformative research.
Anna M. Lomanowska
Full Text Available Engagement in intimate social interactions and relationships has an important influence on well-being. However, recent advances in Internet and mobile communication technologies have lead to a major shift in the mode of human social interactions, raising the question of how these technologies are impacting the experience of interpersonal intimacy and its relationship with well-being. Although the study of intimacy in online social interactions is still in its early stages, there is general agreement that a form of online intimacy can be experienced in this context. However, research into the relationship between online intimacy and well-being is critically limited. Our aim is to begin to address this research void by providing an operative perspective on this emerging field. After considering the characteristics of online intimacy, its multimodal components and its caveats, we present an analysis of existing evidence for the potential impact of online intimacy on well-being. We suggest that studies thus far have focused on online social interactions in a general sense, shedding little light on how the level of intimacy in these interactions may affect well-being outcomes. We then consider findings from studies of different components of intimacy in online social interactions, specifically self-disclosure and social support, to indirectly explore the potential contribution of online intimacy to health and well-being. Based on this analysis, we propose future directions for fundamental and practical research in this important new area of investigation.
Westerhof, Gerben J; Richters, Kristel; Ten Klooster, Peter M
The Well-Being Measure - dementia is a digital observation instrument that assesses the well-being of persons with dementia on four domains of quality of life: Mental well-being, Physical well-being, Participation, and Living arrangements. Its goal is to assess the well-being of persons with dementia in an easy and positive way. Besides illness-related symptoms and problems, the instrument also assesses positive aspects of functioning. It visualizes the results and provides specific behavioural advice to the caregivers. The goal of the present article is to conduct a first psychometric analysis: factor structure, reliability (Cronbach's alpha), concurrent, and convergent validity.Observations were carried out among 168 persons with dementia in eleven different small-scale psychogeriatric wards. Five existing instruments were used among 63 persons to validate the Well-Being Measure-dementia: quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms, care dependency, depression, and agitation.The expected factor structure was found in each of the four domains. Coefficients were high on the expected factor and low on the other factor(s). The scale means were on the positive side, but showed an adequate range and variability. Reliability was satisfactory to good. The relation with existing scales was moderate to strong. The pattern of relations was consistent with the measurement intentions of the different existing instruments.The Well-Being Measure - dementia appears to be a valid and reliable scale. Further studies should assess its test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change and relation with the course of dementia. Current experience shows that the instrument is also useful in everyday practice.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.
Lin, Dana T; Liebert, Cara A; Tran, Jennifer; Lau, James N; Salles, Arghavan
There is increasing recognition that physician wellness is critical; it not only benefits the provider, but also influences quality and patient care outcomes. Despite this, resident physicians suffer from a high rate of burnout and personal distress. Individuals with higher emotional intelligence (EI) are thought to perceive, process, and regulate emotions more effectively, which can lead to enhanced well-being and less emotional disturbance. This study sought to understand the relationship between EI and wellness among surgical residents. Residents in a single general surgery residency program were surveyed on a voluntary basis. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form. Resident wellness was assessed with the Dupuy Psychological General Well-Being Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form. Emotional intelligence and wellness parameters were correlated using Pearson coefficients. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of well-being. Seventy-three residents participated in the survey (response rate 63%). Emotional intelligence scores correlated positively with psychological well-being (r = 0.74; p emotional exhaustion (r = -0.69; p emotional exhaustion (β = -0.63; p Emotional intelligence is a strong predictor of resident well-being. Prospectively measuring EI can identify those who are most likely to thrive in surgical residency. Interventions to increase EI can be effective at optimizing the wellness of residents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait EI in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed. PMID:27582713
Annamaria Di Fabio
Full Text Available Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI, assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory (EQ-i and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TeiQue were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM was used to assess eudaimonic well-being. The results highlight the contributions of trait emotional intelligence in explaining both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, after controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. Implications for further research and intervention regarding future workers are discussed.
Full Text Available This study examines whether religious people experience more positive affect and less negative affect in everyday life and, if they do, whether it is because of the differences in how they allocate time to different activities or because they feel differently during similar activities. Using the well-being module from the 2010–13 American Time Use Survey (ATUS, I show that churchgoers enjoy a significantly higher level of affective well-being on Sunday than non-churchgoers do. The supplementary analysis of the Gallup Daily Poll data suggests that this higher level of affective well-being among churchgoers is found throughout the rest of the week as well. Further analyses of the ATUS demonstrate that about 40 percent of the affective well-being gap between churchgoers and non-churchgoers on Sunday can be explained by how they spend their time differently. Churchgoers spend more time on Sunday participating in pleasant activities shared with family members and friends than non-churchgoers do. More than half of the gap, however, remains unexplained, implying that it has to do with how they feel during similar activities rather than the activities in which they participate. I discuss the implications of these findings on the mechanisms underlying the link between religion and subjective well-being.
Martínez-González, M Covadonga; Martínez-González, Raquel-Amaya; Guerra-Tapia, Aurora
In recent years, there has been a great development of esthetic dermatology as a subspecialty of dermatology. It is important to know to which extent the general population regard this branch of medical surgical specialty as being of interest and contributing to emotional well-being. To analyze the technical features of a questionnaire which has been designed to reflect such perception of the general population about esthetic dermatology and its contribution to emotional well-being. Production and psychometric analysis of a self-filled in questionnaire in relation to esthetic dermatology and emotional well-being (DEBIE). This questionnaire is made of 57 items and has been applied to a sample of 770 people within the general population. The drawing-up process of the questionnaire is described to provide content validity. Items analysis was carried out together with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to assess the structure and construct validity of the tool. The extent of internal consistency (reliability) and concurrent validity has also been verified. DEBIE questionnaire (Spanish acronym for Aesthetic Dermatology and Emotional Well-being) revolves around six factors explaining 53.91% of the variance; there is a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α 0.90) and reasonable criterion validity. DEBIE questionnaire brings together adequate psychometric properties that can be applied to assess the perception that the general population have in relation to esthetic dermatology and its contribution to their emotional well-being. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.
Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child socioecono......Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...... socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents, suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant...
Sarda, Elisa; Bègue, Laurent; Bry, Clémentine; Gentile, Douglas
The overuse of online games is known to be inversely related to various indicators of well-being. This article validates the DSM-5 criteria of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and analyzes its links with five indicators of well-being: life satisfaction, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and academic performance in a French-speaking sample of 693 gamers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed a one-factor structure of IGD criteria. The IGD scale showed satisfactory validity and reliability and was related in a consistent way with well-being measures. The IGD scale appears to be an appropriate measure to assess video game addiction and will contribute to increase the comparability of international research on video game addiction.
Full Text Available Background : In the present era of globalization of business the nature of work organizations and its environment are changing radically extending noticeable impact on individual′s job, safety, health, and well-being. Material & Methods : The present study was designed to examine the effects of overall occupational health on psychological well-being in a sample of 150 line-staff operating in a production organization. Psychometrically standardized scales were employed to assess the extent of occupational health and psychological well-being. Results : The analyses of the obtained data revealed that occupational health positively correlates with employees′ mental health. Conclusion : The employees who perceived their work and its physical and psycho-social environment as to be adequate and healthy maintained relatively better overall mental health.
Full Text Available The growth of personal sensors and the ability to sensorize attributes connected with the physical beings and environments are increasing. Initiatives such as Internet of Things (IoT aim to connect devices and people through communication channels in order to automate and fuel interaction. Targeted approaches can be found on the Smart Cities projects which use the IoT to gather data from people and attributes related to city management. Though good for management of new cities, well-being should as well be of principal importance. It regards users higher than infrastructure and managerial data. Taking lessons from ergonomic studies, health studies and user habits it is possible to track and monitor user daily living. Moreover, the link between user living conditions and sparse events such as illness, indispositions can be tracked to well-being data through autonomous services. Such application is detailed in the approach categorized by this article and the research presented
Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko; Ikeda, Masako; Kawaura, Yasuyuki
In this study, a subjective well-being scale was developed, and its reliability and validity evaluated. The Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) had twelve items which covered four domains. It was administered to 1005 adults and 520 college students. Results indicated that for the students, college life satisfaction and self-esteem had positive correlations with SWBS score. For the adults, marital satisfaction, workplace satisfaction, and household income satisfaction had positive correlations with the score. These findings showed considerable constructive validity for SWBS. In addition, internal consistency was sufficiently high, indicating the measure's high reliability. SWBS may be a simple but reliable and valid measure, and it is useful for examining subjective well-being of both adults and college students.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between intrinsic/extrinsic/quest religious orientation and psychological well-being in a sample of 180 Spanish undergraduates, 138 women (76.7% and 42 men (23.3%, aged 18-55, M = 22.91, sD = 6.71. Spanish adaptations of the Batson and Ventis´ Religious Orientation Scaleand the Ryff´s psychological Well-Being Scales were used to this aim. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed (1 a positive relationship between the intrinsic orientation and the psychological well-being measures except for Autonomy, (2 a negative relationship between the extrinsic orientation and Autonomy, and (3 a negative relationship between the quest orientation, Self-acceptance and Purpose in life. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporting or physical recreation event participation can affect different domains of mental and social well-being if sufficiently frequent, yet previous research has focused mainly on the physical health benefits of single-location or infrequent mass-participation events. We examined overall and domain specific subjective well-being of adult participants of “parkrun”, a weekly, community-based, highly accessible and widespread running event. Methods Data were from a national online survey of 865 adult Australian parkrunners. Scores on nine individual measures and the global Personal Well-being Index (PWI were compared to national, normative data. Regression models tested associations between personal well-being and perceived benefits of parkrun (mental health and connection to community. Results Of 100 scores, 28% of means for parkrunners fell outside overall and age and gender subgroups normative ranges. Satisfaction with health was higher for male, those aged over 45 and overall parkrunners; only parkrunners aged 18–24 fell below their age group norm. Satisfaction with life as a whole was positively associated with perceived mental health benefits of parkrun, but not perceived community connection for women, and neither measure for men. PWI was positively associated with perceived community connection for men and with mental health benefit for women. Conclusions Australian parkrunners mostly reflect the general population on personal well-being, except report superior satisfaction with physical health. Women’s personal well-being may benefit from parkrun through improved mental health and men’s from community connectedness. parkrun may facilitate positive expression of identity and continuation of healthy habits among athletes, and non-demanding, health enhancing activity and social interaction for non-athletes.
E Ju Chebotareva
Full Text Available The article presents the study of subjective well-being correlations with such factors of intercultural communication, as ethnic identity, communicative tolerance, as well as some personality traits. Subjective well-being is positively related to ethnic identity and, ambiguously, to communicative tolerance. The main positive role in the intercultural communication is played by a person's satisfaction with the social support received, which is inversely related to some forms of extremist manifestations of ethnic identity and with many manifestations of intolerance. In contrast, satisfaction with daily activities, good self-reported health and mood stability are directly related to some forms of intolerance.
Marina Yuryevna Malkina
Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the differences in the level of Russian regions social well-being in 2004–2014. The objectives of the research are the assessment of the regional social well-being; evaluation of the interregional inequality and the degree of regions convergence/divergence in social well-being; estimation of the factors contributed to it. The social well-being is presented as a four-factor multiplicative model, based on the A. Sen extended function, which includes GDP per capita, share of personal incomes in GRP, cost of living index in the region and intra-regional income inequality. We evaluate the degree of interregional inequality in social well-being on the basis of generalized entropy indices (Theil index and Theil-Bernoulli index. The authors determined a contribution of factors to the interregional inequality according to the Duro-Esteban inequality decomposition technique. According to our hypothesis, the interregional differences decrease as we go from GRP per capita towards nominal and real income and social well-being of regions due to three compensation effects: distributive one, cost of living and intraregional inequality. The dynamics of these effects defines the character and extent of convergence. As a result of the research, we constructed the map of Russian Federation regions by social well-being, and discovered interregional differences in dynamics. Weighted entropy indices allowed to reveal the turning point in the tendency of the accelerated convergence of the Russian regions in 2009, and according to the unweighted entropy indices, there is a smooth turn to divergence in 2011. We determined the contribution of four factors and three crossings of the model in the formation of interregional differences by social well-being in statics. In dynamics, we revealed the positive impact on the convergence by production and distribution factors and the negative impact on it by the factors of cost of life and
Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R
This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Svensson, Ann-Marie; Mårtensson, Lena B; Muhli, Ulla H Hellström
In this article, we are concerned with narratives of elderly women's well-being from their perspectives of the latter parts of their life, living at special housing accommodation (SHA) in the context of Swedish elderly care. In focusing on narratives about well-being, we have a two-fold focus: (1) how the elderly women create their own identity and meaning-making based on lifetime experience; and (2) how narratives of well-being are reflected through the filter of life in situ at the SHA. Based on empirical data consisting of well-being narratives, a dialogical performance analysis was undertaken. The results show how relationships with important persons during various stages of life, and being together and enjoying fellowship with other people as well as enjoying freedom and self-determination, are central aspects of well-being. The conclusions drawn are that the characteristic phenomena of well-being (the what) in the narratives are continuity, identity, and sociality for the elderly person, and this is manifested (the how) as a question of contrasting the state of self-management and self-decline.
Kroesbergen, E.H.; Hooijdonk, M.; van Viersen, S.; Middel-Lalleman, M.M.N.; Reijnders, J.J.W.
This study examined the psychological well-being of gifted primary school children. From a screening sample of 233 children in Grades 1 and 2 across five schools in the Netherlands, 35 children achieving high scores on two out of three selection criteria (teacher nomination, creativity, and
Gordon, Jean; O'Toole, Linda
This article explores the perspective that well-being and creativity can be nurtured in children through understanding and addressing the diverse ways in which children learn, communicate, and develop (inner diversity). In particular, our working hypothesis is that focusing children's and young people's learning towards the realization of their…
Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne
This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…
This paper presents a study to gain insight into the effects of the visibility of medical equipment on the well-being of patients. Encounters with healthcare situations are characterized by stress and anxiety. The presence of wires, tubes, and monitors near the bedside may contribute to these
Van der Zee, KI; Salome, E
The present study examined the relation of demands and social support, and positive and negative Work-Home (WHI) and Home-Work interference (HWI) with the subjective well-being of expatriates. Moreover, we were also interested in crossover effects of expatriate interference to the subjective
Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa
It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some...
Ulrich, Marianne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Jensen, Claus
AIM: To study health, well-being in daily life, educational level and socio-economic status in adulthood in moderately premature infants and the relationship to gender and socio-economic status at birth. METHODS: Prospective long-term follow-up study of a cohort of infants with a gestational age...
We investigate differences in subjective well-being (life satisfaction) within the household using matched data on co-resident couples drawn from the 2008 National Income Dynamics Study for South Africa. The majority of men and women in co-resident partnerships report different levels of subjective wellbeing. We use ...
This paper estimates the contemporaneous response of household economic well-being to child health status and examines gender disparities in the response process, while controlling for other correlates. The paper uses the 2001 Cameroon household consumption survey and a range of survey-based regressions to ...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine Olesen; Madsen, Lene Møller
and institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. Itwas successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue...
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between leisure involvement and subjective well-being and clarify the moderating effect of spousal support in this relationship. A total of 254 questionnaires were collected from a sample of players of slow pitch softball. Structural equation modelling was utilised to ...
Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Røpke, Inge
Western bathroom standards, which have long been dominated by ideas of hygiene, seem to be in the process of change. Whereas transformations of kitchens have been well studied, little attention has been directed towards the contemporary development of bathrooms. This article provides a case study....... In particular, the notion of well-being is highlighted as challenging existing hygiene ideas....
Siren, Anu Kristiina; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa
This study, using focus group material, explored how independent mobility and personal wellbeing in old age are interconnected and which elements of mobility are the most essential for well-being by examining the way seniors talk about mobility and adapting to age-related mobility restrictions...
The study examined the contributions of perceived prevalence of financial crime, socioeconomic status and gender on psychological well-being among unemployed. The cross-sectional survey research design was employed. Participants were 288 unemployed graduates sampled in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria.
Kebza, V.; Kodl, M.; Šolcová, Iva; Kernová, V.
Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 414-414 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : well - being * Czech population sample * determinants Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
The present study determines a few differences between accident free drivers and drivers with a history of accidents. 30 public transport bus drivers with a record of road accidents were compared with 30 public transport drivers free of accidents on their knowledge of road rules an regulations, subjective well being, state and ...
This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and family well-being among couples in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State. This was against the backdrop of incessant family crises and maladjustment in contemporary society. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Three hundred and ...
Drinking-related domestic violence generalizes the negative consequences of drinking, engenders and aggravates household economic and health problems, and compromises the well-being of the family. The poor socioeconomic condition of the affected family constrains their capacity to provide treatment services for the ...
There is a plethora of literature that attests to the important implication of cultural orientation for many spheres of human existence. In previous research the individualism-collectivism construct has been associated with, and most predictive of, subjective well-being. However, these studies have predominantly, though not ...
Rasmussen, Birgit; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during rehabilita......Background: Dependency and limited functional ability is common when older people fracture their hip. Experiences of well-being seem to be important during recovery and when living with a hip fracture as a balancing of suffering. Evidence exists that self-confidence is important during...... qualitative studies of lived experiences of well-being and suffering within one year after discharge with hip fracture. Method: Following the methodology of the Joanna Briggs Institute, a three-step literature search strategy was developed. Initially, a structured search was performed in the databases CINAHL...... five steps of meaning condensation was performed. Results: 30 studies were critically appraised, leaving 29 studies for inclusion in the analysis. Two main categories emerged, each containing three sub-categories. “Balancing a new life” described how participants strived to regain well-being through...
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Lin, Gloria
With the growing popularity of Internet communication applications among adolescents, the Internet has become an important social context for their development. This paper examined the relationship between adolescent online activity and well-being. Participants included 156 adolescents between 15 to 18.4 years of age who were surveyed about their…
This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko
This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…
Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)
Chapman, Madeleine; Dammeyer, Jesper
Research has paid attention to how deaf identity affects life outcomes such as psychological well-being. However, studies are often carried out with small samples and without controlling for other variables. This study examined how different forms of identity--deaf, hearing, bicultural (deaf and hearing), and marginal (neither deaf nor…
It is increasingly important for adult educators to articulate more clearly their understanding of the benefits and outcomes of adult learning. This paper reviews existing evidence of the impact of participation in education, and particularly explores the relevance of recent studies of how learning has influenced adults' health and well-being.…
Full Text Available Waterfront cities worldwide have begun the process of regenerating and developing their formerly industrial waterfronts into land uses that reflect a post-industrial economic vision of mixed urban uses supporting a diverse economy and wide range of infrastructure. These revitalization projects require distinct planning and management tactics to determine project-defined successes inclusive of economic, ecological, and human well-being perspectives. While empirically developed templates for economic and ecological measures exist, the multi-dimensionality and subjective nature of human well-being is more difficult to assess. Through an extensive review of indicator frameworks and expert interviews, our research proposes an organizational, yet adaptable, human well-being indicators framework for the management and development of urban waterfront revitalization projects. We analyze the framework through the lens of two waterfront projects in the Puget Sound region of the United States and identify several key factors necessary to developing project-specific human well-being indicator frameworks for urban waterfront revitalization projects. These factors include: initially specify goals and objectives of a given project, acknowledge contextual conditions including prospective land uses and projected users, identify the stage of development or management to use appropriate indicators for that stage, and develop and utilize data sources that are at a similar scale to the size of the project.
van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R
Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2
In addition to teaching research and writing skills, First-Year Composition classes are well situated to help students develop strategies for managing stress and increasing well-being. I describe an assignment sequence in which students interview others from three generations about topics related to happiness and wellbeing, analyze shared…
Ha, Shang E.; Kim, Seokho
Although the statistically significant relationship between personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., self-reported happiness and life satisfaction) is well-known in the field of positive psychology, some scholars still cast doubt on the external validity of this finding and the strength of personality dimensions vis-a-vis other…
van der Wal, Reine C.; Karremans, Johan C.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
Although the ability to forgive offending peers may be crucial for maintaining long-term friendships in childhood, little is actually known about forgiveness among peers in childhood. In the present research, we examined whether forgiveness among children is related to enhanced psychological well-being. Importantly, we hypothesized that this…
Glenn, Norval D.; Kramer, Kathryn B.
Estimated the effects of parental divorce on eight dimensions of psychological well-being of white adults through multiple regression analysis of data from eight recent national surveys. Several statistically significant, estimated negative effects of an important magnitude were discovered, these being somewhat stronger and more pervasive for…
Motenko, Aluma Kopito
Interviewed 50 older women who were caring at home for a husband suffering from dementia. Examined patient's illness, marital relationship, cognitive age and a variety of socio-demographic variables. Tested hypothesis that it is important for wives to care for sick husbands to maintain their own sense of well-being. (Author/BHK)
Kim, Kyoung Jin; Wee, Su-Jeong; Gilbert, Beverly Boals; Choi, Jeonghee
Children's participation in yoga activities is receiving increasingly widespread attention as an exercise system that promotes not only physical health benefits but also psychological well-being. The authors of this article introduce how yoga practices can be implemented in an early childhood classroom to enhance children's mind and body harmony,…
Orthner, Dennis K.; Rose, Roderick
Using family resilience and ecological theories, we examine the relationship between partner work-required travel separations and spouse psychological well-being. The study examines the role of work-organization-provided supports for families and of informal support networks, including marital satisfaction, as factors that can reduce the risks for…
Baggio, J.; Papyrakis, E.
There has been extensive empirical research in recent years pointing to a weak correlation between economic growth and subjective well-being (happiness), at least for developed economies (i.e. the so-called 'Easterlin paradox'). Recent findings from the behavioural sciences and happiness literature
Jakobsson Bergstad, C.; Gamble, A.; Gärling, T.; Hagman, O.; Polk, M.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.
Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly
In this paper, I explore the enhancement agenda, which aims to enhance well-being nationwide and particularly among young people. Although it is said by its proponents to embody the ideas of Aristotle, I argue that its true theoretical underpinning is the polarised thinking of positive psychology. The sharp distinction between positive and…
Ess, Brian C.
The growth of Internet usage in American society has added new modes of communication, primarily through computer-mediated communication (CMC)on the Internet. Research on the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being has been mixed and this study attempted to reconcile the discrepancies in results by exploring the…
Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.
Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit
well-being of people living in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan (Central Asian Republics) and. Armenia and Georgia .... impersonal institutions necessary for the effective working of parties, business and civil society, - many .... objective conditions and the subjective evaluation of them and the impact this has on people's ability to ...
Silverberg, Susan B.; Steinberg, Laurence
Findings from a study of 129 families with a firstborn child 10 to 15 years old indicated only very modest direct relations between parental well-being and signs of adolescent development, such as pubertal status, mixed-sex social relations, and reasoning skills. Relations were moderated by the strength of parents' orientation toward their work…
An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 9(4), Serial No. 39, September, 2015:55-72. ISSN 1994-9057 (Print). ISSN 2070-0083 (Online). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v9i4.5. Organisational Justice and Psychological Well-Being of. Employees in the Local Government Service of Osun State,. Nigeria.
Trainor, Sarah; Delfabbro, Paul; Anderson, Sarah; Winefield, Anthony
We examined the validity of the reported link between well-being and leisure participation in adolescents. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Year 10 students from 19 schools in Adelaide, South Australia, were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning participation in social, non-social and unstructured leisure activities as well as…
Based on these findings, it was recommended that the schools or teachers should learn how to satisfy the emotional needs of children, using appropriate teaching techniques in the classroom. Keywords: Psychosocial well-being, Parenting Styles, Autonomy, Emotion, Stress and Interpersonal-interaction. African Journal for ...
The purpose of this study is to identify protective factors in college student development as they relate to psychological well-being (PWB). Using archival data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) dataset, this research was guided by a blend of models and constructs to capture the association between college student…
Liver enzymes and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic hepatitis C. ... Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Gamma – Glutamyltransferase (GGT) , Beck Depression Inventory (BDI ) & Profile of Mood States(POMS) and increase in Rosenberg ...
This study described the subjective well-being (SWB) experiences of Taiwanese undergraduate students. Thirty senior students from three different styles of universities participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 20 to 25 years old with an average of 21.65. A phenomenological methodology with in-depth interviews was employed. Five themes…
Eva, Amy L.; Thayer, Natalie M.
This article features a stress management approach that is becoming increasingly influential in schools: mindfulness-based stress reduction. The authors describe what it is, provide research-based evidence of its usefulness, and highlight mindfulness resources that educators can use to manage stress and improve their well-being (including…
Ferreira, Johanna G.; Venter, Elizabeth
The purpose of this research was to determine participants' perceptions of the positive influence of the natural environment on their well-being. Through a qualitative study, semistructured interviews were held with selected participants who enjoy activities in the natural environment. From the data analysis, particular themes emerged, namely the…
Shafaei, Azadeh; Nejati, Mehran; Abd Razak, Nordin
This study aims to investigate the relationship between acculturation attitude (i.e. adjustment and attachment attitudes) and individuals' psychological adaptation (i.e. life satisfaction, depression and self-esteem). Additionally, the relationship between the dimensions of psychological adaptation with psychological well-being and their mediation…
The quality of relationships is now recognised as an important aspect of children's subjective well-being. This article focuses on both positive and negative quality of relationships. It includes six areas of children's relationships--family, neighbourhood adults, positive affect friendship, negative affect friendship, experiences of being bullied…
The literature is divided on the issue of what matters for adolescents' well-being, with one approach focusing on quality and the other on routine family time. Using the experience sampling method, a unique form of time diary, and survey data drawn from the 500 Family Study ("N" = 237 adolescents with 8,122 observations), this study examined the…
Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter
Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.
Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo
This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…
Full Text Available ... Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being Video ...
Waddell, Erin L.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of background, psychological, and social variables on older adults' well-being, and how this may differ for men and women. Participants included 800 adults from the 2002 Health and Retirement Study (HRS), aged 60 to 101 years old (M = 71.22, SD = 8.46), who completed the optional positive…
Welzel, Christian; Inglehart, Ronald
This paper argues that feelings of agency are linked to human well-being through a sequence of adaptive mechanisms that promote human development, once existential conditions become permissive. In the first part, we elaborate on the evolutionary logic of this model and outline why an evolutionary perspective is helpful to understand changes in…
Chesmore, Ashley A.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.
The present study investigates the relationship between childhood placement in special education and adult well-being among 1,377 low-income, minority children participating in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Roughly 16% of the sample received special education services in Grades 1 to 8. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and early…
Ormel, J.; Lindenberg, S.M.; Steverink, N.; Verbrugge, L.M.
Recent reviews of scientific work on subjective well-being (SWB) reveal disagreements in conceptualization, measurement, and explanation of the concept. We propose Social Production Function theory as a framework to resolve them. Social Production Function (SPF) theory integrates strengths of
Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita
This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…
Uthayakumar, Ramya; Schimmack, Ulrich; Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.
Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness…
Full Text Available There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently. In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument--the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD--to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM.
There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently). In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument – the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD) – to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed) what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM. PMID:23691236
Herbers, Daniël Johannes
The ageing of many western populations calls for a better understanding of the factors related to well-being in later life. Family and housing are two domains that become increasingly important at older ages. At older ages people generally spend more time in and around the home, and social networks
Brown, Susan L.
Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…
This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort Mother-Child files to explore the idea that child well-being can be improved by encouraging and enhancing parental marriage. I consider how children's living arrangements, the stability of parental marriages, and changes in living arrangements are related to…
According to Deci and Ryan (1980), open awareness may be especially valuable in facilitating the choice of .... awareness' from the FFMQ and 'purpose in life' from Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale. (Table 5). .... has also explored the indirect measurement of PEDs (Brand et al., 2011; Huybers &. Mazanov, 2012).
Stanton, Alisa; Zandvliet, David; Dhaliwal, Rosie; Black, Tara
With the recent release of a new international charter on health promoting universities and institutions of higher education, universities and colleges are increasingly interested in providing learning experiences that enhance and support student well-being. Despite the recognition of learning environments as a potential setting for creating and…
Full Text Available ... and Vision Organizational Structure Director's Message Strategic Plans & Reports Budget & Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being ...
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffe, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the…
An individual's perception of and reactions to fairness in an organisation, is fundamental to human psychological and social interaction. ... a way that the psychological well-being of employees in terms of their thoughts, feelings, emotions, understanding, perception and interpersonal relations are protected among others.
Joost van Hoof; George Demiris; Eveline Wouters
Smart homes, home automation and ambient-assisted living are terms used to describe technological systems that enrich our living environment and provide means to support care, facilitate well-being and improve comfort. This handbook provides an overview of the domain from the perspective of health
This article focuses on "objective list" accounts of personal well-being and the related view that schools should aim at inducting students into a wide range of objective goods. It reviews various objective lists and notes that very many of them include knowledge, a love of beauty and close personal relationships. It then seeks to…
Barry, Margaret M.; Clarke, Aleisha Mary; Dowling, Katherine
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical perspective on the international evidence on promoting young people’s social and emotional well-being in schools. The challenges of integrating evidence-based interventions within schools are discussed and the need for innovative approaches
were used in this study namely, an Aggression Questionnaire and a Psychological Well-being Questionnaire. The research indicated the following: the Verbal Aggression and Host ility scores of the Tae Kwon Do participants were significantly lower than the hockey participants and non sport group. The Personal Growth and ...
Until recently, mainstream services for children in the UK have largely relied upon individual and reactive approaches to safeguarding children's welfare. However, recent legislative and policy reforms require the development of a more preventive orientation, capable of promoting the well-being of all children. This will require that agencies…
Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Dept. of Science Education.
The teacher's edition for the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study Level III unit entitled "Well-Being" provides instructions for teachers. The main thrust of this unit is on examining some principles of human physiology and how these are affected by various substances. A brief introduction dealing with concepts of food, smoking,…
Full Text Available ... second installment in NCCIH’s video series entitled The Science of Mind and Body Therapies . The first video, Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being , was launched September 2010. Learn more about yoga Press release NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to ...
Full Text Available ... video series entitled The Science of Mind and Body Therapies . The first video, Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being , was launched September 2010. Learn more about yoga Press release NCCIH has provided this material for your ...
Full Text Available In this paper we examine the intersection of well-being, agency and the current political and economic structures which impact on social work with adults and in doing so contribute to ‘interpreting and mapping out the force fields of meaning production' (Fornäs, Fredriksson & Johannisson 2011: 7. In it we draw upon Sointu's (2005 work which identified the shift from conceptualising well-being in terms of ‘the body politic' to conceptualising it in terms of ‘the body personal' and identified parallels with understanding well-being in English social work. There has been a shift in the nature of social work in the United Kingdom in how the question of agency has been addressed. For many years this was through the traditional notion of autonomy and self-determination (Biestek 1961 and later collective approaches to welfare and services (Bailey and Brake 1975. The development of paradigms of mainly personal empowerment in the 1980s and 1990s (Braye & Preston-Shoot 1995 saw social work become less associated with collective engagement in welfare and more concerned with the enhancement of individual well-being (Jordan 2007. Whilst the rhetoric of well-being, in contemporary English social work, continues to include autonomy and self-determination, this is focused primarily upon the narrower concepts of independence and choice (Simpson 2012. The UK Department of Health's A Vision for Adult Social Care: Capable Communities and Active Citizens (DoH 2010 is the template for national social care policy to which all Local Authorities in England had to respond with an implementation plan. This paper draws on a documentary analysis of two such plans drafted in 2012 in the wake of an ‘austerity budget' and consequent public ex-penditure reductions. The analysis considers the effect of economic imperatives on the conceptualisation of individual choices and needs in the context of Local Au-thorities' responsibilities to people collectively. A concept of
Silverman, Arielle M; Molton, Ivan R; Smith, Amanda E; Jensen, Mark P; Cohen, Geoffrey L
To determine whether having friends who share one's disability experiences is associated with higher well-being, and whether these friendships buffer well-being from disability-related stressors. Research Method/Design: In 2 cross-sectional studies, adults with long-term physical disabilities identified close friends who shared their diagnosis. We assessed well-being as a function of the number of friends that participants identified in each group. Study 1 included 71 adults with legal blindness living in the United States, while Study 2 included 1,453 adults in the United States with either muscular dystrophy (MD), multiple sclerosis (MS), post-polio syndrome (PPS), or spinal cord injury (SCI). In Study 1, having more friends sharing a blindness diagnosis was associated with higher life satisfaction, even controlling for the number of friends who were not blind. In Study 2, Participants with more friends sharing their diagnosis reported higher quality of life and satisfaction with social role participation. Participants with more friends sharing their diagnosis also showed and attenuated associations between the severity of their functional impairment and their quality of life and social role satisfaction, suggesting that their friendships buffered the impact of their functional impairment on well-being. Participants reporting more friends with any physical disability showed similar benefits. Friends with disabilities can offer uniquely important informational and emotional support resources that buffer the impact of a functional impairment on well-being. Psychosocial interventions should help people with long-term disabilities build their peer support networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Martins, Conceição; Gouveia, Ana; Chaves, Melanie; Lourenço, Rafael; Marques, Sara; Santos, Telmo
Violence in dating relationships involves dimensions such as physical, psychological and sexual abuse, requiring strategies for prevention and early intervention. To identify the socio-demographic variables that influence violence in dating relationships; to identify whether having been a victim and/or witnessing violence in childhood has significant effect on violence in dating relationships; to verify the correlation between violence in dating relationships and psychological well-being. Quantitative non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. Data collection conducted by a socio-demographic characterisation questionnaire; Dating Relationship Victimization Practices and Behaviours Scale and Demonstration of Psychological Well-Being Measurement Scale. The non-probabilistic, convenience sample consisted of 203 students from the Health School of Viseu. Mostly female students gender; Mean age of 18.85 years, minimum of 18 and maximum of 34; Gender and having been a victim or witness of violence against children and sexual violence are variables that seem to intervene in dating violence and psychological well-being. Age has an influence on psychological well-being. Stalking violence and psychological violence were more prevalent in the study sample. It was found that the presence of any type of violence is associated with a decrease in student psychological well-being. By analysing the results we can infer the need to include this topic in education/training, active methodologies and effective participation of all stakeholders in the process, with a view to promoting and developing relationship and affective skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lin, Wen-Chuan; Gau, Meei-Ling; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, long-term, and non-life-threatening disease. Individuals with RA face various daily pressures that include physical symptoms as well as feelings of helplessness, dependency, threats to self-respect, interference with social activities, disruptions of family ties, and difficulties in continuing to work. Quality of life reflects a patient's spiritual well-being and can be used as an important indicator of adaptation to RA. The aim of this study was to describe the status of spiritual well-being in RA patients. This study used meta-synthesis with Sandelowski and Barroso's qualitative meta-summary technique. A comprehensive search of Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICA LES, and SocINDEX using relevant keywords identified primary research studies that have previously explored spiritual well-being in patients with RA. Each study was systematically evaluated on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: (a) clear descriptions of research purposes and qualitative research, sampling strategies and techniques used; (b) statement of sample size and sample variables; (c) description of data analysis methods used; and (d) quality of research finding presentation. A total of 675 articles, published between 1995 and 2009, were found. Ten met the inclusion criteria. The results revealed four consistent themes related to RA patients' spiritual well-being, namely, living with the disease, reclaiming control, reframing the situation, and bolstering courage. Multifaceted resources should be used to give patients spiritual support. These resources should include establishing cognition-based education programs that provide information about the disease and programs that offer strong support for patient groups. Curricula should address how to plan family education courses. Spiritual well-being as presented in this study should be integrated into quality-of-life evaluations of RA patients and provide an evaluation tool able to
Swindells, Rachel; Lawthom, Rebecca; Rowley, Kevin; Siddiquee, Asiya; Kilroy, Amanda; Kagan, Carolyn
This article considers eudaimonic models of psychological well-being in relation to qualitative data previously gathered as part of Manchester Metropolitan University's Invest to Save Arts in Health programme (2004-07). The research draws from 21 interviews with participants involved in Invest to Save arts projects for older people and adults with a mental health diagnosis. Using a collaborative team approach, a hybrid thematic analysis was undertaken alongside an updated literature review framed by positive psychology and with a focus on well-being. The analysis identified eudaimonic themes of autonomy/intrinsic motivation and challenge to be particularly pertinent to participants' experiences of the scheme. Findings suggest that the programme provided a sense of purposeful occupation, cognitive and creative challenge and opportunities for autonomous self-expression and heightened concentration (flow). Many participants identified with the arts activities on offer and, while not necessarily aspiring to achieve any particular status, were intrinsically motivated to develop what they considered to be their innate creative potential. Some also reported that sustained engagement was important to their continued psychological well-being. Arts and health researchers might usefully draw from theories of well-being from positive psychology. Both fields are compatible in that they share an interest in human flourishing and understanding of wellness as more than an absence of dysfunction or disease. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the limited results presented here are representative of other populations. What does seem evident is that arts projects have a broad appeal and can be highly inclusive, accommodating participants with diverse needs. More generally the investigation raises questions about the cultural scaffolds that are in place to support eudaimonic well-being across the lifespan, as well as the consequences of restricting such opportunities for
Sankelo, Merja; Akerblad, Leena
This study describes the well-being at work of nurse entrepreneurs and owner-managers of social care companies in Finland from the vantage point of health and working capacity, general coping and job satisfaction and identifies factors associated with well-being. In recent years, increasing numbers of nurses have been starting up in business in the social care sector. As yet, there has been only limited research into their well-being at work. Survey. This study was conducted as part of a questionnaire survey among 335 social care entrepreneurs with different educational backgrounds. The sample for the study reported here consisted of those respondents who had a registered nurse degree (n = 84). The data were analysed by SPSS statistical software. Most of the respondents rated their physical, mental, financial and social situation and working capacity as good. Less than half of the respondents had experienced stress during the past year. Over half felt their coping efficacy was better than it had been shortly after starting up in business. The respondents' resources were consumed and strengthened by a range of different work-related factors. The majority were satisfied with their job as an entrepreneur. Several background factors were associated with the results. Most of the nurse entrepreneurs reported being content with their well-being at work. Nevertheless, the results also highlighted factors that could and should be addressed to improve the well-being at work of entrepreneurs who struggle to cope. The results provide useful information for the development of entrepreneurial training for nurses, for the design and provision of occupational health care services and for the enrichment of the content of the entrepreneur's job.
Full Text Available Practitioners’ well-being and clinical risk management are two interrelated concepts in healthcare. Patient safety, workers’ safety and practitioners well-being have often been managed and measured with different methods, even though they are tightly linked. In this paper we propose a method that is suitable to increase organizational health. The action-research project aims to increase the commitment of healthcare managers and practitioners towards the development of an organizational culture which is oriented to patient and practitioner safety and well-being. These are crucial organizational resource for an effective process management. The project lasted 2 years and involved 60 nurses and physicians working in the operating room of six hospitals in the North of Italy. The project aimed to develop an inter-organizational methodology for noticing and monitoring critical threats to safety and well-being. The tool consisted of a report form in which practitioners could describe possible threats, solutions and personal contributions to the solutions. The participants designed it according to their practice and it was considered suitable and usable in their current work activities. Its added value is to overcome the habitual bottleneck between anomalies investigation and action planning, by identifying a specific role in the learning process to take care of the transition from data gathering to data use. The tool aims to enable individuals and teams to monitor and share ideas about critical aspects that affect their safety and well-being, collect contributions to solve them, sustain dissemination of good practices and frame health promotion as a crucial organizational resource.
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Background: Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive–comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann–Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Results: Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. Conclusions: The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year
Abbasi, Mojgan; Farahani-Nia, Marhamat; Mehrdad, Neda; Givari, Azam; Haghani, Hamid
Spiritual care should be considered an important part of holistic and multidisciplinary care and it has not been given much importance so far. We should begin with student nurses, who will soon be clinicians, to find out about potentiality of the nursing profession to put spiritual care into practice. Little has been known about spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives among nursing students. In this study, a comparison has been made in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives between the first and fourth year baccalaureate nursing students. This is a descriptive-comparative study that was carried out among 283 nursing students. All the students were Iranians studying in the universities of Iran, Tehran, and Shahid Beheshti medical sciences. They volunteered to participate in the study. There were 105 first year students and 178 fourth year students. The questionnaires used were on Spiritual Well-being (SWB) Scale, Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS), and Nursing Spiritual Care Perspective Scale (NSCPS). The statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (distribution frequency, mean, and standard deviation). Mann-Whitney test was to compare each item and independent t-test to compare the mean values of two groups. Regarding spiritual well-being, there were no significant differences between the two groups. 98.8% of the first year students and 100% of the fourth year students were in the category of moderate spiritual well-being. Neither were there any significant differences between the two groups in spiritual perspective and spiritual care perspectives. The scores of fourth year nursing students were similar to those of first year students in spiritual well-being, spirituality, and spiritual care perspectives, though the fourth year students had already undergone 4-year nursing course. Including spiritual care in the curriculum of
Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A
The word "gratitude" has a number of different meanings, depending on the context. However, a practical clinical definition is as follows-gratitude is the appreciation of what is valuable and meaningful to oneself; it is a general state of thankfulness and/or appreciation. The majority of empirical studies indicate that there is an association between gratitude and a sense of overall well being. However, there are several studies that indicate potential nuances in the relationship between gratitude and well being as well as studies with negative findings. In terms of assessing gratitude, numerous assessment measures are available. From a clinical perspective, there are suggested therapeutic exercises and techniques to enhance gratitude, and they appear relatively simple and easy to integrate into psychotherapy practice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of these techniques remains largely unknown. Only future research will clarify the many questions around assessment, potential benefits, and enhancement of gratitude.
The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within...... is closer to the actual income distribution than in the Continental European and Liberal regimes, and in the Southern European regime the preferences are far away from being achieved. In The Netherlands and in Ireland the preferences are for a traditional bread-winner model, as there is found a u......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being....
Evans, Scotney D; Raymond, Catherine; Levine, Daniella
Traditional capacity-building approaches tend to be organizationally focused ignoring the fact that community-based organizations learn and take action in a larger network working to promote positive community change. The specific aim of this paper was to outline a vision for a Third Sector Alliance to build organizational, network, and sector capacity for community well-being in Miami. Building a foundation for social impact requires a strategy for organizational, network, and sector capacity building. Organizational, network, and sector capacity building can best be achieved through a cooperative network approach driven by a solid community-university partnership. Although a Third Sector Alliance for Community Well-being does not yet exist in Miami, Catalyst Miami and the University of Miami (UM) have partnered closely to articulate a vision of what could be and have been working to make that vision a reality.
Van Lente, Eric; Barry, Margaret M.; Molcho, Michal; Morgan, Karen; Watson, Dorothy; Harrington, Janas; McGee, Hannah
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines the relationships between indicators of positive and negative dimensions of mental health, social well-being and physical health. METHODS: The paper reports on data collected in the third National Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN 2007), a cross-sectional survey conducted with a representative sample of 10,364 Irish adults. The survey included measures of positive mental health and non-specific psychological distress from the SF-36 questionnair...
Results obtained from this study showed that there are significant effects of parenting styles on emotional well-being of adolescents (F = 47.05, df = 1:248, P < .05), Interpersonal-interaction of adolescents (F = 48.92, df = 1:248, P < .05), and stress influence of adolescents (F=82.72, df = 1:248, P < .05). Based on these ...
van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde
This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue that these characteristics shape SWB through the benefits they bring. Benefits considered are more social trust, less stress, better health, and more social support. Results confirm that higher fr...
Jakobsson Bergstad, C.; Gamble, A; Gärling, T.; Hagman, O.; Polk, M.; Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.
Previous research demonstrates an impact on subjective well-being (SWB) of affect associated with routine performance of out-of-home activities. A primary aim of the present study is to investigate whether satisfaction with daily travel has a positive impact on SWB, either directly or indirectly through facilitating the performance of out-of-home activities. A secondary aim is to determine whether emotional-symbolic or instrumental reasons for car use results in higher satisfaction with daily...
Diesfeldt, H F A
Responses of 1,442 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care (mean age 78.8; SD 6.5) to 15 items of a mood questionnaire were analyzed by Mokken scale analysis which is based on nonparametric item response theory models. As from 2002, 825 participants also answered eight self-esteem questions. For the purpose of an exploratory and confirmatory study the sample was split into random halves. The sample represented a broad range of cognitive impairment, from moderately severe to mild dementia. An automated item selection procedure available in the R package mokken revealed a scale for emotional well-being consisting of nine items fitting the monotone homogeneity model of unidimensionality and adequate person separation (Loevingers H=0.37; SE=0.02; Cronbach's coefficient alpha=0.79; SE=0.02). A confirmatory analysis in the second random half of the sample confirmed these results. The scale for emotional well-being consists of the items feeling 'contented', 'healthy', 'tired', 'lonely', 'down', 'in good spirits', 'helpless', 'weak' and 'having faith in the future'. Mokken scale analysis of the eight self-worth items confirmed the unidimensionality and discriminatory power of the self-esteem scale (H=0.41; SE=0.03; Cronbach's alpha=0.80; SE=0.02). Emotional well-being was positively associated with self-worth (Spearman correlation=0.56; 95%-confidence interval [0.49;0.62]). The two scales allow the objective ordering of persons on the latent variables of emotional well-being and self-worth by their test scores. Three case vignettes illustrate application of the indicators in clinical psychogeriatric practice.
Nalin,Cristiane Pimentel; França,Lucia Helena de Freitas Pinho
The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%), and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7). The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The result...
Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus
The present study investigated the workplace experiences of junior physicians in their first year of residency, and the impact of these experiences on their physical and psychological well-being. In a prospective longitudinal study 518 junior physicians (54.4% women, 45.6% men) were investigated twice within two years with regard to individual and institutional determinants of career development. Gender-relevant workplace experiences, i. e. effort-reward imbalance, and their relation to physical and psychological well-being, i. e. anxiety and depression, as well as life satisfaction were evaluated. The workplace experiences revealed three significant gender-specific results: Women residents received less mentoring, had more positive social relationships at work, and showed a higher over-commitment than their male colleagues. Both men and women residents reported significantly worse physical and psychological well-being as well as life satisfaction after their first year of residency (T2) compared to the time directly before their graduation from medical school (T1). The junior physicians' life satisfaction scores are significantly lower than those of the normal population. 7-10% of the respondents showed anxiety scores above cut-off, and 1-4% depression scores above cut-off. Personality traits such as a high sense of coherence and low expressiveness are protective factors for well-being and life satisfaction. Insufficient leadership of senior residents and unclear hierarchical structures as well as stress at work and over-commitment are risk factors for the development of symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. The reported results are consistent with the psychosocial stress model by Karasek and Theorell as well as with the model of effort-reward imbalance of Siegrist.
Ahmet Bulent Yazici
Full Text Available Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt- Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students’ pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people.
Full Text Available Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64% did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction or even negatively (empathic concern related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects. Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions.
Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.
Spokane, Arnold R.; Lombard, Joanna L.; Martinez, Frank; Mason, Craig A.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Brown, Scott C.; Perrino, Tatiana; Szapocznik, José
To determine effective relationships between the built environment and health and well-being, a transdisciplinary team of architectural, behavioral and health scientists developed a built environment coding system (UMBECS). They examined the relationship of resulting streetscape features to health and well-being at the block level. The research team conducted studies of the validity of UMBECS focusing on children through school conduct and grades, and on elders through a longitudinal cognitive functioning study. For children, contrary to popularly held views, commercial-residential mix was as effective as a high proportion of residential use in predicting children’s school outcomes (i.e., better conduct, achievement, effort, and grades). For elders, modest but statistically significant relationships existed between block-level features, elders’ neighboring behaviors, and social support, which in turn were significantly associated with cognitive and affective functioning. These findings suggest the utility of this built environment coding system for examining the relationship of built environment features to residents’ health and well-being. UMBECS offers a useful tool for developing a viable transdisciplinary model of the role of the built environment in behavioral and health outcomes. PMID:23144498
Sels, Laura; Ceulemans, Eva; Bulteel, Kirsten; Kuppens, Peter
Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64%) did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction) or even negatively (empathic concern) related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects) accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects). Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions. PMID:27014114
Yearwood, Edilma; Riley, Joan B
This paper is a report of a study of baccalaureate nursing students' experiences with curriculum infusion of college health issues into academic courses and students' well-being. Bringing Theory to Practice is an ongoing project at a number of colleges in the United States of America. Its goal is to use the academic classroom and campus community to engage students actively in self-reflection on a variety of common college student health and well-being issues. This qualitative study was based on 159 students' experiences with curriculum infusion in two undergraduate nursing courses at a university in the United States of America over a 2-year period from 2006 to 2008. Student reflection papers, photo-essays, narrative course evaluations, classroom engagement with educators and peers and student use of campus health resources were the data examined. As a result of the integration of personal wellness concepts into classroom pedagogy, students experienced a variety of feelings and needs including isolation, shock and anger, taking time, awareness and valuing. In light of the increasing rigour of baccalaureate nursing programmes, it is important for educators to be aware of the health-related effects of stress and isolation on students. By increasing student self-awareness and changing relational dynamics in the classroom, student well-being can be supported.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the creation of a multidimensional model of occupational well-being for child welfare professions and the definition of the model’s six dimensions of well-being: affective, social, cognitive, professional, personal, and psychosocial well-being. Previous concepts that were used to describe child welfare employees’ well-being at work focused, primarily, on single aspects of work-related mental distress or well-being, disregarding the complexity of well-being in child welfare professions. The model presented here is based on an analysis of theoretical concepts and empirical studies addressing child welfare workers’ mental distress and well-being. The body of variables, consisting of individual and organizational factors and gathered from the analysis, is used to create a positively oriented model. The key processes in developing psychological distress, as well as employee well-being, are seen in worker–client relationships and the interactions of organizations with their employees. The presented model reveals the importance of constructive interaction between organizations and employees concerning the creation and maintenance of occupational well-being. Application of the model will contribute to the enhancement of the occupational well-being of child welfare employees and, thereby, of organizational well-being. Additional investigations are needed for the empirical validation of the model.
An intervention was carried out with primary school staff to promote well-being with weekly sessions of a project which became known as Chill and Chat. Data were gathered via questionnaires completed before and after the project and from three focus groups (before, during and after the intervention), and were analysed using thematic analysis.…
Päätalo, Kati; Kyngäs, Helvi
Young nurses' intent to leave the nursing profession is a recognized problem. Ensuring well-being at work is one method to support nurses' continuance in the profession. To identify factors that promote the well-being at work of graduating nursing students. The data were collected from nursing students (n = 16) during their training in University of Applied Sciences in Finland using purposeful sampling and open data collection forms. The data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. Well-being at work was divided into: meaningfulness of work shift planning, professionally developing, meaningful work and feeling of competence, helping, supporting and respectful work community and reasonable preconditions of work. Feeling of respect, adequate support at work, flexible working times and good possibilities for professional development would enhance young nurses' well-being at work.
Full Text Available The article examines the impact of professional well-being of EU citizens on their life satisfaction at both micro and macro levels. The following indicators were selected to describe the professional well-being: involvment in the official employment, level of education, and job satisfaction. The findings of the article suggest that employed respondents evaluated their subjective well-being significantly higher as compared to those not participating in the labour market. Similar findings were drawn when comparing subjective well-being of the respondents in relation to their education. Respondents with higher education reported significantly higher statistically proven subjective well-being than those with lower education. In the article, the interpretation of the findings is based on the conceptual model of subjective well-being of needs as well as on the role of employment and education in satisfaction of physiological and socially acceptable needs of individuals. Work activity is more directly linked with the satisfaction of individual needs than education. However, engagement in work has only an impact on subjective well-being if work activity is perceived as job satisfaction. If employment is perceived by individuals as providing greater satisfaction, it tends to make a more positive impact on the subjective well-being of individuals compared to activities that are perceived as providing less satisfaction.
Background A new evidence base is emerging, which focuses on well-being. This makes it possible for health services to orientate around promoting well-being as well as treating illness, and so to make a reality of the long-standing rhetoric that health is more than the absence of illness. The aim of this paper is to support the re-orientation of health services around promoting well-being. Mental health services are used as an example to illustrate the new knowledge skills which will be needed by health professionals. Discussion New forms of evidence give a triangulated understanding about the promotion of well-being in mental health services. The academic discipline of positive psychology is developing evidence-based interventions to improve well-being. This complements the results emerging from synthesising narratives about recovery from mental illness, which provide ecologically valid insights into the processes by which people experiencing mental illness can develop a purposeful and meaningful life. The implications for health professionals are explored. In relation to working with individuals, more emphasis on the person's own goals and strengths will be needed, with integration of interventions which promote well-being into routine clinical practice. In addition, a more societally-focussed role for professionals is envisaged, in which a central part of the job is to influence local and national policies and practices that impact on well-being. Summary If health services are to give primacy to increasing well-being, rather than to treating illness, then health workers need new approaches to working with individuals. For mental health services, this will involve the incorporation of emerging knowledge from recovery and from positive psychology into education and training for all mental health professionals, and changes to some long-established working practices. PMID:20102609
A new evidence base is emerging, which focuses on well-being. This makes it possible for health services to orientate around promoting well-being as well as treating illness, and so to make a reality of the long-standing rhetoric that health is more than the absence of illness. The aim of this paper is to support the re-orientation of health services around promoting well-being. Mental health services are used as an example to illustrate the new knowledge skills which will be needed by health professionals. New forms of evidence give a triangulated understanding about the promotion of well-being in mental health services. The academic discipline of positive psychology is developing evidence-based interventions to improve well-being. This complements the results emerging from synthesising narratives about recovery from mental illness, which provide ecologically valid insights into the processes by which people experiencing mental illness can develop a purposeful and meaningful life. The implications for health professionals are explored. In relation to working with individuals, more emphasis on the person's own goals and strengths will be needed, with integration of interventions which promote well-being into routine clinical practice. In addition, a more societally-focussed role for professionals is envisaged, in which a central part of the job is to influence local and national policies and practices that impact on well-being. If health services are to give primacy to increasing well-being, rather than to treating illness, then health workers need new approaches to working with individuals. For mental health services, this will involve the incorporation of emerging knowledge from recovery and from positive psychology into education and training for all mental health professionals, and changes to some long-established working practices.
Garrett, Jeremy R; Lantos, John D
Children's well-being has become the focal consideration in legal and public policy debates regarding same-sex marriage. In this article, we critically examine and rebut the central moral argument made by opponents of same-sex marriage: that the state should not license any domestic arrangement other than "traditional marriage" because doing so would be detrimental to children's well-being. Although many have challenged the empirical premise that children raised by same-sex couples fare worse than children in other arrangements, we focus primarily on the normative premises for exclusively licensing traditional (that is, monogamous, heterosexual) marriage. We argue that even if the empirical support for its claims was strong, the argument is morally insufficient for denying state recognition to other types of relationships. Importantly, we affirm the state's vital role in promoting children's well-being. We question, however, the approach of delegitimizing certain relationships as a means to that end. Instead, we argue, the state should encourage and support individuals who want to care for children, presume that any couple or individual is capable of adequate child-rearing, and ensure that all adults who are raising children (whether married or not) have the material resources and support necessary to be good parents. Such a policy would (1) set a reasonable minimal threshold for state recognition, (2) be vigilant in identifying cases falling below this threshold, and then (3) either assist or disqualify underperforming arrangements. It would also, appropriately, decouple arguments about legitimate and illegitimate types of relationships from arguments about what is best for children.
Roy, Michael J; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel; Kay, Alan
In this article we attempt to make sense of recent policy directions and controversies relating to the 'social enterprise' and 'health' interface. In doing so, we outline the unrecognised potential of social enterprise for generating health and well-being improvement, and the subsequent challenges for government, the sector itself, and for the research community. Although we focus primarily upon the U.K. policy landscape, the key message--that social enterprise could represent an innovative and sustainable public health intervention--is a useful contribution to the ongoing international debate on how best to address the challenge of persistent and widening health inequalities.
Cheshire, A.; Ridge, Damien T.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background to the evaluation Men’s mental health and well-being is increasingly of concern. In England and Wales, the suicide rate is now almost four times higher for men (78%) than women (22%). Rates of diagnosis of men’s mental health problems do not capture distress among men well, as men may express distress in atypical ways (eg acting out, blunting emotions), suggesting that we need a deeper understanding of male experiences of distress and ‘men-friendly’ services to be...
Bieling, Claudia; Plieninger, Tobias; Pirker, Heidemarie
in Germany and Austria by performing open, single-question interviews with 262 respondents. Data reveal an outstanding relevance of nonmaterial values. Linkages between landscapes and human well-being are tied to specific features of the material environment but, likewise, practices and experiences play...... an important role in the creation and acknowledgment of such values. Our results accord with the conceptual outline of the cultural values model but fit to a lesser degree into the ecosystem services framework. Due to the high relevance of experiential factors, providing manifold opportunities for people...
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…
Muro, Anna; Artero, Natàlia
Clinical research has shown the mental health benefits of dance practice. This has become a significant subject of inquiry in psychotherapeutic settings for the elderly and adolescents. However, the relationship between dance practice and correlates of psychological well-being, such as mindfulness and life satisfaction (LS)-two relevant indicators of mental health, has been explored relatively little in young women. The present study contrasted mindfulness and LS in young women (n = 81) who practiced dance regularly in three modern dance schools in the Province of Barcelona with a control group of non-practitioners (n = 120) studying at a university in Barcelona. The data were collected during the first semester of 2015, and the total sample had an average age of 20.88 ± 3.36 years. Analyses of covariance showed higher levels of both mindfulness and LS in the dance practitioners, while a multiple regression analysis showed that, after controlling for age, dance was the factor most strongly associated with LS, explaining 28% of the variance in LS. These results are discussed in terms of the embodiment theory, and conclusions suggest that dance may be an effective gender-focused practice to enhance well-being and promote mental health in young women.
Veitch, Jennifer A
People spend much of their waking time in their workplaces (approximately 33% on a weekly basis), which raises the possibility that the conditions they experience at work influence their health and well-being. The workplace design literature has given scant attention to mental health outcomes, instead focusing on healthy populations. Conversely, the mental health literature gives scant attention to the potential contribution of workplace design in preventing mental health problems; nor does it provide much insight into facilitating return to work. Taken together, however, the literature does suggest both lines of research and possible interventions. Existing knowledge proposes that workplace design can influence mental health via the effects of light exposure on circadian regulation, social behaviour and affect; the effects of aesthetic judgement on at-work mood and physical well-being and at-home sleep quality; access to nature and recovery from stressful experiences; and privacy regulation and stimulus control. This paper includes a short review of the literature in this area, proposals for new research directions and consideration of the implications of this information on the design choices made by business owners, designers and facility managers. Providing suitable working conditions for all employees avoids stigmatizing employees who have mental health problems, while facilitating prevention and return to work among those who do. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.
Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu
This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.
Religion plays a pivotal role in intergroup and interpersonal relationships in Northern Ireland, and individuals traditionally marry within their own religious group. However, 'mixed' marriages between Catholics and Protestants do occur and present an interesting, yet under researched, dynamic within this divided society. Both religion and committed relationships have been associated with physical and psychological health, but little is known about how divergence in religious beliefs within relationships impacts on health. A secondary data analysis of the Northern Ireland cohort of the Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study was conducted to investigate the impact of mixed religion relationships on physical and psychological well-being in Northern Ireland. Less than 10% of relationships were mixed religion relationships, and being in a mixed relationship was associated with poorer mental health but not with physical health. Mixed religion relationships in Northern Ireland are relatively uncommon in Northern Ireland, but are an important form of intergroup contact, as such it is important to fully understand the implications for the individuals involved and develop mechanisms to support those individuals psychological well-being.
Taylor, Valerie [Texas Engineering Experiment Station, College Station, TX (United States)
The 2013 CMD-IT National Laboratories Professional Development Workshop for Underrepresented Participants (CMD-IT NLPDev 2013) was held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus in Oak Ridge, TN. from June 13 - 14, 2013. Sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, the primary goal of these workshops is to provide information about career opportunities in computational science at the various national laboratories and to mentor the underrepresented participants through community building and expert presentations focused on career success. This second annual workshop offered sessions to facilitate career advancement and, in particular, the strategies and resources needed to be successful at the national laboratories.
Chana, Navtej; Kennedy, Paul; Chessell, Zoë J
To examine the relationships between structural factors (work stressors), individual factors (demographics and the personal resources of resilience and social support) and transactional factors (appraisals and coping), and nursing staffs' levels of burnout, psychological distress and caring behaviours. A further aim was to examine the relationships between nursing staffs' levels of burnout and psychological distress and their caring behaviours. Burnout and psychological distress levels have been found to be high in National Health Service nursing staff and furthermore this emotional distress has been found to affect patient care. In a National Health Service striving to provide high-quality patient-centred care, it is essential that factors affecting nursing staffs' well-being and their caring behaviours are examined. A cross-sectional correlation-based survey design. A sample of 102 nursing staff from an Acute National Health Service Trust were recruited in 2010. Participants completed the questionnaires: Nursing Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire-Short Form, Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale-2, Occupational Coping Self-Efficacy Scale for Nurses, PsychNurse Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Caring Behaviours Inventory-revised. Due to the nonparametric nature of part of the data, Spearman's Rho correlations were used for analysis. Demographics were not found to be regularly correlated with nursing staffs' burnout, psychological distress or caring behaviours. Work stressors, coping strategies and self-efficacy were found to be significantly correlated with nursing staffs' burnout and psychological distress. Caring behaviours were also correlated with coping strategies and self-efficacy. Importantly, correlations were found between caring behaviours and nursing staffs' burnout and psychological distress. It is extremely important that the emotional well-being of nursing staff is supported, both for them, and
Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena
Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
RAYMOND A. R. MacDonald
Full Text Available The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.
MacDonald, Raymond A R
The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components.
Anderson, R M
Historically, the issue of sexual health has been largely considered with respect to the associated negative health outcomes. The dangers of sexual activity such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV/AIDS, unintended pregnancy, sexual coercion, and sexual violence have dominated the attention of those working in the field. Over the last 20 years, and particularly in the last decade, an increasing number of people from a variety disciplines that address issues of sexual health have developed a new discourse concerning the positive aspects of sexuality. This review of the literature explores this emerging discourse. The results indicate that sexual health, physical health, mental health, and overall well-being are all positively associated with sexual satisfaction, sexual self-esteem, and sexual pleasure. The beneficial effects of sexual satisfaction should be integrated into programs that seek to improve these diverse health outcomes through service delivery, prevention, and sexuality education.
Full Text Available Introduction: Physician health and well-being is an important issue that ultimately affects job performance. We compared the self-reported incidence of known medical issues, physical and mental health symptoms, and health behaviors of Emergency Physicians (EPs with the general public in the United States. Methods: Questions selected from a national survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control (CDC about public health trends were distributed to via Facebook to a private group of 12,917 EPs. Responses were compared between EPs and the general population using Chi-square tests of independence. Results: Our results demonstrated that EPs suffer less from chronic diseases, especially those related to the cardiopulmonary system; however, they suff er from a higher incidence of musculoskeletal pain and infectious disease complaints. EPs also exhibit higher rates of mental health symptoms, sleep-related complications, and alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Awareness, education, and advocacy may help improve physician health and ultimately job performance.
Whitam's hypothesis that a majority of gay men exhibit a cross-gender role preference during childhood but that most defeminize by adulthood was tested and supported by data on 1556 gay men. Gay and heterosexual males were found to differ strongly in cross-gender characteristics during childhood but considerably less so during adulthood. By categorizing gay respondents simultaneously by both childhood and adult cross-gendering, sizable differences were found in measures of psychological well-being. No or minimal differences were found between homosexual and heterosexual males on these measures. It was suggested that these two groups may differ not at all or minimally on purely psychological measures but that major differences may be found in cultural variables and particularly in gender culture.
Full Text Available Wearable technologies designed to deliver benefits to health and well-being through the use of digital applications are becoming increasingly ubiquitous. This article focuses on the use of wearable technologies which track user lifestyle behaviors and seek to provide tools for better personal health management. It provides an evidence of general positive health outcomes from previous research and provides a detailed analysis of the functionalities and strategic approaches of three different wearable devices which have been used continuously and simultaneously by the lead author for over 18 months. Based on the experience of long-term use of these devices, the article draws some conclusions about their usage and future development strategies.
The relationship between arts participation and health is currently very topical. Motivated by a desire to investigate innovative, non-invasive, and economically viable interventions that embrace contemporary definitions of health, practitioners and researchers across the world have been developing and researching arts inventions. One of the key drivers in this vigorous research milieu is the growth of qualitative research within health care contexts and researchers interested in exploring the potential benefits of musical participation have fully embraced the advances that have taken place in health-related qualitative research. The following article presents a number of different types of qualitative research projects focused on exploring the process and outcomes of music interventions. It also presents a new conceptual model for music, health and well-being. This new model develops on a previous version of MacDonald, Kreutz, and Mitchell (2012b) by incorporating new elements and contextualization and providing detailed experimental examples to support the various components. PMID:23930991
This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another.
Full Text Available Health, well-being, quality of life, and lifestyle are central concepts within health science, although generally accepted definitions are still lacking. Lifestyle can either be seen as an independent variable and the cause of unhealthy behaviour or as a dependent variable, which is affected by conditions in the society. In the first case, the attention is directed on each individual case: maintaining or improving health requires changes in lifestyle and living habits. In this perspective, diet and physical activity are important features for health promotion. In the second case the attention is rather directed on structural conditions in society, for example the food industry, the lunches for children at school, and the “fast food” industry should be influenced to protect human health. The structural perspective has, so far, received restricted impact when it concerns prevention and promotion of health. Processes of individualisation in the society have to an increasing extent viewed health as an affair for the individual. The benefits of physical activity, healthy food and beverage, social support, and joy are documented scientifically. In general, the trend towards increasing responsibility for one's lifestyle and health is positive, but might reinforce the inequality in health. With an even harder climate in society there might be a risk that individual health projects undermine the solidarity and the will to accept costs for medical treatment and care for people who risk their health through an unhealthy and risk-taking lifestyle. However, we argue that peoples’ well-being and quality of life presupposes a society that stands up for all people.
Diener, Ed; Tay, Louis; Oishi, Shigehiro
We explored whether rising income in nations is associated with increasing subjective well-being (SWB), with several advances over earlier work. Our methods are improved in that across time, the same well-being questions were asked in the same order, and we employed broad and equivalent representative samples over time from a large number of nations. We also assessed psychosocial factors that might mediate the relation of income and SWB. We found that changes in household income were associated with concomitant changes in life evaluations, positive feelings, and negative feelings. The effects of gross domestic product (GDP) change were weaker and significant only for life evaluations, perhaps because GDP was a less certain index of the standard of living of the average household. The association of income and SWB is more likely to occur when the average person's material welfare accompanies rising income, when people become more satisfied with their finances, and when people become more optimistic about their futures. People did not adapt to the income rises during the period of years we studied, in that income rises produced SWB increases that did not return to earlier levels. It appears that previous researchers failed to come to agreement because of the small sample sizes of the nations, the inconsistent methods across years and surveys, and the lack of measures of potential mediating variables. Analyses of income relative to people in one's nation and between-nation slopes together suggest that income standards are now largely global, with little effect of national social comparison. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Scheppingen, A.R. van
Signiﬁcant improvements in health and well-being can be created as implicit by-products of activities from agents other than health professionals, with each of these agents having their own prime (i.e. parallel) interests. For this reason, more relevant strategies and interventions for promoting
This study investigated the influences of children's adaptive skills, problem behaviors, and parent support systems (informal support and formal professional support) on maternal well-being (health and stress) in Taiwanese mothers of young children with developmental disabilities. The study examined the moderating effects of formal support and…
Morrill-Richards, Mandy; Leierer, Stephen J.
Empirical research on sibling abuse has been overwhelmingly absent from the professional literature. This exploratory study used a survey instrument to investigate the question of whether the experience of sibling abuse influences the sense of well-being in college students. A linear multiple regression analysis indicated that experience with…
Grenville-Cleave, Bridget; Boniwell, Ilona
Teaching is not what it used to be. The complexity and intensity of the pressures on teachers and the pace of education reform are unprecedented. The aim of this research was to explore perceived control and well-being in teachers and other professionals. A mixed methods design was selected. Phase 1 consisted of an online quantitative survey (298…
Rania, Nadia; Siri, Anna; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sasso, Loredana
The psychological climate within organisations affects not only the behaviour and the attitude of group members, but also the performance of the group itself. According to the ecological model, this research examines how learning in different classroom contexts of the same nursing degree programme can affect academic performance, well-being, self-esteem and perceived climate. Four scales were used to assess students' perceptions by collecting primary data while academic performance was measured by obtaining students' academic records. A questionnaire completed by 391 first-year nursing students was administered. Differences were observed in the perceptions of climate and academic performance in different classroom contexts with trends, which did not always overlap; however, strong correlations were observed among self-esteem, well-being and climate, and schoolmate relationships. Universities should not merely train competent professionals but also build learning communities that support the well-being of relationships and the development of well-being contexts. The findings support the need for an educational intervention for improving the quality of life and well-being of the community and individual students. This type of intervention requires a 'compliant' organisational environment that puts studetns, teachers and professionals in the condition to practice their professional skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller
In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified and ins...... that facilitation makes study groups more inclusive, and they provide the potential for deep learning by structuring the learning situation.......In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified...... and institutionalized. The project did not change the teaching format, but introduced facilitated study-groups using peer learning. It was successful in increasing students’ well-being. While peer learning and study groups are well-known in higher education, facilitation is a different and novel tool. We argue...
This paper presents a study to gain insight into the effects of the visibility of medical equipment on the well-being of patients. Encounters with healthcare situations are characterized by stress and anxiety. The presence of wires, tubes, and monitors near the bedside may contribute to these feelings. One of the trends in healthcare design is to organize the headwalls of patient rooms in such a way as to reduce clutter and minimize the visibility of medical equipment, but no experimental studies are available that investigate the effects of the visibility of medical equipment in patient rooms. This experiment employed a single-factor between-subjects design (medical equipment visible vs. medical equipment out of sight) exposing participants (n = 42) to a scenario and a picture of a hospital room. Placing medical equipment out of sight leads to reduced feelings of stress in patients. This stress-reducing effect is mediated by feelings of pleasure. Placing medical equipment out of sight leads to a more positive emotional state, which in turn leads to feelings of reduced stress in patients. Moreover, placing equipment out of sight leads to people having more trust in the healthcare provider. The current study emphasizes the importance of the built healthcare environment and shows what role the visibility of medical equipment can play in the healing process of patients.
Demiris, George; Wouters, Eveline
Smart homes, home automation and ambient-assisted living are terms used to describe technological systems that enrich our living environment and provide means to support care, facilitate well-being and improve comfort. This handbook provides an overview of the domain from the perspective of health care and technology. In Part 1, we set out to describe the demographic changes in society, including ageing, and diseases and impairments which lead to the needs for technological solutions. In Part 2, we describe the technological solutions, ranging from sensor-based networks, components, to communication protocols that are used in the design of smart homes. We also deal will biomedical features which can be measured, and services that can be delivered to end-users as well as the use of social robots. In Part 3, we present best practices in the field. These best practices mainly focus on existing projects in Europe, the USA and Asia, in which people receive help through dedicated technological solutions being p...
Liu, Pan; Tov, William; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Qiu, Lin
Nowadays, millions of people around the world use social networking sites to express everyday thoughts and feelings. Many researchers have tried to make use of social media to study users' online behaviors and psychological states. However, previous studies show mixed results about whether self-generated contents on Facebook reflect users' subjective well-being (SWB). This study analyzed Facebook status updates to determine the extent to which users' emotional expression predicted their SWB-specifically their self-reported satisfaction with life. It was found that positive emotional expressions on Facebook did not correlate with life satisfaction, whereas negative emotional expressions within the past 9-10 months (but not beyond) were significantly related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that both the type of emotional expressions and the time frame of status updates determine whether emotional expressions in Facebook status updates can effectively reflect users' SWB. The findings shed light on the characteristics of online social media and improve the understanding of how user-generated contents reflect users' psychological states.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the major stressors affecting GP registrars, how those at risk can be best identified and the most useful methods of managing or reducing their stress. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all GP registrars in one large regional training provider's catchment area. Main outcome measures The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS, a specifically developed Registrar Stressor Scale consisting of five subscales of potential stressors, plus closed questions on how to identify and manage stress in GP registrars. Results Survey response rate of 51% (102/199. Rural difficulties followed by achieving a work/life balance were the principal stressors. Ten percent of registrars were mildly or moderately depressed or anxious (DASS and 7% mild to moderately anxious (DASS. Registrars preferred informal means of identifying those under stress (a buddy system and talks with their supervisors; similarly, they preferred to manage stress by discussions with family and friends, debriefing with peers and colleagues, or undertaking sport and leisure activities. Conclusions This study supports research which confirms that poor psychological well-being is an important issue for a significant minority of GP trainees. Regional training providers should ensure that they facilitate formal and informal strategies to identify those at risk and assist them to cope with their stress.
Schiffman, S S
The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential effects of livestock odors on the health and well-being of neighbors. Complaints of odor nuisance have become more frequent in communities surrounding areas with high concentrations of livestock. This increase in complaints from livestock odors parallels increased complaints of odor in general, including ammonia, diesel exhaust, beauty products, cleaners, and paints. Persons who report symptoms from odors generally find problems with many different types of odorous compounds. A review of recent studies suggests that the main complaints of health symptoms from odors are eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and drowsiness. Sensory irritation (pungency) can be produced by a broad range of odorous volatile organic compounds from trees, flowers, foods (pepper and ginger) as well as emissions from livestock operations. Odors can also potentially affect mood and memory. Further research is required to assess fully the health impact of odors in order to establish recommendations for air quality guidelines based on scientific data.
Moulin, Flore; Keyes, Corey; Liu, Aihua; Caron, Jean
With and without mental disorders, low levels of positive mental health are associated with limitations in daily life and with an economic burden in developed countries. We aimed to assess the correlates and predictors of high levels of well-being (WB) in Keyes' model of mental health. A four-year longitudinal population-based study was administered, in Montreal, Canada. At baseline, 1828 participated in wave 1, and 1303 in wave 2. WB was measured by the Mental Health Continuum Short Form, and data were collected by direct interviews. 17 variables were correlated with WB. Seven variables were predictors of having excellent WB. Stress/coping variables like ability to handle difficult problems or having the personal ability to deal with stress showed the strongest effects (respectively, OR = 1.790, 95% CI 1.232-2.601, OR = 2.118, CI 95% 1.324-3.387). This study underscores the importance of testing a multidimensional model accounting for a spectrum of relevant variables relating to WB.
Strickhouser, Jason E; Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan
To derive a robust and comprehensive estimate of the overall relation between Big Five personality traits and health variables using metasynthesis (i.e., second-order meta-analysis). Thirty-six meta-analyses, which collectively provided 150 meta-analytic effects from over 500,000 participants, met criteria for inclusion in the metasynthesis. Information on methodological quality as well as the type of health outcome, unreliability adjustment, population sampled, health outcome source, personality source, and research design was extracted from each meta-analysis. An unweighted model was used to aggregate data across meta-analyses. When entered simultaneously, the Big Five traits were moderately associated with overall health (multiple R = .35). Personality-health relations were larger when examining mental health outcomes than physical health outcomes or health-related behaviors and when researchers adjusted for measurement unreliability, used self-report as opposed to other-report Big Five scales, or focused on clinical as opposed to nonclinical samples. Further, effects were larger among agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism than extraversion or openness to experience. This metasynthesis provides among the most compelling evidence to date that personality predicts overall health and well-being. In addition, it may inform research on the mechanisms by which personality impacts health as well as research on the structure of personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ravalier, J M; Wegrzynek, P; Lawton, S
A variety of workplace-based interventions exist to reduce stress and increase productivity. However, the efficacy of these interventions is sometimes unclear. To determine whether complementary therapies offered in the workplace improve employee well-being. We performed a systematic literature review which involved an electronic search of articles published between January 2000 and July 2015 from the databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, AMED, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE and PubMed. We also undertook a manual search of all applicable article reference lists to ensure that no relevant studies were missed. We only selected published, full-length, English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Articles had to address the research objective using valid and reliable measures. We excluded articles concerning return to work or whose populations had been adversely affected by work resulting in the development of health issues. We included 10 articles in the review from 131 identified. Mindfulness and meditation-based interventions were most effective in improving workplace health and work performance; the latter demonstrating some evidence of maintaining gains up to 3 months later. The evidence for relaxation interventions was inconclusive. Mindfulness and meditation interventions may be helpful in improving both psychosocial workplace health and work performance, but long-term efficacy has yet to be fully determined. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Potash, Jordan S; Chen, Julie Yun; Tsang, Joyce Pui Yan
The objective of this qualitative research study was to discover how creating mandalas (art made in reference to a circle) might provide medical students with an opportunity for reflection on their current psychological state. As part of their year 3 family medicine rotation, medical students participated in an art-making workshop, during which, they created mandalas based on their current emotional state. Afterwards, they engaged in reflective writing and discussion. The responses of 180 students were analysed and coded according to the mandala classification framework 'Archetypal Stages of The Great Round of Mandala'. The results indicated that students were actively struggling in integrating conflicting perspectives as they were attempting to reconcile their professional identity as doctors. Additional results pertaining to psychosocial characteristics included navigating difficult emotions, requiring nurturance, handling endings, contemplating existential concerns and managing stress. The study has implications for making use of mandala making within a Jungian framework as means for medical students to reflect on their emotional state and achieve psychological balance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl
Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.
The Great Recession was associated with large changes in income, wealth, and unemployment, changes that affected many lives. Since January 2008, the Gallup Organization has been collecting daily data on 1,000 Americans each day, with a range of self-reported well-being (SWB) questions. I use these data to examine how the recession affected the emotional and evaluative lives of the population, as well as of subgroups within it. In the fall of 2008, around the time of the collapse of Lehman Brothers, and lasting into the spring of 2009, at the bottom of the stock market, Americans reported sharp declines in their life evaluation, sharp increases in worry and stress, and declines in positive affect. By the end of 2010, in spite of continuing high unemployment, these measures had largely recovered, though worry remained higher and life evaluation lower than in January 2008. The SWB measures do a much better job of monitoring short-run levels of anxiety as the crisis unfolded than they do of reflecting the evolution of the economy over a year or two. Even large macroeconomic shocks to income and unemployment can be expected to produce only small and hard to detect effects on SWB measures. SWB, particularly evaluation of life as a whole, is sensitive to question order effects. Asking political questions before the life evaluation question reduces reported life evaluation by an amount that dwarfs the effects of even the worst of the crisis; these order effects persist deep into the interview, and condition the reporting of hedonic experience and of satisfaction with standard of living. Methods for controlling these effects need to be developed and tested if national measures are to be comparable over space and time. PMID:22389532
Ploukou, Stella; Panagopoulou, Efharis
Nurses experience high levels of stress associated with the demands of their workplace. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common in this occupational group and the necessity of supportive actions is vital. This is especially true for nurses working in high intensity and demanding settings such as oncology units. This study examined the effects of a music intervention on anxiety, depression, and psychosomatic symptoms of oncology nurses. Forty-eight oncology nurses, were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 22) attending four consecutive weekly 1-h music classes or a control group with no intervention (n = 26) who maintained their usual lifestyle habits, for one month. Intervention group played and improvised music using percussion instruments. Courses consisted of varied multitask exercises of progressive difficulty, sometimes involving team playing, or individual performances. Depression, anxiety, and physical symptoms were measured before and after the end of the intervention. Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychosomatic symptoms were assessed with Pennebaker Inventory οf Limbic Languidness. Anxiety, depression and psychosomatic symptoms significantly reduced for the intervention group at the end of the study. No statistical significant change was observed for the control group in any of the three psychological indicators. The findings of our study highlight the fact that music can be a cost-effective resource in developing interventions to reduce stress and improve well-being. Playing music can be the next step for further investigation, since we already know that listening to music is beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The concept of cosmetotextiles, as another aspect of new beauty and health marques a growing success. This hybrid fabric, is definite as a textile article that contains a substance that is release sustainable on the human body skin pointed to perfume, change of appearance, maintenance in good condition, protection, or correction of body odors. Cosmetotextiles are created by microencapsulating different substances for body care or health, that are gradually transfer to the skin, by movement, pressure or the effect of the skin’s natural warmth and enzymes. The paper presents some elements regarding to the microencapsulating process (the major components of them general structure, the major advantages compare to usual presentation of cosmetic substances, some of the used active ingredients and them specific cosmetic and health benefits and the new generation of cosmetotextiles that bring together the latest innovations in fiber and textile structures and products. So, one of the manufacturing processes of a cosmetotextile is based on functionalisation of fibers by fixing microcapsules in them structure, resulting fibers as Novorel, Tencel C, Nilit Breeze, Emana, or by the functionalisation of fabrics, so of products made by these fabrics, where microcapsules are fixed on the external surface of the fabric, resulting in revolutionary “fabrics’ treatments” for beauty, health-care and well-being. Among these cosmeto fabrics and products are Sensitive Ultra Light Firming fabric, Sensitive Fabric Body ware, textile fabrics with the revolutionary Quiospheres technology, Doubleskin and different cosmeto-knitted products including specific placed areas with micro encapsulated ingredients, depending on them destinations (slimming, anti-cellulite treatment, corrective effect
Collins, Rebecca L; Strasburger, Victor C; Brown, Jane D; Donnerstein, Edward; Lenhart, Amanda; Ward, L Monique
Sexual content is highly prevalent in traditional media, and portrayals rarely depict the responsibilities and risks (eg, condom use, pregnancy) associated with sexual activity. Exposure to such content is linked with shifts in attitudes about sex and gender, earlier progression to sexual activity, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infection among adolescents. However, little information is available about moderators and mediators of these effects. We also know little about digital media, their sex-related content, and their potential influence on youth. Data from a few studies of older youth indicate that sexual displays on social media sites are related to problematic beliefs and behaviors among those who post this content and among viewers. Online pornography appears to be more problematic for youth than off-line sources. Given the vast and increasing amount of time youth spend online and their developmental openness to influence, more research attention to digital sexual media is needed. Those who undertake this work should identify potential negative consequences of use and opportunities to improve adolescent sexual health through digital media. Studies of on- and off-line media in which researchers examine younger media audiences, identify processes explaining sexual media effects on behavior, and moderators of effects are needed. Such studies could be used to inform interventions to reduce negative outcomes and increase positive media effects. Policy makers should stimulate the development of such interventions, including tools to help parents identify and manage negative media influences on their children's sexual well-being and development and dissemination of innovative media literacy programs related to sexual health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Shanafelt, Tait; Goh, Joel; Sinsky, Christine
Widespread burnout among physicians has been recognized for more than 2 decades. Extensive evidence indicates that physician burnout has important personal and professional consequences. A lack of awareness regarding the economic costs of physician burnout and uncertainty regarding what organizations can do to address the problem have been barriers to many organizations taking action. Although there is a strong moral and ethical case for organizations to address physician burnout, financial principles (eg, return on investment) can also be applied to determine the economic cost of burnout and guide appropriate investment to address the problem. The business case to address physician burnout is multifaceted and includes costs associated with turnover, lost revenue associated with decreased productivity, as well as financial risk and threats to the organization's long-term viability due to the relationship between burnout and lower quality of care, decreased patient satisfaction, and problems with patient safety. Nearly all US health care organizations have used similar evidence to justify their investments in safety and quality. Herein, we provide conservative formulas based on readily available organizational characteristics to determine the financial return on organizational investments to reduce physician burnout. A model outlining the steps of the typical organization's journey to address this issue is presented. Critical ingredients to making progress include prioritization by leadership, physician involvement, organizational science/learning, metrics, structured interventions, open communication, and promoting culture change at the work unit, leader, and organization level. Understanding the business case to reduce burnout and promote engagement as well as overcoming the misperception that nothing meaningful can be done are key steps for organizations to begin to take action. Evidence suggests that improvement is possible, investment is justified, and return
Doménech-Betoret, Fernando; Lloret-Segura, Susana; Gómez-Artiga, Amparo
Based on Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R), this study examines the relationships among teacher support resources, psychological need satisfaction, engagement and burnout in a sample of 282 Spanish secondary school teachers. Nine teacher psychological needs were identified based on the study of Bess and on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure the constructs selected for this study and their interrelationships were examined by structural equation modeling. The results reveal a good model fit to the data (NNFI = .88; CFI = .90; GFI = .90; RMSEA = .061). The analyses indicate a positive and significant effect of latent variable Psychological Need Satisfaction on engagement (β = .74, p Satisfaction in the relationship between teacher support resources and both engagement and burnout (additional paths did not improve the model fit: Δχ2(2) = 2.428, p = .29). Finally, practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Ehlers, V J; Zuyderduin, A; Oosthuizen, M J
To investigate the level of well-being of gays, lesbians and bisexuals (GLBs) in Botswana, how this level of well-being could be promoted and whether their health care needs were met by health care professionals. It is illegal to engage in same-sex activities in Botswana, punishable by imprisonment. Although Botswana's citizens have one of Africa's best health care systems, little is known about the health status, health care needs and general well-being of Botswana's GLBs. This survey attempted to uncover some of these potential health care needs, impacting on the GLBs' well-being. The research framework adopted was the health and human rights approach, placing dignity before rights. A survey design, with structured questionnaires, was used. Snow-ball sampling techniques were used. Results indicated that varying degrees of distress were experienced by 64% of the GLBs in this study. The GLBs identified a need for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and had concerns about their general health, discrimination against them and vulnerability to violence including sexual assaults. The well-being of the GLBs in Botswana was influenced by both positive internal acceptance of their sexual orientation and negative external acceptance by society. Health care professionals played insignificant roles in the promotion of GLBs' well-being, and could make greater inputs into health education efforts, and more significant contributions towards enhancing the GLBs' levels of well-being. Enhanced collaboration between health professionals and human rights activists are recommended to reduce violations of Botswana's GLBs' dignity and to improve their quality of life, including enhanced access to and utilization of health care services.
Full Text Available The impact of shift and night work on health shows a high inter- and intra-individual variability, both in terms of kind of troubles and temporal occurrence, related to various intervening factors dealing with individual characteristics, lifestyles, work demands, company organisation, family relations and social conditions. The way we define "health" and "well-being" can significantly influence appraisals, outcomes and interventions. As the goal is the optimisation of shiftworkers' health, it is necessary to go beyond the health protection and to act for health promotion. In this perspective, not only people related to medical sciences, but many other actors (ergonomists, psychologists, sociologists, educators, legislators, as well as shiftworkers themselves. Many models have been proposed aimed at describing the intervening variables mediating and/or moderating the effects; they try to define the interactions and the pathways connecting risk factors and outcomes through several human dimensions, which refer to physiology, psychology, pathology, sociology, ergonomics, economics, politics, and ethics. So, different criteria can be used to evaluate shiftworkers' health and well-being, starting from biological rhythms and ending in severe health disorders, passing through psychological strain, job dissatisfaction, family perturbation and social dis-adaptation, both in the short- and long-term. Consequently, it appears rather arbitrary to focus the problem of shiftworkers' health and tolerance only on specific aspects (e.g. individual characteristics, but a systemic approach appears more appropriate, able to match as many variables as possible, and aimed at defining which factors are the most relevant for those specific work and social conditions. This can support a more effective and profitable (for individuals, companies, and society adoption of preventive and compensative measures, that must refer more to "countervalues" rather than to
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its VA Health Professional Scholarship Program (HPSP) regulations. VA is also establishing regulations for a new program, the Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility Professional Scholarship Program (VIOMPSP). These regulations comply with and implement sections 302 and 603 of the Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010 (the 2010 Act). Section 302 of the 2010 Act established the VIOMPSP, which authorizes VA to provide financial assistance to certain students seeking a degree in visual impairment or orientation or mobility, in order to increase the supply of qualified blind rehabilitation specialists for VA and the United States. Section 603 of the 2010 Act reauthorized and modified HPSP, a program that provides scholarships for education or training in certain health care occupations.
Kuoppala, Jaana; Kekoni, Jouni
To examine the effects of a new multifaceted early rehabilitation program on employee well-being targeted on distressed employees in small-to-medium sized workplaces. Fifty-two employees (92% women; age: 34 to 66 years) participated in five biweekly sessions with one follow-up day at 6 months. Rehabilitation professionals specially trained for the mindfulness method covered topics from health, nutrition, sleep, physical activity to stress management. Employees were divided by their well-being level at baseline into "healthy" and "symptomatic" groups. Main outcomes were job, mental, and physical well-being. Well-being among the symptomatic employees reached that of the healthy ones at baseline. Also, the healthy participants benefited from the program to a small degree. The preliminary findings of this new program are promising although more research is needed on its effects and cost-effectiveness.
Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Pan, Li Hsiang
We investigated the associations among health-promoting behaviors, psychological distress, and well-being among community residents. Well-being measurement was examined through health-promoting behaviors and psychological distress. From March 1 to October 31, 2016, a total of 383 community residents were assessed in their health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), psychological distress (K10) and wellbeing (SWLS and PWB). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that interpersonal relations, physical activity, and psychological distress accounted for 21% of the variance in life satisfaction (SWLS). Interpersonal relations, nutrition, stress management, spiritual growth and psychological distress accounted for 53% of the variance in psychological well-being (PWB). Findings may assist mental health professionals in enhancing health-promoting behaviors and reduce the psychological distress of community residents to improve well-being.
Chen, Lily Shui-Lien
This present study provides insight into the relationship between personality traits and the subjective well-being for online game teenager players in Taiwan. The questionnaire has been adopted in the cyber cafe shops in Taipei, Taiwan, and 134 usable questionnaires produced to be used for the final data analysis. The results demonstrate that Neuroticism and Agreeableness have significant negative influence and Openness has significant positive influence on subjective well-being.
Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Kern, Margaret L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kapelner, Adam; Agrawal, Megha; Blanco, Eduardo; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Park, Gregory; Stillwell, David; Kosinski, Michal; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H
We present the task of predicting individual well-being, as measured by a life satisfaction scale, through the language people use on social media. Well-being, which encompasses much more than emotion and mood, is linked with good mental and physical health. The ability to quickly and accurately assess it can supplement multi-million dollar national surveys as well as promote whole body health. Through crowd-sourced ratings of tweets and Facebook status updates, we create message-level predictive models for multiple components of well-being. However, well-being is ultimately attributed to people, so we perform an additional evaluation at the user-level, finding that a multi-level cascaded model, using both message-level predictions and userlevel features, performs best and outperforms popular lexicon-based happiness models. Finally, we suggest that analyses of language go beyond prediction by identifying the language that characterizes well-being.
Thingstrup, Signe Hvid; Jepsen, Anne Leick; Bonde, Sussie Kiilerich
Studie af implikationerne af det politiske fokus på børns trivsel for pædagogiske medarbejdere i daginstitutioner, for deres arbejde og for deres forståelser af de udfordringer de møder i deres arbejde med børns trivsels. Projektet udforsker de kritiske potentialer i praktikernes perspektiver for...
Andión, Oscar; Cañellas, Montserrat; Baños, Josep-E
To determine which unpleasant conditions might contribute to postoperative physical well-being, as judged by patients, nurses and physicians. Healthcare professionals have rarely assessed holistic postoperative well-being. Most studies have focused on specific symptoms, and a broader survey is lacking. A prospective study, which collected information on the causes of decreased physical well-being in the postoperative period. The study was carried out in 101 patients who subsequently underwent elective surgery, in 82 physicians and in 40 nurses, all from the same hospital. A questionnaire was used for each sample, which included an inventory of 12 items, which have been associated with the worsening of postoperative physical well-being in the literature. Patients were asked to fill out the questionnaire on the second or third postoperative day and score each item from 0-10. Physicians rated pain (8·45), vomiting (6·68) and nausea (6·55) the highest. Nurses scored pain (8·48), nasogastric tube (7·13) and nausea (7·10) at the top. Insomnia and oxygen mask were scored significantly higher by nurses than by physicians. Patients scored pain (5·41) and movement restriction (4·62) the highest. When departments were compared, statistical differences were seen in nausea, vomiting, intravenous drips, nasogastric tube and oxygen mask. This survey shows that there is a general agreement between nurses and physicians regarding what contributes to decreased postoperative physical well-being, with few exceptions. However, healthcare professionals may differently rate some items that patients find as the most troubling. This survey shows that, besides pain, other symptoms can affect the physical well-being of patients during the postoperative period. Alleviation of some symptoms and the use of medical devices only when they are really needed may help to improve the well-being of patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Olawale, O Ogunsemi; Taiwo, O Afe; Hesham, Almohandes
Background: Health care involves taking care of other peoples' lives. Professionals in the field of health care are expected to be at their best all the time because mistakes or errors could be costly and sometimes irreversible. Aim: This study assessed the quality of sleep and well-being of health workers in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study done among health workers from different hospitals within the kingdom of Najran, Saudi Arabia. The subjec...
Caputo, Lisa M; Salottolo, Kristin M; Gosche, Emily E; Allison P Hawkes; Vellman, Peter W; Lange, Neale R; Coniglio, Raymond; Mains, Charles W.
Across the nation, fire departments are adopting the 48/96 work schedule, in which firefighters work 48 consecutive hours with the following 96 hours off. Our study objective was to explain and quantify the impact of switching from the Kelly schedule to the 48/96 schedule by measuring changes in sleep, feelings of daytime function, as well as perceptions of professional and personal well-being for American firefighters. Sleep diaries and self-reported surveys were administered to firefighters...
Full Text Available The paper deals with technological determinants of the lifetime social well-being, as conditions of maintaining the level and style of consumption, social status throughout the whole life. Despite the high importance of the problem of the social well-being and the relevance of its solution for the development of modern society, the issues of its correlation with the technological level of production and the development of information technologies are still poorly researched. As the problem of the life-time wellbeing take on special significance, it is important to analyze its conditions, related not only to social benefits, but also to the scientific and technological progress. For the future innovation and the digital stage of social well-being is its network well-being. It is based on the usage of the Internet for professional activity and personal self-fulfillment during the whole conscious life. Network well-being also reflects the convergence of information and network, industrial, financial, marketing, and social technologies. The formation of the life-time network well-being requires from the Government some measures of social adjustment, fiscal policy and the regulation of employment to encourage Internet Education and Internet employment, enhancing the prestige of working in high-tech industries.
Saul Neves de Jesus
Full Text Available This study investigated the immediate influence of a stress management training on teachers’ and physicians’ motivational (professional objective, intrinsic motivation, efficacy expectancies and well-being related outcomes (positive well-being, emotional exhaustion, work distress, irrational beliefs using meta-analytical techniques. In an action-research perspective, the stress management training program was implemented in several groups of physicians and teachers, in Portugal and in Brazil (n=144. It was found that, at all the samples where this intervention was implemented, an increase occurred on all motivational indicators and on positive well-being, and a decrease on negative well-being outcomes; nevertheless, not all obtained results are statistically significant. The largest impact of the implemented training program was at positive well-being at work, with a large effect size (d+=.81, and at the irrational beliefs, with a medium effect size (d+=.61. These results suggest the short-term benefits of this intervention on teachers’ and physicians’ motivation and well-being.
Rhodes, Michael Grant
There are two dominant approaches to describe and understand the anatomy of complete health and well-being systems internationally. Yet, neither approach has been able to either predict or explain occasional but dramatic crises in health and well-being systems around the world and in developed emerging market or developing country contexts. As the impacts of such events can be measured not simply in terms of their social and economic consequences but also public health crises, there is a clear need to look for and formulate an alternative approach. This paper examines multi-disciplinary theoretical evidence to suggest that health systems exhibit natural and observable systemic and long cycle characteristics that can be modelled. A health and well-being system model of two slowly evolving anthropological network sub-systems is defined. The first network sub-system consists of organised professional networks of exclusive suppliers of health and well-being services. The second network sub-system consists of communities organising themselves to resource those exclusive services. Together these two network sub-systems interact to form the specific (sovereign) health and well-being systems we know today. But the core of a truly 'complex adaptive system' can also be identified and a simplified two sub-system model of recurring Lotka-Volterra predator-prey cycles is specified. The implications of such an adaptive and evolving model of system anatomy for effective public health, social security insurance and well-being systems governance could be considerable.
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
Aging means “to grow old” – and healthy aging means growing old in a way here the person remains active, autonomous and integrated. This emphasizes an approach to aging and well-being in opposition to anti-aging and ageism. Dementia is a syndrome affecting cognitive functioning, but is not direct...... may be provided by family or other informal carers, or by professionals. Caregiving is often reported as stressful and as a physical, emotional and economic burden which may negatively affect healthy aging and well-being (see Ridder, 2016)......Aging means “to grow old” – and healthy aging means growing old in a way here the person remains active, autonomous and integrated. This emphasizes an approach to aging and well-being in opposition to anti-aging and ageism. Dementia is a syndrome affecting cognitive functioning, but is not directly...
Lee, Julianne; Lynn, Fiona
An integrative literature review was undertaken to determine the social and emotional effects on the mental health and well-being of parents of children requiring long-term ventilation at home. Six studies were included. Recurrent themes reported in the literature included lack of formal and informal support, financial adversity, limited access to respite care and feelings of social isolation. These themes were associated with depressive symptoms and were consistently reported to have a negative effect on parental mental health and well-being. Healthcare professionals have a part to play in improving parents' coping skills, resilience and resourcefulness to help reduce adverse social and emotional effects on their mental health and well-being.
Tharani, Ambreen; Husain, Yusra; Warwick, Ian
Students can experience multiple stressors during their academic life which have an impact on their emotional health and academic progress. This study sought to explore students' understanding of and factors affecting their emotional well-being in an undergraduate nursing programme at a private nursing institution in Karachi, Pakistan. In this qualitative study, data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews using a self-designed guide from 16 participants in total, drawn from various years of the selected undergraduate programme. Participants noted that the quality of the 'learning environment' was a key influence on their emotional well-being. They highlighted faculty role and teaching approaches, academic expectations and availability of learning resources as important factors that affected their emotional well-being as well as their academic performance. Institutional support was also deemed important. Factors associated with a 'hidden curriculum' were found to be a threat to students' emerging sense of professionalism. Suggestions are given as to how the learning environment in the nursing programme under study can be improved to take into account students' emotional well-being. Emphasis needs to be laid on developing supportive faculty role to provide conducive learning environment and professional development of students. Efforts to develop stress-free academic environment with supportive institutional policies need to be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of coping skills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…
Julià, Mireia; Vanroelen, Christophe; Bosmans, Kim; Van Aerden, Karen; Benach, Joan
This article presents an overview of the recent work on precarious employment and employment quality in relation to workers' health and well-being. More specifically, the article mainly reviews the work performed in the E.U. 7th Framework project, SOPHIE. First, we present our overarching conceptual framework. Then, we provide a compiled overview of the evidence on the sociodemographic and European cross-country distribution of employment quality and employment precariousness. Subsequently, we provide the current evidence regarding the relations with health and broader worker well-being indicators. A final section summarizes current insights on the pathways relating precarious employment and health and well-being. The article concludes with a plea for further data collection and research into the longitudinal effects of employment precariousness among emerging groups of workers. Based on the evidence compiled in this article, policymakers should be convinced of the harmful health and well-being effects of employment precariousness and (further) labor market flexibilization.
D. G. Orlova
Full Text Available Introduction. New Federal State Standards of the higher education impose increased requirements not only to the level of professional competence of university graduates, but also to their personal readiness for implementation of successful professional activity. Psychological well-being is one of the integrative personal bases defining effective and full realization of labour functions by an expert. This has caused the research relevance stated in the article.The aim of this article is to analyze the specifics of the relationships of students’ integrated individuality of depending with the expression level of psychological well-being.Methodology and research methods. Methodological base of work involve the concept of psychological well-being by K. Riff, and the theory of integrated identity by V. S. Merlin. The research was conducted with the use of a package of diagnostic methods: «Scales of psychological well-being» by K. Ryff modified by D. G. Orlova; methods of studying the temperament by J. Strelau (adaptation by N. N. Danilova and A. G. Shmelyov; Structure Of Temperament Questionnaire by V. M. Rusalov (STQ; Five-Factor Personal Questionnaire (5PFQ in A. B. Khromov’s adaptation.Results and scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of researches on a psychological well-being phenomenon in foreign and Russian psychology is carried out. The author made an attempt to show the principle of polymorphism as one of the fundamental principles of the integrated identity theory on the example of studying the role of psychological well-being in the structure of a student identity. An empirical part of the present research, carried out on the basis of four higher educational institutions of Perm, showed the existence of general characteristics and significant distinctions on indicators of neurodynamic, psychodynamic and personal levels of integrated identity between two groups of respondents – students with low and high values of
Hegney, Desley; Eley, Robert; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Francis, Karen
This study aims to ascertain if differences exist in the perception of the professional practice environment and personal well-being of nurses across different geographical areas in Queensland. This paper was performed on a prospective, self-report cross-sectional on-line survey. The study was conducted among the nurses employed in public and private health care settings: acute hospitals, community health and aged care in Queensland, Australia. Participants of this study were 1608 registered and enrolled nurses and assistants in nursing, current members of the Queensland Nurses Union in 2013 and who provided a workplace postcode. One thousand eight of these participants worked in major cities, while 382 in rural locations and 238 in remote areas. None. Scores of well-being as determined by the following scales: the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and of the Professional Practice Environment using the Practice Environment Scale - Nursing Work Index Revised. Nurses employed in major cities perceived 'nursing foundations for quality care' more favourably than those from other settings. Remote area nurses had lower levels of secondary traumatic stress than nurses in major cities and rural areas. There was no difference between nurses across their geographical locations for stress, anxiety, depression, compassion satisfaction, burnout, resilience and the four other measures of the Practice Environment Scale. The study findings provide new data suggesting that, with the exception of secondary traumatic stress, the personal well-being of nurses does not differ across geographical settings. Similarly, with the exception of the subscale of 'nursing foundations for quality care' there was no difference in perceptions of the professional practice environment. As secondary traumatic stress is associated with burnout, this finding needs to be investigated further. © 2015 National Rural
Gao, Tingting; Ding, Xinna; Chai, Jingxin; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Han; Kong, Yixi; Mei, Songli
Nurses are suffering from increasing stress, and nursing is recognized as one of the most stressful job. Their mental health problems are serious and worthy of attention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health and general well-being among nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014, using a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were asked to complete the measure of resilience, mental health, and general well-being. The method of randomly cluster sampling was used to select nurses as participants. A survey of 365 nurses was conducted to test the hypothesized model. This study showed that resilience, mental health, and general well-being correlated with each other. General well-being was an effective predictor of resilience and mental health, whereas it both can moderate and mediate the relationship. Strategies to increase nurses' general well-being could enhance their resilience and reduce mental health problems. It is important to improve the mental health of nurses and maintain the professional values that ensure career sustainability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Arabiat, Diana Hashem; Sato, Tokiko; Obaid, Batoul; Imoto, Atsuko
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between marital abuse and psychological well-being among women in the southern region of Jordan. A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data from a randomly selected sample of 915 women in the southern region of Jordan. Data collected were related to forms of marital abuse and six domains of psychological well-being. The analysis showed that women have moderate to high level of psychological well-being. The prevalence of ever being abused during the past 12 months ranged from 3.2% (n = 25) for being threatened with a knife to 45.1% (n = 348) for their husbands being unconcerned about them while they were sick. There were significant differences in marital abuse related to having ever had school education (χ(2) = 8.56, df = 2, p = .014). All forms of marital abuse were highly correlated (p < .01). Self-acceptance and environmental mastery domains of psychological well-being had negative and significant correlation with all forms of marital abuse (p < .01). DISCUSSION OF CONCLUSION: Health professionals in health care centers need to assess for marital abuse and its consequence on women's health. Interventions should emphasize promotion of psychological well-being and the factors that influence women empowerment.
Jonker, Angèle A; Comijs, Hannie C; Knipscheer, Kees C; Deeg, Dorly J
It is often assumed that aging is accompanied by diverse and constant functional and cognitive decline, and it is therefore surprising that the well-being of older persons does not appear to decline in the same way. This study investigates longitudinally whether well-being in older persons changes due to Persistent Deterioration of Functioning (PDF). Data were collected in the context of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Conditions of PDF are persistent decline in cognitive functioning, physical functioning and increase in chronic diseases. Measurements of well-being included life satisfaction, positive affect, and valuation of life. T-tests were used to analyse mean difference scores for well-being, and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine changes in three well-being outcomes in relation to PDF. Cross-sectional analyses showed significant differences and associations between the two PDF subgroups and non- PDF for well-being at T3. In longitudinal analyses, we found significant decreases in and associations with wellbeing over time in respondents fulfilling one PDF condition (mild PDF). For respondents fulfilling two or more PDF conditions (severe PDF), longitudinally no significant associations were found. Cognitive aspects of well-being (life satisfaction and valuation of life) and the affective element (positive affect) of well-being appear to be influenced negatively by mild PDF, whereas well-being does not seem to be diminished in persons with more severe PDF. This may be due to the ability to accept finally the inevitable situation of severe PDF.
Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y
To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community. Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity. This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.
van der Veen, Albertien; van Pietersom, Tineke; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Rushiti, Feride; Ymerhalili, Genc; Agani, Ferid
Background Staff well-being including stress awareness and stress management skills is usually not a priority in (mental) health policies. In Kosovo, the level of stress amongst primary health care (PHC) professionals is high because health professionals are part of the population seriously affected by conflict. The need to support staff and look after their well-being was recognised by the Director of the Centre for Development of Family Medicine, Head of Primary Care. In response, the Antar...
Evgeni L. Nikolaev
Full Text Available Background. A dentist’s professional activity requires a high level of personality traits that are usually regarded as a combination of both female and male traits. Androgynous gender identity corresponds to dentists’ professional requirements and allows the dentists to retain mental stability and psychological well-being. Objective. The goal of this study is to determine the specificity of the androgynous identity in dentists in the context of gender differences as indicators of mental health and subjective well-being. Design. The first stage of the research covered 129 dentists of both sexes to reveal their androgynous gender type using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. During the second stage, 117 androgynous dentists were studied using the SCL-90-R and Brief Subjective Well-being Questionnaire in an effort to reveal the specificity of the dentists’ mental health and self-esteem. Results. According to the results, individuals with an androgynous type of gender identity constitute the largest part of dentists (90.70 %, regardless of their biological sex. The expression of masculinity does not statistically differ from the expression of femininity within the androgynous sample. Regardless of their sex, these dentists are characterized by a higher level of mental health. No significant differences were revealed between androgynous men and androgynous women in their subjective well-being indicators — self-estimation of health, satisfaction with material status and success motivation. Conclusion. We concluded that androgyny is the most common type of gender identity in the men and women engaged in dentistry. The basic gender characteristic in the structure of androgynous identity in dentists is masculinity, which is closely interrelated with mental health and subjective well-being regardless of biological sex.
Keenan, Elizabeth King; Limone, Christine; Sandoval, Silvia L
For over a century the social work profession has had a dual purpose, to promote both human well-being and social justice, but we have not found research that explores how social workers understand and work toward both purposes across multiple practice roles and settings. Authors of this article conducted qualitative research to examine how 18 social workers in various roles and settings understand and implement both purposes in their practice. Instead of a dual purpose, participants described a unifying purpose: a "just sense of well-being" that transcends role and setting. Valuing the dignity and worth of all human beings frames and fuels their work toward a just sense of well-being through three interactive themes: challenging injustice on every level; constructing justice through relationship and resource organizing; and constructing justice through the creation of accepting environments where professionals, clients, and community members can reflect and question, and change mind-sets and actions. Participants provided an array of possibilities for action with clients, professionals, and public leaders within organizations and communities. The implication here is that social workers are charged to reinvigorate purpose and values back into practice with value-based assessment thinking that frames possibilities for action across methods and settings. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.
Miyasaki, Janis M; Rheaume, Carol; Gulya, Lisa; Ellenstein, Aviva; Schwarz, Heidi B; Vidic, Thomas R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Cascino, Terrence L; Keran, Chris M; Busis, Neil A
To understand the experience and identify drivers and mitigating factors of burnout and well-being among US neurologists. Inductive data analysis was applied to free text comments (n = 676) from the 2016 American Academy of Neurology survey of burnout, career satisfaction, and well-being. Respondents providing comments were significantly more likely to be older, owners/partners of their practice, solo practitioners, and compensated by production than those not commenting. The 4 identified themes were (1) policies and people affecting neurologists (government and insurance mandates, remuneration, recertification, leadership); (2) workload and work-life balance (workload, electronic health record [EHR], work-life balance); (3) engagement, professionalism, work domains specific to neurology; and (4) solutions (systemic and individual), advocacy, other. Neurologists mentioned workload > professional identity > time spent on insurance and government mandates when describing burnout. Neurologists' patient and clerical workload increased work hours or work brought home, resulting in poor work-life balance. EHR and expectations of high patient volumes by administrators impeded quality of patient care. As a result, many neurologists reduced work hours and call provision and considered early retirement. Our results further characterize burnout among US neurologists through respondents' own voices. They clarify the meaning respondents attributed to ambiguous survey questions and highlight the barriers neurologists must overcome to practice their chosen specialty, including multiple regulatory hassles and increased work hours. Erosion of professionalism by external factors was a common issue. Our findings can provide strategic direction for advocacy and programs to prevent and mitigate neurologist burnout and promote well-being and engagement. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Smedegaard, Søren; Brondeel, Ruben; Christiansen, Lars Breum
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to address the gap in the translation of research into practice through an extensive process evaluation of the Move for Well-being in School programme using the RE-AIM framework. The purpose was to gain insight into the extent by which the intervention...... that the implemented recess, brain break and physical education components 'to a high degree' or 'to some degree' promoted the pupils' well-being, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that it is possible to design a school-based PA intervention that educators largely adopt and implement. Implementation...... of the PA elements was stable throughout the school year and data demonstrate that educators believed in the ability of the intervention to promote well-being among the pupils. Finally, the study show that a structured intervention consisting of competence development, set goals for new practices combined...
Grundmann, Christoffer H
Epidemiological studies researching the impact of participation in religious activities on the overall health and well-being of individuals suggest that having faith and practicing religion is good since they represent expense free, non-medical coping mechanisms accessible to everyone. Faith and religion, thus, can serve for a large number of people as potential reservoirs for cultivating well-being and maintaining health, thereby cutting health-care costs significantly. This begs the question if such pragmatic instrumentalization does do justice to faith and religion in the first place. The article investigates this question taking the Christian biblical tradition as an example by, first, identifying texts speaking of 'health' across different Bible versions (I), second, by sketching related concepts of 'health' (II) and, finally, by assessing the actual extent to which biblical tradition supports the quest for health and well-being (III).
Michael Grant Rhodes
Full Text Available There are two dominant approaches to describe and understand the anatomy of complete health and well-being systems internationally. Yet, neither approach has been able to either predict or explain occasional but dramatic crises in health and well-being systems around the world and in developed emerging market or developing country contexts. As the impacts of such events can be measured not simply in terms of their social and economic consequences but also public health crises, there is a clear need to look for and formulate an alternative approach. This paper examines multi-disciplinary theoretical evidence to suggest that health systems exhibit natural and observable systemic and long cycle characteristics that can be modelled. A health and well-being system model of two slowly evolving anthropological network sub-systems is defined. The first network sub-system consists of organised professional networks of exclusive suppliers of health and well-being services. The second network sub-system consists of communities organising themselves to resource those exclusive services. Together these two network sub-systems interact to form the specific (sovereign health and well-being systems we know today. But the core of a truly ‘complex adaptive system’ can also be identified and a simplified two sub-system model of recurring Lotka-Volterra predator-prey cycles is specified. The implications of such an adaptive and evolving model of system anatomy for effective public health, social security insurance and well-being systems governance could be considerable.
Murray, Marylou; Murray, Lois; Donnelly, Michael
The challenges and complexities faced by general practitioners are increasing, and there are concerns about their well-being. Consequently, attention has been directed towards developing and evaluating interventions and strategies to improve general practitioner well-being and their capacity to cope with workplace challenges. This systematic review aims to evaluate research evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve general practitioner well-being. Eligible studies will include programmes developed to improve psychological well-being that have assessed outcomes using validated tools pertaining to well-being and related outcomes. Only programmes that have been evaluated using controlled study designs will be reviewed. An appropriately developed search strategy will be applied to six electronic databases: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies will be screened in two stages by two independent reviewers. A third reviewer will arbitrate when required. Pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed during a pilot phase early on in the review process. The Cochrane data extraction form will be adapted and applied to each eligible study by two independent reviewers, and each study will be appraised critically using standardised checklists from the Cochrane Handbook. Methodological quality will be taken into account in the analysis of the data and the synthesis of results. A narrative synthesis will be undertaken if data is unsuited to a meta-analysis. The systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidance. This will be the first systematic review on this topic, and the evidence synthesis will aid decision-making by general practitioners, policy makers and planners regarding ways in which to improve GP well-being. Findings will be disseminated at general practitioner meetings
Danila Secolim Coser
Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify potential relationships among personal well-being, parental practices, and interactions between parents and preschool children reported by working fathers and mothers ( n = 120, 60 couples from a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected using the Questionnaire on family and professional lives. Three scales were selected for data analysis: well-being; interaction between parents and children; and family life. Statistical tests (One-Way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient showed negative correlations between child-rearing practices and health problems reported by parents. Positive correlations were also found between reported parental interactions and child-rearing practices. Parental practices and interactions between parents and children varied according to the number of children (one or two.
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
Aging means “to grow old” – and healthy aging means growing old in a way here the person remains active, autonomous and integrated. This emphasizes an approach to aging and well-being in opposition to anti-aging and ageism. Dementia is a syndrome affecting cognitive functioning, but is not directly...... may be provided by family or other informal carers, or by professionals. Caregiving is often reported as stressful and as a physical, emotional and economic burden which may negatively affect healthy aging and well-being (see Ridder, 2016)...... related to age although dementia diseases are more common with old age. People in mid- to late-stage dementia show severe cognitive decline and require extensive assistance to carry out daily activities. They are therefore dependent on someone to assist them around the clock. The assistance or caregiving...
Macdougall, Hannah; O'Halloran, Paul; Shields, Nora; Sherry, Emma
This systematic review included 12 studies that compared the well-being of Para and Olympic sport athletes. Meta-analyses revealed that Para athletes, compared with Olympic sport athletes, had lower levels of self-acceptance, indicated by athletic identity, d = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.77, 0.16], and body-image perceptions, d = 0.33, 95% CI [0.59, 0.07], and differed from Olympic sport athletes in terms of their motivation, indicated by a greater mastery-oriented climate, d = 0.74, 95% CI [0.46, 1.03]. Given an inability to pool the remaining data for meta-analysis, individual standardized mean differences were calculated for other dimensions of psychological and subjective well-being. The results have implications for professionals and coaches aiming to facilitate the well-being needs of athletes under their care. Future research would benefit from incorporating established models of well-being based on theoretical rationale combined with rigorous study designs.
M E Sachkova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of social representations in students about the high status in a society where psychological well-being acts as an integral component. During the analysis of literature it has been revealed that at youthful age, a key factor in determining psychological well-being is a successful self-identity in society, as well as the achievement of a certain status. In addition, during this period there can be observed the formation of social representations in the context of personal and professional self-determination. The object of our research was to study the structure and specificity of the social representations in students about the high status in modern society. We hypothesized that the perceptions of students about the high position in society must include the components of psychological well-being. In the course of the research P. Verges’ method was used to study the structure of social representations. The 594 associations obtained were subjected to a categorical analysis. In the study it was found out that the structural components of psychological well-being (K. Riff are reflected in the characteristics of the social representations of high status. It was concluded that according to the social representations of the modern young people a person of a high status is represented as a psychologically prosperous person, which confirms the hypothesis of the study.
Tim M. Daw
Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and
Full Text Available Background Self-management is the cornerstone for controlling multiple sclerosis. As one’s sense of meaning in life and his/her relationship with a higher power, spiritual well-being is an important coping resource in some chronic diseases. However, little is known about the role of spiritual well-being in self-management of people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Objectives This study was aimed to assess the relationship between spiritual well-being and self-management among Iranian people with multiple sclerosis. Patients and Methods Two hundred ninety-one people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis belonging to the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Mashhad, Iran, participated in this cross-sectional analytical study conducted in 2014. Demographic information was collected by using a demographic form. The multiple sclerosis self-management scale-revised (2011, developed by Bishop and Frain, was used to evaluate self-management of multiple sclerosis symptoms. Spiritual well-being of participants was assessed by using the spiritual well-being questionnaire developed by Paloutzian and Ellison in 1983. Descriptive statistic and inferential statistical methods including Pearson and Spearman’s coefficient, stepwise multiple regression, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test were employed by using SPSS, version 16.0. The significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results Overall, the participants reported moderate levels of self-management and spiritual well-being as recorded on the multiple sclerosis self-management scale-revised and the spiritual well-being questionnaire. There was a significant correlation between the participants’ spiritual well-being and self-management scores (r = 0.59, P < 0.001. Furthermore, participants’ self-management was significantly correlated with existential health (r = 0.52, P < 0.001 and religious health (r = 0.57, P < 0.001. Finally, 40% of the variance of self
Olawale, O Ogunsemi; Taiwo, O Afe; Hesham, Almohandes
Health care involves taking care of other peoples' lives. Professionals in the field of health care are expected to be at their best all the time because mistakes or errors could be costly and sometimes irreversible. This study assessed the quality of sleep and well-being of health workers in Najran city, Saudi Arabia. It was a cross-sectional study done among health workers from different hospitals within the kingdom of Najran, Saudi Arabia. The subjects were administered questionnaire that contained sections on demographic and clinical characteristics, sleep quality, and section relating to well-being. One hundred and twenty-three health workers comprising 29 (23.6%) males and 94 (76.4%) females participated in this study. The majority of the workers 74 (60.2%) were nurses; a quarter were doctors while the remaining 13.6% accounted for other categories of health workers such as the pharmacist and laboratory technicians. Fifty-two (42.3%) of the workers were poor sleepers. Significantly (χ2 = 23.98, P = 0.000), majority of the subjects that were poor sleepers (84.6%) compared with the 42.3% of the good sleepers rated the last 12 months of their profession as a bit stressful or quite a bit stressful. Similarly, 46.2% of the workers that were poor sleepers significantly (χ2 = 24.69, P = 0.000) rated their ability to handle unexpected and difficult problems in their life as fair or poor compared with 14.1% of the good sleepers. Health workers expressed some level of stress in their professional life, and a good proportion of the subjects were poor sleepers. There is, therefore, the need to establish a program within the health-care organization to address social, physical, and psychological well-being at work.
Lundström, Ulrica; Lilja, Margareta; Petersson, Ingela; Lexell, Jan; Isaksson, Gunilla
Objective To explore and describe the leisure repertoire of persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and how the repertoire is related to interest, performance, and well-being. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 97 persons with traumatic SCI were recruited from the non-profit national organization, RG Active Rehabilitation in Sweden. Outcome measure Data were collected through a two-part postal survey. The first comprised of questions investigating socio-demographic variables and injury characteristics; the second part included an interest checklist with 20 areas of leisure activities. Results The participants were mostly interested in, performed, and experienced well-being from social and culture activities and TV/DVD/movies. The areas of leisure activities in which they had most likely experienced changes after the SCI were outdoor activities, exercise, and gardening. Sex, age, and to some extent, time since injury were related to interest, performance, well-being, and changed performance. Conclusions The results provided an explanation and limited description of a changed leisure repertoire among persons after a traumatic SCI. The study showed that sex, age, and time since injury were more closely related to the choice of leisure activities to include in the leisure repertoire than the level of injury. This knowledge can be of importance when professionals in the field of rehabilitation are planning and implementing interventions concerning leisure activities for persons with SCI. PMID:24090284
Antonio Bernal Guerrero
Full Text Available Building a professional teacher identity is affected by the framework of the social changes of our time. These are associated with complex mechanisms of deinstitutionalization and reorganization which produce considerable emotional burnout. We have carried out an investigation of teaching well-being linked to the phenomenon called engagement. This is presented as a way to combat teachers’ malaise and foster well-being. There is a paucity of studies on the delimiting of substantive descriptors for the evaluation of engagement in university teaching. We have therefore done an exploratory qualitative study in theUniversityofSeville. In doing this, we have used the biographic-narrative method and the interview technique in order to progress in this educational line. The results of the study appear to reflect that there are certain factors which influence well-being: institutional stability, labor conditions, social recognition and the improvement of the teachers’ training. Likewise, a series of evaluation indicators connected with the personal level are outlined: an active willingness toward enhancement, a capacity to set up optimal relations, perseverance, an enthusiastic link with the profession and an emotional balance expressed in reconciling different areas of life.
Salminen, Stela; Mäkikangas, Anne; Hätinen, Marja; Kinnunen, Ulla; Pekkonen, Mika
To explore how burnout rehabilitation clients experienced their recovery from burnout and what they found beneficial in rehabilitation. Twelve clients whose burnout levels had declined during rehabilitation were interviewed at the end of the second period of the rehabilitation course. Semi-structured interviews comprised the main material of the study and were analysed by content analysis. In addition, the Bergen Burnout Indicator (BBI-15) was used to measure the reduction in burnout levels. The analysis yielded a single overarching theme, My well-being in my own hands, and four categories. The overarching theme describes the overall process of recovery and the revelation experienced by clients that they are in charge of their own well-being. The process starts with Support from rehabilitation professionals, the client group and family or friends. The categories Awareness and Approval refer to specific changes in the attitude towards and recognition of one's needs and limits. The category Regained joy describes the culmination of the recovery process manifested in different spheres of life. The rehabilitation course proved particularly beneficial for individuals suffering from burnout. The accumulation of support, awareness and approval led to a revival of joy in life and greater perceived control over one's well-being.
Cerezo, J; Bernabé, M; Lisbona, A; Palací, F J
Socialization during the training of specialists is a key step in the subsequent adjustment and occupational well-being of health professionals in the hospital organisation. To analyse the relationship of socialization and resilience with the engagement responses of specialists in training. Convenience sampling was used, with 110 professionals from six teaching units of different hospitals participating in the study. Descriptive and mediational analysis of the study variables were performed using SPSS 21 and Macro Preacher and Hayes (2004). The results show statistically significant relationships between socialization, resilience, and engagement. The mediating role of resilience is also shown (β=0.10; se=0.12; p<0.05, 95% CI: [0.02-0.23]) to generate engagement in health professionals. An interaction effect is observed between socialization, and specialty moderates resilience. Therefore it can be seen that positive socialization and resilience can promote good performance. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Environmental volunteering can increase well-being, but environmental volunteer well-being has rarely been compared to participant well-being associated with other types of volunteering or nature-based activities. This paper aims to use a multidimensional approach to well-being to explore the immediately experienced and later remembered well-being of environmental volunteers and to compare this to the increased well-being of participants in other types of nature-based activities and volunteering. Furthermore, it aims to compare volunteer managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being with the self-reported well-being of the volunteers. Methods: Onsite surveys were conducted of practical conservation and biodiversity monitoring volunteers, as well as their control groups (walkers and fieldwork students, respectively, to measure general well-being before their nature-based activity and activity-related well-being immediately after their activity. Online surveys of current, former and potential volunteers and volunteer managers measured remembered volunteering-related well-being and managers’ perceptions of their volunteers’ well-being. Data were analysed based on Seligman’s multidimensional PERMA (‘positive emotion’, ‘engagement’, ‘positive relationship’, ‘meaning’, ‘achievement’ model of well-being. Factor analysis recovered three of the five PERMA elements, ‘engagement’, ‘relationship’ and ‘meaning’, as well as ‘negative emotion’ and ‘health’ as factors. Results: Environmental volunteering significantly improved positive elements and significantly decreased negative elements of participants’ immediate well-being, and it did so more than walking or student fieldwork. Even remembering their volunteering up to six months later, volunteers rated their volunteering-related well-being higher than volunteers rated their well-being generally in life. However, volunteering was not
Hanley, Adam W; Mehling, Wolf E; Garland, Eric L
Objective Recent dialogue between Western and Eastern traditions has stimulated novel explorations of the relationship between mind and body. Many of these cross-cultural, mind-body dialogues have proven productive in identifying more adaptive forms of embodiment. Prior studies suggest that dispositional mindfulness (DM) and interoceptive awareness (IA) are associated but distinct, key constructs in mind-body approaches that are conceptualized in a variety of ways with imprecisely characterized relationship. The current study is a secondary data analysis that explores the relationship between scores on measures of IA and DM, examining multivariate networks of association between these constructs and addressing their relationship with scores on a measure of psychological well-being. Participants (n=478) were American adults completing measures of interoceptive awareness (as measured by the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness; MAIA), dispositional mindfulness (as measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; FFMQ), and psychological well-being (as measure by the Scales of Psychological Well-Being; SPWB) online. The average participant age was 36.44 (S.D.=12.17), and 57% were female. Correlational results from his study indicated that the IA scales and DM facets form two associative clusters. Canonical correlation analysis supported this finding, revealing that two primary networks of association exist between IA and DM, a Regulatory Awareness cluster and an Acceptance in Action cluster. Finally, hierarchical linear regression demonstrated that the self-report measures of IA and DM shared considerable variance, but also explained unique portions of the variance in psychological well-being. This psychometric investigation demonstrates that IA and DM are tightly interwoven, partly overlapping constructs. Indeed, greater DM is strongly linked with greater IA. Additionally, both IA and DM appear to be independently associated with enhanced
Buchatskaya M. V.
Full Text Available We raise the problem of generating a differential approach to the construction of psychological programs facilitating students depending on the direction of their training. We reveal that a significant criterion for professional competence of the future professional is his psychological well-being, which structure allows to estimate the potential psychological and pedagogical assistance. The results of empirical studies of the structure of psychological well-being (with the use of C.D. Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being based on the diagnostic sample of 300 people: students of universities and colleges, students enrolled in the areas of training “State and municipal management” and “Psychology”. The results reveal the structural features of the psychological well-being as subjective integral index in each group of students and allow them to be regarded as a differential criterion of optimization of educational resources
W J Coetzer
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to validate two measures of affective well-being, namely the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES for employees in an insurance company, to assess their construct equivalence for different language groups and to determine the relationship between burnout and work engagement. A cross-sectional survey design with an availability sample (N = 613 was used. The MBI, UWES and a biographical questionnaire were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a three-factor model of burnout, consisting of Exhaustion, Cynicism and Professional Efficacy and a three-factor model of work engagement consisting of Vigour, Dedication and Absorption. Acceptable construct equivalence of the three-factor model of burnout and work engagement for different language groups was confirmed. A second-order factor analysis of the scales resulted in two factors, namely burnout and work engagement.
Bittner, James G; Khan, Zarrish; Babu, Maya; Hamed, Osama
Practicing physicians and surgeons, medical and surgical residents, and medical students dedicate their lives to providing optimum patient care, but doing so places them at significant risk for personal and professional stress and, ultimately, burnout. Of great concern is the fact that unrecognized stress and unmanaged burnout are more prevalent among residents than previously believed. Research shows that stress without conflict resolution may lead to burnout, which can contribute to impaired technical performance, medical errors, physical and mental health problems, and even increase the risk of suicide. Therefore, it is crucial that surgeons, and the organizations that train and employ them, recognize the early signs of stress and burnout, adopt adaptive coping strategies, and maintain a culture wherein work-life balance and surgeon well-being are shared goals.
Camerino, Donatella; Mansano Sarquis, Leila Maria
Nurses' shortage and a high turnover cause concern in Europe. The Nurses' Early Exit Study (NEXT) is a cross-cultural and longitudinal project funded by the European Union to ascertain the reasons of these trends. Ten European countries and 56.406 nurses were involved. The goal was to analyze the relationship between working conditions and nursing workers' health. Data from 19.099 nurses were analyzed by means of descriptive and linear regression analyses. The nurses' perception of working conditions, classified by cluster analysis, resulted a good predictor of workers' health and well being and adequately reflected their real working and life conditions. The differences among countries are likely justified by cultural, socioeconomic and organizational variety. Interventions to reduce nurses' turnover must consider obstacles and facilitations in the professional development. Nurses' engagement in processes that impact on political, organizational and ergonomic choices is worthwhile.
Cook, Glenda; Bailey, Cathy; Hodgson, Philip; Gray, Joanne; Barron, Emma; McMillan, Christine; Marston, Roy; Binks, Eleanor; Rose, Joanne
The aim of this study was to examine sheltered housing tenants' views of health and well-being, the strategies they adopted to support their well-being, and their use of health and social care services through a Health Needs Assessment. Sheltered housing in the UK is a form of service-integrated housing for people, predominantly over 60. The study used a parallel, three-strand mixed method approach to encompass the tenants' perceptions of health and well-being (n = 96 participants), analysis of the service's health and well-being database, and analysis of emergency and elective hospital admissions (n = 978 tenant data sets for the period January to December 2012). Tenants' perceptions of well-being were seen to reinforce much of the previous work on the subject with strategies required to sustain social, community, physical, economic, environmental, leisure, emotional and spiritual dimensions. Of the tenants' self-reported chronic conditions, arthritis, heart conditions and breathing problems were identified as their most common health concerns. Hospital admission data indicated that 43% of the tenant population was admitted to hospital (886 admissions) with 53% emergency and 47% elective admissions. The potential cost of emergency as opposed to elective admissions was substantial. The mean length of stay for emergency admissions was 8.2 days (median 3.0 days). While elective hospital admission had a mean length of stay of 1.0 day (median 0.0 days). These results suggest the need for multi-professional health, social care and housing services interventions to facilitate sheltered housing tenants' aspirations and support their strategies to live well and independently in their own homes. Equally there is a need to increase tenants' awareness of health conditions and their management, the importance of services which offer facilitation, resources and support, and the key role played by prevention and reablement. © 2016 The Authors. Health and Social Care in
Lui, P Priscilla; Fernando, Gaithri A
Numerous scales currently exist that assess well-being, but research on measures of well-being is still advancing. Conceptualization and measurement of subjective well-being have emphasized intrapsychic over psychosocial domains of optimal functioning, and disparate research on hedonic, eudaimonic, and psychological well-being lacks a unifying theoretical model. Lack of systematic investigations on the impact of culture on subjective well-being has also limited advancement of this field. The goals of this investigation were to (1) develop and validate a self-report measure, the Well-Being Scale (WeBS), that simultaneously assesses overall well-being and physical, financial, social, hedonic, and eudaimonic domains of this construct; (2) evaluate factor structures that underlie subjective well-being; and (3) examine the measure's psychometric properties. Three empirical studies were conducted to develop and validate the 29-item scale. The WeBS demonstrated an adequate five-factor structure in an exploratory structural equation model in Study 1. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that a bifactor structure best fit the WeBS data in Study 2 and Study 3. Overall WeBS scores and five domain-specific subscale scores demonstrated adequate to excellent internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Mean differences in overall well-being and its five subdomains are presented for different ethnic groups. The WeBS is a reliable and valid measure of multiple aspects of well-being that are considered important to different ethnocultural groups.
Vladisavljević, Marko; Mentus, Vladimir
In this article, we examine the structure of the subjective well-being and its relation to objective well-being indicators using the data from the European Union's Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) from Serbia. This is one of the first papers to analyze a new module on subjective well-being from EU-SILC micro-dataset (with over 20,000 respondents). We investigate the factor structure of the items and the differences in the association of subjective well-being dimensions with objective indicators of well-being within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Better Life Initiative framework. Three factors emerge from the principal components analysis: general life satisfaction, affective well-being, and satisfaction with the local environment. The analysis further reveals that life satisfaction is more related to the material living conditions, such as income, unemployment, and housing conditions, while affective well-being is more related to non-material indicators of well-being such as perceived health, personal security, and social connections. On the other hand, positive and negative affect within the affective well-being are not clearly separable, nor is the eudaimonic indicator from either life satisfaction or affective well-being.
M. Pilar Berrios
Full Text Available In this study, we examined the relations between dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI and classic constructs, such as social support, on depression, stress, and subjective well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness. The study also sought to determine whether PEI dimensions accounted for a significant portion of the variance beyond that of classic constructs in the study of depression, stress, and well-being outcomes in a sample of 442 unemployed subjects. Results indicated that social support and all PEI dimensions are found to be significant and negatively related to depression and stress, and these variables were also found to be significant and positively associated with life satisfaction and happiness. Additionally, results using regression analysis indicated that PEI, and specifically use of emotions and regulation of emotions, explain a significant amount of the variance of all outcomes after controlling for socio-demographics and social support dimensions. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of these constructs and their relation with psychological adjustment and well-being in unemployed people are discussed.
Full Text Available We propose that a comparative approach to well-being could be the key to understanding 'the good life.' Inspired by current theories of human well-being and animal welfare, we designed a novel test of exploration behavior. Environmentally and socially enriched Long-Evans female rats (N = 60 were trained in four simultaneously presented arms of an eight-arm radial-maze. They learned to expect successes in two arms and failures in the other two. After training, 20 animals remained in enriched housing (enrichment-maintenance while 40 animals were re-housed in standard, isolated conditions (enrichment-removal. Two weeks later, all animals were re-tested in the maze, initially with access to the four familiar arms only. In the final minute, they also had access to the unfamiliar ambiguous-arms. Though both groups showed significant interest in the ambiguous-arms (P.3. Thus, we show not only that rats will abandon known rewards and incur risk in order to explore, indicating that exploration is valuable in its own right, but also that individuals with (vs. without enriched housing conditions are more likely to engage in such exploratory behavior. This novel test contributes to the body of knowledge examining the importance of exploration in humans and other animals; implications for animal welfare and human well-being are discussed.
Tovel, Hava; Carmel, Sara
This article describes the development and validation of the Function Self-Efficacy Scale (FSES) for assessing the degree of confidence in self-functioning while facing decline in health and function (DHF). The FSES was evaluated in two studies of older Israelis, aged 75+ years. Data were collected by structured home interviews. Exploratory factor analyses conducted in both studies clearly revealed two underlying factors: emotion self-efficacy and action self-efficacy. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in acceptable model fit criteria. The shortened final 13-item FSES had good internal consistency and satisfactory criterion and convergent validity. Multiple regression analyses, conducted to predict subjective well-being in each of the studies, showed that function self-efficacy had a positive and significant contribution to the explanation of well-being, while controlling for general self-efficacy, self-rated health, and sociodemographic variables. We propose that appropriate interventions can strengthen function self-efficacy, thus improving the well-being of elderly persons and their ability to cope with DHF. © The Author(s) 2015.
Pisanti, Renato; van der Doef, Margot; Maes, Stan; Violani, Cristiano; Lazzari, David
This study examined the mediating role of personal goal facilitation through work (PGFW), defined as perceptions of the extent to which one's job facilitates the attainment of one's personal goals, in the association between psychosocial job characteristics and psychological distress and job-related well-being. Questionnaire data from 217 nurses (84% female, with a mean age of 42.7 years, SD=7.2) were analyzed. Participants completed the following measures: the Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire for Nurses, Workplace Goal Facilitation Inventory, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (short version). A cross-sectional study design was applied. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results indicated that unfavorable psychosocial job characteristics (high demands, low control, and low social support) were associated with lower PGFW. Furthermore, personal goal facilitation through work explained significant additional variance (from 2 to 11%) in psychological distress (somatic complaints and emotional exhaustion) and job-related well-being (personal accomplishment, job satisfaction, and work engagement), controlling for demographic indicators and psychosocial job characteristics. Finally, the results provided support for the mediating effects of PGFW between all psychosocial job characteristics and all outcomes, except in the case of depersonalization. This study suggests that hindered personal goal facilitation may be a mechanism through which psychosocial job characteristics have a negative impact on employees' well-being.
Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Matsiggos, Georgios; Stamatoulakis, Alexander
The present study examined four potential roles of work-related negative affectivity on the associations between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being among telecommunication employees in Greece. Participants (764, predominantly male) completed a battery of self-report measures on perceived occupational stress, negative affectivity, and illness symptoms. In line with previous research, negative affectivity exerted a nuisance effect, by inflating the association between reported stressors and illness symptoms, and significantly predicted illness symptoms, over and above the effects of stressors. In addition, negative affectivity influenced reported illness symptom indirectly, through the effects of stressors, and moderated the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and illness symptoms. The findings suggest that negative affectivity can largely explain and influence in different ways the associations between self-reported stress and physical strain. It is recommended that future studies of occupational stress should control for the effects of negative affectivity, and that health professionals should be cautious of its effects when interpreting relationships between self-reported occupational stress and physical well-being.
Kubik, W; Moore, R J
To document the roles of farm women in the contemporary farm economy, their physical health and psychological well-being, and their interaction with and evaluation of the health care system, a multi-stage study employing both quantitative and qualitative research strategies was implemented. A total of 717 Canadian farm women in 20 rural Saskatchewan municipalities returned a 20-page objective questionnaire that focused on: (1) health care, (2) health status, (3) social support, (4) well-being, (5) lifestyle and activities, (6) stress, (7) work, (8) male and female roles, (9) demographics, and (10) farm issues. Subsequently, 20 qualitative interviews were conducted to explore in-depth the findings of the survey. Results document long hours of work, on and off the farm, that often went unacknowledged; pressure to assume the role of a "traditional farm wife," expectations they often felt they had difficulty living up to; and high levels of stress in response to economic and family pressures. Although rating the availability and quality of health care as "fair to good," the farm women commented on the lack of access to medical and counseling services, and a perceived lack of understanding by policymakers and professionals. Integrated health and educational service centers, increased use of nurse practitioners, and establishment of mobile health services are recommended policy initiatives.
Bjerregaard, Kirstien; Haslam, S. Alexander; Morton, Thomas; Ryan, Michelle K.
A growing body of research in the field of health and social care indicates that the quality of the relationship between the person giving care and the person receiving it contributes significantly to the motivation and well-being of both. This paper examines how care workers’ motivation is shaped by their social and relational identification at work. Survey findings at two time points (T1, N = 643; T2, N = 1274) show that care workers’ motivation increases to the extent that incentives, the working context (of residential vs. domiciliary care), and the professionalization process (of acquiring vs. not acquiring a qualification) serve to build and maintain meaningful identities within the organization. In this context care workers attach greatest importance to their relational identity with clients and the more they perceive this as congruent with their organizational identity the more motivated they are. Implications are discussed with regard to the need to develop and sustain a professional and compassionate workforce that is able to meet the needs of an aging society. PMID:26528196
Arrogante, Óscar; Pérez-García, Ana Maria; Aparicio-Zaldívar, Eva G
To determine the differences in resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among nursing professionals of different hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in nursing staff where resilience and coping were included. Correlational and cross-sectorial study with probabilistic sampling. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n = 133), nursing assistants (n = 61), and midwives (n = 14), of whom 94 worked in special units and 114 worked in wards. 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping strategies), PWB scales (PWB dimensions), and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found where resilience was a precursor factor of coping that determined the PWB of the nurses. Resilience favoured strategies related to engagement coping with stressful situations (β = 0.56) that contributed to PWB (β = 0.43) (these relationships were inverted in the case of disengagement coping). Resilience is an inherent feature in nursing staff whether they work in special units or wards. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive) with the stressful situation determined nursing PWB (primarily self-acceptance and environment mastery dimensions). Resilience and coping strategies more adaptives constitute two personal resources that determine PWB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Escribà-Agüir, V; Tenías-Burillo, J M
This study investigates the effect of gender role and the psychosocial work environment on the psychological well-being of hospital staff in two general hospitals in the province of Valencia (Spain). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 313 workers by means of a self-answered questionnaire. The outcome variable (psychological well-being) was evaluated with four dimensions of the "SF-36 Health Survey" (mental health, vitality, limitations in the emotional role and limitations in the social function). The explanatory variables were: characteristics related to gender role, professional characteristics and the psychosocial working environment evaluated according to Karasek and Johnson's demand-control-support model. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistical regression. Those who have very good marital relationship have less risk of presenting bad mental health, OR 0.43 (0.24-0.78), and limitation in the social function, OR 0.43 (0.24-0.77), and in the emotional role, OR 0.35 (0.16-0.74). Those who dedicate more than 30 h a week to domestic chores have a higher risk of limitation of social function, OR 2.48 (1.16-5.31). Those exposed to high psychological demands present a higher probability of having bad mental health, OR 1.77 (1.04-3.00). Those exposed to low job social support have a higher risk of bad mental health, OR 1.86 (1.09-3.19), low vitality, OR 2.21 (1.30-3.77), and limitation in the social function, OR 1.88 (1.10-3.22). Gender role and psychosocial work environment have a negative influence on the psychological well-being of hospital staff.
Ana Alice Vilas Boas
Full Text Available Mental health, an important object of research in psychology as well as social psychology, can be determined by the relationship between psychological well-being and psychological distress. In this context, we search to understand: “How do compare mental health of professors working in public universities in an emerging country like Brazil with the one of professors working in a developed country like Canada?” and “What are the main differences in the indicators of mental health in work domain?”. This paper assesses psychological well-being and psychological distress for professors working in these two countries and test for their differences. The sample consists of 354 Brazilian professors and 317 Canadian professors. Data were collected through an on-line questionnaire assessing the following mental health indicators: anxiety, depression, loss of control, general positive affect and emotional ties. We compared the components of psychological distress and psychological well-being to analyse their relations. Additionally, we compared these components with work-life balance indicator. Reliability analyses demonstrated that all tested components are consistent to evaluate mental health. There are small mean differences between Brazilian and Canadian professors in all five components of mental health, but these differences are not statistically significant. Mean differences for work-life balance, gender, age, and bias of conformity are statistically different, although the size effects are small. Linear regression analysis, step by step, controlled for life events, showed that general positive affect, anxiety and emotional ties predict 31.5% of the scores of work-life balance. Additionally, we observed that Brazilian professors find more balance between professional and private life than do their Canadian colleagues. Promoting mental health is a challenge for public management sector, thus, public managers and governmental organizations can
Zhou, Jin; Heim, Derek; Levy, Andrew
Studies indicate that those participating in sports are a high-risk population for hazardous alcohol use. Previous research identifies psychosocial drivers underpinning this link between sports participation and risky drinking behavior; however, the evidence is restricted to cross-sectional prevalence studies. Theoretical evaluations suggest that psychologically constructed identities are a defining factor for behaviors in this context. Therefore, the present study sought to examine longitudinally the relationships among sports-related identities, well-being, and alcohol behaviors in those participating in sports. Respondents completed self-report questionnaires on their alcohol consumption, drinking motives, athlete identity (personal identity), sports group identification (social identity), and general well-being. A sample of 475 participants (male = 55.6%; mean age = 20.2 years) provided data at Time 1 for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal associations were conducted with 92 participants (male = 42.4%; mean age = 20.8 years) who provided follow-up data (Time 1 and 6 months later). Cross-sectional results revealed an association between social identity and alcohol consumption, which was fully mediated by positive reinforcement drinking motives. Correlation analysis found a significant positive relationship between Time 1 alcohol consumption and social identity 6 months later. Furthermore, social identity was positively associated with consumption, whereas athlete identity was negatively associated therewith. Finally, well-being was positively associated only with sports group identification over time. Our findings suggest that sport-related drinking may be an avenue for building group identification, and this identification is linked to well-being.
Carol A. Nickerson
Full Text Available In a study of the relation between well-being and gene expression, Fredrickson et al. (2013, 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 110' (33, 13684–13689 concluded that hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being have similar affective correlates but different gene transcriptional correlates in human immune cells. This comment addresses four statistical problems in Fredrickson et al.’s (2013 analyses. First, an idiosyncratic two-factor scoring rather than the documented and well-validated three-factor scoring was used for the instrument assessing well-being. Second, the analyses relating hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being to affect did not include the same variables as the analyses relating these two well-being variables to gene expression, invalidating any comparison between them. Third, hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being were highly correlated, resulting in untheorized and unrecognized suppression effects that accounted for their supposed differential relations with gene expression. Fourth, the method of computing p values for the one-sample 't' tests discarded information and violated the assumption of independence for those tests. These problems cast considerable doubt on the validity of Fredrickson et al.’s (2013 conclusions.
Vik, Mari Hagtvedt; Carlquist, Erik
This article discusses the rationale for measuring national well-being, and examines the use of subjectively oriented well-being measures in the context of public policy. Recent years have witnessed growing attention towards the concept and measurement of well-being, both within academic disciplines, intergovernmental organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as in many governments across Europe, including the Nordic countries. Economic indicators have commonly been regarded as proxies of societal progress of nations, but indicators of well-being have increasingly been applied in order to complement or replace these measures. Well-being indicators of the WHO "Health 2020" framework are critically examined with particular attention given to the subjective aspects of well-being. Literature discussing the rationale for subjective indicators is reviewed. As a background, central theoretical and measurement perspectives on well-being are outlined, including hedonic, eudaimonic and objective list approaches. The WHO refers to well-being in definitions of health and mental health, but has primarily reported on disease. The "Health 2020" framework marked a shift in this concern. One of the main targets of "Health 2020" concerns well-being, involving six core indicators. Only one indicator refers to well-being as subjective experience. Literature supports more extensive use of subjective indicators in combination with objective measures. Although consensus on definitions and instruments is lacking, subjective and objective measures of national well-being may jointly contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of societal progress, as well as a broader conception of health. Further research is required, particularly with regard to eudaimonic indicators.
Full Text Available Career management as a lifelong lasting process becomes very actual in today's modern society because of many reasons. The environment becomes turbulent, in a general sense; therefore, it is natural that career environment, basically, is chaotic as well. Nevertheless, career for many people is, undoubtedly, very important, because it is directly related to life quality. Professional activity satisfies almost all human needs: physiological, safety, social, attainment, self-realisation, independence, autonomy and other. The efficiency of the mentioned activity and the ability of the personality to construct his career are closely related things. Individual's career process studies are especially popular recently, because deeper career perception helps to understand the most important relations between man and work, career management and constant learning, helps not only to know man's abilities, but also the abilities to give oneself to modern environment, to understand career projection possibilities, to plan one's professional future. Seeking to analyse final-year university student position regarding career questions, a written form survey was carried out. The research was carried out between September 2015 and March 2016. The research sample (185 was structured applying a consecutive 'bunch' system. The respondents from three Lithuanian universities Klaipėda, Vilnius and Šiauliai, were selected in the sample. Professional career parameters were evaluated: career conception, the importance of work values and abilities, study influence, promoting and limiting factors and personal qualities. The research is grounded on a mixed strategy, when quantitative and qualitative research approach is combined. The obtained results, based on qualitative analysis, about professional personal career promoting and limiting factors and personal qualities are presented in this research.
Hooghe, Marc; Vanhoutte, Bram
In this article, we investigate the effect of individual and community level characteristics on subjective well-being in Belgium. Various indicators for subjective well-being are being used in a multilevel analysis of the 2009 SCIF survey (n = 2,080) and the 2006 Belgian ESS sample (n = 1,798). On the individual level, most hypotheses on the…
Sara L. Warber
Full Text Available The benefits of walking in natural environments for well-being are increasingly understood. However, less well known are the impacts different types of natural environments have on psychological and emotional well-being. This cross-sectional study investigated whether group walks in specific types of natural environments were associated with greater psychological and emotional well-being compared to group walks in urban environments. Individuals who frequently attended a walking group once a week or more (n = 708 were surveyed on mental well-being (Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale, depression (Major Depressive Inventory, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale and emotional well-being (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Compared to group walks in urban environments, group walks in farmland were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect, and greater mental well-being. Group walks in green corridors were significantly associated with less perceived stress and negative affect. There were no significant differences between the effect of any environment types on depression or positive affect. Outdoor walking group programs could be endorsed through “green prescriptions” to improve psychological and emotional well-being, as well as physical activity.
Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Banks, James; Clark, Andrew E; Brown, Gordon D A
Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses affect well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined in relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective-well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the United Kingdom (N = 20,570), we found that losses in income have a larger effect on well-being than equivalent income gains and that this effect is not explained by diminishing marginal benefits of income to well-being. Our findings show that loss aversion applies to experienced losses, challenging suggestions that loss aversion is only an affective-forecasting error. By failing to account for loss aversion, longitudinal studies of the relationship between income and well-being may have overestimated the positive effect of income on well-being. Moreover, societal well-being might best be served by small and stable income increases, even if such stability impairs long-term income growth.
Sekhon, Jasvinder K; Douglas, Jacinta; Rose, Miranda L
Psychological well-being is essential to overall health; however, there is a paucity of research on how to address psychological well-being in stroke survivors with aphasia. This study describes the current beliefs, attitudes and practices of Australian speech-language pathologists in addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia after stroke. A 26-item web-based survey consisting of open and closed questions was distributed to Australian speech-language pathologists through four electronic databases. Australian speech-language pathologists (n = 111) utilized counselling and clinical approaches to address psychological well-being in people with post-stroke aphasia. The majority of speech-language pathologists did not feel comfortable with addressing psychological well-being in people with aphasia and sought support from other health professionals in this practice. Self-perception of being under-skilled was the main barrier identified to adequate practice in this domain, followed by inadequate time, inadequate staffing and people with aphasia declining referral to counselling. The main facilitators reported by speech-language pathologists to address psychological well-being included personal interest, personal and professional experience and availability of counselling health professionals for people with aphasia. There were small-to-medium statistically significant correlations between speech-language pathologists reporting additional training in counselling and perceived knowledge of, confidence in and satisfaction with managing psychological well-being in people with aphasia. This study identifies factors requiring attention in order to enable speech-language pathologists to facilitate improved psychological well-being in people with aphasia.
Calvo, Rocío; Zheng, Yuhui; Kumar, Santosh; Olgiati, Analia; Berkman, Lisa
High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level) models and then use multivariate (individual-level) Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the two affective
Full Text Available High levels of social trust and social support are associated with life satisfaction around the world. However, it is not known whether this association extends to other indicators of social capital and of subjective well-being globally. We examine associations between three measures of social capital and three indicators of subjective well-being in 142 low-, middle- and high-income countries. Furthermore, we explore whether positive and negative feelings mirror each other or if they are separate constructs that behave differently in relation to social capital. Data comes from the Gallup World Poll, an international cross-sectional comparable survey conducted yearly from 2005 to 2009 for those 15 years of age and over. The poll represents 95% of the world's population. Social capital was measured with self-reports of access to support from relatives and friends, of volunteering to an organization in the past month, and of trusting others. Subjective well-being was measured with self-reports of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. We first estimate random coefficient (multi-level models and then use multivariate (individual-level Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression to model subjective well-being as a function of social support, volunteering and social trust, controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, household income and religiosity. We found that having somebody to count on in case of need and reporting high levels of social trust are associated with better life evaluations and more positive feelings and an absence of negative feelings in most countries around the world. Associations, however, are stronger for high- and middle-income countries. Volunteering is also associated with better life evaluations and a higher frequency of positive emotions. There is not an association, however, between volunteering and experiencing negative feelings, except for low-income countries. Finally, we present evidence that the
Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel; Díaz Méndez, Darío; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Blanco Abarca, Amalio; van Dierendonck, Dirk
Vitality and inner resources as relevant components of psychological well-being. The multidimensional model of well-being, created by Carol Ryff, proposes the following dimensions to study psychological well-being (PSWB...
Bos, Aline; Boselie, Paul; Trappenburg, Margo
Expanding the opportunities for for-profit nursing home care is a central theme in the debate on the sustainable organization of the growing nursing home sector in Western countries. We conducted a systematic review of the literature over the last 10 years in order to determine the broad impact of nursing home ownership in the United States. Our review has two main goals: (a) to find out which topics have been studied with regard to financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being in relation to nursing home ownership and (b) to assess the conclusions related to these topics. The review results in two propositions on the interactions between financial performance, employee well-being, and client well-being as they relate to nursing home ownership. Five search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 50 studies were included in the review. Relevant findings were categorized as related to financial performance (profit margins, efficiency), employee well-being (staffing levels, turnover rates, job satisfaction, job benefits), or client well-being (care quality, hospitalization rates, lawsuits/complaints) and then analyzed based on common characteristics. For-profit nursing homes tend to have better financial performance, but worse results with regard to employee well-being and client well-being, compared to not-for-profit sector homes. We argue that the better financial performance of for-profit nursing homes seems to be associated with worse employee and client well-being. For policy makers considering the expansion of the for-profit sector in the nursing home industry, our findings suggest the need for a broad perspective, simultaneously weighing the potential benefits and drawbacks for the organization, its employees, and its clients.
Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; McQueen, Hilary; Gaunt, Helena
This research explored the relationship between active music making and subjective well-being, in older people's lives. The research focused on how participation in making music might enhance older people's social, emotional and cognitive well-being, through meeting the basic psychological needs identified in earlier research. The research comprised three case studies, each offering a variety of musical activities to older people. In each case study a sample of older people were asked to complete questionnaires and psychological needs scales related to autonomy, competence, relatedness and self-realisation before and after a substantial period of active engagement with music. Principal components analysis (PCA) of responses to the CASP-12(1) and the Basic Needs Satisfaction scale(2) revealed three factors: purpose (having a positive outlook on life; autonomy and control; and social affirmation (positive social relationships, competence and a sense of recognised accomplishment). Comparisons of those engaged in music making with those participating in other activities revealed statistically significant differences on all three factors with the music groups giving more positive responses. The enhanced subjective well-being found among participants in music may have been due to the potential for music to provide a sense of purpose through progression in music and creative expression. Control and autonomy may be supported by the holistic nature of musical engagement, whereby meeting new musical challenges involves physical and cognitive engagement. Finally, social affirmation may be supported through social interaction; giving and receiving peer support; and performance, which confers status, a sense of giving something back to the community, pride and opportunities for positive reinforcement. Further research needs to identify the mechanisms through which music is able to achieve these effects.
Tuomi, Jouni; Aimala, Anna-Mari; Žvanut, Boštjan
Students' well-being is very important both for students and institutions. However, this field lacks longitudinal research, which focuses on the change of nursing students' well-being during their study. In order to asses such changes the four study types according to Job-Demand-Control-Support-model were used: passive, high-strain, low-strain, and active. A longitudinal design was employed: participants were recruited in 2010/2011 (phase I) and at the end of their study in 2012 (phase II). The study was performed in one school of health care in a university of applied sciences in Finland. The final sample consisted of 135 nursing students (BSc) who started their study either in September 2008 or January 2009, and finished in December 2011 or May 2012. The participants responded to the same close-ended questionnaire in both phases. The majority of the participants experienced the study type as low-strain (phase I: 61.5%; phase II: 48.2%). The distribution according to their study type did not change substantially between both phases, although 42.2% of the participants changed their study type. The major changes of study types were from low-strain to others (21.4%), and from other study types to the active one (12.6%). The results indicate that the majority of students do not change their study type and consequentially their well-being during their study, which is in contrast with previous research. Special attention should be put to the identification of students who change their study type to high-strain or remain in it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Romppanen, Johanna
The aim of this study was to gather, assess and synthesize current research knowledge on interventions that aimed to improve nurse leaders' well-being at work. The research evidence on interventions for nurse leaders' well-being at work has been sporadic and there are a lack of evidence-based recommendations for effective interventions that inform practice, future studies and education. A quantitative systematic review, in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration procedures and the reporting guidance in the PRISMA statement. CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCO, PubMed, PsycInfo and Scopus databases were searched from 2009 - December 2016. The final data consisted of five studies, which were assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The data were summarized narratively. The interventions were mainly concerned with stress management and were targeted at individuals. Four of the five interventions examined produced statistically significant outcomes on well-being at work. Stress management interventions that included mental exercises were the most successful. Interventions primarily reduced the stress experienced by participants, but the evidence on the stability of these outcomes was poor because of the short follow-up periods. The certainty of evidence was low, indicating that the use of these interventions among nurse leaders might be beneficial. Further studies are needed to provide more reliable recommendations for their use. As the performance of nurse leaders influences organizations, through interpersonal relationships, it is important to pay more attention in the future to the development of organization- and person-directed interventions and their combinations. A structural empowerment approach should also be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J
Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested.
Rothenberger, David A
Physician burnout in the United States has reached epidemic proportions and is rising rapidly, although burnout in other occupations is stable. Its negative impact is far reaching and includes harm to the burned-out physician, as well as patients, coworkers, family members, close friends, and healthcare organizations. The purpose of this review is to provide an accurate, current summary of what is known about physician burnout and to develop a framework to reverse its current negative impact, decrease its prevalence, and implement effective organizational and personal interventions. I completed a comprehensive MEDLINE search of the medical literature from January 1, 2000, through December 28, 2016, related to medical student and physician burnout, stress, depression, suicide ideation, suicide, resiliency, wellness, and well-being. In addition, I selectively reviewed secondary articles, books addressing the relevant issues, and oral presentations at national professional meetings since 2013. Healthcare organizations within the United States were studied. The literature review is presented in 5 sections covering the basics of defining and measuring burnout; its impact, incidence, and causes; and interventions and remediation strategies. All US medical students, physicians in training, and practicing physicians are at significant risk of burnout. Its prevalence now exceeds 50%. Burnout is the unintended net result of multiple, highly disruptive changes in society at large, the medical profession, and the healthcare system. Both individual and organizational strategies have been only partially successful in mitigating burnout and in developing resiliency and well-being among physicians. Two highly effective strategies are aligning personal and organizational values and enabling physicians to devote 20% of their work activities to the part of their medical practice that is especially meaningful to them. More research is needed.
Martoni, A A; Varani, S; Peghetti, B; Roganti, D; Volpicella, E; Pannuti, R; Pannuti, F
This study evaluates the spiritual well-being (SpWB) in very advanced cancer patients assisted by the home palliative care program of ANT Foundation, a no-profit Italian organisation. SpWB was assessed by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp12), including Meaning, Peace, and Faith subscales. The quality-of-life (QoL) was evaluated by using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scale. Questionnaires were distributed to 1,055 patients and 683 were compiled and evaluable for analysis. The mean scores of FACIT-Sp12 as well as of QoL were notably lower than reference values for cancer survivors. The FACIT-Sp12 score was higher in patients with less impaired Karnofsky Performance Status, fully participating in religious rituals and living in central Italy. A high Pearson's correlation was found between QoL and FACIT-Sp12 (r = .60), Peace (r = .71) and Meaning (r = .52), while it was marginal for Faith (r = .27). The hierarchical regression analysis showed that FACIT-Sp12 is a significant predictor of QoL. The study suggests that Italian patients with advanced cancer assisted by expert multi-professional teams in the home palliative care setting have a low level of SpWB thereby highlighting the need for the integration of spiritual support as part of comprehensive cancer care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Focus Area: Supporting Behavioral Change In 1998, when Dr Martin Seligman was president of the American Psychological Association, he proposed a new approach to psychology. The thinking at that time led to a disease-based model in which the focus was on treating mental illness. Dr Seligman advocated, however, that the science should be expanded to include factors that contribute to optimal functioning and greater well-being. He, along with his colleague Dr Csikszentmihalyi, stated, “The exclusive focus on pathology that has dominated so much of our discipline results in a model of the human being lacking the positive features that make life worth living.” Since this time, a more complete and balanced scientific understanding of the human experience has begun to unfold, with human flourishing being the goal. The five pillars that significantly contribute to a flourishing life and greater well-being include positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment. It is important to incorporate these pillars into our professional and personal lives, but in doing so, we must keep in mind the fundamental building blocks to getting there: responsibility, choice, and action. Even as far back as the ancient Greek philosophers, it was believed that “the good life” is not something that happens to us—it is not something the world owes us. There is nothing passive about it. Now, with the scientific model that Positive Psychology has given us, we have a path to follow that will move us in the direction of this “good life.”
Oates, Jennifer; Jones, Julia; Drey, Nicholas
The aim of the present study was to measure the subjective well-being of a group of 225 UK registered mental health nurses (MHN) using three survey measures, and to identify whether certain demographic and workplace factors correlated with subjective well-being measure scores. An online survey incorporating the subjective well-being questions used by the Office for National Statistics, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was administered to members of two professional bodies for MHN. There was good consistency between the three subjective well-being measures, each demonstrating that UK MHN had a relatively low subjective well-being. Apart from the Office for National Statistics question, 'Overall, to what extent do you feel the things you do in your life are worthwhile?', demographic and workplace factors did not correlate with subjective well-being measure scores, although the characteristics of being male, living alone, and being aged 40-49 years were associated with lower mean scores on all three measures. The findings of the exploratory study suggest that a similar study should be undertaken with a larger representative population of MHN, and that qualitative research should explore why and how UK MHN have relatively low subjective well-being. The limitations of this study, namely the response rate and sample representativeness, mean that the results of the present study must be tested in further research on the MHN population. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Chen, Su Yen; Lu, Luo
Western studies have linked adolescents' time spent on homework, structured activities, various kinds of leisure involvement, and part-time employment with their academic achievement and psychological adjustment, but little is known about the after-school pursuits of Chinese students and their associations with adolescents' development. Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study investigated how time spent on nine after-school activities during the eleventh grade helped predict educational achievement and depression symptoms during the twelfth grade, in addition to previous achievement and depression level and background variables. The findings of this study confirmed and extended the extant literature that time spent on homework, after-class academic-enrichment programs, and private cram schools positively affected adolescents' educational achievement; however, time spent on private cram schools was negatively associated with their psychological well-being. In addition, inconsistent with the findings of many Western studies, this study's results did not support a positive effect of participating in school-based extracurricular activities on educational achievement and psychological well-being. Finally, time spent on working part-time and watching TV was found to be detrimental to achievement, but time spent playing Internet games appeared to be negatively associated with depression symptoms.
Delhey, Jan; Dragolov, Georgi
Despite mushrooming research on "social" determinants of subjective well-being (SWB), little is known as to whether social cohesion as a collective property is among the key societal conditions for human happiness. This article fills this gap in investigating the importance of living in a cohesive society for citizens' SWB. For 27 European Union countries, it combines the newly developed Bertelsmann Foundation's Cohesion Index with individual well-being data on life evaluation and psychological functioning as surveyed in the recent European Quality of Life Survey. The main results from multi-level analyses are as follows. First, Europeans are indeed happier and psychologically healthier in more cohesive societies. Second, all three core domains of cohesion increase individuals' SWB. Third, citizens in the more affluent part of Europe feel the positivity of social cohesion more consistently than those in the less affluent part. Finally, within countries, cohesion is good for the SWB of resource-rich and resource-poor groups alike. Our findings also shed new light on the ongoing debate on economic progress and quality of life: what makes citizenries of affluent societies happier is, in the first place, their capacity to create togetherness and solidarity among their members-in other words, cohesion. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Di Fabio, Annamaria
This contribution deals with the concept of healthy organizations and starts with a definition of healthy organizations and healthy business. In healthy organizations, culture, climate, and practices create an environment conducive to employee health and safety as well as organizational effectiveness (Lowe, 2010). A healthy organization thus leads to a healthy and successful business (De Smet et al., 2007; Grawitch and Ballard, 2016), underlining the strong link between organizational profitability and workers' well-being. Starting from a positive perspective focused on success and excellence, the contribution describes how positive organizational health psychology evolved from occupational health psychology to positive occupational health psychology stressing the importance of a primary preventive approach. The focus is not on deficiency and failure but on a positive organizational attitude that proposes interventions at different levels: individual, group, organization, and inter-organization. Healthy organizations need to find the right balance between their particular situation, sector, and culture, highlighting the importance of well-being and sustainability. This contribution discusses also the sustainability of work-life projects and the meaning of work in healthy organizations, stressing the importance of recognizing, respecting, and using the meaning of work as a key for growth and success. Finally, the contribution discusses new research and intervention opportunities for healthy organizations.
This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Author(s).
This paper focuses on consumption in the affluent world and the resulting level, composition and distribution of consumption-based emissions. It argues that public policy should foster the recomposition of consumption, while not disadvantaging poorer groups in the population. To combine these two imperatives entails making a distinction between goods and services that are necessary for a basic level of well-being, and those that are surplus to this requirement. The argument proceeds in six stages. First, the paper outlines a theory of universal need, as an alternative conception of well-being to consumer preference satisfaction. Second, it proposes a dual strategy methodology for identifying need satisfiers or necessities in a given social context. Then, it applies this methodology to identify a minimum bundle of necessary consumption items in the UK and speculates how it might be used to identify a maximum bundle for sustainable consumption. The next part looks at corporate barriers and structural obstacles in the path of sustainable consumption. The following part reveals a further problem: mitigation policies can result in perverse distributional outcomes when operating in contexts of great inequality. The final section suggests four ecosocial public policies that would simultaneously advance sustainable and equitable consumption in rich nations. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.
Hahn, Verena C; Dormann, Christian
This study examined the role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Building on boundary theory, we hypothesized that not only employees' own work-home segmentation preference but also their partners' work-home segmentation preference is associated with employees' psychological detachment. In addition, partners' psychological detachment should influence employees' psychological detachment. We hypothesized that the presence of children in the household moderates partners' influence on employees' psychological detachment. Further, we expected both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment to contribute to employees' well-being. Participants were 114 dual-earner couples who responded to Web-based questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor-partner interdependence model. Results confirmed our hypotheses. Employees' and their partners' work-home segmentation preferences were associated with employees' psychological detachment. The presence of children moderated the relation between partners' work-home segmentation preference and employees' psychological detachment. The relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Moreover, employees' and their partners' psychological detachment were positively associated. Again, the relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Finally, both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment contributed to employees' well-being. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Annamaria Di Fabio
Full Text Available This contribution deals with the concept of healthy organizations and starts with a definition of healthy organizations and healthy business. In healthy organizations, culture, climate, and practices create an environment conducive to employee health and safety as well as organizational effectiveness (Lowe, 2010. A healthy organization thus leads to a healthy and successful business (De Smet et al., 2007; Grawitch and Ballard, 2016, underlining the strong link between organizational profitability and workers’ well-being. Starting from a positive perspective focused on success and excellence, the contribution describes how positive organizational health psychology evolved from occupational health psychology to positive occupational health psychology stressing the importance of a primary preventive approach. The focus is not on deficiency and failure but on a positive organizational attitude that proposes interventions at different levels: individual, group, organization, and inter-organization. Healthy organizations need to find the right balance between their particular situation, sector, and culture, highlighting the importance of well-being and sustainability. This contribution discusses also the sustainability of work-life projects and the meaning of work in healthy organizations, stressing the importance of recognizing, respecting, and using the meaning of work as a key for growth and success. Finally, the contribution discusses new research and intervention opportunities for healthy organizations.
Full Text Available Background We study identity in the context of long-term sedentary groups in Eastern Europe in contrast to the frequently studied short-term immigrants in typical Western European or US American contexts. This paper provides a novel approach to youth identity in an Eastern European post-communist context for minority groups that are quite distinct from the mainstream group to advance the study of identity. Turkish-Bulgarians and Muslim-Bulgarians have been subjected to extensive assimilation campaigns, which prompted them to carefully negotiate their ethnic identity and sense of belonging. Participants and procedure Participants were 366 adolescents aged 16 to 18 years (M = 16.72, SD = 0.71 from South Central and South Western regions of Bulgaria. This sample included Turkish-Bulgarian (n = 145, Muslim-Bulgarian (n = 85, and (mainstream Bulgarian (n = 136 youth who provided data on personal, ethnic, familial, and religious identity as well as psychological well-being. Results Turkish-Bulgarian youth scored higher on achievement, diffusion, and foreclosure but lower on moratorium and Bulgarian ethnic and familial identity than Muslim-Bulgarian and Bulgarian youth. Bulgarian mainstreamers scored significantly lower on religious identity compared to their Turkish-Bulgarian and Muslim-Bulgarian peers. Finally, Bulgarian mainstream identity significantly predicted well-being of youth from all groups, independent of their ethnic background. Conclusions A strong ethnic and familial identity results in beneficial psychological outcomes for youth, even in the face of adversity and assimilation.
Di Fabio, Annamaria
This contribution deals with the concept of healthy organizations and starts with a definition of healthy organizations and healthy business. In healthy organizations, culture, climate, and practices create an environment conducive to employee health and safety as well as organizational effectiveness (Lowe, 2010). A healthy organization thus leads to a healthy and successful business (De Smet et al., 2007; Grawitch and Ballard, 2016), underlining the strong link between organizational profitability and workers’ well-being. Starting from a positive perspective focused on success and excellence, the contribution describes how positive organizational health psychology evolved from occupational health psychology to positive occupational health psychology stressing the importance of a primary preventive approach. The focus is not on deficiency and failure but on a positive organizational attitude that proposes interventions at different levels: individual, group, organization, and inter-organization. Healthy organizations need to find the right balance between their particular situation, sector, and culture, highlighting the importance of well-being and sustainability. This contribution discusses also the sustainability of work-life projects and the meaning of work in healthy organizations, stressing the importance of recognizing, respecting, and using the meaning of work as a key for growth and success. Finally, the contribution discusses new research and intervention opportunities for healthy organizations. PMID:29184517
Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Meyer-Kalos, Piper S; Mueser, Kim T; Estroff, Sue E; Brunette, Mary F; Correll, Christoph U; Robinson, James; Rosenheck, Robert A; Schooler, Nina; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M
Recovery-oriented practices that promote client-centered care, collaboration, and functional outcome have been recommended to improve treatment engagement, especially for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Psychological well-being (PWB) is related to recovery and refers to experiencing purpose and meaning in life through realizing one's potential. The recently completed Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP) study sought to improve quality of life, functional outcome, and well-being in individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP). Therefore, the primary aims of the present analysis were: 1) to examine the impact of treatment on PWB and mental health recovery trajectories, 2) to examine the impact of duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) on these outcomes, and 3) to examine the relationships among these outcomes and quality of life. Multilevel modeling was used given the nested data structure. Results revealed that PWB and mental health recovery improved over the course of the 2-year treatment; there were no significant treatment differences. In addition, DUP was associated with the Positive Relationships and Environmental Mastery dimensions of PWB. Finally, PWB, mental health recovery, and quality of life were all significantly correlated at baseline while controlling for depressive symptoms. Overall, the findings indicate that PWB and mental health recovery can improve in FEP, are related to yet distinct from quality of life, and that DUP may play a role in certain facets of these constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.