Rumsey, Hannah E; Aggarwal, Sahil; Hobson, Erin M; Park, Jeeyn; Pidcoe, Peter
Due to the high percentage of musicians who suffer from musculoskeletal disorders, there is a need for more research in the field of music and medicine. The purpose of this study was to analyze the possible relationship between anxiety, muscle activation, and muscle fatigue in undergraduate trumpet players. Assessment tools included surface electromyography (sEMG) data, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) of perceived anxiety. Data were collected from 27 undergraduate music students across five universities (22 males, 5 females) aged 18 to 24 years. The three muscles targeted by the sEMG were the upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and masseter muscles. Participants were randomly divided into two single-blinded groups: (1) anxiety-induction and (2) control. The anxiety-induction group was instructed to play as accurately as possible and informed that mistakes were being counted and evaluated, while the control group was instructed to play without any concern for possible mistakes. The anxiety-induction group was shown to have more masseter muscle activation than the control; the anxiety-induction group also displayed a higher fatigue rate in all three muscles versus the controls. Subjects with high perceived-anxiety (as measured by VAS) displayed higher masseter activation and higher fatigue rates in the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid than non-anxious participants. Despite these notable trends, there was no statistical significance for any of the muscle groups for muscle activation or fatigue.
Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.
Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…
Schiltz, Marc; Lehance, Cédric; Maquet, Didier; Bury, Thierry; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis
Context: Despite the high rate of lower limb injuries in basketball players, studies of the dominant-limb effect in elite athletes often neglect injury history. Objective: To determine lower limb explosive-strength asymmetries in professional basketball players compared with junior basketball players and control participants. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Academic medical institution. Patients or Other Participants: 15 professional basketball players, 10 junior basketball players, and 20 healthy men. Main Outcome Measure(s): We performed an isokinetic examination to evaluate the knee extensor (Ext) and flexor (Fl) concentric peak torque at 60°·s−1 and 240°·s−1 and (Fl only) eccentric peak torque at 30°·s−1 and 120°·s−1. Functional evaluation included countermovement jump, countermovement jump with arms, 10-m sprint, single-leg drop jump, and single-leg, 10-second continuous jumping. Variables were compared among groups using analysis of variance or a generalized linear mixed model for bilateral variables. Results: The 2 groups of basketball players demonstrated better isokinetic and functional performances than the control group did. No differences in functional or relative isokinetic variables were noted between professional and junior basketball players. Professional players with a history of knee injury failed to reach normal knee extensor strength at 60°·s−1. Knee Ext (60°·s−1) and Fl (eccentric 120°·s−1) torque values as well as 10-second continuous jumping scores were higher in those professional players without a history of knee injury than those with such a history. Compared with the group without a history of knee injury, the group with a history of knee injury maintained leg asymmetry ratios greater than 10% for almost all isokinetic variables and more than 15% for unilateral functional variables. Conclusions: The relative isokinetic and functional performances of professional basketball players were similar to those of junior
Helzberg, John H; Waeckerle, Joseph F; Camilo, Joel; Selden, Michael A; Tang, Fengming; Joyce, Steven A; Browne, Jon E; O'Keefe, James H
In 2006, a newspaper report indicated an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and early mortality in retired professional football players compared to professional baseball players. This study included 69 professional football players from a 2008 National Football League training camp and 155 professional baseball players from an American League 2009 spring training site who volunteered to participate in a study of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. The prevalence of body mass index > or =30 kg/m(2), waist circumference > or =100 cm, waist/height ratio >0.5, blood pressure > or =130/85 mm Hg, triglycerides > or =150 mg/dl, triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio >3.5, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or =40 IU/L was determined in baseball players and compared to measurements obtained in a matched cohort from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), professional football players, and linemen and nonlinemen subsets. In conclusion, professional baseball players had favorable cardiovascular parameters, with the exception of an increased prevalence of hypertension, compared to the reference population, and professional baseball players had decreased measures of obesity, hyperglycemia, and the cardiometabolic syndrome compared to professional football lineman. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kirschen, David G; Laby, Daniel M; Kirschen, Matthew P; Applegate, Raymond; Thibos, Larry N
To determine the presence, type, and size of optical higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in professional athletes with superior visual acuity and to compare them with those in an age-matched population of nonathletes. Vero Beach and Fort Myers, Florida, USA. Players from 2 professional baseball teams were studied. Each player's optical aberrations were measured with a naturally dilated 4.0 mm pupil using a Z-Wave aberrometer and a LADARWave aberrometer. One hundred sixty-two players (316 eyes) were evaluated. The HOAs were less than 0.026 mum in all cases. Spherical aberration C(4,0) was the largest aberration with both aberrometers. There were small but statistically significant differences between the aberrometers in mean values for trefoil C(3,3) and C(3,-3) and secondary astigmatism C(4,2). Although statistically significant, the differences were clinically insignificant, being similar at approximately 0.031 diopter (D) of spherical power. A statistically significant difference was found between the professional baseball players and the control population in trefoil C(3,-3). These differences were clinically insignificant, similar to 0.071 D of spherical power. Professional baseball players have small higher-order optical aberrations when tested with naturally dilated pupils. No clinically significant differences were found between the 2 aberrometers. Statistically significant differences in trefoil were found between the players and the control population; however, the difference was clinically insignificant. It seems as though the visual system of professional baseball players is limited by lower-order aberrations and that the smaller HOAs do not enhance visual function over that in a control population. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18 had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams. There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg, height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm, skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.
Cooper, Shelly C.; Hamann, Donald L.
Directors strive for a unified sound throughout their wind and orchestra ensembles. Articulation affects sound uniformity among winds and strings. This baseline study examined whether a trumpet player could better match a violin player's articulation, as perceived by participants listening to a recording of two performances, when: (a) performing…
Laby, Daniel M; Kirschen, David G
High levels of visual acuity are required to hit a baseball effectively. Research has shown that any decrease in vision is likely caused by low-order optical aberrations. This study is designed to validate the SVOne autorefractor, and describe the amount and type, of low-order optical aberrations present in a large cohort of professional baseball players. A retrospective chart review on the 608 Major League Baseball players evaluated during the 2016 Spring Training Season was performed. Results for a subset of players who had both manifest refraction as well as autorefraction were calculated. Subsequently, after determining the accuracy of the autorefraction system in this population, refractive results for the entire population were determined. There was a borderline statistically significant difference in mean spherical refractive error (M) between the manifest refraction and the SVOne auto refraction (-0.273D in the manifest refraction method vs. -0.503D in the SVOne method, P = .06) in the subset of athletes who underwent both tests. Additionally, there was no difference in the J0 or J45 cylindrical component vectors for each method. For the entire eligible population, the SVOne autorefraction system found a mean spherical refractive error (M) of -0.228D, a J0 value of -0.013D, and a J45 value of -0.040D. These data suggest that the SVOne autorefraction system is generally able to measure the refractive error in the baseball population. The system was slightly biased, often reporting more myopia in myopic subjects. Thus, careful evaluation of the refractive status of these athletes coupled with careful subjective refractive correction for those with less than average vision for baseball is strongly suggested.
Miltner, O; Siebert, C; Tschaepe, R; Maus, U; Kieffer, O
The aim of this study was to analyse the efficiency of muscular activity in the trunk stabilisation of professional volleyball players compared to a group of amateur hobby players. The results were compared amongst the groups as well as with a reference group consisting of asymptomatic individuals. The question to be answered was whether or not professional volleyball players possess a characteristic strength profile in their trunk musculature and if differences exist with regard to the individuals' competitive playing level. In this comparative study 12 professional volleyball players (German Bundesliga) and 18 non-professional volleyball players were analysed with regard to their isometric strength profile in all three planes. The reference group was provided by the Proxomed company, which had previously analysed healthy untrained individuals (n = 1045) of various age groups. A sports-specific profile for the musculature of volleyball players revealed a significant reduction in the flexion and rotation strength as well as a well-developed lateral flexion strength (highly significant when compared to the reference group). With reference to the level played, better strength values in flexion and lateral flexion were found among the professional athletes. Professional volleyball players present with a characteristic trunk musculature strength profile. A detailed analysis of the muscle strength of the spine as part of a sports medicine work-up could prove helpful in preventing injuries and overuse problems in professional and hobby volleyball players.
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effect of characteristics of various games and players on the proportion of retired tennis matches in the Open Era of tennis. The data included over 420,000 matches played among 17,553 tennis players in the period from 1968 to the end of 2010. The influence of the surface type was clearly confirmed, with the proportion of retired matches being higher on hard and clay courts compared to grass and carpet surfaces. Similarly, more retired matches were observed in outdoor venues than in indoor ones. The impact of other variables, tournament types, rounds at which the game was played and both players' ranks, is more ambiguous. Our interpretation of the obtained results is presented in the paper. Network analytic methods were applied to extract players with the most retired matches in their careers. Eventually, we defined a group of top tennis players and gave a more precise insight into retired matches in that group. Correspondence analysis was used to visually display the two-mode network of top players and the proportion of retired matches by surface type
Gardner, RC; Possin, KL; Hess, CP; Huang, EJ; Grinberg, LT; Nolan, AL; Cohn-Sheehy, BI; Ghosh, PM; Lanata, S; Merrilees, J; Kramer, JH; Berger, MS; Miller, BL; Yaffe, K; Rabinovici, GD
© 2015 American Academy of Neurology. Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE...
Proietti, Riccardo; di Fronso, Selenia; Pereira, Lucas A; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bertollo, Maurizio
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been increasingly used to monitor team sports athletes. Besides the traditional time domain indices (i.e., the SD of successive RR intervals [SDNN] and the root mean square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]), recently the use of the stress score (SS), which is an inverse function of the SD2 index derived from the Poincaré plot, and the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio (S/PS) to monitor soccer players has been proposed. However, the reliability of these new indices and the ability of HRV to differentiate between soccer competitive levels are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of the different HRV-derived indices in professional soccer players during the competitive period and to compare HRV of professional soccer players from 3 teams of distinct competitive levels (i.e., Italian Second Division [2D], European League [EL], and Champions League [CL]). Fifty-four male professional soccer players from 3 different teams of 2 European countries (Italy and Germany) participated in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of the HRV indices varied from 0.78 (very large) to 0.90 (near perfect). The coefficient of variation (CV) values for RMSSD and SDNN were all soccer players and is able to differentiate between international- and national-level players.
Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.
Conte, Stan A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Wilk, Kevin E; Aune, Kyle T; Patterson-Flynn, Nancy; ElAttrache, Neal
While the high rate of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in professional baseball is widely discussed in the media and medical literature, the actual prevalence of UCL reconstruction has not been documented. The prevalence of UCL reconstruction will be higher among pitchers than nonpitchers, and Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers will have a higher prevalence than will minor league pitchers. Descriptive epidemiology study. An online questionnaire was distributed to all 30 MLB organizations. Certified athletic trainers from each team administered the questionnaire to all players in the organization, including major league players and 6 levels of minor league players. Demographic data were compared between major and minor league players. Continuous variables (age, years of professional baseball, country of origin, etc) were compared with Student t tests (P baseball players (722 major league and 4366 minor league) participated in the survey. Pitchers represented 53% of all players, and 497 players reported at least 1 UCL reconstruction, demonstrating a prevalence rate of 10% (497 of 5088). Pitchers reported a significantly higher prevalence of UCL reconstruction (16%; 437 of 2706) than nonpitchers (3%; 60 of 2382; P major league pitchers, 25% (96 of 382) had a history of UCL reconstruction, while minor league pitchers showed a 15% (341 of 2324) prevalence (P Major league pitchers were also significantly older (28.8 ± 3.9 years) than minor league pitchers (22.8 ± 3.0; P majority of major leaguers (86%) had their UCL reconstruction as professional pitchers, whereas the majority of minor league pitchers (61%) underwent their UCL reconstruction during high school and college (P major league and minor league pitchers. No difference in prevalence was shown between pitchers born in the United States versus Latin American countries. Pitchers have a high prevalence of UCL reconstruction in professional baseball, with 25% of major league pitchers and 15% of minor
Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...... the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin was stabile, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. IgA and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end...
While retirement traditionally occurs for most non-athletes after a long working career that allows them to plan and anticipate the likely demands and ... It is therefore important for soccer clubs and agents to assist professional soccer players in career counselling to be both mentally and financially prepared for retirement.
Koning, Ruud H.; Amelink, Remko
Professional athletes such as soccer players are expected to be in better health than the average member of their age cohort, if only because of the very demands imposed on them by their profession. Moreover, during their active career, their health is monitored on a regular basis. However, whenever
Wong-On, Manuel; Turmo-Garuz, Antonio; Arriaza, Rafael; Gonzalez de Suso, Jose Manuel; Til-Perez, Luis; Yanguas-Leite, Xavier; Diaz-Cueli, David; Gasol-Santa, Xavier
Obturator externus and internus muscular tears are uncommon injuries. Only a few case reports exist, mainly in high-level athletes. Our aim is to describe a series of obturator externus and internus muscular tears in professional soccer players. Injury data from four teams from the First Division of the Spanish Soccer League were collected over a total of four seasons. Any soccer player who sustained an injury to either the obturator externus or internus identified on magnetic resonance (MRI) was included. All injured players were treated non-operatively with a goal of returning to play as fast as possible. Sixteen players sustained injuries to the obturator externus and internus during matches or training sessions. The main complaint was anterior hip pain with a physical examination showing pain during internal rotation or external rotation of the flexed hip. The MRI documented 12 muscular tears of the obturator externus, and 4 muscular tears of the obturator internus. All injuries were treated conservatively based on physical therapy, analgesic medications, and underwent a symptoms-based rehabilitation protocol. Mean return to play was 11.5 ± 8.8 days. Although uncommon, tears of the obturator externus and internus occur in professional soccer players. The MRI scan was essential to the location, classification, and evaluation of the injury size. The clinical relevance of our investigation is based on the relatively benign prognosis of these injuries. IV.
Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W
This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match.
The aim of the research was an analysis of the eating habits of professional volleyball players according to their sex and age. The research has been carried out on a group of 210 men players and women players at the age of 13-25, representatives of sports clubs in Ostrołeka, Myślenice, Bydgoszcz and Warszawa. The research has revealed a limited realisation of rational diets by both men and women players. The most common mistakes made by them include a smaller number of meals during the day than recommended (especially among men), taking up training on empty stomach and insufficient frequency of consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruit. The research has also revealed excessive consumption of sweets, sweet sparkling drinks and fast food (mainly among men). The examined players to some extent only apply regular strategies of rehydration of their organisms. A high percentage of them do not pay attention to supplementation of liquids after an effort or they drink a lot of liquids at one time. The most frequently chosen drinks were mineral water and isotonic drinks. Supplementation was applied by a small percentage of the players, mainly men, who most often chose vitamins, Izostar, creatine, L-carnitine and HMB.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M
The reliability of athletes to recall and self-report a concussion history has never been quantified. This study examined the reliability of the self-report concussion history measure and explored determinants of recall in the number of self-reported concussions in a group of retired professional football players. In 2001, a short questionnaire was administered to a cohort of former professional football players to ascertain the number of self-reported concussions they sustained during their professional playing careers. In 2010, the same instrument was readministered to a subset (n = 899) of the original cohort to assess reliability. Overall reliability was moderate (weighted Cohen κ = 0.48). The majority (62.1%) reported the same number of concussions in both administrations (2001 and 2010); 31.4% reported more concussions in the second administration. Compared with the "same number reported" group, the "greater number reported" group had more deficits in the second administration in their Short Form 36 physical health (composite score combining physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain, general health) and mental health (e.g., composite score combining vitality, social functioning, role emotional) scales. The self-reported concussion history had moderate reliability in former professional football players, on the basis of two administrations of the same instrument, 9 yr apart. However, changes in health status may be differentially associated with recall of concussions.
Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter; Storskov, Anders; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Jesper L
The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure. Blood samples were collected 5 times during a 6-month period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, the players were tested for body composition, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance submax test (IE2). Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin were stable, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max decreased toward the end of the season, whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test. The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes that may be related to changes in training pattern, match exposure, or length of the match season. Especially the end of the preparation season and at the end of the competitive season seem to be time points were the blood-derived values indicate that the players are under excessive physical strain and might be more subjected to a possible overreaching-overtraining conditions. We suggest that regular analyses of blood samples could be an important initiative to optimize training adaptation, training load, and game participation, but sampling has to be regular, and a database has to be built for each individual player.
Chamari, Karim; Haddad, Monoem; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Chaouachi, Anis
Many of the socio-cultural lifestyle and dietary changes that take place during Ramadan may affect the risk of injury in athletes, but little evidence is available. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects over two consecutive years of the holy month of Ramadan on injury rates in 42 professional players of a Tunisian top-level professional soccer team. Players were retrospectively organized into fasting and non-fasting groups and monitored for 3 months: 4 weeks before Ramadan, during the month of Ramadan (4 weeks), and 4 weeks after Ramadan each year. During Ramadan, training started at 22.00 h. The circumstances (training/match) and mechanism of injury (traumatic/overuse) were recorded. No significant differences between the three periods were observed for weekly mean training load, training strain, training duration, and Hooper's Index (quality of sleep, and quantities of stress, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and fatigue). Compared with non-fasting players, fasters had a lower (P difference in injury rates was observed between fasting and non-fasting players. Nevertheless, the rates of non-contact (6.8 vs. 0.6 and 1.1) and training overuse (5.6 vs. 0.6 and 0.5) injuries were significantly higher in fasting players during the month of Ramadan than before or after Ramadan. In conclusion, Ramadan, along with the corresponding changes in nutritional habits, sleeping schedule, and socio-cultural and religious events, significantly increased overuse and non-contact injuries in fasting players despite the fact that the training load, strain, and duration were maintained.
Maughan, R J
OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211
Gulotta, Lawrence V; Lobatto, Daniel; Delos, Demetris; Coleman, Struan H; Altchek, David W
Tearing of the anterior capsule of the shoulder is a rare but debilitating injury for throwing athletes. However, there is very little in the literature to guide its diagnosis and treatment. In this case series, we outline our experience with anterior capsular tears of the shoulder in professional baseball players. Five professional baseball players were diagnosed with midsubstance tears of their anterior capsule. A trial of rest and rehabilitation failed in all patients, and they eventually underwent surgery. These patients were retrospectively reviewed. The presenting symptoms and findings were documented, and outcomes were assessed by the player's ability to return to play. The mean age was 33.5 years (range, 31-37 years), and all patients presented with anterior shoulder pain and the inability to throw. No patient had an acute traumatic injury. Magnetic resonance imaging provided the correct diagnosis in 4 patients, and the diagnosis was made with diagnostic arthroscopy in the fifth. Three underwent arthroscopic repair, and 2 underwent open repair of the anterior capsule. Of the 5 players, 4 (80%) returned to their preinjury level by a mean of 13.3 months (range, 8-18 months). Anterior capsular tears can occur in older throwing athletes. Surgical repair, whether arthroscopic or open, can yield good results in most patients. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kayacan, Yildirim; Yildiz, Sedat
The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) in professional handball players during rest and following a 5 min mild jogging exercise. For that purpose, electrocardiogram (ECG) of male handball players (N.=12, mean age 25±3.95 years) and sedentary controls (N.=14, mean age 23.5±2.95 years) were recorded for 5 min at rest and just after 5 min of mild jogging. ECGs were recorded and following HRV parameters were calculated: time-domain variables such as heart rate (HR), average normal-to-normal RR intervals, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals, square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, percentage of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 milliseconds (pNN50), and frequency-domain variables such as very low frequency, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) of the power and LF/HF ratio. Unpaired t-test was used to find out differences among groups while paired t-test was used for comparison of each group for pre- and postjogging HRV. Pearson correlations were carried out to find out the relationships between the parameters. Blood pressures were not different between handball players and sedentary controls but exercise increased systolic blood pressure (Phandball players (Phandball players (Phandball players in response to a mild, short-time (5 min) jogging exercise. However, in sedentary subjects, either the sympathetic regulation of the autonomous nervous system increased or vagal withdrawal occurred.
A Los Arcos
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the seasonal perceived respiratory and muscular training loads (i.e., sRPEres-TL and sRPEmus-TL completed by elite-oriented young professional soccer players. Twentyfour players (20.3 ± 2.0 years belonging to the same reserve team of a Spanish La Liga club participated in this study. Only the players that were available to train for a whole week with the team and also to play the weekly game were considered: Starters, players that participated in the match for at least 45 min and Non- Starters, players that did not participate or played less than 45 minutes in the match. The competitive period was analysed after the division into 5x6-8 week blocks and 35x1 week microcycles. Data were also analysed with respect to number of days before the immediate match. Weekly TL variation across the in-season blocks was trivial-small for both groups except between Block 2 and Block 3 (ES= moderate. Substantial TL differences (ES= small–very likely were found between training days, the TL pattern being a progressive increase up to MD-3 followed by a decrease until MD-1. Except for the match, sRPEres-/sRPEmus-TL was very similar between Starters and Non-Starters. In summary, perceived TL across the season displayed limited variation. Coaches periodized training contents to attain the highest weekly TL 72 hours before the match to progressively unload the players between MD-3 and the match day. The data revealed that the TL arising from the weekly game was solely responsible for the observed higher weekly TL of Starters in comparison with Non-Starters.
Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E
Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE. Future research is needed to investigate the pathomechanism underlying the development of CSP after repetitive head impacts, and its potential association with neuropathologically confirmed CTE.
Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C
Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.
Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.
Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians when considering the formation of regression equations for prediction of body density. Accordingly, a group of 7 negroes and 7 caucasians were matched somatotypically and a comparison was made of their body density values obtained using a hydrostatic weighing technique and a closed-circuit helium dilution technique for measuring lung volumes. The results show that if somatotype is taken into account then no significant difference in body density values is found between negro and caucasian professional football players. The players do not have to be placed in separate groups but it remains to be seen whether or not these results apply to general members of the population. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7317724
Raizel, Raquel; Godois, Allan da Mata; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar de Paula; Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne de Faria
Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.
Pezzotta, G.; Querques, G.; Pecorelli, A.; Nani, R.; Sironi, S. [Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, University Milano-Bicocca, Department of Radiology, Bergamo (Italy)
To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the ''return to play'' (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP. (orig.)
Horsley Ian G
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To identify posture types that exist in professional rugby players, and compare them with a population of non-overhead athletes in order to identify possible relationships towards the potential for shoulder injuries. Design Observational design Setting: Sports Medicine Clinic Participants: Convenience sample Methodology: Static assessment of posture was carried out in standing, active and passive range of glenohumeral motion, and isometric strength was carried out in accordance with previously recorded protocols. Interventions Nil Outcome Measures: Observational classification of posture, active and passive range of glenohumeral joint range of motion, isometric strength of selected muscle groups, selected muscle flexibility and Hawkins and Neer impingement tests. Results There was a significant difference on range of motion between the two groups (0.025–0.000, isometric middle (0.024–0.005, and lower trapezius (0.01–0.001. Conclusion: There were significant differences between strength and flexibility of muscles around the shoulder girdle between professional rugby players and a control group of professional non-overhead athletes.
Berisha, Visar; Wang, Shuai; LaCross, Amy; Liss, Julie; Garcia-Filion, Pamela
Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football. A multilevel mixed model analysis reveals that exposure to the high-impact sport (vs no exposure) was associated with an overall decline in language complexity scores over time. This trend persists even after controlling for age as a potential confound. The results set the stage for a prospective study to test the hypothesis that language complexity decline is a harbinger of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We compared the serve toss of different types of serve when tennis players served from the ad-court. They used different spin on the ball and various ball placements in the opponent’s service box. Our aim was to compare the toss in different types of serve between a competitive (local tournament player and a professional player, from the point of view of the receiving player, when they served from the ad-court. One professional and one competitive tennis player (both right handed were observed while serving different types of serve to various locations of the opponent’s service box. We used a high-speed camera, which was placed opposite to the server in the position of a receiving player. The results showed that the players do not use the same toss for each type of serve. The professional player had a bigger range of racket-ball contact point on horizontal axis (32 cm of the various types of first serves, compared to the competitive player (only 24 cm. The toss of the kick serve had similar characteristics between both players (the racket-ball contact point was observed to be mostly to the right, from the view of receiver. Neither the professional nor the competitive player showed a stable profile of toss. In some cases, the receiving players could anticipate the type of the serve from the server’s toss.
Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew
Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p amateur players. A significant difference (p amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key pointsAcute WBV improves knee extensor peak isometric force output and PAP amongst professional and not amateur soccer playersProfessional players perceived acute WBV as more beneficial to performance than amateur playersIsometric strength,vibration intensity and duration appear to influence results
Anne-Marie van Beijsterveldt, A. M C; Stubbe, J. H.; Schmikli, S. L.; Van De Port, I. G L; Backx, F. J G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069615039
Objectives To compare the incidence and characteristics of injuries between Dutch amateur and professional male soccer players during one entire competition season. Design A prospective two-cohort design. Methods During the 2009–2010 season, 456 Dutch male amateur soccer players and 217 professional
Nikolaos E Koundourakis
Full Text Available The current study had two aims. The primary purpose was to examine the association between serum vitamin D levels and the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and speed in professional soccer players. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of the soccer off-season period on serum vitamin D levels.Sixty-seven Caucasian male soccer players (age 25.6 ± 6.2 and height 1.81 ± 0.08 m, members of two Greek Superleague Soccer teams and one Football-league championship team participated in this study. Exercise performance testing for the determination of squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, 10 (10 m and 20 meters (20 m sprint performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before (pre and after (post the six-week off-season period.Analysis of our results showed the following: (a a significant correlations between serum vitamin D levels and performance parameters in both pre (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, VO2max; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 and post (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P<0.001, VO2max; P = 0.006, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 experimental sessions. (b Vitamin D concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001 following the six-week off-season period compared to baseline, while at the same time all measured performance parameters decreased (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, 20 m; P < 0.001, VO2max; P<0.001.Our findings suggest that vitamin D levels are associated with the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, as expressed by SJ and CMJ, sprinting capacity, and VO2max in professional soccer players, irrespective the levels of performance. Furthermore, our data reaffirm the importance of UVB on serum vitamin D levels. Moreover, reductions in exercise training stress may also have beneficial effects on vitamin D levels, suggesting a possible association of its levels and the training-induced stress. Our results indicate a
Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross
The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training
Cohen, Steven B.; Sheridan, Scott; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess major and minor league baseball players’ return to professional baseball at a preinjury level or higher after surgery of the shoulder or elbow. Hypothesis: The majority of athletes will be able to return to their preinjury level after surgery. Study Design: Case series. Methods: Over a 4-season period, prospective injury and surgery records were reviewed for one professional baseball club. Forty-four players underwent 51 procedures (28 shoulder and 23 elbow) by multiple experienced surgeons; 7 players underwent more than 1 procedure. Results: Twenty-eight shoulder surgeries were performed on 27 players: 19 pitchers and 8 position players. The majority of the procedures were labral repairs (n = 21). Nine players returned to their preoperative level; 2 advanced to a higher level; 5 returned to a lower level; and 11 retired from professional baseball. Only 2 of the 12 players at the high professional level (Major League Baseball, triple-A, double-A) returned to the same level. Twenty-three elbow surgeries were performed on 21 players (20 pitchers). The majority of the procedures were ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions (n = 12). Seven players returned to their preoperative level; 4 advanced to a higher level; 4 returned to a lower level; and 6 retired from professional baseball. Of the 12 players at the high professional level, 3 returned to the same or higher level. Conclusion: Following surgery, 21 of 44 players (48%) returned to the same or higher level of professional baseball. For those players performing at a high professional level, 5 of 22 (23%) returned to the same or higher level. Return to the same or higher level was more likely with elbow surgery than with shoulder surgery. Clinical Relevance: Elite throwing athletes may not return to the same level at a high rate following shoulder or elbow surgery. PMID:23015998
Furuhashi, Hiroko; Chikui, Toru; Inadomi, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yoshiura, Kazunori
Though the motions of structures outside the mouth in trumpet performance have been reported, the dynamics of intraoral structures remain unelucidated. This study explored the tongue's movement in trumpet playing using cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine MRI) and demonstrated the effects of intraoral anatomical structures on changes in pitch and dynamics. Cine MRI was applied to 18 trumpet players, who were divided into two groups (7 beginner, 11 advanced) based on their ability to play a certain high note. They were instructed to play a custom-made MRI-compatible simulated trumpet. Pitch-change tasks and dynamics-change tasks were assigned. The positions of the anatomical points and intraoral areas were identified on outlined images, and the changes associated with each task were evaluated. A forward and upward projection of the tongue was observed in the production of higher pitches, and there were no significant differences in all areas. In louder dynamics, a backward and downward bending of the tongue occurred, the tongue area became smaller (pcine MRI that certain tongue movements were associated with each task. Tongue protrusion in the production of higher pitch and bending in louder dynamics can be rationalized using acoustics theory and the movements of anatomical structures. These findings seem to be consistent regardless of the player's proficiency.
Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi
Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.
van Beijsterveldt, A M C Anne-Marie; Stubbe, J H; Schmikli, S L; van de Port, I G L; Backx, F J G
To compare the incidence and characteristics of injuries between Dutch amateur and professional male soccer players during one entire competition season. A prospective two-cohort design. During the 2009-2010 season, 456 Dutch male amateur soccer players and 217 professional players were prospectively followed. Information on injuries and individual exposure to all soccer activities were recorded in both cohorts. Injuries were recorded using the time-loss definition. In total, 424 injuries were recorded among 274 of the amateur players (60.1% injured players) and 286 injuries were sustained by 136 (62.7% injured players) of the professional players (p=0.52). Compared to the professionals, the injury incidence during training sessions was higher among amateurs (p=0.01), but the injury incidence among professionals was higher during matches (pamateurs (all pamateurs reported more recurrent injuries (pamateur and professional players in the Netherlands might be explained by the difference in the level at which they play, since factors like the availability of medical support and/or the team size may influence the injury risk and characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stotts, Jeff; Zalneraitis, Brian H; Gardner, Ryan M; Kerr, Zachary Y; Solomon, Gary S
Basketball is a physical game played on a hardwood floor among high-jumping athletes at risk for injury. It is currently unknown how sport-related concussion (SRC) affects player performance after injury among professional basketball players. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of SRC on basketball performance among National Basketball Association (NBA) players. A retrospective, archival cohort study was performed that compared NBA player performance following concussion to pre-concussive performance. A comprehensive NBA injury database, compiled from publically available sources, was queried for NBA players who suffered concussion from 2005-06 to 2014-15 (10 seasons). Intra-and inter-player analyses were performed against a matched control group of players who missed playing time for personal reasons. Following application of inclusion/exclusion criteria and a matching process, 51 concussed players and 51 control players were included in analysis. There were no statistically significant decrements in baseline to post-concussion performance metrics in intra-player or player vs. controls after 5 return games. Our findings suggest that at the NBA level, an athlete's performance in the initial 5 games following injury does not suffer from the after-effects of concussive injury. These results may be useful in counseling professional athletes following a concussion.
Ross Cloak, Andrew Lane, Matthew Wyon
Full Text Available Acute whole body vibration (WBV is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m. Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22 in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16 in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27 compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players.
Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Stubbe, J.H.; Schmikli, S.L.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.
Objectives: To compare the incidence and characteristics of injuries between Dutch amateur and professional male soccer players during one entire competition season. Design: A prospective two-cohort design. Methods: During the 2009-2010 season, 456 Dutch male amateur soccer players and 217
Bergman, Lana; Milardović Ortolan, Slađana; Žarković, Davor; Viskić, Joško; Jokić, Dražen; Mehulić, Ketij
Published data about orofacial injuries and mouthguard use by professional handball players are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial trauma and mouthguard use in professional handball players. Data were collected from 100 professional handball players through a questionnaire, which contained 17 questions about age, experience in playing handball, playing position, orofacial trauma experience during the past 12 months, type of injury and mouthguard use. Almost half (49%) of the interviewed players experienced head and/or facial trauma during the past year. The most common injuries were soft tissue lacerations (39.6%). Dental injuries occurred in 22% of the participants, with socket bleeding being the most frequent injury (14%). Of the affected teeth, 76.9% were upper incisors. Mouthguards had a statistically significant protective role regarding tooth fractures and tooth avulsion (P=.043). Players who wore a mouthguard had a 5.55 times less chance of suffering dental injuries. Almost 76% of dental injuries resulted in complications afterward. Sixty-seven percentage of the players knew that mouthguards could prevent injuries, but only 28% used them regularly. Of the players who wore a mouthguard regularly, 76.9% were advised to do so by their dentists. The incidence of head and orofacial injuries among professional handball players is high. Mouthguards prevented severe dental injuries such as tooth fracture and avulsion, but their use was still limited. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zvijac, John E; Zikria, Bashir; Botto-van Bemden, Angie
Our objective is to include pectoralis minor injuries in the comprehensive assessment of differential diagnoses for anterior chest wall pain or medial anterior shoulder pain sustained during blocking activities, which may present in football players. In this article, we report 2 cases of isolated pectoralis minor tears in professional football players and present mechanisms of injury, clinical presentations, appropriate diagnostic studies, and treatments.
The knee and ankle are the two most injured joints associated with the sport of badminton. This study evaluates biomechanical factors between professional and amateur badminton players using an injury mechanism model. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge. Amateur players exhibited greater ankle range of motion (p badminton players presented a greater knee joint moment in the sagittal (p badminton players should account for these findings to reduce potential injury to the ankle and knee. PMID:28694684
Rhys M. Jones
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity ( and repeated sprint ability (RSA in a group of professional soccer players. Methods. Forty-one professional soccer players (age yrs, height cm, weight kg were required to perform tests to assess RSA and on two separate days with at least 48 hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their and a test for RSA involving the players completing m sprints (turn after 20 m with 20 s active recovery between each sprint. Results. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass normalised and mean sprint time ( (; and total sprint time ( (, . Conclusion. Results of the current study indicate that is one important factor aiding soccer players in the recovery from repeated sprint type activities.
Jones, Rhys M.; Cook, Christian C.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Zoran Milanović; Nic James; Goran Sporiš; Bruno Fiorentini; Fredi Fiorentini; Anthony Turner; Goran Vučković
Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO2?max) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in a group of professional soccer players. Methods. Forty-one professional soccer players (age 23 ? 4?yrs, height 180.0 ? 5.3?cm, weight 79.6 ? 5.3?kg) were required to perform tests to assess RSA and VO2?max on two separate days with at least 48?hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their VO2?max and...
Stig Arve Sæther1
Full Text Available Identification of the most talented youth players is regarded as a key part of the talent development process in football. The basis for the criteria is naturally affected by the characteristics of the early-detected talented players. Nonetheless, earlier research has found limited evidenced for different criteria in this process. This study has examined whether professional and non-professional football players showed differences in player and coach characteristics as talented youth-level players eight years earlier. A total of 103 players selected for Norwegian youth national teams (age cohorts 1991–1993 participated in this study. Based on player and coach characteristics, the results showed that non-professional players had the most playing time and felt more successful in comparison to the professional players. The professional players, however, reported higher ambitions and a higher number of weekly-organized training sessions. No differences between the professional and non-professional players showed in terms of their relationship to their coaches were found. The study concludes that we need more research on identification criteria to be able to predict which abilities and skills should be sought in the identification process for youth-level players. As in earlier research, this study also found a poor relationship between youth performance and senior performance.
Haxhiu, Bekim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Zahiti, Bedri; Shalaj, Ismet; Sllamniku, Sabit
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors related to the occurrence of injuries in football players. The study included 216 football players from 12 teams in the elite football league. Football-related injury data were collected prospectively during the 2012/2013 competitive season. At baseline the following information was collected for the players: anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI, subcutaneous skinfolds), playing experience, injury history, physical fitness performance test (agility run), peak oxygen uptake. The incidence, type and severity of injuries and training and game exposure times were prospectively documented for each player. Most of the players (n = 155, 71.7%) sustained the injures during the study period. The overall injury incidence during the regular season was 6.3 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (95% confidence interval, 4.31-9.67). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that playing experience (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.32-0.61, p injuries. Body mass index was not associated with risk of injury. Strains (34.19%) and sprains (25.81%) were the major injury types. Twenty-seven percent of injured players were absent from football for more than 1 month, with knee injuries (25.42%) being the most severe type. The risk factors that increase injury rates in football players were previous injury, higher age and years of playing. Future research should include adequate rehabilitation program to reduce the risk of injuries.
Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan
Context: The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. Objective: To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Study Selection: Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. Data Synthesis: A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Conclusions: Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players. PMID:27244125
Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.
Ford, Gregory M.; Genuario, James; Noonan, Thomas J.; Kinkartz, Jason D.; Githens, Thomas; Murayama, Scott
Objectives: Injury to the elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is relatively common in pitchers. In the 70's reconstructive surgery was developed as a viable option to a potentially career ending injury. Multiple studies have demonstrated return to play (RTP) rates of 74-83% after reconstruction. Studies of RTP after nonoperative treatment in throwing athletes are limited, reporting 42%. There are no studies reporting RTP rates with nonoperative treatment of professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to identify professional baseball players' ability to return to play after UCL injuries based on nonoperative vs. operative treatment, MRI grade, and player position. Methods: A retrospective review of a single professional baseball organization (6 minor league teams and 1 Major league team) between 2006 & 2011 revealed 72 medial elbow injuries. MRI was performed on all players. UCL injuries were diagnosed in 45 players by physical exam & MRI. Players were treated with rehabilitation, surgery or both. Success was RTP for >1 season. Rates of RTP and return to the same level of play or higher (RTSP) were calculated and correlated with MRI grade, location, and player position. MRI grading used was: 1 intact ligament +/- edema, 2 partial tearing, 3 complete tear, and 4 chronic healed injury. Results: Overall 91% of 45 players had RTP, and 87% had RTSP. Fifteen were treated surgically and 30 nonoperatively with rehab. Of players treated surgically, 73% had RTSP, whereas 93% of nonoperatively treated players had RTSP (p-value 0.07). All players with grade III tears had surgery. Of surgically treated players, none had grade I injuries, 13% had grade II injuries, 53% had grade III injuries, and 33% had grade IV injuries. Of nonoperatively treated players, 13% had grade I injuries, 23% had grade II injuries, none had grade III injuries, and 60% had grade IV injuries. Of all grade II and grade IV injuries, 78% were treated nonoperatively and all but 1 player
Bilsborough, Johann C; Kempton, Thomas; Greenway, Kate; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J
To compare development and variations in body composition of early-, mid-, and late-career professional Australian Football (AF) players over 3 successive seasons. Regional and total-body composition (body mass [BM], fat mass [FM], fat-free soft-tissue mass [FFSTM], and bone mineral content [BMC]) were assessed 4 times, at the same time of each season-start preseason (SP), end preseason (EP), midseason (MS), and end season (ES)-from 22 professional AF players using pencil-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutritional intake for each player was evaluated concomitantly using 3-d food diaries. Players were classified according to their age at the beginning of the observational period as either early- (25 y, n = 5) career athletes. Early-career players had lower FFSTM, BMC, and BM than mid- and late-career throughout. FM and %FM had greatest variability, particularly in the early-career players. FM reduced and FFSTM increased from SP to EP, while FM and FFSTM decreased from EP to MS. FM increased and FFSTM decreased from MS to ES, while FM and FFSTM increased during the off-season. Early-career players may benefit from greater emphasis on specific nutrition and resistance-training strategies aimed at increasing FFSTM, while all players should balance training and diet toward the end of season to minimize increases in FM.
Fousekis, Konstantinos; Tsepis, Elias; Vagenas, George
Ankle sprain is an extremely common injury in soccer players. Despite extensive research, the intrinsic cause of this injury under noncontact conditions remains unclear. To identify intrinsic risk factors for noncontact ankle sprains in professional soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 One hundred professional soccer players were assessed in the preseason for potential risk factors of noncontact ankle sprains. The assessment included (A) ankle joint asymmetries (right-left) in isokinetic muscle strength, flexibility, proprioception, and stability; (B) somatometric asymmetries; (C) previous injuries; and (D) lateral dominance traits. Noncontact ankle sprains were prospectively recorded and diagnosed for a full competition period (10 months). Seventeen of the players sustained at least 1 noncontact ankle sprain. Logistic regression revealed that players with (A) eccentric isokinetic ankle flexion strength asymmetries (odds ratio [OR] = 8.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95-40.36, P = .005), (B) increased body mass index (OR = 8.16; 95% CI, 1.42-46.63, P = .018), and (C) increased body weight (OR = 5.72; 95% CI, 1.37-23.95, P = .017 ) each had a significantly higher risk of a noncontact ankle sprain. A trend for younger players (OR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.061-1.24, P = .092) and for players with ankle laxity asymmetries (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 0.82-14.00, P = .093) to be at greater risk for ankle sprain was also apparent to the limit of statistical significance (.05 sprains in professional soccer players. Age and asymmetries in ankle laxity are potential factors worth revisiting, as there was an indication for younger players and players with ankle instability to be at higher risk for ankle injury. Proper preseason evaluation may improve prevention strategies for this type of injury in soccer.
Lajtai, Georg; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Aitzetmüller, Gernot; Pirkl, Christof; Gerber, Christian; Jost, Bernhard
Beach volleyball is an Olympic overhead sport. It is not well known which clinical and imaging findings are normal and which are associated with symptoms. There are typical clinical and imaging findings in the hitting shoulders of fully competitive professional beach volleyball players, as compared with their nonhitting shoulders. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. During the Beach Volleyball Grand Slam Tournament in Klagenfurt, Austria, 84 professional players (54 men, 30 women) underwent a questionnaire-based interview and a complete physical examination, including scoring and sonography of both shoulders. Twenty-nine players had shoulder MRIs. The mean age of the athletes was 28 years. Atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle was found in 30% of the hitting shoulders, and it was not typically recognized by the players. The absolute Constant score was significantly lower in the hitting shoulder (87 versus 93 points, P strength was decreased in the hitting shoulder (8.2 versus 9.5 kg, P muscle atrophy in professional beach volleyball players is 30%. The typical, fully competitive player has subjectively unrecognized decreased strength of external rotation and frequent unspecific shoulder pain. Therefore, abnormal clinical and imaging findings in the beach volleyball player should be interpreted with care.
Marcos, Michaelides A; Koulla, Parpa M; Anthos, Zacharia I
Marcos, MA, Koulla, PM, and Anthos, ZI. Preseason maximal aerobic power in professional soccer players among different divisions. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 356-363, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the anthropometric, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), and positional differences of first division (D1) professional football players from players of second (D2) and third (D3) divisions in Cyprus football leagues. Four hundred twenty-one professional male football players participated in this study. All subjects underwent anthropometric and body composition evaluation. In addition, they performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a treadmill for V[Combining Dot Above]O2max evaluation. The results were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, between subjects design revealing significant effects among the divisions. Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD) tests demonstrated that players from D1 scored significantly higher on V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and lasted significantly longer on the treadmill than participants of D2 and D3 (p ≤ 0.05). Similar findings were demonstrated when D2 was contrasted against D3 players. Goalkeepers, defenders, and forwards demonstrated significantly higher anthropometric measurements, whereas wingers and midfielders demonstrated significantly higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (p ≤ 0.05) than goalkeepers and defenders. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that cardiovascular fitness, as determined by CPET, is an important fitness parameter that differentiates professional football players who play at a more advanced level. This could be attributed to the different seasonal schedules that allow for longer transition time for lower division players and thus favoring greater detraining effects. Emphasis should be given by fitness professionals on transition period training to minimize the detraining effects especially in lower divisions.
Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda
To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence. 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall match and training injury incidence ranged from 3.3 to 218.0 injuries/1000 player match hours and 0.1-6.1 injuries/1000 player training hours, respectively. Muscle and tendon as well as joint (non-bone) and ligament injuries were the most frequently occurring injuries. The lower limb was the most prevalent injury location. Injury incidence was higher in professional rugby union players than non-professional players. Contact events were responsible for the greatest injury incidence. For non-contact mechanisms, running was responsible for the highest injury incidence. Inconsistent injury definitions hindered reliable comparison of injury data. The lack of reporting training volumes in hours per player per week limited the ability to investigate associations between training volume and injury incidence. A higher level of play may result in higher match injury incidence. Muscle and tendon injuries were the most common type of soft tissue injury, while the lower limb was the most common location of injury in rugby union players, and running was responsible for the highest injury incidence during non-contact events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Gardner, Raquel C; Possin, Katherine L; Hess, Christopher P; Huang, Eric J; Grinberg, Lea T; Nolan, Amber L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Ghosh, Pia M; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Miller, Bruce L; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D
In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players.
Fuller, G W; Govind, O; Tucker, R; Raftery, M
To establish normative reference data for the SCAT3 in professional Rugby Union players. A cross sectional study in professional Rugby Union players competing in national and international professional competitions between 2015 and 2016. The SCAT3 was administered pre-season or prior to tournaments. Data was collected electronically using a custom tablet application. SCAT3 subcomponents distributions were described and normative ranges determined using percentile cut-offs for average, unusually low/high, and extremely low/high scores. The association between player characteristics and performance in SCAT3 subcomponents was also investigated in exploratory analyses. A total of 3611 professional Rugby Union players were included. The most common baseline symptom was fatigue (14%). The symptom score median (md) was 0 (interquartile range (IQR)=0-1). Symptom severity md was 0 (IQR=0-1). The md of the SAC score was 28 (IQR=26-29). The md of the MBESS was 2 (IQR=0-4). The Tandem gait md was 11.1s (IQR=10.0-12.7s). Upper limb coordination was normal in 98.4%. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with worse performance on delayed recall and reverse month sub-components of the SCAT3 (pvalues for the SCAT3 among professional Rugby Union players are provided. Baseline performance on concentration and delayed recall tests may be lower in younger athletes or in those with lower educational level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Swarts, Christoffer M. J.
The present study explores how football migrants (foreign professional football / soccer players) perceive the adaptation process in Finland. Globalization and legislation have made it easier for football players to work abroad. The amount of football migrants in Finland is increasing each year. The internationalization of Finnish football requires study. Successful adaptation has a positive outcome on a migrant, which will increase the chances of personal, and thus in the case of football, t...
Marques, Mário C; van den Tillaar, Roland; Gabbett, Tim J; Reis, Victor M; González-Badillo, Juan J
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and to determine if differences exist in these characteristics according to playing position. A group of 35 professional male team volleyball players (mean +/- SD age: 26.6 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study. Players were categorized according to playing position and role: middle blockers (n = 9), opposite hitters (n = 6), outside hitters (n = 10), setters (n = 6), and liberos (n = 4). Height, body mass, muscular strength (4 repetition maximum bench press and 4 repetition maximum parallel squat tests), and muscular power (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump) were assessed. Significant differences (p libero players were the lightest. Differences were also found in bench press maximal strength, with the middle blockers and opposite players significantly stronger (p liberos. The setter positional group had significantly poorer (p 0.05) were found among groups for the strength and power parameters. These results demonstrate that significant anthropometric and strength differences exist among playing positions in elite male volleyball players. In addition, these findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific individual playing positions. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take the strength and anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized position-specific training programs.
Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela
Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength and, sprinting ability, agility and vertical jump performance in male volleyball players. Twenty professional male volleyball players (average age 24.5±1.1 years; mean body height 186.5±5.02 cm; mean body mass 75.34±8.39 kg) participated in this study voluntarily. For each player, isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests were performed at 60°/s and 300°/s, jump performance...
Perciavalle, Valentina; Di Corrado, Donatella; Petralia, Maria Cristina; Gurrisi, Lino; Massimino, Simona; Coco, Marinella
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that high levels of testosterone during prenatal life, testified by a low second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), as well as in adulthood affect the aggressive behavior of professional soccer players. Using 18 male professional players from a first level Italian Soccer Team we calculated: i) the 2D:4D ratio of the right hand, ii) the number of yellow and red cards per game, iii) the mean salivary testosterone concentration (Sal/T) and iv) the handling of aggressive impulses as assessed by the Picture Frustration test (PFT). Soccer players with a lower 2D:4D ratio had a higher number of fouls per game. A significant negative correlation was observed between Sal/T and 2D:4D ratio, as well as between 2D:4D ratio and the aggressiveness of players. By contrast, a significant positive correlation of Sal/T and fouls/game score and PFT was detected. No significant correlation was detected between 2D:4D or Sal/T and the playing position of players. Results of this study revealed that in professional soccer players, aggressive behavior, with the consequent increased risk of fouls during the game, is more likely to occur in individuals with high testosterone levels, not only in adulthood, but also during their intrauterine life.
Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Adamuz, Maria-Carmen; Tol, Johannes L; Whiteley, Rod; Wilson, Mathew G; Witvrouw, Erik; Khan, Karim M; Bahr, Roald
Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated. To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football players and evaluate their consequences for participation clearance. A total of 558 professional football players in Qatar completed a PHE prior to the 2013 or 2014 seasons: history, general medical (including blood test), cardiovascular (12-lead ECG and echocardiography) and a musculoskeletal examination, including a specific test battery targeting lower extremity strength and flexibility. On the basis of the PHE, players were either cleared or not cleared for participation. In 533 players (95.5%), at least one health condition was detected requiring treatment or follow-up. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (≤30 ng/mL) was the most common medical condition (n=499, 89.4%), followed by hepatitis B non-immunity or infection (n=164, 29.4%). Cardiac screening identified 48 players (8.6%) with one or more abnormal findings (ECG (n=19, 3.4%) and echocardiography (n=14, 2.5%)). Musculoskeletal conditions were observed in 180 players (32.3%); injuries to or strength deficits of the hip/groin and thigh accounted for the largest proportion. Medical clearance was temporarily not given in 69 players (12.4%), while further examinations were being conducted. One player was disqualified from competitive football. PHE revealed a high prevalence of health conditions requiring treatment or follow-up in professional footballers; however, only 12.4% of conditions impacted on final clearance for participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Sullivan, Courtney; Bilsborough, Johann C; Cianciosi, Michael; Hocking, Joel; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J
To examine the influence of quarter outcome and the margin of the score differential on both the physical activity profile and skill performance of players during professional Australian Football matches. Prospective, longitudinal. Physical activity profiles were assessed via microtechnology (Global Positioning System and accelerometer) from 40 professional AF players from the same team during 15 Australian Football League games. Skill performance measures (involvement and effectiveness) and player rank scores (Champion Data(©) Rank) were provided by a commercial statistical provider. The physical performance variables, skill involvements and individual player performance scores were expressed relative to playing time for each quarter. The influence of the quarter result (i.e. win vs. loss) and score margin (i.e. small: 19 points) on activity profile and skill involvements and skill efficiency performance of players were examined. Skill involvements (total disposals/min, long kicks/min, marks/min, running bounces/min and player rank/min) were greater in quarters won (all p14.5 km h(-1), HSR/min), sprints/min and peak speed were higher in losing quarters (all p<0.01). Smaller score margins were associated with increased physical activity (m/min, HSR/min, and body load/min, all p<0.05) and decreased skill efficiency (handball clangers/min and player rank/min, all p<0.05). Professional AF players are likely to have an increased physical activity profile and decreased skill involvement and proficiency when their team is less successful. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lubiatowski, Przemyslaw; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Cisowski, Pawel; Breborowicz, Ewa; Grygorowicz, Monika; Dzianach, Marcin; Krupecki, Tomasz; Laver, Lior; Romanowski, Leszek
Glenohumeral range of motion adaptations may affect throwing athletes and contribute to shoulder injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder rotation deficits among elite professional handball players and its correlation to the presence of shoulder pain and morphological changes. Eighty-seven elite professional handball players and 41 healthy non-athlete volunteers participated in the study. Evaluations included measurement of range of internal and external rotation, total arch of motion, identification of shoulder pain and ultrasound scan for diagnosis of rotator cuff tears and internal impingement. Glenohumeral rotational deficits (>20-25°) were found among 11 players group (13%). The throwing shoulders in the players group showed a decrease in internal rotation and an increase in external rotation with significantly larger ranges among players compared to the non-athlete group. Internal rotation deficit >20° was associated with higher incidence of shoulder pain among players. Both internal rotation deficits (>25°) and total arch of motion deficit (>20°) co-existed with higher incidence of internal impingement. Shoulder pain was common (36/97-41%) and was associated with decreased external rotation and total arch of motion. Internal impingement (found in 13/87-15%) correlated with decreased rotation ranges and a greater deficit in total arch of motion, whereas higher gain in external rotation correlated with a partial rotator cuff tear (found in 12/87-14%). Shoulder pathologies and problems commonly affected the group of handball players. Greater glenohumeral rotational deficits in throwing shoulders of handball players correlate with shoulder pain and internal impingement, while increased external rotation with partial rotator cuff tears. Such deficits affect 13% of the athlete population. Major clinical relevance of the study is to monitor handball players' shoulders both clinically and by proper imaging. Evaluation of range of rotation seems
This bachelor work is focused on the topic of e-sport and former professional players of e-sport. It deals with a summery and subsequent analysis of former professional e-sport players in the labour market. The theoretical part is focused on becoming acquainted with basic information on e-sport, the labour market, re-training and the national employment policy. It provides basic information about companies and games that they operate. The practical part analyses the concrete possibilities of ...
Saygın, Ozcan; Göral, Kemal; Gelen, Ertugrul
This study was carried out in order to investigate the nutritional habits level of footballers, considering the different league categories. From Turkey Super League, 2. League category A, 2.League category B, 3.League, 1.Amateur League, 2.Amateur League teams 360 active football players participated in the survey. To determine their the survey form developed by the researcher, benefiting previous scientific studies, consisting of 13 personal information questions, 20 nutritional habits quest...
Full Text Available Kohji Hoshina,1 Yuichi Tagami,2 Osamu Mimura,3 Hiroshi Edagawa,4 Masao Matsubara,5 Teiichi Nakayama6 1Hoshina Eye Clinic, Nishinomiya, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe Century Memorial Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan; 4Edagawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 6Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan Background: It seemed that visual functions might have some effects on the performance of baseball players. We measured static, kinetic, and dynamic visual acuity (SVA, KVA, and DVA, respectively of Japanese professional baseball players to ascertain whether there would be any difference in SVA, KVA, and DVA among player groups stratified according to their performance level. Methods: The subjects were 102 male professional baseball players with a mean age of 26 years who were members of a Japanese professional baseball club from 2000 to 2009. They were stratified into three groups according to their performance level: A (players who were on the roster of the top-level team all the time throughout the study period, B (players who were on the roster of the top-level team sometimes but not all the time, and C (players who were never on the roster of the top-level team. They were interviewed for the use of corrective visual aids, and examined for SVA, KVA, and DVA. The measurements of these parameters were compared among groups A, B, and C. We also investigated and analyzed the association of KVA or DVA with player position (pitchers or fielders and with hand dominance for batting. KVA was compared between the pitchers and the fielders because they each require different playing skills. DVA was compared between the right-handed and the left-handed batters. Results: There was no statistically significant difference among groups A, B, and C. There was a statistically significant difference in
Hogan, B A; Hogan, N A; Vos, P M; Eustace, S J; Kenny, P J
Injuries to the cervical spine (C-spine) are among the most serious in rugby and are well documented. Front-row players are particularly at risk due to repetitive high-intensity collisions in the scrum. This study evaluates degenerative changes of the C-spine and associated symptomatology in front-row rugby players. C-spine radiographs from 14 professional rugby players and controls were compared. Players averaged 23 years of playing competitive rugby. Two consultant radiologists performed a blind review of radiographs evaluating degeneration of disc spaces and apophyseal joints. Clinical status was assessed using a modified AAOS/NASS/COSS cervical spine outcomes questionnaire. Front-row rugby players exhibited significant radiographic evidence of C-spine degenerative changes compared to the non-rugby playing controls (P < 0.005). Despite these findings the rugby players did not exhibit increased symptoms. This highlights the radiologic degenerative changes of the C-spine of front-row rugby players. However, these changes do not manifest themselves clinically or affect activities of daily living.
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of professional soccer players in Thailand. Methods: Twenty-nine professional soccer players in Phitsanulok FC, Thailand. Oral examination about DMFT, Quigley & Hein plaque index (PI, Löe & Silness gingival index, World Health Organization malocclusion index, pocket depth, TMJ examination and history of dental trauma were recorded. Impact of oral health on athletic performance and training was assessed using OIDP Results: The results demonstrated high levels of poor oral health including dental caries (84%, mean DMFT= 10.08 (D=8.0, M=0.84 and F=1.24, dental attrition (60% and periodontal pocket (36%. Thirty percent of all players presented bruxism and 10 % with severe malocclusion. More than 40% of athletes were ‘bothered’ by their oral health with 28% reporting an impact on quality of life and 18% on training and performance. Conclusion: The oral health of professional soccer players Thai was poor with a resulting substantial negative impact on well-being, training and performance. As oral health is an important element of overall health and well-being, health promotion and disease prevention interventions are urgently required to optimise soccer player performance.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v23i1.633
McLaren, Shaun J; Weston, Matthew; Smith, Andrew; Cramb, Rob; Portas, Matthew D
To examine the within- and between-player variability of physical performance and player match loads in professional rugby union. A single cohort, observational study. Physical match performance data were collected from 28 male, professional, English Championship players over 15 competitive matches. Using microsensors, the variables selected for analysis were total distance, low-speed running distance, high-speed running distance, very high-speed running distance, total impacts, repeated high-intensity efforts, body load (PlayerLoad™), and low velocity (values for likely substantial between-match changes in high-intensity physical performance measures ranged from 21% to 76%, and were ∼10% for match ratings of perceived exertion, body load and low velocity body load. Within- and between-player variability of high-intensity activity in professional rugby union is large, yet ratings of perceived exertion, body load and low velocity body load appear more stable by comparison and may be interpreted with greater accuracy. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pau, Massimiliano; Arippa, Federico; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Ibba, Gianfranco; Todde, Francesco; Scorcu, Marco
To assess the existence of correlations between static and dynamic balance abilities in young and professional elite soccer players. Cross-sectional. Fifty-one elite players who regularly compete at national level divided into two groups: Professional (age 18-34, n = 20) and Under 15-17 (age 14-16, n = 31). Dynamic balance was assessed for the case of a single-leg landing task by means of vertical time to stabilization (TTS) and postural sway calculated on the basis of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories (sway area, COP displacements in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction, COP path length). The same parameters were also measured for a 20 s one-legged stance to assess static balance abilities. No significant correlations were found between static and dynamic balance parameters except for TTS and COP displacements in the antero-posterior direction (r = 0.29, p = 0.003). Professional players are characterized by lower TTS in comparison with youth leagues players (0.767 vs. 1.188 s for the dominant limb, p balance in soccer players should be performed with both dynamic and static tests, considering that the postural control performances in the two cases are not related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contemori, Samuele; Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Busti, Daniele; Panichi, Roberto; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico
Isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy (IIMA) only affects the hitting shoulder of overhead-activity athletes, and is caused by suprascapular nerve neuropathy. No study has assessed the static and dynamic stability of the shoulder in overhead professional athletes with IIMA to reveal possible shoulder sensorimotor alterations. To assess the shoulder static stability, dynamic stability, and strength in professional volleyball players with IIMA and in healthy control players. Cross-sectional study. Research laboratory. Twenty-four male professional volleyball players (12 players with diagnosed IIMA and 12 healthy players) recruited from local volleyball teams. Static stability was evaluated with two independent force platforms and dynamic stability was assessed with the "Upper Quarter Y Balance Test". The static stability assessment was conducted in different support (single hand and both hand) and vision (open and closed eyes) conditions. Data from each test were analyzed with ANOVA and paired t-test models, to highlight statistical differences within and between groups. In addition to reduced abduction and external rotation strength, athletes with IIMA consistently demonstrated significant less static (P strength deficits. This condition could yield subtle alteration in the functional use of the shoulder and predispose it to acute or overuse injuries. The results of this study may help athletic trainers and physical/physiotherapists to prevent shoulder injuries and create specific proprioceptive and neuromuscular training programs.
Fletcher, N H; Tarnopolsky, A
Measurements of sound output as a function of blowing pressure are reported for a group of experienced trumpet players. The study identifies several common features, namely (1) a threshold blowing pressure approximately proportional to the frequency of the note being played, (2) an extended region in which the sound output rises by about 15 dB for each doubling of blowing pressure, and (3) a saturation region in which sound output rises by only about 3 dB for a doubling of blowing pressure. Some players are able to blow with maximum pressures as high as 25 kPa, which is significantly greater than normal systolic blood pressure. A simple theory is presented that provides a physical explanation for the acoustical behavior, but a detailed treatment requires solution of the nonlinear coupled equations both for the lip-valve mechanism and for nonlinear wave propagation in the instrument tube. Frequency analysis of the sound shows a basic spectral envelope determined by the resonance properties of the mouthpiece cup and the radiation behavior of the bell, supplemented by an extension to increasingly high frequencies as the blowing pressure is increased. This high-frequency behavior can be attributed to nonlinear wavefront steepening during sound propagation along the cylindrical bore of the instrument.
Wilke, Carolina F; Ramos, Guilherme P; Pacheco, Diogo A S; Santos, Weslley H M; Diniz, Mateus S L; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Marins, João C B; Wanner, Samuel P; Silami-Garcia, Emerson
Wilke, CF, Ramos, GP, Pacheco, DAS, Santos, WHM, Diniz, MSL, Gonçalves, GGP, Marins, JCB, Wanner, SP, and Silami-Garcia, E. Metabolic demand and internal training load in technical-tactical training sessions of professional futsal players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2330-2340, 2016-The aim of the study was to characterize aspects of technical-tactical training sessions of a professional futsal team. We addressed 4 specific aims: characterize the metabolic demands and intensity of these training sessions, compare the training intensity among players of different positions, compare the intensity of different futsal-specific activities (4 × 4, 6 × 4, and match simulation), and investigate the association between an objective (training impulse; TRIMP) and a subjective method (session rating of perceived exertion; sRPE) of measuring a player's internal training load. Twelve top-level futsal players performed an incremental exercise to determine their maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate (HRmax), ventilatory threshold (VT), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Each player's HR and RPE were measured and used to calculate energy expenditure, TRIMP, and sRPE during 37 training sessions over 8 weeks. The average intensity was 74 ± 4% of HRmax, which corresponded to 9.3 kcal·min. The players trained at intensities above the RCP, between the RCP and VT and below the VT for 20 ± 8%, 28 ± 6%, and 51 ± 10% of the session duration, respectively. Wingers, defenders, and pivots exercised at a similar average intensity but with different intensity distributions. No difference in intensity was found between the 3 typical activities. A strong correlation between the average daily TRIMP and sRPE was observed; however, this relationship was significant for only 4 of 12 players, indicating that sRPE is a useful tool for monitoring training loads but that it should be interpreted for each player individually rather than collectively.
Cunningham, D J; West, D J; Owen, N J; Shearer, D A; Finn, C V; Bracken, R M; Crewther, B T; Scott, P; Cook, C J; Kilduff, L P
The ability to accelerate and attain high levels of speed is an essential component of success in team sports; however, the physical qualities that underpin these activities remain unclear. This study aimed to determine some of the key strength and power predictors of speed within professional rugby union players. Twenty professional male rugby union players participated in this study. Subjects were tested for speed (0-10 m sprint and a flying 10 m sprint), strength (3 repetition maximum squat), lower body power (countermovement jumps [CMJ] and drop jumps [DJ]), reactive strength and leg spring stiffness. The strength and power variables were expressed as absolute values and relative values for analysis. Both relative strength (r=-0.55, Prugby union players and specifically highlights the importance of relative strength and power in the expression and development of different speed components (e.g. acceleration, maximum velocity).
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23, GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45, GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30, and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26. Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF and low (LF frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln. Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg were heavier (p 25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level.
Mugnai, R; Della Rosa, N; Tarallo, L
Injuries to the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) are the most common cause of carpal instability. A SLIL injury typically follows a fall on an outstretched hand, with the wrist in hyperextension, ulnar deviation and intercarpal supination. We hypothesize that repetitive axial loading on the wrist in hyperextension, during the reception and digging motions of volleyball, can lead to functional overloading of the SLIL. To identify patients and to determine the clinical history and surgical treatment performed, we analyzed hospital records, X-rays, electronic databases containing all the operations performed, and image files (including before and after surgery and follow-up). We identified three SLIL injury cases in national volleyball team players, also at the libero position, who were treated at our clinic between 2007 and 2013 for scapholunate instability. Open reduction and Berger capsulodesis was performed in all cases. At a mean follow-up of 3 years (range, 22-50 months), the mean pain level on VAS was 0.3 (range, 0-1) at rest and 1.7 (range 1-2) during sport activities. The mean DASH score was 4 (range 2-5). The mean wrist flexion was 60° (range 55-70°) and extension was 80° (range 75-85°). Given the greater susceptibility of these players for developing a SLIL injury, a high index of suspicion is needed when managing athletes presenting with wrist pain or instability. Copyright © 2016 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
McDonald, John E; Herzog, Mackenzie M; Philippon, Marc J
Previous studies report professional athletes return to play following arthroscopic microfracture of the hip for chondral defects. Our hypothesis is that professional hockey players undergoing arthroscopic microfracture for chondral defects of the hip achieve the same performance they had pre-injury and compared to matched controls. Seventeen professional hockey players underwent arthroscopic microfracture for an Outerbridge grade IV chondral lesion. Concomitant procedures for labral pathology or FAI were included. Performance data for the full season preceding and following index procedure were analysed, in addition to two matched control players per subject. Data were collected at two points, 2 years apart. Eighty-two per cent (14/17) of players who underwent arthroscopic microfracture returned to play. The year prior to injury for the 14 players who returned was compared to the average of their individual controls. There was no statistical difference between the groups for age, number of seasons in the league, games played, time on ice, points, save percentage, and shots against goal. Post-operatively, there was no statistical difference between the treatment and control groups regarding performance measures. There was a trend towards a decrease in games played and points post-operatively compared with controls. The treatment group decreased 11 games played, while the controls decreased five games. The treatment group also decreased 14 points, while the controls decreased three points for the season. Professional hockey players with a discrete, full-thickness chondral defect of the hip are able to return to elite performance level following an arthroscopic microfracture procedure when compared to pre-injury outcomes and controls.
van Ramele, Serena; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent
Objectives: The primary aim was to explore the incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol use) in retired professional football players and to explore the association between adverse life events and the onset of symptoms of
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike
The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino
To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep
Shahim, Pashtun; Tegner, Yelverton; Wilson, David H; Randall, Jeffrey; Skillbäck, Tobias; Pazooki, David; Kallberg, Birgitta; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik
Lack of objective biomarkers for brain damage hampers acute diagnosis and clinical decision making about return to play after sports-related concussion. To determine whether sports-related concussion is associated with elevated levels of blood biochemical markers of injury to the central nervous system and to assess whether plasma levels of these biomarkers predict return to play in professional ice hockey players with sports-related concussion. Multicenter prospective cohort study involving all 12 teams of the top professional ice hockey league in Sweden, the Swedish Hockey League. Two hundred eighty-eight professional ice hockey players from 12 teams contesting during the 2012-2013 season consented to participate. All players underwent clinical preseason baseline testing regarding concussion assessment measures. Forty-seven players from 2 of the 12 ice hockey teams underwent blood sampling prior to the start of the season. Thirty-five players had a concussion from September 13, 2012, to January 31, 2013; of these players, 28 underwent repeated blood sampling at 1, 12, 36, and 144 hours and when the players returned to play. Total tau, S-100 calcium-binding protein B, and neuron-specific enolase concentrations in plasma and serum were measured. Concussed players had increased levels of the axonal injury biomarker total tau(median, 10.0 pg/mL; range, 2.0-102 pg/mL) compared with preseason values (median, 4.5pg/mL; range, 0.06-22.7 pg/mL) (P concussion(median, 0.075 μg/L; range, 0.037-0.24 μg/L) compared with preseason values (median,0.045 μg/L; range, 0.005-0.45 μg/L) (P concussion, and they decreased during rehabilitation. No significant changes were detected in the levels of neuron-specific enolase from preseason values (median, 6.5 μg/L; range,3.45-18.0 μg/L) to postconcussion values (median, 6.1 μg/L; range, 3.6-12.8 μg/L) (P = .10). Sports-related concussion in professional ice hockey players is associated with acute axonal and astroglial injury. This
McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I; Gass, Gregory C
The aim of the present study was to identify neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine markers of fatigue after Rugby League match play. Seventeen elite Rugby League players were monitored for a single match. Peak rate of force development (PRFD), peak power (PP), and peak force (PF) were measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force plate pre and postmatch play. Saliva and blood samples were collected 24 hours prematch, 30 minutes prematch, 30 minutes postmatch, and then at 24-hour intervals for a period of 120 hours to determine plasma creatine kinase concentration ([CK]) and salivary cortisol concentration ([sCort]). There were significant (p training 48 hours postmatch may have resulted in a compensatory increase in PRFD supporting the inclusion of strength training during the short-term postmatch recovery period.
Full Text Available To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.
Renan Renato Cruz dos Santos
Full Text Available Football is characterized as a predominately aerobic modality, however, during a match; the most important actions performed by the players are in short duration and high intensity. In addition, this sport presents to have some particularities, such as, highlights differences of each tactical position. Thus, this study aimed to compare the anaerobic power of professional football players grouped by different tactical positions. Thirty professional football players separated in three groups, goal¬keep¬ers+fullbacks, sideways+DMF (defensive middlefields and OMF (offensive middlefields+forwards, performed two anaerobic po¬wer tests, Running anaerobic sprint test and Sargent jump test Goalkeepers+fullbacks showed higher values of body mass index and absolute anaerobic power (w, using Sargent jump test than the others, but when analyzed the RAST results, this same group presented lower values (p<0.05 of relative AP (w∙kg-1. OMF+forwards showed to have the best Pmed and Pmax values (p<0.05, when compared with defensive players. These results suggest the use of running anaerobic sprint test and sargent jump test toge¬ther when is proposed to measure the anaerobic power of football players, and also a anthropometric evaluation, so the training can be more specific e efficient to each tactical position and athlete.
Fu, Lin; Ren, Feng; Baker, Julien S
The knee and ankle are the two most injured joints associated with the sport of badminton. This study evaluates biomechanical factors between professional and amateur badminton players using an injury mechanism model. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge. Amateur players exhibited greater ankle range of motion (p < 0.05, r = 0.89) and inversion joint moment (p < 0.05, r = 0.54) in the frontal plane as well as greater internal joint rotation moment (p < 0.05, r = 0.28) in the horizontal plane. In contrast, professional badminton players presented a greater knee joint moment in the sagittal (p < 0.05, r = 0.59) and frontal (p < 0.05, r = 0.37) planes, which may be associated with increased knee ligamentous injury risk. To avoid injury, the players need to forcefully extend the knee with internal rotation, strengthen the muscles around the ankle ligament, and maximise joint coordination during training. The injuries recorded and the forces responsible for the injuries seem to have developed during training activity. Training programmes and injury prevention strategies for badminton players should account for these findings to reduce potential injury to the ankle and knee.
Full Text Available The knee and ankle are the two most injured joints associated with the sport of badminton. This study evaluates biomechanical factors between professional and amateur badminton players using an injury mechanism model. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge. Amateur players exhibited greater ankle range of motion (p<0.05, r=0.89 and inversion joint moment (p<0.05, r=0.54 in the frontal plane as well as greater internal joint rotation moment (p<0.05, r=0.28 in the horizontal plane. In contrast, professional badminton players presented a greater knee joint moment in the sagittal (p<0.05, r=0.59 and frontal (p<0.05, r=0.37 planes, which may be associated with increased knee ligamentous injury risk. To avoid injury, the players need to forcefully extend the knee with internal rotation, strengthen the muscles around the ankle ligament, and maximise joint coordination during training. The injuries recorded and the forces responsible for the injuries seem to have developed during training activity. Training programmes and injury prevention strategies for badminton players should account for these findings to reduce potential injury to the ankle and knee.
Full Text Available We considered all matches played by professional tennis players between 1968 and 2010, and, on the basis of this data set, constructed a directed and weighted network of contacts. The resulting graph showed complex features, typical of many real networked systems studied in literature. We developed a diffusion algorithm and applied it to the tennis contact network in order to rank professional players. Jimmy Connors was identified as the best player in the history of tennis according to our ranking procedure. We performed a complete analysis by determining the best players on specific playing surfaces as well as the best ones in each of the years covered by the data set. The results of our technique were compared to those of two other well established methods. In general, we observed that our ranking method performed better: it had a higher predictive power and did not require the arbitrary introduction of external criteria for the correct assessment of the quality of players. The present work provides novel evidence of the utility of tools and methods of network theory in real applications.
Cohn, Randy M; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Feldman, Andrew J
Ice hockey is a fast paced sport with unique injury potential. There are no studies in the literature that examine the shoulder strength and range of motion in this population. Players on a single professional ice hockey team underwent a comprehensive examination of shoulder motion and strength. Shoulder motion and strength between right and left extremities were compared within athletes. Comparisons were made between right and left handed players, players that shoot right versus left handed, and by position. Within individual athletes, there was no difference in motion or strength between right and left shoulders. There was no difference in motion or strength between the dominant and non-dominant shoulder and players that shoot right versus left handed. Defensemen had a statistically significant increase in external rotation with the arm at the side for the left shoulder (66° versus 55°, p = 0.02) and a trend towards increased external rotation with the arm at the side for the right shoulder (65° versus 56°, p = 0.07). In professional ice hockey players, there is no difference in shoulder motion and strength between the right and left upper extremity. Ice hockey defensemen may have more external rotation with the arm at the side than forward.
Jones, Rhys M; Cook, Christian C; Kilduff, Liam P; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Sporiš, Goran; Fiorentini, Bruno; Fiorentini, Fredi; Turner, Anthony; Vučković, Goran
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in a group of professional soccer players. Forty-one professional soccer players (age 23 ± 4 yrs, height 180.0 ± 5.3 cm, weight 79.6 ± 5.3 kg) were required to perform tests to assess RSA and VO(2max) on two separate days with at least 48 hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their VO(2max) and a test for RSA involving the players completing 6 × 40 m sprints (turn after 20 m) with 20 s active recovery between each sprint. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass normalised VO(2max) and mean sprint time (RSAmean) (r = -0.655; P soccer players in the recovery from repeated sprint type activities.
Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Geeson-Brown, Tom
The current study retrospectively compared the physical qualities of elite academy rugby league players (aged 16-19 years) by career attainment level (i.e., academy or professional). Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Eighty-one academy rugby league players were assessed for physical qualities (height, body mass, skinfolds, speed, momentum, vertical jump, Yo-Yo Level 1 and 1-RM squat, bench press and prone row) at the Under 17-19 age categories between 2007 and 2012. Player's career attainment level was determined in 2014. Longitudinal changes in physical qualities between Under 17 and 19s were compared by career attainment level. Professional players demonstrated moderate significant advantages for height (d=0.98) and 1-RM squat (d=0.66) at the Under 17s, 1-RM bench press (d=0.76) at the Under 18s and 1-RM prone row (d=0.73) at the Under 19s age categories when compared to academy players. When assessed longitudinally (Under 17s-19s), professional players significantly outperformed academy players for 1-RM squat (η(2)=0.20). Professional players also demonstrated greater increases in body mass (8.2 vs. 2.9kg) and 10m momentum (47 vs. 17kgs(-1)) than academy players between the Under 17s and 19s. Advanced physical qualities, particularly height and absolute strength, within 16-19 year old players may contribute to attaining professional status in rugby league. Further, the development of body mass and momentum for players within an academy is an important consideration in the progress towards professional rugby league. Therefore, practitioners should aim to identify and develop the physical qualities, especially size and strength, within academy rugby league players. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coleman, Struan H; Mayer, Stephanie W; Tyson, Jared J; Pollack, Keshia M; Curriero, Frank C
Injuries of the hip and groin among professional baseball players can result in a significant number of disabled list days. The epidemiology of these injuries has not been delineated. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence, mechanism, type, and rehabilitation course of hip and groin injuries among Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players. The MLB injury database for hip and groin injuries from 2011-2014 was analyzed. Occurrence of injuries was assessed based on level of play, field location, activity during which the injury occurred, mechanism of injury, and days missed. The treatment was recorded as nonoperative or surgical. The subsequent rehabilitation and return to play were recorded. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of hip and groin characteristics. From 2011-2014, 1823 hip and groin injuries occurred among MLB and MiLB players, which accounted for approximately 5% of all injuries. Of these, 1514 (83%) occurred among MiLB players and 309 (17%) among MLB players; 96% of injuries were extra-articular. Among all players, a noncontact mechanism during defensive fielding was the most common activity causing injury (74%), and infielders experienced the most hip and groin injuries (34%). The majority of extra-articular injuries were treated nonoperatively (96.2%), resulting in an average of 12 days missed. Intra-articular pathology more commonly required surgery, and resulted in an average of 123 days missed. Hip and groin injuries can be debilitating and result in a significant number of days missed. Intra-articular pathology and athletic pubalgia were usually treated surgically, while the majority of extra-articular hip injuries were treated successfully with nonoperative modalities. Correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment can lead to a high rate of return to play for professional baseball players with injuries to the hip and groin.
Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Alis, Rafael; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bosio, Andrea; Romagnoli, Marco; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lippi, Giuseppe
Recent evidence has showed that serum or salivary values of α-amylase predict endurance running performance. In this study we investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with training status during a competitive season and after a detraining period in professional soccer players. The study population consisted in 15 male professional soccer players from an Italian major league team (age [mean±SD] 27±5 years, weight 76.9±4.1 kg, height 1.82±0.05 m). Serum α-amylase levels were measured 3 times during the last part of a competitive season (January, March and May) and just before preseason training (July). Metabolic and cardiovascular fitness of soccer players was improved during the last part of the season. The levels of α-amylase did not change significantly throughout the study period (χ2=7.331, P=0.062), nor they were found to be associated with variation of physical fitness and training status. The α-amylase fluctuations throughout a competitive season and after vacation time were meaningless in professional soccer players. No significant associations with physical fitness variations could be observed. These results suggest that α-amylase concentration may be a useful parameter for identifying individual inclination to endurance exercise, but not for predicting actual training status.
Full Text Available Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of professional soccer players per playing position have been studied extensively in order to determine their relevance in competitions. However, comparing methods to assess body composition is uncommon for Costa Rican soccer players. Purpose: compare body composition using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA and the skinfold method in Costa Rican professional soccer players. Methods: 106 Costa Rican professional soccer players, 24.53 ± 4.77 years of age, participated in the study. Results: On average body fat was 13.34 ± 4.1 %, fat free mass 62.1±5.5 kg and bone mineral content 3.6 ± 0.4 g/cm2 using DEXA, while body fat recorded using the skindfold method was 12.58 ± 3.0 %. When comparing body fat using both methods significant differences were recorded (p=0.005. In addition, there were differences on fat free mass by extremity in the upper right component (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.037 extremities. Fat free mass per playing position showed differences in the arms (p<0.05. There was a strong positive correlation (r=0.75, p < 0.001 between body fat obtained using DEXA and the skinfold methods. Conclusion: When comparing fat percentages using both methods significant differences were recorded. Body fat measured with both methods was very similar; consequently, both techniques may be used in this population.
Deol, Rupinderbir Singh; Roche, Andrew; Calder, James D F
Lisfranc joint injuries are increasingly recognized in elite soccer and rugby players. Currently, no evidence-based guidelines exist on time frames for return to training and competition after surgical treatment. To assess the time to return to training and playing after Lisfranc joint injuries. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A consecutive series of 17 professional soccer and rugby players in the English Premier/Championship leagues was assessed using prospectively collected data. All were isolated injuries sustained during training or competitive matches. Each player had clinical and radiological evidence of an unstable Lisfranc injury and required surgical treatment. A standardized postoperative regimen was used. The minimum follow-up time was 2 years. Clinical and radiological follow-up was obtained in all 17 players. Seven players had primarily ligamentous injuries, and 10 had bony injuries. The time from injury to fixation ranged from 8 to 31 days, and hardware was removed at 16 weeks postoperatively. One athlete retired after a ligamentous injury; the remaining 16 players returned to training and full competition. Excluding the retired player, the mean time to return to training was 20.1 weeks (range, 18-24 weeks) and to full competition was 25.3 weeks (range, 21-31 weeks). There was a significant difference between the mean time to return to competition for rugby (27.8 weeks) and soccer players (24.1 weeks; P = .02) and for ligamentous (22.5 weeks) compared with bony injuries (26.9 weeks; P = .003). Three patients suffered deep peroneal nerve sensation loss, from which 1 patient did not fully recover. Return to competitive elite-level soccer and rugby is possible after surgically treated Lisfranc injuries. Return to training can take up to 24 weeks and return to playing up to 31 weeks, with bony injuries taking longer. © 2015 The Author(s).
Boullosa, Daniel A.; Tonello, Lais; Ramos, Isabela; Silva, Alessandro Oliveira; Simoes, Herbert G.; Nakamura, Fabio Y.
Purpose To evaluate the relationship between aerobic and intermittent capacities in a team of professional futsal players. Methods Fifteen futsal players from Brazilian first division (age: 25.9±5.1 yrs; height: 1.77±0.04 m, body mass: 74.37±6.02 kg) performed in random order a ramp test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) at the start of the season for determination of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak running speed (Speak), and intermittent running ability. ...
Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041
Gustavo Goncalves Arliani
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.
King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor
A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.
Paulus, Jan; Tong, Jie; Hornegger, Joachim; Schmidt, Michael; Eskofier, Björn; Michelson, Georg
Stereopsis is one of several visual depth cues. It has been evaluated for athletes of different types of sports in the past. However, most studies do not cover the full range of stereopsis performance. Therefore, we propose computer-supported stereopsis tests that provide an extended assessment and analysis of stereopsis performance including stereo acuity and response times. By providing stationary and moving stimuli they cover static and dynamic stereopsis, respectively. The proposed stereopsis tests were used to compare professional and amateur soccer players with subjects without soccer background. The soccer players could not perform significantly (p ≤ 0.05) superior than the subjects without soccer background. However, the soccer players showed significantly (p ≤ 0.01) superior choice reaction times for monocular stimuli. The results are in congruence with previous findings in literature. PMID:25368596
Full Text Available Stereopsis is one of several visual depth cues. It has been evaluated for athletes of different types of sports in the past. However, most studies do not cover the full range of stereopsis performance. Therefore, we propose computer-supported stereopsis tests that provide an extended assessment and analysis of stereopsis performance including stereo acuity and response times. By providing stationary and moving stimuli they cover static and dynamic stereopsis. The proposed stereopsis tests were used to compare professional and amateur soccer players with subjects without soccer background. The soccer players could not perform significantly (p <= 0.05 superior than the subjects without soccer background. However, the soccer players showed significantly (p <= 0.01 superior choice reaction times for monocular stimuli. The results are in congruence with previous findings in literature.
Ljach, V; Witkowski, Z; Gutnik, B; Samovarov, A; Nash, D
Development of skill in young soccer players relies on progressive improvement in different professionally important sensorimotor cognitive abilities. Development of seven leading abilities was based on the results of 23 tests provided for experimental and control groups. 600 elite young soccer players of both sexes, ages 11 to 19 years, were assessed over a period of 4 years. Experimental groups were given different exercises to aid development of selected abilities. At the end of the monitoring period, the experimental groups demonstrated a significant improvement in contrast to the control groups, and the greatest improvements in different test performances were observed in the 11- to 13-year-olds. The test-retest ata show the testing process to be reliable. The study provides standard pedagogical models and data for trainers, coaches, and researchers working with young soccer players. Future research on talent identification and selection should adopt amultidimensional approach.
Joshua M. Williams
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.
Webner, David; Iverson, Grant L
To examine publicly-available information on all identified cases of suicide in active or former American professional football players between 1920 and the spring of 2015. Retrospective cohort study. Professional American Football in the US. A cohort of 26 702 athletes who had died, retired or were currently playing in the NFL from nfl.com since 1920 was identified. Internet queries identifying 26 professional football players who completed suicide. Obituaries and news reports were reviewed. The primary outcome measures included mortality, demographic characteristics and life circumstances in professional American football players completing suicide. From 1920-2015, the median age of the 26 men who completed suicide was 39.5 years (range = 23-85). The median number of years after retirement was 6.5 (range = 0-63). Most of the deaths since 1920 have occurred in the past 15 years (58.7%) and a large percentage have occurred since 2009 (42.3%). Most of the men suffered from multiple life stressors prior to their deaths, such as retirement from sport, loss of steady income, divorce, failed business ventures, estrangement from family members and medical, psychiatric and/or substance abuse problems. A disproportionate number of completed suicides in current and former professional football players have occurred since 2009 (42.3%). It is well established in the literature that the causes of depression and suicidality are diverse, often multifactorial and treatable. Providing at-risk retired athletes with mental health treatment will likely reduce their suffering and improve their quality-of-life.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike
The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.
The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study focused on the relationship between the relative age effect and lengths of professional careers among professional male Japanese baseball players. The birth dates of players and lengths of professional careers were collected from an official publication, and data were divided into four quarters (Q1: April-June; Q2: July-September; Q3: October-December; Q4: January-March of the following year) grouped by 3 years. Based on the data for Q4, the expected numbers for the lengths of professional careers were calculated for Q1, Q2, and Q3. The number of players with professional careers of more than 19 years was significantly smaller in Q4 than in Q1, Q2, and Q3. The relative age effect among professional male Japanese baseball players was associated with the lengths of professional careers. Relative age appears to be a very important factor for the development of expertise among male Japanese baseball players and involves long-term disadvantages after becoming professional players.
Shalaj, I; Tishukaj, F; Bachl, N; Tschan, H; Wessner, B; Csapo, R
The incidence and severity of football-related injuries has been found to differ strongly between professional leagues from different countries. The aims of this study were to record the incidence, type and severity of injuries in Kosovarian football players and investigate the relationship between injury incidence rates (IRs), players' age and playing positions. Players' age, anthropometric characteristics and playing positions, training and match exposure as well as injury occurrences were monitored in 11 teams (143 players) of Kosovo's top division during the 2013/14 season. The exact type, severity and duration of football-related injuries were documented following International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) recommendations. A total of 272 injuries were observed, with traumatic injuries accounting for 71 %. The overall injury IR was 7.38 (CI: 7.14, 7.63) injuries per 1,000 exposure hours and ~11x lower during training as opposed to matches. Strains and ruptures of thigh muscles, ligamentous injuries of the knee as well as meniscus or other cartilage tears represented the most frequent differential diagnoses. While no statistical differences were found between players engaged in different playing positions, injury IR was found to be higher by 10-13 % in younger (IR = 7.63; CI: 7.39, 7.87) as compared to middle-aged (IR = 6.95; CI: 6.41, 7.54) and older players (IR = 6.76; CI: 5.71, 8.00). The total injury IR in elite football in Kosovo is slightly lower than the international average, which may be related to lesser match exposure. Typical injury patterns agree well with previously reported data. Our finding that injury IR was greater in younger players is related to a higher rate of traumatic injuries and may indicate a more aggressive and risky style of play in this age group.
Tee, Jason C; Klingbiel, Jannie F G; Collins, Robert; Lambert, Mike I; Coopoo, Yoga
Tee, JC, Klingbiel, JFG, Collins, R, Lambert, MI, and Coopoo, Y. Preseason Functional Movement Screen component tests predict severe contact injuries in professional rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3194-3203, 2016-Rugby union is a collision sport with a relatively high risk of injury. The ability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) or its component tests to predict the occurrence of severe (≥28 days) injuries in professional players was assessed. Ninety FMS test observations from 62 players across 4 different time periods were compared with severe injuries sustained during 6 months after FMS testing. Mean composite FMS scores were significantly lower in players who sustained severe injury (injured 13.2 ± 1.5 vs. noninjured 14.5 ± 1.4, Effect Size = 0.83, large) because of differences in in-line lunge (ILL) and active straight leg raise scores (ASLR). Receiver-operated characteristic curves and 2 × 2 contingency tables were used to determine that ASLR (cut-off 2/3) was the injury predictor with the greatest sensitivity (0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-1.0). Adding the ILL in combination with ASLR (ILL + ASLR) improved the specificity of the injury prediction model (ASLR specificity = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.18-0.43 vs. ASLR + ILL specificity = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.66, p ≤ 0.05). Further analysis was performed to determine whether FMS tests could predict contact and noncontact injuries. The FMS composite score and various combinations of component tests (deep squat [DS] + ILL, ILL + ASLR, and DS + ILL + ASLR) were all significant predictors of contact injury. The FMS composite score also predicted noncontact injury, but no component test or combination thereof produced a similar result. These findings indicate that low scores on various FMS component tests are risk factors for injury in professional rugby players.
Seichepine, Daniel R.; Stamm, Julie M.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Riley, David O.; Baugh, Christine M.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C.; Cantu, Robert C.; Nowinski, Christopher J.
Abstract Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE. PMID:23421745
José Antonio Martínez Carbonell
Full Text Available Due to the shortage of studies of analysis in Valencian ball, we have centred this study on this sport. The aim of study has been to analyze and to quantify the types of shots , and to compare the same ones between the positions of game of 1st game line (resto and 2nd game line (medio. Analysis of 6 games of the 19th Professional League of Stand and rope 2009-2010 was carried out so i, and specifically of 12 players, using Sports Code analysis software. The results indicate significant differences (p<0.05 between the shots carried out by first game line player and second game line in the rebound and rebound-shot all of them of right and left hand,and stand shot right hand; being almost realitzados only by players from the first game line position. At the same time we find data which demonstrate us by another band used mainly by second game line players beatings, these have been volley shot, volley shot after bounce, volley shot under the line of the shoulders, palm shot and horizontal shot all of them of right hand. As conclusion of the study, we have obtained that depending on the position of game the players use a few types of I throb or others. Therefore, we affirm, that the analysis of the high performance in stand and rope from the advances of the technologies, a valuable information contributes us to establish specific bosses of training.
Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was the analysis of the functional status of professional football players during the special functional testing procedure (shuttle test. We used different testing methods such as an ergometry, gas analyzing, pulsemetry, and biochemical blood lactate level measuring for checking up physical conditioning. The technique “PHAZAGRAF” was used for assessment of the functional status of players by measuring the ІТ -index of symmetry of T-wave in standard ECG and for testing of vegetative system tonus. We used mathematic methods for data processing. The test of physical readiness showed 11 players with high level capacity to aerobic work with the result of more than 885 seconds. Low result was fixed when the player`s run-time was less than 820 seconds. The findings showed that functional status failures are attendant with ІТ -increasing and lowering of total aerobic readiness. This is revealed in lowering of the maximum oxygen consumption that showed lowering of total aerobic capacity. There was also found that increasing of the standard deviation of ІТ -index could accompany lowering of the running time in the shuttle test. Therewith, vegetative tonus failures in the form of prevailing of sympathetic system activity are not obligatory followed with failures of special or total capacity to work.
Seichepine, Daniel R; Stamm, Julie M; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Riley, David O; Baugh, Christine M; Gavett, Brandon E; Tripodis, Yorghos; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine; McKee, Ann C; Cantu, Robert C; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), such as that experienced by contact-sport athletes, has been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Executive dysfunction is believed to be among the earliest symptoms of CTE, with these symptoms presenting in the fourth or fifth decade of life. The present study used a well-validated self-report measure to study executive functioning in football players, compared to healthy adults. Sixty-four college and professional football players were administered the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, adult version (BRIEF-A) to evaluate nine areas of executive functioning. Scores on the BRIEF-A were compared to published age-corrected normative scores for healthy adults Relative to healthy adults, the football players indicated significantly more problems overall and on seven of the nine clinical scales, including Inhibit, Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, and Task Monitor. These symptoms were greater in athletes 40 and older, relative to younger players. In sum, football players reported more-frequent problems with executive functioning and these symptoms may develop or worsen in the fifth decade of life. The findings are in accord with a growing body of evidence that participation in football is associated with the development of cognitive changes and dementia as observed in CTE.
Milanese, Chiara; Cavedon, Valentina; Corradini, Giuliano; De Vita, Francesco; Zancanaro, Carlo
This work investigated changes in body composition of professional soccer players attending an Italian Serie A club across the competitive season; it is original insofar as body composition was assessed at multiple time points across the season using the accurate three-compartment model provided by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Thirty-one players (4 goalkeepers, 13 defenders, 8 midfielders, 6 forwards) underwent DXA and anthropometry at pre-, mid- and end-season. One operator measured whole body and regional body composition (fat mass, FM; fat-free soft tissue mass, FFSTM; mineral mass). Two players were excluded from analysis due to serious injury. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA; factors were season time point and playing position. Results showed that whole-body FM and %FM significantly (P professional soccer players undergo changes in their FM, FFSTM, and mineral mass across the season with some regional variations, irrespective of the playing position. Changes are mostly positive at mid-season, possibly due to difference in training between the first and second phase of the season.
Hoskins Wayne; Hansen Lotte; Pollard Henry
Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon th...
Ford, Gregory M.; Genuario, James; Noonan, Thomas J.; Kinkartz, Jason D.; Githens, Thomas; Murayama, Scott
Objectives: Injury to the elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is relatively common in pitchers. In the 70's reconstructive surgery was developed as a viable option to a potentially career ending injury. Multiple studies have demonstrated return to play (RTP) rates of 74-83% after reconstruction. Studies of RTP after nonoperative treatment in throwing athletes are limited, reporting 42%. There are no studies reporting RTP rates with nonoperative treatment of professional baseball players. Th...
de Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; de Queiroz Szeles, Paulo Roberto; Janovsky, César; Cohen, Moisés
to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used. this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18-30). The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13-28). The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport. five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven-nine). All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied), taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up. the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative complications. It was shown to be an excellent
Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the prevalence of osteoarthritis in two groups: one comprising former professional soccer players and the other comprising non-professional-athlete participants. METHODS: Twenty-seven male former professional soccer players and 30 male volunteers from different non-sports professional areas participated in the study. All participants underwent bilateral knee radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, the quality of life, knee pain and joint function were evaluated and compared using questionnaires given to all participants in both groups. Specific knee evaluations, with regard to osteoarthritis and quality of life, were performed in both groups using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subjective questionnaires and the Short-form 36. The chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U test and Student's t-test were used for group comparisons. RESULTS: The between-groups comparison revealed significant differences in the following: pain, symptoms and quality of life related to the knee in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales; the physical aspects subscale of the SF-36; total whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging scores with regard to the dominant and non-dominant knees. Former soccer players had worse scores than the controls in all comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Both the clinical and magnetic resonance evaluations and the group comparisons performed in this study revealed that former soccer players have a worse quality of life than that of a control group with regard to physical aspects related to the knee; these aspects include greater pain, increased symptoms and substantial changes in radiographic and magnetic resonance images of the knee.
Turner, Anthony P; Unholz, Cedric N; Potts, Neill; Coleman, Simon G S
Training at the optimal load for peak power output (PPO) has been proposed as a method for enhancing power output, although others argue that the force, velocity, and PPO are of interest across the full range of loads. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of load on PPO, peak barbell velocity (BV), and peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during the jump squat (JS) in a group of professional rugby players. Eleven male professional rugby players (age, 26 ± 3 years; height, 1.83 ± 6.12 m; mass, 97.3 ± 11.6 kg) performed loaded JS at loads of 20-100% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) JS. A force plate and linear position transducer, with a mechanical braking unit, were used to measure PPO, VGRF, and BV. Load had very large significant effects on PPO (p trained professional rugby players, the optimal load for eliciting PPO during the loaded JS in the range measured occurs at 20% 1RM JS, with decreases in PPO and BV, and increases in VGRF, as the load is increased, although greater PPO likely occurs without any additional load.
Russell, Mark; Pennock, Anthony
Limited data exist concerning the dietary practices of young professional soccer players that compete within the United Kingdom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional and activity habits of professional male soccer players (n = 10; age: 17 ± 1 years, height: 1.72 ± 0.01 m, mass: 67.5 ± 1.8 kg, estimated maximal aerobic capacity: 57.8 ± 0.9 ml·kg·min) who played for the youth team of a UK-based Championship club. All players recorded their 7-day dietary intake and activity habits during a competitive week that included a match day, 4- training days, and 2 rest days in the first half of the 2009/2010 playing season. The intake of carbohydrates (5.9 ± 0.4 g·kg·d), proteins (1.7 ± 0.1 g·kg·d), and fats (1.5 ± 0.1 g·kg·d) represented 56 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 31 ± 1% of the mean daily energy intake respectively. The intake of fiber was found to be significantly lower than Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) values (67% of RNI, p soccer players were inadequate to sustain optimized performance throughout training and match play. Youth soccer players should therefore seek to ensure that their diets contain adequate energy through increased total caloric intake, while also optimizing the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrates and ensuring that enough fiber-rich foods are consumed.
Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony
Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p <.05). Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p <.05) but not to any other eatwell plate categories. The study identified adequate general nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.
Nawabi, Danyal H; Cro, Suzie; Hamid, Imran P; Williams, Andy
Meniscectomy is frequently performed in elite soccer athletes to allow return to a high level of performance as early as possible. Although lateral meniscectomy is known to have more serious long-term sequelae than medial meniscectomy, little is known about the effect of lateral meniscectomy on the time to return to play during the early recovery phase in professional soccer players. Lateral meniscectomy results in longer times to return to preinjury level of competition and a higher incidence of adverse outcomes compared with medial meniscectomy in elite professional soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A single-surgeon database containing the injury history and operative details of elite soccer athletes from 2005 to 2009 was used to identify players who had undergone an isolated partial lateral or medial meniscectomy. The time to return to preinjury level of competition, the incidence of adverse events during early recovery, and the need for further arthroscopy were recorded. Time to return to play was analyzed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. A multivariate analysis was used to control for age, location of meniscectomy, percentage of meniscus excised, and type of tear. Ninety soccer players were identified, of which 42 had a lateral meniscectomy and 48 had a medial meniscectomy. The median time to return to play, to the nearest week, was longer in the lateral group than the medial group (7 vs 5; P soccer athletes. Lateral meniscectomy has a higher incidence of adverse events in the early recovery period, including pain/swelling and the need for further arthroscopy. It is also associated with a significantly lower rate of return to play. These findings form the basis of an important discussion that must be had with player and club before a lateral meniscectomy is performed in elite soccer athletes. © 2014 The Author(s).
Dillon, Patrick A; Kempton, Thomas; Ryan, Samuel; Hocking, Joel; Coutts, Aaron J
To examine the effects of match-related and individual player characteristics on activity profile and technical performance during rotations in professional Australian football. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system data and player rating scores were collected from 33 professional Australian football players during 15 Australian football League matches. Player rating scores were time aligned with their relative total and high-speed running (HSR) distance (>20kmh-1) for each on ground rotation. Individual players' maximal aerobic running speed (MAS) was determined from a two-kilometre trial. A multilevel linear mixed model was used to examine the influence of rotations on physical activity profiles and skill execution during match play. Rotation duration and accumulated distance resulted in a trivial-to-moderate reduction in relative total and HSR distances as well as relative rating points. The number of disposals in a rotation had a small positive effect on relative total and HSR distances and a large positive effect on relative rating points. MAS was associated with a moderate-to-large increase in relative total distance, but had a large negative effect on relative rating points. Previous rotation time, stoppages and the number of rotations in the quarter had a trivial-to-small negative effect on relative total and HSR distances. A greater speed (mmin-1) was associated with a trivial increase in rating points during a rotation, while there was a trivial decrease in relative total distance as rating points increased. The complex relationship between factors that influence activity profile and technical performance during rotations in Australian football needs to be considered when interpreting match performance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Owen, Adam L.; Dunlop, Gordon; Rouissi, Mehdi; Haddad, Monoem; Mendes, Bruno; Chamar, Karim
The primary aim of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of the positional training loads during various game formats among European professional soccer players. Twenty-two male professional soccer players participated in the investigation and were divided into their tactical positional roles for analysis. Ratings of perceived exertion were collected daily and corresponded to specific formatted game types (small-sided games; large-sided games; large-sided games within a ...
Ruas, Cassio V; Minozzo, Felipe; Pinto, Matheus D; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei S
Previous investigators have proposed that knee strength, hamstrings to quadriceps, and side-to-side asymmetries may vary according to soccer field positions. However, different results have been found in these variables, and a generalization of this topic could lead to data misinterpretation by coaches and soccer clubs. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure knee strength and asymmetry in soccer players across different field positions. One hundred and two male professional soccer players performed maximal concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee actions on the preferred and nonpreferred legs at a velocity of 60° · s. Players were divided into their field positions for analysis: goalkeepers, side backs, central backs, central defender midfielders, central attacking midfielders, and forwards. Results demonstrated that only goalkeepers (GK) differed from most other field positions on players' characteristics, and concentric peak torque across muscles. Although all players presented functional ratios of the preferred (0.79 ± 0.14) and nonpreferred (0.75 ± 0.13) legs below accepted normative values, there were no differences between positions for conventional or functional strength ratios or side-to-side asymmetry. The same comparisons were made only between field players, without inclusion of the GK, and no differences were found between positions. Therefore, the hamstrings to quadriceps and side-to-side asymmetries found here may reflect knee strength functional balance required for soccer skills performance and game demands across field positions. These results also suggest that isokinetic strength profiles should be considered differently in GK compared with other field positions due to their specific physiological and training characteristics.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA in professional tennis players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02 and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01 sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001. In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75. The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury.
Dhillon Mandeep S
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cricket is the most popular sport in India, and is gaining in importance in all south-east Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the incidence, nature, and site of acute upper limb injuries sustained by professional cricketers of north India over a period of one year. Material & methods 95 cricket players (mean age 18.9 years were prospectively evaluated for nature and incidence of upper limb injuries from 1st November 2008 to 31st October 2009. For the purpose of comparison the calculated injury incidence included injuries sustained during match as well as practice. Injuries were also grouped according to the type of cricket activities such as batting or fielding. Results Out of 95 players evaluated, 24 were bowlers, 19 were batsmen, 8 were wicket keepers and the other 44 cricketers declared themselves as all rounders. There were a total of 16 upper limb injuries in 16 (16.8% players. The majority of injuries (10/16 occurred while fielding. Out of 16 injuries, 11 were seen in hand, 3 were observed in elbow, while 2 patients suffered from shoulder problem. Twelve were acute injuries while 4 were classified as repetitive stress injuries (RSI. Conclusion The incidence of upper limb injuries in cricketers at the professional and semi-professional level is significant, causing them to miss matches or practice for a significant number of days. This is the first study of Indian cricketers which documents the high incidence of upper limb injuries. The study highlights the importance of injury surveillance for Indian cricket. It is a concern which needs to be addressed by the players, coaches, teachers, administrators and medical personnel involved with cricket.
Hänninen, Timo; Tuominen, Markku; Parkkari, Jari; Vartiainen, Matti; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L; Luoto, Teemu M
To determine normative reference values for the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3rd Edition (SCAT3) using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Preseason baseline testing was administered individually to 304 professional male ice hockey players. The participants were aged between 16 and 40 with a mean (M) age of 25.3 years. Over 60% of the athletes reported previous concussion, almost 20% had been hospitalized or medically imaged following a head trauma. Of the players, 48% reported no symptoms. The symptom score median (Md) was 1.0 (M=1.5) and severity median was 1.0 (M=2.3). The median of the SAC score was 27.0 (M=27.0). The median of the M-BESS was 1.0 (M=2.0). The Tandem gait median was 10.9s (M=10.8s). The most common baseline symptom was neck pain (24%). Delayed recall was the most difficult component of the SAC (Md=4); only 24% performed it flawlessly. All athletes completed the double-leg stance of the M-BESS without errors, but there was performance variability in the tandem stance (Md=0, M=0.6, range=0-10) and single-leg stance (Md=1.0, M=1.4, range=0-10). Representative normative reference values for the SCAT3 among professional male ice hockey players are provided. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mosler, Andrea B; Crossley, Kay M; Waarsing, Jan H; Jomaah, Nabil; Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Agricola, Rintje
Participation in high-impact athletic activities has recently been associated with a higher prevalence of cam deformity. Bony hip morphology has also emerged as an important factor in the development of hip osteoarthritis. However, it is unknown whether bony morphology differs between ethnicities in athletes participating in high-impact sports. To investigate whether the prevalence of specific bony hip morphological abnormalities differed between professional male soccer players of diverse ethnic backgrounds. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Professional male soccer players from an entire league attending preparticipation screening were invited to participate in this study. Ethnicity was registered, and standardized radiographs of anteroposterior pelvic and Dunn views were obtained. Cam and pincer deformity, and acetabular dysplasia were quantified using the alpha angle, triangular index, and lateral center-edge angle (LCEA). Regression analyses with generalized estimating equations were used to determine prevalence differences in bony hip morphology. A total of 445 male soccer players (890 hips; mean age ± SD, 25 ± 4.9 years) participated in the study, representing the following ethnic groups: Arabic (59%), black (24%), Persian (7%), white (6%), East Asian (2%), and other (2%). The prevalence of cam deformity (alpha angle >60°) ranged from 57.5% to 71.7% across 4 of the groups, but East Asians had a significantly lower prevalence (18.8%; P ≤ .032). A large cam deformity (alpha angle >78°) was more prevalent in white (33.3%) compared with black soccer players (17.8%; P = .041) and was absent in East Asian players. Pincer deformity (LCEA >40°) was uncommon (3%) in all ethnicities. The prevalence of acetabular dysplasia (LCEA <20°) ranged from 8.0% to 16.7%, apart from the white group, in which prevalence was only 1.9% (P = .03). The prevalence of a cam deformity and acetabular dysplasia differed between ethnicities in this cohort of professional
Carson, Fraser; Polman, Remco
The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of the emotions and coping strategies utilized when returning to competition following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A qualitative approach, consisting of five semi-structured interviews and a pre-designed diary, was conducted concurrent with each 'player's return to competition, allowing each to record emotional responses experienced and identify coping strategies employed. Five professional male rugby union players, who had suffered an ACL injury that required surgical reconstruction, participated in the study. Each had spent between six to twelve months in rehabilitation. Content analysis was conducted on both pre- and post- return data, identifying 12 higher order themes. Confidence building; anticipation; anxiety; physical preparation; psychological preparation; and social support were prevalent pre-return to competition. Post-return higher order themes consisted of confidence building; positive performance emotions; performance anxieties; problem focused coping; social support; and dealing with fears. For the players in this study, gaining confidence in the injured knee joint appears to be influential, with increases in confidence provided by completing clinical and sport specific tests, and by performance accomplishments. Successful return can be enhanced further by the use of a specific goal setting program aimed at reintroducing the player to competition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jin, Hua; Xu, Guiping; Zhang, John X; Gao, Hongwei; Ye, Zuoer; Wang, Pin; Lin, Huiyan; Mo, Lei; Lin, Chong-De
The ability to predict the trajectory of a ball based on the opponent's body kinematics has been shown to be critical to high-performing athletes in many sports. However, little is known about the neural correlates underlying such superior ability in action anticipation. The present event-related potential study compared brain responses from professional badminton players and non-player controls when they watched video clips of badminton games and predicted a ball's landing position. Replicating literature findings, the players made significantly more accurate judgments than the controls and showed better action anticipation. Correspondingly, they showed enlarged amplitudes of two ERP components, a P300 peaking around 350ms post-stimulus with a parietal scalp distribution and a P2 peaking around 250ms with a posterior-occipital distribution. The P300 effect was interpreted to reflect primed access and/or directing of attention to game-related memory representations in the players facilitating their online judgment of related actions. The P2 effect was suggested to reflect some generic learning effects. The results identify clear neural responses that differentiate between different levels of action anticipation associated with sports expertise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Competitive volleyball teams master six basic skills: serve, pass, set, attack, block and dig. Each of these skills comprises a number of specific techniques, considered standard practice in high-level volleyball. Five professional volleyball players were candidates to join a first division team in Israel. Their medical dossier presented previous injuries that occurred during their sport's activity. Two of the players had a suprascapular nerve injury, one had a lesion in the hamstrings, another one had an operated ankle sprain and the fifth one had an operated anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear in both knees and a mallet fifth finger. The team physician had to make the decision as to whether they are able to continue playing volleyball at a high level, taking into consideration the different skills necessary in this sport. Players having suprascapular nerve injury might have difficulties to hit the serve, to hit and to block the ball. Those with unstable knee or ankle take a risk white landing. Lesions in the hamstrings cause local pain during jumping to attack or to block the ball and a mallet finger will disturb the player when attempting to set the ball, to handle it in attack or to block.
Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective.
Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Muehlmann, Marc; Merugumala, Sai; Liao, Huijun; Starr, Tyler; Kaufmann, David; Mayinger, Michael; Steffinger, Denise; Fisch, Barbara; Karch, Susanne; Heinen, Florian; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian; Stern, Robert A; Zafonte, Ross; Shenton, Martha E
Soccer is played by more than 250 million people worldwide. Repeatedly heading the ball may place soccer players at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impacts (RSHI). This study evaluates the long-term effects of RSHI on neurochemistry in athletes without a history of clinically diagnosed concussion, but with a high exposure to RSHI. Eleven former professional soccer players (mean age 52.0±6.8 years) and a comparison cohort of 14 age- and gender-matched, former non-contact sport athletes (mean age 46.9±7.9 years) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and neurocognitive evaluation. In the soccer players a significant increase was observed in both choline (Cho), a membrane marker, and myo-inositol (ml), a marker of glial activation, compared with control athletes. Additionally, ml and glutathione (GSH) were significantly correlated with lifetime estimate of RSHI within the soccer group. There was no significant difference in neurocognitive tests between groups. Results of this study suggest an association between RSHI in soccer players and MRS markers of neuroinflammation, suggesting that even subconcussive head impacts affect the neurochemistry of the brain and may precede neurocognitive changes. Future studies will need to determine the role of neuroinflammation in RSHI and the effect on neurocognitive function.
Shahim, Pashtun; Mattsson, Niklas; Macy, Elizabeth M; Crimmins, Dan L; Ladenson, Jack H; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Tegner, Yelverton
Visinin-like protein-1 (VILIP-1) has shown potential utility as a biomarker for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid. This study investigated serum VILIP-1 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in sports-related concussion. This multi-centre prospective cohort study involved the 12 teams of the professional ice hockey league in Sweden. A total of 288 players consented to participate in the study. Thirty-five players sustained concussions, of whom 28 underwent repeated blood samplings at 1, 12, 36 and 144 hours after the trauma or when the player returned to play (7-90+ days). The highest levels of VILIP-1 were measured 1 hour after concussion and the levels decreased during rehabilitation, reaching a minimum level at the 36-hour sampling. However, the levels of serum VILIP-1 at 1 hour after concussion were not significantly higher than pre-season baseline values. Serum levels of VILIP-1 1 hour post-concussion did not correlate with the number of days for the concussion symptoms to resolve. Further, serum levels of VILIP-1 increased after a friendly game in players who were not concussed. These results provide evidence that serum VILIP-1 may not be a useful biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of sports-related concussion.
Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio
Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to
Urdampilleta, Aritz; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Valtueña, Jara; Holway, Francis; Cordova, Alfredo
there is hardly any reference in scientific literature regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of hand Basque pelota players (pelotaris). the aim of this research was to analyze and compare the anthropometry features and body composition of professional pelotaris and under-23 (U23) pelotaris, to create an anthropometric profile of this sport. the participants were ten U23 pelotaris, and eight professional pelotaris. Anthropometric measurements were taken following the International Society of Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) protocol. Fat mass (FM) was calculated using the Yushasz equation modified by Carter and muscle mass (MM) using Lee equation. For the somatotype components, the Carter y Heath equation was applied. The hydration level (kg of body water) of the players was measured with a four-pole kind bioelectrical impedance (BIA) analyzer. Spss was used for the statistical analysis. professional pelotaris have significantly lower FM (p somatotype (p < 0.001) than U23 pelotaris. Professionals have a greater amount of body water (p = 0.001) and a larger bistyloid diameter (p = 0.014). Professional pelotaris have a morphotype characterized by a low FM 8.9 ± 1.1% and medium MM 47 ± 1.7%, height of 183.0 ± 7.1 cm and BM of 85.9 ± 7.6 kg. The main results of the present study show that non-modifiable anthropometric features by training (e.g. height, arm span and wrist breadth) are important to become a professional pelotaris. Moreover, training and diet related features have been showed to be better in professional pelotaris (low FM, higher MM and high body water amount) than U23 pelotaris. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.
Full Text Available Patrizia Proia,1 Antonino Bianco,1 Gabriella Schiera,2 Patrizia Saladino,2 Valentina Contrò,1 Giovanni Caramazza,3 Marcello Traina,1 Keith A Grimaldi,4 Antonio Palma,1 Antonio Paoli5 1Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, 2Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Regional Sports School of CONI Sicilia, Sicily, Italy; 4Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 5Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Background: The PPARα gene encodes the peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor alpha, a central regulator of expression of other genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of G allele of the PPARα intron 7 G/C polymorphism (rs4253778 in professional Italian soccer players. Methods: Sixty professional soccer players and 30 sedentary volunteers were enrolled in the study. Samples of venous blood were obtained at rest, in the morning, by conventional clinical procedures; blood serum was collected and total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. An aliquot of anticoagulant-treated blood was used to prepare genomic DNA from whole blood. The G/C polymorphic site in PPARα intron 7 was scanned by using the PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol with TaqI enzyme. Results: We found variations in genotype distribution of PPARα polymorphism between professional soccer players and sedentary volunteers. Particularly, G alleles and the GG genotype were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with healthy controls (64% versus 48%. No significant correlations were found between lipid profile and genotype background. Conclusion: Previous results
Treasure, D C; Carpenter, P J; Power, K T
The recent professionalization of rugby union makes it an excellent achievement context in which to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of sport as a function of competitive standard. During the 1996-97 season, 73 professional and 106 amateur rugby players in England completed a series of questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, beliefs about the purposes of rugby and demographic information. The results of a canonical correlation analysis revealed a conceptually coherent relationship between achievement goal orientations and purposes of rugby. Specifically, a high ego/moderate task orientation was positively related to fitness, aggression and financial remuneration as significant purposes of rugby. Professional players scored higher on those purposes of rugby related to aggression, financial remuneration and fitness, but lower on sportspersonship than amateur players. Professional players also reported higher task and ego goal orientations than amateur players. The findings are discussed in terms of the differences in lifestyle and motivation of professional and amateur rugby union players.
Mazuquin, B F; Dela Bela, L F; Pelegrinelli, A R M; Dias, J M; Carregaro, R L; Moura, F A; Selfe, J; Richards, J; Brown, L E; Cardoso, J R
Soccer matches consist of a variety of different activities, including repeated sprints. Time to attain velocity (TTAV), load range (LR) and the torque-angle-velocity relationship (TAV 3D ) represent an important measurement of muscle performance, however there are few related studies. The aim of this study was to compare these outcomes between soccer players of different age category. 17 professional (PRO) and 17 under-17 (U17) soccer players were assessed for concentric knee flexion/extension at 60, 120 and 300°/s. For the extensor muscles, differences were found in favor of the U17 group for TTAV and LR outcomes at 120°/s, however, the PRO group maintained higher torques in both movement directions in comparison to the U17 in TAV 3D evaluation. These results suggest that muscle performance of the PRO group is more efficient than the U17 group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The survey estimates recruitment of trumpeter swan on the refuge. The survey should be conducted in August and September, before migratory swans arrive on the Refuge...
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were related to the research of the relations between the abilities of professional basketball players in the performance of one repetition maximum (1RM back squat and explosive movements, such as 5, 10 and 20-metre running, and vertical jump; as well as the detection and comparison of these abilities between players who play on the outside and inside positions. The study involved 35 professional basketball players (22 outside and 13 inside who were selected as candidates for the national team of Bulgaria. Independent variables of muscular strength were obtained by applying the 1RM back squat test (142.06 ± 29.31 kg, and were normalized with respect to the body mass (1RM Squat/kg (1.51 ± 0.25 and by applying suitable allometric exponent (1RM SquatAl (6.86 ± 1.16. Dependent variables were obtained using two tests: 20-metre run (times registered at 5 and 10 metres and vertical jump (used to calculate the variable peak anaerobic power (PAPW. The results indicated that none of the variables of strength were significantly related to the speed performance, while moderate correlations occurred between the normalized strength variables (1RM Squat/kg and 1RM SquatAl and vertical jump (r = 0.310 and r = 0.308 / p < 0.05. The results obtained show greater correlation (r = 0.660 / p < 0.01 in the ability to deliver power when performing squat and mechanical work performed in vertical jumps. Outside and inside players were significantly different in three variables only: peak anaerobic power, body height and body weight.
Juan Carlos Ávalos Guillén
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of artificial turf (AT and natural grass (NG on the physical and technical performance of professional soccer players. A total of 17 healthy male soccer players (24.0 ± 4.1 years, height 174 ± 6.1 cm; body weight 73.4 ± 6.3 kg; body fat % 14.2 ± 2.3; VO2max 55.5 ± 5.3 ml/kg/min from a Costa Rican Professional Soccer League club were subjected to different tests in both types of surfaces (technical test, agility test, repeated sprint ability test, and a small-sided game [8 minutes, 32 x 32 meters, 5 vs. 5]. Players were monitored using a GPS in two sessions, separated by 48 hours, during the club’s pre-season. There were no significant differences between the two types of surfaces for the technical, agility, and repeated sprint ability tests. The physiological and kinematic variables analyzed during the small-sided game presented significant differences in average heart rate (NG = 168.5 ± 8.8, AT = 154.8 ± 11.8, p <.001, maximum heart rate (NG = 183.2 ± 8.3, AT = 175.9 ± 10.4, p =.02, body load (NG = 34.3 ± 11.2, AT = 30.5 ± 11.4, p =.03, and total impacts (NG = 230.1 ± 89.5, AT = 194. 8 ± 86.4, p=.03. It is concluded that playing on the natural grass surface caused more impact on physiological and perceived body load in players. In the case of technical variables, it is concluded that there were no statistically significant differences between the two types of surfaces (p <0.05.
Full Text Available Nikolaos E Androulakis,1 Nikolaos E Koundourakis,2 Eleni Nioti,1 Paraskevi Spatharaki,1 Despina Hatzisymeon,1 Ioannis Miminas,1 Michael G Alexandrakis1,3 1Hematology Laboratory, Iraklion University Hospital, Iraklion, Greece; 2Department of Clinical Chemistry-Biochemistry, 3Department of Hematology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Iraklion, Greece Aim: To examine whether a high volume of soccer-specific training can lead to endothelial activation and/or dysfunction in professional soccer players due to exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods: Twenty-three (15 nonsmokers and eight smokers healthy, elite male professional soccer players (mean age: 25.2±4.3 years, BMI: 23.1±1.3 kg/m2, fat: 7.8%±2.6% were selected for this study. All participants had a full clinical and laboratory evaluation. von Willebrand factor antigen (vWf Ag plasma levels were measured on two different occasions: 1 day before the beginning of the preseason preparation period and after 7 weeks of strenuous exercise. Results: Mean vWf Ag plasma levels were significantly decreased from 95.1%±26% to 88.3%±27.2% at the end of the experimental period (P=0.018, suggesting a potential beneficial effect on the endothelium of these athletes. Further analysis showed that age greater than 29 years with an age range from 29 to 34 years can not impair this effect (P>0.05. Conclusion: Strenuous exercise did not lead to endothelium activation or dysfunction in well-trained elite soccer players. On the contrary, it seemed to produce a beneficial effect on the endothelium of these players. Keywords: endothelium, strenuous exercise, smoking
Yildiz, Mustafa; Sahan, Hasan; Tekin, Murat; Ulukan, Mehmet; Mehtap, Bekir
The purpose of this study was to analyse the anger expression styles, the continuous anger and personality types of players who play football in the professional league. The research group consisted of 133 soccer players who are playing in sports teams in the Turkish Super League: Ankara Sport Club, Gençlerbirliği Sports Club and Hacettepe Sports Club in the first league, Turk Telekom sports in the second league, and Keçiören Gücü Sports and Ankarademir Sports playing in the third league in the 2008-2009 football season. The Eysenck personality inventory was modified to Turkish by Bayar in 1983, having been developed by Eysenck and Eysenck in 1975 and the continuous anger-anger style scale (SOTO) was modified to Turkish by Ozer in 1994. The state trait anger scale (STAS) was originally developed by Spielberger in 1983. All these were used on soccer players participating in the study to determine the continuous anger and anger styles in this study. In the interpretation of data, a meaningfulness of p < 0.05, was applied by using regression analysis, the Kruskal Wallis Test, the one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) test and the Tukey test to find the differences among the groups. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) programme was used to find the accounted values and to evaluate the data. According to the results of this study, regarding the education level variable, while there was a meaningful difference between the continuous anger sub-dimension and anger control sub-dimension than continuous anger-anger expression styles, no significant difference was found among personality type sub-dimensions (psychoticism, extrovert, neurotic, false). In addition, a significant relationship was found between psychoticism, extrovert, neurotic, and lie sub-dimensions and the personality type sub-dimensions of professional players' constant anger-anger expression styles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic chondral lesions of the knee are common in football and rugby players. The diagnosis is often confirmed by arthroscopy which can be therapeutic by performing microfracture. Prospective information about the clinical results after microfracture is still limited. Aim To evaluate the short-term outcome of microfractured lesions in professional football ad rugby players in terms of healing and ability to return to play. Methods Twenty-four consecutive professional male players with isolated full-thickness articular cartilage defects on weight-bearing surface of femoral condyles were treated with microfracture. Clinical assessment of healing was done at three, six, 12 and at 18 months by using modified Cincinnati subjective and objective functional scoring. All 24 subjects were periodically scanned by 3-Tesla MRI on the day of the clinical evaluations and scored by the Henderson MRI classification for cartilage healing. A second look arthroscopy was carried out in 10 players five to seven months after surgery to evaluate lesion healing by using ICRS scoring system. This was done due to presence of discrepancy between a "normal" MRI and persistent clinical symptoms. Results This study showed that 83.3% of players' resume full training between five to seven months (mean: 6.2 after microfracture of full-thickness chondral lesions of weight-bearing surface of the knee. Function and MRI knee scores of the 24 subjects gradually improved over 18 months, and showed good correlation in assessing healing after microfracture at six, 12 and 18 months (r2 = 0.993, 0.986 and 0.993, respectively however, the second look arthroscopy score proved to have stronger strength of association with function score than MRI score. Conclusion We confirmed that microfracture is a safe and effective procedure in treating isolated traumatic chondral lesions of the load-bearing areas of the knee. Healing as defined by subjective symptoms and evaluated
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and usefulness of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT in professional male and female futsal players. Thirteen male (24.4 ± 5.6 years; 174.5 ± 10.3 cm; 70.3 ± 9.9 kg and fourteen female (23.3 ± 4.5 years; 165.8 ± 6.2 cm; 61.7 ± 5.5 kg professional futsal players performed the 30-15IFT on two occasions, separated by 5 days. Maximal intermittent running velocity (VIFT and heart rate at exhaustion (HRpeak data were collected for both tests. Reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, typical error (TE expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV, and smallest worthwhile change (SWC. VIFT demonstrated very good reliability between sessions, both for male (ICC = 0.92 and female (ICC = 0.96 players. As the TE for VIFT and HRpeak was similar to the calculated SWC for both male and female players, the usefulness of the test was rated as “medium”. A change in performance of at least 2 stages in male players, or a change of more than 1 stage in female players could be interpreted as a meaningful change in aerobic futsal fitness. The results of this study demonstrate that the 30-15IFT is both a reliable and useful test for male and female professional futsal players.
Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P
During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberto Dantas de Queiroz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used.METHOD: this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18-30. The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13-28. The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport.RESULTS: five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven-nine. All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied, taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up.CONCLUSION: the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative
Full Text Available Abstract The complete isolated rupture of the popliteus tendon has been described as a rare injury and this report describes the case of a 31-year-old soccer player who sustained a partial rupture of the popliteus tendon during a game. The injury was suspected clinically and at MRI but confirmed only by the arthroscopic examination. The treatment consisted in open debridment with no tendon repair or augmentation. Seven weeks post-operation the patient was symptom-free and returned to competitive professional soccer at the same preinjury level. The clinical and arthroscopic findings of the case reported suggest a possible overuse disease with degenerative expression.
Moreno-Pérez, Victor; Moreside, Janice; Barbado, David; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J
A glenohumeral internal rotation deficit of the dominant shoulder relative to the non-dominant shoulder (GIRD) is considered a risk factor for shoulder injury in overhead athletes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether professional tennis players with a history of self-reported shoulder pain show differences in rotation range of motion (ROM) of the dominant and non-dominant shoulder compared to asymptomatic controls. Forty-seven professional tennis players belonging to the Association of Tennis Professionals World Tour took part in the study: 19 with shoulder pain history and 28 without. Passive shoulder ROM was measured using a process of photography and software calculation of angles. The dominant shoulder had reduced internal rotation (IR) ROM and total rotation ROM, and increased external rotation (ER) ROM compared to the non-dominant side. These differences did not correlate significantly with years of tennis practice, years of professional play, nor the players' age. However, glenohumeral rotation ROMs correlated negatively with the duration of tennis practice and players' age. Although tennis players with shoulder pain history showed less IR ROM in both shoulders compared with the no-pain group, no significant differences between groups were found for ER ROM, side-to-side ROM asymmetries, years of tennis practice or years of professional play. In professional tennis players, limited IR ROM rather than a GIRD, seems to be associated with shoulder pain history, duration of tennis practice and the players' age, when compared to a similar cohort with no history of shoulder pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gil, Susana María; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Aduna, Badiola; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Granados, Cristina
Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the talent identification process of a professional soccer club. A preselection of players (n = 64) aged 9-10 years and a final selection (n = 21) were performed by the technical staff through the observation during training sessions and matches. Also, 34 age-matched players of an open soccer camp (CampP) acted as controls. All participants underwent anthropometric, maturity and performance measurements. Preselected outfield players (OFs) were older and leaner than CampP (P < 0.05). Besides, they performed better in velocity, agility, endurance and jump tests (P < 0.05). A discriminant analysis showed that velocity and agility were the most important parameters. Finally, selected OFs were older and displayed better agility and endurance compared to the nonselected OFs (P < 0.05). Goalkeepers (GKs) were taller and heavier and had more body fat than OFs; also, they performed worse in the physical tests (P < 0.05). Finally, selected GKs were older and taller, had a higher predicted height and advanced maturity and performed better in the handgrip (dynamometry) and jump tests (P < 0.05). Thus, the technical staff selected OFs with a particular anthropometry and best performance, particularly agility and endurance, while GKs had a different profile. Moreover, chronological age had an important role in the whole selection process.
Shahim, Pashtun; Linemann, Thomas; Inekci, Dilek; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Blennow, Kaj; Tegner, Yelverton; Zetterberg, Henrik; Henriksen, Kim
The diagnosis of sports-related concussion is mainly based on subjective clinical symptoms and neuropsychological tests. Therefore, reliable brain injury biomarkers to assess when it is safe to return to play are highly desirable. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of two newly described tau fragments for diagnosis and prognosis of sports-related concussions. This multi-center prospective cohort study involved all 12 teams of the top professional ice hockey league in Sweden. A total of 288 players consented to participate in the study. Thirty-five players sustained concussions, of whom 28 underwent repeated blood samplings at 1, 12, 36, and 144 h after the trauma, or when the player returned to play (7 to >90 days). There was no significant increase in the levels of Tau-A in post-concussion samples compared with preseason values. However, serum levels of Tau-C were significantly higher in post-concussion samples compared with preseason. Further, levels of Tau-A correlated with the duration of post-concussive symptoms. Tau-A in serum, which is newly discovered biomarker, could be used to predict when it is safe to return to play after a sports-related concussion.
De Oliveira Bueno, Murilo José; Caetano, Fabio Giuliano; Pereira, Tiago Julio Costa; De Souza, Nicolau Melo; Moreira, Gustavo Damasceno; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Cunha, Sergio Augusto; Moura, Felipe Arruda
The purpose of this study was to measure and characterise the distances covered by Brazilian professional futsal players. The trajectories of 93 players during five matches were obtained using an automatic tracking method. The distances covered were analysed for different game conditions: over the entire game and during the times when the ball was out of play and in play separately. When the entire game was considered, the results showed that there was a reduction in the total distance covered per minute from the first [median ± IQR (interquartile range): 97.9 ± 16.2 m/min] to the second half (median = 90.3 m/min; IQR = 12.0), and when only the in-play time was considered (first half: 136.6 ± 17.2 m/min; second half: 129.2 ± 16.7 m/min). The percentage of distance covered in the standing and walking velocity range was higher in the second half than in the first when considering the entire game (30.8% and 28.0%, respectively) and during the in-play time (19.3% and 16.2%, respectively). In conclusion, this study verified that futsal players reduced the physical performance during the second half.
Rey, Ezequiel; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Lago-Ballesteros, Joaquín
Tensiomyography is a non-invasive method of neuromuscular assessment used to measure muscle action characteristics, muscle tone, and muscle fiber type, and provides information on acute and chronic responses of muscle to different training loads. The aims of the present study were: to analyse differences in muscle response and mechanical characteristics of two major muscles of the lower extremity in a large group of Spanish soccer players according to playing position, and to provide group norms against which clinical findings may be compared. Data were collected from 78 professional soccer players (age 26.6 ± 4.4 years; height: 179.2 ± 5.3 cm; body mass: 75.8 ± 5.3 kg). Tensiomyography was recorded from the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles after 2 days without take part in any strenuous exercise or training. Five tensiomyographic parameters were analyzed: maximal displacement (D(m)), contraction time (T(c)), sustain time (T(s)), delay time (T(d)), and half-relaxation time (T(r)). A good to excellent intra-session reliability was found for all contractile parameters (ICC ranged from 0.78 to 0.95). No significant differences between players of any position were observed in absolute values of BF. However, significant differences were observed for T(c), T(r) and T(s) between the different playing positions on RF (P muscles with ability to rapidly generate force during contractions. The neuromuscular profile provided could help in identifying the normative data that are important for the different positions in order to optimize the training and recovery process of each individual player. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsoufi, Anastasia; Maraki, Maria I; Dimitrakopoulos, Leonidas; Famisis, Konstantinos; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G
Literature suggests that dietary intake of elite athletes may differ between training and competition days. In addition, despite the importance of nutrition in sports and the popularity of basketball, studies on the diet of basketball players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess dietary intake and diet quality in training and competition days in a team of elite basketball players receiving daily professional nutritional counseling. One elite basketball team (N.=15) participating in EuroLeague volunteered for the study. The team employed a certified dietitian, responsible for providing individualized nutritional evaluation and counseling, dietary planning and supervision of the diet of all the players. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was then calculated. All players exhibited adequate (i.e., >80) HEI score (raw and adjusted for energy intake [EI]), on both training and competition days. Although daily energy, carbohydrate and protein intakes were greater during training compared to competition days (26.0 [21.7, 26.4] vs. 19.5 [19.3, 22.1] MJ, 7.6±1.5 vs. 6.8±0.9 g/kg of body weight [BW] and 2.6±0.6 vs. 2.2±0.2 g/kg BW, respectively; all Pcompetition days (92.9 [82.1, 93.2] vs. 94.0 [94.0, 94.0] and 89.7 [88.4, 89.7] vs. 92.7 [91.7, 92.8], respectively; all P≤0.001) due to lower total grains, whole grains and total vegetables consumption and greater saturated fats consumption (Pcompetition days.
Kousoulis, Antonis A; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Tsiodras, Sotirios
Although influenza may be propagated in innumerable occasions and daily situations involving exposure, basketball may create many chances for close contact in which influenza could spread. This study aims to quantify and assess the impact of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic among professional basketball players. A multi-step strategy was followed to gather the relevant data during the 2009-10 basketball season. Possible risk factors were recorded; logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of the former. Where data were only available in the press, cases were also verified by subsequent communication with the national basketball federations. Relevant data were available for 18 countries (218 teams, 3,024 players). In all, 52 H1N1 cases in 19 teams were reported. A larger number of players presented as a risk factor for the emergence of H1N1 cases to a borderline extent (Odds Ratio, OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.00-1.41, p 0.056). A borderline association also implicated the population of the city-basis (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, p 0.094). On the other hand, no significant association with risk of H1N1 emergence was demonstrated regarding latitude and longitude of the city-basis. Even in environments where the best possible preventive and other medical care is provided influenza continues to be a threat. The microenvironment (crowding index, players per team) seemed to represent the most meaningful predictor regarding H1N1 emergence in a basketball team.
Stubbe, Janine H.; van Beijsterveldt, Anne-Marie M. C.; van der Knaap, Sissi; Stege, Jasper; Verhagen, Evert A.; van Mechelen, Willem; Backx, Frank J. G.
Context: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Dutch premier soccer league. Patients or Other Participants: During the 2009–2010 soccer season, a total of 217 professional soccer players from 8 teams were prospectively followed. Main Outcome Measure(s): The medical staff recorded time-loss injuries, including information on injuries (ie, type, body part, duration) and exposure data for training sessions and matches. Results: A total of 286 injuries were recorded, affecting 62.7% of the players. The overall injury incidence was 6.2 injuries per 1000 player-hours, 2.8 in training sessions and 32.8 in matches. Most of the recorded injuries were acute (68.5%). Eight percent of the injuries were classified as recurrent. Injuries were most likely to be located in the lower extremities (82.9%). Injury time loss ranged from 1 to 752 days, with a median of 8 days. Knee injuries had the greatest consequences in terms of days of absence from soccer play (on average, 45 days). The most common diagnosis was muscle/tendon injury of the lower extremities (32.9%). Conclusions: Injury risk in the Dutch premier soccer league is high, especially during matches. Preventive measures should focus on the most common diagnoses, namely, muscle/tendon injuries of the lower extremities. PMID:25531144
Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 The overall purpose of this thesis is to identify characteristics that may explain why some players manage to progress to professional football while others do not. Specifically, I focused in this thesis on practice engagement characteristics throughout the career of male Norwegian elite youth and senior football players, and how such engagement relates to recommendations arising from prior research. The main research question for the ...
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J
Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders in professional ice hockey is lacking. Consequently, the primary aims of the study were to (i) determine the prevalence, comorbidity and 6-month incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol use, eating disorders) among current and retired professional ice hockey players and (ii) evaluate their potential relation with potential stressors (severe musculoskeletal injuries, surgeries, recent life events, career dissatisfaction). A prospective cohort study with a 6-month follow-up period was conducted. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders (thus not clinically diagnosed) as well as several stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by the national ice hockey players' unions from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Switzerland. Prevalence ranged from 8% for adverse alcohol use to 24% for anxiety/depression among current professional ice hockey players, and from 12% for distress to 29% for adverse alcohol among retired professional ice hockey players. Six-month incidence reached up to 22% for eating disorders among current players and 25% for sleep disturbance among retired players. Especially a higher number of surgeries, a higher number of recent life events and higher level of career dissatisfaction was related to symptoms of common mental disorders. Our findings indicate that adequate interventions should be developed to improve not only awareness and psychological resilience of both current and retired ice hockey players but also their performance and quality-of-life. An interdisciplinary approach should be applied in the medical care of ice hockey players by including psychologists/psychiatrists who can provide psychotherapeutic or clinical interventions.
Menge, Travis J; Bhatia, Sanjeev; McNamara, Shannen C; Briggs, Karen K; Philippon, Marc J
Previous studies have shown hip arthroscopy to be a highly effective treatment for symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in a wide range of athletes; however, the rate of return to play and length of career after hip arthroscopy in professional football players are unknown. To determine how many athletes returned to professional football and the number of seasons they played after surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-one professional football players (60 hips) underwent hip arthroscopy for FAI between 2000 and 2014 by a single surgeon. Return to play was defined as competing in a preseason or regular season professional football game after surgery. Data were retrospectively obtained for each player from NFL.com , ESPN.com , individual team websites, and/or CFL.ca . We found that 87% (52/60) of the arthroscopic procedures allowed professional football players to return to play in a preseason or regular season game. Athletes who returned played an average of 38 games during 3.2 seasons after arthroscopy, with an average total career length of 7.4 seasons. Ninety-two percent (48/52) of players who returned had a minimum total career length of 3 years. When participants were analyzed by position, linemen were less likely to return after hip arthroscopy compared with other players (odds ratio 5.6; 95% CI, 1.1-35; P = .04). All quarterbacks and tight ends returned to play after surgery. No significant difference in return to play rate was found between athletes who underwent microfracture and those who did not (25% vs 38%, P = .698). Hip arthroscopy for treatment of FAI and associated pathologic abnormalities in professional football players resulted in a high rate of return to play. The study's findings demonstrate that 87% of the arthroscopic procedures allowed professional football players to return to play, linemen were less likely to return compared with other positions, and the presence of microfracture did not significantly affect the return
Fessi, Mohamed S; Farhat, Fayçal; Dellal, Alexandre; Malone, James J; Moalla, Wassim
The present study aimed to investigate the difference between straight-line (STL) and change of direction (COD) intermittent running exercises in soccer players. Seventeen male professional soccer players performed the agility T-test and 6 intermittent running exercises: 10s at 130% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS) alternated with 10s of rest (10-10), 15s at 120% of MAS alternated with 15s of rest (15-15) and 30s at 110% of MAS alternated with 30s of rest (30-30) both in STL and with COD. All exercises were monitored using a global positioning system. Heart rate was measured during exercises and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was collected post-exercise. Delta (Δ) between covered distance in STL and COD exercises at a similar load was calculated and relationships between T-test and Δ distance were analysed. COD intermittent exercises showed a significantly decreased distance covered and an increased number of accelerations, heart rate peak and RPE value compared to STL intermittent exercises at a similar load. High relationships were observed between T-test performance and Δ distance in 10-10 (r = 0.72, P distance in 30-30 (r = -0.37, P = 0.2). Intermittent COD exercises were associated with higher acceleration, heart rate peak and RPE compared to STL during 10-10 and 15-15 exercises. The ability to rapidly change direction is a crucial quality to perform intense sport-specific running in professional soccer players.
Seabra, Pedro; Van Eck, Carola F; Sá, Márcia; Torres, João
Overhead athletes, such as baseball players, have been shown to have adaptive changes in the shoulder range of motion (ROM) of their dominant arm. Professional handball players are a unique subtype of overhead athletes with very different demands from baseball players. The aim of this study was to determine if professional handball players demonstrate differences in shoulder ROM between their dominant and non-dominant arm and try to relate them with new variables. Fifty professional male handball players were included and completed a questionnaire regarding age at which they started to play, number of hours they practice a week, field position and arm dominance. ROM measurements were performed including forward flexion (FF), external rotation with the shoulder in abduction (ABER) and with adducted arm (ADER) and internal rotation with shoulder in abduction (IR). Statistical analysis was performed to determine differences in ROM between the dominant and non-dominant shoulder and if there is a relationship between these differences and shoulder load or field position. The dominant arm showed decreased internal rotation (47 vs. 56 degrees, p handball players with a first line position have a significant risk for developing a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, similar to the phenomenon seen in baseball pitchers.
Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea
Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.
Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Sperling, John W; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe
This study tested the hypothesis that infraspinatus strength in professional volleyball players can be assessed with the scapula free (infraspinatus strength test, IST) and with the scapula retracted (infraspinatus scapula retraction test, ISRT) before and after scapular musculature training. A prospective study was performed in 31 professional volleyball players. Isometric strength (kg) of the infraspinatus with IST and with ISRT was recorded by a handheld dynamometer and compared with the values found after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to exclude articular and cuff pathology. Pain scores were assessed using a visual analog scale. The mean increase in the force values of IST was statistically significant after 3 months (P biomechanic effect of scapular dyskinesis results in specific infraspinatus dysfunction that arise with the ISRT. ISRT is practical and consistent to assess the infraspinatus strength in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis. A functional rehabilitation protocol, designed to restore scapular muscles balance and shoulder mobility, is essential in the training program to prevent shoulder dysfunction and improve sports performance. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Archiza, Bruno; Andaku, Daniela Kuguimoto; Caruso, Flávia Cristina Rossi; Bonjorno, José Carlos; Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo de; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Amaral, André Capaldo do; Mattiello, Stela Márcia; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto; Phillips, Shane A; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey
This study was conducted to determine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory and peripheral muscles oxygenation during a maximal exercise tolerance test and on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) performance in professional women football players. Eighteen athletes were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: SHAM (n = 8) or IMT (n = 10). After a maximal incremental exercise test, all participants performed (on a different day) a time-to-exhaustion (Tlim) test. Peripheral and respiratory muscles oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy, breath-by-breath ventilatory and metabolic variables, and blood lactate concentration were measured. The RSA test was performed on a grass field. After a 6 week intervention, all athletes were reevaluated. Both groups showed increases in inspiratory muscles strength, exercise tolerance and RSA performance, however only the IMT group presented lower deoxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin blood concentrations on intercostal muscles concomitantly to an increased oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin blood concentrations on vastus lateralis muscle during Tlim. In conclusion, these results may indicate the potential role of IMT to attenuate inspiratory muscles metaboreflex and consequently improve oxygen and blood supply to limb muscles during high-intensity exercise, with a potential impact on inspiratory muscle strength, exercise tolerance and sprints performance in professional women football players.
Arcos, Asier Los; Martínez-Santos, Raul; Yanci, Javier; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Méndez-Villanueva, Alberto
The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of the rating of perceived exertion training load for monitoring changes in several aerobic fitness and neuromuscular performance variables during 9 weeks of soccer training in young professional players. Nineteen male soccer players (20.2 ± 1.9 years) belonging to the same reserve team of a Spanish La Liga Club participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ), CMJ arm swing, single leg CMJ, a sprint running test (i.e., 5 m and 15 m times) and an aerobic fitness running test were performed at the start of the pre-season (Test 1) and 9 weeks later (Test 2). During 9 weeks, after each training session and match, players reported their rating of perceived exertion (RPE) separately for respiratory (RPEres) and leg musculature (RPEmus) effort. The training load (TL) was calculated by multiplying the RPE value by the duration in minutes of each training session or match. Accumulated RPEmus, and associated TL, as well as accumulated training volume were negatively correlated with the changes in most physical fitness attributes after 9 weeks of training (r = -0.51 to -0.64). Present results suggest that a high perception of leg muscular effort associated with training sessions and matches, as well as an excessive accumulation of training volume (time), can impair the improvement in several physical fitness variables believed to be relevant for on-field soccer performance. Therefore, the independent assessment of leg muscular effort to quantify TL can be an interesting additional monitoring measure in soccer training. Key pointsThe purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of the perceived exertion-derived TL for monitoring changes in several aerobic fitness and neuromuscular parameters during 9 weeks of soccer training in young professional players.A high perception of leg muscular effort associated with training and matches, as well as an excessive accumulation of training volume (time), can impair
Full Text Available Kicking and cutting skills in soccer are clearly unilateral, require asymmetrical motor patterns and lead to the development of asymmetrical adaptations in the musculoskeletal function of the lower limbs. Assuming that these adaptations constitute a chronicity-dependent process, this study examined the effects of professional training age (PTA on the composite strength profile of the knee and ankle joint in soccer players. One hundred soccer players (n=100 with short (5-7 years, intermediate (8-10 years and long (>11 years PTA were tested bilaterally for isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength of the knee and ankle muscles. Knee flexion-extension was tested concentrically at 60°, 180° and 300 °/sec and eccentrically at 60° and 180 °/sec. Ankle dorsal and plantar flexions were tested at 60 °/sec for both the concentric and eccentric mode of action. Bilaterally averaged muscle strength [(R+L/2] increased significantly from short training age to intermediate and stabilized afterwards. These strength adaptations were mainly observed at the concentric function of knee extensors at 60°/sec (p = 0. 023, knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.042 and 180°/sec (p = 0.036, and ankle plantar flexors at 60o/sec (p = 0.044. A linear trend of increase in isokinetic strength with PTA level was observed for the eccentric strength of knee flexors at 60°/sec (p = 0.02 and 180°/sec (p = 0.03. Directional (R/L asymmetries decreased with PTA, with this being mainly expressed in the concentric function of knee flexors at 180°/sec (p = 0.04 and at 300 °/sec (p = 0.03. These findings confirm the hypothesis of asymmetry in the strength adaptations that take place at the knee and ankle joint of soccer players mainly along with short and intermediate PTA. Players with a longer PTA seem to adopt a more balanced use of their lower extremities to cope with previously developed musculoskeletal asymmetries and possibly reduce injury risk. This has certain
Pereira, Tiago Julio Costa; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; de Jesus, Mayra Tardelli; Vieira, Claudio Luís Roveri; Misuta, Milton Shoiti; de Barros, Ricardo Machado Leite; Moura, Felipe Arruda
The purpose of this study was to analyse the physical and technical performances of professional tennis players during official matches. The trajectories of eight players were obtained during matches, using an automatic tracking method. The distances covered and technical performances were analysed for the first and second sets. The athletes covered (mean ± standard deviation) a total of 1702.4 ± 448.2 m in the first set, 1457.6 ± 678.1 m in the second set and 3160.0 ± 880.1 in the entire match. No differences were found between the sets for the physical variables (lateral and forward displacements, distance covered per rally, per game and per set, and the percentage of time spent in each range of velocity). However, the distances covered by the athletes during the rallies in which they were serving (median = 5.2; interquartile range (IQR) = 6.7 m) were statistically smaller than when they were returning (median = 6.2; IQR = 7.7 m). Forehand ground stroke proficiency decreased from the first (mean ± standard deviation: 75.2 ± 4.11%) to the second set (mean ± standard deviation = 65.5 ± 14.3%). In conclusion, tennis players did not present reduced physical performance from the first to the second set.
Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua
Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus
Cavlica, Başak; Bereket Yücel, Selda; Darçin, Nurten; Mirzai, Idil Tekin; Erbüyün, Koray
The main purpose of this study was to investigate pain perception of the professional volleyball players at rest and maximal cardiovascular stresses during different phases of menstruation. Thirteen volleyball players from Celal Bayar University were used as the participants of the study. At rest, anthropometric measurements, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were determined. Then, pain tolerance and pain threshold were measured by sphygmomanometer that placed upper part of the arm. Visual Analog Scales (VAS) was used to grade the pain. At the 2nd (menstrual phase) and 14th (ovulation phase) days of menstrual cycle, oxygen consumption (VO(2)), heart rate (KA), blood lactate (KL) pain perception and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken during two incremental maximal exercises testing. Statistical analysis of this study indicated that at rest pain tolerance and threshold values of the volleyball players were significantly higher during menstruation phase compared to ovulation phase. Also, VO(2) and KL measurements taken at the high intensities during 2nd day of mensturation were statistically higher than that of measurements were done at 14th day of mensturation. Moreover, pain perception of the participants that was measured during 2nd day of menstruation was significantly lower than that of measurements during the 14th days of menstruation (p<0.05). According to results of regression analysis, RPE and KL were two dependent variables that were statistically related to pain perception during two different phases of menstruation. As a conclusion due to the decrease in pain perception, the intensity of the training could be increased during menstruation period.
Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate
Asier Los Arcos, Raul Martínez-Santos, Javier Yanci, Jurdan Mendiguchia, Alberto Méndez-Villanueva
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of the rating of perceived exertion training load for monitoring changes in several aerobic fitness and neuromuscular performance variables during 9 weeks of soccer training in young professional players. Nineteen male soccer players (20.2 ± 1.9 years belonging to the same reserve team of a Spanish La Liga Club participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ, CMJ arm swing, single leg CMJ, a sprint running test (i.e., 5 m and 15 m times and an aerobic fitness running test were performed at the start of the pre-season (Test 1 and 9 weeks later (Test 2. During 9 weeks, after each training session and match, players reported their rating of perceived exertion (RPE separately for respiratory (RPEres and leg musculature (RPEmus effort. The training load (TL was calculated by multiplying the RPE value by the duration in minutes of each training session or match. Accumulated RPEmus, and associated TL, as well as accumulated training volume were negatively correlated with the changes in most physical fitness attributes after 9 weeks of training (r = -0.51 to -0.64. Present results suggest that a high perception of leg muscular effort associated with training sessions and matches, as well as an excessive accumulation of training volume (time, can impair the improvement in several physical fitness variables believed to be relevant for on-field soccer performance. Therefore, the independent assessment of leg muscular effort to quantify TL can be an interesting additional monitoring measure in soccer training.
Racinais, Sebastien; Buchheit, Martin; Bilsborough, Johann; Bourdon, Pitre C; Cordy, Justin; Coutts, Aaron J
To examine the physiological and performance responses to a heat-acclimatization camp in highly trained professional team-sport athletes. Eighteen male Australian Rules Football players trained for 2 wk in hot ambient conditions (31-33°C, humidity 34-50%). Players performed a laboratory-based heat-response test (24-min walk + 24 min seated; 44°C), a YoYo Intermittent Recovery Level 2 Test (YoYoIR2; indoor, temperate environment, 23°C) and standardized training drills (STD; outdoor, hot environment, 32°C) at the beginning and end of the camp. The heat-response test showed partial heat acclimatization (eg, a decrease in skin temperature, heart rate, and sweat sodium concentration, P test (r = -.52, 90%CI [-.77; -.12]). There was no clear correlation between the performance improvements in temperate and hot ambient conditions (r < .26). Running performance in both hot and temperate environments was improved after a football training camp in hot ambient conditions that stimulated heat acclimatization. However, physiological and performance responses were highly individual, and the absence of correlations between physical-performance improvements in hot and temperate environments suggests that their physiological basis might differ.
Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls) of professional soccer players (n=6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the pre-match (0.05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for pre-match CHO intake and post-match recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (Plunch (0.6 g.kg(-1))>breakfast (0.3 g.kg(-1))>evening snacks (0.1 g.kg(-1)). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the pre-match and post-match meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen re-synthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.
Schwesig, René; Hermassi, Souhail; Fieseler, Georg; Irlenbusch, Lars; Noack, Frank; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel
The aims of the study were to examine the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional handball players classified by playing position. Twenty-one competitors (age: 25.2±5.1 years) were categorized as backs, pivots, wings or goalkeepers. Measures included anthropometrics (body height and mass), scores on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (total distance covered, TD), repeated-sprint ability (6 repetitions of 2x15-m shuttle sprints with recording of best time for a single trial, RSAbest) and performance on a complex handball test (HBKT) of throw slap (TS) and throw jump (TJ) with and without precision. The anthropometric data revealed a significantly lower body height for wings and pivots than for goalkeepers. Wings, pivots and goalkeepers were significantly shorter than backs, but had a similar BMI. The TD was greater for the wings (2.400 m) than for backs (1.832 m) and pivots (2.067m). Wings also achieved a better RSAbest (5.41 s) than backs (5.68 s) or pivots (5.82 s). Body height was significantly related to throw slap (TS) and jump (JT) (r=0.53, Phandball players by modifying both intermittent aerobic and anaerobic endurance components of training sessions.
Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C
The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical fitness of professional Bosnian basketball players (n = 38 and shooting accuracy during one basketball season. A related, secondary aim was to examine relationships between basketball shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. Physical fitness components included: muscular endurance and aerobic endurance, lower and upper-body power, speed, agility, anaerobic capacity and anaerobic power. The specific basketball shooting accuracy was assessed by stationary and dynamic shooting assessments. Competitive shooting accuracy was represented by data collected during one basketball season for each player (free throw, field goal, and three-point %. Results of the regression analyses showed that there were significant positive relationships among shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. The relationship was stronger when the dynamic shooting tests were applied compared to the stationary tests. However, few or weak relationships existed among physical fitness components and competitive shooting accuracy. Only the power tests showed to be good predictors for shooting over longer distances. The findings support the inclusion of the dynamic basketball shooting accuracy tests in regular basketball assessment procedures as a valuable testing instrument.
Morcillo, Jose A; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Victor; Lozano, Emilio; Ortega-Becerra, Manuel; Párraga, Juan
This study analyzed the acute metabolic and mechanical responses to a specific repeated sprint ability (RSA) test. Eighteen male professional soccer players from a team of the First Division of Spanish National League participated. A 12 × 30-m RSA test with 30-second recovery together with countermovement jump test (CMJ) pre a post RSA test was performed. Mechanical responses (i.e., height performance in CMJ and speed loss) and metabolic responses (i.e., blood lactate and ammonia concentrations) were measured before and after exercise. A related sample t-test was used to analyze CMJ height pre-post changes as well as to compare pre- and post-exercise lactate and ammonia levels. Countermovement jump height loss pre-post session (8%) was significant, and fatigue, measured as CMJ height loss, was strongly correlated to lactate (r = 0.97; p < 0.001) and ammonia (r = 0.92; p < 0.001) for all players. The relationships between the variables studied were determined by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficients. The metabolic stress developed during the effort can be estimated by controlling CMJ because of the high correlation between CMJ and blood lactate and ammonia concentrations. The high correlations found between mechanical (speed and CMJ height losses) and metabolic (lactate and ammonia) measures of fatigue highlight the utility and validity of using CMJ to monitor training load and quantify objectively neuromuscular fatigue during RSA.
Smith, Roger S; Efron, Bradley; Mah, Cheri D; Malhotra, Atul
We hypothesized that professional football teams would perform better than anticipated during games occurring close to their circadian peak in performance. We reviewed the past 40 years of evening and daytime professional football games between west coast and east coast United States teams. In order to account for known factors influencing football game outcomes we compared the results to the point spread which addresses all significant differences between opposing teams for sports betting purposes. One sample t-tests, Wilcoxon signed ranked tests, and linear regression were performed. Comparison to day game data was included as a control. Academic medical center. N/A. N/A. The results were strongly in favor of the west coast teams during evening games against east coast teams, with the west coast teams beating the point spread about twice as often (t = 3.95, P performance of elite athletes. Professional football players playing close to the circadian peak in performance demonstrate a significant athletic advantage over those who are playing at other times. Application of this knowledge is likely to enhance human performance.
Bailey, Daniel; Firth, Paul
To determine whether the bilateral application of kinesiology tape (KT) to professional footballers' ankles can improve their lower limb proprioception. A single blind randomised crossover study. Participants were randomly assigned to complete a proprioception test in either a taped or not taped condition first. Following a wash out period, participants were then re-tested in the alternate condition. A UK Championship League Football Club, mid-season. Twenty male professional football players over the age of 18, currently match fit with no injuries. Proprioception was assessed by participants undertaking the moving target program on the balance module attached to a Kin-Com 125AP isokinetic dynamometer. A paired sample two tailed t-test was used to assess whether there was a significant difference between the participants test scores in the not taped and taped conditions. The bilateral application of KT to professional footballers' ankles did not bring about a significant change in participants' scores when tested with a fine movement and balance control test. Percentage accuracy score mean difference 4.2 (p = 0.285). The results of this study do not support the use of KT when applied to the ankles of healthy footballers as a method of improving proprioception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kästner, Andreas; Braun, Markus; Meyer, Tim
We report 2 cases of enormously elevated creatine kinase (CK) activity after training with electromyostimulation (EMS) by 2 young male professional soccer players. In one of them, a single training session with EMS caused exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis with a maximal CK activity of 240 000 U/L. These cases illustrate that unaccustomed EMS exercise may be harmful and can cause rhabdomyolysis even in highly trained athletes and even after 1 single session. Thus, EMS has to be conducted carefully especially by individuals who are known to frequently show notable increases in CK activity even after modest training stimuli. We suggest that EMS should not be applied as sole training stimulus and should not be conducted by strength training beginners. Furthermore, we recommend controlling plasma CK activity and urine color for beginners with EMS when they report strong muscle ache. Athletes with signs of rhabdomyolysis after EMS should be brought to hospital for monitoring of renal function and possible further treatment.
Full Text Available Purpose: determination of correlation’s degree between speed, power and speed-power abilities of professional hockey players on ice and out of ice. Material: 65 professional hockey players of age from 16 to 33 years old were tested. 75 highly qualified coaches were questioned. Results: The found out interconnections between 11 indicators of speed, power and speed power qualities supplement knowledge about transfer physical qualities. We detected high interconnection between speed and speed-power abilities, manifested by sportsmen in exercises on ice and on land. We registered moderate level of interconnection between static (absolute power and speed abilities of hockey players. We proved hypothesis about possibility of start speed (power transfer in different conditions of its manifestation. Conclusions: the received data permit to correct hockey players’ training program, considering new knowledge about transfer of one or the other physical qualities on sportsmen’s training.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury.
Hänninen, Timo; Parkkari, Jari; Tuominen, Markku; Iverson, Grant L; Öhman, Juha; Vartiainen, Matti; Luoto, Teemu M
To examine test-retest reliability of the SCAT3 for two consecutive seasons using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players, and to make recommendations for interpreting change on the test. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Preseason baseline testing was administered in the beginning of the seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to 179 professional male hockey players in rink side settings. The test-retest reliabilities of the SCAT3 components were uniformly low. However, the majority of athletes remained grossly within their own individual performance range when two pre-season SCAT3 baseline scores were compared to published normative reference values. Being tested by the same person or a different person did not influence the results. It was uncommon for the Symptom score to worsen by ≥3 points, the Symptom Severity score to worsen by ≥5 points, SAC total score to worsen by ≥3 points, M-BESS total error points to increase by ≥3, or the time to complete Tandem Gait to increase by ≥4s; each occurred in less than 10% of the sample. The SCAT3 has low test-retest reliability. Change scores should be interpreted with caution, and more research is needed to determine the clinical usefulness of the SCAT3 for diagnosing concussion and monitoring recovery. Careful examination of the natural distributions of difference scores provides clinicians with useful information on how to interpret change on the test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aoki, Marcelo S; Ronda, Lorena T; Marcelino, Pablo R; Drago, Gustavo; Carling, Chris; Bradley, Paul S; Moreira, Alexandre
Aoki, MS, Ronda, LT, Marcelino, PR, Drago, G, Carling, C, Bradley, PS, and Moreira, A. Monitoring training loads in professional basketball players engaged in a periodized training program. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 348-358, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of external training load (eTL) and internal training load (iTL) during seasonal periods, and examine the effect of a periodized training program on physical performance in professional basketball players. Repeated measures for 9 players (28 ± 6 years; 199 ± 8 cm; 101 ± 12 kg) were collected from 45 training sessions, over a 6-week preseason phase and a 5-week in-season phase. Physical tests were conducted at baseline (T1), week 4 (T2), and week 9 (T3). Differences in means are presented as % ± confident limits. A very likely difference was observed during in-season compared with preseason for the eTL variables (measured by multivariable monitoring device), mechanical load (13.5 ± 8.8) and peak acceleration (11.0 ± 11.2), respectively. Regarding iTL responses, a very large decrement in TRIMP (most likely difference, -20.6 ± 3.8) and in session rating of perceived exertion training load (very likely difference, -14.2 ± 9.0) was detected from preseason to in-season. Physical performance improved from T1 to T3 for Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test 1 (62.2 ± 34.3, effect size [ES] > 1.2); countermovement jump (8.8 ± 6.1, ES > 0.6); and squat jump (14.8 ± 10.2, ES > 0.8). Heart rate (HR; %HRpeak) exercise responses during a submaximal running test decreased from T1 to T3 (3.2 ± 4.3, ES 1.2). These results provide valuable information to coaches about training loads and physical performance across different seasonal periods. The data demonstrate that both eTL and iTL measures should be monitored in association with physical tests, to provide a comprehensive understanding of the training process.
Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi Babatunde Alex; Aiyegbusi, Ayoola Ibifubara; Fapojuwo, Oluwaseun Akinleye; Badru, Oluwaseun Abdulganiyu; Babalola, Anike Rasheedat
Research on the epidemiology of football injuries in Africa is very sparse despite its importance for injury prevention planning in a continent with limited sports medicine resources. The vast majority of studies available in literature were conducted in Europe and only a very few studies have prospectively reported the pattern of football injury in Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and pattern of injuries in a cohort of male and female semi-professional football players in Nigeria. A prospective cohort design was conducted, in which a total of 756 players with an age range of 18-32 years (356 males and 300 females) from 22 different teams (12 male and 10 female teams), were prospectively followed in a National Football Tournament. Physiotherapists recorded team exposure and injuries. Injuries were documented using the consensus protocol for data collection in studies relating to football injury surveillance. An overall incidence of 113.4 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 93.7-136.0) equivalent to 3.7 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 15.6 injuries/1000 h were recorded for male players and 65.9 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 48.9-86.8) equivalent to 2.2 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 7.9 injuries/1000 h were recorded for female players. Male players had a significantly higher risk of injuries [IRR = 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.45)]. Injuries mostly affected the lower extremity for both genders (n = 81, 70% and n = 31, 62% for males and females respectively). Lower leg contusion (n = 22, 19%) and knee sprain (n = 9, 18%) were the most common specific injury types for male and female players respectively. Most of the injuries were as a result of contact with another player (n = 102, 88%-males; n = 48, 96%-females). Time-loss injuries were mostly estimated as minimal (n = 11, 69%) for male players and severe (n = 4, 66%) for female players. The overall incidence of injuries among Nigerian semi-professional football
Knapik, Derrick M; Trem, Anthony; Sheehan, Joseph; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E
High ankle "syndesmosis" injuries are common in American football players relative to the general population. At the professional level, syndesmotic sprains represent a challenging and unique injury lacking a standardized rehabilitation protocol during conservative management. PubMed, Biosis Preview, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms syndesmotic injuries, American football, conservative management, and rehabilitation. Clinical review. Level 3. When compared with lateral ankle sprains, syndesmosis injuries result in significantly prolonged recovery times and games lost. For stable syndesmotic injuries, conservative management features a brief period of immobilization and protected weightbearing followed by progressive strengthening exercises and running, and athletes can expect to return to competition in 2 to 6 weeks. Further research investigating the efficacy of dry needling and blood flow restriction therapy is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these techniques in the rehabilitation process. Successful conservative management of stable syndesmotic injuries in professional American football athletes requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy, injury mechanisms, diagnosis, and rehabilitation strategies utilized in elite athletes.
Balaban, Mehtap; Idilman, Ilkay S; Ipek, Ali; Ikiz, Sinem Sigit; Bektaser, Bulent; Gumus, Mehmet
Elastography is a new sonographic technique that evaluates the elasticity of different tissues such as the Achilles tendon. In this study, we aimed to investigate the elastographic findings of Achilles tendons in professional athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers. Twenty-one professional male volleyball players with no history of Achilles trauma were included in this study. Twenty-one healthy male volunteers with similar ages and body mass indices were selected as control participants. All participants underwent sonographic and elastographic evaluations of the Achilles tendons to evaluate Achilles tendon thickness and stiffness. We observed thickening in many of the thirds of the Achilles tendons (right proximal, right middle, left middle, and left distal thirds) of athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers. We did not detect any abnormalities according to the sonographic evaluations in both athletes and healthy volunteers. In the elastographic evaluations, we observed softening in the middle thirds of the Achilles tendons of athletes according to the main types (P < .001) and subtypes (P < .001 for right; and P = .002 for left middle third). There was no difference observed in the elastographic evaluations of the proximal and distal thirds. On sonography and elastography, we observed thickening and softening in Achilles tendons of athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers who had similar ages and body mass indices. These changes could be associated with early tendon degeneration. Further longitudinal studies may support this consideration. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
O. V. Chernev
Full Text Available Any physical activity is accompanied by speed changing of metabolic processes in the organism, peculiar changing of their directivities and accordingly, the emergence of biochemical changes in the muscles that perform work, in the internal organs, as well as in blood system. Aim. To determine the changes that occur in blood plasma of professional footballers during continuous physical activity, 84 professional players were examined. Methods and results. We have determined the direction and peculiarity of the cumulative effect of the impact of physical activity on changes in the blood of sportsmen during continuous period of an educational-training session (ETS. It was established that under the conditions of intensive or continuous physical load a steady prevalence of catabolic processes in the organism wes observed. The given changes, specified by the fact that during ETS sportsmen’s tension of adaptation processes is gradually increasing. Moderate hyper-thrombotonin background in blood of the most sportsmen were observed in the beginning of ETS. Increase of permittivity membrane erythrocytes that reflected sorption capacity growth of the red blood cells was detected in individual sportsmen. Cell membrane structures damage of during intensive or continuous training is of generalized character and takes place almost in all organs and tissues. Also serum AST (Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (Alanine transaminase and LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase activity was studied in footballers during the ETS. Conclusions. The specified level of activity of certain enzymes indicates hypoxic / ischemic state due to the training load during ETS.
Li, Shaolin; Zhao, Wenji; Hao, Shuai; Hu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xintao
To analyze the imaging abnormal findings of ankle injuries in professional soccer player of males. The thirty-two professional soccer players in local region soccer club had been selected as research objects from March 2014 to January 2015, and all were men. Average age was 22.03±3.0 years old (19-33 years); the average age was 8.6±2.0 years old that began to engage in professional football training, and average time of engaged in football sports was 13±4 years (7-27 years). X-ray examination was used VM DR (Philips Co.), anteroposterior and lateral position of ankle joints. CT scan was used MSCT of 64 rows detector (Aquilion 64, TOSHIBA Co.). After routine scan, raw data was transmitted to the workstation and then reconstructed to be axial, sagittal, coronal imaging. MR examination was used 1.5 T superconducting equipment system (Achieva Dual, Philips Co.) and with ankle joint special phased array coil. TSE sequence be used to scan routine axial T2-weighted imaging; coronal T1-weighted imaging; coronal PWI; and sagittal T2-weighted imaging with fat suppressed. The sagittal PWI scan was used with Isotropic with fat suppressed FFE sequence. The X-ray examination was finished for 28 person and 51 ankle joints. 26 person and 52 ankle joints were completed CT scan and reconstructed imaging for all joints. MR examination was finished in 30 person and 51 ankle joints. On X-ray and CT display that the abnormal changes of the talus is most commonly found that the incidence of "dolphin mouth" like protrusion at posterior edge was 35 ankles (rate of occurrence was 68.6%), the triangle prominence at out edge was 45 ankles (rate of occurrence was 88.2%). It also was found that 8 lateral malleolus have osteophytes, 5 ankles have medial malleolus osteophytes and 12 ankles have loose bodies at posterior ankle. MRI showed that 30 ankles were the anterior talofibular ligaments injury and incidence was 58.82%, 26 ankles were posterior talofibular ligaments injury (incidence was
Gaudino, Francesco; Spira, Daniel; Bangert, Yannic; Ott, Henning; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-André
Osteitis pubis (OP), a common pathology in elite athletes, is an aseptic inflammatory process of the pubic symphysis bone, and may involve surrounding soft tissues, tendons and muscles. OP is typically characterized by (often recurring) groin pain and is an important cause of time-off from sports activity in athletes. Aim of this retrospective study was to analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in professional football players with clinical diagnosis of OP and to correlate MRI findings with clinical outcome. All professional football players (23 males, 1 female; mean age: 21±3.7years; range: 16-30 years) with groin pain and clinical diagnosis of OP, who underwent pelvic MRI in our institution were retrospectively analyzed. The MR images were analyzed regarding the presence of bone marrow edema and its extension, whether fluid in the symphysis pubis or periarticular soft tissue edema with a rim-like periosteal distribution or edema in the muscles located around the symphyseal joint were present, whether degenerative changes of the symphysis pubis and of signs of symphyseal instability were encountered. A quantitative measurement of the signal intensity in bone marrow edema on 3T STIR sequences was performed, normalizing these values to the mean signal intensity values in the ipsilateral iliopsoas muscle. All patients were classified according to a 3-point grading scale. For each patient, both the symptoms 18 months after the initial MRI examination, the duration of time off from playing football and the kind of treatment applied were evaluated. Among all professional athletes, in 20/24 (83.3%) MRI showed signs of OP with bone marrow edema at the pubic bone. 12 of these patients showed complete clinical recovery without any symptoms after 18 months, while in 8 patients partial recovery with persistence of groin pain during higher sports activity was observed. Patients with edema in periarticular soft tissues or in the muscles around the symphyseal joint
Despite the negative impacts of urbanisation, some species adapt to pressures of habitat loss and fragmentation. Trumpeter Hornbills Bycanistes bucinator are a large avian forest frugivore that uses urban environments in South Africa. Consequently, we used GPS/UHF transmitters to study their home range size, movement ...
Inglis, Paul; Bird, Stephen P
The objective of the study was to describe the movement demands and running intensities of semi-professional rugby league players during a rugby league 9's (RL9's) tournament. Six semi-professional rugby league players competed in a RL9's tournament over a two-day period comprising of six games. Movement demands and running intensities were recorded using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices providing data on distance and speeds. Data is presented as mean (95% Confidence Intervals) with changes (≥ 75%) likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change (0.2) considered practically important. Outside backs performed significantly (p distance than the forwards. Outside backs also performed significantly (p distance than the adjustables. Moderate (0.6 - 1.2) to very large (> 2.0) decreases in performance variables were observed over the two days. The biggest magnitude of change over the two days was seen with very large decreases in relative HSR (- 2.10) and sprint (- 2.14) distance. Between playing groups, the outside backs had the biggest decrease in running intensity with a very large (- 2.32) significant (p professional rugby league players. The observed decreases in running performances between playing groups are in agreement with previous research and may support the use of individualized player monitoring and recovery management during a RL9's tournament-style competition.
Full Text Available While factors such as genetics may mediate the relationship between height and mortality, evidence suggests that larger body size may be an important risk indicator of reduced lifespan longevity in particular. This study critically examined this relationship in professional basketball players. We examined living and deceased players who have played in the National Basketball Association (debut between 1946-2010 and/or the American Basketball Association (1967-1976 using descriptive and Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The cut-off date for death data collection was December 11, 2015. Overall, 3,901 living and deceased players were identified and had a mean height of 197.78 cm (± 9.29, Range: 160.02-231.14, and of those, 787 former players were identified as deceased with a mean height of 193.88 cm (± 8.83, Range: 167.6-228.6. Descriptive findings indicated that the tallest players (top 5% died younger than the shortest players (bottom 5% in all but one birth decade (1941-1950. Similarly, survival analyses showed a significant relationship between height and lifespan longevity when both dichotomizing [χ2 (1 = 13.04, p < .05] and trichotomizing [χ2 (2 = 18.05, p < .05] the predictor variable height per birth decade, where taller players had a significantly higher mortality risk compared to shorter players through median (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.50, p < .05 and trichotomized tertile split (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.18-1.68, p <. 05; tallest 33.3% compared to shortest 33.3% analyses. The uniqueness of examining the height-longevity hypothesis in this relatively homogeneous sub-population should be considered when interpreting these results. Further understanding of the potential risks of early mortality can help generate discourse regarding potential at-risk cohorts of the athlete population.
Lemez, Srdjan; Wattie, Nick; Baker, Joseph
While factors such as genetics may mediate the relationship between height and mortality, evidence suggests that larger body size may be an important risk indicator of reduced lifespan longevity in particular. This study critically examined this relationship in professional basketball players. We examined living and deceased players who have played in the National Basketball Association (debut between 1946-2010) and/or the American Basketball Association (1967-1976) using descriptive and Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The cut-off date for death data collection was December 11, 2015. Overall, 3,901 living and deceased players were identified and had a mean height of 197.78 cm (± 9.29, Range: 160.02-231.14), and of those, 787 former players were identified as deceased with a mean height of 193.88 cm (± 8.83, Range: 167.6-228.6). Descriptive findings indicated that the tallest players (top 5%) died younger than the shortest players (bottom 5%) in all but one birth decade (1941-1950). Similarly, survival analyses showed a significant relationship between height and lifespan longevity when both dichotomizing [χ2 (1) = 13.04, p < .05] and trichotomizing [χ2 (2) = 18.05, p < .05] the predictor variable height per birth decade, where taller players had a significantly higher mortality risk compared to shorter players through median (HR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.50, p < .05) and trichotomized tertile split (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.18-1.68, p <. 05; tallest 33.3% compared to shortest 33.3%) analyses. The uniqueness of examining the height-longevity hypothesis in this relatively homogeneous sub-population should be considered when interpreting these results. Further understanding of the potential risks of early mortality can help generate discourse regarding potential at-risk cohorts of the athlete population.
Emerson, Dawn M; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Charles C; LaSalle, Teri L
Despite exercising in cool environments, ice hockey players exhibit several dehydration risk factors. Individualized fluid plans (IFPs) are designed to mitigate dehydration by matching an individual's sweat loss in order to optimize physiological systems and performance. A randomized control trial was used to examine IFP versus ad libitum fluid ingestion on hydration in 11 male minor professional ice hockey players (mean age = 24.4 ± 2.6 years, height = 183.0 ± 4.6 cm, weight = 92.9 ± 7.8 kg). Following baseline measures over 2 practices, participants were randomly assigned to either control (CON) or intervention (INT) for 10 additional practices. CON participants were provided water and/or carbohydrate electrolyte beverage to drink ad libitum. INT participants were instructed to consume water and an electrolyte-enhanced carbohydrate electrolyte beverage to match sweat and sodium losses. Urine specific gravity, urine color, and percent body mass change characterized hydration status. Total fluid consumed during practice was assessed. INT consumed significantly more fluid than CON (1180.8 ± 579.0 ml vs. 788.6 ± 399.7 ml, p = 0.002). However, CON participants replaced only 25.4 ± 12.9% of their fluid needs and INT 35.8 ± 17.5%. Mean percent body mass loss was not significantly different between groups and overall indicated minimal dehydration (hydration status. Based on urine measures, both methods were unsuccessful in preventing dehydration during practice, suggesting practice-only hydration is inadequate to maintain euhydration in this population when beginning hypohydrated.
Polster, Joshua M.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Subhas, Naveen [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lynch, T.S. [Columbia University Medical Center, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Bullen, Jennifer A. [Cleveland Clinic, Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland, OH (United States); Soloff, Lonnie [Cleveland Indians, Cleveland, OH (United States); Schickendantz, Mark S. [Cleveland Clinic, Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)
To describe the MR appearance of a series of throwing-related injuries to the subscapularis muscle-tendon complex among baseball players. A retrospective review of MR scans of the shoulder in players from 1 professional baseball organization over the course of 5 years was performed to identify cases with findings suggestive of subscapularis injury. These findings were graded and the medical record was reviewed to assess clinical findings, treatment, and follow-up. Preinjury baseline measurements of arm external rotation at 90 of abduction were compared to measurements from a noninjured cohort to evaluate whether this measure is a risk factor for injury. A total of 133 MR scans of the shoulder were evaluated. Eleven of the scans demonstrated signal changes suggesting subscapularis injury; 10 of these 11 patients had clinical findings supporting a diagnosis of throwing-related subscapularis strain. There were four grade 1, four grade 2, and two grade 3 injuries. All injuries occurred in the inferior half of the subscapularis at the myotendinous junction. Risk of subscapularis injury increased with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 % CI, 1.07-1.21; p < 0.001). A threshold of dominant arm external rotation of <106 demonstrated sensitivity of 0.700 (95 % CI, 0.392-0.897) and specificity of 0.951 (95 % CI, 0.888-0.982) for subscapularis injury. Throwing-related subscapularis injuries occur in the inferior half of the muscle at the myotendinous junction. Our data suggest that there is an increased risk of these injuries with lower levels of dominant arm external rotation. (orig.)
Jaspers, Arne; Kuyvenhoven, Jurian P; Staes, Filip; Frencken, Wouter G P; Helsen, Werner F; Brink, Michel S
Research in professional soccer focusing on the relevance of external and internal load indicators for injury prevention is scarce. This study examined the relationship between load indicators and overuse injuries. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected from 35 professional male soccer players over two seasons. Following load indicators were examined: total distance covered (TD), distance covered at high speed (THSR; >20kmh -1 ), number of accelerations (ACC eff ; >1ms -2 ), number of decelerations (DEC eff ; loads and acute:chronic workload ratios (ACWR) were calculated and split into low, medium and high groups. Only overuse injuries were included in the analysis to focus on their specific relationship with the load indicators. Generalized estimating equations were applied to analyse the relationship between load indicators and overuse injuries in the subsequent week. In total, 64 overuse injuries were registered. For cumulative loads, results indicated an increased injury risk for higher 2- to 4-weekly loads as indicated by TD, DEC eff , and RPE multiplied by duration. For ACWR, a high ratio for THSR (>1.18) resulted in a higher injury risk. In contrast, a lower injury risk was found when comparing medium ratios for ACC eff (0.87-1.12), DEC eff (0.86-1.12), and RPE x duration (0.85-1.12) to low ratios. Findings demonstrate that mainly external load indicators are associated with increased or decreased injury risk. The monitoring of various load indicators is recommended for injury prevention in professional soccer. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bakken, A; Targett, S; Bere, T; Eirale, C; Farooq, A; Tol, J L; Whiteley, R; Witvrouw, E; Khan, K M; Bahr, R
The Nine Plus screening battery test (9+) is a functional movement test intended to identify limitations in fundamental movement patterns predisposing athletes to injury. However, the interseason variability is unknown. To examine the variability of the 9+ test between 2 consecutive seasons in professional male football players. Asymptomatic Qatar Star League players (n=220) completed the 9+ at the beginning of the 2013 and 2014 seasons. Time-loss injuries in training and matches were obtained from the Aspetar Injury and Illness Surveillance Program. No intervention was initiated between test occasions. A significant increase in the mean total score of 1.6 points (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2, p<0.001) was found from season 1 (22.2±4.1 (SD)) to season 2 (23.8±3.3). The variability was large, as shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.24 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.36) and a minimal detectable change (MDC) of 8.7 points. Of the 220 players, 136 (61.8%) suffered a time-loss injury between the 2 tests. There was an improvement in mean total scores in the injured (+2.0±0.4 (SE), p<0.001) group but not in the uninjured group (+0.9±0.5, p=0.089). The variability from season 1 to season 2 was large both in the injured (ICC 0.25, 0.09 to 0.40, MDC 8.3) and uninjured (ICC 0.24, 0.02 to 0.43, MDC 9.1) groups. The 9+ demonstrated substantial intraindividual variability in the total score between 2 consecutive seasons, irrespective of injury. A change above 8 points is necessary to represent a real change in the 9+ test between seasons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Domb, Benjamin G; Carter, Chris; Finch, Nathan A; Hammarstedt, Jon E; Dunne, Kevin F; Stake, Christine E
Professional American football is a physically demanding, high-impact sport with an elevated risk of injury. Orthopaedic injuries may impose acute, short-term or cumulative consequences throughout a player's lifetime. Several studies have addressed health and psychosocial concerns of an older, retired population of players in the National Football League (NFL); however, minimal research has examined the orthopaedic toll on younger, retired players. This study reports total whole-person impairment (WPI) percentages in a cohort of younger, retired NFL players who presented for disability evaluations based on the use of standardized American Medical Association (AMA) impairment guidelines. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. During the study period of February 2011 to August 2013, 65 younger retired NFL players presented for impairment evaluations. The mean time between retirement and impairment evaluation was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-16.4 years). A complete history and physical examination was performed on all symptomatic joints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 100% of presenting players to assess orthopaedic burden. Body-part impairment (BPI) percentage for each affected joint was generated. The impairment data for each extremity were then combined with spine impairment data to create WPI percentage. Player demographics, including age, position, and playing time, were also recorded. The average WPI percentage was 37% (range, 19%-53%). Players participating in >30 games (n = 54) had a higher mean WPI percentage (38%) than those playing in 5 seasons (n = 46) were 2.4 times more likely to have a WPI of at least 37% (P = .007). The most common joints players reported as symptomatic were lumbar (n = 63; 97%) and cervical spine (n = 58; 89%). The mean age at evaluation was 33.5 years (range, 27-42 years), and the mean number of seasons played was 7.5 (range, 3-14 seasons). The mean number of games played was 98.4 (range, 2-236 games). This study demonstrated
Niall A. Clark
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine season-to-season variations in physiological fitness parameters among a 1st team squad of professional adult male soccer players for the confirmatory purposes of identifying normative responses (immediately prior to pre-season training (PPS, mid-season (MID, and end-of-season (EOS. Test-retest data were collected from a student population on the primary dependent variables of anaerobic threshold (AT and maximal aerobic power (VO2 max to define meaningful measurement change in excess of test-retest technical error between test-to-test performances. Participants from a pool of 42 professional soccer players were tested over a set sequence of tests during the 3-year period: 1 basic anthropometry, 2 countermovement jump (CMJ tests 3 a combined AT and VO2 max test. Over the 3-year period there were no test-to-test changes in mean VO2 max performance exceeding pre-defined limits of test agreement (mean of eight measures: 61.6 ± 0.6 ml·kg-1·min-1. In contrast, VO2 at AT was significantly higher at the MID test occasion in seasons 2 (+4.8%; p = 0.04, p < 0.05 and 3 (+6.8%; p = 0.03, p < 0.05. The CMJ tests showed a test-to-test improvement of 6.3% (best of 3 jumps (p = 0.03, p < 0.05 and 10.3% (20-s sustained jumping test (p = 0.007, p < 0.01 between PPS2 and MID2 and thereafter remained stable. Anthropometrics were unaffected. In summary, despite some personnel changes in the elite cohort between test-to-test occasions, VO2 max values did not vary significantly over the study which supports previous short-term observations suggesting a general 'elite' threshold of 60 ml·kg-1 min. Interestingly, AT significantly varied where VO2 max was stable and these variations also coincided with on- and off-seasons suggesting that AT is a better indication of acute training state than VO2 max.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the leadership power perception of amateur and professional soccer coaches and players according to their belief in good luck or not. Data collected from 165 male soccer coaches and 870 male soccer players including professionals and amateurs. The coaches had a mean age of 40.24 years (SD = 8.40) and had been coaching for an average of 8.56 years (SD = 6.75). The players had a mean age of 18.40 years (SD = 4.00) and had been playing soccer for an average of 6.00 years (SD = 4.15) with license. Adapted Turkish version of Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Other (PSQ-O for soccer players), Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self (PSQ-S for coaches) and an information form were used for the data collection. Cronbach Reliability Alphas of PSQ-O and PSQ-S range between 0.60 and 0.84. Players' and coaches' data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney Tests. Analysis of PSQ-O revealed significant differences related to Coersive Power-CP [chi2 (3) = 8.46, p 0.05). Results of PSQ-O and PSQ-S indicated complex relationships related to belief in good luck or not. Overall, there are differences between coaches' and players'perception of CP, LP and EP related to belief in good luck or not. The only similarity appears to be in perception of RP. However, there is lack of research to make more certain conclusions. Future researchers should also take into consideration gender, sport experience, age, taking responsibility, self-confidence, attributions, expectations, superstitions, emotions, perception of achievement etc.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to measure isokinetic maximum and average peak torque of internal and external rotators of glenohumeral joint in volley ball and tennis players Methods: This study was performed on 17 professional female athletes (7 tennis players &10 volleyball players with age ranged 18-28 years. The subjects had played in a skilled team for more than 3 years. They were free from injury to their dominant shoulder in the past year. Subjects performed a five minute warm up by shoulder wheel and Maximum average Peak Torque (APT were obtained unilaterally by a Biodex System 3 with the arm of players in 90 degree abduction at 120,180 & 210 o/s. Players performed five trails of concentric movements with 30 second rest between them. Results: Maximum and average of maximum torques of shoulder rotator, in both groups, expect for internal rotators of tennis players, reduced by increase of movement speed (P<0.05. There are not significant difference between two groups in maximum, average of maximum torques and normalized data (ratio of maximum torque to weight. There is significant difference between two groups in percentage of APT of External rotator / Internal rotator ratio at 210 o/s (P<0.05. Conclusion: Volleyball and tennis have no effect on isokinetic strength of shoulder rotators. In high speed, ratio of External rotator / Internal rotator is reduced. This indicates that increase in movement speed increase internal rotator in comparison to external rotator in these professional female athletes.
Giménez, Jesús V; Del-Coso, Juan; Leicht, Anthony S; Gomez, Miguel A
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the movement patterns of professional soccer players during a small-sided game (SSG), a large-sided game (LSG) and a competitive friendly match (FM). Fourteen professional players participated in three training routines with a similar relative pitch area per player. The SSG and LSG consisted of 8 repetitions of 4-min game play, interspersed by 2-min of active recovery, and their data were compared to the first 32 minutes of a FM. All movement patterns from walking to sprint running were recorded using 10Hz GPS devices while player perception of exertion was recorded via visual analogue scale, post-trial. Total running distance (3852±405 vs. 3359±429 and 3088 ± 414 m), running distance at 5-6.9 m/s (222±98 vs. 75±53 and 49±35 m) and maximal running speed (7.0±0.7 vs. 6.1±0.4 and 6.0±0.7 m/s) were significantly greater during FM than for SSG and LSG. However, the number of accelerations (462±16 vs. 458±12 vs. 422±15) and decelerations (733±31 vs. 692 ±24 vs. 609±27), and the rating of perceived exertion (8±1 vs. 7±1 vs. 5±1) were significantly greater during SSG compared to LSG and FM. Although smaller game-based training routines do not replicate exactly the movement patterns of a competitive match, they can increase the execution of short-term and high-intensity movements for specialised training in professional soccer players.
Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal
This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic.
Ayala, F; Sainz de Baranda, P; De Ste Croix, M; Santonja, F
To examine the criterion related validity of the sit-and-reach test (SR), toe touch test (TT), modified sit-and-reach test (MSR) and back-saver sit-and-reach test (BSSR) for estimating hamstring flexibility measured through the passive straight leg raise test (PSLR) in professional futsal players. Correlation laboratory study. Controlled laboratory environment. One hundred and three futsal players (55 males age 26 ± 4 years, 48 females age 23 ± 5 years). Two trials of SR, TT, MSR, BSSR (left and right) and PSLR right and left (hamstring criterion measure) in a randomized order. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association of SR, TT, MSR and BSSR with PSLR in both males and females separately. In males, only MSR test had moderate association criterion with PSLR (R(2) = 0.57). In females, SR (R(2) = 0.86), TT (R(2) = 0.85), MSR (R(2) = 0.53) and average BSSR (R(2) = 0.82) were associated with PSLR. SR, TT, MSR and BSSR had moderate criterion related validity for estimating hamstring flexibility in female but not male professional futsal players. The authors recommend that researchers, clinicians, and physical therapists adopt one angular test as a measure of hamstring muscle length in futsal players. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean P; Chamari, Karim
Elite-level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical, and psychological capabilities when compared with their subelite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high-intensity levels was related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high-intensity (T-HI) and very high-intensity (T-VHI) zones of 85-training volume at T-HI and injury incidence (r = 0.57, p = 0.005). Further analysis revealed how players achieving more time in the T-VHI zone during training increased the odds of sustaining a match injury (odds ratio = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.12, p = 0.02) but did not increase the odds of sustaining a training injury. Reducing the number of competitive match injuries among elite-level professional players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury.
Owen, Adam L; Forsyth, Jacky J; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Connelly, Sean; Chamari, Karim
Elite level professional soccer players are suggested to have increased physical, technical, tactical and psychological capabilities when compared to their sub-elite counterparts. Ensuring these players remain at the elite level generally involves training many different bodily systems to a high intensity or level within a short duration. This study aimed to examine whether an increase in training volume at high intensity levels were related to injury incidence, or increased the odds of sustaining an injury. Training intensity was monitored through time spent in high- (T-HI) and very high- (T-VHI) intensity zones of 85-training volume at T-HI and injury incidence (r=0.57, p=0.005). Further analysis revealed how players achieving more time in the T-VHI zone during training increased the odds of sustaining a match injury (odds ratio=1.87, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.12, p=0.02), but did not increase the odds of sustaining a training injury. Reducing the number of competitive match injuries amongst elite professional level players may be possible if greater focus is placed on the training intensity and volume over a period of time ensuring the potential reduction of fatigue or overuse injuries. In addition, it is important to understand the optimal training load at which adaptation occurs without raising the risk of injury.
Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Gregoire P; Girard, Olivier
This study aimed to determine the neuro-mechanical and metabolic adjustments in the lower limbs induced by the running anaerobic sprint test (the so-called RAST). Eight professional football players performed 6 × 35 m sprints interspersed with 10 s of active recovery on artificial turf with their football shoes. Sprinting mechanics (plantar pressure insoles), root mean square activity of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles (surface electromyography, EMG) and VL muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) were monitored continuously. Sprint time, contact time and total stride duration increased from the first to the last repetition (+17.4, +20.0 and +16.6 %; all P 0.05), decreased over sprint repetitions and were correlated with the increase in running time (r = -0.82 and -0.90; both P test leads to substantial alterations in stride mechanics and leg-spring behaviour. Our results also strengthen the link between repeated-sprint ability and the change in neuromuscular activation as well as in muscle de- and re-oxygenation rates.
Ross, James R.; Matava, Matthew J.
The authors present the case of a professional football player with an immediate and sustained cutaneous reaction (“burn”) at the site of lower extremity tattoos that occurred during magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis. The burn was attributed to an electromagnetic reaction due to the ferromagnetic metallic compounds found in tattoo pigments, especially iron oxide—a reaction that has the potential to distort the field of image. These compounds can theoretically create an electric current that increases the local skin temperature, enough to cause a cutaneous burn. “At risk” tattoos are those with black pigment or any other pigments containing iron oxide, as well as those with a design that displays loops, large circular objects, or multiple adjacent points. Patients who develop this reaction may be treated prophylactically or symptomatically with a cold compress to assist with completion of the examination. Alternatively, a towel or cloth may be placed between the cutaneous body parts in those patients who experience the typical reaction resulting from an electrical arc between 2 separate cutaneous tattoos. This is likely an underreported issue that merits mention in the sports medicine literature given the frequent occurrence of cosmetic tattoos in athletes requiring magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose a musculoskeletal injury. As in the present patient, no permanent sequelae have been noted in the literature. Therefore, patients who develop this reaction should be reassured that the reaction is only temporary. PMID:23016039
West, Daniel J; Cunningham, Daniel J; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P
The use of heavy resistance exercise provides an effective preload stimulus for inducing postactivation potentiation (PAP) and increasing peak power output (PPO). However, this approach has limited application in many sporting situations (e.g., incorporation in a precompetition warm-up); and therefore, more practical strategies for inducing PAP need to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the PPO changes after performing a preload stimulus of either a ballistic exercise or a traditional heavy resistance exercise. Twenty professional rugby union players completed 3 testing sessions, each separated by 48 hours. On the first occasion, subjects underwent a 3 repetition maximum (3RM)-bench press testing session. On the next 2 occasions, subjects performed a ballistic bench throw at baseline (30% of 1RM), followed by a preload stimulus of either heavy resistance training (HRT) (heavy bench press: 3 sets of 3 repetitions at 87% 1RM) or BBP (3 sets of 3 repetitions at 30% on 1RM) followed by ballistic bench throw after 8 minutes recovery. The trials were randomized and counterbalanced. Both preload stimuli protocols increased PPO compared with baseline (BBP baseline 892 ± 108 vs. 8 minutes 924 ± 119 W, p body PPO; moreover, this elicited similar increases in PPO as a traditional heavy resistance exercise preloading stimulus.
Vopat, Bryan G; Wong, Jeffrey E; Hazzard, Sean; Golijanin, Petar; Palmar, William E; Asnis, Peter D
Morel-Lavallée (ML) lesions occur when subcutaneous tissue is stripped from fascia and replaced with hematoma or necrotic fat. Encapsulated fat necrosis lesions, which are rare, can occur with disruption of the blood supply in the subcutaneous area, which occurs with ML lesions. In this article, we report the case of a professional ice hockey player with an ML lesion that caused a symptomatic encapsulated fat necrosis lesion to develop. The encapsulated lesion required surgical removal.
Full Text Available Introduction: nutritional aspects women’s volleyball has been little studied and more in a specific period of training as the competitive period. The aim is to assess and know the caloric and macronutrients intake by professional volleyball players of the Spanish Superliga for 16 weeks of training for the competition phase and compare with the references marked for athlete population.Material and methods: the study included 10 female volleyball players (JVF (26.6±5.9 years and height 178.05±8.7cm, for a total of 16 weeks of training and competition. They all gave written informed consent. They completed a food intake frequency questionary of the 16 week study, data corroborated by a dietary record (CFCA of 7 consecutive days in week 9 and 16. We were calculated daily nutritional intake from CFCA with the food composition table of CESNID by Easy Diet software, the Spanish Association of Dietitians-Nutritionists (AEDN.Results: the energy and nutritional analysis of the female professional volleyball players shows that the amount of energy and macronutrients does not meet to the recommendations for sports collective.Conclusions: it is observed low energy and carbohydrates intake and high intake of protein and lipids. Recommended practical aspects for improving nutrition education in this professional sports group.
Gábor László Kovács
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the possible impact of multiple mild head traumas sustained during a long-term football career on the presence of central hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH deficiency. Methods: Twenty-seven retired, former professional male football players were investigated. All subjects were assessed for serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, luteinizing hormone (LH and total testosterone (TT. Quality of life was quantified using the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (QoL-AGHDA questionnaire. Results: Subjects had a median age of 48.0 (42.0 – 53.0 years and a median football career of 29.0 years (22.0 – 32.0. One subject had central hypogonadism and none had growth hormone deficiency. Nine subjects reported sport-related head injuries. We found a negative correlation between sport-related head injuries and serum LH (p = -0.459, P = 0.016. Subjects with a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 3.3 U/L (2.7 – 3.6, while those without a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 4.1 (U/L (3.6 – 5.7, P = 0.017. However, there were no differences in other hormones between the two groups. Moreover, we did not find any correlation between the duration of the player’s career nor their field position with hormone profiles or QoL-AGHDA. Conclusion: Although retired footfall players with a history of sport-related head injury had lower LH levels, we did not find strong evidence of an increased prevalence of central hypogonadism or GH deficiency in these patients. Our results suggest that a long-term football career, which includes headings and repetitive mild head traumas, does not damage the most vulnerable anterior pituitary cells.
Hänninen, Timo; Parkkari, Jari; Tuominen, Markku; Öhman, Juha; Howell, David R; Iverson, Grant L; Luoto, Teemu M
To characterize the clinical utility of Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) baseline and normative reference values for the assessment of acute concussion; and to identify the sensitivity of each SCAT3 subcomponent to the acute effects of concussion. Prospective cohort. The day-of-concussion SCAT3 results (n=27) of professional male ice hockey players (mean age=27, SD=4) were compared to athlete's individual baseline and to the league's normative reference values. Normative cutoffs corresponding to 10th percentile and natural distribution change cutoffs corresponding to 90th percentile cumulative frequency were considered uncommon. The percentages of the players with uncommon day-of-injury performance, when post-injury scores were compared to individual baseline versus (vs.) normative values, were as follows: symptoms: 96% vs. 100% (post-injury score: M=12, Md=12, SD=4; severity M=26, Md=23, SD=13); Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC): 33% vs. 27% (post-injury M=25, Md=26, SD=3); modified-BESS (M-BESS): 46% vs. 46% (post-injury M=7, Md=5, SD=7); Tandem Gait: 18% vs. 31% (post-injury M=11, Md=12, SD=4); coordination: both 8%. The number and severity of post-injury symptoms were significantly greater, with extremely large effect sizes (Cohen's d=2.44-3.92), than normative values and individual baseline scores. The post-injury SAC score was significantly lower relative to both baseline (d=0.68) and normative values (d=0.88). The post-injury M-BESS performance was significantly worse when compared to both individual baseline (d=1.06) and league normative values (d=1.46). No significant day-of-injury Tandem Gait deficits were observed using either comparison method. SCAT3 league normative values were as sensitive as individual baseline scores during day-of-injury assessments. Symptoms were the most sensitive post-concussion component of the SCAT3. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available This study investigated tennis players’ speed before, during and after the split-step, deceleration before and acceleration after the split-step in four different stroke groups in three age categories. Seven male professional, eleven male and ten female junior tennis players were recorded with video cameras at official tournaments. Using the SAGIT system, we gathered data on 8,545 split-steps. Tennis players performed a split-step in 82.9% of cases. A tennis player’s speed, deceleration and acceleration were measured 0.2 s before and after the split-step. Differences between categories and stroke groups for each of the five variables were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA. The differences between the groups of players were generally much higher in the speed before, during and after the split-step than in the deceleration before and acceleration after the split-step. Most of these differences were observed between the various stroke groups. These results suggest that players use three types of movement while performing a split-step. In the first type, which is typical of serving and returning, the speed before, during and after the split-step is lower (0.55 to 1.2 m/s. The second type of movement is characteristic of baseline strokes where tennis players achieve higher speed than in the first type (0.7 to 1.66 m/s. The third type occurs in strokes where a tennis player is moving or already at the net (0.78 to 1.9 m/s. Movement in tennis is an area that requires constant development in terms of designing and upgrading movement patterns, increasing speed and practice in specific game situations.
Campos-Vazquez, Miguel A; Toscano-Bendala, Francisco J; Mora-Ferrera, José C; Suarez-Arrones, Luis J
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of accumulated internal training load (ITL) during the preseason (4 weeks) on changes in the intermittent performance, in a professional soccer team. Twelve professionals soccer players (Mean ± SD age: 27.7 ± 4.3 years; height: 177.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 73.1 ± 5.2 kg; % body fat [Faulkner]: 10.2 ± 1.2) belonging to a Spanish second division team (2013-2014) participated in this study. The 30-15 intermittent fitness test was performed before and after the preseason, and the speed for the last period completed by each player was recorded (VIFT). During the preseason, the team alternated practice of training sessions (TRNs) with friendly matches (FMs). Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), heart rate (HR), and HR reserve were analyzed every TRN and FM to calculate ITL (ITL: sRPE-TL, Edward's-TL and Edward's-TLres). The players' VIFT substantially increased after the preseason period (20.1 ± 0.8 vs. 21.1 ± 0.8 km·h; effect size [ES] = 1.15 ± 0.25; almost certainly). The average value of sRPE throughout FMs was substantially greater than the value of the TRNs (7.4 ± 0.9 vs. 5.25 ± 0.2; ES = 2.31 ± 2.45; almost certainly). sRPE-TL, practice volume, and sum of RPE during the preseason were positively and largely correlated (r = 0.70-0.75) with changes on intermittent performance. No relationships were found between HR-derived measures of exercise load and changes on intermittent fitness. The present results suggest that practice volume and subjective measures of TL, related better than HR-based TL methods to changes on intermittent performance after the preseason, in professional soccer players.
Grassi, Alberto; Smiley, Stephen Paul; Roberti di Sarsina, Tommaso; Signorelli, Cecilia; Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria; Bondi, Alice; Romagnoli, Matteo; Agostini, Alessandra; Zaffagnini, Stefano
Soccer is considered the most popular sport in the world concerning both audience and athlete participation, and the incidence of ACL injury in this sport is high. The understanding of injury situations and mechanisms could be useful as substratum for preventive actions. To conduct a video analysis evaluating the situations and mechanisms of ACL injury in a homogeneous population of professional male soccer players, through a search entirely performed on the YouTube.com Web site focusing on the most recent years. A video analysis was conducted obtaining videos of ACL injury in professional male soccer players from the Web site YouTube. Details regarding injured players, events and situations were obtained. The mechanism of injury was defined on the basis of the action, duel type, contact or non-contact injury, and on the hip, knee and foot position. Thirty-four videos were analyzed, mostly from the 2014-2015 season. Injuries occurred mostly in the first 9 min of the match (26%), in the penalty area (32%) or near the side-lines (44%), and in non-rainy conditions (97%). Non-contact injuries occurred in 44% of cases, while indirect injuries occurred in 65%, mostly during pressing, dribbling or tackling. The most recurrent mechanism was with an abducted and flexed hip, with knee at first degrees of flexion and under valgus stress. Through a YouTube-based video analysis, it was possible to delineate recurrent temporal, spatial and mechanical characteristics of ACL injury in male professional soccer players. Level IV, case series.
Francimara Budal Arins
Full Text Available > This study aimed to characterize physiological responses of indoor soccer (futsal professional players to training sessions, according to playing position. The sample was composed by five players ( X =23.9±3.0 yrs of an adult professional futsal team from Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. The athletes performed a maximal exercise test for measuring oxygen consumption, heart rate (HR and respiratory quotient (RQ, variables used to create regression equations for energy expenditure (EE, kcal prediction and to estimate relative work intensity (% max HR. During the sessions, HR was measured with a S610i Polar® monitor. The results showed that the goalkeeper played at 60% to 70% max HR. The mid-fi elders and the attacker worked at more intense levels (81% to 100%, while the defender varied the intensity at intermediate exercise range (71% to 90%. Total EE was similar among mid-fi elders and attacker ( X =339.5 kcal, while the defender presented lower values ( X =255.0 kcal. The goalkeeper had the lowest EE ( X =106.9 kcal. The results agreed with those reported in soccer studies and facilitate planning and control of an individualized training program according to playing position. ABSTRACT Este estudo objetivou caracterizar as respostas fi siológicas de atletas profissionais de futsal durante o treinamento coletivo, de acordo com a posição tática desempenhada. A amostra foi composta pelos cinco jogadores titulares ( X =23,9±3,0 anos de uma equipe de futsal masculino profi ssional adulto da cidade de Florianópolis, SC. Os atletas foram avaliados por um teste ergoespirométrico máximo, que forneceu o consumo de oxigênio, a freqüência cardíaca (FC e o quociente respiratório (RQ, valores utilizados para gerar equações de regressão para estimativa do gasto calórico (GCal e da intensidade do trabalho (expressa em % FC máxima predita pela idade (% FC máx. Durante os coletivos, a FC foi mensurada com um monitor Polar modelo S610i®. Os
Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
Gabbett, Tim J; Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F
Well-developed physical qualities may protect against contact injuries. However, the potential contribution of physical qualities as risk or protective factors to contact injury risk is yet to be determined for rugby league. This study applied a frailty survival model that accounts for recurrent injury to identify risk factors for all physiotherapist-reported contact injury in professional rugby league players. Prospective cohort study. Sixty-six professional rugby league players participated in this three successive year prospective study. At the start of each season, all players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of seven skinfolds), speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), muscular strength (1 repetition maximum [RM] bench press, 1RM squat, 1RM weighted chin-ups), power (vertical jump, bench throw, 1RM power clean, jump squat), and endurance (maximum repetition bench press with 60 kg resistance), repeated-sprint ability (12 × 20 m sprints performed on a 20s cycle), prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability (8 × 12 s maximal effort shuttles performed on a 48 s cycle), and maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test). Data was used to demonstrate the application of the frailty model extension of the Cox proportional regression model for recurrent events to identify factors associated with a high hazard ratio (HR) of injury. Heavier (body mass, HR=2.6, 95% CI=1.2-5.7), and faster (40 m sprint, HR=2.1, 95% CI=1.0-4.2) players, and those with poorly developed prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability (HR=2.9, 95% CI=1.7-5.0) and upper-body strength (chin-up, HR=2.2, 95% CI=1.3-3.7) had a higher incidence of contact injuries. This study demonstrates application of a novel statistical approach for the analysis of injury data that is recurrent in nature. This approach identified that the greater impact forces generated from heavier players with faster speed may result in an increase in recurrent contact injury
Meier, Jessica; Topka, Marlene Sofie; Hänggi, Jürgen
It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM) representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA) of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular. PMID:27247805
Meier, Jessica; Topka, Marlene Sofie; Hänggi, Jürgen
It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM) representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA) of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM, rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, and biceps femoris (BF in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women’s superleague and eight in the Spanish men’s superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL and flexion (BF regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players.
Rodríguez-Ruiz, D.; Diez-Vega, I.; Rodríguez-Matoso, D.; Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Sagastume, R.; Molina, J. J.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players. PMID:25003109
Rodríguez-Ruiz, D; Diez-Vega, I; Rodríguez-Matoso, D; Fernandez-del-Valle, M; Sagastume, R; Molina, J J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players.
Eagles, Alexander N; Lovell, Dale I
Adequate sleep is paramount to athlete recovery and performance, however little is known about the typical sleep patterns of professional rugby union players during home based training and match play in the competitive season. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in sleep quantity and efficiency of elite male rugby union players over a twelve-night period, which included training and two competitive matches. A total of ten elite male rugby union players from a selected team, participated in the study. Athletes' sleep quantity and efficiency was monitored over a twelve-night period using the BodyMedia SenseWear units (BSU). There was a significant difference in sleep quantity (Psleeping less on game nights. Time to sleep on game nights was also significantly (Psleep efficiency or time at wake over the twelve-night period. Sleep efficiency is defined as a percentage score calculated by incorporating movement and physiological measures over the sleep duration as determined by the BSU. Also there was no significant difference between sleep parameters on the game nights. The findings show players have significantly (Psleep following a home game, which is of concern considering the established negative influence of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance. This data may assist coaching, medical and performance staff to develop and implement team and individualised sleep monitoring regimes to optimise training and on-field performance.
Eagles, A; Mclellan, C; Hing, W; Carloss, N; Lovell, D
Adequate sleep is paramount to athlete recovery and performance, however little is know about the typical sleep patterns of professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play in the competitive season. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in sleep quantity and efficiency of elite male rugby union players over a twelve night period, which included training and two competitive matches. A total of ten elite male rugby union players from a selected team, participated in the study. Athletes sleep quantity and efficiency was monitored over a twelve night period using the Bodymedia sensewear units (BSU). There was a significant difference in sleep quantity (psleeping less on game nights. Time to sleep on game nights was also significantly (psleep efficiency or time at wake over the twelve night period. Sleep efficiency is defined as a percentage score calculated by incorporating movement and physiological measures over the sleep duration as determined by the BSU. Also there was no significant difference between sleep parameters on the game nights. The findings show players have significantly (psleep following a home game, which is of concern considering the established negative influence of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance. This data may assist coaching, medical and performance staff to develop and implement team and individualised sleep monitoring regimes to optimise training and on-field performance.
Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Vieira-Duarte-Pereira, Dario-Miguel; Ardèvol, Jordi; Pruna, Ricard; Fernandez, Javier; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard
The objective of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of professional soccer players of F.C. Barcelona and its relation to the incidence of sport lesions. Thirty professional soccer players were consecutively evaluated in the seasons 2003/4, 2004/5 and 2005/6. A research protocol to assess their oral health was developed. DMFT, Quigley & Hein plaque index (PI), Löe & Silness gingival index (GI), World Health Organization malocclusion index, Ramfjord teeth probing pocket depth (PPD), TMJ examination and history of dental trauma were recorded. All physical injuries sustained by players during the season were documented from F.C. Barcelona medical services. Mean DMFT score was 5.7 (SD 4.1), Quigley & Hein plaque index score was 2.3 (SD 1.1), Löe & Silness gingival index was 1.1 (SD 0.8), and periodontal pocket depth was 1.9 mm (SD 0.3). Pearson's analysis showed a significant correlation between PI and GI (pmedical follow-up, have significant oral health problems such as untreated caries, gingivitis or malocclusion, and suffer dental trauma as a result of sports activities. Their physical condition could also be associated to oral health.
João Henrique Gomes
Full Text Available Abstract AIMS This study aimed to verify th erelation ship between of anthropometric and physical performance variables with game-related statistics in professional elite basketball players during a competition. METHODS Eleven male basketball players were evaluated during 10 weeks in two distinct moments (regular season and playoffs. Overall, 11 variables of physical fitness and 13 variables of game-related statistics were analysed. RESULTS The following significant Pearson’scorrelations were found in regular season: percentage of fat mass with assists (r = -0.62 and steals (r = -0.63; height (r = 0.68, lean mass (r = 0.64, and maximum strength (r = 0.67 with blocks; squat jump with steals (r = 0.63; and time in the T-test with success ful two-point field-goals (r = -0.65, success ful free-throws (r = -0.61, and steals (r = -0.62. However, in playoffs, only stature and lean mass maintained these correlations (p ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS The anthropometric and physical characteristics of the players showed few correlations with the game-related statistics in regular season, and these correlations are even lower in the playoff games of a professional elite Champion ship, wherefore, not being good predictors of technical performance.
Suarez-Arrones, L; Torreño, N; Requena, B; Sáez De Villarreal, E; Casamichana, D; Barbero-Alvarez, J C; Munguía-Izquierdo, D
The aim was to quantify for the first time the physical and physiological profile of professional soccer players in official games using GPS and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty professional soccer players were investigated during a half in competitive club level matches (N.=348) using GPS devices. The relative total distance was 118.9±10.7 m∙min(-1) and player's Work-To-Rest Ratio was 2.1:1. Defenders covered the lowest total distance, while Second-Strikers (2(nd)S) and Wide-Midfielders (W-MD) traveled the greatest total distance. Defenders presented the lowest Work-To-Rest Ratio values. Playing position also impacted on all sprinting performance results, except in average sprint distance and time of sprint. The number of sprints and repeated-sprint sequences recorded by the W-MD and Strikers (S) were significantly greater than any other group. The average HR recorded was 87.1%HRmax and the relationship between the external and internal load value (Effindex) was 1.4 with significant differences in both between playing positions. W-MD recorded a significantly smaller average HR than any other group and Centre-Backs showed a significantly smaller Effindex value than any other group. Conversely, W-MD showed a significantly greater Effindex value than any other group, except the 2(nd)S. This study has verified a number of statistically significant differences between the different playing positions. Coaches should be focused on the specific physical and physiological requirements of the playing positions to optimize the training prescription in soccer. The relationships between external and internal load measures among position-specific indicates that players with less overall running performance during match-play were the worst in Effindex.
Chmura, Paweł; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Konefał, Marek; Mroczek, Dariusz; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan
The aim of the present study was to analyze motor activities of soccer players in seven consecutive rounds of matches of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil and to compare the performance of the world champions, the German national team with other participating teams. The study sample comprised 905 observations of 340 soccer players, who played full-time matches in all seven rounds of the tournament. The study was conducted using data collected from the Castrol Performance Index, a kinematic game analysis system that records movements of players with semi-automatic cameras. The following variables were analyzed: total distance covered, the percentage of total distance covered at high intensity, the number of sprints, frequency of sprints and peak running speed. A statistically significant increase (p ≤ 0.01) was noted in total distance covered, the percentage of distance covered at high intensity and total number of sprints, between the quarter-finals and semi-finals of the World Cup tournament in Brazil. The German national team covered a significantly longer total distance (p ≤ 0.05) and had a greater percentage of distance covered at high intensity (p ≤ 0.001) than players from other teams. The obtained results point to the necessity of development of players' aerobic endurance and speed-endurance abilities while preparing for top-level soccer tournaments. Winning a soccer championship requires players to run longer mean total distances and longer distances at high intensity during a single match.
Paz-Franco, Adrián; Rey, Ezequiel; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto
Paz-Franco, A, Rey, E, and Barcala-Furelos, R. Effects of three different resistance training frequencies on jump, sprint, and repeated sprint ability performances in professional futsal players. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3343-3350, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 3 different resistance training (RT) frequencies (1 strength training session per week [1W], 2 strength training sessions per week [2W], or 1 strength training session every second week [0.5W]) on jump, sprint, and repeated sprint ability (RSA) performances in professional futsal players. Thirty-five futsal players were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, the 1W group (n = 12), 2W group (n = 12), or the 0.5W group (n = 11). The players performed the same RT during 6 weeks, and only training frequency differed between the groups. Within-group analysis showed significant improvements in jump (p ≤ 0.001, effect size [ES] = 0.13-0.35), sprint (p ≤ 0.001, ES = 0.48-0.71), and RSA (p ≤ 0.01, ES = 0.22-0.63) from pretest to posttest in 1W and 2W groups. However, no significant (p > 0.05) pre-post changes were observed for the 0.5W group in any variable. In the between-groups analysis, significant better results were found in jump (p ≤ 0.01), sprint (p ≤ 0.01), and RSA performances (p ≤ 0.01) in the 1W and 2W groups in comparison with 0.5W group. Also, jump (p ≤ 0.05) and 5-m sprint (p ≤ 0.05) performances were significantly better in the 2W group in comparison with 1W group. In conclusion, the current study showed that 6 weeks of RT 1 or 2 times per week in addition to typical futsal training produced significant improvements in jump, sprint, and RSA performances. Additionally, RT once every second week may be sufficient to maintain physical fitness in professional futsal players. This information may be useful for coaches when planning training contents during congested fixture schedules or in periods where the emphasis needs to be put on other qualities and to spend as
Stepanov, Petr; Delga, Adrien; Gregersen, Niels
Photonic trumpets are broadband dielectric antennas that efficiently funnel the emission of a pointlike quantum emitter—such as a semiconductor quantum dot—into a Gaussian free-space beam. After describing guidelines for the taper design, we present a “giant” photonic trumpet. The device features...
Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the changes through repeated explosive effort sequences (20+20-m sprint with change of direction, jumping, metabolic response (lactate, as well as the relationship between these variables and fitness qualities (strength and endurance in professional futsal and soccer players. Methods: Male players (n =30, Twelve futsal and twenty soccer players completed three testing sessions. In the first session was measured VO2max on a motorized treadmill. In the second session was measured counter movement jump (CMJ and full squat RM in Smith Machine. Finally, in the third session six repeated-explosive effort sequences (RES was performed. Results: Similar values of lower limbs strength, CMJ height, LAC after RSA test and VO2max (95,12 vs. 94,73; 34,5 vs. 35,9; 13,65 vs. 14,33; 62,78 vs. 62,95 soccer vs. futsal respectively and significant differences when are analysed the loss of performance in velocity (total and between three first and three last and vertical jump height (2,67 vs. 4,4**; 1,28 vs. 2,1*; 2,88 vs. 6,1**; 9,71 vs. 14,3* soccer vs. futsal respectively. Conclusions: Professional futsal and soccer obtain significant differences in speed and vertical jump height (CMJ loss despite having similar values in squat, oxygen consumption, lactate after RSA test and CMJ height. Issue that could be attributed to the characteristics of the sport. This suggests that the volume should be increased oriented ability to perform repeated sprint actions over other type of training aimed at improving aerobic capacity especially at professional level.
Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Bruno; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Calvete, Francisco; Carriço, Sandro; Owen, Adam Lee
Monitoring internal training load has been extensively used and described within team sport environments, however when compared to internal physiological measures such as heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), the literature is sparse. The primary aim of this investigation study was to assess differences of playing position on ITL, session-RPE and wellness across two different training microcycles (1 vs. 2 competitive games), in addition with examining the relationship between ITL and Hooper's Index across an entire season. Thirty-five professional soccer players from the Portuguese premier league participated in the study (25.7±5.0years; 182.3±6.4cm; 79.1±7.0kg). Analysis of variance revealed higher values of DOMS (Means(M): 3.33 vs. 3.10; p=0.001; effect Size (ES)=0.087), fatigue (M: 3.18 vs. 2.99; p=0.001; ES=0.060) and HI (M: 11.85 vs. 11.56; p=0.045; ES=0.034) in 2-game weeks compared with 1-game weeks. Correlation between ITL and HI levels found significant negative correlations between ITL and DOMS (ρ=-0.156), ITL and sleep (ρ=-0.109), ITL and fatigue (ρ=-0.225), ITL and stress (ρ=-0.188), and ITL and HI (ρ=-0.238) in 2-game weeks. Results from 1-game microcycle only highlighted negative correlations between ITL and stress (ρ=-0.080). It was concluded from the study that greater fatigue potential, muscle soreness, stress and ITL was significantly more apparent within a 2-game microcycle. As a result, care should be taken when planning the lead into and out of a 2-game fixture microcycle highlighting key specific recovery strategies to damped the increased stress effect. Additionally, the potential utilization of squad rotation strategies may be a positive approach with aim of managing the fatigue effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wright, Mathew J; Woo, Ellen; Birath, J Brandon; Siders, Craig A; Kelly, Daniel F; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Romero, Elizabeth; Kernan, Claudia; Cantu, Robert C; Guskiewicz, Kevin
Various concussion characteristics and personal factors are associated with cognitive recovery in athletes. We developed an index based on concussion frequency, severity, and timeframe, as well as cognitive reserve (CR), and we assessed its predictive power regarding cognitive ability in retired professional football players. Data from 40 retired professional American football players were used in the current study. On average, participants had been retired from football for 20 years. Current neuropsychological performances, indicators of CR, concussion history, and play data were used to create an index for predicting cognitive outcome. The sample displayed a range of concussions, concussion severities, seasons played, CR, and cognitive ability. Many of the participants demonstrated cognitive deficits. The index strongly predicted global cognitive ability (R(2) = .31). The index also predicted the number of areas of neuropsychological deficit, which varied as a function of the deficit classification system used (Heaton: R(2) = .15; Wechsler: R(2) = .28). The current study demonstrated that a unique combination of CR, sports concussion, and game-related data can predict cognitive outcomes in participants who had been retired from professional American football for an average of 20 years. Such indices may prove to be useful for clinical decision making and research.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation is a well-known procedure for the treatment of cartilage defects, which aims to establish a regenerative milieu and restore hyaline cartilage. However, much less is known about third-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation application in high-level athletes. We report on the two-year follow-up outcome after matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat a large cartilage lesion of the lateral femoral condyle in a male Caucasian professional football player. Case presentation A 27-year-old male Caucasian professional football player was previously treated for cartilage problems of his left knee with two failed microfracture procedures resulting in a 9 cm2 Outerbridge Grade 4 chondral lesion at his lateral femoral condyle. Preoperative Tegner-Lysholm and Brittberg-Peterson scores were 64 and 58, and by the second year they were 91 and 6. An evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated filling of the defect with the signal intensity of the repair tissue resembling healthy cartilage. Second-look arthroscopy revealed robust, smooth cartilage covering his lateral femoral condyle. He returned to his former competitive level without restrictions or complaints one year after the procedure. Conclusions This case illustrates that robust cartilage tissue can be obtained with a matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure even after two failed microfracture procedures in a large (9 cm2 cartilage defect. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report on the application of the third-generation cell therapy treatment technique, matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation, in a professional football player.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate maximum aerobic power (VO2 max and anaerobic threshold (AT as determinants of training status among professional soccer players. Twelve professional 1st team British male soccer players (age: 26.2 ± 3.3 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m, body mass: 79.3 ± 9.4 kg agreed to participate in the study and provided informed consent. All subjects completed a combined test of anaerobic threshold (AT and maximum aerobic power on two occasions: Test 1 following 5 weeks of low level activity at the end of the off-season and Test 2 immediately following conclusion of the competitive season. AT was assessed as both lactate threshold (LT and ventilatory threshold (VT. There was no change in VO2 max between Test 1 and Test 2 (63.3 ± 5.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 vs. 62.1 ± 4.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 respectively, however, the duration of exercise tolerance (ET at VO2 max was significantly extended from Test 1 to Test 2 (204 ± 54 vs. 228 ± 68 s respectively (P<0.01. LT oxygen consumption was significantly improved in Test 2 versus Test 1 (P<0.01 VT was also improved (P<0.05. There was no significant difference in VO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1 corresponding to LT and VT. The results of this study show that VO2 max is a less sensitive indicator to changes in training status in professional soccer players than either LT or VT.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Harding, Herndon P; Guskiewicz, Kevin M
Concussions may accelerate the progression to long-term mental health outcomes such as depression in athletes. To prospectively determine the effects of recurrent concussions on the clinical diagnosis of depression in a group of retired football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Members of the National Football League Retired Players Association responded to a baseline General Health Survey (GHS) in 2001. They also completed a follow-up survey in 2010. Both surveys asked about demographic information, number of concussions sustained during their professional football career, physical/mental health, and prevalence of diagnosed medical conditions. A physical component summary (Short Form 36 Measurement Model for Functional Assessment of Health and Well-Being [SF-36 PCS]) was calculated from responses for physical health. The main exposure, the history of concussions during the professional playing career (self-report recalled in 2010), was stratified into 5 categories: 0 (referent), 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10+ concussions. The main outcome was a clinical diagnosis of depression between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Classic tabular methods computed crude risk ratios. Binomial regression with a Poisson residual and robust variance estimation to stabilize the fitting algorithm estimated adjusted risk ratios. χ(2) analyses identified associations and trends between concussion history and the 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis. Of the 1044 respondents with complete data from the baseline and follow-up GHS, 106 (10.2%) reported being clinically diagnosed as depressed between the baseline and follow-up GHS. Approximately 65% of all respondents self-reported sustaining at least 1 concussion during their professional careers. The 9-year risk of a depression diagnosis increased with an increasing number of self-reported concussions, ranging from 3.0% in the "no concussions" group to 26.8% in the "10+" group (linear trend: P football and 2001 SF-36 PCS
Steca, P; Pala, A Norcini; Greco, A; Monzani, D; D'Addario, M
Psychometric properties of the Group Environment Questionnaire were investigated in a large sample of soccer (n = 222) and professional basketball players (n = 375). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed both on the total sample and on the two subsamples through a multi-group approach; associations between cohesion and the duration of belonging to the team were also explored. Results confirmed the four-factor structure proposed by Carron's original model even though some items with low loadings were eliminated. No significant associations were found between team cohesion and the duration of belonging to the team.
Fuentes, Juan P; Villafaina, Santos; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; de la Vega, Ricardo; Gusi, Narcis; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier
Psychophysiological requirements of chess players are poorly understood, and periodization of training is often made without any empirical basis. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to investigate the psychophysiological response and quantify the player internal load during, and after playing a chess game. The participant was an elite 33 year-old male chess player ranked among the 300 best chess players in the world. Thus, cortical arousal by critical flicker fusion threshold, electroencephalogram by the theta Fz/alpha Pz ratio and autonomic modulation by heart rate variability were analyzed. Data revealed that cortical arousal by critical flicker fusion threshold and theta Fz/alpha Pz ratio increased and heart rate variability decreased during chess game. All these changes indicated that internal load increased during the chess game. In addition, pre-activation was detected in pre-game measure, suggesting that the prefrontal cortex might be preparatory activated. For these reasons, electroencephalogram, critical flicker fusion threshold and heart rate variability analysis may be highly applicable tools to control and monitor workload in chess player.
Fortington, Lauren V; Berry, Jason; Buttifant, David; Ullah, Shahid; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Finch, Caroline F
Australian Football League (AFL) players have a high risk of injury. Anecdotally, this injury risk is greater in emerging players (i.e. those in their first year), compared with established players (with 3+ years of experience). This study aimed to conduct the first comparison of injury risk and playing experience in these two player groups across a large number of AFL clubs. Prospective, cohort. Injuries, game participation and training participation were collected weekly by 8 AFL clubs for 61 emerging and 64 established players. Injury incidence rates (IIR) and Cox proportional hazard models for time to first injury, separately for games and training, were computed. The game IIR was significantly higher for emerging than established players: 45.6 (95% CI: 35.7, 57.6) versus 18.3 (95% CI: 13.1, 24.9) per 1000 game-hours. Emerging players also had a higher training IIR than did the established players: 9.6 (95% CI: 7.6, 11.9) versus 8.9 (95% CI: 7.0, 11.1) per 1000 training-hours. Emerging players were significantly less likely to remain injury free in games than established players (HR=3.46, 95% CI: 1.27, 9.45). A similar outcome was seen in training sessions, although to a lesser degree (HR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.69). Despite efforts to modify the playing/training program of emerging players, this group remain at greater risk of injury in games and training sessions, compared with established players. Continued efforts should be made toward understanding reasons for this increased risk to better prevent injury during the early years of a professional football career. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vince W Lands
Full Text Available The adductor longus has become recognized as one of the more commonly injured muscles in the medial compartment. Acute complete rupture injuries occurring at the proximal aspect of the muscle are less common. Limited data exist regarding management of the injuries in athletes required for return to play and functioning. The current data favors operative management; however, nonoperative treatment may be a viable option. Nonoperative management of avulsion injuries of the proximal adductor longus tendon may prove equal results to surgical repair in return to play and functioning. A semi-professional football player sustained a left groin injury while participating in the play. Due to continued pain, swelling, and suspicion of injury, a magnetic resonance imaging was performed diagnosing a complete tear of proximal adductor longus tendon. Physical examination, strength, and range of motion were recorded until the patient was able to function normally without strength deficit, the range of motion loss, and the return of speed. The player was treated nonoperatively and was eventually allowed to return to play. The time of return to play was 6 weeks. Strength deficit was not appreciated or loss of motion and player was able to return to baseline function. Nonoperative management of complete avulsion injuries of the proximal adductor longus tendon result in faster return to play than operative management even if significant retraction is present.
John, J. St; Ransler, F.A.; Quinn, T.W.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.
Primers for 16 microsatellite loci were developed for the trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), a species recovering from a recent population bottleneck. In a screen of 158 individuals, the 16 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to seven alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although two loci repeatedly revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amplification in the closely related tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) was successful for all except one locus. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses and ultimately aid in management efforts. ?? 2006 The Authors.
M. Magalhães Sales
Conclusion: The anthropometric profile of soccer players that act in the United Arab Emirates is similar to others around the world. However, regarding the physical fitness, results are still inconclusive, since findings from other studies suggest that the anaerobic power of our sample is alike or lower than other elite players throughout the world. Likewise indirect VO2max, especially given the acknowledged limitations of obtaining indirectly this variable. In addition, making an analysis by playing position, the results of this study are similar to previous research.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the effect of FIFA 11+ (11+ and HarmoKnee injury preventive warm-up programs on conventional strength ratio (CSR, dynamic control ratio (DCR and fast/slow speed ratio (FSR in young male professional soccer players. These ratios are related to the risk of injury to the knee in soccer players. METHODS: Thirty-six players were divided into 3 groups; FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee and control (n = 12 per group. These exercises were performed 3 times per week for 2 months (24 sessions. The CSR, DCR and FSR were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After training, the CSR and DCR of knee muscles in both groups were found to be lower than the published normal values (0.61, 0.72, and 0.78 during 60°.s(-1, 180°.s(-1 and 300°.s(-1, respectively. The CSR (60°.s(-1 increased by 8% and FSR in the quadriceps of the non-dominant leg by 8% in the 11+. Meanwhile, the DCR in the dominant and non-dominant legs were reduced by 40% and 30% respectively in the 11+. The CSR (60°.s(-1 in the non-dominant leg showed significant differences between the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups (p = 0.02. As for the DCR analysis between groups, there were significant differences in the non-dominant leg between both programs with the control group (p = 0.04. For FSR no significant changes were found between groups. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the 11+ improved CSR and FSR, but the HarmoKnee program did not demonstrate improvement. We suggest adding more training elements to the HarmoKnee program that aimed to enhance hamstring strength (CSR, DCR and FSR. Professional soccer players have higher predisposition of getting knee injuries because hamstring to quadriceps ratio were found to be lower than the average values. It seems that the 11+ have potentials to improve CSR and FSR as well as prevent knee injuries in soccer players.
Shahim, Pashtun; Tegner, Yelverton; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Smith, Douglas H.
Abstract Biomarkers for diffuse axonal injury could have utilities for the acute diagnosis and clinical care of concussion, including those related to sports. The calpain-derived αII-spectrin N-terminal fragment (SNTF) accumulates in axons after traumatic injury and increases in human blood after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in relation to white matter abnormalities and persistent cognitive dysfunction. However, SNTF has never been evaluated as a biomarker for sports-related concussion. Here, we conducted longitudinal analysis of serum SNTF in professional ice hockey players, 28 of whom had a concussion, along with 45 players evaluated during the preseason, 17 of whom were also tested after a concussion-free training game. Compared with preseason levels, serum SNTF increased at 1 h after concussion and remained significantly elevated from 12 h to 6 days, before declining to preseason baseline. In contrast, serum SNTF levels were unchanged after training. In 8 players, postconcussion symptoms resolved within a few days, and in these cases serum SNTF levels were at baseline. On the other hand, for the 20 players withheld from play for 6 days or longer, serum SNTF levels rose from 1 h to 6 days postconcussion, and at 12–36 h differed significantly from the less-severe concussions (p=0.004). Serum SNTF exhibited diagnostic accuracy for concussion, especially so with delayed return to play (area under the curve=0.87). Multi-variate analyses of serum SNTF and tau improved the diagnostic accuracy, the relationship with the delay in return to play, and the temporal window beyond tau alone. These results provide evidence that blood SNTF, a biomarker for axonal injury after mTBI, may be useful for diagnosis and prognosis of sports-related concussion, as well as for guiding neurobiologically informed decisions on return to play. PMID:25419578
Siman, Robert; Shahim, Pashtun; Tegner, Yelverton; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Smith, Douglas H
Biomarkers for diffuse axonal injury could have utilities for the acute diagnosis and clinical care of concussion, including those related to sports. The calpain-derived αII-spectrin N-terminal fragment (SNTF) accumulates in axons after traumatic injury and increases in human blood after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in relation to white matter abnormalities and persistent cognitive dysfunction. However, SNTF has never been evaluated as a biomarker for sports-related concussion. Here, we conducted longitudinal analysis of serum SNTF in professional ice hockey players, 28 of whom had a concussion, along with 45 players evaluated during the preseason, 17 of whom were also tested after a concussion-free training game. Compared with preseason levels, serum SNTF increased at 1 h after concussion and remained significantly elevated from 12 h to 6 days, before declining to preseason baseline. In contrast, serum SNTF levels were unchanged after training. In 8 players, postconcussion symptoms resolved within a few days, and in these cases serum SNTF levels were at baseline. On the other hand, for the 20 players withheld from play for 6 days or longer, serum SNTF levels rose from 1 h to 6 days postconcussion, and at 12-36 h differed significantly from the less-severe concussions (p=0.004). Serum SNTF exhibited diagnostic accuracy for concussion, especially so with delayed return to play (area under the curve=0.87). Multi-variate analyses of serum SNTF and tau improved the diagnostic accuracy, the relationship with the delay in return to play, and the temporal window beyond tau alone. These results provide evidence that blood SNTF, a biomarker for axonal injury after mTBI, may be useful for diagnosis and prognosis of sports-related concussion, as well as for guiding neurobiologically informed decisions on return to play.
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the precocity-longevity (P-L effect in North American professional basketball players who debuted between 1946 and 1979, and to determine whether playing position and decade of play influenced the relationship between age of career achievements and lifespan. Methods: 1852 players were evaluated from a recognized sports archive (i.e., sports-reference.com, which provided information on date of birth, death, and career debut, playing position, and indicators of achievement (i.e., All-Star team and/or All-League team selection. Athletes were categorized as above or below the median age of professional debut, and median age of selection to first All-Star team and/or All-League team. Analyses of deceased players (n = 598 were comprised of bivariate correlations between age of achievement (age of debut, age of first All-Star game and age of first All-League team selection and age of death, and t-tests to compared the average age of death of early and late achievers (p < .05. Survival analyses, using the entire sample (living and deceased players, compared the lifespans between those who debuted above and below the median age of achievement for each indicator of achievement. Results: Only the correlation between age of professional debut and age of death (r = .33, p < .001 and age of first all-star game and age of death (r = .29, p < .05 and the t-test comparing the average death age of early (66.4 y and later (69.3 y debut age groups (p =.01, reached statistical significance. However, survival analyses demonstrated a trend for lower risk of death for early achievers, with one exception (i.e., age of debut this trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Results did not support the P-L hypothesis, suggesting that sample characteristics (i.e., physical fitness of high performance athletes, and measurement methodologies, may influence support for the proposed hypothesis in sport. However, future research would benefit
Setuain, I; Millor, N; Alfaro, J; Gorostiaga, E; Izquierdo, M
Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent strength and jumping capacity alterations may be observed among athletes who have suffered anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The aim of this study was to examine unilateral and bilateral jumping ability differences between previously ACL-reconstructed rehabilitated elite handball athletes and sex, age and uninjured sport activity level-pairs of control players. It was a Cross-sectional study with one factor: previous ACL injury. We recruited 22 male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) and 21 female (6 ACL-reconstructed and 15 uninjured control players) elite handball players who were evaluated 6.2±3.4 years after surgical ACL reconstruction. A battery of jump tests, including both bilateral and unilateral maneuvers, was performed. Two-tailed unpaired (intergroup comparison) and paired (intragroup comparison) t-tests were performed for mean comparisons. The P-value cut-off for significance was set at handball athletes demonstrated both lower vertical bilateral drop jump (VBDJ) contact times and lower UTHD scores for the injured leg several years after injury. These deficits could contribute to an increase in ACL re-injury risk.
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo
Conclusion: These findings provide a practical, inexpensive approach for evaluating specific training loads when determining VT2 in basketball players. Therefore, HRV is an alternative method to determine VT2 without the application of expensive technology that limits its use to laboratories.
Stubbe, J.H.; Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Knaap, S. van der; Stege, J.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Backx, F.J.G.
Context : Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective : To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design : Cohort
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of serve and return game situations on physiological responses and match characteristics in professional male tennis players during one hour-long simulated singles tennis matches. Ten internationally ranked tennis players (age 22.2 ± 2.8 years; body height 180.7 ± 4.4 cm; body mass 75.9 ± 8.9 kg participated in this study. Their physiological responses were measured using two portable analyzers during indoor hard court matches. Ratings of perceived exertion were also determined at the end of the game. The variables describing the characteristics of the matches determined from video recordings were: (a duration of rallies; (b rest time; (c work-to-rest ratio; (d effective playing time; and (d strokes per rally. Significant differences (p<0.05 were found between serving and returning conditions in an hour-long simulated singles tennis match in terms of oxygen uptake, a heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, pulmonary ventilation, respiration frequency and a respiratory gas exchange ratio. In addition, both the heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion responses were moderately correlated with the duration of rallies and strokes per rally (r = 0.60 to 0.26; p<0.05. Taken together, these results indicate that the serve game situation has a significant effect on the physiological response in an hour-long simulated tennis match between professional male tennis players. These findings might be used for the physiological adaptations required for tennis-specific aerobic endurance.
Nankervis, Brodie; Ferguson, Laura; Gosling, Cameron; Storr, Michael; Ilic, Dragan; Young, Mark; Maloney, Stephen
The objective of this study was to explore how social media is used by a population of injured professional athletes, by comparing the content and frequency of posts on social media, pre and post-injury. A retrospective mixed methods design was utilised. Professional Australian Football League (AFL) players, injured during the 2015 season, were included in the study. Publicly accessible social media profiles for these players were identified on Twitter and Instagram. All posts published on verified profiles, from four weeks prior to injury until return to play, were extracted. Thematic analysis was used to investigate the content of these posts, while univariate and multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the frequency of posts during this time period. Two reoccurring themes were identified exclusively post-injury; 'supporting team from the sideline' and 'sharing information about injury and rehabilitation'. The frequency of total posts did not differ significantly pre and post-injury, but the frequency of injury related posts increased in the immediate post-injury phase, then decreased between 4-8 weeks and 8-12 weeks post-injury. The frequency of injury related posts was higher with more severe injuries. The findings of this study suggest that injured players use social media to seek social support from their followers, especially in the immediate post-injury period and after sustaining a severe injury. The role of social media in injury rehabilitation may warrant further investigation, to determine if it could be used to facilitate return to play. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maroto-Izquierdo, Sergio; García-López, David; de Paz, José A
The aim of the study was to analyse the effects of 6 week (15 sessions) flywheel resistance training with eccentric-overload (FRTEO) on different functional and anatomical variables in professional handball players. Twenty-nine athletes were recruited and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group (EXP, n = 15) carried out 15 sessions of FRTEO in the leg-press exercise, with 4 sets of 7 repetitions at a maximum-concentric effort. The control group (CON, n = 14) performed the same number of training sessions including 4 sets of 7 maximum repetitions (7RM) using a weight-stack leg-press machine. The results which were measured included maximal dynamic strength (1RM), muscle power at different submaximal loads (PO), vertical jump height (CMJ and SJ), 20 m sprint time (20 m), T-test time (T-test), and Vastus-Lateralis muscle (VL) thickness. The results of the EXP group showed a substantially better improvement (p handball requires repeated short, explosive effort such as accelerations and decelerations during sprints with changes of direction, these results suggest that FRTEO affects functional and anatomical changes in a way which improves performance in well-trained professional handball players.
Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Sabbah, Ammar; Kailani, Ghazi; Tønnessen, Espen; Enoksen, Eystein
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vertical jump measures and sprint speed over 10, 20, and 40 m in professional basketball players. Thirty-three professional basketball players aged (±SD) (27.4 ± 3.3 years), body mass (89.8 ± 11.1 kg), and stature (192 ± 8.2 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on squat jump, countermovement jump, and 40-m running speed. The results show that all jump measures in absolute terms were correlated significantly to running performance over 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint times. None of the jumping performance peak powers and reactive strength were found to have a correlation to running speed times in absolute term. Furthermore, all jump height measures relative to body mass except reactive strength had a marked and significant relationship with all sprint performance times. The results of this study indicate that while there is a strong and marked relationship between 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint, there is also a considerable variation within the factors that contribute to performance over these distances. This may indicate that, separate training strategies could be implemented to improve running speed over these distances.
Multani, Namita; Goswami, Ruma; Khodadadi, Mozhgan; Ebraheem, Ahmed; Davis, Karen D; Tator, Charles H; Wennberg, Richard; Mikulis, David J; Ezerins, Leo; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela
Retired professional athletes, who have suffered repetitive concussions, report symptoms of depression, anxiety, and memory impairment over time. Moreover, recent imaging data suggest chronic white-matter tract deterioration in sport-related concussion. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of repetitive concussions in retired professional football players on white-matter tracts, and relate these changes to neuropsychological function. All subjects (18 retired professional football players and 17 healthy controls) underwent imaging, neuropsychological assessment, and reported on concussion-related symptoms. Whole brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis revealed increased axial diffusivity in the right hemisphere of retired players in the (1) superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) anterior thalamic radiations, suggesting chronic axonal degeneration in these tracts. Moreover, retired players report significantly higher neuropsychiatric and cognitive symptoms than healthy controls, and worsening of these symptoms since their last concussion. Loss of integrity in the right SLF significantly correlated with participants' visual learning ability. In sum, these results suggest that repetitive concussions in retired professional football players are associated with focal white-matter tract abnormalities that could explain some of the neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits experienced by these retired athletes.
Requena, Bernardo; García, Inmaculada; Suárez-Arrones, Luis; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Naranjo Orellana, José; Santalla, Alfredo
Requena, B, García, I, Suárez-Arrones, L, Sáez de Villarreal, E, Naranjo Orellana, J, and Santalla, A. Off-season effects on functional performance, body composition, and blood parameters in top-level professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 939-946, 2017-To examine the effects of a standard off-season period (OSP) on aerobic, sprint, and jumping performances, and body and blood composition in a top-level soccer team. Nineteen soccer players were measured. The OSP included to 2 weeks of no training (resting phase) and a 4-week period of moderate-training load (phase in which each player performed the vacation exercise plan). Player's functional performance (15- and 30-m sprint times [seconds], vertical jump [meter], and incremental field test Vam-Eval [kilometer per hour]), percentage of body fat (%) and blood composition (hematological and biochemical data) were measured at mid-season, end-season, and after the OSP. The percentage of body fat was nonaltered during the competitive season (10.8 ± 3.6 and 10.5 ± 3.5%) and increased significantly after the OSP (11.6 ± 3.6%, p ≤ 0.05). Similarly, the maximal aerobic speed (VVam-Eval) velocity (kilometer per hour) decreased (p ≤ 0.05) from 17.4 ± 1 and 17.3 ± 1.2 during the competitive season to 16.6 ± 0.9 after the OSP. The hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased (p ≤ 0.05) during the OSP, showing a blood hemoconcentration adaptation. However, sprint time (seconds) and jump height (meters) showed no significant changes after the OSP. Soccer players maintained their functional performance during high-intensity activities such as jumping or sprinting after the OSP proposed. By contrast, there was a decrease in aerobic performance (VVam-Eval) accompanied by a blood hemoconcentration, and an increase of body fat mass associated with a reduction of fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Our data suggest that an end-season evaluation is needed to design holiday training programs
Saita, Yoshitomo; Nagao, Masashi; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Yohei; Kobayashi, Keiji; Nakajima, Hiroki; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo; Ikeda, Hiroshi
To identify unknown risk factors associated with fifth metatarsal stress fracture (Jones fracture). A case-controlled study was conducted among male Japanese professional football (soccer) players with (N = 20) and without (N = 40) a history of Jones fracture. Injury history and physical examination data were reviewed, and the two groups were compared. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression controlling for age, leg dominance and body mass index were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to describe the association between physical examination data and the presence or absence of Jones fractures. From 2000 to 2014, among 162 professional football club players, 22 (13.6%; 21 Asians and one Caucasian) had a history of Jones fracture. Thirteen out of 22 (60%) had a Jones fracture in their non-dominant leg. The mean range of hip internal rotation (HIR) was restricted in players with a history of Jones fracture [25.9° ± 7.5°, mean ± standard deviation (SD)] compared to those without (40.4° ± 11.1°, P fracture (OR = 3.03, 95% CI 1.45-6.33, P = 0.003). Subgroup analysis using data prior to Jones fracture revealed a causal relationship, such that players with a restriction of HIR were at high risk of developing a Jones fracture [Crude OR (95% CI) = 6.66 (1.90-23.29), P = 0.003, Adjusted OR = 9.91 (2.28-43.10), P = 0.002]. In addition, right HIR range limitation increased the risks of developing a Jones fracture in the ipsilateral and the contralateral feet [OR = 3.11 (1.35-7.16) and 2.24 (1.22-4.12), respectively]. Similarly, left HIR range limitation increased the risks in the ipsilateral or the contralateral feet [OR (95% CI) = 4.88 (1.56-15.28) and 2.77 (1.08-7.08), respectively]. The restriction of HIR was associated with an increased risk of developing a Jones fracture. Since the HIR range is a modifiable factor, monitoring and improving the HIR range can lead to prevent reducing the occurrence of
Elliott, Marcus C C W; Zarins, Bertram; Powell, John W; Kenyon, Charles D
Investigations into hamstring strain injuries at the elite level exist in sports such as Australian Rules football, rugby, and soccer, but no large-scale study exists on the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in the National Football League (NFL). Injury rates will vary between different player positions, times in the season, and across different playing situations. Descriptive epidemiology study. Between 1989 and 1998, injury data were prospectively collected by athletic trainers for every NFL team and recorded in the NFL's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected included team, date of injury, activity the player was engaged in at the time of injury, injury severity, position played, mechanism of injury, and history of previous injury. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). An athlete-exposure was defined as 1 athlete participating in either 1 practice or 1 game. Over the 10-year study period 1716 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.77 per 1000 A-E. More than half (51.3%) of hamstring strains occurred during the 7-week preseason. The preseason practice IR was significantly elevated compared with the regular-season practice IR (0.82/1000 A-E and 0.18/1000 A-E, respectively). The most commonly injured positions were the defensive secondary, accounting for 23.1% of the injuries; the wide receivers, accounting for 20.8%; and special teams, constituting 13.0% of the injuries in the study. Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in football, with the majority of injuries occurring during the short preseason. In particular, the speed position players, such as the wide receivers and defensive secondary, as well as players on the special teams units, are at elevated risk for injury. These positions and situations with a higher risk of injury provide foci for preventative interventions.
Full Text Available Normal hip range of motion (ROM is essential in running and transfer of energy from lower to upper extremities during overhead throwing. Dysfunctional hip ROM may alter lower extremity kinematics and predispose athletes to hip and groin injuries. The purpose of this study is characterize hip internal/external ROM (Arc and its effect on the risk of hip, hamstring, and groin injuries in professional baseball players. Bilateral hip internal and external ROM was measured on all baseball players (N=201 in one professional organization (major and minor league during spring training. Players were organized according to their respective positions. All injuries were documented prospectively for an entire MLB season (2010 to 2011. Data was analyzed according to position and injuries during the season. Total number of players (N=201 with an average age of 24±3.6 (range=17-37. Both pitchers (N=93 and catchers (N=22 had significantly decreased mean hip internal rotation and overall hip arc of motion compared to the positional players (N=86. Players with hip, groin, and hamstring injury also had decreased hip rotation arc when compared to the normal group. Overall, there is a correlation between decreased hip internal rotation and total arc of motion with hip, hamstring, and groin injuries.
Hermassi, Souhail; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Irlenbusch, Lars; Fieseler, Georg; Noack, Frank; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Gabbett, Tim J; Souhaiel Chelly, Mohamed; Schwesig, René
We investigated the relationship between the Handball Complex-Test (HBCT) and two selected field performance tests (the repeated sprint ability [RSA], and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test) in elite handball players. Nineteen handball players (age: 25.7±5.1 years) were drawn from the First Professional German League. The HBCT consists of four activity series (AS): agility parcours, defensive action, sprint (10 m, 20 m) and throw-on-goal parcours; these activities were completed twice, with five active pauses of 30-35 s, and a follow-up of recovery over the subsequent 10 minutes. The RSA comprised 6 x (15+15 m) sprints starting every 20 s; scoring noted best time (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and decrement (RSAdec). In the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recover, we recorded the total distance covered (TD). Heart rates (HR) were recorded throughout and recovery was assessed for measurements immediately post-test (R0) and 10 minutes after completing the test (R10). A strong correlation was found between HBCT and fastest 10 m and 20 m RSA sprint times (r=0.811, r=0.815, respectively). Also, the HBCT total 10 m and 20 m sprint times showed a strong positive association with RSATT (r=0.70; r=0.63, respectively), and the RSA heart rate post-test was strongly correlated with the HBCT heart rate after round two (r=0.865). Data from the match-specific HBCT Test shows a strong positive association with other more generic intermittent field test measurements. These observations support the validity of using the generic tests to monitor current fitness and responses to training in team handball players.
Strahorn, Joshua; Serpell, Benjamin G; McKune, Andrew; Pumpa, Kate L
Strahorn, J, Serpell, BG, McKune, A, and Pumpa, KL. Effect of physical and psychosocial interventions on hormone and performance outcomes in professional rugby union players: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3158-3169, 2017-This systematic review investigates the acute effects of physical or psychosocial interventions on testosterone and cortisol responses in elite male rugby union players, and the subsequent association with physical performance areas (e.g., strength, power, sprint performance) or key performance indicators (e.g., coach-identified skills). Medline (via EBSCO), SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, InformIT, ProQuest, Cochrane, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria, with 6 articles examining the effect of speed, strength or power training, and the remaining 3 psychosocial interventions. Quality assessment of the articles as determined by their PEDro score was either 6 or 7 out of 11. This review found that both physical and psychosocial interventions can alter testosterone and cortisol, and physical performance areas important for rugby union are affected by these changes. The limited literature in the field supports the notion that physical interventions of short duration and high intensity, and psychosocial interventions that create a positive environment may elicit a hormonal response that is associated with favorable performance outcomes. Studies that reported psychosocial interventions suggest that testosterone and cortisol may be altered in elite rugby players without metabolic stress, something of great interest to elite athletes and coaches who are looking to elicit a performance advantage without increasing athlete load. Overall, this review identified that when the testosterone responses to an intervention are notably greater than that of cortisol, favorable outcomes are likely. Further research is required to improve our understanding on how to best manipulate training to induce
Schultz, Vivian; Stern, Robert A; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie; Wrobel, Pawel; Lepage, Christian; Weir, Isabelle; Guenette, Jeffrey P; Chua, Alicia; Alosco, Michael L; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine E; Coleman, Michael J; Lin, Alexander P; Pasternak, Ofer; Shenton, Martha E; Koerte, Inga K
Thalamic atrophy has been associated with exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI) in professional fighters. The aim of this study is to investigate whether or not age at first exposure (AFE) to RHI is associated with thalamic volume in symptomatic former National Football League (NFL) players at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Eighty-six symptomatic former NFL players (mean age = 54.9 ± 7.9 years) were included. T1-weighted data were acquired on a 3T magnetic resonance imager, and thalamic volumes were derived using FreeSurfer. Mood and behavior, psychomotor speed, and visual and verbal memory were assessed. The association between thalamic volume and AFE to playing football and to number of years playing was calculated. Decreased thalamic volume was associated with more years of play (left: p = 0.03; right: p = 0.03). Younger AFE was associated with decreased right thalamic volume (p = 0.014). This association remained significant after adjusting for total years of play. Decreased left thalamic volume was associated with worse visual memory (p = 0.014), whereas increased right thalamic volume was associated with fewer mood and behavior symptoms (p = 0.003). In our sample of symptomatic former NFL players at risk for CTE, total years of play and AFE were associated with decreased thalamic volume. The effect of AFE on right thalamic volume was almost twice as strong as the effect of total years of play. Our findings confirm previous reports of an association between thalamic volume and exposure to RHI. They suggest further that younger AFE may result in smaller thalamic volume later in life.
Sojda, Richard S.
The number of trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) breeding in the Tri-State area where Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming come together has declined to just a few hundred pairs. However, these birds are part of the Rocky Mountain Population which additionally has over 3,500 birds breeding in Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, and Yukon Territory. To a large degree, these birds seem to have abandoned traditional migratory pathways in the flyway. Waterfowl managers have been interested in decision support tools that would help them explore simulated management scenarios in their quest towards reaching population recovery and the reestablishment of traditional migratory pathways. I have developed a decision support system to assist biologists with such management, especially related to wetland ecology. Decision support systems use a combination of models, analytical techniques, and information retrieval to help develop and evaluate appropriate alternatives. Swan management is a domain that is ecologically complex, and this complexity is compounded by spatial and temporal issues. As such, swan management is an inherently distributed problem. Therefore, the ecological context for modeling swan movements in response to management actions was built as a multiagent system of interacting intelligent agents that implements a queuing model representing swan migration. These agents accessed ecological knowledge about swans, their habitats, and flyway management principles from three independent expert systems. The agents were autonomous, had some sensory capability, and could respond to changing conditions. A key problem when developing ecological decision support systems is empirically determining that the recommendations provided are valid. Because Rocky Mountain trumpeter swans have been surveyed for a long period of time, I was able to compare simulated distributions provided by the system with actual field observations across 20 areas for the period 1988
Cazzola, R; Russo-Volpe, S; Cervato, G; Cestaro, B
Physical exercise is characterized by an increase in oxygen consumption by the whole body. This leads to a decrease in antioxidant levels that could promote both an increase in the markers of lipoprotein peroxidation and damage to the erythrocyte membrane with consequent modification of membrane fluidity. Different markers of oxidative stress, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and antioxidant status were determined in 20 professional soccer players and 20 sedentary controls. Plasma lipoperoxides and kinetics of Cu-stimulated plasma peroxidation were measured together with hydrosoluble (albumin, uric acid and vitamin C), liposoluble (vitamin E and bilirubin) and enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) serum antioxidants. Erythrocyte membrane rigidity was determined by measuring fluorescence anisotropy (rs) of the fluorescent probe 1, 3, 5 diphenylexatriene. The sportsmen showed higher levels of the following plasmatic antioxidants: ascorbic acid (Pmembrane fluidity (P=0.0152) were found to be significantly higher in the soccer players. Athletes undergoing regular and adequate training show improved antioxidant status together with a more fluid membrane status, which could contribute to improving both peripheral resistance to insulin and all the functional metabolic interchanges in the cellular membrane.
Ravier, Gilles; Bouzigon, Romain; Beliard, Samuel; Tordi, Nicolas; Grappe, Frederic
The purpose was to investigate the benefits of full-leg length compression garments (CGs) worn during a handball-specific circuit exercises on athletic performance and acute fatigue-induced changes in strength and muscle soreness in professional handball players. Eighteen males (mean ± SD: age 23.22 ± 4.97 years; body mass 82.06 ± 9.69 kg; height 184.61 ± 4.78 cm) completed two identical sessions either wearing regular gym short or CGs in a randomized crossover design. Exercise circuits of explosive activities included 3 periods of 12 minutes of sprints, jumps and agility drills every 25s. Before, immediately after and 24 h post-exercise, maximal voluntary knee extension (MVC), rate of force development (RFD) and muscle soreness were assessed. During the handball-specific circuit sprint and jump performances were unchanged in both conditions. Immediately after performing the circuit exercises MVC, RFD and PPT decreased significantly compared with preexercise with CGs and noncompression clothes. Decrement was similar in both conditions for RFD (ES = 0.40) and PPT for the soleus (ES = 0.86). However, wearing CGs attenuated decrement in MVC (P handball-specific circuit provides benefits on the impairment of the maximal muscle force characteristics and is likely to be worthwhile for handball players involved in activities such as tackles.
Lanzetti, R M; Ciompi, A; Lupariello, D; Guzzini, M; De Carli, A; Ferretti, A
Our hypothesis is that there are no difference in the injury incidence on artificial turf and natural grass. During the 2011/2012 season, we recorded injuries which occurred to two Italian stadiums equipped with third-generation artificial turf during 36 games (391 players). Data were compared with the injuries which occurred in the same season in two stadiums equipped with natural grass (372 players). We recorded 43 injuries during the playing time (16.7 per 1000 h). About 23 (18.1 per 1000 h) injuries occurred on artificial turf, while 20 (15.2 per 1000 h) on the natural grass with no statistical differences P > 0.05. We recorded 10 (7.87 per 1000 h) contact and 13 (10.23 per 1000 h) non-contact injuries on artificial turf, while 5 (3.8 per 1000 h) contact and 15 (11.4 per 1000 h) non-contact injuries on natural grass P > 0.05. The overall relative risk was 1.15; 95% CI: 0.64-2.07). Our study demonstrates a substantial equivalence in injury risk on natural grass and artificial turf in elite professional soccer athletes during official matches. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Reports based on experiences from masseurs and players, mostly without any scientific background, suggest that the combination of a classical regeneration method (i.e. massage with exposure to hypoxia may enhance regeneration in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this specific combination could affect blood parameters related to muscle damage and physical strain after a soccer game. Approximately 15 hours after two separate championship games, 10 professional male outfield players of the first Austrian division were exposed to normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 13.5% ~ 4000m or normoxia for 1 hour (30 minutes rest followed by 30 min massage (cross-over design. Creatine kinase (CK, urea and uric acid (UA were measured 4 days before the first game, and 15 and 63 hours after the two games. Match play increased CK values independently of the intervention. No effect of the massage in combination with hypoxia was seen. A trend was found between ∆ UA ([UA] 48 hours after exposure minus [UA] before exposure in response to hypoxia and SaO2 measured in hypoxia (r=0.612, p=0.06. Results show that massage under hypoxic conditions had no additional positive effect on the measured parameters compared to massage alone. Solely the trend of a relationship for ∆ UA and SaO2 might indicate that redox alterations are a potential consequence of hypoxic exposure.
Polman, Remco; Nicholls, Adam R; Cohen, Jeannette; Borkoles, Erika
In this study, we examined the relationship between home and away matches on mood. In addition, the relationships between game location, game outcome, behavioural factors, and mood were investigated among 12 professional English rugby league players competing in the Super League. Participants completed daily diaries for 27 days. The diary consisted of six analogue scales measuring mood (relaxed-tense, energetic-weary, depressed-elated, tired-alert, anxious-calm, cheerful-miserable) as well as behavioural factors and self-rated performance. There were no significant differences in self-reported mood states leading up to home or away matches except for players feeling more tired when playing away. Significant relationships between mood and behaviours (e.g. sleep and eating) and subjective performance were observed. The outcome of the match was found to influence mood, with a defeat resulting in decreased mood. Our results show that game location did not influence mood and therefore does not provide an explanation for the home advantage.
Woodward, J Scott; Parker, Andrew; Macdonald, Robert M
Case Report Injury or weakness of lower abdominal attachments and the posterior inguinal wall can be symptoms of a "sports hernia" and an underlying source of groin pain. Although several authors note conservative treatment as the initial step in the management of this condition, very little has been written on the specific description of non-surgical measures. Most published articles favoring operative care describe poor results related to conservative management; however they fail to report what treatment techniques comprise non-operative management. The subject of this case report is a professional ice hockey player who sustained an abdominal injury in a game, which was diagnosed as a sports hernia. Following the injury, structured conservative treatment emphasized core control and stability with progressive peripheral demand challenges. Intrinsic core control emphasis continued throughout the treatment progression and during the functional training prior to return to sport. The player completed his recovery with return to full competition seven weeks post injury, and continues to compete in the NHL seven years later. Surgical intervention has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the "sports hernia." However it is the authors' opinion that conservative care emphasizing evaluation of intrinsic core muscular deficits and rehabilitation directed at addressing these deficits is an appropriate option, and should be considered prior to surgical intervention.
Zapolska, Joanna; Witczak, Katarzyna; Mańczuk, Angelika; Ostrowska, Lucyna
Volleyball is a team game belonging to a group of sports disciplines that involve indirect fighting. Adequate energy coverage in athletes is a crucial issue. It depends primarily on the type, intensity and duration of physical activity related to the sports discipline practiced and to the training cycle duration. The average energy requirement in sportsmen is 50% higher than that of adults. The aim of the study was to characterize the mode of nutrition, including dietary supplements and to assess somatic indices in female volleyball players of the AZS Bialystok team. The study involved 17 women. Research tools included a questionnaire consisting of 24-hour recall, a questionnaire survey concerning supplement intake and body composition analysis performed using a bioimpedance analyzer InBody 220. Data analysis indicates that the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of the AZS Bialystok players meet the recommendations associated with the somatic features in volleyball. Daily diet of the volleyball players were of low-energy with regard to the recommendations for physically active people, with very low supply of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, excessive proportion of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol, and too low content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supply of vitamins and minerals was found to be alarmingly low, especially of iron and calcium; diet supplementation was insufficient. No significant abnormalities were noted in body composition of the study athletes. However, they are recommended to increase muscle mass and slightly reduce body fat. Results of diet evaluation show the need for education in the field of nutrition and the necessity of further research into dietary habits among sportsmen.
Hides, Julie A; Stanton, Warren R
Among injuries reported by the Australian Football League (AFL), lower limb injuries have shown the highest incidence and prevalence rates. Deficits in the muscles of the lumbopelvic region, such as a smaller size of multifidus (MF) muscle, have been related to the occurrence of lower limb injuries in the preseason in AFL players. Motor control training programs have been effective in restoring the size and control of the MF muscle, but the relationship between motor control training and occurrence of injuries has not been extensively examined. This pre- and postintervention trial was delivered during the playing season as a panel design with three groups. The motor control program involved voluntary contractions of the MF, transversus abdominis, and pelvic floor muscles while receiving feedback from ultrasound imaging and progressed into a functional rehabilitation program. Assessments of muscle size and function were performed using magnetic resonance imaging and included the measurement of cross-sectional areas of MF, psoas, and quadratus lumborum muscles and the change in trunk cross-sectional area due to voluntarily contracting the transversus abdominis muscle. Injury data were obtained from club records. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. A smaller size of the MF muscle (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38) or quadratus lumborum muscle (OR = 2.17) was predictive of lower limb injury in the playing season. At the time point when one group of players had not received the intervention (n = 14), comparisons were made with the combined groups who had received the intervention (n = 32). The risk of sustaining a severe injury was lower for those players who received the motor control intervention (OR = 0.09). Although there are many factors associated with injuries in AFL, motor control training may provide a useful addition to strategies aimed at reducing lower limb injuries.
Prasad, Nikhil K; Coleman Wood, Krista A; Spinner, Robert J; Kaufman, Kenton R
The assessment of neuromuscular recovery after peripheral nerve surgery has typically been a subjective physical examination. The purpose of this report was to assess the value of gait analysis in documenting recovery quantitatively. A professional football player underwent gait analysis before and after surgery for a peroneal intraneural ganglion cyst causing a left-sided foot drop. Surface electromyography (SEMG) recording from surface electrodes and motion parameter acquisition from a computerized motion capture system consisting of 10 infrared cameras were performed simultaneously. A comparison between SEMG recordings before and after surgery showed a progression from disorganized activation in the left tibialis anterior and peroneus longus muscles to temporally appropriate activation for the phase of the gait cycle. Kinematic analysis of ankle motion planes showed resolution from a complete foot drop preoperatively to phase-appropriate dorsiflexion postoperatively. Gait analysis with dynamic SEMG and motion capture complements physical examination when assessing postoperative recovery in athletes.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Near extinction in 1900, by 1992 the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) contained +2200 swans. The foremost problem facing the...
Flunker, Joel Kent
Although a wealth of pedagogical material exists for most aspects of trumpet performance, there is a comparatively small body of such material devoted to intonation. In addition, while there is general agreement that good intonation is essential to a successful performance, there is no widely accepted methodology for helping students achieve it. This study first identifies the factors that influence trumpet intonation and explores the reasons why intonation receives less pedagogical emphasis than other performance elements. It continues with an examination of how intonation is addressed in existing published materials. This summary of the approaches used in pedagogical publications is compared with methods practiced in applied trumpet studios, based on interviews with respected trumpet professors in major music schools and conservatories. The goal of the study is to define and highlight issues that can help provide a clear focus for future attempts to improve the way intonation is taught and studied.
Camila C. Greco
Full Text Available Muscle strength imbalance can be an important factor in hamstrings muscle strain. A hamstrings/quadriceps (H/Q strength ratio based on concentric peak torque values (Hcon:Qcon has traditionally been used to describe the potential for knee-joint destabilization. Because certain standard actions in soccer are explosive, the analysis of the H/Q strength ratio based on the rate of torque development (Hrtd:Qrtd might also be useful in the evaluation of joint stability. The objective of this study was to compare the Hrtd:Qrtd between professional soccer players with heterogeneous values of Hcon:Qcon. Thirty-nine professional soccer players took part in the following procedures on different days: 1 Familiarization session with the isokinetic dynamometer, and 2 Two maximal isometric actions and five maximal concentric actions at 60°·s-1 for hamstrings (H and quadriceps (Q. Participants were ranked according to their Hcon:Qcon ratio. The median third was excluded to form a high torque group (HTG, and a low torque group (LTG. Peak isometric (H and concentric (H and Q torques and rate of torque development (H were significantly greater in the HTG group. Similarly, Hcon:Qcon (0.68 ± 0.02 vs. 0.52 ± 0.03 and Hrtd:Qrtd (0.54 ± 0.12 vs. 0.43 ± 0.16 were significantly greater in the HTG group than in the LTG group. There was no significant correlation between Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd. It can be concluded that Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd are determined, but not fully defined, by shared putative physiological mechanisms. Thus, the physiologic and clinical significance of Hcon:Qcon and Hrtd:Qrtd to an athlete's individual evaluation might be different
Valades, David; Palao, José M; Femia, Pedro; Ureña, Aurelio
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of incorporating specific upper-body plyometric training for the spike into the competitive season of a women's professional volleyball team. A professional team from the Spanish first division participated in the study. An A-B-A' quasi-experimental design with experimental and control groups was used. The independent variable was the upper-body plyometric training for eight weeks during the competitive season. The dependent variables were the spiked ball's speed (Km/h); the player's body weight (Kg), BMI (Kg/m2), and muscle percentage in arms (%); 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press (Kg); 1RM in the pullover (Kg); and overhead medicine ball throws of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 kg (m). Inter-player and inter-group statistical analyses of the results were carried out (Wilcoxon test and linear regression model). The experimental group significantly improved their spike speed 3.8% from phase A to phase B, and they maintained this improvement after the retention phase. No improvements were found in the control group. The experimental group presented a significant improvement from phase A to phase B in dominant arm muscle area (+10.8%), 1RM for the bench press (+8.41%), 1RM for the pullover (+14.75%), and overhead medicine ball throws with 1 kg (+7.19%), 2 kg (+7.69%), and 3 kg (+5.26%). The control group did not present differences in these variables. Data showed the plyometric exercises that were tested could be used by performance-level volleyball teams to improve spike speed. The experimental group increased their upper-body maximal strength, their power application, and spike speed.
Eleftherios Kellis, Nikiforos Galanis, Chrysanthos Chrysanthou, Nikolaos Kofotolis
Full Text Available This study examined the use of ultrasound to monitor changes in the long head of the biceps femoris (BF architecture of aprofessional soccer player with acute first-time hamstring strain. The player followed a 14 session physiotherapy treatment until return to sport. The pennation angle and aponeurosis strain of the long head of the biceps femoris (BF were monitored at 6 occasions (up until 1 year after injury. The size of the scar / hematoma was reduced by 63.56% (length and 67.9% (width after the intervention and it was almost non-traceable one year after injury. The pennation angle of the fascicles underneath the scar showed a decline of 51.4% at the end of the intervention while an increase of 109.2% of the fascicles which were closer to deep aponeurosis was observed. In contrast, pennation angle of fascicles located away from the injury site were relatively unaffected. The treatment intervention resulted in a 57.9% to 77.3% decline of maximum strain per unit of MVC moment and remained similar one year after the intervention. This study provided an example of the potential use of ultrasound-based parameters to link the mechanical adaptations of the injured muscle to specific therapeutic intervention.
Full Text Available Abstract Exercise training is known to induce an increase in free radical production potentially leading to enhanced muscle injury. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that may prevent muscle cell damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these supplemental antioxidant vitamins on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and performance of elite soccer players. Ten male young soccer players were divided into two groups. Supplementation group (n = 5 received vitamins C and E supplementation daily during the pre-competitive season (S group, while the placebo group (PL group, n = 5 received a pill containing maltodextrin. Both groups performed the same training load during the three-month pre-season training period. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase and plasma carbonyl derivatives did not show any significant variation among the experimental groups. Similarly, fitness level markers did not differ among the experimental groups. However, S group demonstrated lower lipid peroxidation and muscle damage levels (p
Wells, C M; Edwards, A M; Winter, E M; Fysh, M L; Drust, B
The purpose of this study was to identify if sport-specific and cardiopulmonary exercise testing differentiated professional from amateur soccer players. Thirty six men comprising 18 professional (mean±s: age 23.2±2.4 years) and 18 amateur (mean±SD: age 21.1±1.6 years) soccer players participated and performed four tests on separate occasions: 1) a graded exercise test to determine VO2max; 2) four exercise transients from walking to 80%Δ for the determination of VO2 kinetics; 3) the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and 4) a repeated sprint test (RST). The players did not differ in VO2max (professional 56.5±2.9 mL.kg-1.min-1; amateur 55.7±3.5 mL.kg-1.min-1: P=0.484) or VO2 kinetic fundamental measures (τ1 onset, professional 24.5±3.2 s; amateur 24.0±1.8 s: τ1 cessation, professional 28.7±2.8 s; amateur 29.3±3.5 s: P=0.923). However, the amateurs were outperformed in the Yo-Yo IR2 (Professional 966±153 m; Amateur 840±156 m) (P=0.034) and RST (best time, professional 6.46±0.27 s; amateur 6.84±0.24 s, P=0.012). Performance indices derived from field-based sport-specific performance tests identified significant differences between professional and amateur players (P<0.05). However, neither tests of VO2 kinetics nor VO2max differentiated between groups, suggesting laboratory tests of cardiorespiratory parameters are probably less consequential to soccer than sport-specific field-based observations.
Dobbin, Nick; Hunwicks, Richard; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig
The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion and construct validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess whole body strength in professional rugby league players. Fifty-six male rugby league players, (33 senior and 23 youth professional players) performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e. two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) in a randomised and counterbalanced order. Isometric peak force was underestimated (P0.05) between the predicted and peak force from the force platform, and an adjusted R2 (79.6%), that represented shrinkage of 0.4% relative to the cross-validation model (80%). Peak force was greater for the senior compared to youth professionals using the dynamometer (2261.2 ± 222 cf. 1725.1 ± 298.0 N, respectively; P<0.05). The isometric mid-thigh pull assessed using a dynamometer underestimates criterion peak force but is capable of distinguishing muscle function characteristics between professional rugby league players of different standards.
Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Eirale, Cristiano; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Tol, Johannes L.; Whiteley, Rod; Khan, Karim M.; Bahr, Roald
The 9+ screening battery test consists of 11 tests to assess limitations in functional movement. To examine the association of the 9+ with lower extremity injuries and to identify a cut-off point to predict injury risk. Professional male football players in Qatar from 14 teams completed the 9+ at
Smith, RS; Efron, B; Mah, CD; Malhotra, A
Objective: We hypothesized that professional football teams would perform better than anticipated during games occurring close to their circadian peak in performance. Design: We reviewed the past 40 years of evening and daytime professional football games between west coast and east coast United States teams. In order to account for known factors influencing football game outcomes we compared the results to the point spread which addresses all significant differences between opposing teams fo...
Dennison, Kenneth A.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.
Trumpet geometries play an important role in numerical simulations of black hole spacetimes, which are usually performed under the assumption of asymptotic flatness. Our Universe is not asymptotically flat, however, which has motivated numerical studies of black holes in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. We derive analytical expressions for trumpet geometries in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes by first generalizing the static maximal trumpet slicing of the Schwarzschild spacetime to static constant mean curvature trumpet slicings of Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes. We then switch to a comoving isotropic radial coordinate which results in a coordinate system analogous to McVittie coordinates. At large distances from the black hole the resulting metric asymptotes to a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric with an exponentially-expanding scale factor. While McVittie coordinates have another asymptotically de Sitter end as the radial coordinate goes to zero, so that they generalize the notion of a "wormhole" geometry, our new coordinates approach a horizon-penetrating trumpet geometry in the same limit. Our analytical expressions clarify the role of time-dependence, boundary conditions and coordinate conditions for trumpet slices in a cosmological context, and provide a useful test for black hole simulations in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes.
Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Kilvington, Ross; Babraj, John
Soccer performance is determined by a number of physiological adaptations that can be altered by high intensity training. However, the effectiveness of using an uphill sprint based protocol has not been demonstrated for soccer players. We sought to determine the effectiveness of an in-season uphill sprint training (UST) programme on soccer related physiological outcomes. Fourteen male soccer players (age: 22±8 years, height: 1.81±8 m, body mass: 76±12 kg) underwent testing (5-10-5 agility drill, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1, leg and back dynamometry and 3 km time trial) at baseline and after 6 weeks of UST or normal activity. Participants were allocated to a control (N.=7) or UST (N.=7) group. The UST group took part in twice weekly training consisting of 10 x 10 sec sprints with 60s recovery on a 7% gradient for six weeks. The control group maintained normal activity patterns. 3 km time trial, strength, agility and Yo-Yo performance were all significantly improved pre to post following 6 weeks of UST (agility 3%, d=1.3; strength 10%, d=-3.2; VO2max 3%, d=-1.4; 3-km TT 4%, d=1.3). In the control group 3 km time trial, strength, agility and Yo-Yo performance remained unchanged after 6 weeks (agility 0.1%, d=-0.2; strength 2%, d=0.0; VO2max -0.1%, d=0.0; 3-km TT 1.3%, d=0.3). Therefore in-season short duration UST is an effective way to improve soccer fitness in a time efficient manner.
Background The relationship between cardiovascular disease and lipid profile is well known. Apart from a heart-healthy diet, exercise is the primary factor that can modify this lipid-associated cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential changes in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDLc), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLc), as well as atherogenic indices (TC/HDLc and LDLc/HDLc), and also to analyse the diet over 11 weeks of training in female professional volleyball players. Methods The lipid profile of 22 female professional volleyball players was analysed on Day T0 (pre-preseason) and Day T11 (after 11 weeks of training). The consumption of fats by the players was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire, confirmed by seven days of full dietary records. Results By the end of the study, the LDLc levels and both atherogenic indices of the players had decreased (p volleyball players during the first 11 weeks of training in the season was heart healthy, because their lipid profile improved, despite an inadequate intake of fats. PMID:24330488
McLean, Blake D; Coutts, Aaron J; Kelly, Vince; McGuigan, Michael R; Cormack, Stuart J
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in neuromuscular, perceptual and hormonal measures following professional rugby league matches during different length between-match microcycles. Twelve professional rugby league players from the same team were assessed for changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) performance (flight time and relative power), perceptual responses (fatigue, well-being and muscle soreness) and salivary hormone (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) levels during 5, 7 and 9 d between-match training microcycles. All training was prescribed by the club coaches and was monitored using the session-RPE method. Lower mean daily training load was completed on the 5 d compared with the 7 and 9 d microcycles. CMJ flight time and relative power, perception of fatigue, overall well-being and muscle soreness were significantly reduced in the 48 h following the match in each microcycle (P values following 4 d in each microcycle. Countermovement jump relative power was lower in the 7 d microcycle in comparison with the 9 d microcycle (P rugby league match but can be recovered to baseline levels within 4 d. These findings show that with appropriate training, it is possible to recover neuromuscular and perceptual measures within 4 d after a rugby league match.
Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Adamuz, Maria-Carmen; Tol, Johannes L.; Whiteley, Rod; Wilson, Mathew G.; Witvrouw, Erik; Khan, Karim M.; Bahr, Roald
Despite the widespread use of periodic health evaluation (PHE) to detect and prevent injury and illness in athletes, its effectiveness in detecting health conditions and relevant risk factors is still debated. To assess health conditions detected by a comprehensive PHE in professional male football
Jaspers, Arne; Kuyvenhoven, Jurian P; Staes, Filip; Frencken, Wouter G P; Helsen, Werner F; Brink, Michel S
OBJECTIVES: Research in professional soccer focusing on the relevance of external and internal load indicators for injury prevention is scarce. This study examined the relationship between load indicators and overuse injuries. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Data were collected from 35
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Veenstra, Ersot; Goedegebuure, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Kuijer, Paul
To study the incidence, diagnostics, treatment, anatomical region and return to play of non-acute groin injuries among professional footballers in the Netherlands. Prospective cohort study. Medical staff members of all Dutch professional football clubs, recording prospectively injury occurrence of all professional footballers in their clubs, were asked to fill in an injury form about time-loss (⩾ 8 days) non-acute groin injury over the 2012-2013 season. A cohort of 410 players from 12 professional football clubs were included (response rate = 44%). The season incidence of non-acute groin injuries was nearly 7% (29 non-acute groin injuries). In 82% of all cases, the player suffered from non-acute groin injury in the first half of the season. The average time to return to play was 35 days, ranging from 8 to 84 days. The adductors were the most affected anatomical regions (82%), with the most frequent diagnosis being overuse of the adductors (36%), followed by adductor tendinopathy (18%). In addition to medical history and physical examination, ultrasound (50%) and MRI (32%) were the diagnostic methods most frequently mentioned. As well as physical therapy, treatment consisted mostly of manual therapy (96%) and dry needling (61%). A professional club with a squad of 25 players can expect on average two non-acute groin injuries per season with an average time-loss of 35 days. Players are more at risk in the first half of the season. In Dutch professional football, ultrasound is commonly used to diagnose non-acute groin injury, while manual therapy is the most commonly applied treatment.
Aquino, Rodrigo; Munhoz Martins, Guilherme H; Palucci Vieira, Luiz H; Menezes, Rafael P
Aquino, R, Munhoz Martins, GH, Palucci Vieira, LH, and Menezes, RP. Influence of match location, quality of opponents and match status on movement patterns in brazilian professional football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2155-2161, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of match location, quality of opponents, and match status on the movement patterns in a professional Brazilian football team. Sixteen matches of the fourth division Brazilian Championship of 2015 were analyzed during the competitive stages (classifier, 8 matches; octave-finals, 2 matches; quarterfinals, 2 matches; semifinals, 2 matches; and finals, 2 matches). A 5-Hz Global Positioning System Sports QSTARZ was used to record the total distance (TD), maximum speed (VMAX), average speed (VAVERAGE), and frequency of high-intensity activities (HIA). The Student's t-test for independent samples showed significantly higher values (p ≤ 0.05) of VMAX, VAVERAGE, and HIA in home matches when compared with away matches. Comparing the quality of opponents, statistically higher values of TD, VMAX, and HIA were found when the team played against strong opponents. Regarding match status, 1-way analysis of variance demonstrated that when the team won presented significantly higher values of TD, VMAX, VAVERAGE, and HIA compared with matches when the team lost. There were no substantial interactive effects of match situational variables on movement patterns. Finally, multiple linear regression showed that the variable quality of opponents has a higher relative contribution to the variance in HIA (19%) than match status (16%) and match location (4%). In particular, the results indicate that physical performance in professional football is influenced by match situational variables, resulting in a change in the team's style of play.
Full Text Available Professional soccer players have a lengthy playing season, throughout which high levels of physical stress are maintained. The following recuperation period, before starting the next pre-season training phase, is generally considered short but sufficient to allow a decrease in these stress levels and therefore a reduction in the propensity for injury or musculoskeletal tissue damage. We hypothesised that these physical extremes influence the body composition, blood flow, and endothelial/immune function, but that the recuperation may be insufficient to allow a reduction of tissue stress damage. Ten professional football players were examined at the end of the playing season, at the end of the season intermission, and after the next pre-season endurance training. Peripheral blood flow and body composition were assessed using venous occlusion plethysmography and DEXA scanning respectively. In addition, selected inflammatory and immune parameters were analysed from blood samples. Following the recuperation period a significant decrease of lean body mass from 74.4+/-4.2 kg to 72.2+/-3.9 kg was observed, but an increase of fat mass from 10.3+/-5.6 kg to 11.1+/-5.4 kg, almost completely reversed the changes seen in the pre-season training phase. Remarkably, both resting and post-ischemic blood flow (7.3+/-3.4 and 26.0+/-6.3 ml/100 ml/min respectively, were strongly reduced during the playing and training stress phases, but both parameters increased to normal levels (9.0+/-2.7 and 33.9+/-7.6 ml/100 ml/min during the season intermission. Recovery was also characterized by rising levels of serum creatinine, granulocytes count, total IL-8, serum nitrate, ferritin, and bilirubin. These data suggest a compensated hypo-perfusion of muscle during the playing season, followed by an intramuscular ischemia/reperfusion syndrome during the recovery phase that is associated with muscle protein turnover and inflammatory endothelial reaction, as demonstrated by i
Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith
Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266
García Verazaluce, Juan José; Vargas Corzo, María Del Carmen; Aguilar Cordero, María José; Ocaña Peinado, Francisco; Sarmiento Ramírez, Álvaro; Guisado Barrilao, Rafael
Physical training programmes are based on provoking transitory states of fatigue in order to induce super compensation by the biological systems involved in the activity, in order to improve the athlete's medium-long term performance. The administration of nutritional supplements with antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties, such as Phlebodium decumanum and coenzyme Q10, can be a very advantageous means of achieving recovery from the inflammation and tissue damage caused by the stress of prolonged, intense exercise. An experimental, longitudinal, double- blind experiment was conducted, with three randomised groups obtained from a sample of 30 male volleyball players (aged 22-32 years) at the University of Granada, with a high level of training (17 hours a week during the 6 months preceding the study). The effects were then evaluated of a month-long physical training programme, common to all the study groups, associated with the simultaneous administration of the following nutritional supplements: Phlebodium decumanum (4 capsules of 400 mg/capsule, daily), Experimental Group 1; Phlebodium decumanum (same dose and schedule as Group 1) plus coenzyme Q10 (4 capsules of 30 mg/ capsule, daily), Experimental Group 2; a placebo substance, Control Group. The following dependent blood variables were examined to assess the effects of the intervention on the basal immune and endocrine-metabolic profile: cortisol and interleukin-6, both related to the axis of exercise-induced stress; and lactic acid and ammonium, related essentially to the anaerobic metabolism of energy. All the study groups presented favourable adaptive changes with respect to the endocrine-metabolic and immune profile, as reflected by a significant decrease in the post-test concentrations of cortisol, interleukin 6, lactic acid and ammonium, compared to the values recorded before the physical activity with/without nutritional supplement, per protocol. The groups that achieved the most favourable profile
Fessi, Mohamed Saifeddin; Nouira, Sabeur; Dellal, Alexandre; Owen, Adam; Elloumi, Mohamed; Moalla, Wassim
Perceived changes due to training monotony, strain, sleep, stress, fatigue, muscle soreness and the influence of specific training sessions on the affective valence were explored in professional soccer players. Seventeen players completed the Hooper questionnaire, the ratings of perceived exertion and feeling scale (FS) every training/match day before and during the soccer season. Higher players' training loads were recorded during pre-season when compared with in-season period (2558.1 ± 262.4 vs. 1642.8 ± 169.3 a.u., p muscle soreness in pre-season were higher than those observed during in-season (p training sessions, including technical/tactical work, induced an improved feeling score but linked with a lower training load when compared with sessions focus on physical emphasis (p training induces a significantly more strenuous and exhausting demands on professional soccer players compared with the in-season period at the elite level.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and neuromuscular profile of knee extensor and flexor muscles in professional soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and to calculate percentages for symmetry, as well as examine differences according to the player’s positional role. The vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, rectus femoris (RF and biceps femoris (BF of 16 professional soccer players were evaluated by means of tensiomyography (TMG on the first day of the pre-season. A paired-samples t test (p < .05 was used to compare the dominant and non-dominant lower limb. One-way ANOVA was applied, with the positional role as an independent factor. No differences were observed between the dominant and non-dominant leg. The highest degree of symmetry corresponded to the VM (92.5 ± 2.7%, and the lowest to the BF (80.7 ± 10.9%. The positional role was associated with significant differences in some of the variables for the BF, RF and VM, although only the half-relaxation time in the BF and the time to sustain force in the VM differed across all the playing positions considered. TMG was shown to be a useful way of evaluating the neuromuscular characteristics of soccer players at the start of the pre-season, and of establishing baseline values for individual players.
Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for
Full Text Available Background. The anatomy and mechanical properties of the Crural Fascia (CF, the ubiquitous connective tissue of the posterior region of the leg, have recently been investigated. The most important findings are that (i the CF may suffer structural damage from indirect trauma, (ii structural changes of the CF may affect the biomechanics of tissues connected to it, causing myofascial pain syndromes, and (iii the CF is in anatomical continuity with the Achilles paratenon. Consistent with these points, the authors hypothesize that the onset of acute Achilles paratendinopathy may be related to histological and biomechanical changes of the CF. Case Presentation. A professional male football player suffered an isolated injury of the CF, interposed between the soleus and medial gastrocnemius (an atypical site of injury with structural connective integrity of the muscles. After participating in the first official match, two and a half months after the trauma, he has unexpectedly demonstrated the clinical picture of acute Achilles paratendinopathy in the previously injured limb. Conclusions. Analysis of this case suggests that the acute Achilles paratendinopathy may be a muscle injury complication from indirect trauma of the calf muscle, if a frank and extensive involvement of the CF were to be ascertained.
St-Onge, Eric; MacIntyre, Ian G; Galea, Anthony M
To present the clinical management of inguinal disruption in a professional hockey player and highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and management. A professional hockey player with recurrent groin pain presented to the clinic after an acute exacerbation of pain while playing hockey. The patient received a clinical diagnosis of inguinal disruption. Imaging revealed a tear in the rectus abdominis. Management included two platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections to the injured tissue, and subsequent manual therapy and exercise. The patient returned to his prior level of performance in 3.5 weeks. This case demonstrated the importance of a multidisciplinary team and the need for advanced imaging in athletes with groin pain. Research quality concerning the non-surgical management of inguinal disruption remains low. This case adds evidence that PRP, with the addition of manual therapy and exercise may serve as a relatively quick and effective non-surgical management strategy.
Pezzuto, Justin J.
The goal of this work was to investigate whether there was a relationship present between extracellular free water and gray matter volumes in the brains of retired professional football players. A study done by Maier-Hein et al. was able to establish the relationship in a population of participants that presented clinical symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease. Due to the multiple similarities between Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) and Alzheimer’s Disease, the relationship mentioned above wa...
Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
To investigate the influence of daily and exponentially weighted moving training loads on subsequent nighttime sleep. Sleep of 14 professional rugby league athletes competing in the National Rugby League was recorded using wristwatch actigraphy. Physical demands were quantified using GPS technology, including total distance, high-speed distance, acceleration/deceleration load (SumAccDec; AU), and session rating of perceived exertion (AU). Linear mixed models determined effects of acute (daily) and subacute (3- and 7-d) exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) on sleep. Higher daily SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (effect-size correlation; ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and sleep duration (ES = 0.12; ±0.09). Greater 3-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (ES = 0.14; ±0.09) and an earlier bedtime (ES = 0.14; ±0.09). An increase in 7-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with heightened sleep efficiency (ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and earlier bedtimes (ES = 0.15; ±0.09). The direction of the associations between training loads and sleep varied, but the strongest relationships showed that higher training loads increased various measures of sleep. Practitioners should be aware of the increased requirement for sleep during intensified training periods, using this information in the planning and implementation of training and individualized recovery modalities.
Casartelli, Nicola C; Bizzini, Mario; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Lepers, Romuald; Leunig, Michael
Case report. The aim of this case report was to describe the rehabilitation and return to sport of a professional ice hockey player with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) after bilateral open hip surgery. A 21-year-old professional ice hockey player with symptomatic FAI underwent bilateral surgical hip dislocations within a 6-week time period. After the second surgery (right hip), he experienced right hip pain due to iliotibial band dehiscence, which required additional revision surgery. The athlete underwent a standardized rehabilitation protocol. Hip muscle strength was objectively assessed during rehabilitation. Iliotibial band dehiscence did not allow the athlete to increase ipsilateral hip abductor strength. This prolonged the rehabilitation period for 12 weeks. The athlete returned to training on the ice without physical contact and to competitive matchplay after 7 and 8 months, respectively. This case report showed that iliotibial band dehiscence occurred after open hip surgery and delayed the return to sport of this athlete. Standardized rehabilitation following bilateral open hip surgery was however successful for the return to sport of this professional ice hockey player with bilateral symptomatic FAI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Resch, Janelle; Vanderkooy, John
The length and bore geometry of musical instruments directly influences the quality of sound that can be produced. In brass instruments, nonlinear effects from finite-amplitude wave propagation can lead to wave distortion giving sounds a brassy timbre [3, 5, 14, 20, 26]. In this paper, we propose a three-dimensional model to describe nonlinear wave propagation in a trumpet and investigate the importance of the mouthpiece shank geometry. Time pressure waveforms corresponding to B_3(b) and B_4(b) notes were recorded at the mouthpiece shank and used as inputs for our model. To describe the motion of compressible inviscid fluid, we numerically solved the compressible Euler equations using the discontinuous Galerkin method. To validate our approach, the numerical results were compared to the recorded musical notes outside the bell of the trumpet. Simulations were performed on computational trumpets where different bore geometries were considered. Our results demonstrate that the shape of the narrow region near mou...
Lajtai, Georg; Wieser, Karl; Ofner, Michael; Raimann, Gustav; Aitzetmüller, Gernot; Jost, Bernhard
Beach volleyball is an overhead sport with a high prevalence of infraspinatus muscle atrophy of the hitting shoulder. Infraspinatus muscle atrophy seems to be caused by a repetitive traction injury of the suprascapular nerve. Early pathological findings might be assessed with surface electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction velocity (NCV) measurements. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Fully competitive professional beach volleyball players were assessed with a structured interview, shoulder examination, strength measurements (external rotation and elevation), and neurophysiological examination (surface EMG and NCV of the infraspinatus and supraspinatus muscles and the suprascapular nerve, respectively) during the Beach Volleyball Grand Slam tournament 2010 in Klagenfurt, Austria. Thirty-five men with an average age of 28 years were examined. Visible infraspinatus atrophy was found in 12 players (34%), of which 8 (23%) had slight atrophy and 4 (11%) had severe atrophy. External rotation (90%; P strength (93%; P = .03) were significantly lower in the hitting shoulder. Electromyography revealed a higher activation pattern in the infraspinatus muscle of the hitting arm in players with no or slight atrophy (P = .001) but a significantly lower activation pattern in players with severe atrophy (P = .013). Nerve conduction velocity measurements showed a significant higher latency and lower amplitude in the hitting shoulder of the total study group and the subgroup with infraspinatus atrophy. Professional beach volleyball players have a high frequency of infraspinatus atrophy (34%) and significantly reduced shoulder strength of the hitting shoulder. These findings are not associated with demographic factors. Electromyography and NCV measurements suggest a suprascapular nerve involvement caused by repetitive strain injuries of the nerve. External rotation strength measurements and NCV measurements can detect a side-to-side difference early, while EMG may show
Fletcher, Ben D; Twist, Craig; Haigh, Julian D; Brewer, Clive; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L
Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match. Muscle soreness peaked at day 1 and was still apparent at day 4 post-game with no attenuation in the magnitude of muscle soreness over the course of the season. Neither playing position, phase of season or playing surface had any effects on the extent of muscle soreness. Playing time and total number of collisions were significantly correlated with higher ratings of muscle soreness, especially in the forwards. These data indicate the absence "contact adaptations" in elite rugby players with soreness present throughout the entire season. Strategies must now be implemented to deal with the physical and psychological consequences of prolonged feeling of pain.
Luo, J.R.; Arens, P.; Niu, L.X.; Tuyl, van J.M.
In order to induce viable 2n pollen from highly sterile diploid Oriental × Trumpet (OT) (Lilium), N2O was used to treat flower buds of four sterile diploid OT cultivars (‘Nymph’, ‘Gluhwein’, ‘Yelloween’, and ‘Shocking’) at different stages of meiosis. There was no pollen germination in
Munsch, Mathieu; Malik, Nitin S.; Bleuse, Joël
increased from 220 nm to 1.5 µm, for a total height of 12 µm. Such trumpet-like tapers present a number of key assets: i) a nearly perfect adiabatic expansion (less than 5% losses) of the fundamental mode is achieved for tapering angle as large as 7o. ii) the emitted mode features a Gaussian profile...
D. Rodríguez-Ruiz; Diez-Vega, I.; D. Rodríguez-Matoso; M. Fernandez-del-Valle; Sagastume, R.; Molina, J. J.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight...
Yilmaz, Necat; Erel, Ozcan; Hazer, Muhsin; Bağci, Cahit; Namiduru, Emine; Gül, Ece
Physical training is known to increase the antioxidant defence system and reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. However, intense physical aerobic and anaerobic training with competition, such as those imposed on young professional basketball players can induce an increase of oxidative stress, which can be implicated with overtraining. The aim of this study was to test the effect of training and competition load on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and vitamin levels in basketball players. Oxidative Stres Index (OSI 1), Total Peroxide (TPx) antioxidant (vitamin E, A and The total antioxidant status (TAC 1)), biochemical lipid parameters, as well as training results were measured. Results showed that all plasma vitamin levels were significantly higher in basketball players (vitamin A: 1.61 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, vitamin E: 26.45 +/- 0.72 mmol/l, vitamin B6: 10.58 +/- 0.7 mgr/l) than sedentary controls (vitamin A: 1.22 +/- 0.04 mmol /l, vitamin E: 19.24 +/- 0.73 mmol/l, vitamin B6: 6.0 +/- 0.35 mgr/l) (p 0.05). However, total plasma peroxide level (TPx) of basketball players and controls was not statistically different (18.55 +/- 2.07 and 17.18 +/- 1.61 micromol H2O2/L, respectively; p > 0.05). We conclude that physical exercise increase antioxidant levels and cause balance of the homeostasis. Training can not have positive or negative effects on oxidative stress depending on training load. The results suggested that oxidative stress and antioxidant measurement are significant in the biological follow-up of young basketball players.
Lombardi, Giovanni; Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Logoluso, Sergio; Logoluso, Giovanni; Cocco, Nino; Cocco, Giulio; Cocco, Antonino; Banfi, Giuseppe
Adequate plasmatic Vitamin D levels are crucial to maintain calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism both in the general population and in athletes. Correct dietary supply and a regular sun exposure are fundamental for allowing the desired and effective fitness level. Past studies highlighted a scenario of Vitamin D insufficiency among professional soccer players in several countries, especially in North Europe, whilst a real deficiency in athletes is rare. The typical seasonal fluctuations of Vitamin D are wrongly described transversally in athletes belonging to teams that play at different latitudes and a chronobiologic approach studying the Vitamin D circannual rhythm in soccer players has not been described yet. Therefore, we studied plasma vitamin D, cortisol, testosterone, and creatin kinase (CK) concentrations in three different Italian professional teams training at the same latitude during a period of two consecutive competitive seasons (2013 and 2014). In this retrospective observational study, 167 professional soccer players were recruited (mean age at sampling 25.1 ± 4.7 years) and a total of 667 blood drawings were carried out to determine plasma 25(OH)D, serum cortisol, serum testosterone and CK levels. Testosterone to cortisol ratio (TC) was calculated based as a surrogate marker of overtraining and psychophysical stress and each athlete was drawn until a maximum of 5 times per season. Data extracted by a subgroup of players that underwent at least 4 sample drawings along a year (N = 45) were processed with the single and population mean cosinor tests to evaluate the presence of circannual rhythms: the amplitude (A), acrophase (Φ) and the MESOR (M) are described. In total, 55 players (32.9%) had an insufficient level of 25(OH)D during the seasons and other 15 athletes (9.0%) showed, at least once, a deficiency status of Vitamin D. The rhythmometric analyses applied to the data of Vitamin D revealed the presence of a significant circannual rhythm (p
Behzadi, C; Welsch, G H; Laqmani, A; Henes, F O; Kaul, M G; Schoen, G; Adam, G; Regier, M
Recent investigation has underlined the potential of quantitative MR imaging to be used as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of cartilage degeneration at an early state. The presented study analyses T2* relaxation times of articular cartilage of the knee in professional athletes and compares the results to age- and BMI (Body Mass Index)-matched healthy amateur athletes. 22 professional football players and 22 age- and BMI-matched individuals were underwent knee Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at 3T including qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis included e.g. meniscal tears, joint effusion and bone edema. For quantitative analysis T2* (22 ET: 4.6-53.6ms) measurements in 3D data acquisition were performed. Deep and superficial layers of 22 predefined cartilage segments were analysed. All data sets were postprocessed using a dedicated software tool. Statistical analysis included Student t-test, confidence intervals and a random effects model. In both groups, T2* relaxation times were significantly higher in the superficial compared to the deep layers (pweight-bearing segments of the lateral superficial femoral condyle (p<0.001). Elevated T2* values in cartilage layers of professional football players compared to amateur athletes were noted. The effects seem to predominate in superficial cartilage layers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran
Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.
Waldén, Markus; Krosshaug, Tron; Bjørneboe, John; Andersen, Thor Einar; Faul, Oliver; Hägglund, Martin
Current knowledge on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms in male football players is limited. To describe ACL injury mechanisms in male professional football players using systematic video analysis. We assessed videos from 39 complete ACL tears recorded via prospective professional football injury surveillance between 2001 and 2011. Five analysts independently reviewed all videos to estimate the time of initial foot contact with the ground and the time of ACL tear. We then analysed all videos according to a structured format describing the injury circumstances and lower limb joint biomechanics. Twenty-five injuries were non-contact, eight indirect contact and six direct contact injuries. We identified three main categories of non-contact and indirect contact injury situations: (1) pressing (n=11), (2) re-gaining balance after kicking (n=5) and (3) landing after heading (n=5). The fourth main injury situation was direct contact with the injured leg or knee (n=6). Knee valgus was frequently seen in the main categories of non-contact and indirect contact playing situations (n=11), but a dynamic valgus collapse was infrequent (n=3). This was in contrast to the tackling-induced direct contact situations where a knee valgus collapse occurred in all cases (n=3). Eighty-five per cent of the ACL injuries in male professional football players resulted from non-contact or indirect contact mechanisms. The most common playing situation leading to injury was pressing followed by kicking and heading. Knee valgus was frequently seen regardless of the playing situation, but a dynamic valgus collapse was rare. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p players readily achieve current guidelines for daily protein and fat intake, data suggest that CHO intake on the day before and in recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.
Clemente, P. C. M.; de Oliveira, H. P.
We present a single-domain Galerkin-collocation method to calculate puncture initial data sets for single and binary black holes, either in the trumpet or wormhole geometries. The combination of aspects belonging to the Galerkin and the collocation methods together with the adoption of spherical coordinates in all cases are shown to be very effective. We propose a unified expression for the conformal factor to describe trumpet and spinning black holes. In particular, for the spinning trumpet black holes, we exhibit the deformation of the limit surface due to the spin from a sphere to an oblate spheroid. We also revisit the energy content in the trumpet and wormhole puncture data sets. The algorithm can be extended to describe binary black holes.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training eﬀect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week strength training with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (n = 12; age 24.71 ± 1.5 years; height 197.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight 95.8 ± 8.1 kg performed during pre-season a 6 week training program with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises which were conducted biweekly during the pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the squat jump without arms, the counter movement jump without arms, the counter movement jump free arms and the 2 step run up jump. The players participated in two measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season and the 2nd (posttesting was completed two days after terminating the PT programme. The diﬀerences between the average values of the monitored parameters were determined by the Wilcoxon paired test. To calculate the eﬀect size formula according to Fritz, Morris, and Richler (2012: R = Z/√N was used. RESULTS: Analysis of intra-group changes confirmed significant diﬀerences between the two measurements in tests of vertical jump squat (Z = 2.58, p = .01, r = .75, vertical jump from the point of the swing arm (Z = 2.49, p = .01, r = .72 and vertical jump from place without the swing arm (Z = 2.75, p = .01, r = .79. In case of the two step run up jump significant diﬀerences were not found (Z = 1.60, p = .11, r = .56. Analysis of intra-individual changes showed the significant interindividual diﬀerences in the changes of the explosive power of the lower limbs after a 6 week training. The
Watanabe, Yuya; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Matsui, Tomoyuki; Seo, Kazuya; Azuma, Yoshikazu; Hiramoto, Machiko; Miura, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Hideaki; Shimazu, Akito; Eto, Toshiaki; Saotome, Homare; Kida, Noriyuki; Morihara, Toru
This study examined anthropometric and fitness profiles of Japanese female professional baseball players and investigated the relationship between players' physical fitness and in-season game performance. Fifty-seven players who were registered in the Japan Women's Baseball League (JWBL) participated. Height, weight, grip strength, back strength, knee-extension and -flexion strength, hamstring extensibility, vertical jump height, and horizontal jump distance were measured at pre-season (February and March) in 2013. Game performance during the 2013 season (March to November) was obtained from official JWBL statistics. Vertical jump height showed significant positive correlations with individual performance records [e.g., total bases (r = 0.551), slugging percentage (r = 0.459), and stolen bases (r = 0.442)]. Similar relationships were observed between horizontal jump distance and performance statistics in most cases. In contrast, grip, back, and lower-limb strength, and hamstring extensibility were not significantly correlated with game performance. Stepwise regression analysis selected vertical jump height as an independent variable, significantly correlating with several game performance measures (e.g., total bases: adjusted R = 0.257). Also, vertical jump height and body mass index were identified as independent variables significantly associated with stolen bases (adjusted R = 0.251). Maximal jump performance, rather than simple isometric muscle strength or flexibility, is a good performance test that can be used at the end of pre-season to predict in-season batting and stolen base performance. Our findings demonstrate the importance of constructing pre-season training programs to enhance lower-limb muscular power that is linked to successful in-season performance in female baseball players.
Tumuklu, M Murat; Ildizli, Muge; Ceyhan, Koksal; Cinar, Cahide Soydas
Long-term regular exercise is associated with physiologic and morphologic cardiac alterations. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and ventricular early flow propagation velocity (Vp) are new tolls in the evaluation of myocardial function. We sought to compare TDI and Vp findings in professional football players and age-adjusted sedentary controls to assess the effect of regular athletic training on myocardial function. Twenty-four professional football players and age-, sex-, and weight-adjusted 20 control subjects underwent standard Doppler echocardiography pulsed TDI, performed parasternal four-chamber views by placing sample volume septal and lateral side of mitral annulus and lateral tricuspid annulus. Vp values were obtained by measuring the slope delineated by first aliasing velocity from the mitral tips toward the apex by using apical four-chamber color M-mode Doppler images. Age, body surface area, blood pressure, and heart rate were comparable between two groups. Football players had significantly increased LV mass, mass index (due to both higher wall thickness and end-diastolic diameter), end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, left atrial diameter, and decreased transmitral diastolic late velocity. In athletes TDI analysis showed significantly increased mitral annulus septal DTI peak early diastolic (e) velocity (0.22 +/- 0.04 vs 0.19 +/- 0.04, P < 0.05), lateral DTI peak e velocity (0.19 +/- 0.03 vs 0.16 +/- 0.02, P < 0.05) and lateral DTI e/a peak velocity ratio (1.96 +/- 0.41 and 1.66 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05). The ratio of transmitral peak early diastolic velocity (E) to e in both lateral (4.72 +/- 1.20 vs 5.95 +/- 1.38, P = 0.007) and septal (3.90 +/- 0.80 vs 5.25 +/- 1.50, P = 0.002) side of mitral annulus were significantly lower in athletes. In Vp evaluation, we found higher Vp values (60.52 +/- 6.95 in athletes and 56.56 +/- 4.24 in controls, P = 0.03) in football players. Professional football playing is associated with morphologic alteration in left
Cunningham, Daniel; Shearer, David A; Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian; Kilduff, Liam P
...) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS...
Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C
The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.
van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Burnett, Angus F; Whiteley, Rod; Bakken, Arnhild; Mosler, Andrea; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik
Hamstring injuries remain prevalent across a number of professional sports. In football, the incidence has even increased by 4% per year at the Champions League level over the last decade. The role of muscle strength or strength ratios and their association with risk of hamstring injury remain restricted by small sample sizes and inconclusive results. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for hamstring injury in professional football players in an adequately powered, prospective cohort study. Using both established (isokinetic) and novel (eccentric hamstring test device) measures of muscle strength, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these strength characteristics over the entire range of motion with risk of hamstring injury. All teams (n=18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their annual periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Variables included isokinetic strength, Nordic hamstring exercise strength and dynamic hamstring: quadriceps ratios. Of the 413 players included (68.2% of all league players), 66 suffered a hamstring injury over the two seasons. Only isokinetic quadriceps concentric at 300°/s (adjusted for bodyweight) was associated with risk of hamstring injury when considered categorically. Age, body mass and playing position were also associated with risk of hamstring injury. None of the other 23 strength variables examined were found to be associated with hamstring injury. The clinical value of isolated strength testing is limited, and its use in musculoskeletal screening to predict future hamstring injury is unfounded. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available The present study deals with monitoring the changes of the morphological characteristics in a professional hockey player (NHL aged 22.5 years with regard to the eight weeks intensive fitness training. Fitness training occurred oﬀ the ice surface. To determine the body composition, the method of BIA and anthropometric procedure is used (Matiegka, Pařízková. Measurements were carried out in accordance with the recommended national and international standards. An eﬀect size of the diﬀerences in the selected individual values measured at diﬀerent times was assessed using 95% of confidence interval. Significant changes occur primarily at the level of body composition. Overall, the increase in fat free mass was 4 kg to the weight 79.3 kg (BIA. Representation of muscle increased from 51.4% to 54.5% (Matiegka. In absolute terms it is the increase in muscle from 47.1 kg to 49.9 kg. Body fat percentage decreased from 12.9% to 9.7% (Matiegka. This represents a reduction of 2.9 kg. There is no change at the level of skeletal and residual fractions. With regard to the eight week fitness training the major morhpohogical changes (80-90% are experienced during the first half of the training (4 weeks. The survey results are of immediate use in the professional practice of the monitored player. It allows specific modifications to the training of the monitored player as well as other cooperating individuals in the chosen specialization.
Daniel Barbosa Coelho
Full Text Available Serum creatine kinase (CK concentration has been widely used as an indicator of skeletal muscle damage in sports. However, there are no longitunal studies on post-game CK kinetics in Soccer during a competitive season. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum CK kinetics in professional Soccer players at different post-game times during a competitive season without training interruption. Seventeen professional soccer players (age: 22.2±3.1 years, height: 179±6.0 cm, body fat percentage: 9.5±1.1, and 67.0±3.5 mL O2/kg/min were evaluated over a period of 3 months of the national championship. Serum CK concentration was measured before the beginning of the season (baseline and at four different times after a soccer game (post-1: 12-20 h, post-2: 36-48 h, post-3: 60-65 h, and post-4: 90-110 h. Plasma CK concentrations were higher at all times when compared to baseline (p<0.05. Post-2 CK concentration was lower than post-1 and higher than post-3 and -4 (p<0.05, with no significant differences between post-3 and post-4. In conclusion, serum CK kinetics was influenced by the training routine of the soccer players, with a peak between 12 and 20 h after the game, returning to normal within 60-65 h. This procedure can be used to monitor the recovery state of athletes and game and training intensities.
Daniel Barbosa Coelho
Full Text Available Serum creatine kinase (CK concentration has been widely used as an indicator of skeletal muscle damage in sports. However, there are no longitunal studies on post-game CK kinetics in Soccer during a competitive season. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum CK kinetics in professional Soccer players at different post-game times during a competitive season without training interruption. Seventeen professional soccer players (age: 22.2±3.1 years, height: 179±6.0 cm, body fat percentage: 9.5±1.1, and 67.0±3.5 mL O2/kg/min were evaluated over a period of 3 months of the national championship. Serum CK concentration was measured before the beginning of the season (baseline and at four different times after a soccer game (post-1: 12-20 h, post-2: 36-48 h, post-3: 60-65 h, and post-4: 90-110 h. Plasma CK concentrations were higher at all times when compared to baseline (p<0.05. Post-2 CK concentration was lower than post-1 and higher than post-3 and -4 (p<0.05, with no significant differences between post-3 and post-4. In conclusion, serum CK kinetics was influenced by the training routine of the soccer players, with a peak between 12 and 20 h after the game, returning to normal within 60-65 h. This procedure can be used to monitor the recovery state of athletes and game and training intensities.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different mixed training programs (optimum power load [OPL] + resisted sprints [RS] and OPL + vertical/horizontal plyometrics [PL] on neuromuscular performance of elite soccer players during a short-term training preseason. Eighteen male professional soccer players took part in this study. The athletes were pair-matched in two training groups: OPL + RS and OPL + PL. Unloaded and resisted sprinting speeds at 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-m, change of direction (COD speed, and performance in the squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, and horizontal jump (HJ were assessed pre- and post- a 5-week training period. Magnitude based inference with the effect sizes were used for data analysis. A possible increase in the SJ and CMJ heights and a likely increase in the HJ distance were observed in the OPL + PL group. Meaningful improvements were observed in the COD speed test for both training groups comparing pre- and post-measures. In both unloaded and resisted sprints, meaningful decreases were observed in the sprinting times for all distances tested. This study shows that a mixed training approach which comprises exercises and workloads able to produce positive adaptations in different phases of sprinting can be a very effective strategy in professional soccer players. Moreover, the possibility of combining optimum power loads with resisted sprints and plyometrics emerges as a novel and suitable option for coaches and sport scientists, due to the applicability and efficiency of this strength-power training approach.
Benedito Sergio Denadai
Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine whether low intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR could affect the concentric hamstrings/quadriceps muscle strength ratio (Hcon:Qcon of professional soccer players with Hcon:Qcon imbalance (Study 1, and whether hamstrings strength response observed after LI-BFR is associated with muscle hypertrophy (Study 2. In the Study 1, athletes were randomly divided into a training group (n = 6 and a control group (n = 5. In the Study 2, all athletes (n = 11 have performed the training programme. The athletes participated in a 6-week (twice a week supervised training programme (unilateral knee flexion at 30% 1RM consisting of 12 training sessions. Peak concentric torque of knee flexors (+8%; P < 0.001 and Hcon:Qcon (+9%; P < 0.01 were significantly increased after LI-BFR. Moreover, the cross sectional area (CSA of the hamstrings was significantly increased (+10%; P < 0.001 after LI-BFR. Thus, the addition of hamstrings strength training programme using LI-BFR during preseason is able to enhance both Hcon:Qcon and hamstrings CSA of professional soccer players with Hcon:Qcon imbalance.
Sérgio T. da Fonseca
. However, there is a paucity of data that characterizes the muscular performance in Brazilian professional soccer athletes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to make a descriptive analysis of parameters related to the muscular performance of this population. METHODS: The sample of this study was composed of 117 athletes belonging to professional soccer clubs in Minas Gerais State. In order to evaluate the muscular performance of the athletes, an isokinetic dynamometer was used and the tests involved maximum voluntary contractions of the selected muscles. Hip abductors and adductors were assessed at the speeds of 30º/s, 60º/s and 120º/s; knee flexors and extensors at 60º/s, 180º/s and 300º/s; and ankle dorsiflexors, plantarflexors, invertors and evertors at 30º/s, 60º/s and 180º/s. Descriptive statistics were used to present the normative data and paired t-tests were used to identify significant differences between legs considering the parameters evaluated in this study. RESULTS: This study generated normative data to characterize the profile of Brazilian professional soccer players relative to their capacity of producing torque, muscle work and power. Significant differences were observed between legs considering some of the study's variables. CONCLUSION: The established normative data can be used as reference values in the prevention, training and rehabilitation of the athletes. In addition, these data may be used as reference for future studies with the objective of testing the association between muscular performance and incidence of injury in soccer practice.
Full Text Available Descriptions of battle in Old English poetry frequently refer to noise: clattering weapons, howling beasts, and general clamor. Noises are particularly prominent in the type-scenes of the approach to battle and the beasts of battle, and they help evoke the psychological dimension of fighting, especially the mounting excitement and terror before the clash of armies. Further, beast-cries are often depicted as song; this is heavily ironic, but it also refers self-reflexively to the role of the poet. In _Exodus_ a contrast between trumpets and wolves articulates the drama of the Israelites’ struggle of faith. Trumpets are associated with courage, initiative, and communication, wolf-song with terror, paralysis, and loss of speech. The noisiness of the poem also helps to highlight, however, the poet’s mastery of a complex allegory. An exploration of battle noises enables us to relate Old English poetry to Elaine Scarry’s comments on language and war.
Van der Donck, I; Mulliez, E; Blanckaert, J
We report a case of anisocoria in a 6-year old child who felt out of an inflatable swimming pool in the garden. After instillation of pilocarpine 1% the dilated pupil constricted, which is an important clinical sign associated with intracranial trauma. There was evidence of exposure to angel's trumpet (Brugmansia arborea), a plant known to contain anticholinergic substances. As the results of further neurological examination turned out to be normal, we believe the mydriasis was due to an accidental exposure to angel's trumpet. The time lag between exposure and presentation at the emergency room, the probably low volume of the plant extract in the eye and the unpredictable concentration of alkaloids in the plant, can influence and question the reliability of the pilocarpine test in this case.
Chapman, Robert C.
The trumpet mouthpiece as a Helmholtz resonator is used to show precalculus students a mathematical model for determining the approximate resonance frequency of the mouthpiece. The mathematics is limited to algebra and trigonometry. Using a system of mouthpieces that have interchangeable cups and backbores, students are introduced to the acoustics of this resonator. By gathering data on 51 different configurations of mouthpieces, the author modifies the existing Helmholtz resonator equation to account for both cup volumes and backbore configurations. Students then use this model for frequency predictions. Included are how to measure the different physical attributes of a trumpet mouthpiece at minimal cost. This includes methods for measuring cup volume, backbore volume, backbore length, throat area, etc. A portion of this phase is de-signed for students to become acquainted with some of the vocabulary of acoustics and the physics of sound.
Maloney, Sean J; Turner, Anthony N; Miller, Stuart
It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P badminton players.
Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Ellis, D.H.; Shire, G.G.; Rininger, D.L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.
This paper summarizes eleven years (1990-2001) of experiments to teach Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) pre-selected migration routes using ultralight aircraft. When Canada Geese were trained to follow an ultralight aircraft for southward autumn migrations of 680 or 1,320 km, 81% (83/103) returned on their own in the next spring to near their place of training. In contrast, none returned of 21 similarly raised geese that were transported south in a closed truck over a route of 680 km. Trumpeter Swans have proven more difficult to train. However, in two experiments in which Trumpeter Swans followed an ultralight for the entire pre-selected route, one of three and two of four returned close to their training area. A stage-by-stage method, in which swans were transported in trucks between stops, flown in the vicinity and penned with a view of the night sky, has shown some promise. So far an established migration route (north and south twice) has been confirmed in only two geese
Stamm, Julie M; Koerte, Inga K; Muehlmann, Marc; Pasternak, Ofer; Bourlas, Alexandra P; Baugh, Christine M; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Zhu, Anni; Coleman, Michael J; Bouix, Sylvain; Fritts, Nathan G; Martin, Brett M; Chaisson, Christine; McClean, Michael D; Lin, Alexander P; Cantu, Robert C; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E
Youth football players may incur hundreds of repetitive head impacts (RHI) in one season. Our recent research suggests that exposure to RHI during a critical neurodevelopmental period prior to age 12 may lead to greater later-life mood, behavioral, and cognitive impairments. Here, we examine the relationship between age of first exposure (AFE) to RHI through tackle football and later-life corpus callosum (CC) microstructure using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty retired National Football League (NFL) players, ages 40-65, were matched by age and divided into two groups based on their AFE to tackle football: before age 12 or at age 12 or older. Participants underwent DTI on a 3 Tesla Siemens (TIM-Verio) magnet. The whole CC and five subregions were defined and seeded using deterministic tractography. Dependent measures were fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Results showed that former NFL players in the AFE <12 group had significantly lower FA in anterior three CC regions and higher radial diffusivity in the most anterior CC region than those in the AFE ≥12 group. This is the first study to find a relationship between AFE to RHI and later-life CC microstructure. These results suggest that incurring RHI during critical periods of CC development may disrupt neurodevelopmental processes, including myelination, resulting in altered CC microstructure.
Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Hua, Jiewen; Le Scanff, Christine
The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations. Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days' rest. Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p < .05) in the DE group as compared with the group without DE. Although in both groups, sAA concentrations presented a decrease in the first 30 min after awakening, and then progressively rose toward the afternoon, DE players exhibited reduced concentrations of the sAA with a decrease in its overall day secretion. Moreover, they showed a higher overall day secretion of salivary cortisol and a higher Cortisol Awakening Response. These results suggest that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is impaired whereas the cortisol awakening response is enhanced. The long-term consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.
McAleer, Stephen S; Lippie, Ed; Norman, Darcy; Riepenhof, Helge
Study Design Case series. Background Pubic bone stress (PBS) is a common acute or chronic response of the pelvis in sports where sprinting, kicking, twisting, and cutting are the dominant movements. There are few nonoperative rehabilitation strategies for the condition reported in the literature, and the outcome of conservative treatment has not been documented. Case Description Five professional and academy soccer players complaining of pubic symphysis pain, confirmed as PBS on magnetic resonance imaging and objective assessment, were treated with a nonoperative rehabilitation program that featured functional and clinical objective markers as progression criteria. Interventions in the acute phase included pharmacological and physical therapeutic modalities to reduce pain initially. Rehabilitation management focused on improving range of motion at the hips and thorax, adductor strengthening, trunk and lumbopelvic stability, gym-based strength training, and field-based rehabilitation and conditioning. Clinical follow-up was performed at least 8 months following return to play. Outcomes All players demonstrated reduced or resolved pain, increased adductor squeeze strength, and return to pain-free training and match play. Return-to-training time averaged 40.6 days (range, 30-60 days) and return to play averaged 49.4 days (range, 38-72 days) within the 5 players. At final follow-up (mean, 29.6 months; range, 16-33 months), there had been no recurrences. Discussion This report of 5 cases suggests that a nonoperative protocol, using clinical and functional progression criteria, may be successful in rehabilitating athletes with PBS for return to sport within 11 weeks. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):683-690. Epub 3 Aug 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7314.
Setuain, Igor; Lecumberri, Pablo; Izquierdo, Mikel
The present research aimed to describe an inertial unit (IU)-based sprint mechanics evaluation model for assessing players' readiness to return to competition after suffering a grade I hamstring injury. A professional male football player (age 19years; height 177cm; weight 70kg, midfielder, Spanish, 3° Division) with a grade 1 biceps femoris injury was evaluated at pre-season, at return to play after injury and at the end of the competitive season. Sprint mechanics were analyzed via the use of an inertial orientation tracker (Xsens Technologies B.V. Enschede, Netherlands) attached over the L3-L4 region of the subject's lumbar spine. Sprint mechanics such as horizontal components of ground reaction force were assessed in both legs during sprinting actions. Findings and interpretation: Both the coefficient of the horizontal force application (SFV) and the ratio of forces (DRF) applied at increasing velocity were decreased in the injured limb compared with the contralateral healthy limb at the return to play evaluation (73% and 76% reductions, respectively) and returned to symmetrical levels at the end-season evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Cosentino, Andrea; Chiozzi, Federica; Piva, Massimo
a wrong position of bone tunnels, in particular on the femur, is one of the most frequent causes of a failed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Several studies demonstrated that drilling the femoral tunnel through the antero-medial portal (AMP) allows a more anatomical placement on the lateral femoral condyle and higher knee stability, compared to trans-tibial (TT) technique. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate two groups of soccer players operated on for ACL reconstruction according to either one of these two techniques. two groups of non-professional soccer players operated on for a single bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft using either a TT (20 patients) or an AMP (23 patients) technique were retrospectively evaluated with KT-1000 arthrometer, manual pivot shift test, isokinetic test, the incremental treadmill-running test, athletic and sport specific tasks, and knee scores (IKDC, Lysholm and KOOS). the AMP group showed better results at pivot shift test and KOOS, but lower flexion angles at single leg squat test. There were no differences in all the other considered outcomes. the better rotational stability of the knee achieved in AMP group did not lead to significantly better clinical and functional results in our patients. Case-control study.
Barbosa, Carlos V da Silva; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Massa, Nayara M L; de Sousa, Yasmim R F; da Costa, Whyara K A; Silva, Ayice C; Delatorre, Plínio; Carvalho, Rhayane; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Magnani, Marciane
Nutritional intervention with antioxidants rich foods has been considered a strategy to minimize the effects of overtraining in athletes. This experimental, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of consumption of sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) on muscle damage markers, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and aerobic performance in male semi-professional soccer players. Twenty athletes were randomly assigned to groups that received 40 g (two tablespoons) per day of sesame or a placebo during 28 days of regular training (exposed to routine training that includes loads of heavy training in the final half of the season). Before and after intervention, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and aerobic capacity were evaluated. Before intervention, a physiologic imbalance was noted in both groups related to CK and LDH levels. Sesame intake caused a reduction of CK (19%, p sesame consumption may reduce muscle damage and oxidative stress while improving the aerobic capacity in soccer players.
Ford, Jaclyn H; Giovanello, Kelly S; Guskiewicz, Kevin M
Previous research has demonstrated that sport-related concussions can have short-term effects on cognitive processes, but the long-term consequences are less understood and warrant more research. This study was the first to use event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine long-term differences in neural activity during memory tasks in former athletes who have sustained multiple sport-related concussions. In an event-related fMRI study, former football players reporting multiple sport-related concussions (i.e., three or more) were compared with players who reported fewer than three concussions during a memory paradigm examining item memory (i.e., memory for the particular elements of an event) and relational memory (i.e., memory for the relationships between elements). Behaviorally, we observed that concussion history did not significantly affect behavioral performance, because persons in the low and high concussion groups had equivalent performance on both memory tasks, and in addition, that concussion history was not associated with any behavioral memory measures. Despite demonstrating equivalent behavioral performance, the two groups of former players demonstrated different neural recruitment patterns during relational memory retrieval, suggesting that multiple concussions may be associated with functional inefficiencies in the relational memory network. In addition, the number of previous concussions significantly correlated with functional activity in a number of brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe and inferior parietal lobe. Our results provide important insights in understanding the long-term functional consequences of sustaining multiple sports-related concussions.
Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J
To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d long-haul travel between Australia and the UK exacerbates subjective jet-lag and sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.
Atema, J J; Unlü, C; Reekers, J A; Idu, M M
Presented are three cases of volleyball players with ischaemia of the hand due to arterial emboli originating from an injured posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA). An operative treatment with ligation of the PCHA was performed in all patients because of the proximity of the occlusion to the axillary artery. After a rehabilitation programme, all patients could return to their previous level of competition. During overhead motion, the PCHA is prone to injury in its position overlying the humeral head and its course through the quadrilateral space. Recognition of the vascular origin of these symptoms in athletes is important to prevent serious ischaemic complications. Signs of ischaemia might be subtle and may be misdiagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries. Therefore, the examining physician must have a high index of suspicion and awareness about these injuries is important. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cockrell, Laura Elizabeth
The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) has historically nested in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Declines in habitat quality may be limiting the growth of the Tri-State Flock. The purpose of this study was to map historical nesting areas for trumpeter swans in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and evaluate Landsat images for changes to habitat. Historical nesting sites were evaluated through image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and compared to field conditions. Swan nesting records were analyzed in comparison to drought index and human visitation rates to determine if these factors may contribute to the decline of trumpeter swans nesting in YNP. Vegetation type and water quality were evaluated at 36 wetlands identified as historical nesting locations. Potamogetonaceae was the largest family represented in plant samples and had the highest frequency of occurrence in samples. There was no significant difference in whether swans were present or absent in wetlands with regards to water quality parameters tested or physical parameters identified. There was an association between certain drought index values and the number of cygnets fledged and the number of territories occupied by swan pairs. I was unsuccessful in using image classification to define pixel characteristics common among historical nesting territories of swans in YNP based on 5 Landsat images from 1975, 1979, 1990, 1999, and 2005. I was also unable to distinguish aquatic plant species composition, emergent and submergent plants, open water versus aquatic vegetation, wetland classification, or swan preference using image classification. No relationship was found in a regression model of NDVI values and swan pair occupancy or number of swans fledged, with the exception of a weak, positive relationship between pair occupancy and positive NDVI values, and a strong, positive relationship between swan fledge rates and positive NDVI values
Baldini, Alberto; Beraldi, Alessandro; Nota, Alessandro; Danelon, Furio; Ballanti, Fabiana; Longoni, Salvatore
During competitions and training many professional athletes use to wear occlusal splints to improve their sports performance. However, notwithstanding some studies concluded that achieving a balanced cranial-occlusal system could bring to an improvement of sports performances, the results are still contrasting. Probably the gnathological postural treatment of athletes has greater influence on performance when the individual suffers of Temporomandibular Joint Disfunction (TMJ) or physio-postural pathologies owing to the consequent alteration of the "tonic-postural system". This clinical case details a gnathological postural approach to a professional basketball player suffering from muscular problems related to the stomatognathic apparatus and a low back pain unresolved with the only physiotherapy, which limited her performance. Force platform and T-Scan III appliances were used in order to check the postural and occlusal condition of the athlete and as an aid to clinical parameters in achieving a correct splint balance. After the treatment involving inserting an occlusal splint and physiotherapy sessions, the patient no longer complained of low back pain problems and the symptoms associated with the stomatognathic apparatus improved considerably. In particular, after the tests carried out on an isokinetic machine, a force increase related to the quadriceps muscles was detected when the patient was wearing the occlusal splint. All athletes must however be analysed individually and carefully with clinical and instrumental analyses in order to consider the possible real effectiveness of an occlusal splint for improving postural structure and sports performance.
Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S
Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.
Schmidt, J.H.; Lindberg, M.S.; Johnson, D.S.; Schmultz, J.A.
Approximately 70-80% of the entire population of the Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus huccinator) depends for reproduction on wetlands in Alaska. This makes the identification of important habitat features and the effects of human interactions important for the species' long-term management. We analyzed the swan's habitat preferences in five areas throughout the state and found that swan broods occupied some wetland types, especially larger closed-basin wetlands such as lakes and ponds, at rates much higher than they occupied other wetland types, such as shrubby or forested wetlands. We also found a negative effect of transportation infrastructure on occupancy by broods in and around the Minto Flats State Game Refuge, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. This finding is of particular interest because much of the Minto Flats refuge has recently been licensed for oil and gas exploration and parts of the Kenai refuge have been developed in the past. We also investigated the potential effects of the shrinkage of closed-basin ponds on habitat occupancy by nesting Trumpeter Swans. We compared nesting swans' use of ponds with changes in the ponds' size and other characteristics from 1982 to 1996 and found no relationships between occupancy and changes in pond size. However, we believe that the recent and rapid growth of Trumpeter Swan populations in Alaska may become limited by available breeding habitat, and anthropogenic and climate-induced changes to the swan's breeding habitats have the potential to limit future production. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.
Objectives: Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders in professional ice hockey is lacking. Consequently, the primary aims of the study were to (i) determine the prevalence, comorbidity and 6-month incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/ depression,
Olsen, Glenn H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.
Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.
Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed S; Wollny, Rainer; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Fieseler, Georg; Schulze, Stephan; Irlenbusch, Lars; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Bartels, Thomas; Schwesig, René
This study assessed the validity of the handball-specific complex-test (HBCT) and two nonspecific field tests in professional elite handball athletes, using the match performance score (MPS) as the gold standard of performance. Thirteen elite male handball players (age: 27.4 ± 4.8 years; premier German league) performed the HBCT, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo-IR1-test) and a repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) test at the beginning of pre-season training. The RSA results were evaluated in terms of best time (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and fatigue decrement (RSAdec). Heart rates (HR) were assessed at selected times throughout all tests; the recovery HR was measured immediately post test (R0) and 10 minutes later (R10). The match performance score was based on various handball specific parameters (e.g., field goals, assists, steals, blocks, and technical mistakes) as seen during all matches of the immediately subsequent season (2015/2016). The parameters of run 1, run 2, and HR recovery at minutes 6 and 10 of the RSA test all showed a variance of more than 10% (range: 11-15%). However, the variance of scores for the Yo-Yo-IR1-test was much smaller (range: 1 - 7%). The resting HR (r2=0.18), HR recovery at minute 10 (r2=0.10), lactate concentration at rest (r2=0.17), recovery of heart rate from 0 to 10 minutes (r2=0.15), and velocity of second throw at first trial (r2=0.37) were the most valid HBCT parameters. Much effort is necessary to assess MPS and to develop valid tests. Speed and the rate of functional recovery seem the best predictors of competitive performance for elite handball players.
Barbosa, Carlos V. da Silva; Silva, Alexandre S.; de Oliveira, Caio V. C.; Massa, Nayara M. L.; de Sousa, Yasmim R. F.; da Costa, Whyara K. A.; Silva, Ayice C.; Delatorre, Plínio; Carvalho, Rhayane; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Magnani, Marciane
Nutritional intervention with antioxidants rich foods has been considered a strategy to minimize the effects of overtraining in athletes. This experimental, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of consumption of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) on muscle damage markers, oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and aerobic performance in male semi-professional soccer players. Twenty athletes were randomly assigned to groups that received 40 g (two tablespoons) per day of sesame or a placebo during 28 days of regular training (exposed to routine training that includes loads of heavy training in the final half of the season). Before and after intervention, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and aerobic capacity were evaluated. Before intervention, a physiologic imbalance was noted in both groups related to CK and LDH levels. Sesame intake caused a reduction of CK (19%, p < 0.05), LDH (37%, p < 0.05), MDA (55%, p < 0.05) and hs-CRP (53%, p < 0.05) and increased SOD (14%, p < 0.05), vitamin A (25%, p < 0.05), and vitamin E (65%, p < 0.05) in the experimental group. These phenomena were accompanied by increased aerobic capacity (17%, p < 0.05). The placebo group showed an increase in CK (5%, p < 0.05) and no significant change in LDH, SOD or vitamin A. MDA levels decreased (21%, p < 0.05) and vitamin E increased (14%, p < 0.05) in the placebo group, but to a much lesser extent than in the experimental group. These results show that sesame consumption may reduce muscle damage and oxidative stress while improving the aerobic capacity in soccer players. PMID:28408889
Steadman, Richard J.
Background: Little information is available on the results of microfracture in competitive football (soccer) players. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this technique to restore joint function to a level that allows return to this popular high-impact sport. Methods: This article provides an overview of the basic science and the current published scientific evidence for articular cartilage repair using the microfracture technique in elite football (soccer) athletes. In addition, the senior author documents his results in a case series of professional football (soccer) players treated with microfracture. Results: Twenty-one professional male soccer players underwent microfracture for knee articular cartilage defects. Nineteen players had isolated cartilage injuries, and 2 players had simultaneous anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Average age of the player was 27 years (range, 18-32 years). Twelve players (57%) had single defects, and 9 (43%) had multiple defects. All players complied with the postoperative rehabilitation program. Twenty players (95%) returned to professional soccer the season following microfracture surgery and continued to play for an average of 5 years (range, 1-13 years). Years of continued play inversely correlated with player age at the time of microfracture (r = -0.41). Conclusion: Articular cartilage repair with the microfracture technique followed by appropriate rehabilitation provides restoration of knee joint function in professional football (soccer) players with a high rate of return to football (soccer) and continued participation under the significant demands of professional football (soccer). Thorough understanding of the technical aspects, rehabilitation, and literature can help to optimize the results of microfracture in the athletic population. PMID:26069602
Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.
Kang, Kyoung Ho; Zhang, Zhifeng; Bao, Zhenmin; Shao, Mingyu
Trumpet shell, Charonia sauliae, is an endangered and valuable species, but its artificial propagation protocol has not been successfully established. To estimate the possibility of cryopreservation for larvae of C. sauliae, which is a potential preparation for its artificial reproduction and further research, in this study a protocol for the cryopreservation of veliger larvae of trumpet shell was optimized. Through a two-step cryopreservation procedure, four kinds of cryoprotectants (ethylene glycol, 1, 2-propanediol, dimethyl sulfoxide and glycerol) were employed at three concentrations (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 molL-1) respectively and survival rates of larvae were determined after a storage of 1h. The larvae frozen with these four cryoprotectants after 1 h storage were cultured, and then survival rates were determined at 24, 72 and 120 h after thawing. Dimethyl sulfoxide at a concentration of 1.5 molL-1 showed the best protective effect in all experiments ( p0.05).
Campos-Vazquez, Miguel Angel; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Gonzalez-Jurado, Jose Antonio; León-Prados, Juan Antonio; Santalla, Alfredo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis
To describe the internal training load (ITL) of common training sessions performed during a typical week and to determine the relationships between different indicators of ITL commonly employed in professional football (soccer). Session-rating-of-perceived-exertion TL (sRPE-TL) and heart-rate- (HR) derived measurements of ITL as Edwards TL and Stagno training impulses (TRIMPMOD) were used in 9 players during 3 periods of the season. The relationships between them were analyzed in different training sessions during a typical week: skill drills/circuit training + small-sided games (SCT+SSGs), ball-possession games+technical-tactical exercises (BPG+TTE), tactical training (TT), and prematch activation (PMa). HR values obtained during SCT+SSGs and BPG+TTE were substantially greater than those in the other 2 sessions, all the ITL markers and session duration were substantially greater in SCT+SSGs than in any other session, and all ITL measures in BPG+TTE were substantially greater than in TT and PMa sessions. Large relationships were found between HR>80% HRmax and HR>90% HRmax vs sRPE-TL during BPG+TTE and TT sessions (r=.61-.68). Very large relationships were found between Edwards TL and sRPE-TL and between TRIMPMOD and sRPE-TL in sessions with BPG+TTE and TT (r=.73-.87). Correlations between the different HR-based methods were always extremely large (r=.92-.98), and unclear correlations were observed for other relationships between variables. sRPE-TL provided variable-magnitude within-individual correlations with HR-derived measures of training intensity and load during different types of training sessions typically performed during a week in professional soccer. Caution should be applied when using RPE- or HR-derived measures of exercise intensity/load in soccer training interchangeably.
Strahm, E; Emery, C; Saugy, M; Dvorak, J; Saudan, C
The determination of the carbon isotope ratio in androgen metabolites has been previously shown to be a reliable, direct method to detect testosterone misuse in the context of antidoping testing. Here, the variability in the 13C/12C ratios in urinary steroids in a widely heterogeneous cohort of professional soccer players residing in different countries (Argentina, Italy, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland and Uganda) is examined. Carbon isotope ratios of selected androgens in urine specimens were determined using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Urinary steroids in Italian and Swiss populations were found to be enriched in 13C relative to other groups, reflecting higher consumption of C3 plants in these two countries. Importantly, detection criteria based on the difference in the carbon isotope ratio of androsterone and pregnanediol for each population were found to be well below the established threshold value for positive cases. The results obtained with the tested diet groups highlight the importance of adapting the criteria if one wishes to increase the sensitivity of exogenous testosterone detection. In addition, confirmatory tests might be rendered more efficient by combining isotope ratio mass spectrometry with refined interpretation criteria for positivity and subject-based profiling of steroids.
Galetta, Matthew S; Galetta, Kristin M; McCrossin, Jim; Wilson, James A; Moster, Stephen; Galetta, Steven L; Balcer, Laura J; Dorshimer, Gary W; Master, Christina L
The Sports Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) and King-Devick (K-D) tests have both been proposed as sideline tools to detect sports-related concussion. We performed an exploratory analysis to determine the relation of SCAT2 components, particularly the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), to K-D test scores in a professional ice hockey team cohort during pre-season baseline testing. We also examined changes in scores for two athletes who developed concussion and had rinkside testing. A modified SCAT2 (no balance testing) and the K-D test, a brief measure of rapid number naming, were administered to 27 members of a professional ice hockey team during the 2011-2012 pre-season. Athletes with concussion also underwent rinkside testing. Lower (worse) scores for the SCAT2 SAC Immediate Memory Score and the overall SAC score were associated with greater (worse) times required to complete the K-D test at baseline. On average, for every 1-point reduction in SAC Immediate Memory Score, we found a corresponding increase (worsening) of K-D time score of 7.3s (95% CI 4.9, 9.7, pMemory at a pre-season baseline. Both working memory and saccadic eye movements share closely related anatomical structures, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A composite of brief rapid sideline tests, including SAC and K-D (and balance testing for non-ice hockey sports), is likely to provide an effective clinical tool to assess the athlete with suspected concussion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reis, Fabrícia Cristina Dos; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luis; Cason, João Batista; Dias, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Freitas, Melissa; Sotomayor, Jaime Felipe; Barroso, Arthur A M; Victória Filho, Ricardo
To gain a better understanding of the physiology of the herbicide aminocyclopyrachlor in young plants of trumpet flower, the uptake and translocation were evaluated after the application of herbicide. This was determined by treating individual leaves with formulated herbicides plus (14)C-aminocyclopyrachlor after the application of the formulated herbicide. This experiment used a randomized experimental design with three replications. In addition, field studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of foliar applications of aminocyclopyrachlor in association with metsulfuton-methyl. The plant absorbed 20% of the herbicide applied. The translocation percentage did not surpass 5% of the total amount applied. Only 1% of the herbicide applied was translocated to the roots. Rate of 40 + 13 g a.i. 100 L(-1) of aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron-methyl was effective to control T. stans.
Wiebe, Tannis H; Sigurdson, Eric S; Katz, Laurence Y
Over the course of the summer of 2006, four adolescent patients were hospitalized because of intentional Datura stramonium (Angel's Trumpet) ingestion. Their records were reviewed for the presence of signs and symptoms of toxicity, clinical course, treatment and outcome. All four patients had a decreased level of consciousness measured by the Glasgow Coma Scale, visual hallucinations, dilated pupils and agitation. The changes in mental status are characteristic of delirium. All four patients were known to abuse substances. The average length of hospitalization was two days. No serious complications were encountered during hospitalization and a full recovery was noted in all patients. The use of sedation and restraints were sufficient treatment modalities. Health care workers should consider anticholinergic plant ingestion as a cause for abrupt onset of delirium.
Wiebe, Tannis H; Sigurdson, Eric S; Katz, Laurence Y
Over the course of the summer of 2006, four adolescent patients were hospitalized because of intentional Datura stramonium (Angel’s Trumpet) ingestion. Their records were reviewed for the presence of signs and symptoms of toxicity, clinical course, treatment and outcome. All four patients had a decreased level of consciousness measured by the Glasgow Coma Scale, visual hallucinations, dilated pupils and agitation. The changes in mental status are characteristic of delirium. All four patients were known to abuse substances. The average length of hospitalization was two days. No serious complications were encountered during hospitalization and a full recovery was noted in all patients. The use of sedation and restraints were sufficient treatment modalities. Health care workers should consider anticholinergic plant ingestion as a cause for abrupt onset of delirium. PMID:19252697
lenohumeral rotation range deficit in professional rugby players: A cross sectional study. (Déficit en el rango de rotación glenohumeral en jugadoresde rugby profesional: Un estudio de corte transversal.
Matías Osorio Feito
Full Text Available AbstractThe aim was to evaluate the internal rotation, external rotation and total range of motion of shoulder in professional rugby players and associated factors. 104 rugby players and 30 healthy volunteers were interrogated and clinically examined. 19.23% of the rugby players were excluded by history of shoulder luxation or surgery. 84 rugby players with 24.28±5.37 years old were finally included in the study. The groups were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, Fisher’s exact test, Linear Regression and a Logistic Regression. It was found that professional rugby players had less internal, external and total range of glenohumeral rotation compared with control group. In the Logistic Regression, the age is a risk factor for external rotation range deficit (Odds Ratio= 1.58. Instead, the years of experience are a protector factor (Odds Ratio= 0.63. We can conclude that glenohumeral rotation range is diminished in professional rugby players and is associated with age and years of experience.ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la rotación interna, rotación externa, el rango total de movimiento del hombro y factores asociados en jugadores de rugby profesional . 104 jugadores de rugby y 30 voluntarios sanos fueron interrogados y examinados clínicamente. Un 19.23% de los jugadores de rugby fueron excluidos por historial de luxación o cirugía de hombro. 84 jugadores de rugby, con 24.28 ± 5.37 años de edad fueron finalmente incluidos en el estudio. Los grupos se analizaron con la prueba de Mann-Whitney, la prueba exacta de Fisher, regresión lineal y regresión logística. Se encontró que los jugadores profesionales de rugby tienen menos rango de rotación interna, externa y total en comparación con el grupo control. En la regresión logística, la edad es un factor de riesgo de déficit de rotación externa (OR = 1.58. En cambio, los años de experiencia son un factor protector (OR = 0.63. Podemos concluir que el rango de rotaci
Warntjen, Andreas; Dowding, Keith
Veto players are political actors whose consent is necessary to adopt a new policy. Put otherwise, they have veto power which allows them to prevent a change to the status quo. The concept is crucial to the influential veto player theory developed by George Tsebelis. Building on earlier work in
Full Text Available The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča (The Republic of Serbia is a unique competition of folk brass bands in the world and one of the most important events of the overall national creativity and cultural amateurism in Serbia. Therefore, Guča represents an event which is used for branding of tourist offer and musical culture of Serbia at regional and international level. The paper delivers the results of a questionnaire research conducted during the 50th anniversary of The Dragačevo Trumpet Festival in Guča (DTF in August 2010. The results were based on 300 questionnaires. The questionnaire contained, in one of its parts, questions regarding festival branding and influences, i.e. effects which brands (various advertisements of great sponsors and festival donators may produce and thus leave an impression on perception of each visitor as well as on a destination itself.
Rodrigo Vitasovic Gomes
information available regarding Brazilian tennis players. AIM: the present study aimed to evaluate the food intake and the anthropometric profile of professional and amateur tennis players. METHODS: twenty-four tennis players were distributed in two groups: professionals (PRO; n = 9 and amateurs (AM; n = 15. The athletes were evaluated on their anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, circumferences and skin folders. Body fat was estimated from three different equations. Food intake was determined by a 3-day food diary. RESULTS: there were no significant differences from anthropometric profile between PRO and AM (body weight: 69.5 ± 9.8 kg and 66.0 ± 5.0 kg; height: 177.9 ± 4.3 cm and 175.6 ± 2.7 cm, BMI: 23.5 ± 1.4 kg/m² and 22.6 ± 0.8 kg/m² and body fat: 13.0 ± 5.5% and 13.7 ± 2.4%, respectively. Significant difference between the energy expenditure and estimation and reported energy intake was observed. Both groups showed low carbohydrate (AM: 6.3 ± 0.5 g/kg/day and PRO: 6.5 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and high protein intake AM: 2.4 ± 0.2 g/kg/day and PRO: 2.3 ± 0.3 g/kg/day compared to the current recommendations. Very low calcium intake was observed (AM: 798.1 ± 786.3 mg/day and PRO: 766.9 ± 602.4 mg/day. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were detected for food intake pattern and anthropometric profile between PRO and AM. The results presented herein reinforce the relevance of nutritional planning in order to achieve specific demands of tennis and maximize performance.
Nassis, George P; Geladas, Nickos D; Soldatos, Yiannis; Sotiropoulos, Aristomenis; Bekris, Vaggelis; Souglis, Athanasios
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of 2 different field tests for the assessment of aerobic fitness in soccer players with the multistage 20-m test used for the evaluation of maximum oxygen uptake. Nineteen semi-professional male soccer players (age: 22.8 ± 2.5 mean ± SD) performed, under similar conditions, 3 field tests in a counterbalanced order 7 days apart. These tests were the multistage 20-m shuttle run test (MSRT), the Bangsbo test, and the Hoff test. Heart rate was recorded in all tests with telemetry, and the Borg scale was introduced at the end of exercise. Finally, 3-minute post-test lactate concentration was determined. Performance was 11.2 ± 0.9 levels in the MSRT, 1,658.9 ± 119.9 m in the Bangsbo test, and 1,798.2 ± 125.9 m in the Hoff test. There was a significant correlation between the Hoff test and performance in the MSRT (r = 0.49, p 0.05). The maximum heart rate achieved in the Bangsbo test was significantly lower compared with that in the MSRT and Hoff test (Bangsbo: 186.6 ± 9.6, Hoff: 192 ± 7.6, MSRT: 190.4 ± 9.3 beats/min, p < 0.05). No difference was found in post-test lactate concentration among the 3 tests. In conclusion, the Hoff test can be used for the assessment of endurance in adult semi-professional soccer players. Coaches and teams could benefit from using the Hoff test that resembles soccer actions for the assessment of players' aerobic fitness.
Florian Miftari; Juel Jarani; Dhimitraq Stratoberdha; Hazir Salihu
The purpose of this study was to compare the anthropometric measurement to the professional players of the three different disciplines of basketball, handball and volleyball. . For each player anthropometric measurements such as weight, body height, waist circumference, BMI and skinfold calculation on different sports are performed. Differences in terms of anthropometric measurements were assessed by independent static tests and the differences for each variable for each sport were evaluated ...
Koc, Baris B; Somorjai, Nicolaas; P M Kiesouw, Egid; Vanderdood, Kurt; Meesters-Caberg, Marleen; Draijer, Frits W; Jansen, Edwin J P
A Morel-Lavallée lesion is a post-traumatic closed degloving injury of soft tissue. The lesion is due to a shearing trauma with separation of subcutaneous tissue from underlying fascia. When conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is imperative. Commonly, open drainage and debridement is performed. This case report describes a Morel-Lavallée lesion of the knee in a professional soccer player who was successfully treated with endoscopic debridement and fibrin glue injection after failure of conservative management. This method achieves the goal of an open surgical debridement without exposing patients to an increased morbidity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L
The purpose of this study was to determine whether major league baseball players live lontger than the general public. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1950 were obtained, and differences between ages of death and age-adjusted life expectancies were determined by analysis of variance and t-tests, taking into account player position. Correlational analysis also was conducted to determine if career length affected longevity. Baseball players lived an average of four years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length did not affect longevity among players. We concluded that professional athletes, as represented by major league baseball players, have increased life expectancies. This increase cannot be explained by increased fitness associated with working as a professionral athlete, but is likely the result of an initial selection process for becoming a professional athlete.
Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio
R. Bescós García; F. A. Rodríguez Guisado
Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OH)D levels were collected after wintertime during the ...
Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka
In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours
Roescher, C. R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Visscher, C.
The development of intermittent endurance capacity, its underlying mechanisms and role in reaching professional level in soccer was investigated. The sample included 130 talented youth soccer players aged 14-18, who became professional (n = 53) or non-professional (n = 77) players in adulthood. In
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sport, as social phenomena, may achieve a very positive influence on health and the social state of people with disability who practice it. In sport activities of athletes with disability, team sports may take a very important place. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were: a to investigate personality characteristics of male professional basketball players and wheelchair basketball players, b to compare these characteristics of two kinds of athletes. METHODS: For the purposes of this study, professional basketball players (N = 29 and wheelchair basketball players (N = 25 had completed a Cattell 16PF questionnaire which estimated personality characteristics. Differences between two groups of participants were calculated by t-test for small samples. RESULTS: Results demonstrated the existence of differences in the expression of certain forms of behaviour within certain dimensions of personality between these two groups. Wheelchair basketball players had higher scores at factor M – Abstractedness (t = -1.889; p = 0.046, which means that they are more preoccupied by themselves and their inner mental life. Wheelchair basketball players had lower scores, on factors: C – Emotional Stability (t = 2.097; p = 0.041, E – Dominance (t = 3.530; p = 0.001, F – Liveliness (t = 2.658; p = 0.010 and N – Privateness (t = 2.527; p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Wheelchair basketball players are, compared with professional basketball players, more emotive; they have a lack of self-esteem, less ready for teamwork and collaboration; they are naive and unpretentious. Considering these results, coaches who are involved in work with wheelchair basketball players have to adjust their methods of trainings, especially those coaches who were working with basketball players without disability. Also, coaches' influence can stimulate eventual changes in some above mentioned characteristics of wheelchair basketball players in more desirable course
Cappuccino, Andrew; Bisson, Leslie J; Carpenter, Bud; Snyder, Ken; Cappuccino, Helen
The following report provides clinical follow-up on a National Football League player who sustained a complete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) while tackling an opposing player in 2007. He received prompt medical and surgical care based on then-current recommendations, but was also treated with systemic hypothermia soon after his injury, which was controversial at the time. Since then, smaller randomized human studies have described the tolerable safety profile, efficacy, and potential benefits of this intervention in acute SCI in humans. Now, modest systemic hypothermia can be one of many tools considered in the treatment of acute SCI. Before it can become the standard of care, however, additional larger prospective randomized studies need to be completed. The patient described in this article had long-term excellent clinical results, with residual deficits of occasional tingling in fingertips and toe tips, although the patient continues to slowly improve.
The physique of rugby players has evolved over the course of the Twentieth Century. A novel morphological dataset was constructed of all Springbok rugby players until 2014. Although most of the change in body structure, particularly body weight, occurs during the era of professionalism, white Springbok rugby players ...
This study focused on coping strategies used by soccer (football) players by exploring the role of the environment, ethnicity and culture in players' response to stressful situations. An interpretive-qualitative research methodology was applied with a sample of 33 professional soccer players. The subjects were representative ...
Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest-posttest design.
Dubuy, Veerle; De Cocker, Katrien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Maes, Lea; Seghers, Jan; Lefevre, Johan; De Martelaer, Kristine; Brooke, Hannah; Cardon, Greet
The increasing rates of obesity among children and adolescents, especially in those from lower socio-economic backgrounds, emphasise the need for interventions promoting a healthy diet and physical activity. The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the 'Health Scores!' program, which combined professional football player role models with a school-based program to promote a healthy diet and physical activity to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. The intervention was implemented in two settings: professional football clubs and schools. Socially vulnerable children and adolescents (n = 165 intervention group, n = 440 control group, aged 10-14 year) provided self-reported data on dietary habits and physical activity before and after the four-month intervention. Intervention effects were evaluated using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, a process evaluation was conducted. No intervention effects were found for several dietary behaviours, including consumption of breakfast, fruit, soft drinks or sweet and savoury snacks. Positive intervention effects were found for self-efficacy for having a daily breakfast (p < 0.01), positive attitude towards vegetables consumption (p < 0.01) and towards lower soft drink consumption (p < 0.001). A trend towards significance (p < 0.10) was found for self-efficacy for reaching the physical activity guidelines. For sports participation no significant intervention effect was found. In total, 92 pupils completed the process evaluation, the feedback was largely positive. The 'Health Scores!' intervention was successful in increasing psychosocial correlates of a healthy diet and PA. The use of professional football players as a credible source for health promotion was appealing to socially vulnerable children and adolescents.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Veenstra, Ersot; Goedegebuure, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Kuijer, Paul
To study the incidence, diagnostics, treatment, anatomical region and return to play of non-acute groin injuries among professional footballers in the Netherlands. Prospective cohort study. Medical staff members of all Dutch professional football clubs, recording prospectively injury occurrence of
Morehen, James Cameron; Bradley, Warren Jeremy; Clarke, Jon; Twist, Craig; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morton, James Peter; Close, Graeme Leonard
Rugby League is a high-intensity collision sport competed over 80 min. Training loads are monitored to maximize recovery and assist in the design of nutritional strategies although no data are available on the total energy expenditure (TEE) of players. We therefore assessed resting metabolic rate (RMR) and TEE in six Super League players over 2 consecutive weeks in-season including one game per week. Fasted RMR was assessed followed by a baseline urine sample before oral administration of a bolus dose of hydrogen (deuterium (2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotopes in the form of water ((2)H2(18)O). Every 24 hr thereafter, players provided urine for analysis of TEE via DLW method. Individual training load was quantified using session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. There were unclear differences in RMR between forwards and backs (7.7 ± 0.5 cf. 8.0 ± 0.3 MJ, respectively). Indirect calorimetry produced RMR values most likely lower than predictive equations (7.9 ± 0.4 cf. 9.2 ± 0.4 MJ, respectively). A most likely increase in TEE from Week 1 to 2 was observed (17.9 ± 2.1 cf. 24.2 ± 3.4 MJ) explained by a most likelyincrease in weekly sRPE (432 ± 19 cf. 555 ± 22 AU), respectively. The difference in TEE between forward and backs was unclear (21.6 ± 4.2 cf. 20.5 ± 4.9 MJ, respectively). We report greater TEE than previously reported in rugby that could be explained by the ability of DLW to account for all match and training-related activities that contributes to TEE.
Setuain, Igor; González-Izal, Miriam; Alfaro, Jesús; Gorostiaga, Esteban; Izquierdo, Mikel
Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations can be observed in athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Commonly identified jumping biomechanical alterations have been described by the use of laboratory technologies. However, portable and easy-to-handle technologies that enable an evaluation of jumping biomechanics at the training field are lacking. To analyze unilateral/bilateral acceleration and orientation jumping performance differences among elite male handball athletes with or without previous ACL reconstruction via a single inertial sensor unit device. Case control descriptive study. At the athletes' usual training court. Twenty-two elite male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) handball players were evaluated. The participants performed a vertical jump test battery that included a 50-cm vertical bilateral drop jump, a 20-cm vertical unilateral drop jump, and vertical unilateral countermovement jump maneuvers. Peak 3-dimensional (X, Y, Z) acceleration (m·s(-2)), jump phase duration and 3-dimensional orientation values (°) were obtained from the inertial sensor unit device. Two-tailed t-tests and a one-way analysis of variance were performed to compare means. The P value cut-off for significance was set at P handball athletes with previous ACL reconstruction demonstrated a jumping biomechanical profile similar to control players, including similar jumping performance values in both bilateral and unilateral jumping maneuvers, several years after ACL reconstruction. These findings are in agreement with previous research showing full functional restoration of abilities in top-level male athletes after ACL reconstruction, rehabilitation and subsequent return to sports at the previous level. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taradaj, J; Halski, T; Kucharzewski, M; Walewicz, K; Smykla, A; Ozon, M; Slupska, L; Dymarek, R; Ptaszkowski, K; Rajfur, J; Pasternok, M
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NMES program applied in male soccer players (after ACL reconstruction) on the quadriceps muscle. The 80 participants (NMES = 40, control = 40) received an exercise program, including three sessions weekly. The individuals in NMES group additionally received neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on both right and left quadriceps (biphasic symmetric rectangular pulses, frequency of impulses: 2500 Hz, and train of pulses frequency: 50 Hz) three times daily (3 hours of break between treatments), 3 days a week, for one month. The tensometry, muscle circumference, and goniometry pendulum test (follow-up after 1 and 3 months) were applied. The results of this study show that NMES (in presented parameters in experiment) is useful for strengthening the quadriceps muscle in soccer athletes. There is an evidence of the benefit of the NMES in restoring quadriceps muscle mass and strength of soccer players. In our study the neuromuscular electrical stimulation appeared to be safe for biomechanics of knee joint. The pathological changes in knee function were not observed. This trial is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001168741.
Dos Santos Glória, Igor Phillip; Politti, Fabiano; Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Herpich, Carolina Marciela; Antonialli, Fernanda Colella; de Paula Gomes, Cid André Fidelis; de Oliveira Gonzalez, Tabajara; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida
Kinesio taping consists of the attachment of a thin elastic tape over specific muscles, the thickness of which is similar to that of the epidermis. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of Kinesio taping and placebo taping on muscle torque, muscle activity and jumping performance soccer players. Thirty athletes were randomly allocated to two groups (Group A: Kinesio taping and Group B: placebo taping). The participants were instructed to perform the Hop test's and were submitted to an isokinetic evaluation of the knee extensors as well as an electromyographic evaluation of the retus femoris muscle of the dominant lower limb. Next, Kinesio taping was performed for the activation of the rectus femoris muscle in Group A and placebo taping was performed in Group B. The participants were reevaluated 30 minutes after taping and 24 hours after the first evaluation using the same tests. Intra-group and inter-group comparisons were made considering the three evaluation times. No statistically significant differences were found between groups at any evaluation time regarding the Hop test's, root mean square of the electromyographic signal or peak torque of the knee extensors of the dominant lower limb (p>0.05). Kinesio taping for the activation of the rectus femoris muscle has no effect on peak muscle torque, muscle activity or jumping performance among soccer players.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of NMES program applied in male soccer players (after ACL reconstruction on the quadriceps muscle. The 80 participants (NMES = 40, control = 40 received an exercise program, including three sessions weekly. The individuals in NMES group additionally received neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on both right and left quadriceps (biphasic symmetric rectangular pulses, frequency of impulses: 2500 Hz, and train of pulses frequency: 50 Hz three times daily (3 hours of break between treatments, 3 days a week, for one month. The tensometry, muscle circumference, and goniometry pendulum test (follow-up after 1 and 3 months were applied. The results of this study show that NMES (in presented parameters in experiment is useful for strengthening the quadriceps muscle in soccer athletes. There is an evidence of the benefit of the NMES in restoring quadriceps muscle mass and strength of soccer players. In our study the neuromuscular electrical stimulation appeared to be safe for biomechanics of knee joint. The pathological changes in knee function were not observed. This trial is registered with Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613001168741.
Zonneveld, B. J.M.
Full Text Available To investigate the origin of cultivated trumpet daffodils the genome size (2C-value of more than 100 old and new cultivars were measured. A large number of concolored yellow tetraploid cultivars with large coronas seem to be derived from a doubling of chromosomes of a hybrid of the two species N. hispanicus Gouan and N. pseudonarcissus L. This can also still be recognized by the presence of a black spot at the top of the anthers in about 15 % of the tetraploid cultivars. Assuming N. pseudonarcissus as one of the parents of the allotetraploid cultivars, species of trumpet daffodils of section Pseudonarcissi investigated earlier were compared. Doubling of the nuclear DNA content of 23.8 pg of N. pseudonarcissus falls short of the values found for the trumpet daffodils. Species of trumpet daffodils of section Pseudonarcissi with a complementing higher amount of nuclear DNA like N. hispanicus with 25.8 pg, N. poeticus L. with 26 pg and the hexaploid N. pseudonarcissus ssp. bicolor (L. Baker with 67.7 pg (Zonneveld,2008 and other species were evaluated. N. hispanicus with 25.8 pg clearly differs from N. pseudonarcissus with 23.8 pg and is accepted here also as a species. The nuclear DNA content of N. bujei (Fern. Casas Fern. Casas with 30 pg fits with the (ancient hybrid origin for N. bujei between N. longispathus Pugsley (36 pg and N. hispanicus Gouan (25.8 pg. The tetraploids with white tepals and yellow corona’s can be obtained by crossing a diploid N. pseudonarcissus with the hexaploid and bicolored N. pseudonarcissus ssp. bicolor (L. Baker.Para investigar el origen de los narcisos trompeta cultivados se midió el tamaño del genoma (valor 2C de más de 100 cultivares viejos y nuevos. Un gran número de cultivares tetraploides amarillos de color uniforme y con grandes coronas parecían derivarse de una duplicación de cromosomas de un híbrido de las dos especies N. hispanicus Gouan y N. pseudonarcissus L. Esto también se observa por la
Rijken, Noortje H; Soer, Remko; de Maar, Ewold; Prins, Hilco; Teeuw, Wouter B; Peuscher, Jan; Oosterveld, Frits G J
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B). Measurements were performed at baseline, post intervention and at 5 weeks follow-up. Objective measures: EEG and ECG. Subjective measures: Numeric Rating Scale for performance, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rest and Stress Questionnaire and Sports Improvement-60. Group characteristics were too distinct to compare the interventions. Linear mixed models were used to analyze differences within groups over time. In Group A, significant changes over time were present in alpha power at 5 of 7 EEG locations (p performance-related outcomes and stress reduction. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of either type of feedback and to compare effects with a control group.
Otağ, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otağ, İlhan; Beyleroğlu, Malik
[Purpose] The performance of female athletes during their menstrual period has attracted the attention of researchers for many years. It is known that the menstrual period changes with exercise. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal protein. In this study, the effect of maximal aerobic exercise in the luteal phase on some hormones and AFP in female athletes was researched. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve volunteers and healthy female footballers with normal menstrual cycles volunteered for this study as subjects. All the participants performed a shuttle run test. Blood samples were taken before, after, and one hour after exercise. Serum AFP, estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) values were measured using an auto analyzer and original kits. Heart rate measurements were performed before and after the exercise. [Results] AFP activity had significantly decreased after 1 h of recovery from the exercise in the female soccer players, and estrogen and LH activity had significantly increased immediately after the exercise. Progesterone activity had significantly decreased immediately after the exercise. FSH values had significantly increased immediately after the exercise. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show there were significant decreases in the values of AFP, which is a cancer parameter, 1 hour after the exercise. This result may be valuable in future physiotherapy studies on the relationship between exercise and cancer. PMID:27134362
Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Di Michele, Rocco; Close, Graeme L; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P training load and periodisation was similar in the one- and two-game weeks, total accumulative distance (inclusive of both match and training load) was higher in a two-game week (32.5 ± 4.1 km) versus one-game week (25.9 ± 2 km). In contrast, daily training total distance was lower in the three-game week (2422 ± 251 m) versus the one- and two-game weeks, though accumulative weekly distance was highest in this week (35.5 ± 2.4 km) and more time (P 14.4 km · h(-1) (14%, 18% and 23% in the one-, two- and three-game weeks, respectively). Considering that high CHO availability improves physical match performance but high CHO availability attenuates molecular pathways regulating training adaptation (especially considering the low daily customary loads reported here, e.g., 3-5 km per day), we suggest daily CHO intake should be periodised according to weekly training and match schedules.
Harper, Liam D; Clifford, Tom; Briggs, Marc A; McNamee, Ged; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark
This study investigated the changes in indices of acid-base balance during 120 minutes of simulated soccer match play that included a 30 minute extra-time (ET) period. Eight English Premier League academy soccer players participated in a simulated soccer match that required varying intensities of intermittent exercise including 15-m sprints and soccer dribbling throughout. Blood samples were obtained before (i.e., baseline and pre-exercise) and throughout exercise (i.e., 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 minutes), and at half time. Sprint speeds over 15 m reduced in ET compared to the first half (-0.39 ± 0.37 m·s, -7 ± 6%, p = 0.021) but not the second half (-0.18 ± 0.25 m·s, -3 ± 4%, p = 0.086). At 105 minutes, blood lactate concentrations reduced compared with that in the opening 30 minutes (-0.9 to -1.2 mmol·L, p ≤ 0.05). Blood pH (-0.03 to -0.04 units), base excess (-0.95 to -1.48 mmol·L), and bicarbonate concentrations (-0.9 ± 0.8 mmol·L) were depressed at 120 minutes compared with those at 105 minutes, baseline and half time (all p ≤ 0.05). There were no significant correlations between changes in acid-base balance and sprint speed (all p > 0.05). Although the perturbations in acid-base balance during ET were statistically significant, the decreases in blood pH, lactate, base excess, and bicarbonate concentrations may not represent metabolic acidosis or impairments in buffering capacity that are likely to explain reduced physical performance. Further research is warranted to investigate mechanisms of fatigue during ET and to develop interventions that attenuate decrements in performance.
Luiz Henrique Palucci Vieira
Full Text Available Abstract The main aim of this study was to verify possible differences between a friendly pre-season match (FM and an official in-season match (OM regarding physical, technical, and organizational performances of a professional Brazilian futsal team. Ten professional futsal athletes participated in this study. The matches were monitored with video cameras (30 Hz and athlete trajectories obtained with automatic tracking. The values obtained for distance covered per minute, percentage of distance covered at moderate intensity, team coverage area, spread, passes, possessions, ball touches and successful passes per minute were greater for the OM than FM. On the contrary, percentage of distance covered, standing and walking was greater for the FM than OM. We concluded that physical, technical, and tactical performances are different between a FM and an OM in futsal and also these parameters mutually influenced each other distinctly. Future studies should verify whether pre-season tournaments reproduce similar demands to a regular season official match.
Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas
This study identified the most important parameters for the design and safety of artificial turf football fields according to professional footballers and coaches. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted. The sample consisted of 32 professional players and 25 professional coaches. The players and coaches emphasised ...
Full Text Available Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9, and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8 in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition, the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.
Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.
Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735
Wilson Aparecido Silva
there are few studies describing young male vulnerability to HIV. A study was carried out aiming at developing a STD/AIDS prevention program for junior professional soccer players. METHODS: Study participants were twenty-five junior soccer players of a major league professional team of the city of Campinas, Brazil. There were 2 segments. In segment 1, participants were given a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, specific gender-related behaviors, condom use, HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention, and sports associated exposure risk. In segment 2, 17 sessions of group dynamics were carried out. Many forms of expression (speech, writing, pictures, and videos were encouraged to grasp participants' thoughts on STD/AIDS-related matters. RESULTS: Participants showed good knowledge on HIV transmission but they were poorly informed on reproduction and STDs. Unwanted pregnancy is their main concern. As for condom use, 73% consistently used condoms with casual partners (73%, and only 27% consistently used them with regular partners. Also, 58% considered risky to have HIV-positive players among them. CONCLUSIONS: Young players do not consider themselves vulnerable despite their chances of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. They have poor knowledge about the human body and reproductive health. Soccer milieu as well as other sports milieus create great opportunities for prevention programs, where they may have a multiplier effect since athletes are often regarded as role models for children and youngsters.
Pastor, M F; Ezechieli, M; Classen, L; Kieffer, O; Miltner, O
The volleyball game has a high complexity and thus entails a lot of strain to the players. Due to this high and different training and competition strain comprehensive and individual training plans should be developed with competing training objectives in order to prevent injuries. The aim of the study was to analyse prospectively over six seasons the acute and overuse injuries of a German male professional volleyball team. The study included 34 male national league players from season the 2007/08 to 2012/13. All players received a sport medicine examination and a functional diagnosis before each season. Based on the results the players received an individual training plan. The players suffered 186 injuries. The prevalence of acute injuries was 1.94 per player and overuse injuries 0.64 per player. The incidence of acute injuries was 3.3/1000 h volleyball and overuse injuries 1.08/1000 h volleyball. The largest number of injuries was found in the spine. The players had most likely minor injuries. The players had significantly fewer injuries in their second season (1.92) than in their first season (3.25; p= 0.004). It could be concluded that volleyball is a sport with a relative low prevalence of injuries compared to other team sports. The prevalence of injury is 2.58 per player. Due to an injury a player dropped out 16.91 days per season. An individual training program seems to reduce the incidence of injury.
Eirale, Cristiano; Tol, Johannes L; Whiteley, Rod
Goalkeepers have a specific physiological and biomechanical profile including hip loading with increased frontal plane kinetics and explosive side jumps. The aim of this study is to analyze the injury incidence in professional goalkeepers and to compare this with field players.......Goalkeepers have a specific physiological and biomechanical profile including hip loading with increased frontal plane kinetics and explosive side jumps. The aim of this study is to analyze the injury incidence in professional goalkeepers and to compare this with field players....
Davies, Simon R
Vertebral artery damage after cervical fracture and especially cervical dislocations is a recognized phenomenon. The incidence of significant intracranial neurology after unilateral vertebral damage is extremely rare, and to our knowledge, no such injury has been sustained while playing sport. To describe a rare vascular complication of a bifacet C5-C6 dislocation. Case report and clinical discussion. We present a 28-year old white man who was a professional rugby player. He sustained a hyperflexion injury while playing scrum half in a recent league match, which resulted in a C5-C6 dislocation, diagnosed clinically and with a plain radiograph. The patient on admission had complete neurologic loss below C6. The patient underwent immediate computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that revealed a 50% displacement of C5 on C6 with a complete unifacet dislocation and the other facet partially dislocated. The MRI revealed signal changes in the cord at the C5-C6 level and an intimal tear in the left vertebral artery. The decision was taken to reduce the dislocation when medically stable. A few hours after injury, after an episode of vomiting, the patient sustained a respiratory arrest owing to the embolization of a clot from the left vertebral artery into the basilar artery. Despite rapid embolectomy and subsequent permanent left vertebral artery occlusion, the patient sustained multiple infarcts in the cerebellar, thalamic, occipital, and pontine regions of the brain that eventually proved fatal. This case shows a rare complication of unilateral vertebral artery occlusion. Despite early identification of a basilar infarct and a successful embolectomy, intracranial infarction occurred. Although there is no guideline for the treatment of vertebral artery damage, early reduction and anticoagulation may reduce the risk of cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study was to explore the effects of the gender variable in relation to other player and match characteristics on the advantage possessed by left-handed professional tennis players over...
Saltzman, Bryan M; Tetreault, Matthew W; Bohl, Daniel D; Tetreault, Danielle; Lee, Simon; Bach, Bernard R
No currently available literature evaluates the effect of Achilles tendon repair on professional baseball players in the Major League Baseball (MLB). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Achilles tendon rupture and repair on MLB players in terms of return to play and batting/fielding performance metrics. Achilles tendon rupture data were retrospectively collected using information from the MLB disabled list, injury reports, MLB game summaries, player profiles, and publicly available news articles. Four pair-matched control MLB position players were selected for each of the players who underwent advanced analysis. Baseline characteristics were compared between injured players and controls using Fisher's exact or Student's t test. Overall, the incidence of Achilles tendon rupture reported in MLB has increased substantially since 1996. Rate of return to play in MLB after Achilles tendon rupture and repair is 62% for position players (non-pitchers) who suffer the injury. There was no association of injury with any player metric. Compared with injury to the non-power side, injury to the power side was associated with fewer plate appearances, fewer triples, an increase in percentage of at-bats with strikeouts, and decreased speed score. The incidence of Achilles tendon rupture in MLB has increased substantially since 1996. While comparison suggests that overall Achilles tendon injury does not have an effect on MLB player statistics in the years following surgical repair, subset analysis of injury to the rear (power-generating) leg may lead to a decline in those statistics which denote a player's speed and running ability.
Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J
Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic
Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A
By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League
Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.
Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL pl...
B.C. Huijgen; M Coelho-e-Silva; MT Elferink-Gemser; C Visscher; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink
Abstract: Talent development programmes for professional soccer clubs aim to guide players towards professional level performance. We identify whether the intermittent endurance capacity of these players may have changed over time. Since the 2000/2001 competition season, the intermittent endurance
Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Visscher, Chris
Talent development programmes for professional soccer clubs aim to guide players towards professional level performance. We identify whether the intermittent endurance capacity of these players may have changed over time. Since the 2000/2001 competition season, the intermittent endurance capacity of
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.
A field test battery testing the selected physical attributes was administered. Aerobic performance, anaerobic endurance, agility, power, and 20 m and 40 m speed attributes demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.05) between professional and amateur players. Semi-professionals also exhibited a significant difference (p ...
The success of the 1995 Rugby World Cup highlighted and confirmed rugby as a professional career. Aspirant rugby players are increasingly exposed to developmental initiatives and programmes to facilitate their optimal development according to an envisaged professional profile. This study aims to investigate the social ...
Hand preference can be influenced by some factors like sensory information and sports participation. In many sports, it is always desirable to have the similar performance of both hands to adapt to the fast changes of the game. Elite basketball players use their left non-dominant hand more accurately and more frequently during the game compared to amateurs. However, there is no quantitative data to explain this phenomenon. The aim of the study was to test whether participation of long-term basketball training influences interlimb difference and also observed more accurate and more frequent usage of the non-dominant hand in basketball players that can be explained by some kinematic variables during an aiming task. Professional right-handed female basketball players and age-matched non-athletes were asked to reach one of three targets in a virtual reality environment setup with either their non-dominant or dominant hand. Two kinematic parameters depicting motor performance asymmetries were measured: accuracy and hand path deviation from linearity (HPDL). No interlimb differences for basketball players but significant asymmetrical performance for non-athletes were observed. Although the aiming task used in this study is not a basketball specific task, basketball players still displayed better performance compared to non-athletes in both accuracy and HPDL. The current study implies that not only sensorimotor information but also participation of long-term sports activity can modify interlimb difference. Moreover, basketball players having symmetrical motor performance of both hands, which was found in this study, can indirectly explain the more frequent usage of the non-dominant left hand in basketball players.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n=15 players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n=14. Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60º • s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P≤0.05. However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° • s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games.
Rubio-Arias, JA; Carrasco-Poyatos, M; Alcaraz, PE
The aim of this study was to determine the parameters distinguishing top female futsal players from lower level players. Twenty-seven female futsal players participated in the study, composed of professional first division (elite; n = 15) players and semi-professional second division players (sub-elite; n = 14). Active and passive straight leg raise tests, isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 60° · s-1 angular velocity, squat and counter movement jumps, 30 m sprint, 30 m agility, repeated sprint ability test and maximum ball speed during shooting were measured. The elite players were more agile and kicked harder than sub-elite players in maximum ball speed during the shooting test (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant differences between teams were observed in active and passive hamstring flexibility, jumping ability, repeated sprint ability test, 30 m sprint time, H/Q ratio and absolute and relative torque from 60° · s-1 angular velocity. Based on these findings we conclude that agility and maximum ball speed during shooting may be important determinant factors of Spanish female futsal actions and could distinguish ability at high-level games. PMID:27601786
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate what factors affect basketball players in the transition from junior and amateur to senior and professional sport respectively. The study was a qualitative research which uses a semi-structured interview to get the data. There were interviewed five Spanish basketball players who were starting playing in a team of Basketball Club Association (C.B.A.. The results showed that the participants face several changes both in the sport and in the life outside sport. At the same time, the results indicated the existence of several coping strategies that help the player in his career transition.
Aplicación de la dinamometría isocinética para establecer perfiles de riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales. [The use of isokinetic dynamometry to establish risk profiles of hamstring injury in professional football players].
torque of the hamstring musculature was found, are useful variables to establish risk profiles for hamstring injury in professional football players. Twenty players of a Second Division team of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional bilaterally performed an isokinetic test of eccentric knee flexion at 30º/s and concentric knee extension at 240º/s during the pre-season. The Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio and the knee angle of peak torque were calculated, and the players’ injuries were registered throughout the season. The results showed that two of the five injured players had Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratios lower than 0.89, value that has been previously used to determine the imbalance between knee flexor and extensor strength and the risk of injury (Croisier, Ganteaume, Binet, Genty, and Ferret, 2008. In addition, another two injured players obtained ratios between 0.93 and 1.00. On the other hand, no differences in the knee angle of peak torque between injured and non-injured players were found. These results indicate that the Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio may be a useful index to determine the risk of hamstring injury in professional football players.http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03403
Rossi, Costantino; Cellocco, Paolo; Margaritondo, Enrico; Bizzarri, Francesco; Costanzo, Giuseppe
Chronic inflammatory tendon diseases in athletes are frequent, and they often result from modifications in normal kinematics of a tendon associated with a patient's anatomical determinants. De Quervain stenosing tenosynovitis is an inflammatory disease of tendons of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. There is no literature about this disease concerning professional volleyball players. Limited, multiple trauma on the dorsal radial portion of the wrist, associated with long training times, can be involved in the pathogenetic process of de Quervain disease in professional volleyball players. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The authors studied 45 consecutively enrolled volleyball players (27 professional, 18 nonprofessional) satisfying clinical criteria for the diagnosis of de Quervain stenosing tenosynovitis. All patients were evaluated by questionnaire and physical examination. They were divided into group A (mild) and group B (severe) based on the severity of the symptoms and physical findings; they were followed for a mean of 37 months. Total training quantity (mean weekly training time multiplied by mean sports activity duration) in group A was 74, whereas it was 155 in group B (P Quervain disease.
Hadzic, Vedran; Sattler, Tine; Veselko, Matjaž; Markovic, Goran; Dervisevic, Edvin
Volleyball players are reported to have shoulder strength imbalances. Previous authors have primarily investigated small samples of male players at a single skill level, without considering playing position, and with inconsistent findings. To evaluate shoulder strength asymmetry and a history of shoulder injury in a large sample of professional volleyball players of both sexes across different playing positions and skill levels. Descriptive laboratory study. A sample of 183 volleyball players (99 men, 84 women). We assessed shoulder internal-rotator and external-rotator concentric strength at 60°/s using an isokinetic dynamometer and dominant-nondominant differences in shoulder strength and strength ratios using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Peak torque was normalized for body mass and external-rotation/internal-rotation concentric strength. Internal-rotation strength was asymmetric in favor of the dominant side in both sexes, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. Male volleyball players had a lower shoulder strength ratio on the dominant side, regardless of previous shoulder injury status. However, this finding was valid only when hand dominance was taken into account. Female volleyball players playing at a higher level (ie, first versus second division) were 3.43 times more likely to have an abnormal strength ratio. Playing position was not associated with an abnormal shoulder strength ratio or strength asymmetry. In male volleyball players, the external-rotation/internal-rotation strength ratio of the dominant shoulder was lower, regardless of playing position, skill level, or a previous shoulder injury. In female players, the ratio was less only in those at a higher skill level. Although speculative, these findings generally suggest that female volleyball players could have a lower risk of developing shoulder-related problems than male volleyball players. Isokinetic shoulder testing may reveal important information about the possible risk
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian
.... Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis...
Jue-Shyan Wang; Wei-Hsin Wang; Yen-Chun Liao
This study examines whether players benefit from free agency or not. In professional sports, free agency has been a hot topic in recent years. Based on a bargaining model with arbitrary bargaining power, we found that players who have a relative smaller bargaining power to their owners still get lower payoffs after the implement of free agency, and vice versa. Moreover, the expected payoffs of players and sports teams are both not influenced by free agency.
Kitamura, Katia; Pereira, Lucas Adriano; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Finotti, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Loturco, Irineu
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in loaded and unloaded jump performances between different age categories of top-level volleyball players from the same club. Forty-three volleyball players were divided into four age groups: under-17, under-19, under-21 and professional. Vertical jumping height for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swing (CMJa) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) in the loaded jump squat exercise with 40% of the athlete's body mass were compared among the different age categories, considering body mass as a covariate. SJ and CMJ jump height values were higher for professional and under-21 players than under-17 players (pvolleyball players. Therefore, to increase the vertical jumping ability of these team sport athletes throughout their long-term development, coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are encouraged to implement consistent neuromuscular training strategies, in accordance with the specific needs and physiological characteristics of each age group.
Monitorización de biomarcadores sanguíneos en jugadores profesionales de fútbol durante la fase preparatoria y competitiva. [Monitoring biochemical markers in professional soccer players during the season and preseason preparation phase].
Full Text Available El principal objeto de este estudio fue analizar los cambios plasmáticos de biomarcadores obtenidos en jugadores profesionales de fútbol de Argentina (n= 22 durante la fase preparatoria (E1 y E2 y posteriormente en las seis semanas de la fase competitiva (E3. La muestra fue dividida en dos grupos de 11 jugadores: titulares (aquellos que intervinieron en las primeras siete fechas oficiales y suplentes (aquellos que jugaron como suplentes. Se analizaron los niveles de creatinquinasa (CK, lactato de hidrogenasa (LDH, testosterona libre (TL y cortisol (C en plasma como biomarcadores. El índice testosterona-cortisol (T/C fue calculado y tenido en cuenta como otro indicador del balance metabólico. Al realizar la comparación entre los dos grupos de análisis, no se han observado diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre E1-E2. La diferencia más relevante se presenta durante el período competitivo: en los suplentes la CK no aumenta, la TL y el índice T/C se incrementaron (E3>E2; pE2; p< 0.05 was observed in non-starter players. Besides, a decrement of LDH values were determined in this group during the season (E3
Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin
Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.
Brink, Michel S.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.; Jordet, Geir; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
The aim of the current study was to investigate and compare coaches' and players' perceptions of training dose for a full competitive season. Methods: Session rating of perceived exertion (RPE), duration, and training load (session RPE x duration) of 33 professional soccer players (height 178.2 +/-
Young, Christopher M; Gastin, Paul B; Sanders, Nick; Mackey, Luke; Dwyer, Dan B
The activity profile of competition and training in elite netball has not been comprehensively reported in the literature. To measure and analyze player load in elite netballers during matches and training sessions. The primary research question was, How does player load vary between playing positions in a match and between matches and training sessions? Various measures of player load were recorded in 12 elite professional netballers with a mean ± SD age of 26 ± 4.9 y and height of 183.2 ± 8.7 cm. Player load was assessed using a published method that uses accelerometry. Load was represented as total load in arbitrary units (au), playing intensity (au/min), and relative time spent in each of 4 playing intensity zones (low, low to moderate, moderate, and high). Data from 15 games and up to 17 training sessions were analyzed for each player. Player load in matches for the goal-based positions (goal shooter, goal keeper, and goal defense) tended to be lower than the attacking and wing-based positions (goal attack, wing attack, wing defense, and center). The difference was largely due to the amount of time spent in low-intensity activity. Playing intensity of matches was greater than in training sessions; however, the total time spent in moderate- to high-intensity activities was not practically different. Accelerometry is a valuable method of measuring player load in netball, and the present results provide new information about the activity profile of different playing positions.
Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...
Hampshire, Adam; MacDonald, Alex; Owen, Adrian M.
Recent research has raised concerns about the long-term neurological consequences of repetitive concussive and sub-concussive injuries in professional players of American Football. Despite this interest, the neural and psychological status of retired players remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the performances and brain activation patterns of retired National Football League players (NFL alumni) relative to controls using an fMRI-optimised neuropsychological test of executive function. Behaviourally, the NFL alumni showed only modest performance deficits on the executive task. By contrast, they showed pronounced hyperactivation and hypoconnectivity of the dorsolateral frontal and frontopolar cortices. Critically, abnormal frontal-lobe function was correlated with the number of times that NFL alumni reported having been removed from play after head injury and was evident in individual players. These results support the hypothesis that NFL alumni have a heightened probability of developing executive dysfunction and suggest that fMRI provides the most sensitive biomarker of the underlying neural abnormality.
Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.
Xiao Fan Liu
Full Text Available Professional association football is a game of talent. The success of a professional club hinges largely on its ability of assembling the best team. Building on a dataset of player transfer records among more than 400 clubs in 24 world-wide top class leagues from 2011 to 2015, this study aims to relate a club's success to its activities in the player transfer market from a network perspective. We confirm that modern professional football is indeed a money game, in which larger investment spent on the acquisition of talented players generally yields better team performance. However, further investigation shows that professional football clubs can actually play different strategies in surviving or even excelling this game, and the success of strategies is strongly associated to their network properties in the football player transfer network.
Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.
Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine
There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.
Janssen, Joris H.; van den Broek, Egon; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja
We introduce and test an affective music player (AMP) that selects music for mood enhancement. Through a concise overview of content, construct, and ecological validity, we elaborate five considerations that form the foundation of the AMP. Based on these considerations, computational models are
Kudaş, Savaş; Dönmez, Gürhan; Işık, Çetin; Çelebi, Mesut; Çay, Nurdan; Bozkurt, Murat
Objective: To describe a clinical treatment algorithm for posterior ankle impingement (PAI) syndrome in professional football players.Methods: A case series of 26 elite professional football players diagnosed and treated for posterior ankle impingement syndrome were included for the study. All of the athletes received conservative treatment with physical therapy modalities initially. If the first line medical treatment and rehabilitation was ineffective to alleviate the symptoms, ultrasound-g...
Hamilton, David F.; Gatherer, Don
BACKGROUND: Head and neck injury is relatively common in Rugby Union. Despite this, strength and range-of-motion characteristics of the cervical spine are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to provide data on the strength and range-of-motion of the cervical spine of professional rugby players to guide clinical rehabilitation.METHODS: A cohort study was performed evaluating 27 players from a single UK professional rugby club. Cervical isometric strength and range-of-motion were as...
Coelho, Daniel Barbosa; Pimenta, Eduardo; Rosse, Izinara Cruz; Veneroso, Christiano; Pussieldi, Guilherme; Becker, Lenice Kapes; Carvalho, Maria-Raquel; Silami-Garcia, Emerson
This study aimed to analyze the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I/D) allelic and genotypic frequencies in Brazilian soccer players of different ages. The study group comprised 353 players from first-division clubs in the under (U)-14, U-15, U-17, U-20, and professional categories. The allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ significantly in any of the categories between the group of players and the control group. This was the first study of ACE-I/D polymorphism in Brazilian soccer players.
Daniel Barbosa Coelho
Full Text Available Different variables can be used for the identification and monitoring of aerobic capacity in collective sports, with the anaerobic threshold (AT being commonly used in long-duration team sports such as soccer, basketball, and handball. The aim of this study was to determine AT intensity in different categories of soccer players by evaluating running speed, heart rate (HR and percent maximum HR (%HRmax, and to compare these intensities between three soccer categories. Nineteen U-17, 12 U-20 and 14 professional players volunteered for this study. The AT was defined as the exercise intensity at which blood lactate reaches a concentration of 4 mM (OBLA. AT was determined in a field test consisting of two to five 1000-m runs at constant speed. HR and blood lactate concentration recorded during the test were analyzed bylinear interpolation. The running speed, HR and %HRmax at OBLA were determined. HRmax was higher in U-17 players (202 ± 7 bpm than in professional players (193 ± 10 bpm (p<0.05. AT expressed as %HRmax was lower in the U-17 (87.0 ± 1.1 and U-20 (86.3 ± 0.8 categories when compared to the professional category (91.2 ± 1.1 (p<0.05. Mean AT was 87% HRmax. No differences between categories were observed when AT was expressed as absolute HR values (bpm or running speed. The intensity of AT is considered to be high in this group, with professional players presenting a higher AT than U-17 and U-20 players.
Daniel Barbosa Coelho
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p81 Different variables can be used for the identification and monitoring of aerobic capacity in collective sports, with the anaerobic threshold (AT being commonly used in long-duration team sports such as soccer, basketball, and handball. The aim of this study was to determine AT intensity in different categories of soccer players by evaluating running speed, heart rate (HR and percent maximum HR (%HRmax, and to compare these intensities between three soccer categories. Nineteen U-17, 12 U-20 and 14 professional players volunteered for this study. The AT was defined as the exercise intensity at which blood lactate reaches a concentration of 4 mM (OBLA. AT was determined in a field test consisting of two to five 1000-m runs at constant speed. HR and blood lactate concentration recorded during the test were analyzed by linear interpolation. The running speed, HR and %HRmax at OBLA were determined. HRmax was higher in U-17 players (202 ± 7 bpm than in professional players (193 ±10 bpm (p<0.05. AT expressed as %HRmax was lower in the U-17 (87.0 ± 1.1 and U-20 (86.3 ± 0.8 categories when compared to the professional category (91.2 ± 1.1 (p<0.05. Mean AT was 87% HRmax. No differences between categories were observed when AT was expressed as absolute HR values (bpm or running speed. The intensity of AT is considered to be high in this group, with professional players presenting a higher AT than U-17 and U-20 players.
Burt, David J.
This paper examines the modern cultural fascination with the game of football and with football players as this concern is reflected in the modern (post-1960) novel. The analysis is based on 31 novels, or portions of novels, which treat the topic of football as a cultural metaphor at the high school, college, and professional levels. Inspecting…
This paper evaluates and describes themes surrounding the subjective perceptions of success in players and coaches at a professional South African soccer club. Literature around this topic is limited, particularly concerning the qualitative understandings of South African sportsmen and women, providing ample motivation ...
Lawler, Tyler P; Lawler, Frank H
Performance and handedness data were examined for 3,647 professional basketball players who participated in at least five games during the period between 1946 and 2009. Left-handed players comprised 5.1% of all professional basketball players compared to the 11% prevalence in the general population. Left-handers had better performance averages, in terms of the number of points, rebounds, and blocks over their careers, as well as other measures, and had significantly longer careers than right-handed players. Handedness was not significantly related to mean or median life expectancy.
Full Text Available The analysis of positional data in association football allows the spatial distribution of players during matches to be described in order to improve the understanding of tactical-related constraints on the behavioural dynamics of players. The aim of this study was to identify how players' spatial restrictions affected the exploratory tactical behaviour and constrained the perceptual-motor workspace of players in possession of the ball, as well as inter-player passing interactions. Nineteen professional outfield male players were divided into two teams of 10 and 9 players, respectively. The game was played under three spatial constraints: a players were not allowed to move out of their allocated zones, except for the player in possession of the ball; b players were allowed to move to an adjacent zone, and; c non-specific spatial constraints. Positional data was captured using a 5 Hz interpolated GPS tracking system and used to define the configuration states of players for each second in time. The configuration state comprised 37 categories derived from tactical actions, distance from the nearest opponent, distance from the target and movement speed. Notational analysis of players in possession of the ball allowed the mean time of ball possession and the probabilities of passing the ball between players to be calculated. The results revealed that the players' long-term exploratory behaviour decreased and their short-term exploration increased when restricting their space of interaction. Relaxing players' positional constraints seemed to increase the speed of ball flow dynamics. Allowing players to move to an adjacent sub-area increased the probabilities of interaction with the full-back during play build-up. The instability of the coordinative state defined by being free from opponents when players had the ball possession was an invariant feature under all three task constraints. By allowing players to move to adjacent sub-areas, the
Ric, Angel; Torrents, Carlota; Gonçalves, Bruno; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Sampaio, Jaime; Hristovski, Robert
The analysis of positional data in association football allows the spatial distribution of players during matches to be described in order to improve the understanding of tactical-related constraints on the behavioural dynamics of players. The aim of this study was to identify how players' spatial restrictions affected the exploratory tactical behaviour and constrained the perceptual-motor workspace of players in possession of the ball, as well as inter-player passing interactions. Nineteen professional outfield male players were divided into two teams of 10 and 9 players, respectively. The game was played under three spatial constraints: a) players were not allowed to move out of their allocated zones, except for the player in possession of the ball; b) players were allowed to move to an adjacent zone, and; c) non-specific spatial constraints. Positional data was captured using a 5 Hz interpolated GPS tracking system and used to define the configuration states of players for each second in time. The configuration state comprised 37 categories derived from tactical actions, distance from the nearest opponent, distance from the target and movement speed. Notational analysis of players in possession of the ball allowed the mean time of ball possession and the probabilities of passing the ball between players to be calculated. The results revealed that the players' long-term exploratory behaviour decreased and their short-term exploration increased when restricting their space of interaction. Relaxing players' positional constraints seemed to increase the speed of ball flow dynamics. Allowing players to move to an adjacent sub-area increased the probabilities of interaction with the full-back during play build-up. The instability of the coordinative state defined by being free from opponents when players had the ball possession was an invariant feature under all three task constraints. By allowing players to move to adjacent sub-areas, the coordinative state became
Lehman, Everett J; Hein, Misty J; Gersic, Christine M
There is current disagreement in the scientific literature about the relationship between playing football and suicide risk, particularly among professional players in the National Football League (NFL). While some research indicates players are at high risk of football-related concussions, which may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy and suicide, other research finds such a connection to be speculative and unsupported by methodologically sound research. To compare the suicide mortality of a cohort of NFL players to what would be expected in the general population of the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A cohort of 3439 NFL players with at least 5 credited playing seasons between 1959 and 1988 was assembled for statistical analysis. The vital status for this cohort was updated through 2013. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), the ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths, and 95% CIs were computed for the cohort; 95% CIs that excluded unity were considered statistically significant. For internal comparison purposes, standardized rate ratios were calculated to compare mortality results between players stratified into speed and nonspeed position types. Suicide among this cohort of professional football players was significantly less than would be expected in comparison with the United States population (SMR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82). There were no significant differences in suicide mortality between speed and nonspeed position players. There is no indication of elevated suicide risk in this cohort of professional football players with 5 or more credited seasons of play. Because of the unique nature of this cohort, these study results may not be applicable to professional football players who played fewer than 5 years or to college or high school players. © 2016 The Author(s).
Fagerli, U M; Lereim, I; Sahlin, Y
The study involves 421 patients who had suffered injury while playing handball. It describes mechanism and trauma, the injuries and their consequences, and data on training and technical conditions. 2/3 of the injured were female and one half belonged to the younger age-classes. The incidence of injury was highest among senior players. Distortion was the most frequent type of injury, followed by contusions and fractures. Half of the injuries were to the upper limbs, but the most frequent single injury was injury to the ankle joint. Many fractures were seen in fingers, forearm, hand and ribs. Wounds occurred most frequently to the face. The most serious injuries were ruptures of the ligaments in the knee joint. Protective equipment, such as braces, was seldom used. A small minority of the players were given adequate first aid. Important measures to prevent injury include better basic training, better technical training conditions, good first aid, and some changes in the rules of competition.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the meaning of being that a volleyball player for the under-19 players who are experiencing a transition in their in career. Sixteen male players aged 17 and 18 were evaluated, by being asked the triggering question “What does being a volleyball player mean to you?” The analysis of the discourses was carried out according to the procedures recommended by Miles & Huberman (2004. Four response categories resulted: psychoemotional and behavioral skills, emotions in sport, recognition and financial return, skills as an athlete/player. The athletes showed that the meaning of sport lies especially in the passion for practice, but also, in the improving of their tactics and techniques, in the development of psychoemotional and behavioral skills, in the professional recognition and, to a lesser degree, in the financial aspect. Most athletes state they intend to continue in the juvenile sports categories, therefore, understanding the meaning of this activity in their life can be the key to the elaboration of a plan of psychological preparation whose aim is to provide support to their needs in this moment of professional choice.<