Rockerbie, Duane; Easton, Stephen
Professional sports leagues that feature teams in different countries with different currencies are exposed to exchange rate uncertainty and risk. This is particularly evident for three professional sports leagues that feature teams in the United States and Canada. We construct a simple model of a profit-maximizing team that earns its revenue in one currency and meets its payroll obligations in a second currency and participates in a league-imposed revenue sharing plan. Team profit can increa...
Srinivas K Reddy
Full Text Available Values of professional sports franchises have outpaced even investment returns in recent bull markets. Financial World found the value of professional teams like the Dallas Cowboys, Miami Dolphins and the NY Yankees to exceed $200 million each. In 1996, the average estimated value of Major League Baseball (MLB teams was $134 million, and most showed double-digit growth in value, although 13 of the 26 teams were in the red. Our research proposes a model to determine the value of a professional sports franchise, by treating the franchise as a brand whose value is enhanced by its key attributes. This approach is appropriate because each franchise represents a single brand firm. Our model takes into account equity enhancing factors like the franchise longevity, historical performance, the number of marquee/award-winning roster players, and market factors such as market size, competition and franchise efficiency. We determine the extent to which a franchise is managed efficiently with respect to inputs like investments in players (player costs and outputs such as franchise revenue and team performance (win-loss ratio. Using data from 1990-1995 to illustrate our model, we are able to determine (1 the brand equity of MLB franchises, (2 how efficiently each team is managed, and (3 the contribution of marketing factors like brand equity, market size, competition, as well as efficiency, to franchise value. While this paper focuses on MBL, the methodology can easily be extended to other professional sports.
Palomino, F.A.; Sakovics, J.
We analyze the distribution of broadcasting revenues by sports leagues.In the context of an isolated league, we show that when the teams engage in competitive bidding to attract talent, the league's optimal choice is full revenue sharing (resulting in full competitive balance) even if the revenues
Forrest, David; Beaumont, James; Goddard, John; Simmons, Robert
A recurrent theme in sports economics is the extent to which overall league attendances will be raised by measures, such as revenue sharing, which aim to improve competitive balance. This debate has ignored the phenomenon of home advantage, which may, however, be important to the extent that, if all teams had equal talent, all matches may then be weighted heavily in favour of the home team. We present an analysis of the relationship between attendance and match-level uncertainty in the English Football League. A simulation from our model indicates that equality of playing talent would in fact lower aggregate attendance. This result is explained by the loss of prospectively the most uncertain games, where weak teams have home advantage over strong teams.
Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors
Corboz, Julienne; Flood, Michael; Dyson, Sue
Programs aimed at preventing violence against women have increasingly adopted bystander approaches, yet large gaps remain in our knowledge about what drives bystanders to act or not, particularly in settings where there is an increased risk of violence against women occurring. This article contributes to this gap by examining data from research with professional male athletes from the Australian Football League. Drawing from a mixed methods approach, including a survey and interviews with football players, we outline some of the challenges to bystander intervention faced by professional athletes and discuss some of the possible similarities and differences between these and other groups of men. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available The study aims to examine brand management model in Iran's professional Football League (2011-2012 with emphasis on brand image. The study was descriptive-survey one. A sample of Iranian professional football league fans (N=911 responded 4 items questionnaire. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables. The analyses of data showed three dimensions of brand image influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. According to Results, brand image play a pivotal role between Iranian fans brand loyalty. Create an attractive and desirable brand image in the fans mind increases brand loyalty. And due to, revenue and profits increase through ticket sales and products of club and also attract more sponsors.
Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.
We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it.Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either
Full Text Available The main activities of the leading sports leagues were described. Sources of revenue and expenditure were identified. The economic performance of professional sports leagues of the United States of America was compared. In the course of the study of economic efficiency of the leading American sports leagues are defined payroll (expense commands on the salaries of players for each team, the total payroll in the League and the average payroll, respectively, for each of the American League. The largest estimates on wages, both in the League and in teams - in the National football League, the largest player's contract - in the Highest League baseball, the minimum wage in the National hockey League; the highest average wages, a greater percentage of athletes with a salary of more than 1 million. $ (82,85 % in the National basketball Association were showed. This difference in the maximum income of the League and of average wages is due to several factors: the number of players in the team, the number of games in a season, and expenses on carrying out of competition and training activities.
Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J
Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic
Hakan Katirci; Ferruh Uztug
Nowadays football game is subjected to open market norm and rules like any commercial sector in all over the world. The sport clubs which arenâ€™t have economic and executive orderly arrangement canâ€™t transfer their assets to future in football world. In this context, sport clubs must execute methods which have achievement in contemporary business administration and corporate governance. The aim of this study is to investigate application methods of corporate communication approach as a cor...
Storm, Rasmus K.
Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....
King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor
A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.
Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Duong, Jenny; McLeod, Colin
Objective: Using Australian Football League (AFL) matches as a case study, we investigated the frequency, length and content of marketing strategies for sports betting during two specific settings: 1...
The e-sports industry aims to turn real-time video game competition into the next major professional sport-complete with franchises, broadcast tournaments, superstar players, and mogul team and league managers...
Place, Greg; Beggs, Brent
This study investigated those factors that motivate members of the GLBT (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender) community to participate in a GLBT sports league. Data from a survey of 1151 members of a Chicago GLBT sports association were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis to determine the variables that contributed most to explaining leisure motivation in this setting. Results showed that the intellectual and social factors were the primary factors in determining motivation in participation. Also contributing to determining motivation were competency mastery and stimulus avoidance. In addition, findings suggested there was no primary difference between male and female participants.
Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico
League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…
James Keyte; Paul Eckles
The question, then, is whether there is an alternative analytical framework the Court could adopt that could cut short or streamline these wasteful litigations but without a finding that sports leagues are a single entity?
Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P = 0.0217). Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches. PMID:26464875
Full Text Available Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P=0.0217. Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches.
Cochrane, Graham Dean; Owen, Matthew; Ackerson, Joseph D; Hale, Matthew H; Gould, Sara
Concussion policies are increasingly being developed and adopted among professional sports organizations. We sought to compare the policies of the National Hockey League (NHL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), and Major League Baseball (MLB). Our objective was to summarize each policy and evaluate the extent to which each policy is organization-specific and/or consistent with medical guidelines. We visited websites for the NHL, NBA, NFL, and MLB. We searched media articles reporting concussion policy. We utilized only publically available data. We collected information on each league's approach to the definition of concussion, education provided about concussion, baseline testing requirements, minimum return to play time and return to play protocol. We found that concussion policies vary across these organizations. Most organizations utilize the Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) definition (2013) to define concussion. The NFL and NBA mandate preseason education. All organizations require some type of baseline testing. All organizations require sideline evaluation after suspected concussion. The NFL and MLB require Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) testing for sideline evaluation of suspected concussion. MLB is the only organization to require minimum time before return to play. There is a return to play protocol in place for each organization. The NFL and MLB require independent neurologic consultation as part of their return to play protocol. There is variability in concussion policy among the professional sports organizations. The most pronounced variation from the CISG consensus statement is the variability in the minimum time to return to play. Further, the rules of the individual sports have a role in how concussion policy can be designed and implemented. Professional sports set an example for thousands of recreational sports enthusiasts so their publically available policies on concussion have a large impact.
Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Duong, Jenny; McLeod, Colin
Using Australian Football League (AFL) matches as a case study, we investigated the frequency, length and content of marketing strategies for sports betting during two specific settings: 1) at stadiums during four live matches; and 2) during eight televised broadcasts of matches. Census of sports betting marketing during Round 12 of the 2011 AFL premiership season. Per match, there was an average of 58.5 episodes (median 49.5, s.d 27.8) and 341.1 minutes (median 324.1 minutes and s.d 44.5) of sports betting marketing at stadiums, and 50.5 episodes (median 53.5, s.d 45.2) and 4.8 minutes (median 5.0 minutes, s.d 4.0) during televised broadcasts. A diverse range of marketing techniques were used to: a) embed sports betting within the game; b) align sports betting with fans' overall experience of the game; and c) encourage individuals to bet live during the game. There were very few visible or audible messages (such as responsible gambling or Gambler's Help messages) to counter-frame the overwhelmingly positive messages that individuals received about sports betting during the match. This study raises important questions about the impacts of saturation, integrated and impulse gambling marketing strategies in sporting matches. Future research should explore: 1) how wagering industry marketing strategies may affect the attitudes and behaviours of community sub-groups (e.g. young male sports fans, and children); and 2) which public health and policy strategies, including regulation and harm minimisation messaging, will be effective in responding to wagering industry marketing strategies during sporting matches. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Full Text Available The objective of our research project was to examine how league strength explains the observed differences between the international strategies of professional sports clubs in Hungary. Three case studies were made primarily based on the content analysis of management interviews, cross-checked with data from sports databases and corporate documentation. Through our analysis we identified three types of international strategy followed by professional sports clubs in Hungary. The typology highlights the importance of having a competitive product professional clubs may bring to the international marketplace. Hence, governments and local municipalities are advised to focus their support on sports where there is a team with reasonable chance to win trophies at international level. For club managers, the implication is that strategic focus on improving service provision and sales is critical even if they receive windfall support from government.
Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; Geeson-Brown, Tom
The current study retrospectively compared the physical qualities of elite academy rugby league players (aged 16-19 years) by career attainment level (i.e., academy or professional). Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal design. Eighty-one academy rugby league players were assessed for physical qualities (height, body mass, skinfolds, speed, momentum, vertical jump, Yo-Yo Level 1 and 1-RM squat, bench press and prone row) at the Under 17-19 age categories between 2007 and 2012. Player's career attainment level was determined in 2014. Longitudinal changes in physical qualities between Under 17 and 19s were compared by career attainment level. Professional players demonstrated moderate significant advantages for height (d=0.98) and 1-RM squat (d=0.66) at the Under 17s, 1-RM bench press (d=0.76) at the Under 18s and 1-RM prone row (d=0.73) at the Under 19s age categories when compared to academy players. When assessed longitudinally (Under 17s-19s), professional players significantly outperformed academy players for 1-RM squat (η(2)=0.20). Professional players also demonstrated greater increases in body mass (8.2 vs. 2.9kg) and 10m momentum (47 vs. 17kgs(-1)) than academy players between the Under 17s and 19s. Advanced physical qualities, particularly height and absolute strength, within 16-19 year old players may contribute to attaining professional status in rugby league. Further, the development of body mass and momentum for players within an academy is an important consideration in the progress towards professional rugby league. Therefore, practitioners should aim to identify and develop the physical qualities, especially size and strength, within academy rugby league players. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the prevailing content, trends and future developments of professional team sports economics. The purpose of this paper is not to provide a full record of all professional team sports related research with an economic content, but rather to point out the main issues that sports economics tackle since their birth and track the evolution of these issues as a response to the changing environment of team sports. League market structure, team objectives, demand, financing, labour markets and sports broadcasting are the most prominent areas of interest in professional team sports economics. Differences in organizational structure of professional team sports in Europe and U.S.A. shape the research agenda on the two sides of the Atlantic accordingly. Future developments should capture both economic and social aspects of contemporary professional team sports.
Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
To investigate the ability of various internal and external training-load (TL) monitoring measures to predict injury incidence among positional groups in professional rugby league athletes. TL and injury data were collected across 3 seasons (2013-2015) from 25 players competing in National Rugby League competition. Daily TL data were included in the analysis, including session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE-TL), total distance (TD), high-speed-running distance (>5 m/s), and high-metabolic-power distance (HPD; >20 W/kg). Rolling sums were calculated, nontraining days were removed, and athletes' corresponding injury status was marked as "available" or "unavailable." Linear (generalized estimating equations) and nonlinear (random forest; RF) statistical methods were adopted. Injury risk factors varied according to positional group. For adjustables, the TL variables associated most highly with injury were 7-d TD and 7-d HPD, whereas for hit-up forwards they were sRPE-TL ratio and 14-d TD. For outside backs, 21- and 28-d sRPE-TL were identified, and for wide-running forwards, sRPE-TL ratio. The individual RF models showed that the importance of the TL variables in injury incidence varied between athletes. Differences in risk factors were recognized between positional groups and individual athletes, likely due to varied physiological capacities and physical demands. Furthermore, these results suggest that robust machine-learning techniques can appropriately monitor injury risk in professional team-sport athletes.
Webb, Nicholas P; Harris, Nigel K; Cronin, John B; Walker, Craig
This study investigated the relative efficacy of postgame recovery modalities on jump height performance and subjective ratings of muscle soreness and muscle damage at 1, 18, and 42 hours after professional rugby league competition games. Twenty-one professional rugby league players performed 3 different postmatch recovery modalities: cold water immersion (CWI), contrast water therapy (CWT), and active recovery (ACT). The effects of the recovery treatments were analyzed with mixed modeling including a covariate (fatigue score) to adjust for changes in the intensity of each match on the postmatch values of the dependent variables of interest. Standardization of effects was used to make magnitude-based inferences, presented as mean with ±90% confidence limits. Cold water immersion and CWT clearly recovered jump height performance (CWI 2.3 ± 3.7%; CWT 3.5 ± 4.1%), reduced muscle soreness (CWI -0.95 ± 0.37; CWT -0.55 ± 0.37), and decreased creatine kinase (CWI -11.0 ± 15.1%; CWT 18.2 ± 20.1%) by 42 hours postgame compared with ACT. Contrast water therapy was however clearly more effective compared with CWI on the recovery of muscle soreness and creatine kinase by 42 hours postgame. Based on these findings, CWT recovery is recommended postmatch for team rugby sports.
McDonough, Andrew; Funk, Lennard
To isokinetically record shoulder strength scores and range of motion in a professional rugby league squad. To prospectively monitor injuries over a season looking for associations between measured variables and injury. A cohort study design involving prospective screening of risk factors with subsequent injury surveillance. University Sports Science Laboratory and Professional Rugby League Club. All players participating in the clubs reserve team squad for the 2011 season (n = 20). Concentric (Con) and eccentric (Ecc) peak torque values; ratio of Ecc internal rotation IR to Con external rotation ER, also known as the dynamic control ratio (DCR), shoulder range of IR and ER. Eight players (36%) received a total of eleven injuries over the season. There were no statistically significant differences between injured and non-injured shoulders. IR range of movement was significantly lower in injured versus non-injured groups with left (p = 0.022) and right (p = 0.024). Left IR range of movement was predictive of injury using binary logistic regression (p = 0.046). No isokinetic strength parameters reached statistical significance (p > 0.05) for prediction of injury; however size effects were apparent for reduced con IR of the left shoulder and Ecc IR of both shoulders. Reduced shoulder IR range appears predictive of future shoulder injury although caution is drawn due to small participant numbers. Injury prevention strategies for rugby league players should include exercises to improve shoulder IR and possibly Ecc IR strength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jakoi, Andre; O'Neill, Craig; Damsgaard, Christopher; Fehring, Keith; Tom, James
Athletic pubalgia is a complex injury that results in loss of play in competitive athletes, especially hockey players. The number of reported sports hernias has been increasing, and the importance of their management is vital. There are no studies reporting whether athletes can return to play at preinjury levels. The focus of this study was to evaluate the productivity of professional hockey players before an established athletic pubalgia diagnosis contrasted with the productivity after sports hernia repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Professional National Hockey League (NHL) players who were reported to have a sports hernia and who underwent surgery from 2001 to 2008 were identified. Statistics were gathered on the players' previous 2 full seasons and compared with the statistics 2 full seasons after surgery. Data concerning games played, goals, average time on ice, time of productivity, and assists were gathered. Players were divided into 3 groups: group A incorporated all players, group B were players with 6 or fewer seasons of play, and group C consisted of players with 7 or more seasons of play. A control group was chosen to compare player deterioration or improvement over a career; each player selected for the study had a corresponding control player with the same tenure in his career and position during the same years. Forty-three hockey players were identified to have had sports hernia repairs from 2001 to 2008; ultimately, 80% would return to play 2 or more full seasons. Group A had statistically significant decreases in games played, goals scored, and assists. Versus the control group, the decreases in games played and assists were supported. Statistical analysis showed significant decreases in games played, goals scored, assists, and average time on ice the following 2 seasons in group C, which was also seen in comparison with the control group. Group B (16 players) showed only statistical significance in games played versus the control group
Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A
Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (ppsychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage.
Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S
The increased physical demands of professional athletes predispose this patient population to a unique set of injuries typically not seen in the general population. This systematic literature review investigates the nature of injury reporting (both orthopedic and nonorthopedic conditions) in the medical literature of professional athletes in the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Rigorous reporting of sports injuries helps clinicians better understand disease mechanisms relevant to specific sports. The nature of injury reporting will differ within each professional sport and reflect the anatomic emphasis of each sport. An electronic literature search of all publications addressing injuries and medical conditions among professional athletes in the NFL, MLB, NBA, and NHL was conducted using the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases through January 2013. Retrieved publications were categorized by journal type, medical type, and area of focus. A total of 536 publications met all inclusion criteria. There were a higher number of articles regarding the NFL (n = 211) and MLB (n = 216) when compared with the NBA (n = 34) or NHL (n = 75). The NFL had significantly more articles addressing nonorthopedic injuries/medical issues than were found with the MLB, NBA, or NHL (109 vs 75, 14, 41, respectively). Both the NFL (33 of 109, 30%) and NHL (6 of 41, 15%) had a relatively high percentage of articles regarding concussions/neurology, and MLB had a relatively high percentage of articles dedicated to vascular medicine (13 of 65, 20%). The proportion of publications dedicated to the knee/lower leg were highest in the NFL (29 of 102, 28%) and NBA (9 of 20, 45%), those dedicated to the shoulder/elbow were highest in MLB (113 of 151, 75%), and those dedicated to the hip/pelvis were highest in the NHL (16 of 34, 47%). The number and type of publications vary among the 4
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon the athlete restricting himself from further trauma during games, which is a challenge for a professional athlete. Case presentation A 30-year old male front row Australian rugby league player presented complaining of neck pain after a hyperflexion and compressive injury during a game. Repeated trauma over a four month period resulted in radicular pain. Radiographs revealed decreased disc height at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels and mild calcification within the anterior longitudinal ligament at the C6-C7 level. MRI revealed a right postero-lateral disc protrusion at the C6-C7 level causing a C7 nerve root compression. Conclusion Recommendations from the available literature at the present time suggest that conservative management of cervical discogenic pain and disc protrusion, including chiropractic manipulation and ancillary therapies, can be successful in the absence of progressive neurological deficit. The current case highlights the initial successful management of a football athlete, and the later unsuccessful management. This case highlights the issues involvement in the management of a collision sport athlete with a serious neck injury.
McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I; Gass, Gregory C
The aim of the present study was to identify neuromuscular, biochemical, and endocrine markers of fatigue after Rugby League match play. Seventeen elite Rugby League players were monitored for a single match. Peak rate of force development (PRFD), peak power (PP), and peak force (PF) were measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force plate pre and postmatch play. Saliva and blood samples were collected 24 hours prematch, 30 minutes prematch, 30 minutes postmatch, and then at 24-hour intervals for a period of 120 hours to determine plasma creatine kinase concentration ([CK]) and salivary cortisol concentration ([sCort]). There were significant (p training 48 hours postmatch may have resulted in a compensatory increase in PRFD supporting the inclusion of strength training during the short-term postmatch recovery period.
Pollard, R; Pollard, G
Home advantage is quantitatively defined and calculated for each season since the start of the main professional sports in North America and England. Over 400,000 games are analysed. The leagues represented are the National League (1876-2002) and American League (1901-2002) for baseball, the National Hockey League (1917-2003) for ice hockey, the National Football League (1933-2002) for American football, the National Basketball Association (1946-2003) for basketball, and the four levels of professional football, formerly called the Football League, in England (1888-2003). Problems caused by unbalanced playing schedules are considered. The results are presented graphically to show long-term trends and sudden changes. The highest levels of home advantage for all sports were in their early years of existence. Home advantage in ice hockey, basketball and football in England has declined over the last two decades. In baseball there has been very little change over the last 100 years, with home advantage consistently lower than in other sports. There was a large drop in home advantage in football in England following the 7-year suspension of the league during the Second World War. The trends and changes provide some evidence that travel and familiarity contribute to home advantage, but little in support of crowd effects.
The main objective of this thesis is the description and characterization of media content generated within the community around the game League of Legends inside the phenomenon of e-sports. The central issue is the definition of metagame term and anchoring its functions in different types of media content rising in the community around the game League of Legends. The output of this work is analysis of different types of media content, in which the term metagame is designed, interpreted and t...
The focus of this research was on the professional competence indicators of Asian sports business professionals. The aim of the research was to establish how scholars planned classes and programmes at the sports business related departments at colleges in Taiwan, Japan, Korea and China by making use of a ...
Title: Competency profile of PR professional in sport Objective: The objective is to identify competencies required to a position of PR professional in sport. The aim of a survey is to verify the level of competencies which follows compiling competency profile and comparison with existing profile of PR specialist. Methods: The objective is achieved using survey, interview and analysis of competency models database. Results: The result of this paper is competency profile of PR professional in ...
Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C
It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.
Full Text Available Strength imbalances between the hamstrings and quadriceps are an essential predictor for hamstring strain in soccer. The study aimed to investigate and compare the muscle strength imbalances of professional soccer players of different performance levels. One hundred and fifty nine senior male professional soccer players from first (n = 75 and second league (n = 84 Portuguese clubs participated in this study. Muscle strength was evaluated with a REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer. Maximal peak torque data were used to calculate quadriceps and hamstrings strength during concentric and eccentric actions, bilateral asymmetry, conventional strength ratios and dynamic control ratios. Second league athletes produced slightly lower conventional strength ratios in the right and left legs (ES = 0.22, p = 0.17 and ES = 0.36, p = 0.023, respectively compared to the first league athletes. No significant differences were found in dynamic control ratios or in bilateral asymmetry among first and second league athletes. These findings do not show a clear link between the competitive level and injury risk in soccer players. However, some of the differences found, particularly in conventional strength ratios, highlight the importance of performing off-season and pre-season strength assessments to prescribe and adjust individual strength training programs among professional soccer players.
Costello, Nessan; McKenna, Jim; Sutton, Louise; Deighton, Kevin; Jones, Ben
Designing and implementing successful dietary intervention is integral to the role of sport nutrition professionals as they attempt to positively change the dietary behaviour of athletes. High-performance sport is a time-pressured environment where immediate results can often supersede pursuit of the most effective evidence-based practice. However, efficacious dietary intervention necessitates comprehensive, systematic and theoretical behavioural design and implementation if the habitual dietary behaviours of athletes are to be positively changed. Therefore, this case study demonstrates how the Behaviour Change Wheel was used to design and implement an effective nutritional intervention within professional rugby league. The eight-step intervention targeted athlete consumption of a high quality dietary intake of 25.1 MJ each day, to achieve an overall body mass increase of 5 kg across a twelve-week intervention period. The Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour model and APEASE criteria were used to identify population-specific intervention functions, policy categories, behaviour change techniques and modes of intervention delivery. The resulting intervention was successful, increasing the average daily energy intake of the athlete to 24.5 MJ, which corresponded in a 6.2 kg body mass gain. Despite consuming 0.6 MJ less per day than targeted, secondary outcome measures of diet quality, strength, body composition and immune function all substantially improved, supporting a sufficient energy intake and the overall efficacy of a behavioural approach. Ultimately, the Behaviour Change Wheel provides sport nutrition professionals with an effective and practical step-wise method via which to design and implement effective nutritional interventions for use within high-performance sport.
Gabbett, Tim J; Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F
rates. However, the development of prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability and upper-body strength and power may assist to reduce the risk of contact injury in professional rugby league players. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.
Waldron, Mark; Worsfold, Paul; Twist, Craig; Lamb, Kevin
In rugby league, tests of sport-specific skill often involve subjective assessments of performance by observers of varying qualification. However, the reliability of such subjective assessments has yet to be investigated via appropriate statistical techniques. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to investigate: (1) the intra-observer reliability of a non-qualified observer ('novice') and (2) the inter-observer reliability of the three observers (two qualified 'experts' and one novice observer) in the assessment of catching, passing and tackling (stages 1 and 2) ability in elite adolescent rugby league players (age: 14.7 ± 0.5 years). Players performed each skill element within a simulated practice drill and were assessed in 'real time' by the observers according to pre-defined criteria. An overall bias (Pvalues occurring for both tackling skill stages (60-65%). None of the tests employed were sufficiently reliable to potentially discern between players of differing ability, which may mean up to 56% of players' skill being misinterpreted. The credibility of such assessments should be questioned and alternative tests considered.
Vlad Ionut Dumitrache
Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.
Jack, Robert A; Sochacki, Kyle R; Gardner, Stephanie S; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Cosculluela, Pedro E; Varner, Kevin E; Harris, Joshua D
Achilles tendon injuries are common in sports, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) return-to-sport rate in National Football League (NFL) players following Achilles tendon repair, (2) postoperative career length and games per season, (3) pre- and postoperative performance, and (4) postoperative performance compared with control players matched by position, age, years of experience, and performance. Publicly available records were used to identify NFL players who underwent Achilles tendon repair and matched controls were identified. Ninety-five players (98 surgeries) were analyzed (mean age 28.2 ± 2.8 years; mean 5.5 ± 2 .8 years in NFL at time of surgery). Demographic and performance data were collected. Comparisons between case and control groups and preoperative and postoperative time points were made using paired-samples Student t tests. Seventy-one (72.4%) players were able to return to sport in the NFL at a mean of 339.8 ± 84.8 days following surgery. Thirty-one (32%) Achilles tendon repairs were performed during training camp or preseason. Controls (3.6 ± 2.1 years) had a significantly longer NFL career ( P performance scores were significantly worse ( P performance scores when compared to matched controls ( P performance scores were significantly worse for RBs and LBs compared to preoperative and LBs had significantly worse postoperative performance when compared to matched controls. Level III, retrospective comparative series.
Mai, Harry T; Chun, Danielle S; Schneider, Andrew D; Erickson, Brandon J; Freshman, Ryan D; Kester, Benjamin; Verma, Nikhil N; Hsu, Wellington K
Excellent outcomes have been reported for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in professional athletes in a number of different sports. However, no study has directly compared these outcomes between sports. To determine if differences in performance-based outcomes exist after ACLR between professional athletes of each sport. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes undergoing primary ACLR for an acute rupture were identified through an established protocol of injury reports and public archives. Sport-specific performance statistics were collected before and after surgery for each athlete. Return to play (RTP) was defined as a successful return to the active roster for at least 1 regular-season game after ACLR. Of 344 professional athletes who met the inclusion criteria, a total of 298 (86.6%) returned to play. NHL players had a significantly higher rate of RTP (95.8% vs 83.4%, respectively; P = .04) and a shorter recovery time (258 ± 110 days vs 367 ± 268 days, respectively; P sports. NFL athletes experienced significantly shorter careers postoperatively than players in all the other sports (2.1 vs 3.2 years, respectively; P performance at season 1 after ACLR ( P ≤ .001). NFL players continued to have lower performance at seasons 2 and 3 ( P = .002), while NBA players recovered to baseline performance. The data indicate that NFL athletes fare the worst after ACLR with the lowest survival rate, shortest postoperative career length, and sustained decreases in performance. NHL athletes fare the best with the highest rates of RTP, highest survival rates, longest postoperative career lengths, and no significant changes in performance. The unique physical demand that each sport requires is likely one of the explanations for these differences in outcomes.
Full Text Available The ageing population in Canada is dramatically increasing. According to recent demographic projections, roughly 20 percent of Canada’s population will consist of people over the age 65 by 2024. Indeed, the senior population is expected to surpass that of children under the age of 14 by 2017. This growth of the senior cohort signals opportunities for individuals over the age of 50 to challenge stereotypes and embrace active living. Organized sport leagues are a means for seniors to not only embrace active living, but to also re-live and continue living the competitive sports that they played earlier in life. The increasing number of organized sport leagues for this cohort, including the active living philosophy embraced by baby boomers, will probably lead to an increased demand for more organized sport opportunities for this population group. The purpose of this paper is to provide a current state of condition of organized sport leagues for those 50 years of age and over. Specifically, the objective of this paper is to present the evolution of organized sport leagues for those 50 and over while also making suggestions for the future provision of such services. It is concluded that: a more research is needed to better understand the trend of 50 and over sport leagues, b municipal sport and recreation administrators should consider establishing more 50 and over sport leagues in their recreation program delivery systems, c 50 and over sport leagues should better address the needs of specific population groups (e.g., women and ethnic groups, and d awareness should be enhanced for potential entrepreneurial opportunities for the establishment of 50 and over sport leagues.
Hoskins Wayne; Hansen Lotte; Pollard Henry
Abstract Background This paper describes a case of C7 radiculopathy in a professional rugby league player after repeated cervical spine trauma. The report outlines the management of the patient following an acute cervical hyperflexion injury with chiropractic manipulation and soft tissue therapies. It also presents a change in approach to include distractive techniques on presentation of a neurological deficit following re-injury. The clinical outcomes, while good, were very dependent upon th...
Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony
Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p <.05). Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p <.05) but not to any other eatwell plate categories. The study identified adequate general nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.
Orhan, Ozlem; Sagir, Mehmet; Zorba, Erdal
This study compared the somatotype values of football players according to their playing positions. The study aimed to determine the physical profiles of players and to analyze the relationships between somatotypes and playing positions. Study participants were members of two teams in the Turkey Professional Football League, Gençlerbirligi Sports Team (GB) (N = 24) and Gençlerbirligi Oftas Sports Team (GBO) (N = 24). Anthropometric measurements of the players were performed according to techniques suggested by the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (ASRM) and International Biological Program (IBP). In somatotype calculations, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfold thickness, humerus bicondylar, femur bicondylar, biceps circumference, calf circumference and body weight and height were used. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Graph Pad prism Version 5.00 for Windows (Graph Pad Software, San Diego California USA); somatotype calculations and analyses used the Somatotype 1.1 program and graphical representations of the results were produced. Analysis of non-parametric (two independent samples) Mann-Whitney U Test of the player data showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two teams. The measurements indicated that, when all of the GB and GBO players were evaluated collectively, their average somatotypes were balanced mesomorph. The somatotypes of GBO goalkeepers were generally ectomorphic mesomorph; GB goalkeepers were balanced mesomorphic, although they were slightly endomorphic.
Ciccotti, Michael G; Pollack, Keisha M; Ciccotti, Michael C; D'Angelo, John; Ahmad, Christopher S; Altchek, David; Andrews, James; Curriero, Frank C
Elbow injuries cause significant disability for the throwing athlete. Scant data are available on the distribution and characteristics of these injuries in elite baseball players. No study exists that focuses solely on the epidemiological characteristics of elbow injuries in professional baseball players using a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Professional baseball players have a high occurrence of elbow injuries influenced by factors including length of time playing, time period within the annual baseball season, and specific position played. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data on elbow injuries occurring during the 2011-2014 seasons were collected from Major League Baseball's Health Injury and Tracking System, a comprehensive injury surveillance system. Each specific type of elbow injury was evaluated with respect to overall injury rate, years as a professional player, mechanism of injury, treatment, average time lost, and return to play. During the study period, 3185 elbow injuries (n = 430 Major League; n = 2755 Minor League) occurred. The mean number of days missed and percentage requiring surgery were similar between Major and Minor League players. Overall, 20.0% (650/3185) of the injuries required surgical treatment. Pitchers were the most likely to incur an elbow injury (40.0% of injured athletes were pitchers), were the most likely to require surgery (34.2% of injured pitchers required surgery), and had the greatest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically (33.2 days). Medial injuries composed 42.1% (1342/3185) of all elbow injuries. Of all elbow surgeries performed during the study period, the highest percentage involved ligaments (372/650; 57.2%). Elbow injuries are a considerable source of disability in professional baseball players. Pitchers are most likely to incur these injuries, are most likely to require surgery, and have the highest mean number of days missed when treated nonsurgically. The most common injuries involve
Kempton, Thomas; Kennedy, Nicholas; Coutts, Aaron J
This study estimated the expected point value for starting possessions in different field locations during rugby league match-play and calculated the mean expected points for each subsequent play during the possession. It also examined the origin of tries scored according to the method of gaining possession. Play-by-play data were taken from all 768 regular-season National Rugby League (NRL) matches during 2010-2013. A probabilistic model estimated the expected point outcome based on the net difference in points scored by a team in possession in a given situation. An iterative method was used to approximate the value of each situation based on actual scoring outcomes. Possessions commencing close to the opposition's goal-line had the highest expected point equity, which decreased as the location of the possession moved towards the team's own goal-line. Possessions following an opposition error, penalty or goal-line dropout had the highest likelihood of a try being scored on the set subsequent to their occurrence. In contrast, possessions that follow an opposition completed set or a restart were least likely to result in a try. The expected point values framework from our model has applications for informing playing strategy and assessing individual and team performance in professional rugby league.
This paper presents the results of a study targeted at human resources managers and professional sports coaches at sport organisations affiliated to the South African Sports Commission, in all nine provinces of South Africa. It focuses specifically on the job security of professional sports coaches. The methodology involved ...
The success that sport organizations can achieve is largely depends on the ability and competence of their human resources. Amongst the paid professional employees in sport is the professional coach who has received relatively little academic enquiry since commercial and professional sport emerged in the 21st century.
Erickson, Brandon J; Harris, Joshua D; Cole, Brian J; Frank, Rachel M; Fillingham, Yale A; Ellman, Michael B; Verma, Nikhil N; Bach, Bernard R
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in male National Hockey League (NHL) players. To determine (1) the return to sport (RTS) rate in the NHL following ACL reconstruction, (2) performance on RTS, and (3) the difference in RTS and performance between players who underwent ACL reconstruction and controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NHL players undergoing ACL reconstruction were evaluated. All demographic data were analyzed. Matched controls were selected from the NHL during the same years as those undergoing ACL reconstruction. The "index year" (relative to the number of years of experience in the NHL) in controls was the same as the year that cases underwent ACL reconstruction. RTS and performance in the NHL were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. Bonferroni correction was used in the setting of multiple comparisons. A total of 36 players (37 knees) meeting the inclusion criteria underwent ACL reconstruction while in the NHL. Thirty-five players were able to RTS in the NHL (97%), and 1 player returned to the international Kontinental Hockey League. Of the players who RTS in the NHL, 100% were able to RTS the season after ACL reconstruction (mean, 7.8 ± 2.4 months). Length of career in the NHL after ACL reconstruction was 4.47 ± 3.3 years. The revision rate was 2.5%. There were significantly more cases playing in the NHL at 3 (P = .027) and 4 (P = .029) years following surgery compared with controls (index year). After ACL reconstruction, player performance was not significantly different from preinjury performance. Following ACL reconstruction (or index year in controls), cases played significantly more minutes, took more shots, had better shooting percentages, and scored more goals and points than did controls (P performance measure. There is a high RTS rate in the NHL following ACL reconstruction. All players who RTS did so the
Weaving, Dan; Marshall, Phil; Earle, Keith; Nevill, Alan; Abt, Grant
This study investigated the effect of training mode on the relationships between measures of training load in professional rugby league players. Five measures of training load (internal: individualized training impulse, session rating of perceived exertion; external-body load, high-speed distance, total impacts) were collected from 17 professional male rugby league players over the course of two 12-wk preseason periods. Training was categorized by mode (small-sided games, conditioning, skills, speed, strongman, and wrestle) and subsequently subjected to a principal-component analysis. Extraction criteria were set at an eigenvalue of greater than 1. Modes that extracted more than 1 principal component were subjected to a varimax rotation. Small-sided games and conditioning extracted 1 principal component, explaining 68% and 52% of the variance, respectively. Skills, wrestle, strongman, and speed extracted 2 principal components each explaining 68%, 71%, 72%, and 67% of the variance, respectively. In certain training modes the inclusion of both internal and external training-load measures explained a greater proportion of the variance than any 1 individual measure. This would suggest that in training modes where 2 principal components were identified, the use of only a single internal or external training-load measure could potentially lead to an underestimation of the training dose. Consequently, a combination of internal- and external-load measures is required during certain training modes.
Full Text Available The study aims to examine winning brands influence on fans’ brand loyalty in Iranian professional football league. A ten-minute pen and paper questionnaire was distributed to fans of five superior teams of Iranian professional football league in 2009-2010 seasons. Team’s association questionnaire developed by Gladden and Funk (2001 was used for data collection. Reliability of the questionnaire was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. A structural equation model (SEM test with maximum likelihood estimation was performed to test the relationships among the research variables using 912 participants. The findings showed three dimensions of brand associations influenced on fan’s brand loyalty of which the attitude was the most important. Benefits and attributes were placed in the second and third rank respectively. In addition, the obtained model of this research highlighted strong interactional effects between the three mentioned dimensions of brand associations.
Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Thornton, Heidi R; Scott, Tannath J; Gay, David; Dascombe, Ben J
Rugby league involves frequent periods of high-intensity running including acceleration and deceleration efforts, often occurring at low speeds. To quantify the energetic cost of running and acceleration efforts during rugby league competition to aid in prescription and monitoring of training. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 37 professional rugby league players across 2 seasons. Peak values for relative distance, average acceleration/deceleration, and metabolic power (Pmet) were calculated for 10 different moving-average durations (1-10 min) for each position. A mixed-effects model was used to assess the effect of position for each duration, and individual comparisons were made using a magnitude-based-inference network. There were almost certainly large differences in relative distance and Pmet between the 10-min window and all moving averages <5 min in duration (ES = 1.21-1.88). Fullbacks, halves, and hookers covered greater relative distances than outside backs, edge forwards, and middle forwards for moving averages lasting 2-10 min. Acceleration/deceleration demands were greatest in hookers and halves compared with fullbacks, middle forwards, and outside backs. Pmet was greatest in hookers, halves, and fullbacks compared with middle forwards and outside backs. Competition running intensities varied by both position and moving-average duration. Hookers exhibited the greatest Pmet of all positions, due to high involvement in both attack and defense. Fullbacks also reached high Pmet, possibly due to a greater absolute volume of running. This study provides coaches with match data that can be used for the prescription and monitoring of specific training drills.
Sport has become a part of life in South Africa. It has grown into an attractive mega-industry that employs many people. Among them is the professional sport coach who is an important member of the human resources in a sport organisation. This individual performs multiple roles that ensure that the sport organisation is ...
Thornton, Heidi R; Delaney, Jace A; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
To investigate the influence of daily and exponentially weighted moving training loads on subsequent nighttime sleep. Sleep of 14 professional rugby league athletes competing in the National Rugby League was recorded using wristwatch actigraphy. Physical demands were quantified using GPS technology, including total distance, high-speed distance, acceleration/deceleration load (SumAccDec; AU), and session rating of perceived exertion (AU). Linear mixed models determined effects of acute (daily) and subacute (3- and 7-d) exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) on sleep. Higher daily SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (effect-size correlation; ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and sleep duration (ES = 0.12; ±0.09). Greater 3-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with increased sleep efficiency (ES = 0.14; ±0.09) and an earlier bedtime (ES = 0.14; ±0.09). An increase in 7-d EWMA SumAccDec was associated with heightened sleep efficiency (ES = 0.15; ±0.09) and earlier bedtimes (ES = 0.15; ±0.09). The direction of the associations between training loads and sleep varied, but the strongest relationships showed that higher training loads increased various measures of sleep. Practitioners should be aware of the increased requirement for sleep during intensified training periods, using this information in the planning and implementation of training and individualized recovery modalities.
Full Text Available Prosperity of athlete football professional or employees is the right of every employees. The responsibility of the organization of professional football clubs to occupational with their health and safety. Organization of professional football clubs have full responsibility in this regard. With normative legal research. The result obtained there is no correlation between positive of law in Unity State Republic of Indonesia and the statuten made by FIFA. Organization of professional football clubs have not been absolutly run in Law of Republic of Indonesia No. 13 of 2003, Article 87 on labour in which every company must implement a health and safety of management system integrated working with the health management system. As a suggestion, require the rule of law which is in sync with the regulations made by FIFA, PSSI respected to the regulations in Indonesia related to sports that do not event of contradiction before publish the statuten of the organization so that no event of resignation athlete professional football in the future, they shall take into account the contennt of their contract, the public take an active role in infraction notice made by PSSI or other organizations professional football clubs on the regulation of professional football athlete contract that have been made, and the researchers of science of law are examining the country’s sovereignty and the sovereignty of FIFA.
McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I
The aim of the present study was to examine the positional differences in physical performance measures of professional, semiprofessional, and junior elite rugby league match-play using portable Global Positioning Systems (GPSs). Twelve professional, 12 semiprofessional, and 18 junior elite male rugby league players were monitored during 5 regular-season competition matches using portable GPS software. The mean total distance traveled during professional (8,371 ± 897 m) and semiprofessional (7,277 ± 734 m) match-play was significantly (p distance traveled and distance traveled per minute of playing time were significantly (p professional (backs: 8,158 ± 673 m; 101 ± 8 m·min and forwards: 8,442 ± 812 m; 98 ± 12 m·min) and semiprofessional (backs: 7,505 ± 765 m; 94 ± 8 m·min and forwards: 6,701 ± 678 m; 89 ± 8 m·min) match-play. Maximum running speed, maximum sprints, and total sprint distance traveled by professional players were all significantly (p Professional backs and forwards performed significantly (p distance during match-play in comparison to semiprofessional and junior elite players. The present findings demonstrate minimal differences in the physical performance measures of professional and semiprofessional rugby league match-play. The position-specific performance characteristics of junior elite match-play indicate that current junior elite player-development pathways may not provide adequate preparation for players transitioning into professional competition.
Erickson, Brandon J; Harris, Joshua D; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Gupta, Anil K; McCormick, Frank M; Cole, Brian J
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in male Major League Soccer (MLS) players in the United States. To determine (1) return-to-sport (RTS) rate in MLS following ACL reconstruction (ACLR), (2) timing of RTS, (3) performance upon RTS, and (4) the difference in RTS and performance between players who underwent ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and controls. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. MLS players undergoing ACLR between 1996 and 2012 were evaluated. Player data were extracted from publically available sources. All demographic data were analyzed. A control group of players matched by age, body mass index (BMI), sex, position, performance, and MLS experience (occurred at 2.6 years into career, designated "index year") was selected from the MLS during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. The RTS and performance in the MLS were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student ttests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. A total of 52 players (57 knees) that met inclusion criteria underwent ACLR while in the MLS. Mean player age was 25.6 ± 3.98 years. Forty players were able to resume play (77%). Of the 40 players (45 knees), 38 (43 knees; 95%) resumed play the season following ACLR (mean, 10 ± 2.8 months after surgery). Mean career length in the MLS after ACLR was 4.0 ± 2.8 years. The revision rate was 10%. There was a significant increase in the incidence of ACL tears in the MLS by year (P Performance in the MLS upon RTS after ACLR was not significantly different versus preinjury. There was no significant difference in survival in the MLS between cases and controls after ACLR or index year. The only significant performance differences between cases and controls were that cases had significantly greater shots taken per season (P= .005) and assists (P= .005) than did controls after the index year. There is a high RTS rate in the MLS following ACLR. Nearly all players resumed play the season
This dissertation explores the relationship between US acting, actor training, and the sociology of theatre. Using the cultural criticism of notable Western Marxists, it argues that the profession of US acting has become a commodified enterprise, most especially since the 1970s and 80s. By using the now defunct League of Professional Theatre…
Hings, R F; Wagstaff, C R D; Thelwell, R C; Gilmore, S; Anderson, V
The aim of this study was to explore how sport medicine and science practitioners manage their emotions through emotional labor when engaging in professional practice in elite sport. To address the research aim a semistructured interview design was adopted. Specifically, eighteen professional sport medicine and science staff provided interviews. The sample comprised sport and exercise psychologists (n=6), strength and conditioning coaches (n=5), physiotherapists (n=5), one sports doctor and one generic sport scientist. Following a process of thematic analysis, the results were organized into the following overarching themes: (a) factors influencing emotional labor enactment, (b) emotional labor enactment, and (c) professional and personal outcomes. The findings provide a novel contribution to understanding the professional demands faced by practitioners and are discussed in relation to the development of professional competencies and the welfare and performance of sport medics and scientists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nankervis, Brodie; Ferguson, Laura; Gosling, Cameron; Storr, Michael; Ilic, Dragan; Young, Mark; Maloney, Stephen
The objective of this study was to explore how social media is used by a population of injured professional athletes, by comparing the content and frequency of posts on social media, pre and post-injury. A retrospective mixed methods design was utilised. Professional Australian Football League (AFL) players, injured during the 2015 season, were included in the study. Publicly accessible social media profiles for these players were identified on Twitter and Instagram. All posts published on verified profiles, from four weeks prior to injury until return to play, were extracted. Thematic analysis was used to investigate the content of these posts, while univariate and multivariate linear regression was used to investigate the frequency of posts during this time period. Two reoccurring themes were identified exclusively post-injury; 'supporting team from the sideline' and 'sharing information about injury and rehabilitation'. The frequency of total posts did not differ significantly pre and post-injury, but the frequency of injury related posts increased in the immediate post-injury phase, then decreased between 4-8 weeks and 8-12 weeks post-injury. The frequency of injury related posts was higher with more severe injuries. The findings of this study suggest that injured players use social media to seek social support from their followers, especially in the immediate post-injury period and after sustaining a severe injury. The role of social media in injury rehabilitation may warrant further investigation, to determine if it could be used to facilitate return to play. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holloway, Kate M; Meir, Rudi A; Brooks, Lyndon O; Phillips, Cameron J
The aim of this study was to design a simple field test to measure the anaerobic endurance fitness of rugby league players, which is an important fitness quality in the game of rugby league. Twelve amateur football players with a mean (+/-SD) age of 21.5 years (+/-2.2) volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects completed 1 trial of the Wingate 60-second (W60) cycle test and 2 trials of the new Triple-120 meter shuttle (T120S) test. All trials were completed 4 days apart. The validity of the T120S was determined by comparing physiological responses (heart rate and blood lactate) and rating of perceived exertion to the all-out W60 cycle test. The results indicate there is a significant relationship between maximum heart rate (r = 0.63 and 0.71) for the 2 trials of the T120S and the W60 cycle test. There was no significant relationship between the 2 trials and the W60 cycle test for post 3 minute lactate (r = 0.112 and 0.101) and rating of perceived exertion (r = 0.94 and 0.161). However, the T120S test elicited greater mean values for these measures than the W60 cycle test. The results indicate that the T120S is a valid test of anaerobic endurance and represents a sports specific test of this quality that may provide useful information for players and coaches involved in the sport of rugby league.
Pau, Massimiliano; Arippa, Federico; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Ibba, Gianfranco; Todde, Francesco; Scorcu, Marco
To assess the existence of correlations between static and dynamic balance abilities in young and professional elite soccer players. Cross-sectional. Fifty-one elite players who regularly compete at national level divided into two groups: Professional (age 18-34, n = 20) and Under 15-17 (age 14-16, n = 31). Dynamic balance was assessed for the case of a single-leg landing task by means of vertical time to stabilization (TTS) and postural sway calculated on the basis of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories (sway area, COP displacements in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction, COP path length). The same parameters were also measured for a 20 s one-legged stance to assess static balance abilities. No significant correlations were found between static and dynamic balance parameters except for TTS and COP displacements in the antero-posterior direction (r = 0.29, p = 0.003). Professional players are characterized by lower TTS in comparison with youth leagues players (0.767 vs. 1.188 s for the dominant limb, p balance in soccer players should be performed with both dynamic and static tests, considering that the postural control performances in the two cases are not related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inglis, Paul; Bird, Stephen P
The objective of the study was to describe the movement demands and running intensities of semi-professional rugby league players during a rugby league 9's (RL9's) tournament. Six semi-professional rugby league players competed in a RL9's tournament over a two-day period comprising of six games. Movement demands and running intensities were recorded using Global Positioning System (GPS) devices providing data on distance and speeds. Data is presented as mean (95% Confidence Intervals) with changes (≥ 75%) likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change (0.2) considered practically important. Outside backs performed significantly (p distance than the forwards. Outside backs also performed significantly (p distance than the adjustables. Moderate (0.6 - 1.2) to very large (> 2.0) decreases in performance variables were observed over the two days. The biggest magnitude of change over the two days was seen with very large decreases in relative HSR (- 2.10) and sprint (- 2.14) distance. Between playing groups, the outside backs had the biggest decrease in running intensity with a very large (- 2.32) significant (p professional rugby league players. The observed decreases in running performances between playing groups are in agreement with previous research and may support the use of individualized player monitoring and recovery management during a RL9's tournament-style competition.
Carlsson, Mats; Johansson, Mikael; Larson, Jeffrey
Previous approaches for scheduling a league with round-robin and divisional tournaments involved decomposing the problem into easier subproblems. This approach, used to schedule the top Swedish handball league Elitserien, reduces the problem complexity but can result in suboptimal schedules. This paper presents an integrated constraint programming model that allows to perform the scheduling in a single step. Particular attention is given to identifying implied and symmetry-breaking constraints that reduce the computational complexity significantly. The experimental evaluation of the integrated approach takes considerably less computational effort than the previous approach.
Jack, Robert A; Sochacki, Kyle R; Navarro, Sergio M; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Harris, Joshua D
Clavicle fractures are common injuries in professional football. Surgical fixation of these injuries may lead to decreased nonunion rates, improved shoulder strength, and decreased residual functional impairment. To determine (1) return-to-sport (RTS) rate in National Football League (NFL) players after clavicle fracture open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), (2) postoperative career length and games per season, (3) pre- and postoperative performance, and (4) postoperative performance compared with control players matched by position, age, years of experience, and performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Publicly available records were used to identify players who underwent surgical treatment of a clavicle fracture while playing in the NFL. Demographic and performance data were collected for each player, and matched controls were identified. Control and case performance scores were calculated using a standardized scoring system. RTS was defined as playing in 1 NFL game after surgery. Comparisons between case and control groups at preoperative and postoperative time points were made using paired-samples Student t tests. Seventeen surgeries (16 players) were analyzed. Fifteen players (94.1%) were able to RTS in the NFL at a mean 211.3 ± 144.7 days postsurgery; 7 (44%) returned within the same season as their injury and subsequent fixation. The overall rate of a player's remaining in the NFL 1 year after surgery was 88.2%. Players who underwent surgery played in a similar number of games per season and had similar career lengths in the NFL as controls (P > .05). There were no significant (P > .05) differences between cases and matched controls presurgery and preindex. There was no difference (P > .05) in postoperative performance scores or games per season compared with preoperative scores or games per season for any position. Quarterbacks (n = 3, P = .049) and running backs (n = 5, P = .039) had significantly worse postoperative performance scores when
The articles revealed that the risk of injury in professional football is substantial; its prevalence astronomical and extremely severe. Injuries also affect performance in a negative way and teams that can avoid injuries have greater success as evaluated by their position in the league system. Prevention of injury in football is of ...
aus der Fünten, Karen; Faude, Oliver; Lensch, Jochen; Meyer, Tim
The winter break in the top 2 German professional soccer leagues was shortened from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks in the 2009-2010 season. To investigate whether this change affected injury characteristics by comparing the second half of the 2008-2009 (long winter break) with the equivalent period in the 2009-2010 season (short winter break). Prospective cohort study. German male professional soccer leagues. Seven professional German male soccer teams (184 players in the 2008-2009 season, 188 players in the 2009-2010 season). Injury incidences and injury characteristics (cause of injury, location, severity, type, diagnosis), including their monthly distribution, were recorded. A total of 300 time-loss injuries (2008-2009 n = 151, 2009-2010 n = 149) occurred. The overall injury incidence per 1000 soccer hours was 5.90 (95% confidence interval = 5.03, 6.82) in 2008-2009 and 6.55 (5.58, 7.69) in 2009-2010. Match injuries per 1000 hours were 31.5 (25.0, 38.0) in the first season and 26.5 (20.2, 32.7) in the second season; the corresponding training values were 2.67 (2.08-3.44) and 3.98 (3.19-4.95), respectively. The training injury incidence (incidence rate ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.08], P = .02) and the risk of sustaining a knee injury (incidence rate ratio = 1.66 [1.00, 2.76], P = .049) were higher in 2009-2010 after the short winter break; the incidence of moderate and severe injuries (time loss >7 days) trended higher (incidence rate ratio = 1.34 [0.96, 1.86], P = .09). Shortening the winter break from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks did not change the overall injury incidence; however, a higher number of training, knee, and possibly more severe injuries (time loss >7 days) occurred.
Full Text Available The issue of race was virtually beyond the touchline in Australian rugby league before the 1960s. It was a white man’s game. Institutionalised racism meant that few Aboriginal men played rugby league at the highest professional level. It is now presumed that race and racism has no place in a game where these questions have been historically ‘out of bounds’. The dearth of critical writing in rugby league history indicates that racism in the sport has been subject to a form of social blindness and deemed unworthy of study. Rugby league’s white exclusionist past and the denial of racism in the present era indicate habits of mind which may be described in league argot as the ‘blindside flick’.
McLean, Blake D; Coutts, Aaron J; Kelly, Vince; McGuigan, Michael R; Cormack, Stuart J
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in neuromuscular, perceptual and hormonal measures following professional rugby league matches during different length between-match microcycles. Twelve professional rugby league players from the same team were assessed for changes in countermovement jump (CMJ) performance (flight time and relative power), perceptual responses (fatigue, well-being and muscle soreness) and salivary hormone (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) levels during 5, 7 and 9 d between-match training microcycles. All training was prescribed by the club coaches and was monitored using the session-RPE method. Lower mean daily training load was completed on the 5 d compared with the 7 and 9 d microcycles. CMJ flight time and relative power, perception of fatigue, overall well-being and muscle soreness were significantly reduced in the 48 h following the match in each microcycle (P values following 4 d in each microcycle. Countermovement jump relative power was lower in the 7 d microcycle in comparison with the 9 d microcycle (P rugby league match but can be recovered to baseline levels within 4 d. These findings show that with appropriate training, it is possible to recover neuromuscular and perceptual measures within 4 d after a rugby league match.
Frederick W. Stander; Llewellyn E. Van Zyl
Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport ...
Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Bach, Bernard R; Dines, Joshua S; Verma, Nikhil N; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Cohen, Steven B; Romeo, Anthony A
Pitchers who return to sport (RTS) sooner will have a higher risk of revision ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) than those who return later. All professional (major and minor league) baseball pitchers who underwent UCLR between 1974 and 2016 were identified. Date of the index UCLR was recorded. The date of the first game back at any professional level after surgery and the date the pitcher returned to the same level of play (if applicable) were recorded. Length of time between these dates was compared for pitchers who required a revision UCLR and those who did not. Overall, 569 pitchers (average age, 24.8 ± 4.1 years) underwent UCLR and had reliable game logs after surgery. No statistically significant difference existed in the length of time to RTS at any professional level or at the same professional level between those pitchers who did not require a revision UCLR and those who did (P = .442, P = .238). Pitchers who required revision UCLR returned to any level of play almost 2 months earlier (14.7 vs. 16.5 months) and returned to the same level of play >2 months earlier (15.2 vs. 17.7 months) than matched controls who did not require revision UCLR, although this was not statistically significant (P = .179, P = .204). No statistically significant difference existed in the length of time to RTS after UCLR in professional baseball players who required a revision UCLR and those who did not. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper presents the results of a study on human resources managers and professional sport coaches at sport organizations in South Africa. It focuses specifically on the management of professional coaches. The methodology involved an extensive literature survey, structured in-depth interviews and the administration ...
Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Phan, Hao
E-sports nowadays are considered as a billion dollars industry. Indeed, playing video gaming step by step become a worthy occupation and would bring decent furture for any person who have talented and determination. This thesis describes how e-sports organizations in Finland are structured. Also, it identifies the common characteristics of professional e-sports players in this coun-try. Related on interviews with persons who already have experiences by involve in E-sports, the resuls of t...
Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls) of professional soccer players (n=6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the pre-match (0.05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for pre-match CHO intake and post-match recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (Plunch (0.6 g.kg(-1))>breakfast (0.3 g.kg(-1))>evening snacks (0.1 g.kg(-1)). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the pre-match and post-match meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen re-synthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.
Despite growing interest in quantifying and modeling the scoring dynamics within professional sports games, relative little is known about what patterns or principles, if any, cut across different sports. Using a comprehensive data set of scoring events in nearly a dozen consecutive seasons of college and professional (American) football, professional hockey, and professional basketball, we identify several common patterns in scoring dynamics. Across these sports, scoring tempo---when scoring events occur---closely follows a common Poisson process, with a sport-specific rate. Similarly, scoring balance---how often a team wins an event---follows a common Bernoulli process, with a parameter that effectively varies with the size of the lead. Combining these processes within a generative model of gameplay, we find they both reproduce the observed dynamics in all four sports and accurately predict game outcomes. These results demonstrate common dynamical patterns underlying within-game scoring dynamics across prof...
Full Text Available The economic environment and business, advertising in sport is one of the ways that most companies to manage the brand, its products and expanding its market in the country. The aim of the present study investigates the effects of advertising on transfer of brand identity from the perspective of sports consumers in Premier League football. This study on the nature and purpose and in terms of descriptive and correlational in terms of search data, a survey was carried out that way. After face and content validity, reliability test using Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire, the effect of advertising tools 0.89, questionnaire transfer brand identity was 0.86, respectively. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods for the calculation and processing information, and also Spss software packages and LISREL were used. The study findings also confirmed the emergence of structural equation and the findings of other researchers, showed a promotional tool to transfer of brand identity from the perspective of the Sports consumer was significant effect (Chi-Square/df=2/04, RMSEA=0/059, P-Value =0/0001. The effect of each variable prioritize research also showed use of tool television advertising has the greatest impact on consumers transfer of brand identity. According to the results, it can be said that managers, marketers and planners of advertising companies, organizations and clubs and sporting goods service provider using of the effectiveness of each advertising tool and provide an integrated program of tools and to inform, remind and convince consumers can transfer of brand identity or brand and achieve their advertising goals.
Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J
To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d long-haul travel between Australia and the UK exacerbates subjective jet-lag and sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.
Full Text Available Given the importance of brand management of sport teams, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of relationship marketing dimensions, including team attachment, team trust, team involvement, and team selfexpression on team loyalty of fans of sport teams participating in Iran Azadeghan Football League. Sample size of this study included 480 fans of football teams, and structural equation modeling was used for analysis of data using Lisrel software. The results confirmed all hypotheses, except one hypothesis. Therefore, there is significant relationship between team self-expression and team attachment among football sport teams in Azadeghan Football League of Iran. The results show the importance of paying attention to fans of sports teams and use of their high potential and capacity that sports teams brand managers must pay particular attention to this enormous capacity. Regarding sports teams, the impact of relationship marketing, particularly dimensions of self-expression and team involvement was investigated for the first time in Iran.
Gabbett, Tim J
The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning
Concussions in sports have become such a large issue in today’s sports society. Each year it seems that we hear more and more about athletes who struggle dealing with head injuries. Athletes continue to get bigger, stronger and faster which brings more excitement to sports. There have been many injuries in contact sports at all levels that not only result in concussions but long-term head injuries that can that cause permanent damage. We have learned and studied so much about the effects that...
Petersen, Alexander; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H Eugene
We provide a simple and intuitive stochastic process that accounts for the observed probability density functions governing career longevity in several professional sports leagues in various countries. Our mechanism characterizes the probability density functions governing career longevity with two parameters, \\alpha and \\tau . The exponent \\alpha < 1 characterizes the scaling in the power-law regime, which is followed by an exponential cutoff after a critical value \\tau, representing the mean lifetime in each sport. In addition, we also show that the probability density functions of career statistical metrics within each sport follow directly from the density functions of career longevity. Thus, our process is a universal mechanism describing longevity in a competitive environment, with the exponent \\alpha representing the role of experience and reputation in career development. Because net career tallies of in-game success ultimately serve as a metric for classifying careers, our findings provide a robus...
Davis, Dexter J.
Estimates are that 32 million people currently play fantasy football every year. Project Based Learning (PBL) is one method of engaging students in the educational process. This paper outlines a semester long project undertaken by undergraduate sport management students that uses fantasy football as a vehicle to enhance student knowledge of basic…
Degelman, Charles; Hayes, Bill
This lesson plan uses students' interest in sports to teach good citizenship. With its focus on rules, responsibility, conflict resolution, and teamwork, the unit emphasizes the development of critical thinking, decision-making, and citizenship skills in young people. This lesson plan is part of a series of fully prepared, interactive classroom…
Sedigheh Hosseinpoor Delavar; Shirin Zardoshtian; Behesht Ahmady; Azadeh Azadi
This study determined the effects of autonomy-supportive behaviors on satisfying the psychological needs and commitment of female handball players in premier league in Iran. Here, we used descriptive research (survey) method. The statistical population of 237 players was selected as our samples. We administered three questionnaires for autonomy-Supportive behaviors, psychological needs and commitment including perceived autonomy-supportive behaviors of coaches in sport (PASSES), satisfaction ...
Kempton, Thomas; Sirotic, Anita Claire; Coutts, Aaron James
This study examined the changes in external outputs, including metabolic power variables, and internal response whilst considering contextual factors on physical performance variables during rugby league match play. Physical performance (total distance, high-speed running and high-power distances, average metabolic power), heart-rate (percentage heart-rate peak and training impulse), collisions (attacking and defensive) and contextual (time in attack, time in defence, time out of play) data were collected from 18 rugby league players during 38 games throughout two National Rugby League seasons. Physical variables were highest in the first 10-min period of each half (P < 0.001). Heart-rate indices peaked in the second 10-min period and were lower during second half periods (P < 0.001). Few differences existed in collisions and contextual factors across 10-min periods. Physical variables were highest during the first 5-min period compared to the final (P < 0.001). There was no difference in heart-rate response, attacking collisions or contextual factors between these periods. Following the peak 5-min period in the match, there were reductions in physical, heart-rate, defensive collisions and contextual factors (P < 0.001). The data show temporal changes in physical performance, heart-rate response and collisions during rugby league match play, although these are affected by contextual factors.
Erickson, Brandon J; Chalmers, Peter N; Axe, Michael J; Romeo, Anthony A
Empirical evidence has suggested a connection between youth pitch counts and subsequent elbow injury. For players within the Little League World Series (LLWS), detailed historical player data are available. Some of these players progress to both professional play and require an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR). To determine the percentage of LLWS pitchers who proceed to play professional (major or minor league) baseball, the rate of UCLR in former LLWS pitchers who played professional baseball, and the risk to those who exceeded current pitch count recommendations while playing in the LLWS. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All LLWS pitchers from 2001 through 2009 from all teams and countries were identified, and all performance data were extracted. A professional (major and minor league) baseball database was then searched to determine whether each former LLWS pitcher played professional baseball. These professional players were then searched for using publicly available databases to determine whether they underwent UCLR. Overall, 638 adolescents pitched in the LLWS between 2001 and 2009; 62 (10%) progressed to professional play. Of the 56 minor league players, 25 (45%) pitched. Of the 6 Major League Baseball players, 3 (50%) pitched. Three former LLWS pitchers (5%) who played professionally underwent UCLR. In former LLWS pitchers who exceeded pitch counts and played professionally, 50% (2/4) required UCLR, while only 1.7% (1/58) of those who did not exceed pitch count recommendations required UCLR (P = .009). Similarly, among former LLWS pitchers who subsequently played professionally, 23.1% of those who played as a pitcher required UCLR while 0% of those who also played other positions required UCLR (P = .008). Progression from LLWS pitching to professional baseball is uncommon. Among youth players, both diversification (playing other positions besides pitcher) as well as following current pitch limit regulations may protect against UCLR.
Larsen, Carsten Hvid
The transition from talented youth level to professional level is considered to be the most difficult and complex transition in sports. Literature in career transitions highlights that a match between an athlete’s resources and the demands of a transition will allow an athlete to enjoy a successful...... transitions in a professional football (soccer) club in Denmark. Insights are provided into delivery of workshops, the supervision of the coaches, on pitch training, evaluation of the program and integrating sport psychology as a part of the culture in the club. First, findings highlight that the practitioner...
Heaney, Caroline A; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K; Rostron, Claire L
Sport psychology education has been shown to have a positive impact on the practice of sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs). The purpose of this paper is to review recommendations relating to such education. The paper presents a review of existing literature relating to the content and mode of delivery for a sport psychology education programme for SIRPs. The review seeks to address four questions: (1) What topic areas do researchers suggest should be integrated into the sport psychology education of SIRPs? (2) What topic areas are currently being recommended by professional bodies? (3) What are the findings of research examining the impact of sport psychology education on SIRPs? and (4) What do researchers recommend to be the most appropriate mode of delivery for sport psychology education for SIRPs? The findings of the review suggest that in order to maximise adherence amongst already qualified SIRPs sport psychology education should be delivered in a flexible short duration package. Additionally three broad areas that sport psychology education should cover emerged: (1) understanding of the psychological impact of injury, (2) interventions and psychological skills/techniques, and (3) referral and professional boundaries. This has important implications for the future training of SIRPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weaving, Dan; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Marshall, Phil; Earle, Keith; Abt, Grant
Practitioners prescribe numerous training modes to develop the varied physical qualities professional rugby league players must express during competition. The aim of the current study was to determine how the magnitude of external and internal training load per minute of time differs between modes in professional rugby league players. This data were collected from 17 players across 716 individual sessions (mean (SD) sessions: 42 (13) per player) which were categorised by mode (conditioning, small sided games, skills and sprint training). Derived from global positioning systems (5Hz with 15Hz interpolation), the distances covered within arbitrary speed- and metabolic-power-thresholds were determined to represent the external load. Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and individualised training impulse (iTRIMP) represented the internal load. All data were made relative to session duration. The differences in time-relative load methods between each mode were assessed using magnitude based inferences. Small-sided-games and conditioning very likely to almost certainly produced the greatest relative internal and external loads. Sprint training provided players with the greatest sprinting and maximal-power distances without a concomitant increase in internal load. The metabolic-power method complements speed-based quantification of the external load, particularly during smallsided-games and skills training. In practice, establishing normative loads per minute of time for each mode can be useful to plan future training by multiplying this value by the planned session duration.
Frederick W. Stander
Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African
Jerónimo García Fernández
Full Text Available The actual context has enhanced job opportunities in the field of sport in order to respond to the current market demand. Thus, Physical Education and Sport Science graduates who begin to do differents jobs to the traditional ones but relate to their study field. The aim of this study was to guess which are the job preferences of the students of Physical Education and Sport Science of Seville University by gender and age doing the second cycle of their college degree and determine if there are significant differences. A descriptive analysis was carried out, using a questionnaire based on several researches, it was related to professional opportunities in sport sciences. The sample was of 118 students which represented 40.7% of the overall registered students. Results shown that sport management is the most preferable professional opportunity for women and men of the total sample, following in second place by teaching in secondary school for people older than 25 years of both sexes and teaching in primary school for the younger than 25 years. These findings announce changes in occupational trends in sports, to be taken into account in the framework of the European higher education (Degree of Science in Sport and Physical Activity, own US Masters and Official, lifelong learning programs....
Gommesen, Niels Jørgen
This master’s thesis investigates the members of the audience in professional e-sport. Through a wide range of examples it shows that players, spectators and various nonhuman actors are nested together in assemblages. It states that human-nonhuman actors in ‘co-creation’ constitute the game play...... and consumers of the game play. My ethnographic studies draw from a multifaceted approach counting visual ethnography, participant observations and interviews of 35 dedicated spectators and fans, situated at two professional e-sports competitions, the largest digital festival in the world, Dreamhack in Sweden...
Mulligan, Edward P; DeVahl, Julie
The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to spur further discussion on the necessity, structure, and
Background The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. Purpose The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Study Design Cross-sectional descriptive survey Methods A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Results Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. Conclusions This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to
Polman, Remco; Nicholls, Adam R; Cohen, Jeannette; Borkoles, Erika
In this study, we examined the relationship between home and away matches on mood. In addition, the relationships between game location, game outcome, behavioural factors, and mood were investigated among 12 professional English rugby league players competing in the Super League. Participants completed daily diaries for 27 days. The diary consisted of six analogue scales measuring mood (relaxed-tense, energetic-weary, depressed-elated, tired-alert, anxious-calm, cheerful-miserable) as well as behavioural factors and self-rated performance. There were no significant differences in self-reported mood states leading up to home or away matches except for players feeling more tired when playing away. Significant relationships between mood and behaviours (e.g. sleep and eating) and subjective performance were observed. The outcome of the match was found to influence mood, with a defeat resulting in decreased mood. Our results show that game location did not influence mood and therefore does not provide an explanation for the home advantage.
Kempton, Thomas; Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J
To examine differences in physical and technical performance profiles using a large sample of match observations drawn from successful and less-successful professional rugby league teams. Match activity profiles were collected using global positioning satellite (GPS) technology from 29 players from a successful rugby league team during 24 games and 25 players from a less-successful team during 18 games throughout 2 separate competition seasons. Technical performance data were obtained from a commercial statistics provider. A progressive magnitude-based statistical approach was used to compare differences in physical and technical performance variables between the reference teams. There were no clear differences in playing time, absolute and relative total distances, or low-speed running distances between successful and less-successful teams. The successful team possibly to very likely had lower higher-speed running demands and likely had fewer physical collisions than the less-successful team, although they likely to most likely demonstrated more accelerations and decelerations and likely had higher average metabolic power. The successful team very likely gained more territory in attack, very likely had more possessions, and likely committed fewer errors. In contrast, the less-successful team was likely required to attempt more tackles, most likely missed more tackles, and very likely had a lower effective tackle percentage. In the current study, successful match performance was not contingent on higher match running outputs or more physical collisions; rather, proficiency in technical performance components better differentiated successful and less-successful teams.
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian
Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design : Qualitative study. Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis : We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Athletes in our study viewed injuries as "part and parcel" of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities.
Heaney, Caroline A.; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C.; Green, Alison J.K.
Objectives: The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not.\\ud \\ud Participants and design: Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists ...
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to familiarize the sports sciences educators to the pedagogic concept and professional benefits and awareness of multicultural education if implemented in sports sciences curricula, especially in the efforts to obtain international transparency through sports science literature writing and publishing. Data Sources were textbook chapters and articles searched through the archives of Diversity Digest and Academic Medicine for the years 2000 to 2005 with the key words multiculturalism, diversity, cultural competence, education, and learning. Synthesized data were used to present a rational argument for the inclusion of a critical pedagogy into the field of sports science education. The infrastructure in the professional field of sports sciences, review of the literature on critical multicultural theory and pedagogy and the potential cognitive and intellectual implications of diversity and multicultural education were analyzed. Conclusions/Recommendations focus on possible various and creative strategies for implementing a multicultural agenda in sports sciences curricula and on the analysis of the associated benefits and outcomes of such educational strategies.
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.
This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…
Full Text Available This article explores the limits and opportunities for enhancing the democratic legitimacy of EU actions in the field of professional sport using new modes of governance. It presents a conceptual toolkit by which the ‘throughput legitimacy’ of an EU policy can be analysed. Analysing the throughput legitimacy of the European social dialogue, we establish that, by improving the latter, both input and output legitimacy can be increased. The EU could borrow some of the positive elements of the social dialogue approach and incorporate them in the steering of other issues in professional sport. For instance, it may be interesting to pre-establish certain conditions on representativeness and relevance for participation in the policy process. Crucially, working on a clear theme-per-theme-basis instead of organising outsized gatherings such as the EU sport forum would definitely benefit throughput legitimacy.
Internship as a mechanism for professional preparation of sport management personnel: an empirical study of students' perceptions. ... As a result, the recruitment drives of many organisations currently focus heavily on attracting skills as well as experience. One of the ways in which the skills shortage and lack of experience ...
Discusses the Patriot League, whose idea was to emphasize academics and offer no sports scholarships. Examines why modifications, especially to the no-scholarship rule, have been embraced by some member schools. (EV)
Tod, David; Hutter, R I Vana; Eubank, Martin
Applied sport psychology practice and research date back to the late 19th century. During this period investigators have largely examined the interventions practitioners employ to help athletes. More recently, researchers have begun addressing the person employing those interventions, including identifying their attributes and how they develop expertise, in recognition that practitioners are central to effective practice. Research focused on practitioners can inform educational and registration pathways, helping trainees to develop the knowledge, skills, and characteristics needed to meet their clients' needs. In this article major lines of inquiry in this area are reviewed. It is suggested that examining practitioner identity represents novel research that has educational and applied value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, Sameer; Larkin, Kevin; Kadakia, Anish; Hsu, Wellington
Professional athletes are predisposed to fractures of the foot due to large stresses placed on the lower extremity. These players are concerned with efficiently returning to play at a high level. Return-to-play rates after operative treatment have been previously reported, yet performance outcomes after such treatment are generally unknown in this population. Overall, professional athletes sustaining a foot fracture would return to play at high rates with little impact on post-operative performance or league participation. However, National Football League (NFL) athletes would have a significantly greater decline in performance, due to the high impact nature of the sport. Case series. Level 4. Athletes in the National Basketball League (NBA), NFL, Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) undergoing operative fixation of a foot fracture were identified through a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were collected for each sport. League participation and game performance data were collected before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed, with significance accepted as P ≤ 0.05. A total of 77 players undergoing 84 procedures met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 98.7% (76/77) of players were able to return to play, with a median time to return across all sports of 137 days. Players returned to preoperative performance levels within 1 season of surgery. Six players (7.8%) sustained refracture requiring reoperation, all of whom were in the NBA. Percentage of games started during the season after primary operative treatment was a predictive factor for reinjury (99% vs 40%, P = 0.001). Athletes returned to play at a high rate after foot fracture fixation, with excellent postoperative performance levels, regardless of sport and fracture location. NBA athletes sustaining fifth metatarsal and navicular fractures are at greater risk of reinjury compared with
Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich
In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the explanatory variables of the number of Facebook fans and Twitter followers for professional sports clubs based on the financial value literature. Such explanatory variables are related to local market conditions and on-field and off-field performance. Based upon a sample of North American major league clubs and the most valuable European soccer clubs as evaluated by Forbes over the 2011–2013 period (423 observations, our results indicate a range of variables with a significant positive impact on the number of social media fans: population, no competing team in the market, current sports performance, historical sports performance, facility age, attendance, operating income, expenses/league mean, and being an English football club. An improved understanding of the effectiveness of clubs’ social media presence is important for contemporary sport managers in terms of enhancing supporter communication, involvement, and accountability, as well as maximizing clubs’ revenue generation possibilities. Our findings could help sport managers to realize their clubs’ social media potential in pursuit of these objectives, specifically to understand which variables are under-exploited and why some clubs over-perform, which will allow managers to prioritize decisions to increase their number of social media fans and financial value.
Varley, Matthew C; Gabbett, Tim; Aughey, Robert J
Abstract We compared the match activity profiles of elite footballers from Australian football (AF), rugby league (RL) and soccer (SOC), using identical movement definitions. Ninety-four elite footballers from AF, RL or SOC clubs in Australia participated in this study. Movement data were collected using a 5-Hz global positioning system from matches during the 2008-2011 competitive seasons, including measures of velocity, distance, acceleration and bouts of repeat sprints (RS). Australian footballers covered the greatest relative running distances (129 ± 17 m.min -1 ) compared to RL (97 ± 16 m.min -1 ) and SOC (104 ± 10 m.min -1 ) (effect size [ES]; 1.0-2.8). The relative distance covered (4.92 ± 2.10 m.min -1 vs. 5.42 ± 2.49 m.min -1 ; 0.74 ± 0.78 m.min -1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.80 m.min -1 ) and the number of high-velocity running (0.4 ± 0.2 no.min -1 vs. 0.4 ± 0.2 no.min -1 ) and sprint (0.06 ± 0.06 no.min -1 vs. 0.08 ± 0.07 no.min -1 ) efforts between RL and SOC players were similar (ES; 0.1-0.3). Rugby league players undertook the highest relative number of accelerations (1.10 ± 0.56 no.min -1 ). RS bouts were uncommon for all codes. RL and SOC players perform less running than AF players, possibly due to limited open space as a consequence of field size and code specific rules. While training in football should be code specific, there may be some transference of conditioning drills across codes.
Helmut Dietl; Egon Franck; Markus Lang; Alexander Rathke
This paper outlines and compares the organizational structure of major sports leagues, explores the reasoning behind their formation, and derives implications for salary caps in European football. To understand why sports leagues have developed a specific organizational structure, one must take the economic peculiarities of team sports leagues into consideration. For this purpose, we analyze the production process and illuminate its major peculiarities. For example, we present the difference ...
Harrison S. Campbell, Jr.
The relationship between professional sports and cities is an important public policy issue that has received growing attention in the academic literature. Investment in sports facilities is frequently rationalized on the basis of economic impact and positive spillover effects to cities and regions, yet there is mounting suspicion that professional sports have only a marginal impact on their surrounding area. Why are professional sports so important? What factors help explain the recent stadi...
Fortington, Lauren V; Berry, Jason; Buttifant, David; Ullah, Shahid; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Finch, Caroline F
Australian Football League (AFL) players have a high risk of injury. Anecdotally, this injury risk is greater in emerging players (i.e. those in their first year), compared with established players (with 3+ years of experience). This study aimed to conduct the first comparison of injury risk and playing experience in these two player groups across a large number of AFL clubs. Prospective, cohort. Injuries, game participation and training participation were collected weekly by 8 AFL clubs for 61 emerging and 64 established players. Injury incidence rates (IIR) and Cox proportional hazard models for time to first injury, separately for games and training, were computed. The game IIR was significantly higher for emerging than established players: 45.6 (95% CI: 35.7, 57.6) versus 18.3 (95% CI: 13.1, 24.9) per 1000 game-hours. Emerging players also had a higher training IIR than did the established players: 9.6 (95% CI: 7.6, 11.9) versus 8.9 (95% CI: 7.0, 11.1) per 1000 training-hours. Emerging players were significantly less likely to remain injury free in games than established players (HR=3.46, 95% CI: 1.27, 9.45). A similar outcome was seen in training sessions, although to a lesser degree (HR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.69). Despite efforts to modify the playing/training program of emerging players, this group remain at greater risk of injury in games and training sessions, compared with established players. Continued efforts should be made toward understanding reasons for this increased risk to better prevent injury during the early years of a professional football career. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hänninen, Timo; Parkkari, Jari; Tuominen, Markku; Öhman, Juha; Howell, David R; Iverson, Grant L; Luoto, Teemu M
To characterize the clinical utility of Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) baseline and normative reference values for the assessment of acute concussion; and to identify the sensitivity of each SCAT3 subcomponent to the acute effects of concussion. Prospective cohort. The day-of-concussion SCAT3 results (n=27) of professional male ice hockey players (mean age=27, SD=4) were compared to athlete's individual baseline and to the league's normative reference values. Normative cutoffs corresponding to 10th percentile and natural distribution change cutoffs corresponding to 90th percentile cumulative frequency were considered uncommon. The percentages of the players with uncommon day-of-injury performance, when post-injury scores were compared to individual baseline versus (vs.) normative values, were as follows: symptoms: 96% vs. 100% (post-injury score: M=12, Md=12, SD=4; severity M=26, Md=23, SD=13); Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC): 33% vs. 27% (post-injury M=25, Md=26, SD=3); modified-BESS (M-BESS): 46% vs. 46% (post-injury M=7, Md=5, SD=7); Tandem Gait: 18% vs. 31% (post-injury M=11, Md=12, SD=4); coordination: both 8%. The number and severity of post-injury symptoms were significantly greater, with extremely large effect sizes (Cohen's d=2.44-3.92), than normative values and individual baseline scores. The post-injury SAC score was significantly lower relative to both baseline (d=0.68) and normative values (d=0.88). The post-injury M-BESS performance was significantly worse when compared to both individual baseline (d=1.06) and league normative values (d=1.46). No significant day-of-injury Tandem Gait deficits were observed using either comparison method. SCAT3 league normative values were as sensitive as individual baseline scores during day-of-injury assessments. Symptoms were the most sensitive post-concussion component of the SCAT3. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Dobbin, Nick; Hunwicks, Richard; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Highton, Jamie; Twist, Craig
The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion and construct validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess whole body strength in professional rugby league players. Fifty-six male rugby league players, (33 senior and 23 youth professional players) performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e. two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) in a randomised and counterbalanced order. Isometric peak force was underestimated (P0.05) between the predicted and peak force from the force platform, and an adjusted R2 (79.6%), that represented shrinkage of 0.4% relative to the cross-validation model (80%). Peak force was greater for the senior compared to youth professionals using the dynamometer (2261.2 ± 222 cf. 1725.1 ± 298.0 N, respectively; P<0.05). The isometric mid-thigh pull assessed using a dynamometer underestimates criterion peak force but is capable of distinguishing muscle function characteristics between professional rugby league players of different standards.
Heaney, Caroline A; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K
The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not. Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists with a mean of 9.22 years' experience of working in sport) completed an online survey and were grouped according to their level of previous exposure to sport injury psychology education at an undergraduate/postgraduate level. Analyses were undertaken to establish whether there were any differences in sport psychology related attitude (MANOVA), usage (MANOVA), and referral behaviours (chi square) between the groups. The MANOVA and chi square tests conducted revealed that those who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury reported using significantly more sport psychology in their practice and making more referrals to sport psychologists. It was concluded that sport injury psychology education appears to be effective in increasing the sport psychology related behaviours (use of sport psychology and referral) of SIRPs and should be integrated into professional training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Pitchford, Nathan W; Delaney, Jace A; Benton, Dean T; Dascombe, Ben J
To investigate the effects of a training camp on the sleep characteristics of professional rugby league players compared with a home period. During a 7-d home and 13-d camp period, time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset were measured using wristwatch actigraphy. Subjective wellness and training loads (TL) were also collected. Differences in sleep and TL between the 2 periods and the effect of daytime naps on nighttime sleep were examined using linear mixed models. Pearson correlations assessed the relationship of changes in TL on individuals' TST. During the training camp, TST (-85 min), TIB (-53 min), and SE (-8%) were reduced compared with home. Those who undertook daytime naps showed increased TIB (+33 min), TST (+30 min), and SE (+0.9%). Increases in daily total distance and training duration above individual baseline means during the training camp shared moderate (r = -.31) and trivial (r = -.04) negative relationships with TST. Sleep quality and quantity may be compromised during training camps; however, daytime naps may be beneficial for athletes due to their known benefits, without being detrimental to nighttime sleep.
Jisha, Jay; Mozen, Diana; Talbot, Kristin
Today there are more opportunities for girls to compete in sports than ever before. Title IX has increased participation of girls and women in sports, including women at the college level, and this has led to the creation of women's professional leagues in basketball, softball, Volleyball and soccer. Female stars in individual sports such as golf,…
Sharma, Radhika; Gandhi, Gursatej
Exhaustive exercises may become detrimental, causing disturbance of intracellular oxidant-antioxidant balance and damage to macromolecules, leading to genomic instability when DNA/chromosomes get damaged. As these are precancerous lesions, cancer occurrence is probable. Because professional sports requires high-intensity training and increasing physical demand, there may occur cellular genomic instability. To evaluate genetic damage at DNA and chromosomal levels in hockey and baseball-soft ball players and compare with levels in age- and sex-matched sedentary controls. Players professionally active in their sport from 3 to 11 years on a daily training session of 4h/day were contacted during their camps, and the study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. All participants were healthy individuals, not on any medication and were not taking any supplements. Genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay and buccal micronucleus cytome assay of 56 individuals (36 players and 20 controls) was evaluated. Student's t -test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and linear regression and Chi-square analysis were performed. Players had significantly elevated levels of genetic damage. There were no gender differences and also no significant difference in the genetic damage incurred in both sports types. However, the extent of DNA migration in hockey players was higher. Significantly increased genomic instability in players of both sports was observed. Both repaired and repairable genetic damage cells were observed in different tissues of the same subject. The presence of such genetic damage implies that these players are at an individual risk from cancer- and age-related diseases.
Stander, Frederick W.; van Zyl, Llewellyn E.; Motaung, Kemiso
The aim of this study was to examine whether fan engagement could be predicted by the motivational dimensions of sport consumption. A sample of 806 football sport fans (African = 85%, male = 67.4%, part of an organised supporters club = 57.6%) were participants. They completed the Fan Engagement
Reverter Masía, Joaquín
This study investigates the use of psychology services in teams of the top division Spanish leagues of handball, basketball, volleyball, indoor soccer, soccer and field hockey. Personal interviews were conducted to determine the composition of the multidisciplinary teams. The response rate was 81.8% (77 of 94). Though most teams have different professionals employed on a full-time basis, only 15.6% of these teams have a sport psychologist. Moreover, only three teams have a full-time sports ps...
Solinsky, Ryan; Beaupre, Gary S; Fredericson, Michael
To examine whether the frequency of bracing, geographic region, clinical specialty, or percentage of practice devoted to knee pain influences the criteria used by sports medicine professionals to determine whether a brace should be prescribed for treating patients with nontraumatic patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cross-sectional study. Sports medicine practices in the United States. A total of 1307 athletic trainers, physical therapists, and sports medicine physicians recruited from the e-mail listings of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, the American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine, the American Physical Therapy Association Sports Physical Therapy Section, the International Patellofemoral Study Group, the International Patellofemoral Retreat list, and National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 athletic team registries. Not applicable. Thirty-seven potential patellofemoral bracing criteria encompassing history and function, alignment, physical examination, previous treatments, and radiographic evidence. A total of 1307 of 7999 providers replied (response rate, 16.3%). Mean bracing frequencies were 19.8% for athletic trainers, 13.4% for physical therapists, and 25.1% for physicians. The mean number of total bracing criteria used was 10.5. The 10 most commonly cited criteria for prescribing a patellofemoral brace in descending order of frequency were: (1) hypermobile patella on physical examination; (2) positive J sign on physical examination; (3) failure of previous rehabilitation; (4) pain when performing squats or going up/down stairs on history; (5) success with previous taping; (6) pain with running activities on history; (7) pain with jumping activities on history; (8) increased dynamic Q angle; (9) vastus medialis oblique deficiency in timing or strength; and (10) positive apprehension sign on physical examination. No statistically significant trends were noted with regard to experience or percentage of practice devoted to knee
齋藤, れい; 原田, 宗彦; 広瀬, 盛一
This research develops the Experiential Value Scale for Sport Consumption (EVSSC). Drawing from the literature on experiential research, a second-order factor model of experiential value was developed...
Markser, Valentin Z
Professional athletes are subject to massive somatic, social, and mental stress. Despite great public interest for athletic achievements, the emotional strains thereof are very poorly investigated and discussed. The main reason for this is the widespread assumption that only emotionally very strong athletes are able to compete at the highly professional level and therefore mental disorders do not exist in professional sports. But available research data about the prevalence of mental disorders in this area suggest that this hypothesis must be revised. With respect to depression and the overtraining syndrome, attempts have been made to demonstrate the difficulties with etiology, diagnostics, and treatment for sports psychiatry and psychotherapy. Scientifically, sport psychiatry and psychotherapy can be defined as a discipline, whose focus is the investigation, treatment, and prevention of the extreme and sports-specific emotional strains and disorders. In addition to sport psychology, which focuses mainly on performance enhancement, mental stress, and disorders can hereby be recognized, disorders be treated and the athletic performance sustained. With the foundation of the Task Force for Sports Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the German Association for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, scientific research, further education, prevention, and treatment for mental disorders in professional sports will be improved.
Jo van Hoecke; Gerco van Dalfsen
This research aims to investigate the usefulness of a connected leadership model for sport organizations. The following research questions were designed: 1) How can professional sport managers successfully make use of the developments of new professionalism (Leijnse, Hulst & Vromans, 2006), the new
Lindberg, Ola; Rantatalo, Oscar; Stenling, Cecilia
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature concerned with bodily perspectives on professional learning by reporting on a study of Swedish police officers' sport participation as a form of occupational learning. The study seeks to answer how ideals of work practice and sport participation intersect, how professional learning is…
Caron, Jeffrey G; Bloom, Gordon A; Johnston, Karen M; Sabiston, Catherine M
The purpose of this study was to understand the meanings and lived experiences of multiple concussions in professional hockey players using hermeneutic, idiographic, and inductive approaches within an interpretative phenomenological analysis. The interviewer was an athlete who had suffered multiple concussions, and the interviewees were five former National Hockey League athletes who had retired due to medically diagnosed concussions suffered during their careers. The men discussed the physical and psychological symptoms they experienced as a result of their concussions and how the symptoms affected their professional careers, personal relationships, and quality of life. The former professional athletes related these symptoms to the turmoil that is ever present in their lives. These findings are of interest to athletes, coaches, sport administrators, family members, sport psychology practitioners, and medical professionals, as they highlight the severity of short- and long-term effects of concussions.
Kamis, Danielle; Newmark, Thomas; Begel, Daniel; Glick, Ira D
This paper focuses on "cheating" in modern day athletics from youth through professional sports. We briefly summarize a history of cheating in the sports world. We examine the current role cheating plays in sports as well as its causes including, psychodynamic issues, the development of personality disorders and how personality traits become pathological resulting in deception, dishonesty, and underhandedness. We describe management and treatment including psychotherapeutic intervention as well as medication. Finally we discuss a systems approach involving outreach to coaches, families, and related sports organizations (like FIFA, WADA, etc) or the professional leagues which have institutional control and partial influence on the athlete.
Solomon, Gary S; Zuckerman, Scott L
The purposes of this paper are to review: (1) the history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in sports, (2) the similarities and differences between historic and current definitions of CTE, (3) recent epidemiology and cohort studies of CTE and (4) controversies regarding the current CTE positions. Not applicable. Selective review of published articles relevant to CTE. The current definitions of CTE have evolved from its original definition and now rely heavily on the post-mortem detection of hyperphosphorylated tau for diagnosis. As of 2013, there is a blended cohort of 110 professional athletes diagnosed with CTE. It is being assumed that concussions and/or sub-concussive impacts in contact sports are the sole cause of CTE. There are multiple causes of abnormal tau protein deposition in the human brain and the pathogenesis of CTE may not be related solely to concussion and/or sub-concussive injury. In all likelihood, the causes of CTE are a multivariate, as opposed to a univariate, phenomenon.
Ahmad, Christopher S; Dick, Randall W; Snell, Edward; Kenney, Nick D; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia; Albright, John P; Mandelbaum, Bert R
Hamstring strains are a recognized cause of disability for athletes in many sports, but no study exists that reports the incidence and circumstances surrounding these injuries in professional baseball. Professional baseball players have a high incidence of hamstring strains, and these injuries are influenced by multiple factors including history of hamstring injury, time period within the season, and activity of base running. Descriptive epidemiologic study. For the 2011 season, injury data were prospectively collected for every Major League Baseball (MLB) major and minor league team and recorded in the MLB's Injury Surveillance System. Data collected for this study included date of injury, activity in which the player was engaged at the time of injury, and time loss. Injury rates were reported in injuries per athlete-exposure (A-E). Athlete-exposures were defined as the average number of players on a team who were participating in a game multiplied by the number of games. In the major leagues, 50 hamstring strains were reported for an injury rate (IR) of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 24 days missed. In the minor leagues, 218 hamstring strains were reported for an IR of 0.7 per 1000 A-Es and averaged 27 days missed. Base running, specifically running to first base, was the top activity for sustaining a hamstring strain in both major and minor leagues, associated with almost two-thirds of hamstring strains. Approximately two-thirds of these injuries in both the major and minor leagues resulted in more than 7 days of time loss. Approximately 25% of these injuries kept the player out for 1 month or longer. History of a previous hamstring strain in the prior year, 2010, was found in 20% of the major league players and 8% of the minor league players. In the major leagues, the month of May had a statistically significant higher frequency of hamstring injuries than any other month in the season (P = .0153). Hamstring strains are a considerable cause of disability in
Fletcher, Ben D; Twist, Craig; Haigh, Julian D; Brewer, Clive; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L
Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match. Muscle soreness peaked at day 1 and was still apparent at day 4 post-game with no attenuation in the magnitude of muscle soreness over the course of the season. Neither playing position, phase of season or playing surface had any effects on the extent of muscle soreness. Playing time and total number of collisions were significantly correlated with higher ratings of muscle soreness, especially in the forwards. These data indicate the absence "contact adaptations" in elite rugby players with soreness present throughout the entire season. Strategies must now be implemented to deal with the physical and psychological consequences of prolonged feeling of pain.
Full Text Available Regarding sport as a sociocultural phenomenon, its insertion in the curriculum for professional training in physical education is discussed in this paper refuting the exclusiveness of current technical dimension. A course that gives too much relevance to sport technical dimension won’t be training professionals able to consider the continuous change of sport modalities meaning by different human groups in the course of time. Instead of a course curriculum structured by sport modalities, this paper proposes that sport may be considered in three dimensions or moments. The “eyes training”, the sport pedagogy and the division into groups of modalities. It is intended to be a contribution to the training of physical education professionals so that they may work within a more critical and transforming perspective, and not only reproduce the technical dimension.
Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Background: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. Purpose: To retrospectively compare single-sport specialization in current high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with regard to the rate and age of specialization, the number of months per year of single-sport training, and the athlete’s perception of injury related to specialization. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A survey was distributed to HS, collegiate, and professional athletes prior to their yearly preparticipation physical examination. Athletes were asked whether they had chosen to specialize in only 1 sport, and data were then collected pertaining to this decision. Results: A total of 3090 athletes completed the survey (503 HS, 856 collegiate, and 1731 professional athletes). A significantly greater percentage of current collegiate athletes specialized to play a single sport during their childhood/adolescence (45.2% of HS athletes, 67.7% of collegiate athletes, and 46.0% of professional athletes; P sport specialization differed between groups and occurred at a mean age of 12.7 ± 2.4 (HS), 14.8 ± 2.5 (collegiate), and 14.1 ± 2.8 years (professional) (P sport-related injury than current professional athletes (25.4%) (P sport during childhood/adolescence. Conclusion: This study provides a foundation for understanding current trends in single-sport specialization in all athletic levels. Current HS athletes specialized, on average, 2 years earlier than current collegiate and professional athletes surveyed. These data challenge the notion that success at an elite level requires athletes to specialize in 1 sport at a very young age. PMID:28812031
This bachelor work is focused on the topic of e-sport and former professional players of e-sport. It deals with a summery and subsequent analysis of former professional e-sport players in the labour market. The theoretical part is focused on becoming acquainted with basic information on e-sport, the labour market, re-training and the national employment policy. It provides basic information about companies and games that they operate. The practical part analyses the concrete possibilities of ...
Jun 11, 2005 ... The football super league is semi professional. A study was conducted with the aims determining the demographic characteristics of football players and team doctors ... knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine among football ... more worrying is the fact that not all had done basic first aid courses ...
Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S
We conducted a study to determine the academic involvement and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians at high school, college, and professional levels of sport. Through Internet and telephone queries, we identified 1054 team physicians from 362 institutions, including 120 randomly selected high schools and colleges and 122 professional teams (baseball, basketball, football, hockey). For all physicians included in the study, we performed a comprehensive search of the Internet and of a citation database to determine academic affiliations, number of publications, and h-index values. Of the 1054 physicians, 678 (64%) were orthopedic surgeons. Percentage of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with an academic medical center was highest in professional sports (64%; 173/270) followed by collegiate sports (36%; 98/275) and high school sports (20%; 27/133). Median number of publications per orthopedic team physician was significantly higher in professional sports (30.6) than in collegiate sports (10.7) or high school sports (6). Median number of publications by orthopedic physicians also varied by sport, with the highest number in Major League Baseball (37.9; range, 0-225) followed by the National Basketball Association (32.0; range, 0-227) and the National Football League (30.4; range, 0-460), with the lowest number within the National Hockey League (20.7; range, 0-144). Academic affiliation and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians vary by competition level and professional sporting league.
Pilis, Karol; Michalski, Cezary; Zych, Michał; Pilis, Anna; Jelonek, Jakub; Kaczmarzyk, Agata; Pilis, Wiesław
The types of physical exertion undertaken by weightlifters and race walkers markedly differ. This difference should also be reflected in their respective diets. The aim of the study was to investigate and assess the diets of professional weightlifters and race walkers, along with a comparison to the diets of those students studying physical education (PE). Materials and Methods. Subjects were respectively 12 weightlifters, 12 race walkers and 12 physical education students whose body composition and nutrition were determined by weighing the foods that were both eaten and drunk. The study groups showed body differences, which may have arisen through dietary differences. Higher calorie diets were observed for race walkers according to body mass whilst weightlifters showed no difference with the other groups. Dietary intakes of protein, fat, and carbohydrates were however inappropriate for all groups. Vitamin and mineral intakes in weightlifters and students were within tolerable limits, but the rather aggressive taking of supplements by race walkers resulted in standard/recommended consumption levels being greatly exceeded in some cases. The diets of the study groups of weightlifters and race walkers need to be corrected. nutrition in sport, weightlifting, race walking, food supplementation.
This paper presents a discussion of events within national sport organizations that have recently addressed the problem of homophobia in sports; in particular, the social, professional, and political harassment of lesbian women who are career athletes. A brief overview is given of the stance of feminists, both liberal humanist and radical, on the…
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hughes Schwab, Brendan A; Vivian, Adam; M M J Kerkhoffs, Gino
Epidemiological data on the occurrence of time-loss injuries over several A-League seasons remains lacking, while the effect of the mandatory implementation of 'Minimum Medical Standards' as a part of the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) needs to be explored. To explore the 5 year evolution of hamstring, groin, knee, ankle and total time-loss injuries among professional footballers in the A-League; to evaluate the consequences of these time-loss injuries in terms of total matches missed and costs incurred; and to explore whether the mandatory implementation of 'Minimum Medical Standards' in the A-League had led to a decrease in the occurrence of total time-loss injuries and total matches missed. An observational prospective study has been carried out since 2008. Data were collected weekly during the seasons 2008 - 2009 to 2012 - 2013 through official match previews/reviews, official media releases, official websites and/or self-reports by players. Total and specific (hamstring, groin, knee and ankle) numbers of time-loss injuries and matches missed were obtained for each season and the related financial costs calculated. The total number of time-loss injuries and matches missed rose from 129 and 506 respectively in 2008 - 2009 to 202 and 1110 in 2010 - 2011. Following the introduction of 'Minimum Medical Standards', both categories decreased (significantly for matches missed). These time-loss injuries and matches missed led to high costs of up to AUD$ 37,317,029.29 (2012 - 2013 season). The same trend was found for knee injuries, while hamstring and ankle injuries remained almost the same. However, time-loss due to groin injuries increased despite the introduction of "Minimum Medical Standards". The introduction of "Minimum Medical Standards" in the A-League had a favorable effect on the number of total, hamstring, knee and ankle injuries and on the number of matches missed due to these injuries, but not on the number of groin injuries. The costs related to
Hoecke, van, Jo; Dalfsen, van, P.
This research aims to investigate the usefulness of a connected leadership model for sport organizations. The following research questions were designed: 1) How can professional sport managers successfully make use of the developments of new professionalism (Leijnse, Hulst & Vromans, 2006), the new way of working and managerial leadership? 2) What are the features of a connected managerial leadership model? 3) What are the design principles of an applicable learning environment for profession...
Morehen, James Cameron; Bradley, Warren Jeremy; Clarke, Jon; Twist, Craig; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morton, James Peter; Close, Graeme Leonard
Rugby League is a high-intensity collision sport competed over 80 min. Training loads are monitored to maximize recovery and assist in the design of nutritional strategies although no data are available on the total energy expenditure (TEE) of players. We therefore assessed resting metabolic rate (RMR) and TEE in six Super League players over 2 consecutive weeks in-season including one game per week. Fasted RMR was assessed followed by a baseline urine sample before oral administration of a bolus dose of hydrogen (deuterium (2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotopes in the form of water ((2)H2(18)O). Every 24 hr thereafter, players provided urine for analysis of TEE via DLW method. Individual training load was quantified using session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. There were unclear differences in RMR between forwards and backs (7.7 ± 0.5 cf. 8.0 ± 0.3 MJ, respectively). Indirect calorimetry produced RMR values most likely lower than predictive equations (7.9 ± 0.4 cf. 9.2 ± 0.4 MJ, respectively). A most likely increase in TEE from Week 1 to 2 was observed (17.9 ± 2.1 cf. 24.2 ± 3.4 MJ) explained by a most likelyincrease in weekly sRPE (432 ± 19 cf. 555 ± 22 AU), respectively. The difference in TEE between forward and backs was unclear (21.6 ± 4.2 cf. 20.5 ± 4.9 MJ, respectively). We report greater TEE than previously reported in rugby that could be explained by the ability of DLW to account for all match and training-related activities that contributes to TEE.
Full Text Available Abstract According to Cheetham and Chivers (1998, the professional competence is a specific concept influenced by a variety of factors, including self and hetero perception of competence. In this line of understanding Nascimento (1999 says that professional success hinges not only on knowledge and procedures, but also of the domain demonstrated in relation with themselves. This study has, as main purpose, to examine the levels of competence self-perception in sport professionals. The sample consists of 1514 subjects who exercised their profession in three contexts of practice: Physical Education, Coaching and Fitness. We used three likert-type scales of self-perception of professional competence specific for the sport professional (adapted from Nascimento, 1999; Feitosa, 2002: one directed to PE teachers, the other to Coaches, and a third to teachers/instructors of Fitness. In the data processing we used the basic descriptive measures and the multivariate analysis for dependent variables (General Linear Model Multivariate to see if the factors professional area, professional experience and institution are different in the levels of self-perception of professional competence. For additional analysis we also used the T-test for independent measures and the T test for one sample. The significance's level was maintained at p ≤ 0.05. The results indicate an interaction of the factors in the professional area, professional experience and institution with self-perception of competence. Keywords: Competence self-perception, Professional competence
van Amsterdam, Noortje; Claringbould, Inge; Knoppers, Annelies
Bodies are always present in organizations, yet they frequently remain unacknowledged or invisible including in sport organizations and sport management research. We therefore argue for an embodied turn in sport management research. The purpose of this article is to present possible reasons why scholars have rarely paid attention to bodies in sport organizations; to offer arguments why they should do so; and to give suggestions for what scholarship on bodies and embodiment might look like using various theoretical frameworks. Using the topic of diversity as an example, we explore what insights into embodiment and bodily practices the theoretical frameworks of Foucault, Bourdieu, Merleau-Ponty and Butler have to offer researchers and how these insights may lead to better understandings of organizational processes in sport.
van Amsterdam, Noortje; Claringbould, Inge; Knoppers, Annelies
Bodies are always present in organizations, yet they frequently remain unacknowledged or invisible including in sport organizations and sport management research. We therefore argue for an embodied turn in sport management research. The purpose of this article is to present possible reasons why scholars have rarely paid attention to bodies in sport organizations; to offer arguments why they should do so; and to give suggestions for what scholarship on bodies and embodiment might look like using various theoretical frameworks. Using the topic of diversity as an example, we explore what insights into embodiment and bodily practices the theoretical frameworks of Foucault, Bourdieu, Merleau-Ponty and Butler have to offer researchers and how these insights may lead to better understandings of organizational processes in sport. PMID:28781402
Full Text Available Few to almost none sports teams measure the entertainment value they provide to fans in exchange of the money the latter ones spend on admission fees. Scientific literature oversees the issue as well. The aim of this paper is to present a model that can be used for calculating value for money in the context of spectating sports. The research question asks how can value for money be conceptualized and measured for sports marketing purposes? Using financial and sporting variables, the method calculates how much money, on average, a fan had to spend for receiving quality entertainment – defined as won matches – from his favorite team, during the last season of the Romanian first division football championship. The results only partially confirm the research hypothesis, showing that not just price and sporting performances may influence the value delivered to fans, but other factors as well.
Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p players readily achieve current guidelines for daily protein and fat intake, data suggest that CHO intake on the day before and in recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.
Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim
While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.
Cohen, Steven B.; Sheridan, Scott; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess major and minor league baseball players’ return to professional baseball at a preinjury level or higher after surgery of the shoulder or elbow. Hypothesis: The majority of athletes will be able to return to their preinjury level after surgery. Study Design: Case series. Methods: Over a 4-season period, prospective injury and surgery records were reviewed for one professional baseball club. Forty-four players underwent 51 procedures (28 shoulder and 23 elbow) by multiple experienced surgeons; 7 players underwent more than 1 procedure. Results: Twenty-eight shoulder surgeries were performed on 27 players: 19 pitchers and 8 position players. The majority of the procedures were labral repairs (n = 21). Nine players returned to their preoperative level; 2 advanced to a higher level; 5 returned to a lower level; and 11 retired from professional baseball. Only 2 of the 12 players at the high professional level (Major League Baseball, triple-A, double-A) returned to the same level. Twenty-three elbow surgeries were performed on 21 players (20 pitchers). The majority of the procedures were ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions (n = 12). Seven players returned to their preoperative level; 4 advanced to a higher level; 4 returned to a lower level; and 6 retired from professional baseball. Of the 12 players at the high professional level, 3 returned to the same or higher level. Conclusion: Following surgery, 21 of 44 players (48%) returned to the same or higher level of professional baseball. For those players performing at a high professional level, 5 of 22 (23%) returned to the same or higher level. Return to the same or higher level was more likely with elbow surgery than with shoulder surgery. Clinical Relevance: Elite throwing athletes may not return to the same level at a high rate following shoulder or elbow surgery. PMID:23015998
Cotterill, Stewart T; Cheetham, Richard
The captain is perceived to be an important member of the leadership structure within teams across many professional sports. However, while there is a general acceptance that this is the case, there is very little research exploring the role and associated demands at an elite level. As a result, the aim of this study was to explore the captaincy experiences of elite professional rugby union captains. The participants were eight male captains purposefully sampled for this study. Participants were interviewed individually to gain an understanding of each participant's captaincy experiences. The data were thematically analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Nine super-ordinate themes emerged in the study: role, skills, requirements, challenges, the coach, development, experience, context, and approach. Results suggest that the captaincy role is broader than previously highlighted, particularly at the elite level. Also, the study highlights inconsistencies in the selection of captains and a lack of formal developmental support for elite rugby captains. As a result, future research should explore the development of specific evidence-based approaches to captain selection and development.
Sinelnikov, Oleg A.
The purpose of this study was to provide a description of an on-site professional development program for Russian teachers as they learned to teach Sport Education. A concurrent objective was to investigate the effectiveness of this professional development opportunity. Participants were two physical education teachers (one with 27 and one with 3…
Justin Wai-Yuk Lee
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.
Full Text Available Basketball is a sport that has a very long tradition in the territory of ex-Yugoslavia. The breakdown of the country led to a de- crease in quality of basketball in the newly created countries. The unsteadiness of quality of the teams in national leagues resulted in formation of the Regional Adriatic Basketball League (ABA in 2001. The main goal of this research was to measure the competitive balance in ABA, Spanish (ACB and National Basketball Association League (NBA. The competitive balance was calculated by using Ratio of Standard Deviation index (RSD and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.The results of RSD showed that the most equable was ABA league, then came ACB league, while the most unequable was NBA league. The calculating of HHI index gave a different result. NBA is the most equable, then comes ABA league, and the last one is ACB league, which is the most unequable according to this parameter. ABA league has less quality than ACB and NBA league, but the results show that it is competitively the most balanced league. According to the RSD rates, NBA league is the most unequable. The main reason for that is a huge number of teams taking part in the league, which causes the unequable distribution of quality players. Ac- cording to HHI, NBA is the most equable. Reason for that are different mechanisms whose goal is to reach and maintain the competitive balance.
This research study recommends that the GAA adopt an innovative approach, through strategic decision-making, to allow the GAA to maintain its amateur ethos, and, yet, successfully compete in the professional sporting market. The strong links with the community must be both nurtured and enhanced. The GAA and Gaelic games must embrace the challenges that the branding success of foreign sports has brought. Player welfare issues for the elite players must be addressed while continuing to protect the club and its amateur structures. The study looks at the key metrics that are required to evolve the GAA. This entails not only focusing on the perceived importance of the amateur ethos to the GAA, but also developing the marketing, branding and profiling of Gaelic games to enhance the performance of an amateur sporting organization in an era of increased professionalism in sport.
Jaime Prieto Bermejo; Miguel Ángel Gómez Ruano
The aim of this research was to study the home advantage effect in Spanish handball and rugby, as contact sports where physical contact and aggressiveness is present in the game. The research objectives were: 1) To study home advantage in professional Spanish handball and rugby leagues; 2) To compare the results obtained between the two leagues, to know whether there are differences between them; 3) To study whether team ability influence home advantage, and if so, whether there are differen...
Steingröver, C; Wattie, N; Baker, J; Schorer, J
Relative age effects (RAEs) typically favour older members within a cohort; however, research suggests that younger players may experience some long-term advantages, such as longer career length. The purposes of this study were to replicate previous findings on RAEs among National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey players, National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball players and National Football League (NFL) football players and to investigate the influence of relative age on career length in all three sports. Using official archives, birthdates and number of games played were collected for players drafted into the NBA (N = 407), NFL (N = 2380) and NHL (N = 1028) from 1980 to 1989. We investigated the possibility that younger players might be able to maximize their career length by operationalizing career length as players' number of games played throughout their careers. There was a clear RAE for the NHL, but effects were not significant for the NBA or NFL. Moreover, there was a significant difference in matches played between birth quartiles in the NHL favouring relatively younger players. There were no significant quartiles by career length effects in the NBA or NFL. The significant relationship between relative age and career length provides further support for relative age as an important constraint on expertise development in ice hockey but not basketball or football. Currently, the reason why relatively younger players have longer careers is not known. However, it may be worth exploring the influence of injury risk or the development of better playing skills.
Cummins, Cloe; McLean, Blake; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda
To quantify the external training loads of positional groups in preseason training drills. Thirty-three elite rugby league players were categorized into 1 of 4 positional groups: outside backs (n = 9), adjustables (n = 9), wide-running forwards (n = 9), and hit-up forwards (n = 6). Data for 8 preseason weeks were collected using microtechnology devices. Training drills were classified based on drill focus: speed and agility, conditioning, and generic and positional skills. Total, high-speed, and very-high-speed distance decreased across the preseason in speed and agility (moderate, small, and small, respectively), conditioning (large, large, and small) and generic skills (large, large, and large). The duration of speed and generic skills also decreased (77% and 48%, respectively). This was matched by a concomitant increase in total distance (small), high-speed running (small), very-high-speed running (moderate), and 2-dimensional (2D) BodyLoad (small) demands in positional skills. In positional skills, hit-up forwards (1240 ± 386 m) completed less very-high-speed running than outside backs (2570 ± 1331 m) and adjustables (2121 ± 1163 m). Hit-up forwards (674 ± 253 AU) experienced greater 2D BodyLoad demands than outside backs (432 ± 230 AU, P = .034). In positional drills, hit-up forwards experienced greater relative 2D BodyLoad demands than outside backs (P = .015). Conversely, outside backs experienced greater relative high- (P = .007) and very-high-speed-running (P loads between positional groups during positional skills but not in speed and agility, conditioning, and generic skills. This work also highlights the importance of different external-load parameters to adequately quantify workload across different positional groups.
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian
.... Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis...
Conclusion: Significantly increased genomic instability in players of both sports was observed. Both repaired and repairable genetic damage cells were observed in different tissues of the same subject. The presence of such genetic damage implies that these players are at an individual risk from cancer- and age-related diseases.
Skordilis, E K; Gavriilidis, A; Charitou, S; Asonitou, K
To examine the differences in sport achievement orientation among 35 professional, 36 amateur, and 35 wheelchair basketball athletes, these men completed three subscales of Competitiveness, Win orientation, and Goal orientation of the 25-item Sport Orientation Questionnaire. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among groups. Win orientation was the factor, through discriminant function analysis, that significantly separated the athletes into the three groups. The highest win score was obtained by the professional, followed by the amateur and wheelchair groups. Replication study is necessary to confirm the present findings.
Full Text Available In the article the condition and prospects of perfection of system of improvement of professional skill of coaches and doctors involved in preparation of sportsmen of Ukraine to Olympic games, the World championships and Europe by summer and winter sports is considered. It is shown that the system of improvement of professional skill should be flexible and mobile with elements of distance learning. The optimal is the multilevel system of improvement of professional skill consisting of three subsystems: self-improvement, participation in the organised forms of improvement of professional skill, analytical and scientifically-practical activities.
Full Text Available Purpose: Today, when a group of people trying to reach the goal, manager and leader usually undertake the responsibility of the group. Coach renders influence on team members, while athletes work hard to achieve team goals. The purpose of the present study is relationship between leadership styles of coaches and sports actions of karate athletes. Material: The present study involves all active athletes of Super League karate in 91-92 season (N=100. The statistical sample was equal to statistical population (N=n. In order to collect information we used leadership style questionnaire Bos and Avlio (MLQ and questionnaire of Scanlan (SCMS. Internal validity questionnaire was approved by university professors and its reliability - by Cronbach's alpha test 0.86, and 0.79. Also for data analysis we used descriptive indicators of mean and standard deviation. Preliminary analysis of data proved normaldistribution by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. And then, we used measurements by Pearson, Spearman, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon T, Friedman correlation coefficient of significance level (P-0.05. Results: there are significant differences between athletes’ results and styles of leadership. There is significant correlation between the results with style Attraction (0.000, Idealized Influence (0.000, Inspirational (0.001, Intellectual stimulation (0.007, Individualized consideration (0.017, Exception Active (0.008 and Laissez-faire (0.041 (P- 0.05. Conclusions: for increased of athletes' results coach should use style Attraction, Idealized Influence , Inspirational , Intellectual stimulation , Individualized consideration, Exception Active and if coach wants to see success of his athletes at athletic fields he should comply the applied styles with sportsmen’s results.
Full Text Available Purpose: Today, when a group of people trying to reach the goal, manager and leader usually undertake the responsibility of the group. Coach renders influence on team members, while athletes work hard to achieve team goals. The purpose of the present study is relationship between leadership styles of coaches and sports actions of karate athletes. Material: The present study involves all active athletes of Super League karate in 91-92 season (N=100. The statistical sample was equal to statistical population (N=n. In order to collect information we used leadership style questionnaire Bos and Avlio (MLQ and questionnaire of Scanlan & et al (SCMS. Internal validity questionnaire was approved by university professors and its reliability - by Cronbach's alpha test 0.86, and 0.79. Also for data analysis we used descriptive indicators of mean and standard deviation. Preliminary analysis of data proved normaldistribution by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. And then, we used measurements by Pearson, Spearman, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon T, Friedman correlation coefficient of significance level (P<0.05. Results: there are significant differences between athletes’ results and styles of leadership. There is significant correlation between the results with style Attraction (0.000, Idealized Influence (0.000, Inspirational (0.001, Intellectual stimulation (0.007, Individualized consideration (0.017, Exception Active (0.008 and Laissez-faire (0.041 (P< 0.05. Conclusions: for increased of athletes' results coach should use style Attraction, Idealized Influence , Inspirational , Intellectual stimulation , Individualized consideration, Exception Active and if coach wants to see success of his athletes at athletic fields he should comply the applied styles with sportsmen’s results.
Jaime Prieto Bermejo
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the home advantage effect in Spanish handball and rugby, as contact sports where physical contact and aggressiveness is present in the game. The research objectives were: 1 To study home advantage in professional Spanish handball and rugby leagues; 2 To compare the results obtained between the two leagues, to know whether there are differences between them; 3 To study whether team ability influence home advantage, and if so, whether there are differences between best and worst teams. Nine seasons in both leagues were examined, from 2002-03 to 2010-11. Home advantage values were higher than 50% in both leagues, with significantly higher values in the rugby league (65.12% compared to 59.65%. The greater importance of physical contact and aggressiveness in the game actions in rugby can be a factor to be considered in the higher home advantage values found in the rugby league. The results showed the influence of team ability in home advantage in the two leagues, with no differences between the teams.Keywords: home advantage, contact sports, team sports, handball, rugby.
The study investigated sociological variable influencing the Nigeria premier League. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. The area of the study was Nigeria. The population for the study was 1,118 which comprised of sports administrators, coaches and players in the Nigeria Premier League.
Glick, Ira D; Begel, Dan
This editorial examines the issue of "cheating" (broadly defined) in sports from youth through professional sports. We describe possible underlying causes focusing on the development of a "personality disorder" and psychiatric/psychodynamic needs (e.g. a pathological need to be the best). We detail treatment and management from a medical-psychiatric perspective as well as implications for coaches, teams, leagues and professional organizations (e.g. soccer, bicycling, etc). Cheating behavior exists in other fields, for example, politics, law among others and some of the management principles mentioned here may apply there.
Hutter, R. I. (Vana); Oldenhof-Veldman, Tanja; Pijpers, J. R. (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.
To enhance the training of sport psychology consultants, it is important to know which learning experiences are useful for which components of professional development. We interviewed 15 novice consultants on their learning experiences related to 13 different topics. Traditional learning experiences
Marinho, Alcyane; dos Santos, Priscila Mari; Manfroi, Miraíra Noal; de Paula Figueiredo, Juliana; Brasil, Vinicius Zeilmann
Universities have been entrusted with the task of qualifying professionals for their future practice. In light of this, the present study analysed the competencies perceived by 80 physical education students of a public university in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, enrolled in the subject Outdoor Adventure Sports. An exploratory descriptive…
Saracaoglu, Asuman Seda; Ozsaker, Murat; Varol, Rana
The present research aimed at detecting professional self sufficiency levels of physical education and sports teachers who worked in Izmir Province and at investigating them in terms of some variables. For data collection, Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale-developed by Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy (2001) and Turkish validity and reliability studies…
José Rubens Camargo Gonçalves da Motta
Full Text Available No matter how elaborate is any study, the point is that if it is not applicable, of little served the entire effort. In this way, the Business Plan of Multipurpose Arenas proposes to demonstrate marketing and financial viability of its concept. In the aspect of business return on investment, it was proved by three indicators that it represents a project with positive return and better than conservative investments. Moreover, the analysis were founded and applied by the theory that had its importance in the definition and validation of the proposed model of multipurpose arenas. As Blake (1985, Image, Leisure Management, pp. 14-15 "sports centers, theaters, art galleries, libraries, museums, are mere installations containing tangible and intangible products that have no value, except what the customers attribute". This is, in fact, the best way to represent what was intended to highlight through this study.
Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben
The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher (p sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football (rs = 0.962, p sports science/medicine practitioners in generating bespoke hydration and electrolyte-replacement strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.
Full Text Available Based on experiences of member organizations in Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for example, and based on the realization that quality in Sport for All programs and events depends on professionalism, “The Association for International Sport for All (TAFISA” created and started a special educati on program in Sport for All Management in 2007 – the so - “called Certified Leadership Course (CLC”. In a five days program, international and national lecturers (i.e. from the host country are teaching between 25 and 85 participants in different topics ab out the development and management of Sport for All on local, regional, national and international levels. The participants themselves have sometimes more or sometimes less experiences in Sport for All Management. The evaluations are so positive that TAFIS A – meanwhile supported by the International Olympic Committee (IOC – is encouraged to continue with the CLCs and to develop an accredited Master of Arts (MA Study Program in Sport for All Management together with partner universities.
Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Morley, David; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton
The current study retrospectively investigated the differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics of junior rugby league players selected onto a talent identification and development (TID) programme between long-term career progression levels (i.e., amateur, academy, professional). Retrospective design. Former junior rugby league players (N=580) selected to a TID programme were grouped according to their career progression level. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds), maturational and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed and estimated V̇O2max) assessments were conducted at 13-15 years. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) analyzed differences between career progression levels controlling for chronological age. 57.1% and 12.1% of players selected to the TID programme progressed to academy and professional levels in rugby league, respectively. Sum of four skinfolds (η(2)=0.03), vertical jump (η(2)=0.02), 10 m (η(2)=0.02), 20 m (η(2)=0.02), 30 m (η(2)=0.02), and 60 m (η(2)=0.03) speed, agility 505 left (η(2)=0.06), agility 505 right (η(2)=0.05) and estimated V̇O2max (η(2)=0.03) were superior within junior players who progressed to professional compared to amateur levels. No significant differences were identified between future academy and professional players for any measure. Findings suggest that lower sum of four skinfolds and advanced fitness characteristics within junior (13-15 years) rugby league players may partially contribute to long-term career progression. Therefore, TID programmes within rugby league should aim to assess and develop body composition and fitness characteristics, especially change of direction speed. However, TID programmes should also consider technical, tactical and psycho-social characteristics of junior rugby league players that may be important for long-term career progression. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Lanzetti, R M; Ciompi, A; Lupariello, D; Guzzini, M; De Carli, A; Ferretti, A
Our hypothesis is that there are no difference in the injury incidence on artificial turf and natural grass. During the 2011/2012 season, we recorded injuries which occurred to two Italian stadiums equipped with third-generation artificial turf during 36 games (391 players). Data were compared with the injuries which occurred in the same season in two stadiums equipped with natural grass (372 players). We recorded 43 injuries during the playing time (16.7 per 1000 h). About 23 (18.1 per 1000 h) injuries occurred on artificial turf, while 20 (15.2 per 1000 h) on the natural grass with no statistical differences P > 0.05. We recorded 10 (7.87 per 1000 h) contact and 13 (10.23 per 1000 h) non-contact injuries on artificial turf, while 5 (3.8 per 1000 h) contact and 15 (11.4 per 1000 h) non-contact injuries on natural grass P > 0.05. The overall relative risk was 1.15; 95% CI: 0.64-2.07). Our study demonstrates a substantial equivalence in injury risk on natural grass and artificial turf in elite professional soccer athletes during official matches. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tsonkova Dimitrinka Georgieva
Full Text Available Аn essential characteristic of the teacher’s profession is the constant process of self-improvement, which is impossible without existence of a specific personal position and criteria of the sport pedagogue. One of the trends for self-improvement are his personal and professional qualities. They are important because of their specific role – as a means of influence on the trained students in the educational process. Self-evaluation of the level of their growth is a regulator for the sport teacher’s conduct and activity, because it determines the genuine orientation for the level of his qualities,the satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Seweryniak, Tomasz; Nowak, Agnieszka; Stosik, Aneta
Seweryniak T., Nowak A., Stosik A., Selected elements of motivational impact on sport performance in professional volleyball teams. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(8):807-814. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.159119 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3913 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/sedno-webapp/works/ Original Text published © The Author (s) 2016. Seweryniak Tomasz, Nowak Agnieszka, Stosik Aneta. Selected elements of mot...
Olai Hansen, Bodil; Tvede, Mich
In the present chapter, a general model of competition between clubs in sports leagues with flexible supply of inputs is studied. There are externalities between clubs because it takes more than one club to produce games and tournaments. It is assumed that the externalities take the form of compl...
Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave
This study examined the integration of professional judgement and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. The study utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. Results revealed that, in order to make judgements and decisions in practice, expert coaches employ a range of practical and pedagogic management strategies to create and opportunistically use time for decision-making. These approaches include span of control and time management strategies to facilitate the decision-making process regarding risk management, venue selection, aims, objectives, session content, and differentiation of the coaching process. The implication for coaches, coach education, and accreditation is the recognition and training of the approaches that "create time" for the judgements in practice, namely "creating space to think". The paper concludes by offering a template for a more expertise-focused progression in adventure sports coaching.
Barrett, Brendan T; Flavell, Jonathan C; Bennett, Simon J; Cruickshank, Alice G; Mankowska, Alex; Harris, Julie M; Buckley, John G
The importance of optimal and/or superior vision for participation in high-level sports remains the subject of considerable clinical research interest. Here, we examine the vision and visual history of elite/near-elite cricketers and rugby-league players. Stereoacuity (TNO), colour vision, and distance (with/without pinhole) and near visual acuity (VA) were measured in two cricket squads (elite/international-level, female, n = 16; near-elite, male, n = 23) and one professional rugby-league squad (male, n = 20). Refractive error was determined, and details of any correction worn and visual history were recorded. Overall, 63% had their last eye examination within 2 years. However, some had not had an eye examination for 5 years or had never had one (near-elite cricketers 30%; rugby-league players 15%; elite cricketers 6%). Comparing our results for all participants to published data for young, optimally corrected, non-sporting adults, distance VA was ~ 1 line of letters worse than expected. Adopting α = 0.01, the deficit in distance VA was significant, but only for elite cricketers (p elite cricketers, p = 0.02; rugby-league players, p = 0.03). Near VA did not differ between subgroups or relative to published norms for young adults (p > 0.02 for all comparisons). On average, near stereoacuity was better than in young adults, but only in elite cricketers (p elite cricketers; p = 0.47, rugby-league players). On-field visual issues were present in 27% of participants and mostly (in 75% of cases) comprised uncorrected ametropia. Some cricketers (near-elite 17.4%; elite 38%) wore refractive correction during play, but no rugby-league player did. Some individuals with prescribed correction choose not to wear it when playing. Aside from near stereoacuity in elite cricketers, the basic visual abilities we measured were not better than equivalent, published data for optimally corrected adults; 20-25% exhibited sub-optimal vision, suggesting that the
Green, Gary A; Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Schickendantz, Mark S; Caplinger, Roger; Weber, Kathleen; Valadka, Alex; McAllister, Thomas W; Dick, Randall W; Mandelbaum, Bert; Curriero, Frank C
Although mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is not as common in professional baseball as in collision sports, it does occur and frequently results in significant loss of time away from the sport. To date, no study has investigated MTBI among an entire cohort of professional baseball players. To investigate MTBIs in major and minor league baseball players to determine the most common mechanisms of injury, activity at time of injury, position, level of play, and time lost, as well as ultimately inform prevention efforts. A secondary objective was to document the association between MTBI and return to play using several different measures. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were captured from a newly implemented league-wide injury surveillance system that records injuries among all professional baseball players as entered by certified athletic trainers and physicians. The MTBIs were identified with respect to level of play, activity, field location, and mechanism of injury. Time loss was assessed by 3 measures of return to play, and MTBI game rates were reported as injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures. Data were combined over the 2011-2012 seasons for analysis, and results were presented separately for minor and major league players. Chi-square tests were used to test the hypothesis of equal proportions between the various categories of MTBI injury characteristics. There were 41 reported MTBIs in the major leagues and 266 in the minor leagues over the 2-year period under study. The overall MTBI game rate across both major and minor league ball clubs was 0.42 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The median time lost was 9 days. Mild traumatic brain injury accounted for 1% of all injuries resulting in time lost from play. For MTBIs that occurred while fielding, catchers were significantly overrepresented. No differences were noted among the 3 measures of time lost. Mild traumatic brain injury is an important problem in professional baseball players, especially for catchers
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate professional readiness of a selected group of male and female experts in Iranian sports organizations. It is a descriptive study with an applied objective. The statistical population of the study includes the entire selected male and female experts (406 experts of Iranian sports organizations among which 352 cases cooperated with the researchers and therefore were selected as research sample. Measurement tool is the professional readiness assessment standard questionnaire (Aliabadi, 2014; the validity and reliability of this questionnaire have been approved by sport experts. The descriptive and inferential statistics including KS- and T-test was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between male and female experts in sports organizations regarding mental readiness and its components (motivation, commitment, confidence; but there is a significant difference at 0.01 level between them with regard to work readiness and its components (skill, knowledge, experience. Moreover, based on the average of work/technical readiness components, male experts are better than female experts.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning of European football as a segment of the service industry, bringing economic, social and political effects. The features of professional sports in Ukraine by the example of football as an object of scientific analysis were considered. It is considered the features of the functioning of football. The study used methods of system analysis, analysis methods specific sources, methods comparison, and statistical methods. It is shown that a significant influence on the development of modern sport in particular football by processes of commercialization and professionalization. Found that football is the manufacturer of a wide range of services that bring significant economic, social and political impact of the subjects and has a high football information and entertainment value for the audience.
The aim of the study was to determine the features of the functioning of European football as a segment of the service industry, bringing economic, social and political effects. The features of professional sports in Ukraine by the example of football as an object of scientific analysis were considered. It is considered the features of the functioning of football. The study used methods of system analysis, analysis methods specific sources, methods comparison, and statistical methods. It is s...
de Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; de Queiroz Szeles, Paulo Roberto; Janovsky, César; Cohen, Moisés
to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used. this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18-30). The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13-28). The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport. five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven-nine). All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied), taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up. the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative complications. It was shown to be an excellent
Full Text Available Was analyzed literature devoted to the preparation of students of physical education to administrative activities. In the context of their training we held a comparative analysis of the approaches to organize the pedagogical process. As a reference point for the formation of professional preparedness specialist physical education and sports identified qualifying characteristics posts in this industry. Based on the analysis of literature given the definition of the concept of "readiness for organization of the Youth sports school.
Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill
To compare the prevalence of acetabular labral tear in male and female professional ballet dancers with age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants and to determine the relationship to clinical findings and cartilage defects. Case-control study. Clinical and radiology practices. Forty-nine (98 hips) male and female professional ballet dancers (current and retired) with median age 30 years (range: 19-64 years) and 49 (98 hips) age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants. Group (ballet or sports), sex, age, hip cartilage defects, history of hip pain, Hip and Groin Outcome Score, passive hip internal rotation (IR), and external rotation range of movement (ROM). Labral tear identified with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Labral tears were identified in 51% of all 196 hips. The prevalence did not differ significantly between the ballet and sporting participants (P = 0.41) or between sexes (P = 0.34). Labral tear was not significantly associated with clinical measures, such as pain and function scores or rotation ROM (P > 0.01 for all). Pain provocation test using IR at 90° of hip flexion had excellent specificity [96%, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.77%-0.998%] but poor sensitivity (50%, 95% CI, 0.26%-0.74%) for identifying labral tear in participants reporting hip pain. Older age and cartilage defect presence were independently associated with an increased risk of labral tear (both P ballet dancers was similar to a sporting population. Labral tears were not associated with clinical findings but were related to cartilage defects, independent of aging. Caution is required when interpreting MRI findings as labral tear may not be the source of the ballet dancer's symptoms.
Marwan, Yousef; Behbehani, Abdullah; Al-Mousawi, Abdullah; Mulla-Juma'a, Ali; Sadeq, Husain; Shah, Nasrah
To assess a 12-month period and the lifetime prevalence of sports injuries among male athletes according to type of sport, type of injury and its seriousness, and to examine the association of injuries with sociodemographic, lifestyle and preventive factors. In this cross-sectional study, we approached 475 professional athletes participating in ball sports, aged 15 years and older, from 5 sports clubs in Kuwait. Of them, 452 responded. Four ball games--football (soccer), basketball, handball and volleyball--were included. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate relationships between associated factors and experience of injury were tested by using χ(2) and logistic regression. The overall 12-month and lifetime prevalence of sports injuries were 73.8 and 89.8%, respectively. Prevalence was highest among volleyball athletes (79%) and lowest among football (soccer) athletes (69%). Lower limbs (73.1%) were the most common site of injuries and joint injuries (43.6%) were the most common type. For the most recent injury, 138 (42%) of athletes took more than 10 days off practice. Compared to volleyball, football (soccer) and handball athletes were 2.9 times (95% CI: 1.3-6.3) and 3.4 times (95% CI: 1.5-7.8) more likely to take more than 10 days off practice. Athletes who sometimes wore protective gears were 3.1 times (95% CI: 1.7-5.8) more likely to report an injury compared with those who never wore protective gears (p injuries are highly prevalent among professional athletes in Kuwait. Future studies are needed to provide guidelines for interventions that may reduce such injuries. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hughes Schwab, Brendan A.; Vivian, Adam; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.
Epidemiological data on the occurrence of time-loss injuries over several A-League seasons remains lacking, while the effect of the mandatory implementation of 'Minimum Medical Standards' as a part of the collective bargaining agreement (CBA) needs to be explored. To explore the 5 year evolution of
Karen D. Liller
Full Text Available There is a paucity of data related to sports injuries, concussions, and computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT among very young athletes playing sports in recreational settings. The purpose of this study was to report baseline CNT results among male and female children, ages 5–11, playing sports in Hillsborough County, Florida using ImPACT Pediatric, which is specifically designed for this population. Data were collected from 2016 to 2017. The results show that 657 baseline tests were conducted and t-tests and linear regression were used to assess mean significant differences in composite scores with sex and age. Results showed that females scored better on visual memory and in general as age increased, baseline scores improved. The results can be used to build further studies on the use of CNT in recreational settings and their role in concussion treatment, management, and interventions.
"A Clean Amateur Makes a Good Professional" examines why athletes who are using (or are alleged of using) illegal drugs notoriously are labelled as deviant outsiders by the media as well as by the sporting authorities. By contrasting today's situation with previous times where the professional at...
Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave
This qualitative study presents the view that coaching practice places demands on the coach's adaptability and flexibility. These requirements for being adaptive and flexible are met through a careful process of professional judgement and decision-making based on context-appropriate bodies of knowledge. Adventure sports coaches were selected for study on the basis that adventure sports create a hyper-dynamic environment in which these features can be examined. Thematic analysis revealed that coaches were generally well informed and practised with respect to the technical aspects of their sporting disciplines. Less positively, however, they often relied on ad hoc contextualisation of generalised theories of coaching practice to respond to the hyper-dynamic environments encountered in adventure sports. We propose that coaching practice reflects the demands of the environment, individual learning needs of the students and the task at hand. Together, these factors outwardly resemble a constraints-led approach but, we suggest, actually reflect manipulation of these parameters from a cognitive rather than an ecological perspective. This process is facilitated by a refined judgement and decision-making process, sophisticated epistemology and an explicit interaction of coaching components.
A comparative analysis of the home advantage in handball and rugby as contact sports ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA VENTAJA DE JUGAR EN CASA EN BALONMANO Y RUGBY COMO DEPORTES COLECTIVOS DE COLABORACIÓN-OPOSICIÓN CON CONTACTO
Miguel Ángel Gómez Ruano; Jaime Prieto Bermejo
The aim of this research was to study the home advantage effect in Spanish handball and rugby, as contact sports where physical contact and aggressiveness is present in the game. The research objectives were: 1) To study home advantage in professional Spanish handball and rugby leagues; 2) To compare the results obtained between the two leagues, to know whether there are differences between them; 3) To study whether team ability influence home advantage, and if so, whether there are differen...
Kotarba, J A
The purpose of this article is to propose a sociological model of sports medicine that conceptualizes it as occupational health care. All occupational health care systems can be summarized according to three types: elite, managed, and primitive. These types reflect the quality of health care provided, the social class membership of workers, and workers' value to employers. The author presents ethnographic data to illustrate the social dynamics of primitive occupational health care delivered to rodeo cowboys and local professional wrestlers. This care is primitive because these athletes have relatively low economic value as workers, and the rugged individualism of their sports' subcultures supports a system of health care that is inexpensive, nonmedical in its philosophy, personalistic in the structure of its practitioner-patient relationship, and incidental in its delivery.
Rallis, Sharon F.; Militello, Matthew
Effective leadership does not depend on a set of attributes that a single individual possesses. Instead, the search for one best heroic leader should be replaced with the search for and investment in a number of superheroes: a League of Leadership. Those who create a leadership league don't explore individual skills, but collective practices, such…
Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L
The purpose of this study was to determine whether major league baseball players live lontger than the general public. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1950 were obtained, and differences between ages of death and age-adjusted life expectancies were determined by analysis of variance and t-tests, taking into account player position. Correlational analysis also was conducted to determine if career length affected longevity. Baseball players lived an average of four years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length did not affect longevity among players. We concluded that professional athletes, as represented by major league baseball players, have increased life expectancies. This increase cannot be explained by increased fitness associated with working as a professionral athlete, but is likely the result of an initial selection process for becoming a professional athlete.
Moriarty, Dick; Leduc, Larry
This article presents the results of a public attitude survey of a quota sample of approximately 4,000 age 18 and older Canadians, in which respondents were asked to express their opinion on who should own and operate professional athletics, national and international amateur athletics, and school/amateur sport. Attitude was also assessed on what…
Roberto Dantas de Queiroz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used.METHOD: this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18-30. The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13-28. The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport.RESULTS: five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven-nine. All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied, taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up.CONCLUSION: the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative
de Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; de Queiroz Szeles, Paulo Roberto; Janovsky, César; Cohen, Moisés
Objective to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used. Method this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18–30). The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13–28). The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport. Results five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven–nine). All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied), taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative
Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter W; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Kohler, Ryan M N; Stanwell, Peter
Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a
Yalizis, M A; Ek, E T H; Anderson, H; Couzens, G; Hoy, G A
To determine whether an early return to sport in professional Australian Rules Football players after fixation of a non-thumb metacarpal fracture was safe and effective. A total of 16 patients with a mean age of 25 years (19 to 30) identified as having a non-thumb metacarpal fracture underwent open reduction and internal plate and screw fixation. We compared the players' professional performance statistics before and after the injury to determine whether there was any deterioration in their post-operative performance. Of the 16, 12 sustained their fracture during the season: their mean time to return to unrestricted professional play was two weeks (1 to 5). All except two of the 48 player performance variables showed no reduction in performance post-operatively. Our data suggest that professional athletes who sustained a non-thumb metacarpal fracture can safely return to professional play without restriction two weeks after internal fixation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1343-7. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
González-Haro, Carlos; Calleja-González, Julio; Escanero, Jesus F
The aim of this study was to characterize the learning styles of different groups of athletes grouped according to level of performance and sport. Seventy-one male athletes completed a questionnaire on learning styles at the beginning of the 2008-2009 training season. Learning styles were assessed using the Honey-Alonso Learning Styles Questionnaire, and were also converted into learning styles described by Kolb. The Honey-Alonso learning styles were compared among the various groups using one-way analysis of variance, and the Kolb learning styles that were most favoured using a chi-square test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to verify the relationships between variables. No significant differences were observed in learning styles between different sports and physical activities. Years of experience did not correlate strongly with learning styles. With respect to level of performance, the pragmatic component was significantly lower in professional athletes than amateur and recreational athletes. These characteristics of learning styles preferred by the athletes should help coaches and physical trainers to reflect on their role as educators in the context of planning sports training.
Yancey, Antronette; Winfield, David; Larsen, Judi; Anderson, Michele; Jackson, Portia; Overton, Jeff; Wilson, Shawn; Rossum, Allen; Kumanyika, Shiriki
Public-private partnerships allow communities and corporate entities to pool resources to address a mission of relevance to their common constituency or consumer base. Collaborations between public health and professional sports may present unique opportunities to improve health outcomes related to physical activity since athletes are fitness icons, both for adults and children. There are many "win-win" opportunities, as sports venues regularly host huge numbers of spectators, offering food and entertainment, providing hours of exposure, and introducing new ideas for engaging fans in order to remain a competitive draw. In 2008, the San Diego Padres embarked on a communitywide fitness initiative, FriarFit, including incorporating 10-minute Instant Recess breaks during their Sunday homestand pre-game shows. Many lessons have been learned that may be useful to others mounting such initiatives, such as: there is more at stake in cost-benefit and risk-benefit assessment for sports executives, requiring greater caution and circumspection than is typical for public health projects; the core business of the corporate entity must be accommodated without undermining the health objectives; and health aims must be addressed in a way that is financially viable and delivers tangible value for profit-making concerns, in terms of marketing, revenues or brand enhancement.
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Hänninen, Timo; Tuominen, Markku; Parkkari, Jari; Vartiainen, Matti; Öhman, Juha; Iverson, Grant L; Luoto, Teemu M
To determine normative reference values for the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3rd Edition (SCAT3) using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Preseason baseline testing was administered individually to 304 professional male ice hockey players. The participants were aged between 16 and 40 with a mean (M) age of 25.3 years. Over 60% of the athletes reported previous concussion, almost 20% had been hospitalized or medically imaged following a head trauma. Of the players, 48% reported no symptoms. The symptom score median (Md) was 1.0 (M=1.5) and severity median was 1.0 (M=2.3). The median of the SAC score was 27.0 (M=27.0). The median of the M-BESS was 1.0 (M=2.0). The Tandem gait median was 10.9s (M=10.8s). The most common baseline symptom was neck pain (24%). Delayed recall was the most difficult component of the SAC (Md=4); only 24% performed it flawlessly. All athletes completed the double-leg stance of the M-BESS without errors, but there was performance variability in the tandem stance (Md=0, M=0.6, range=0-10) and single-leg stance (Md=1.0, M=1.4, range=0-10). Representative normative reference values for the SCAT3 among professional male ice hockey players are provided. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.
Yildiz, Mustafa; Sahan, Hasan; Tekin, Murat; Ulukan, Mehmet; Mehtap, Bekir
The purpose of this study was to analyse the anger expression styles, the continuous anger and personality types of players who play football in the professional league. The research group consisted of 133 soccer players who are playing in sports teams in the Turkish Super League: Ankara Sport Club, Gençlerbirliği Sports Club and Hacettepe Sports Club in the first league, Turk Telekom sports in the second league, and Keçiören Gücü Sports and Ankarademir Sports playing in the third league in the 2008-2009 football season. The Eysenck personality inventory was modified to Turkish by Bayar in 1983, having been developed by Eysenck and Eysenck in 1975 and the continuous anger-anger style scale (SOTO) was modified to Turkish by Ozer in 1994. The state trait anger scale (STAS) was originally developed by Spielberger in 1983. All these were used on soccer players participating in the study to determine the continuous anger and anger styles in this study. In the interpretation of data, a meaningfulness of p < 0.05, was applied by using regression analysis, the Kruskal Wallis Test, the one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) test and the Tukey test to find the differences among the groups. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) programme was used to find the accounted values and to evaluate the data. According to the results of this study, regarding the education level variable, while there was a meaningful difference between the continuous anger sub-dimension and anger control sub-dimension than continuous anger-anger expression styles, no significant difference was found among personality type sub-dimensions (psychoticism, extrovert, neurotic, false). In addition, a significant relationship was found between psychoticism, extrovert, neurotic, and lie sub-dimensions and the personality type sub-dimensions of professional players' constant anger-anger expression styles.
Sanda Toma Urichianu
Full Text Available This research is meant to bring experimental arguments in favor of the curriculum module for the „Ecologic tourism” subject in the physical education and sport faculties and in favor of the creation of a specific information stock regarding the ecotourism for the use of the faculties of this type.The researches pointed out that generally the ecologic type tourism activities are not treated with the necessary attention as there is not any concrete syllabus for the ecologic tourism subject.The performed researches outcomes have been used for the creation of the ecologic tourism experimental syllabus template. The syllabus design started from the definition of the syllabus general goal, „thenatural ecosystems revaluation and protection by means of the ecologic tourism (sport activities”; three main categories of objectives resulted from this goal, in the healthcare, pedagogical-professional training and ecology directions.The syllabus was based on the education specific means, according to the proposed methods whose structure and contents had observed the actual demands of planning and programming in conformity with theacademic curriculum theory and methodology.The outcomes of this research can serve both as a reference point for future researches carrying out and as a practical-methodological template for the teachers and students involved in ecotourism activities
Maria Luisa Bellotto
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en la investigación que dio origen a la tesis doctoral defendida por la autora en la Universitat de Lleida (España, cuyo objetivo fue identificar las Competencias Profesionales de los nutricionistas que trabajan en el ámbito de la Nutrición Deportiva. MÉTODOS: Fueron investigados 14 expertos provenientes de Australia (n=1, Brasil (n=7, España (n=3 y Estados Unidos (n=3. La herramienta metodológica utilizada fue la técnica Delphi, compuesta de tres rondas de cuestionarios. En la primera ronda los expertos proporcionaron, a través de sus discursos, la identificación de un listado de Competencias Profesionales, información que en la segunda y tercera ronda pudieron ser evaluadas y posteriormente analizadas a través de cálculos estadísticos descriptivos (media, moda, mediana y desviación Standard. RESULTADOS: De esta manera, se llegó al consenso entre los expertos sobre 147 competencias profesionales identificadas. Las competencias fueron clasificadas en cuatro macro categorías de Competencias Profesionales: Competencias Técnicas (38, Metodológicas (62, Participativas (24 y Personales (23. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados demostraron que el estudio sistematizado de las Competencias Profesionales del Nutricionista Deportivo contribuye para el establecimiento de los contenidos que deben componer la disciplina de Nutrición Deportiva a ser incorporada en los itinerarios curriculares de las carreras de Nutrición Humana y Dietética.OBJECTIVE: This article presents the results of the doctoral research developed by the author at the University of Lleida (Spain in June 2006. The main goal was to investigate the professional competences of dietitians who work in the field of Sports Nutrition. METHODS: Fourteen experts in Sports Nutrition from 4 countries were investigated, Australia (n=1, Brazil (n=7, Spain (n=3 and the United States (n=3. The methodological tool applied was the Delphi
Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave
This article continues a theme of previous investigations by the authors and examines the focus of in-action reflection as a component of professional judgement and decision-making (PJDM) processes in high-level adventure sports coaching. We utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of…
Lee, Jin H; Howell, David R; Meehan, William P; Iverson, Grant L; Gardner, Andrew J
The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition (SCAT3) is currently considered the standard sideline assessment for concussions. In-game exercise, however, may affect SCAT3 performance and the diagnosis of concussions. To examine the influence of exercise on SCAT3 performance in professional male athletes. Controlled laboratory study. We examined the SCAT3 performance of 82 professional male athletes under 2 conditions: at rest and after exercise. Athletes reported significantly fewer total symptoms (mean, 1.0 ± 1.5 vs 1.6 ± 2.3 total symptoms, respectively; P = .008; Cohen d = 0.34), committed significantly fewer errors on the modified Balance Error Scoring System (mean, 3.5 ± 3.5 vs 4.6 ± 4.1 errors, respectively; P = .017; d = 0.31), and required significantly less time to complete the tandem gait test (mean, 9.5 ± 1.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.7 seconds, respectively; P = .02; d = 0.30) during the at-rest condition compared with the postexercise condition. The interpretation of in-game (sideline) SCAT3 results should consider the effects of postexercise fatigue levels on an athlete's performance, particularly if preseason baseline data have been collected when the athlete was well rested. Exercise appears to affect symptom burden and physical abilities, such as balance and tandem gait, more so than the cognitive components of the SCAT3.
Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin
In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports.It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin
In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID
Olympia, Robert P; Brady, Jodi
Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies.
Cooper, Kenneth J.
Ruth Simmons made a big news splash a decade ago when she was named president of Brown University, making her the first Black president of an Ivy League institution. She made another splash three years later by naming a committee to investigate Brown's role in the slave trade and make recommendations on possible reparations. Reflecting on her…
Turner, Mary Ann
This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…
Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Mallett, Clifford J; Steffens, Niklas K; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip
Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey. The leadership quality in each of these roles was then calculated in a social network analysis by averaging the indegree centralities of the three best leaders in that particular role. Participants also rated their team's performance and its functioning on multiple indicators. As hypothesized, the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership on each of the four leadership roles excelled in all indicators of team effectiveness. More specifically, athletes in this team had a stronger shared sense of the team's purpose, they were more highly committed to realizing the team's goals, and they had a greater confidence in their team's abilities than athletes in the other teams. Moreover, this team demonstrated a higher task-involving and a lower ego-involving climate, and excelled on all measures of performance. High-quality athlete leadership is positively related to team effectiveness. Given the importance of high-quality athlete leadership, the study highlights the need for well-designed empirically-based leadership development programs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Di Michele, Rocco; Close, Graeme L; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P
Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P training load and periodisation was similar in the one- and two-game weeks, total accumulative distance (inclusive of both match and training load) was higher in a two-game week (32.5 ± 4.1 km) versus one-game week (25.9 ± 2 km). In contrast, daily training total distance was lower in the three-game week (2422 ± 251 m) versus the one- and two-game weeks, though accumulative weekly distance was highest in this week (35.5 ± 2.4 km) and more time (P 14.4 km · h(-1) (14%, 18% and 23% in the one-, two- and three-game weeks, respectively). Considering that high CHO availability improves physical match performance but high CHO availability attenuates molecular pathways regulating training adaptation (especially considering the low daily customary loads reported here, e.g., 3-5 km per day), we suggest daily CHO intake should be periodised according to weekly training and match schedules.
Criado, Regino; García, Esther; Pedroche, Francisco; Romance, Miguel
In this paper, we show a new technique to analyze families of rankings. In particular, we focus on sports rankings and, more precisely, on soccer leagues. We consider that two teams compete when they change their relative positions in consecutive rankings. This allows to define a graph by linking teams that compete. We show how to use some structural properties of this competitivity graph to measure to what extend the teams in a league compete. These structural properties are the mean degree, the mean strength, and the clustering coefficient. We give a generalization of the Kendall's correlation coefficient to more than two rankings. We also show how to make a dynamic analysis of a league and how to compare different leagues. We apply this technique to analyze the four major European soccer leagues: Bundesliga, Italian Lega, Spanish Liga, and Premier League. We compare our results with the classical analysis of sport ranking based on measures of competitive balance.
Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P
During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Marshall B
Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.
Luoma, Kari L.
The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify core competencies that are most significant for nursing faculty to develop as they transition from novice to expert faculty. Professional development in a systematic approach may guide faculty to learn what is significant as they progress in the nurse faculty role. A quantitative…
The purpose of this paper is to make a novel contribution to the literature on the prediction market for the Australian Football League, the major sports league in which Australian Rules Football is played. Taking advantage of a novel micro-level data set which includes detailed per-game player statistics, predictions are presented and tested out-of-sample for the simplest kind of bet: fixed odds win betting. It is shown that player-level statistics may be used to yield very modest profits ne...
Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan
Background Ankle injury is common in football, but the circumstances surrounding them are not well characterised. Aim To investigate the rates, especially time-trends, and circumstances of ankle injuries in male professional football. Methods 27 European clubs with 1743 players were followed prospectively between 2001/2002 and 2011/2012. Time loss injuries and individual-player exposure during training sessions and matches were recorded. Injury rate was defined as the number of injuries/1000 ...
Dawkins, Marvin P.; Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Celaya, Adrienne
Despite the large body of evidence on the benefits of sports, there continues to be growing concern regarding the overemphasis on sports, especially related to the social and educational development of blacks and other minority youth. This article introduces a conceptual framework or typology for analyzing the connection between sports…
Woodward, J Scott; Parker, Andrew; Macdonald, Robert M
Case Report Injury or weakness of lower abdominal attachments and the posterior inguinal wall can be symptoms of a "sports hernia" and an underlying source of groin pain. Although several authors note conservative treatment as the initial step in the management of this condition, very little has been written on the specific description of non-surgical measures. Most published articles favoring operative care describe poor results related to conservative management; however they fail to report what treatment techniques comprise non-operative management. The subject of this case report is a professional ice hockey player who sustained an abdominal injury in a game, which was diagnosed as a sports hernia. Following the injury, structured conservative treatment emphasized core control and stability with progressive peripheral demand challenges. Intrinsic core control emphasis continued throughout the treatment progression and during the functional training prior to return to sport. The player completed his recovery with return to full competition seven weeks post injury, and continues to compete in the NHL seven years later. Surgical intervention has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the "sports hernia." However it is the authors' opinion that conservative care emphasizing evaluation of intrinsic core muscular deficits and rehabilitation directed at addressing these deficits is an appropriate option, and should be considered prior to surgical intervention.
Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Ekstrand, Jan
Ankle injury is common in football, but the circumstances surrounding them are not well characterised. To investigate the rates, especially time-trends, and circumstances of ankle injuries in male professional football. 27 European clubs with 1743 players were followed prospectively between 2001/2002 and 2011/2012. Time loss injuries and individual-player exposure during training sessions and matches were recorded. Injury rate was defined as the number of injuries/1000 h. A total of 1080 ankle injuries were recorded (13% of all injuries) with lateral ligament ankle sprain being the most common injury subtype (51% of all ankle injuries). The rates of ankle injury and ankle sprain were 1/1000 h and 0.7/1000 h, respectively. The ankle sprain rate declined slightly over time during the 11-year study period (on average 3.1%/season) with a statistically significant seasonal trend (p=0.041). Foul play according to the referee was involved in 40% of the match-related ankle sprains. Syndesmotic sprains and ankle impingement were uncommon causes of time loss (3% each of all ankle injuries). Lateral ligament ankle sprain constituted half of all ankle injuries in male professional football, whereas ankle impingement syndromes were uncommon. The ankle sprain rate decreased slightly over time, but many ankle sprains were associated with foul play. Our data extend the body of literature that provides football policy makers with a foundation to review existing rules and their enforcement.
Sports articles appearing in three New York City newspapers in Jackie Robinson's first season as a major league baseball player were examined to determine if there was biased reporting based on racial prejudice. The sports pages of the New York "Times," the "Herald Tribune," and the "Daily News" for 44 days in 1947…
Introduction – 1. Major features of a globalized sports economy – 2. International economic flows in a global sports economy – 3. Globalization as geographical spread of the sports economy – 4. Globalization of professional sports – Conclusion – References
Professional sports with high rates of concussion have become increasingly concerned about the long-term effects of multiple head injuries. In this context, return-to-play decisions about concussion generate considerable ethical tensions for sports physicians. Team doctors clearly have an obligation to the welfare of their patient (the injured athlete) but they also have an obligation to their employer (the team), whose primary interest is typically success through winning. At times, a team's interest in winning may not accord with the welfare of an injured player, particularly when it comes to decisions about returning to play after injury. Australia's two most popular professional football codes-rugby league and Australian Rules football-have adopted guidelines that prohibit concussed players from continuing to play on the same day. I suggest that conflicts of interest between doctors, patients, and teams may present a substantial obstacle to the proper adherence of concussion guidelines. Concussion management guidelines implemented by a sport's governing body do not necessarily remove or resolve conflicts of interest in the doctor-patient-team triad. The instigation of a concussion exclusion rule appears to add a fourth party to this triad (the National Rugby League or the Australian Football League). In some instances, when conflicts of interest among stakeholders are ignored or insufficiently managed, they may facilitate attempts at circumventing concussion management guidelines to the detriment of player welfare.
Full Text Available The technology of formation communication information competency of the future experts of physical training and sports is presented. 240 students of 4 rates of two institutes participated in research. Data of questionnaire of the future experts are used. Importance of use of new information technologies in educational process is exhibited. Milestones of introduction of computer and multimedia means are defined. Necessity of initiating for educational process of discipline «Sports - pedagogical computer science» is justified.
Jones, Marc V; Bray, Steven R; Olivier, Stephen
The present study examined the relationship between aggression and game location in rugby league. We videotaped a random sample of 21 professional rugby league games played in the 2000 Super League season. Trained observers recorded the frequency of aggressive behaviours. Consistent with previous research, which used territoriality theories as a basis for prediction, we hypothesized that the home team would behave more aggressively than the away team. The results showed no significant difference in the frequency of aggressive behaviours exhibited by the home and away teams. However, the away teams engaged in substantially more aggressive behaviours in games they lost compared with games they won. No significant differences in the pattern of aggressive behaviours for home and away teams emerged as a function of game time (i.e. first or second half) or game situation (i.e. when teams were winning, losing or drawing). The findings suggest that while home and away teams do not display different levels of aggression, the cost of behaving aggressively (in terms of game outcome) may be greater for the away team.
Gómez, Miguel A; Pollard, Richard; Luis-Pascual, Juan-Carlos
Home advantage is a well-established phenomenon in many sports. The present study is unique in that it includes different sports analysed in the same country, at the same level of competition, and over the same time period. Nine team sports from Spain were included: baseball, basketball, handball, indoor soccer, roller hockey, rugby, soccer, volleyball, and water polo. Data for five seasons (2005-2006 to 2009-2010) were obtained, totaling 9,472 games. The results confirmed the existence of home advantage in all nine sports. There was a statistically significant difference between the sports; home advantage was highest in rugby (67.0%), and lowest in volleyball (55.7%), water polo (56.2%), and roller hockey (58.3%). The design of the study controlled for some of the likely causes of home advantage, and the results suggested that the high home advantage for rugby was likely a reflection of the continuous, aggressive, and intense nature of the sport.
Full Text Available Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694 performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences, before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences, after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001 decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.
Mugala Bulinda H.1; Wamukoya Edwin K.
Satisfaction in sports has been a critical issue because of its relation to several psychosocial factors like leadership and motivation. Demographic characteristics of the groups under study have also shown to have impact on the satisfaction levels in physical activity. Based on the self-determination theory, the present study on influence of age on satisfaction of Kenyan volleyball league players hypothesized that there is no significant difference among Kenya volleyball league players of di...
Mantri, Sneha S.; Mantri, Shivkumar P.; Deogade, Suryakant; Bhasin, Abhilasha S.
India is rapidly assuming a more health-conscious posture. Olympic competition and professional sports have turned from mere dreams into goals. Many major professional sports leagues are expanding. Sports dentistry is a composite of skills for treatment, prevention, education and research in which dentistry and sports come together. Custom athletic mouth guards present additional health-care opportunities. They are designed to reduce the impact force of a direct blow to the jaw and create a gap between the condyle and skull thereby reducing the transference of the impact to the brain. The prevalence and severity of injuries to the teeth, jaws and intra-oral and peri-oral soft tissues, concussions and neck injuries are reduced when mouth guards are used. The dentist can play a proactive role in helping to deliver important expanded health care services. PMID:24596803
Devlin, Brooke L; Leveritt, Michael D; Kingsley, Michael; Belski, Regina
Sports nutrition professionals aim to influence nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition to improve athletic performance. Understanding the interrelationships between these factors and how they vary across sports has the potential to facilitate better-informed and targeted sports nutrition practice. This observational study assessed body composition (DXA), dietary intake (multiple-pass 24-hr recall) and nutrition knowledge (two previously validated tools) of elite and subelite male players involved in two team-based sports; Australian football (AF) and soccer. Differences in, and relationships between, nutrition knowledge, dietary intake and body composition between elite AF, subelite AF and elite soccer players were assessed. A total of 66 (23 ± 4 years, 82.0 ± 9.2 kg, 184.7 ± 7.7 cm) players participated. Areas of weaknesses in nutrition knowledge are evident (57% mean score obtained) yet nutrition knowledge was not different between elite and subelite AF and soccer players (58%, 57% and 56%, respectively, p > .05). Dietary intake was not consistent with recommendations in some areas; carbohydrate intake was lower (4.6 ± 1.5 g/kg/day, 4.5 ± 1.2 g/kg/day and 2.9 ± 1.1 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) and protein intake was higher (3.4 ± 1.1 g/kg/day, 2.1 ± 0.7 g/kg/day and 1.9 ± 0.5 g/kg/day for elite and subelite AF and elite soccer players, respectively) than recommendations. Nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with fat-free soft tissue mass (n = 66; r2 = .051, p = .039). This insight into known modifiable factors may assist sports nutrition professionals to be more specific and targeted in their approach to supporting players to achieve enhanced performance.
Shields, Carin K.
A study examined whether "Sports Illustrated" offers a biased view of the sports world by focusing primarily on the eastern teams. The units of analysis were articles about Major League baseball appearing in the "Sports Illustrated" issues from late April to early October in the years 1975 to 1984. The teams were divided into…
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Lambert, Michael; Stewart, William; Kerkhoffs, Gino
Recent reports suggest that exposure to repetitive concussions in sports is associated with an increased risk of symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance or substance abuse/dependence (typically referred as symptoms of common mental disorders[CMD]) and of later development of neurodegenerative disease, in particular chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sports career-related concussions and the subsequent occurrence of symptoms of CMD among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline electronic questionnaires from three prospective cohort studies among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). The number of confirmed concussions was examined through a single question, while symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance and adverse alcohol use were assessed using validated questionnaires. From 1,957 former professional athletes contacted, a total of 576 (29%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, 23% had not incurred a concussion during their career, 34% had two or three, 18% four or five, and 11% six or more concussions. The number of sports career-related concussions was a predictor for all outcome measures (β = 0.072-0.109; P ≤ 0.040). Specifically, former professional athletes who reported a history of four or five concussions were approximately 1.5 times more likely to report symptoms of CMD, rising to a two- to five-fold increase in those reporting a history of six or more sports career-related concussions. These data demonstrate an association between exposure to sports concussion and subsequent risk of symptoms of CMD in former professional athletes across a range of contact sports. Further work to explore the association between sports concussion and symptoms of CMD is required; in
Academy of nutrition and dietetics: revised 2014 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in sports nutrition and dietetics.
Steinmuller, Patricia L; Kruskall, Laura J; Karpinski, Christine A; Manore, Melinda M; Macedonio, Michele A; Meyer, Nanna L
Sports nutrition and dietetics addresses relationships of nutrition with physical activity, including weight management, exercise, and physical performance. Nutrition plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and for maintenance of health, and the ability to engage in physical activity, sports, and other aspects of physical performance. Thus, the Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance as a resource for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this emerging practice area. The revised document reflects advances in sports nutrition and dietetics practice since the original standards were published in 2009 and replaces those standards. The Standards of Practice represents the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance covers six standards of professional performance: quality in practice, competence and accountability, provision of services, application of research, communication and application of knowledge, and utilization and management of resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standards can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists in sports nutrition and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc
Côté, Jean; Macdonald, Dany J; Baker, Joseph; Abernethy, Bruce
In this study, we assessed whether contextual factors related to where or when an athlete is born influence their likelihood of playing professional sport. The birthplace and birth month of all American players in the National Hockey League, National Basketball Association, Major League Baseball, and Professional Golfer's Association, and all Canadian players in the National Hockey League were collected from official websites. Monte Carlo simulations were used to verify if the birthplace of these professional athletes deviated in any systematic way from the official census population distribution, and chi-square analyses were conducted to determine whether the players' birth months were evenly distributed throughout the year. Results showed a birthplace bias towards smaller cities, with professional athletes being over-represented in cities of less than 500,000 and under-represented in cities of 500,000 and over. A birth month/relative age effect (in the form of a distinct bias towards elite athletes being relatively older than their peers) was found for hockey and baseball but not for basketball and golf. Comparative analyses suggested that contextual factors associated with place of birth contribute more influentially to the achievement of an elite level of sport performance than does relative age and that these factors are essentially independent in their influences on expertise development.
Weiss, Martin A
.... The boycott has three tiers. The primary boycott prohibits citizens of an Arab League member from buying, selling, or entering into a business contract with either the Israeli government or an Israeli citizen...
Mert Kerem Zelyurt
Full Text Available In 2016 it was seen that the “quota rule” (age restriction which was put into practice in 2009 for the 3. League football teams in order to enable young players to have a better chance in squads and bring these players to the national teams have been changed because of not getting the desired results. In the study, the effects of 2009 quota rule which was established as a legal obligation to the football teams were examined in the extent of players, coaches, and the club managers (dramatis personae. The study was designed as “Semi-structured in-depth interview” (Qualitative Method method. According to “Theoretical Sampling Method” the sample of the study was formed through 6 players, 4 club managers and 5 coaches all of which are active in the third football league. The interviews recorded in February 2017 and May 2017, which vary from 6 minutes to 29 minutes in length according to the samples, were converted into text and categorized under 4 themes in findings section. The themes are: 1. being dropped out of squad 2. Problems relating the squads and the quality of the football 3.The problem of player training in the third league for the national team and transfer mobility to upper leagues 4. The fall in wages, the problem of becoming unemployed and being obliged to play in the amateur football league. As it can be concluded from the themes which frame the narrations by the samples including different experiences considering their status and roles in terms of quota rule practice; some outcomes during the period in which the rule had been practiced (particularly due to the version before the change were witnessed such as the deterioration in the quality of football, technical problems relating squads, the problem of vertical and horizontal professional mobility of the players and the fall in wages. In the last instance; it can be concluded that it is necessary to analyze legal sanctions relating a multivariate and intricate field such
Bernstein, Joseph; Perlis, Clifford; Bartolozzi, Arthur R
The relationship between a team physician and an athlete differs significantly from the traditional doctor-patient relationship. To better define the ethical norms and ideals in sports medicine, we surveyed the views of practicing team physicians in the Ivy, National Football, and National Hockey Leagues and compared them with responses offered by professional ethicists. Six hypothetical cases were presented, each representing a distinct area of ethical conflict: advertising, conflicting healthcare goals, confidentiality, innovative treatments, enabling dangerous behavior, and treating children. Thirty-one ethicists and 131 team physicians responded to the surveys. Subjects were asked to rate agreement or disagreement with statements that followed the case description. Responses were converted to scores ranging from 0 to 100. A priori, a difference greater than 20 points was set to represent significant disagreement. By that standard, there was agreement between the physicians and ethicists for 18 of 23 statements. We concluded that team physicians and ethicists share many of the same ethical views on common ethical issues in sports medicine. The high degree of variance in the responses in both groups, however, suggests that many unresolved areas remain in the field of ethics in sports medicine.
Racial and Gender Report Card, 2003: A Comprehensive Analysis of the Hiring Practices of the National Basketball Association, National Football League, National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, Major League Soccer, Women's National Basketball Association, and NCAA and Its Member Institutions.
Lapchick, Richard E.
This is the 12th issue of the "Racial and Gender Report Card," which assesses hiring practices of women and people of color in U.S. professional and amateur sports and sporting organizations. It considers the composition of players, coaches, and front office/athletic department employees in the leading sports organizations. Each organization is…
Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L
We investigated the "healthy worker effect" (HWE) in major league baseball. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1939 were obtained and differences between those ages and age-adjusted life expectancies were examined to determine if longevity increased with career length, controlling for decade in which a player debuted, player position, and handedness. Major league baseball players (N = 4,492) lived an average of 4.8 (+/- 15.0 Standard deviation [SD]) years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length significantly and incrementally increased longevity of players from an average of 4.1 years for players playing one season to 7.4 years for players playing 11 or more years. None of the other factors, nor any of the interactions, was statistically significant. These data provide strong support for the HWE in professional baseball.
de Saá Guerra, Y.; Martín González, J. M.; Sarmiento Montesdeoca, S.; Rodríguez Ruiz, D.; García-Rodríguez, A.; García-Manso, J. M.
The degree of overall competitiveness of a sport league is a complex phenomenon. It is difficult to assess and quantify all elements that yield the final standing. In this paper, we analyze the general behavior of the result matrices of each season and we use the corresponding results as a probably density. Thus, the results of previous seasons are a way to investigate the probability that each team has to reach a certain number of victories. We developed a model based on Shannon entropy using two extreme competitive structures (a hierarchical structure and a random structure), and applied this model to investigate the competitiveness of two of the best professional basketball leagues: the NBA (USA) and the ACB (Spain). Both leagues’ entropy levels are high (NBA mean 0.983; ACB mean 0.980), indicating high competitiveness, although the entropy of the ACB (from 0.986 to 0.972) demonstrated more seasonal variability than that of the NBA (from 0.985 to 0.990), a possible result of greater sporting gradients in the ACB. The use of this methodology has proven useful for investigating the competitiveness of sports leagues as well as their underlying variability across time.
Wright, Mathew J; Woo, Ellen; Birath, J Brandon; Siders, Craig A; Kelly, Daniel F; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Romero, Elizabeth; Kernan, Claudia; Cantu, Robert C; Guskiewicz, Kevin
Various concussion characteristics and personal factors are associated with cognitive recovery in athletes. We developed an index based on concussion frequency, severity, and timeframe, as well as cognitive reserve (CR), and we assessed its predictive power regarding cognitive ability in retired professional football players. Data from 40 retired professional American football players were used in the current study. On average, participants had been retired from football for 20 years. Current neuropsychological performances, indicators of CR, concussion history, and play data were used to create an index for predicting cognitive outcome. The sample displayed a range of concussions, concussion severities, seasons played, CR, and cognitive ability. Many of the participants demonstrated cognitive deficits. The index strongly predicted global cognitive ability (R(2) = .31). The index also predicted the number of areas of neuropsychological deficit, which varied as a function of the deficit classification system used (Heaton: R(2) = .15; Wechsler: R(2) = .28). The current study demonstrated that a unique combination of CR, sports concussion, and game-related data can predict cognitive outcomes in participants who had been retired from professional American football for an average of 20 years. Such indices may prove to be useful for clinical decision making and research.
Trofa, David P; Miller, J Chance; Jang, Eugene S; Woode, Denzel R; Greisberg, Justin K; Vosseller, J Turner
Most Achilles tendon ruptures are sports related. However, few studies have examined and compared the effect of surgical repair for complete ruptures on return to play (RTP), play time, and performance across multiple sports. To examine RTP and performance among professional athletes after Achilles tendon repair and compare pre- versus postoperative functional outcomes of professional athletes from different major leagues in the United States. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who sustained a primary complete Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically between 1989 and 2013 were identified via public injury reports and press releases. Demographic information and performance-related statistics were recorded for 2 seasons before and after surgery and compared with matched controls. Statistical analyses were used to assess differences in recorded metrics. Of 86 athletes screened, 62 met inclusion criteria including 25 NBA, 32 NFL, and 5 MLB players. Nineteen (30.6%) professional athletes with an isolated Achilles tendon rupture treated surgically were unable to return to play. Among athletes who successfully returned to play, game participation averaged 75.4% ( P performed significantly worse compared with preoperative levels at 1 and 2 years after injury ( P performance statistics ( P .05). When individual sports were compared, NBA players were most significantly affected, experiencing significant decreases in games played, play time, and performance. An Achilles tendon rupture is a devastating injury that prevents RTP for 30.6% of professional players. Athletes who do return play in fewer games, have less play time, and perform at a lower level than their preinjury status. However, these functional deficits are seen only at 1 year after surgery compared with matched controls, such that players who return to play can expect to
Zaitseva, Natalia A.; ?ndryushchenko, Lilia ?.
The relevance of the research stems from the importance of modernization of the system of training for sport and tourism, without which the intensive development of this kind of professional activity is not possible. The aim of the study was the generalization of the experience of introduction of the innovative educational technologies in the…
Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon
Sports Medicine is a relatively new subject in medicine and includes a variety of medical and paramedical fields. Although sports medicine is mistakenly thought to be mainly for sports professionals/athletes, it actually encompasses the entire population, including the active and non-active healthy populations, as well as the sick. Sports medicine also engages amateur sportsmen and strives to promote physical activity and quality of life in the general population. Hence, the field involves all ages from childhood to old age, aiming to preserve and support every person at every age. Sports medicine, which started developing in the 19th century, is today a specialty, primary or secondary, in many countries, while in others it is a fellowship or under the jurisdiction of local or sports authorities. In Israel, the field exists since the 1950's and is advanced. The Sports Medicine Society founded a 3-year course of continued education in sport medicine as part of the Tel-Aviv University Faculty of Medicine. Later on, a fellowship in general Sports Medicine and in Orthopedic Sports Medicine were developed within the Israel Medical Association. A year ago, Israel formally became a member of the global "Exercise is Medicine" foundation, and under this title promotes education for health care providers on exercise prescription. The understanding of the importance of physical activity and fitness as part of a healthy lifestyle is increasing in Israel, as well as the number of amateur athletes, and the profession of sports medicine takes a big part in this process.
Fuller, G W; Govind, O; Tucker, R; Raftery, M
To establish normative reference data for the SCAT3 in professional Rugby Union players. A cross sectional study in professional Rugby Union players competing in national and international professional competitions between 2015 and 2016. The SCAT3 was administered pre-season or prior to tournaments. Data was collected electronically using a custom tablet application. SCAT3 subcomponents distributions were described and normative ranges determined using percentile cut-offs for average, unusually low/high, and extremely low/high scores. The association between player characteristics and performance in SCAT3 subcomponents was also investigated in exploratory analyses. A total of 3611 professional Rugby Union players were included. The most common baseline symptom was fatigue (14%). The symptom score median (md) was 0 (interquartile range (IQR)=0-1). Symptom severity md was 0 (IQR=0-1). The md of the SAC score was 28 (IQR=26-29). The md of the MBESS was 2 (IQR=0-4). The Tandem gait md was 11.1s (IQR=10.0-12.7s). Upper limb coordination was normal in 98.4%. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with worse performance on delayed recall and reverse month sub-components of the SCAT3 (pvalues for the SCAT3 among professional Rugby Union players are provided. Baseline performance on concentration and delayed recall tests may be lower in younger athletes or in those with lower educational level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine
In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional Sports Digitalization Thirty Eighth International Conference on Information Systems, Seoul 2017 2 characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance...
Sports dentistry is one of the most recent and upcoming field in dentistry. It mainly includes the prevention and management of athletics-related orofacial injuries and associated oral diseases. The sports or team dentist assists athletes in the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of oral injuries. The most significant aspect in preventing sports-related orofacial injuries is wearing basic protective devices such as properly-fitting helmets, face masks and/or mouth guards. Dental injuries are the most common type of orofacial injury sustained during participation in sports. Many athletes are not aware of the health implications of a traumatic injury to the mouth or of the potential for incurring severe head and orofacial injuries while playing. The dentist can play an imperative role in informing athletes, coaches and patients about the importance of preventing orofacial injuries in sports. The aim of this paper is to increase professional awareness and interest for orientation toward sports dentistry.
Baker, Joseph; Koz, Dan; Kungl, Ann-Marie; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Schorer, Jorg
In an effort to understand the process of skill acquisition and decline, researchers have largely neglected a critical aspect of this development--maximizing time at the highest levels of achievement. This study examined length of career for professional athletes in basketball, football, ice hockey, and baseball and considers whether career length…
Thirty-one journals pertinent to the physical educator and to the professional in the areas of motor learning, sport philosophy, sport sociology, sport psychology, and sport medicine are listed with a general note on the scope of each. (JMF)
Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S
Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.
White, Peta E; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Newton, Joshua; Finch, Caroline F
Preventing concussion in sport is a global challenge. To assess community-level adult male Australian Football players' views on following the Australian Football League's (AFL) concussion guidelines. 3 focus groups, each comprising 6 players from 1 regional league, were conducted until saturation of issues raised. Discussions followed a semistructured script and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 coders independently. Identified advantages of the guidelines included highlighting the seriousness of concussion; changing the culture around playing with concussion and shifting return-to-play decision responsibility from players to others. Disadvantages included players being removed from play unnecessarily; removal of players' rights to decide if they are fit to play and players changing their behaviours to avoid being removed from play. Identified facilitators to guideline use included local league enforcement; broad information dissemination and impartial medically trained staff to assess concussion. Identified barriers to guideline use included players' desire to play at all costs; external pressure that encouraged players to return to play prematurely; and inconvenience and cost. Players generally understand that the AFL concussion guidelines protect their long-term welfare. However, their desire to play at all costs and help their team win is a common barrier to reporting concussion and adhering to guidelines. Leagues should take a lead role by mandating and enforcing the use of the guidelines and educating coaches, game day medical providers and players. The return-to-play component of the guidelines is complex and needs further consideration in the context of community sport.
Watson, Jack C; Krantz, Andrew J
To identify the relations between new stadiums and home team performance and attendance for professional baseball (MLB) (n=14), basketball (NBA) (n=13), and football (NFL) (n=25) teams in the USA since 1950 dependent t tests assessed significance of increases in attendance in both MLB and the NBA and a significantly improved home winning percentage in MLB following the building of new stadiums. Implications include a better understanding of the rationales used by owners, fans, and players for building new stadiums.
Tom K. Tong; Hua Lin; Giuseppe Lippi; Jinlei Nie; Ye Tian
This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. ...
Wells, C M; Edwards, A M; Winter, E M; Fysh, M L; Drust, B
The purpose of this study was to identify if sport-specific and cardiopulmonary exercise testing differentiated professional from amateur soccer players. Thirty six men comprising 18 professional (mean±s: age 23.2±2.4 years) and 18 amateur (mean±SD: age 21.1±1.6 years) soccer players participated and performed four tests on separate occasions: 1) a graded exercise test to determine VO2max; 2) four exercise transients from walking to 80%Δ for the determination of VO2 kinetics; 3) the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and 4) a repeated sprint test (RST). The players did not differ in VO2max (professional 56.5±2.9 mL.kg-1.min-1; amateur 55.7±3.5 mL.kg-1.min-1: P=0.484) or VO2 kinetic fundamental measures (τ1 onset, professional 24.5±3.2 s; amateur 24.0±1.8 s: τ1 cessation, professional 28.7±2.8 s; amateur 29.3±3.5 s: P=0.923). However, the amateurs were outperformed in the Yo-Yo IR2 (Professional 966±153 m; Amateur 840±156 m) (P=0.034) and RST (best time, professional 6.46±0.27 s; amateur 6.84±0.24 s, P=0.012). Performance indices derived from field-based sport-specific performance tests identified significant differences between professional and amateur players (P<0.05). However, neither tests of VO2 kinetics nor VO2max differentiated between groups, suggesting laboratory tests of cardiorespiratory parameters are probably less consequential to soccer than sport-specific field-based observations.
Iván Puentes Rivera
Full Text Available The current economic crisis has increased the financing needs in all areas. The communication has fueled, among others, the conflict between traditional media companies and organizers of sporting events broadcast rights payments. Based on the legal conflict, political and even social that has lived in Spain for the years 2011 and 2012 between the Professional Football League, which seeks to impose a fee radios similar to the television for access to soccer fields and retransmit meetings, and radio stations, which are opposed to such payment and defend their constitutional right to report freely, this paper analyzes the limits between freedom of information and the right to audiovisual content marketing, law enforcement return that the European Union will recognize the organizers of sporting events and the ability to influence the major media on political power to bring legislation into its economic interests.
Growing student interest in sports provides geography teachers with a special opportunity to make connections between it and fundamental concepts in the discipline. This article examines the structure, arrangement, relationships, and distinctions among minor league baseball franchise locations, stadia, and team names, and presents examples of…
Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.
de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Silva, Fernando Roberto; Waszczuk-Junior, Silas; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa
Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2%) were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8%) during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. PMID:24379722
Full Text Available Po 2. světové válce se sport ocitl v nových společenských poměrech, určených existencí dvou světových hospodářských soustav. Dlouholetý předseda Mezinárodního olympijského výboru (dále MOV Avery Brundage odolal tlaku mezinárodních sportovních federací i národních olympijských výborů na vyplácení tréninkových a cestovních nákladů, jeho následovník lord Michael Killanin už uzdu povolil. Stavidla s definitivní platností otevřel ambiciózní Juan Antonio Samaranch, který se stal neomezeným diktátorem olympijského hnutí v 80. a 90. letech 20. století. Právě on umožnil vyplácení vysokých finančních částek sportovcům, a tím i účast profesionálních sportovců na olympijských hrách. Jaký vlastně byl vztah tzv. amatérského a profesionálního sportu? Byli sportovci v socialistických zemích amatéři nebo profesionálové? Jak socialistické země akceptovaly změny v olympijském hnutí v osmdesátých letech minulého století? Na tyto otázky se snaží předložený text odpovědět, přičemž hlavním zdrojem informací jsou soudobé dokumenty a denní tisk. [Professional and amateur sport formed as picture of society lay-out in modern history. The first amateur definitions considered as the professional everybody who had exercised manual labour. VIII. Olympic Congress in Prague in 1925 established the professional practised a sport for money or received a refund of wages. This definition had survived in almost unchanged form as late as the second half of the 20th century, when sport stepped foot inside new social conditions determined with two world economic systems existence. The VIII. Olympic congress in Prague in 1925 established nobody could participate in the Olympic Games: 1 who was professional or had been professional wittingly in his sport or other one, 2 who received refund of wages. This definition in unchanged form had lived through by the second half of the 20th
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.
Tong, Tom K; Lin, Hua; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nie, Jinlei; Tian, Ye
This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. Secondly, for age- and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 36 out of the 67 subjects (12 for each group) were then selected and investigated. In cyclists, XO, GSH, and CAT were higher as compared with runners and controls. The CAT in runners, but not GSH and XO, was also higher than in controls. TBARS, T-AOC, and SOD did not differ among the study populations. Regarding the inter-individual relationships among serum redox statuses and dietary nutrient intakes, significant correlations were noted in CAT versus carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, and manganese; GSH versus carbohydrates, protein, fat, selenium, zinc, iron, and magnesium; XO versus cholesterol; CAT versus GSH. These findings suggest that the resting blood redox balance in the professional adolescent athletes was well maintained partly by the increase of individual antioxidant in adaptation to chronic exercise.
Tom K. Tong
Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs, xanthine oxidase (XO, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. Secondly, for age- and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 36 out of the 67 subjects (12 for each group were then selected and investigated. In cyclists, XO, GSH, and CAT were higher as compared with runners and controls. The CAT in runners, but not GSH and XO, was also higher than in controls. TBARS, T-AOC, and SOD did not differ among the study populations. Regarding the inter-individual relationships among serum redox statuses and dietary nutrient intakes, significant correlations were noted in CAT versus carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, and manganese; GSH versus carbohydrates, protein, fat, selenium, zinc, iron, and magnesium; XO versus cholesterol; CAT versus GSH. These findings suggest that the resting blood redox balance in the professional adolescent athletes was well maintained partly by the increase of individual antioxidant in adaptation to chronic exercise.
Pollack, Keshia M; D'Angelo, John; Green, Gary; Conte, Stan; Fealy, Stephen; Marinak, Chris; McFarland, Edward; Curriero, Frank C
In 2010, Major League Baseball and the Major League Baseball Players Association reached an agreement regarding the development and implementation of an electronic medical record system and a new league-wide injury surveillance system. The systems were developed to create a more efficient method to track medical histories of players longitudinally as they move across Major and Minor league affiliates, as well as to identify and monitor injury trends in the sport, identify areas of specific concern, and conduct epidemiologic research to better optimize player health and safety. The resulting injury surveillance system, the Health and Injury Tracking System (HITS), is a robust system that includes all players from the both the Major and Minor Leagues. HITS also allows for data linkage with other player- and game-level data to inform the development of injury prevention policies and programs. In the present article, we document the development and implementation of HITS; describe its utility for epidemiologic research; illustrate the potential analytic strength of the surveillance system and its ability to inform policy change; and note the potential for this new surveillance system to advance the field of sports injury epidemiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D
Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There
Sapp, Ryan M; Spangenburg, Espen E; Hagberg, James M
Current trends suggest professional soccer is becoming less aggressive, with England often argued to have the most aggressive of the top European leagues. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in fouls and cards as indicators of aggressive play in the first divisions of England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain over the past decade. Number of fouls per match and per yellow card has decreased in all leagues since 2007/08, though attempted tackles per foul has not changed or has increased. A lack of substantial rule changes suggests players have become less aggressive in tackling as opposed to referees becoming more lenient. Total number of fouls and cards per match were consistently lower in the English Premier League, however attempted tackles per foul was higher. The data also demonstrate the notions of home advantage and potentially referee bias, since referees tended to call more fouls and award more cards to away teams. Lastly, number of attempted tackles per foul and yellow cards received exhibited the strongest correlations with final league position across the leagues. In conclusion, our data support that elite European soccer has become less aggressive and the English Premier League is the most aggressive league.
Casartelli, Nicola C; Bizzini, Mario; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Lepers, Romuald; Leunig, Michael
Case report. The aim of this case report was to describe the rehabilitation and return to sport of a professional ice hockey player with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) after bilateral open hip surgery. A 21-year-old professional ice hockey player with symptomatic FAI underwent bilateral surgical hip dislocations within a 6-week time period. After the second surgery (right hip), he experienced right hip pain due to iliotibial band dehiscence, which required additional revision surgery. The athlete underwent a standardized rehabilitation protocol. Hip muscle strength was objectively assessed during rehabilitation. Iliotibial band dehiscence did not allow the athlete to increase ipsilateral hip abductor strength. This prolonged the rehabilitation period for 12 weeks. The athlete returned to training on the ice without physical contact and to competitive matchplay after 7 and 8 months, respectively. This case report showed that iliotibial band dehiscence occurred after open hip surgery and delayed the return to sport of this athlete. Standardized rehabilitation following bilateral open hip surgery was however successful for the return to sport of this professional ice hockey player with bilateral symptomatic FAI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carr, Sherilene; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Vandenberg, Brian; Donovan, Robert J; Lynott, Dermot
Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with greater alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, and alcohol advertising is common in Australian sport. We examine child, adolescent and young adult exposure to alcohol advertising during three televised sports in Australia: Australian Football League (AFL), cricket and the National Rugby League (NRL). Alcohol advertising and audience viewing data were purchased for all AFL, cricket and NRL TV programs in Australia for 2012. We estimated children and adolescents (0-17 years) and young adults (18-29 years) exposure to alcohol advertising during AFL, cricket and NRL programs in the daytime (06:00-20:29 h), and night-time (20:30-23:59 h). There were 3544 alcohol advertisements in AFL (1942), cricket (941) and NRL programs (661), representing 60% of all alcohol advertising in sport TV, and 15% of all alcohol advertisements on Australian TV. These programs had a cumulative audience of 26.9 million children and adolescents, and 32 million young adults. Children and adolescents received 51 million exposures to alcohol advertising, with 47% of this exposure occurring during the daytime. Children and adolescents exposure to alcohol advertising was similar to young adults and peaked after 8.30pm. Child and adolescent and young adult's exposure to alcohol advertising is high when viewing sport TV in Australia in the daytime and night-time. Current alcohol advertising regulations are not protecting children and adolescents from exposure, particularly in prominent televised sports. The regulations should be changed to reduce children and adolescent excessive exposure to alcohol advertising when watching sport. [Carr S, O'Brien KS, Ferris J, Room R, Livingston M, Vandenberg B, Donovan RJ, Lynott D. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:406-411]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.
Collins, L.; Collins, D
This investigation examined the planning and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. We utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the planning decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. The investigation discovered that, in planning coaching activity, high-level adventure sports coaches draw on their epistemological values and domain-specific expertise, employ a synergy of classic and naturalistic decision...
Gardner, Andrew J; Howell, David R; Levi, Christopher R; Iverson, Grant L
Many professional sports have introduced sideline video review to help recognise concussions. The reliability and validity of identifying clinical and observable signs of concussion using video analysis has not been extensively explored. This study examined the reliability and validity of clinical signs of concussion using video analysis in the National Rugby League (NRL). All 201 professional NRL matches from the 2014 season were reviewed to document six signs of possible concussion (unresponsiveness, slow to get up, clutching/shaking head, gait ataxia, vacant stare, and seizure). A total of 127,062 tackles were reviewed. Getting up slowly was the most common observable sign (2240 times in the season, 1.8% of all tackles) but only 223 times where it appeared to be a possible concussion (0.2% of all tackles and 10.0% of the times it occurred). Additionally, clutching/shaking the head occurred 361 times (on 212 occasions this sign appeared to be due to a possible concussion), gait ataxia was observed 102 times, a vacant stare was noted 98 times, unresponsiveness 52 times, and a possible seizure 4 times. On 383 occasions, one or more of the observable signs were identified and deemed associated with a possible concussion. There were 175 incidences in which a player appeared to demonstrate two or more concussion signs, and 54 incidences where a player appeared to demonstrate three or more concussion signs. A total of 60 diagnosed concussions occurred, and the concussion interchange rule was activated 167 times. Intra-rater reliability (κ = 0.65-1.00) was moderate to perfect for all six video signs; however, the inter-rater reliability was not as strong (κ = 0.22-0.76). Most of the signs had relatively low sensitivity (0.18-0.75), but high specificity (0.85-1.00). Using video replay, observable signs of concussion appear to be sensitive to concussion diagnoses when reviewing known injuries among professional rugby league players. When reviewing an entire season
Nicholls, Adam R.; Earle, Keith; Earle, Fiona; Madigan, Daniel J.
All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104) and longitudinal (n = 52) assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports. PMID:28572775
Adam R. Nicholls
Full Text Available All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104 and longitudinal (n = 52 assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports.
Conte, Stan A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Wilk, Kevin E; Aune, Kyle T; Patterson-Flynn, Nancy; ElAttrache, Neal
While the high rate of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in professional baseball is widely discussed in the media and medical literature, the actual prevalence of UCL reconstruction has not been documented. The prevalence of UCL reconstruction will be higher among pitchers than nonpitchers, and Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers will have a higher prevalence than will minor league pitchers. Descriptive epidemiology study. An online questionnaire was distributed to all 30 MLB organizations. Certified athletic trainers from each team administered the questionnaire to all players in the organization, including major league players and 6 levels of minor league players. Demographic data were compared between major and minor league players. Continuous variables (age, years of professional baseball, country of origin, etc) were compared with Student t tests (P baseball players (722 major league and 4366 minor league) participated in the survey. Pitchers represented 53% of all players, and 497 players reported at least 1 UCL reconstruction, demonstrating a prevalence rate of 10% (497 of 5088). Pitchers reported a significantly higher prevalence of UCL reconstruction (16%; 437 of 2706) than nonpitchers (3%; 60 of 2382; P major league pitchers, 25% (96 of 382) had a history of UCL reconstruction, while minor league pitchers showed a 15% (341 of 2324) prevalence (P Major league pitchers were also significantly older (28.8 ± 3.9 years) than minor league pitchers (22.8 ± 3.0; P majority of major leaguers (86%) had their UCL reconstruction as professional pitchers, whereas the majority of minor league pitchers (61%) underwent their UCL reconstruction during high school and college (P major league and minor league pitchers. No difference in prevalence was shown between pitchers born in the United States versus Latin American countries. Pitchers have a high prevalence of UCL reconstruction in professional baseball, with 25% of major league pitchers and 15% of minor
Paula Maria Fazendeiro Batista
Full Text Available O campo de intervenção do profissional do desporto tem vindo a alargar-se e, concomitantemente, a complexificar-se. As ocupações tradicionais adstritas ao ensino e ao treino sofreram metamorfoses, aumentando as dificuldades de conceitualização de competência profissional. Neste estudo, procura-se identificar o conceito que os profissionais do desporto denotam de profissional competente, na persecução da identificação de um mapa conceitual transversal às quatro áreas ocupacionais consideradas: Educação Física, Treino, Atividade Física Adaptada e "Fitness". Foram entrevistados 120 profissionais (30 de cada área ocupacional sobre o conceito de competência e de profissional competente. Na análise dos dados, utilizaram-se procedimentos de análise de conteúdo. Os resultados são ilustrativos da frágil conceitualização que ainda caracteriza o campo do profissional do desporto. Identificam-se, contudo, traços comuns que apontam para a busca de uma unidade identitária centrada na competência de conhecimento e ética coadjuvada pela competência pessoal e social em estreita articulação com a competência funcional, sendo que as metacompetências e a motivação são fatores valorizados, os quais assumem a função de sustentação da competência profissional.The intervention field of the sports professional has become broader and more complex. Traditional occupations related to education and coaching have transformed and increased, bringing more difficulties to the already difficult conceptualization of professional competence. In this study we tried to understand the conception of professional competence that sports professionals have in the pursuit of identifying a conceptual map across the four occupational areas: Physical Education, Coaching, Fitness and Adapted Physical Activity. We interviewed 120 professionals (30 of each occupational area about the understanding of competence and competent professional. Data analysis
Biasca, N; Simmen, H P; Bartolozzi, A R; Trentz, O
Ice hockey is considered to be one of the fastest and roughest of all sports. Prospective injury reports of the North American National Hockey League, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and of several European teams (UdSSR, CSSR, Sweden and Switzerland) are reviewed to evaluate the patterns, anatomic locations, circumstances and sequelae of ice hockey-related injuries. Although different injury reporting systems are used in North America and Europe, knee injuries (sprains of the collateral ligaments) accounted for the majority of games missed (40%), followed by injuries to the shoulder (dislocation, acromio-clavicular joint separation, rotator cuff strain and tears, 20%), the groin (15%), and the back (10%). Mandatory helmets and face masks reduced the number of facial and eye injuries to a quarter from 1972 to 1983. The frequency of only concussion but also cervical spine lesions is increasing. The prevention of head, face, eye and neck injuries should mainly be accomplished by enforcement of current rules (mandatory helmets with face masks) and institution of new rules. Improvement in protective equipment would also have the effect of decreasing the frequency of injuries. Ice hockey is the fastest team sport and involves both finesse and controlled aggression. It is also considered to be one of the roughest of all sports. In recent years, ice hockey has grown tremendously in popularity, not only in the United States and in Canada but also in many European countries . The number of both professional and amateur hockey players has increased with the expanding interest in the sport around the world .(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther
. The solution method presented here uses a logic-based Benders decomposition in which the master problem finds home-away pattern sets while the subproblem finds timetables. Furthermore, column generation techniques are used to enhance the speed of the master problem. The computational results show......In this paper, we present a solution method for the highly constrained problem of finding a seasonal schedule for the best Danish soccer league. The league differs from most sports leagues, since it plays a triple round robin tournament which leads to an uneven distribution of home and away games...... that the solution method is capable of solving the problem within reasonable time and the Danish Football Association has used it for scheduling the 2006/2007 season....
Full Text Available Future specialists’ professional training at universities is realized in the educational process which is an open, dynamic and self-developing system. For effective training results the principles of continuity and continuing education has an essential importance. The implementation of these principles is the most expedient in the College-University system. This system is characterized by the ability to reproduction, acquisition, augmentation and renewal of students’ knowledge on the basis of interdisciplinary connections with previously studied disciplines. This article deals with an analysis of continuity in studying professional disciplines in the professional training of future specialists in physical culture and sports in the College-University system. Existing standards of higher education for training junior specialists, bachelors, and masters are not enough agreed among themselves and do not provide full opportunities for full integration. There is some contradiction between the available capacity of the College-University system in the implementation highly efficient and economic system of training specialists and not flexible standards of the professional education. The development of special mechanisms of combination of existing educational standards at various levels helps to overcome this contradiction. While analyzing the curriculum, we have discovered that there are some differences both in the list of most of subjects and in their hour division. Studying in college is more oriented on the learning of basic general subjects and at university it focuses on special professional disciplines. The construction of the quality model, which includes the coordination of educational standards, curricula and programs, would help to achieve the optimal number of hours of the cycle of future specialists’ professional training in physical culture and sports in the College-University system. The interpretation of existing differences
Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits
Background The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. Methods The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. Results p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and ‘pitch-side’ physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2. Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages
Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits.
Gray, Cindy M; Hunt, Kate; Mutrie, Nanette; Anderson, Annie S; Leishman, Jim; Dalgarno, Lindsay; Wyke, Sally
The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and 'pitch-side' physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m(2). Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages. Suggestions for improvements that
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified it...
From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…
Full Text Available Youth soccer is thriving in the United States but the coun- try's professional soccer leagues over the past couple decades have had mixed results in terms of commercial viability with some leagues surviving (e.g., MLS and others ceasing (e.g., WUSA. While scholars and practitioners may offer explanations regarding the reasons for the specific challenges facing women's professional soccer leagues, the pre- sent study looked at this subject by examining one group of stakeholders - female elite athletes - and the players’ perceptions of gender in the USA professional soccer program. The findings of this qualitative analysis were concentrated in- to three interconnected themes. The first theme involved the participants' perceptions of role models and their socialization as soccer players. Media images and the invisibility of the female athlete formed the second theme. The third theme was the sexualization of elite female bodies and transgressions of compulsory heterosexuality boundaries. The analysis of the interviews revealed an interesting paradox of elite female athletes using gender to understand sports. The inter- viewed athletes used stereotypical notions of masculinity to increase their legitimacy as elite athletes, while at the same time devaluing the abilities of female coaches by using stereotypical notions of femininity. In addition to discussing the empirical results and interconnected themes, the implications of the findings are also detailed.
Crotin, Ryan L; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Tom; Ramsey, Dan K
Diminishing baseball velocities are objective measures to delineate pitching fatigue. Yet, velocity changes over the course of a competitive season vs. a single game remain unknown. This study examined fastball velocity (FBV) trends of minor league pitchers over an 8-game span. We assumed that accumulation of pitches would cause similar velocity decreases within games to produce velocity decreases between games pitched. Retrospective analysis of major league-affiliated pitching charts indicated mean FBVs, game pitches thrown, game innings pitched, rest days, and pitching work to rest ratios (PWRRs) for 12 pitchers over 8 games. Regression analyses (p league pitchers at the Class A Short Season level did not show similar exertion responses to cumulative workloads (pitches and innings pitched). Recovery factors (rest days, PWRRs, and training) also did not impact FBVs. Velocity increases may be attributable to biomechanical compensations, skill development, strength and conditioning regimens, multistarter rotations, and other performance-related factors. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of ball velocity trends, as apparent changes may infer neuromuscular fatigue and increased injury susceptibility, which require in-season training modifications.
Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam
Minimal work has studied physical size effects on statistical performance among Major League players. In this study, longitudinal, bivariate, and regression analyses studied the impact of physical size on offensive baseball statistics within a homogeneous talent sample of Major League batting leaders. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from heights and weights that were publicly available to form a statistical database of 4,360 offense leaders from 1950 to 2010. Repeated-measures analysis of variances examined differences in anthropometrics and baseball statistics between each decade from 1950 to 2010. Bivariate correlation and linear regression analyses evaluated BMI as an independent variable of influence, where all tests applied an a priori significance level (p ≤ 0.05). After 1980, offensive performance increased (p ≤ 0.05) concurrent to body mass and BMI growth (p baseball statistics were positively correlated and predicted by BMI (p Major League offensive statistics. Over the 60-year period, greater body weight-to-height proportions owed to improved competitive performance, which suggests greater emphasis on hypertrophic stimuli in training and nutrition, as well as selection of larger professional baseball prospects.
Gabbe, B; Finch, C
Most of the published data describing Australian football injuries is from hospital emergency departments and elite injury surveillance studies. There is a lack of good information about injuries to players at the lower levels of participation and those not severe enough to warrant hospital treatment. This study describes the profile of Australian football injuries that present to sports medicine clinics for treatment. New sports injury cases, presenting to five metropolitan Melbourne sports medicine clinics during a 12 month period in 1996-1997, were recorded through the Sports Medicine Injury Surveillance project. Both the patient and treating health professional provided personal and injury details. Australian football accounted for 29% of the 6479 recorded injury cases. The majority of injured players were male (99%) and from adult, community leagues (78%); the mean age was 23 years. Competition accounted for 78% of injuries and 72% of injured players presented for treatment to a sports physician/medical practitioner. Body contact accounted for half of all injuries and the most common injuries were medial ligament sprains of the knee (7%), lateral ligament sprains of the ankle (6%) and anterior cruciate ligament injuries (4%). In conclusion, sports medicine clinics treat a wide variety of football injuries and appear to be a good source of data about injuries to non-elite participants.
McCrory, P. R.; Bladin, P F; Berkovic, S.F.
OBJECTIVES: To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. DESIGN: Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. SUBJECTS: Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics ...
O que pensam os treinadores portugueses da 1ª liga sobre a importância da intervenção psicológica no futebol profissional? What portuguese premier league coaches think about the importance of psychological intervention in professional soccer?
André Neves Barreiros
Full Text Available O rendimento desportivo resulta da interligação de aspectos físicos, técnicos, tácticos e psicológicos. Contudo, relativamente ao treino de Futebol constata-se que a componente psicológica é muito negligenciada. Neste estudo, procura-se conhecer as percepções de treinadores de alto rendimento acerca de diferentes aspectos relacionados com a dimensão psicológica, nomeadamente as concepções sobre o treino psicológico e a sua relação com o treino e o rendimento desportivo; o nível de preparação dos treinadores para treinar as competências psicológicas; e a relevância de colaborar com um especialista em psicologia do desporto. Com recurso a uma entrevista semi-estruturada, foram entrevistados quinze treinadores da Primeira Liga de Futebol Portuguesa. Uma análise indutiva das entrevistas revelou que os treinadores atribuem grande importância à componente psicológica e à colaboração com um especialista em psicologia do desporto, até porque não se sentem preparados para desenvolver um treino sistemático neste domínio.Sport performance results from the interaction of physical, technical, tactical and psychological aspects. However, in Soccer training less attention is devoted to the psychological domain. The purpose of this study was to investigate elite Soccer coaches' perceptions concerning different aspects of the psychological dimension, namely the conceptions about mental training and his relationship with training, in general, and performance; the coaches' level of preparation to apply a specific psychological training; and the collaboration with a sport psychology expert. Using in-depth interviews, fifteen coaches of the Portuguese first league were interviewed. The interviews showed that the coaches attribute great significance to the psychological domain and to a possible collaboration with a sport psychology expert, as coaches seem to be unprepared to apply specific mental strategies or are unfamiliar with
Nicholas, Stephen J; Tyler, Timothy F
An in-season adductor muscle strain may be debilitating for the athlete. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly could become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the six muscles of the adductor group could be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (Grade I), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (Grade III) in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey players throughout the world, approximately 10% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries, which have been linked to hip muscle weakness, previous injuries to that area, preseason practice sessions and level of experience, may be preventable if such risk factors can be addressed before each season. Hip-strengthening exercises were shown to be an effective method of reducing the incidence of adductor strains in one closely followed National Hockey League ice hockey team. Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for ice hockey players, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. Clinicians feel an active training programme, along with completely restoring the strength of the adductor muscle group, is the key to successful rehabilitation. Surgical intervention is available if nonoperative treatment fails for 6 months or longer. Adductor release and tenotomy was reported to have limited success in athletes.
Sports medicine represents a specific body of knowledge which can be practiced as a subspecialty by numerous members of medical society. Professional and sandlot athletes are equally deserving of competent and expedient sports medical care. (JN)
Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.
A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)
Lansdown, Drew A.; Feeley, Brian T.
Background: The medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary restraint to valgus load, and injury is commonly encountered as a result of overuse in throwing athletes. Reconstruction of this ligament has allowed for a high rate of return to sport for elite pitchers. Public perception of this procedure has resulted in a commonly held belief of increased throwing velocity following UCL reconstruction. Hypothesis: Fastball velocity for Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers is significantl...
Newton, Joshua D; White, Peta E; Ewing, Michael T; Makdissi, Michael; Davis, Gavin A; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John; Seward, Hugh; Finch, Caroline F
Sporting bodies have developed guidelines for managing community-level players with suspected concussion in response to international consensus statements on concussion in sport. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence the intended use of concussion guidelines among community-level coaches and sports trainers from two popular football codes in Australia: Australian football and rugby league. Cross-sectional survey. The survey, based on an extended theory of planned behaviour model, was completed by 183 Australian football coaches, 121 Australian football sports trainers, 171 rugby league coaches, and 142 rugby league sports trainers. Personal norms and self-efficacy were significant predictors of intention to use concussion guidelines, although the relationship between self-efficacy and intention was stronger among Australian football coaches than rugby league coaches. Analysis of the salient beliefs that underpin self-efficacy found that coaches, irrespective of football code, felt less familiar (χ(2)=25.70, psports trainers in using the concussion guidelines. At the same time, Australian football personnel, irrespective of their team role, felt that they had insufficient time (χ(2)=8.04, psport concussion guidelines should focus on enhancing self-efficacy and leveraging personal norms. Increasing coaches' familiarity and experience in using the concussion guidelines would also be warranted, as would finding ways to overcome the perceived time and resource constraints identified among Australian football personnel. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard
Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…
Attitudes of football fans in lower league Objectives: The aim of the work is to find out the attitudes and motives of people to active visitation of football matches in lower league. Then I would like to introdukce a gained knowledges to the head of the clubs in order to reach a higher level of satisfaction of fans. Methods: Questionnaire, interview Results: It will find out the attitudes of fans in lower leagues thanks to mentioned methods of research. The work will present the view of indi...
Kirkwood, Graham; Parekh, Nikesh; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Pollock, Allyson M
Children and adolescents who play rugby are at increased risk of concussion and its effects. Competitive rugby union and rugby league feature as major sports in the school sport curriculum in the UK. There is a need for a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of concussion in youth rugby, the mechanisms involved in injuries and predisposing risk factors. The publication databases Pubmed, Embase and SportDISCUS were searched in April 2014 for primary research studies of child and adolescent rugby union and rugby league (under 20 years) in English language with data on concussion injuries. The review was conducted within a larger all injury systematic review on rugby union and rugby league where key words used in the search included rugby, injury and concussion with child, adolescent, paediatric and youth. There were 25 studies retrieved with data on child or adolescent rugby and concussion, 20 were on rugby union, three on rugby league and in two the code of rugby was unspecified. There was significant heterogeneity in the definitions of injuries and of concussion. The incidence of child and adolescent match concussion ranged from 0.2 to 6.9 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby union and was 4.6 and 14.7 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby league, equivalent to a probability of between 0.3% and 11.4% for rugby union and of 7.7% and 22.7% for rugby league. There is a significant risk of concussion in children and adolescents playing rugby union and rugby league evident from the studies included in this systematic review. There is a need for reliable data through routine monitoring and reporting in schools and clubs and in hospital emergency departments in order to inform prevention. Concussion protocols should be implemented and tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Thomas, Howard; Cavatorti, Francesco; Fino, Alessandro
The Premier Rugby League is made up of 12 professional clubs. Its mission is to promote professional rugby in England. In fulfilling this mission, it bases all activities on the League's founding principles: a 'large virtual family' with values such as moral integrity. This strong sense of aggregation is a feature of the rugby community. The spirit of collaboration has also developed at the international level - formalised by an agreement with The Italian Rugby League-LIRE (Lega Italiana Rugb...
Westberg, Kate; Stavros, Constantino; Smith, Aaron C T; Munro, Geoff; Argus, Kevin
To examine how alcohol brands use sport in their communication activities on social media. Despite extensive research exploring alcohol advertising and sponsorship through sport, minimal attention has been given to digital platforms. This study undertakes a qualitative content analysis to examine the social media activity of alcohol brands sponsoring the three largest spectator sports in Australia: Australian rules football, rugby league and cricket. Four sport-related social media strategies are identified through which alcohol brands solicit interaction with consumers, often involving co-creation of content and social activation. These strategies act as 'calls to action' and through the association of sport and alcohol encourage consumers to engage in competition, collaboration, celebration and consumption. These strategies are further strengthened by communications which draw upon themes of identity and camaraderie to resonate with the consumer. Sport-linked social media strategies utilised by alcohol brands extend beyond just promoting their product. They seek higher levels of engagement with the consumer to amplify and augment the connection between alcohol and the sport spectator experience. The discussion highlights the powerful combination of sport and social media as a mechanism by which these brands seek to interact with consumers and encourage them to both create and promote content to their social networks. These strategies allow alcohol brands to extend their marketing efforts in a manner which can elude alcohol codes and prove difficult for regulators to identify and control. [Westberg K, Stavros C, Smith ACT, Munro G, Argus K. An examination of how alcohol brands use sport to engage consumers on social media. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:28-35]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Wymore, Lucas; Chin, Paul; Geary, Christopher; Carolan, Gregory; Keefe, Daniel; Hoenecke, Heinz; Fronek, Jan
Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction (UCLR) has been studied and shown to be a successful procedure for returning overhead athletes to sport. Many studies of Major League Baseball (MLB) players have shown high levels of return to play with successful statistical performance. No study has followed professional advancement of drafted pitchers who underwent UCLR as amateurs when compared with drafted pitchers who did not undergo the procedure before selection in the MLB draft. There would be no difference in professional advancement, statistical performance, or injury rate between the UCLR and control groups. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-eight pitchers with a UCLR as an amateur and 114 controls were identified in the MLB draft between 2006 and 2010. Highest level of professional baseball achieved was collected from all players, as well as statistical performance metrics including velocity, wins, earned run average (ERA), and walks and hits per inning pitched (WHIP). Additional data on future injuries were analyzed for days on the disabled list (DL), risk of being placed on the DL, and DL assignment for elbow injury. Thirteen of 38 UCLR pitchers reached the major league level (34.2%) compared with 29 of 114 (25.4%) control pitchers, which was not statically significant (P = .295). The UCLR and control groups were similar for average velocity, peak velocity, innings pitched, games, games started, innings per game, ERA, WHIP, wins, losses, saves, batters faced, and innings pitched per year, as well as hits, runs, home runs allowed, strikeouts, batters walked, and batters struck per inning. The UCLR group had a significantly increased rate of DL assignment when compared with controls (86.8% vs 64.0%; P = .008); however, days on DL (152.8 vs 135.6; P = .723) and DL assignment for elbow injury (45.5% vs 43.8%; P = .877) were similar. There was no difference in the rate of professional advancement among pitchers drafted by the MLB who had undergone
Proietti, Riccardo; di Fronso, Selenia; Pereira, Lucas A; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bertollo, Maurizio
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been increasingly used to monitor team sports athletes. Besides the traditional time domain indices (i.e., the SD of successive RR intervals [SDNN] and the root mean square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]), recently the use of the stress score (SS), which is an inverse function of the SD2 index derived from the Poincaré plot, and the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio (S/PS) to monitor soccer players has been proposed. However, the reliability of these new indices and the ability of HRV to differentiate between soccer competitive levels are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of the different HRV-derived indices in professional soccer players during the competitive period and to compare HRV of professional soccer players from 3 teams of distinct competitive levels (i.e., Italian Second Division [2D], European League [EL], and Champions League [CL]). Fifty-four male professional soccer players from 3 different teams of 2 European countries (Italy and Germany) participated in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of the HRV indices varied from 0.78 (very large) to 0.90 (near perfect). The coefficient of variation (CV) values for RMSSD and SDNN were all soccer players and is able to differentiate between international- and national-level players.
Amen, Daniel G.; Willeumier, Kristen; Omalu, Bennet; Newberg, Andrew; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Raji, Cyrus A.
Background: National Football League (NFL) players are exposed to multiple head collisions during their careers. Increasing awareness of the adverse long-term effects of repetitive head trauma has raised substantial concern among players, medical professionals, and the general public. Objective: To determine whether low perfusion in specific brain regions on neuroimaging can accurately separate professional football players from healthy controls. Method: A cohort of retired and current NFL pl...
Bradley, Warren J; Hannon, Marcus P; Benford, Victoria; Morehen, James C; Twist, Craig; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Impey, Samuel G; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L
The metabolic requirements of a rugby league match simulation protocol and the timing of carbohydrate provision on glycogen re-synthesis in damaged muscle were examined. Fifteen (mean±SD: age 20.9±2.9 year, body-mass 87.3±14.1kg, height 177.4±6.0cm) rugby league (RL) players consumed a 6gkgday-1 CHO diet for 7-days, completed a time to exhaustion test (TTE) and a glycogen depletion protocol on day-3, a RL simulated-match protocol (RLMSP) on day-5 and a TTE on day-7. Players were prescribed an immediate or delayed (2-h-post) re-feed post-simulation. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained post-depletion, before and after simulated match-play, and 48-h after match-play with PlayerLoad and heart-rate collected throughout the simulation. Data were analysed using effects sizes±90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. PlayerLoad (8.0±0.7 AUmin-1) and %HRpeak (83±4.9%) during the simulation were similar to values reported for RL match-play. Muscle glycogen very likely increased from immediately after to 48-h post-simulation (272±97 cf. 416±162mmolkg-1d.w.; ES±90%CI) after immediate re-feed, but changes were unclear (283±68 cf. 361±144mmolkg-1d.w.; ES±90%CI) after delayed re-feed. CK almost certainly increased by 77.9±25.4% (0.75±0.19) post-simulation for all players. The RLMSP presents a replication of the internal loads associated with professional RL match-play, although difficulties in replicating the collision reduced the metabolic demands and glycogen utilisation. Further, it is possible to replete muscle glycogen in damaged muscle employing an immediate re-feed strategy. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C
Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.
Full Text Available Harmonious development of sports deals with the development of sports centres, buildings and training grounds in the built environment. Their basic objective is to provide to needs of professional and top quality sports, sports recreation and sports education in space. The methodological basis for establishing a spatial sports scheme was the Steinitz-Rogers model of planning sports-recreation centres, buildings and training grounds. One of the results of the scheme is a cartographically and digitally supported data base that can be complemented.
A comparative analysis of the home advantage in handball and rugby as contact sports ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA VENTAJA DE JUGAR EN CASA EN BALONMANO Y RUGBY COMO DEPORTES COLECTIVOS DE COLABORACIÓN-OPOSICIÓN CON CONTACTO
Miguel Ángel Gómez Ruano
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the home advantage effect in Spanish handball and rugby, as contact sports where physical contact and aggressiveness is present in the game. The research objectives were: 1 To study home advantage in professional Spanish handball and rugby leagues; 2 To compare the results obtained between the two leagues, to know whether there are differences between them; 3 To study whether team ability influence home advantage, and if so, whether there are differences between best and worst teams. Nine seasons in both leagues were examined, from 2002-03 to 2010-11. Home advantage values were higher than 50% in both leagues, with significantly higher values in the rugby league (65.12% compared to 59.65%. The greater importance of physical contact and aggressiveness in the game actions in rugby can be a factor to be considered in the higher home advantage values found in the rugby league. The results showed the influence of team ability in home advantage in the two leagues, with no differences between the teams.Keywords: home advantage, contact sports, team sports, handball, rugby.El propósito de la investigación fue estudiar la ventaja de jugar en casa en el balonmano y en el rugby español, como deportes colectivos de colaboración-oposición con contacto. Los objetivos planteados en el estudio fueron: 1 Estudiar la ventaja de jugar en casa en la Liga ASOBAL de balonmano y en la Liga de División de Honor de rugby; 2 Comparar los resultados obtenidos entre las dos ligas, para conocer si existen diferencias entre sí; 3 Estudiar si el nivel equipos influye en la ventaja de jugar en casa, y si es así, si existen diferencias entre los mejores y los peores conjuntos. Se estudiaron las últimas nueve temporadas, desde 2002-03 hasta 2010-11. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de ventaja de jugar en casa en las dos ligas, con valores significativamente superiores en la liga de rugby (65,12% frente a la liga de balonmano
Physicians' role in team sports goes beyond the traditional ‘Doc’ who attends the game for stitching and primary injury management. Injury and illness prevention, ongoing supervision of rehabilitation, education, fitness evaluation, and training prescription are roles which have often fallen, by default, to paramedicals. The author recounts his experience in medical supervision of major junior hockey in the Western Hockey League.
textabstractWe tackle the problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin tournament for a sport league. We formally define the problem, state its computational complexity, and present a solution algorithm using a two-step approach. The first step is the creation of a tournament pattern and is
Tofler, Ian R
In the sporting context there is a significant nexus between adult workplace harassment and two other critical, developmentally related areas, that of child and adolescent bullying, and college hazing. These are all addressed, albeit obliquely and perhaps inadvertently, in the Miami Dolphins saga and the subsequent NFL Wells Report of 2013-2014. This is a significant document. It is even a brave, if politically expedient milestone. It evaluates the complex inter-personal and inter- and intra-systemic contributions within a sporting organization. Wells also elucidates a case where there is overlapping damage to individuals and systems as a result of malignant bullying, harassment, and hazing within overlapping systems. Constructive approaches to team building, and other positive alternatives to hazing may be the best place to initiate trust and verify institutional change at all these levels.
Carr, Sherilene; O'Brien, Kerry S.; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Vandenberg, Brian; Donovan, Robert J; Lynott, Dermot
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with greater alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, and alcohol advertising is common in Australian sport. We examine child, adolescent and young adult exposure to alcohol advertising during three televised sports in Australia: Australian Football League (AFL), cricket and the National Rugby League (NRL). METHODS: Alcohol advertising and audience viewing data were purchased for all AFL, cricket and NRL TV programs ...
Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits
Gray, C.M.; Hunt, K.; Mutrie, N.; Anderson, A.S.; Leishman, J.; Dalgarno, L.; Wyke, S.
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the
Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Ekstrand, Jan
Previous injury is a well-documented risk factor for football injury. The time trends and patterns of recurrent injuries at different playing levels are not clear. To compare recurrent injury proportions, incidences and patterns between different football playing levels, and to study time trends in recurrent injury incidence. Time-loss injuries were collected from injury surveillance of 43 top-level European professional teams (240 team-seasons), 19 Swedish premier division teams (82 team-seasons) and 10 Swedish amateur teams (10 team-seasons). Recurrent injury was defined as an injury of the same type and at the same site as an index injury within the preceding year, with injury 2 months as a delayed recurrence. Seasonal trend for recurrent injury incidence, expressed as the average annual percentage of change, was analysed using linear regression. 13 050 injuries were included, 2449 (18.8%) being recurrent injuries, with 1944 early (14.9%) and 505 delayed recurrences (3.9%). Recurrence proportions were highest in the second half of the competitive season for all cohorts. Recurrence proportions differed between playing levels, with 35.1% in the amateur cohort, 25.0% in the Swedish elite cohort and 16.6% in the European cohort (χ(2) overall effect, pplaying level, and recurrent injury incidence has decreased over the past decade. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Lynch, Thomas Sean; Kosanovic, Radomir; Gibbs, Daniel Bradley; Park, Caroline; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M.; Ahmad, Christopher S.
Objectives: Athletic pubalgia is a condition in which there is an injury to the core musculature that precipitates groin and lower abdominal pain, particularly in cutting and pivoting sports. These are common injury patterns in the National Football League (NFL); however, the effect of surgery on performance for these players has not been described. Methods: Athletes in the NFL that underwent a surgical procedure for athletic pubalgia / core muscle injury (CMI) were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record since 2004. Outcome data was collected for athletes who met inclusion criteria which included total games played after season of injury / surgery, number of Pro Bowls voted to, yearly total years and touchdowns for offensive players and yearly total tackles sacks and interceptions for defensive players. Previously validated performance scores were calculated using this data for each player one season before and after their procedure for a CMI. Athletes were then matched to control professional football players without a diagnosis of athletic pubalgia by age, position, year and round drafted. Statistical analysis was used to compare pre-injury and post-injury performance measures for players treated with operative management to their case controls. Results: The study group was composed of 32 NFL athletes who underwent operative management for athletic pubalgia that met inclusion criteria during this study period, including 18 offensive players and 16 defensive players. The average age of athletes undergoing this surgery was 27 years old. Analysis of pre- and post-injury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after surgical intervention; however, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of Pro Bowls that affected athletes participated in before surgery (8) compared to the season after surgery (3). Analysis of durability, as measured by total number of games played
DeCarlo, Mark; Malone, Kathy; Darmelio, John; Rettig, Arthur
Attempts by sports medicine professionals to return high school athletes with hand and wrist injuries to competition quickly and safely have been the source of confusion and debate on many playing fields around the country. In addition to the differing views regarding the appropriateness of playing cast usage in high school football, a debate exists among sports medicine professionals as to which material is best suited for playing cast construction. Materials used in playing cast constructio...
Richardson, David; Littlewood, Martin; Nesti, Mark; Benstead, Luke
The migration of soccer players has increased in recent years. In this study, we examined the experiences of elite young soccer players as they engaged in a migratory transition from their home country to an English Premier League (EPL) club. Five young players, who made the migratory transition between the ages of 16 and 24, were interviewed. Data were analysed using the principles of content analysis. Verbatim text was then aligned to the emergent themes. Results indicate that young migratory players face the initial frenzy that is associated with an approach from an EPL club before going through a "decision" phase, followed by a period of "migration" and "acculturation" before establishing (or not) their "home from home". The challenges of leaving home and family while trying to establish themselves as a professional player in an environment that (still) appears to be beset with (traditional) English soccer culture (i.e. high tempo, ruthless, macho, and aggressive) are recounted. While the player's family was a significant source of social support, there is still a need for qualified personnel (e.g. sports psychologists) and/or appropriately trained international recruitment staff and football agents (i.e. in areas of social, psychological, and/or performance lifestyle) to support young players through their migratory transition.
Full Text Available Robert Micieli,1 Jonathan A Micieli21Faculty of Science and Engineering, York University, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Eye, orbital, and facial injuries are significant risks to National Hockey League (NHL players, and can be mitigated by the use of a partial visor – currently optional for all non-rookie players. The goal of the current study was to determine the overall use of visors among non-rookie NHL players in the 2013–2014 season and assess factors influencing their uptake. This was an observational, cross-sectional study using active NHL rosters and demographic information obtained from the official NHL website. Visor use was determined based on in-game video or images at two different time points in the 2013–2014 season. The use of visors during the 2013–2014 season was 75.2% among non-rookie players. When rookies were included, the overall use of visors was 77.8%. Compared to Canadian-born players, European players were significantly more likely to choose to wear a visor (odds ratio [OR] 3.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.96–6.17. Players in the younger age-groups, particularly those younger than 24 years (OR 5.67, 95% CI 2.52–5.76 and those between 24 and 28 years (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.23–3.87, were more likely to wear a visor compared to older players. Overall, visor use continues to grow in the NHL independently of new legislation, and is more likely in younger players and those of European origin.Keywords: ice hockey, facial protection, professional sports, eye injuries, safety
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
Maroon, Joseph C; Mathyssek, Christina M; Bost, Jeffrey W; Amos, Austin; Winkelman, Robert; Yates, Anthony P; Duca, Mark A; Norwig, John A
By maintaining phosphate and calcium homeostasis, vitamin D is critical for bone health and possibly physical performance. Hence, vitamin D is important to athletes. Few studies have investigated vitamin D levels in relation to fractures and performance in athletes, and no published study has included a multiracial sample of professional American football players. To assess vitamin D levels, including the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, in professional American football players and to evaluate the association of vitamin D levels with race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position, which may be a marker for athletic performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Serum vitamin D levels of 80 professional football players from a single team in the National Football League were obtained during the 2011 off-season (mean age, 26.5±3.7 years; black, n=67 [84%]). These levels were used to compare injury reports from the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 seasons. Statistical analyses were performed to test if vitamin D levels were related to race, fracture history, and the ability to obtain a contract position. Mean vitamin D level was 27.4±11.7 ng/mL, with significantly lower levels for black players (25.6±11.3 ng/mL) versus white players (37.4±8.6 ng/mL; F 1,78=13.00, P=.001). All athletes who were vitamin D deficient were black. When controlling for number of professional years played, vitamin D levels were significantly lower in players with at least 1 bone fracture when compared with no fractures. Players who were released during the preseason because of either injury or poor performance had significantly lower vitamin D levels than did players who played in the regular season. Black professional football players have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than do white players. Furthermore, professional football players with higher vitamin D levels were more likely to obtain a contract position in the National Football League
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the role of social media as marketing tools in professional team sport organizations. Focusing on the English Premier League football club Liverpool FC, an exploratory case study design using one-to-one inter- views with the club’s senior social media managers was adopt- ed. The findings highlight the need for integration of all media channels of the club in order to allow for a more targeted and engaging approach towards its fans, and suggests that further development of social media strategies has potential to deliver increased commercial gains both in the short and in the long term. However, given the peculiar nature of sports fandom, a major issue for social media managers is to find the appropriate balance between content that increases fan interaction and engagement and content that deals with purely commercial purposes.
Crotin, Ryan L; Forsythe, Charles M; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas
Major League Baseball (MLB) players have not been longitudinally examined for changes in physical size. Height, weight, and body mass indices (BMIs) were examined among offensive league leaders (OLL) and MLB reference cohorts at 1970, 1990, and 2010. Anthropometric values were expected to increase successively, where OLL were expected to be larger at each respective time point. A Mixed Model analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) examined anthropometric differences over time within and between groups. Mass and BMI increased over successive years with the largest effect seen between 1990 and 2010 (p baseball scouts may have been influenced by greater offensive prowess shown by larger athletes; yet, increased secular anthropometrics must also be factored in greater heights, weights, BMIs shown over time in MLB. It is possible that greater participation in strength and conditioning programs at an earlier age, advances in sport nutrition, and potential abuse of anabolic drugs are factors perpetuating growth rates at present.
Tredrea, Matthew; Dascombe, Ben; Sanctuary, Colin E; Scanlan, Aaron Terrence
This study aimed to identify attributes that discriminate selected from non-selected players and predict selection into a rugby league development programme in older adolescent players. Anthropometric, performance and psychological attributes were measured in under-16 (N = 100) and under-18 (N = 60) rugby league players trialling for selection into a development programme with a professional Australian club. Sprint times (P rugby league and indicate talent identification test batteries should be age-specific in older adolescent players.
MacMahon, Clare; Mascarenhas, Duncan; Plessner, Henning; Pizzera, Alexandra; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Raab, Markus
Sports officials (umpires, referees, judges) play a vital role in every sport, and sports governing bodies, fans, and players now expect officials to maintain higher professional standards than ever before. In this ground-breaking book, a team of leading international sport scientists and top level
Burillo, Pablo; Gallardo, Leonor; Felipe, Jose Luis; Gallardo, Ana Maria
The aim of this research is to understand the experience of the football sector on the use of artificial turf (satisfaction, safety, sporting feature, or the advantages and disadvantages). The study was conducted on a random selection of 627 male participants (404 amateur/semi-professional footballers, 101 coaches and 122 referees) that regularly train/compete on artificial turf in Spanish football leagues. The results of the skin abrasion, muscle strain and the possibility of sustaining an injury, on a Likert-type 10-point interval scale, gave a perception of 'somewhat dissatisfied' for the participants. The main advantages of artificial turf were their sports features, the evenness of the surface and the good state of conservation. Participants were satisfied with the artificial turf surface. Approximately three out of four participants gave an overall ranking of highly satisfied. The players were significantly less satisfied than the coaches and referees. The overall satisfaction with artificial turf fields was strongly influenced by previous experience, particularly those who had previously played on dirt pitches. These results highlight the versatility of artificial turf to adapt to any circumstance or requirement for local sport and top-level professional competitions alike.
National Literacy Trust, 2009
Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…
Jack, Robert A; Evans, David C; Echo, Anthony; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Varner, Kevin E; Harris, Joshua D
Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of athletic pubalgia (AP), also known as sports hernia, once underrecognized and undertreated in professional football, are becoming more common. Surgery as the final treatment for sports hernia when nonsurgical treatment fails remains controversial. Given the money involved and popularity of the National Football League (NFL), it is important to understand surgical outcomes in this patient population. After AP surgery, players would: (1) return to sport (RTS) at a greater than 90% rate, (2) play fewer games for fewer years than matched controls, (3) have no difference in performance compared with before AP surgery, and (4) have no difference in performance versus matched controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Internet-based injury reports identified players who underwent AP surgery from January 1996 to August 2015. Demographic and performance data were collected for each player. A 1:1 matched control group and an index year analog were identified. Control and case performance scores were calculated using a standardized scoring system. Groups were compared using paired Student t tests. Fifty-six NFL players (57 AP surgeries) were analyzed (mean age, 28.2 ± 3.1 years; mean years in NFL at surgery, 5.4 ± 3.2). Fifty-three players were able to RTS. Controls were in the NFL longer ( P .05) difference in pre- versus post-AP surgery performance scores and no significant ( P > .05) difference in postoperative performance scores versus controls post-index. There was a high RTS rate after AP surgery without a significant difference in postoperative performance, though career length and games per season after AP surgery were significantly less than that of matched controls.
In this work, the author focuses in particular on aggressive behavior in competitive sports (highly ranked professional, spectator, and Olympic sports) and on the behavior of fans accompanying sporting events.
Full Text Available In this work, the author focuses in particular on aggressive behavior in competitive sports (highly ranked professional, spectator, and Olympic sports and on the behavior of fans accompanying sporting events.
Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt
The effectiveness of rehabilitation programmes are often distorted by the athlete's desire to return and can result in injury recurrence. Athletic assessments allow for objective and reliable measurements to track rehabilitation progress. This case study used a multi-component assessment strategy to assess a rugby player's lower-extremity strength and symmetry as a primary determinate of their return-to-sport status. A professional rugby league player was assessed for lower-extremity isokinetic strength and sprint kinetics pre- and 10-weeks post-rehabilitation programme following two consecutive knee injuries involving surgical intervention. Pre-testing analysis showed clinical and functional strength deficits in the injured leg as high as 34% compared to the non-injured leg. Pre- to post-testing showed: increases in peak torque (49%) and decreased asymmetries by 50%; unilateral horizontal force increased (injured: 50%, non-injured: 19%) during sprinting; force production asymmetries decreased up to 18%. The rugby player showed clinical and functional strength deficiencies return to normal ranges following a rehabilitation programme. A return-to-sport decision was made by the athlete's supporting health team based on the sizeable asymmetry decreases and return-to-normative ranges for knee and hip strength and sprint kinetics. The athlete returned to the 2013 National Rugby League season without any major injuries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Van Yperen, Nico W.
This study was conducted to examine psychological mechanisms underlying self-enhancing comparisons among 88 male major league professional soccer players. In line with other research, the results suggest that positive beliefs about oneself are more difficult to maintain with regard to unambiguous
Caia, Johnpaul; Scott, Tannath J; Halson, Shona L; Kelly, Vincent G
This study establishes the sleep behaviour of players and staff during the pre- and competitive seasons of elite rugby league. For seven days during both the pre- and competitive seasons, seven rugby league players and nine full-time staff from one professional Australian rugby league club had their sleep monitored via wrist actigraphy and self-report sleep diaries. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance determined differences between the pre- and competitive season in players and staff, with effect sizes (ES) used to interpret the practical magnitude of differences. Findings show an earlier bed time and wake time for players (-34 min, ES = 1.5; ±0.5 and -39 min, 2.1; ±0.5 respectively) and staff (-29 min, ES = 0.8; ±0.3 and -35 min, ES = 1.7; ±0.4 respectively) during pre-season when compared to the competitive season. Despite this, no differences were seen when considering the amount of time in bed, sleep duration or sleep efficiency obtained between the pre- and competitive seasons. Our results suggest that early morning training sessions scheduled during pre-season advances wake time in elite rugby league. However, both players and staff can aim to avoid reductions in sleep duration and sleep efficiency with subsequent adjustment of night time sleep patterns. This may be particularly pertinent for staff, who wake earlier than players during both the pre- and competitive seasons.
Delaney, Jace A; Scott, Tannath J; Thornton, Heidi R; Bennett, Kyle J; Gay, David; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J
Rugby league coaches often prescribe training to replicate the demands of competition. The intensities of running drills are often monitored in comparison with absolute match-play measures. Such measures may not be sensitive enough to detect fluctuations in intensity across a match or to differentiate between positions. To determine the position- and duration-specific running intensities of rugby league competition, using a moving-average method, for the prescription and monitoring of training. Data from a 15-Hz global positioning system (GPS) were collected from 32 professional rugby league players across a season. The velocity-time curve was analyzed using a rolling-average method, where maximum values were calculated for 10 different durations, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 min, for each player across each match. There were large differences between the 1- and 2-min rolling averages and all other rolling-average durations. Smaller differences were observed for rolling averages of greater duration. Fullbacks maintained a greater velocity than outside backs and middle and edge forwards over the 1- and 2-min rolling averages (ES 0.8-1.2, P rugby league fluctuate vastly across a match. Fullbacks were the only position to exhibit a greater running intensity than any other position, and therefore training prescription should reflect this.
Full Text Available Prediction of adult performance from early age talent identification in sport remains difficult. Talent identification research has generally been performed using univariate analysis, which ignores multivariate relationships. To address this issue, this study used a novel higher-dimensional model to orthogonalize multivariate anthropometric and fitness data from junior rugby league players, with the aim of differentiating future career attainment. Anthropometric and fitness data from 257 Under-15 rugby league players was collected. Players were grouped retrospectively according to their future career attainment (i.e., amateur, academy, professional. Players were blindly and randomly divided into an exploratory (n = 165 and validation dataset (n = 92. The exploratory dataset was used to develop and optimize a novel higher-dimensional model, which combined singular value decomposition (SVD with receiver operating characteristic analysis. Once optimized, the model was tested using the validation dataset. SVD analysis revealed 60 m sprint and agility 505 performance were the most influential characteristics in distinguishing future professional players from amateur and academy players. The exploratory dataset model was able to distinguish between future amateur and professional players with a high degree of accuracy (sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 71.1%; p<0.001, although it could not distinguish between future professional and academy players. The validation dataset model was able to distinguish future professionals from the rest with reasonable accuracy (sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 63.8%; p = 0.003. Through the use of SVD analysis it was possible to objectively identify criteria to distinguish future career attainment with a sensitivity over 80% using anthropometric and fitness data alone. As such, this suggests that SVD analysis may be a useful analysis tool for research and practice within talent identification.
Department of Sport and Movement Studies, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Corresponding author: J C ... [1,2] All players are required to perform core skills such as tackling and rucking during a ... variety of sports including rugby union, rugby sevens, rugby league,. Australian football ...
Capovilla, Giuseppe; Kaufman, Kenneth R; Perucca, Emilio; Moshé, Solomon L; Arida, Ricardo M
People with epilepsy (PWEs) are often advised against participating in sports and exercise, mostly because of fear, overprotection, and ignorance about the specific benefits and risks associated with such activities. Available evidence suggests that physical exercise and active participation in sports may favorably affect seizure control, in addition to producing broader health and psychosocial benefits. This consensus paper prepared by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy offers general guidance concerning participation of PWEs in sport activities, and provides suggestions on the issuance of medical fitness certificates related to involvement in different sports. Sports are divided into three categories based on potential risk of injury or death should a seizure occur: group 1, sports with no significant additional risk; group 2, sports with moderate risk to PWEs, but no risk to bystanders; and group 3, sports with major risk. Factors to be considered when advising whether a PWE can participate in specific activities include the type of sport, the probability of a seizure occurring, the type and severity of the seizures, seizure precipitating factors, the usual timing of seizure occurrence, and the person's attitude in accepting some level of risk. The Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy considers this document as a work in progress to be updated as additional data become available. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.
Full Text Available Introduction. The main aim of the study was to assess the strength of the shoulder rotator muscles of a group of second-league volleyball players. These muscles are assumed to have a crucial impact on attack effectiveness in volleyball. Strength was assessed based on peak torque values obtained for the rotator muscles measured using the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC method. Torque was measured in both limbs and the differences between the two limbs were examined. The torque values obtained for the volleyball players were also compared against those measured in a group of students who had never trained any sports.
Zipser, Mark C; Sum, Jonathan C; Wilcox, Alison G
A 15-year-old baseball pitcher presented to physical therapy with a 1-week history of acute right shoulder pain experienced during the acceleration phase of throwing. The week after physical therapy evaluation, the patient returned with radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging results that revealed lateral physeal widening with adjacent edema. Additionally, a nondisplaced labral tear was noted. In this case, imaging was necessary for an accurate diagnosis of lateral physeal widening, commonly referred to as "Little League shoulder." J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(1):51. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7369.
Grace, Sandra; Coutts, Rosanne
Effective interprofessional learning (IPL) in multisectoral collaborations such as those linking health services within communities can provide an authentic experience for students and also appears to be the most effective way to achieve health changes in targeted population groups. The aim of this study was to facilitate the IPL of students at a rural university in a multisectoral health assessment programme and to promote health in players of rural amateur sport. Two rural rugby league teams took part in three pre-season health assessments conducted by general medical practitioners, practice nurses, and nursing, osteopathy, and exercise science students. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale questionnaire and a series of focus groups were used to evaluate participants' experiences of the programme. Results indicated that students saw the benefits for patients and 93% valued the opportunity to improve interprofessional communication, problem-solving and team skills. Some students felt they needed to learn more about their own professional role before learning about others, and instances of stereotyping were identified. The programme also enabled early detection of potential health risks and referral for medical care, management of musculoskeletal conditions, and health promotion. These health assessments would be readily transferred to other multisectoral sporting settings.
Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Cosentino, Andrea; Chiozzi, Federica; Piva, Massimo
a wrong position of bone tunnels, in particular on the femur, is one of the most frequent causes of a failed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Several studies demonstrated that drilling the femoral tunnel through the antero-medial portal (AMP) allows a more anatomical placement on the lateral femoral condyle and higher knee stability, compared to trans-tibial (TT) technique. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate two groups of soccer players operated on for ACL reconstruction according to either one of these two techniques. two groups of non-professional soccer players operated on for a single bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft using either a TT (20 patients) or an AMP (23 patients) technique were retrospectively evaluated with KT-1000 arthrometer, manual pivot shift test, isokinetic test, the incremental treadmill-running test, athletic and sport specific tasks, and knee scores (IKDC, Lysholm and KOOS). the AMP group showed better results at pivot shift test and KOOS, but lower flexion angles at single leg squat test. There were no differences in all the other considered outcomes. the better rotational stability of the knee achieved in AMP group did not lead to significantly better clinical and functional results in our patients. Case-control study.
Cox, David J; Sosine, Jacob; Dallery, Jesse
This study applied the generalized matching equation (GME) to pitch selection in professional baseball. The GME was fitted to the relation between pitch selection and hitter outcomes for five professional baseball pitchers during the 2014 Major League Baseball season. The GME described pitch selection well. Pitch allocation varied across different game contexts such as inning, count, and number of outs in a manner consistent with the GME. Finally, within games, bias decreased for four of the five pitchers and the sensitivity parameter increased for three of the five pitchers. The results extend the generality of the GME to multialternative natural sporting contexts, and demonstrate the influence of context on behavior in natural environments. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Competitions are defined as a set of meetings between a number of clubs at preset dates under preset rules. Such a problem can be divided in two subproblems: firstly developing a Home-Away schedule with oriented egde-colourings of complete graphs and secondly assigning the clubs to the Home-Away
Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.
Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205
The United States prides itself on many things, but few are more prominent and visible than success at a sport, either locally, nationally, or internationally. Local sports are often a unifying factor in communities, and instances of success are the stuff of both fact and fiction. The 2001 Little League World Series highlighted the Rolando Paulino…
Full Text Available The League of Prizren encouraged movements in Albania. Remarkably, patriotism flared and the people with the courage and bravery of a person, who seeks his right, arose as a unique body and asked from invaders, and the world, the rights of a secular nation. Assemblies gathered in Dibra, and made decisions of great importance, not only for the region of Dibra, but for the entire country.
Douglas M. Seavey
programs (91.2% of the total 336 professional programs. Anatomy (91.59%, physiology (88.35% and exercise physiology (92.56% were most frequently required basic science courses. However, only 4.85% (n=15 of programs have human gross anatomy dissection or prosection in their curricula and just 2.59% (n=8 of athletic training programs require a course in neuroscience/neuroanatomy. Conclusions: Our data demonstrates a gap exists in athletic training education in the area of neuroanatomy/neuroscience content. The BRAIN ( Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Initiative is new federal research and healthcare task-force aimed at revolutionizing the understanding of the human brain. The Sports and Health Research Program is a partnership between the National Institutes of Health and the National Football League to fund sport concussion research. With the future professional degree change eminent, professional and post-professional athletic training education must seriously consider the inclusion of neuroanatomy content. We present several wet-brain specimen and active learning laboratory options that educators may adopt to provide added depth toneuroscience/neuroanatomy knowledge base.
Lovell, T W J; Sirotic, Anita C; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Coutts, Aaron J
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) for monitoring training intensity in rugby league. Thirty-two professional rugby league players participated in this study. Training-load (TL) data were collected during an entire season and assessed via microtechnology (heart-rate [HR] monitors, global positioning systems [GPS], and accelerometers) and sRPE. Within-individual correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between sRPE and various other measures of training intensity and load. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine a predictive equation to estimate sRPE during rugby league training. There were significant within-individual correlations between sRPE and various other internal and external measures of intensity and load. The stepwise multiple-regression analysis also revealed that 62.4% of the adjusted variance in sRPE-TL could be explained by TL measures of distance, impacts, body load, and training impulse (y = 37.21 + 0.93 distance - 0.39 impacts + 0.18 body load + 0.03 training impulse). Furthermore, 35.2% of the adjusted variance in sRPE could be explained by exercise-intensity measures of percentage of peak HR (%HRpeak), impacts/min, m/min, and body load/min (y = -0.01 + 0.37%HRpeak + 0.10 impacts/min + 0.17 m/min + 0.09 body load/min). A combination of internal and external TL factors predicts sRPE in rugby league training better than any individual measures alone. These findings provide new evidence to support the use of sRPE as a global measure of exercise intensity in rugby league training.
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Johnson, Daniel J; Zuckerman, Scott L; Solomon, Gary S
Significant attention has been directed toward the immediate and long-term effects of sport-related concussions on athletes participating in contact sports, particularly football. The highest level of football, the National Football League (NFL), has received significant attention and criticism regarding player management and safety after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several review articles have reported data related to concussion in the NFL, but a succinct review and synthesis of data regarding NFL concussions is currently lacking. To (1) review systematically the published data regarding concussion in the NFL and assess limitations of the studies, (2) elucidate areas where further research is needed, and (3) identify methods to improve future investigations of concussion in the NFL. Systematic review of literature. English-language titles and abstracts published between 1900 and September 2014 were searched systematically across electronic databases, and a review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles were included if they contained NFL concussion data with or without additional associated long-term effects. Reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, and comments were not included. Of the 344 records screened for review, 88 articles were assessed for eligibility. There were 31 studies that met the inclusion criteria and formed the basis of the evidence synthesis. Included in the current review were 8 case-control studies (Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine evidence level 3b), 6 descriptive epidemiological studies (level 4), 6 cross-sectional studies (level 4), 6 cohort studies (level 2b), and 5 case series (level 4). The study of concussions in the NFL has been limited by lack of recent empirical data, reliance on self-reported concussion history, and ascertainment bias of brains donated for autopsy studies. The scientific community
Gardner, Andrew J; Levi, Christopher R; Iverson, Grant L
Several professional contact and collision sports have recently introduced the use of sideline video review for club medical staff to help identify and manage concussions. As such, reviewing video footage on the sideline has become increasingly relied upon to assist with improving the identification of possible injury. However, as yet, a standardized method for reviewing such video footage in rugby league has not been published. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether independent raters reliably agreed on the injury characterization when using a standardized observational instrument to record video footage of National Rugby League (NRL) concussions. Video footage of 25 concussions were randomly selected from a pool of 80 medically diagnosed concussions from the 2013-2014 NRL seasons. Four raters (two naïve and two expert) independently viewed video footage of 25 NRL concussions and completed the Observational Review and Analysis of Concussion form for the purpose of this inter-rater reliability study. The inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa (κ) and intra-class correlation (ICC) statistics. The two naïve raters and the two expert raters were compared with one another separately. A considerable number of components for the naïve and expert raters had almost perfect agreement (κ or ICC value ≥ 0.9), 9 of 22 (41%) components for naïve raters and 21 of 22 (95%) components for expert raters. For the concussion signs, however, the majority of the rating agreement was moderate (κ value 0.6-0.79); both the naïve and expert raters had 4 of 6 (67%) concussion signs with moderate agreement. The most difficult concussion sign to achieve agreement on was blank or vacant stare, which had weak (κ value 0.4-0.59) agreement for both naïve and expert raters. There appears to be value in expert raters, but less value for naive raters, in using the new Observational Review and Analysis of Concussion (ORAC) Form. The ORAC Form has high inter
Full Text Available Urpose : The purpose of this research was to determine the requirements for privatization of Iran Pro League (IPL football clubs. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and distributed among a sample of IPL coaches, executives (senior executives from the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports and the Privatization Organization, and faculty members (public and private universities. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for data analysis. Besides, AHP was used in Expert Choice software to weight and rank the items. Results: The results showed that the most important factors were fighting corruption and rent-seeking during and after biddings (political, improving public perception of privatization of football clubs (sociocultural, increasing revenues from ticket sales (economic, transparency in laws regarding football club privatization (legal, and the changing structure and role of the government from exclusive ownership to oversight (structural. Conclusion: Given the results of this research, the most important requirements for privatization of IPL football clubs include offering television broadcast rights, advertisement rights, and ticket sale rights to the clubs, and these and other factors discussed earlier are likely to accelerate privatization of football clubs.
Jerrard, David A
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study whether emergency department (ED visits by male patients wane simultaneously with the play of scheduled professional and college sports events.METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis looked at ED male patient registration rates during a time block lasting from two hours before, during, and two hours after the play of professional football games (Monday night, Sundays, post-season play, major league baseball, and a Division I college football and basketball team, respectively. These registration rates were compared to rates at similar times on similar days of the week during the year devoid of a major sporting contest. Games were assumed to have a play time of three hours. Data was collected from April 2000 through March 2003 at an urban academic ED seeing 33,000 male patients above the age of 18 years annually.RESULTS: A total of 782 games were identified and used for purposes of the study. Professional football game dates had a mean of 17.9 males (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.4-18.4 registering vs. 26.8 males (95% CI 25.9-27.6 on non-game days. A registration rate for major league baseball was 18.4 patients (95% CI 17.6-18.4. The mean for registration on comparable non-game days was 23.9 patients (95% CI 22.8-24.3. For the regional Division I college football team, the mean number of patients registering on game days and non-game days was 21.7 (95% CI 20.9-22.4 and 23.4 (95% CI 22.9-23.7, respectively. Division I college basketball play for game and non-game days had mean rates of registration of 14.5 (95% CI 13.9-15.1 and 15.5 (95% CI 15.1-15.9 patients, respectively. For all sports dates collectively, a comparison of two means yielded a mean of 18.2 patients (95% CI 17.4-18.8 registering during the study hours on game days vs. 23.3 patients (95% CI 22.0-23.7 on non-game days. The mean difference was 5.1 patients (95% CI 3.7 to 7.0 with p < .000074.CONCLUSION: Male patient visits to the ED decline during major sporting
Jerrard, David A
To study whether emergency department (ED) visits by male patients wane simultaneously with the play of scheduled professional and college sports events. Retrospective cohort analysis looked at ED male patient registration rates during a time block lasting from two hours before, during, and two hours after the play of professional football games (Monday night, Sundays, post-season play), major league baseball, and a Division I college football and basketball team, respectively. These registration rates were compared to rates at similar times on similar days of the week during the year devoid of a major sporting contest. Games were assumed to have a play time of three hours. Data was collected from April 2000 through March 2003 at an urban academic ED seeing 33,000 male patients above the age of 18 years annually. A total of 782 games were identified and used for purposes of the study. Professional football game dates had a mean of 17.9 males (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.4-18.4) registering vs. 26.8 males (95% CI 25.9-27.6) on non-game days. A registration rate for major league baseball was 18.4 patients (95% CI 17.6-18.4). The mean for registration on comparable non-game days was 23.9 patients (95% CI 22.8-24.3). For the regional Division I college football team, the mean number of patients registering on game days and non-game days was 21.7 (95% CI 20.9-22.4) and 23.4 (95% CI 22.9-23.7), respectively. Division I college basketball play for game and non-game days had mean rates of registration of 14.5 (95% CI 13.9-15.1) and 15.5 (95% CI 15.1-15.9) patients, respectively. For all sports dates collectively, a comparison of two means yielded a mean of 18.2 patients (95% CI 17.4-18.8) registering during the study hours on game days vs. 23.3 patients (95% CI 22.0-23.7) on non-game days. The mean difference was 5.1 patients (95% CI 3.7 to 7.0) with p < .000074. Male patient visits to the ED decline during major sporting events.
Shahim, Pashtun; Tegner, Yelverton; Wilson, David H; Randall, Jeffrey; Skillbäck, Tobias; Pazooki, David; Kallberg, Birgitta; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik
Lack of objective biomarkers for brain damage hampers acute diagnosis and clinical decision making about return to play after sports-related concussion. To determine whether sports-related concussion is associated with elevated levels of blood biochemical markers of injury to the central nervous system and to assess whether plasma levels of these biomarkers predict return to play in professional ice hockey players with sports-related concussion. Multicenter prospective cohort study involving all 12 teams of the top professional ice hockey league in Sweden, the Swedish Hockey League. Two hundred eighty-eight professional ice hockey players from 12 teams contesting during the 2012-2013 season consented to participate. All players underwent clinical preseason baseline testing regarding concussion assessment measures. Forty-seven players from 2 of the 12 ice hockey teams underwent blood sampling prior to the start of the season. Thirty-five players had a concussion from September 13, 2012, to January 31, 2013; of these players, 28 underwent repeated blood sampling at 1, 12, 36, and 144 hours and when the players returned to play. Total tau, S-100 calcium-binding protein B, and neuron-specific enolase concentrations in plasma and serum were measured. Concussed players had increased levels of the axonal injury biomarker total tau(median, 10.0 pg/mL; range, 2.0-102 pg/mL) compared with preseason values (median, 4.5pg/mL; range, 0.06-22.7 pg/mL) (P concussion(median, 0.075 μg/L; range, 0.037-0.24 μg/L) compared with preseason values (median,0.045 μg/L; range, 0.005-0.45 μg/L) (P concussion, and they decreased during rehabilitation. No significant changes were detected in the levels of neuron-specific enolase from preseason values (median, 6.5 μg/L; range,3.45-18.0 μg/L) to postconcussion values (median, 6.1 μg/L; range, 3.6-12.8 μg/L) (P = .10). Sports-related concussion in professional ice hockey players is associated with acute axonal and astroglial injury. This
Davis, Kirkland W
With increasing youth participation in organized sports, more injuries in this age group are being treated by primary care and sports medicine physicians. Overuse injuries are much more common now than in past decades, with Little League shoulder, Little League elbow, and gymnast wrist being particular concerns. Rotator cuff tears and glenoid labral injuries, once thought to be rare in this age group, are also more common now. Osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow is relatively common and typically fares poorly without surgery. Wrist abnormalities that occur nowadays include triangular fibrocartilage tears. Tendonitis, which is now observed frequently in clinical practice in this age group, rarely requires imaging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study examines the effects of the sport migration that occurred over a 12 year period in the secondary sport of basketball in the Czech Republic, in terms of its effect on the popularity of the sport within the culture. The factors of fan attendance and youth membership are isolated and measured quantitatively, using multi-level analysis within teams, between teams and at a federation level. The study was carried out in order to measure the effect of the use of immigrant athletes from an individual team management perspective and from a league growth perspective. It was found that while foreigners displace national athletes, fans were attracted to the use of foreigners and youth were attracted to play the game. The use of foreigners had the most significant correlations at the between team level to home attendance and final placement in the league. Multi-level analysis was used to show that the use of foreigners can be a facilitator for federations and team management to build the popularity of secondary sports in a culture, with certain limitations. This quantitative study of a secondary sport is an addition to the majority of the literature on sport migration, which has been largely conducted on primary sports from a qualitative, sociological perspective.
Azad, Tej D; Li, Amy; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Veeravagu, Anand; Grant, Gerald A
Few neurologic diseases have captured the nation's attention more completely than chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which has been discovered in the autopsies of professional athletes, most notably professional football players. The tragic case of Junior Seau, a Hall of Fame, National Football League linebacker, has been the most high-profile confirmed case of CTE. Here we describe Seau's case, which concludes an autopsy conducted at the National Institutes of Health that confirmed the diagnosis. Since 1990, Junior Seau had a highly distinguished 20-year career playing for the National Football League as a linebacker, from which he sustained multiple concussions. He committed suicide on May 2, 2012, at age 43, after which an autopsy confirmed a diagnosis of CTE. His clinical history was significant for a series of behavioral disturbances. Seau's history and neuropathologic findings were used to better understand the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and possible risk factors for CTE. This high-profile case reflects an increasing awareness of CTE as a long-term consequence of multiple traumatic brain injuries. The previously unforeseen neurologic risks of American football have begun to cast doubt on the safety of the sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burton, Robert W
Viewing aggression in its healthy form, in contrast to its extreme and inappropriate versions, and sport as a health-promoting exercise in psychological development and maturation may allow participants and spectators alike to retain an interest in aggression and sport and derive further enjoyment from them. In addition, it will benefit all involved with sport to have a broader understanding of human aggression. Physicians, mental health professionals, and other health care providers can be influential in this process, and should be willing to get involved and speak out when issues and problems arise.
Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an ...
Russell, Gordon W.; Russell, Audrey M.
Used the official records of all games played in the Western Hockey League (N=432) during a season for a Principal Components analysis of 19 aggressive penalties. Results suggested that inter-personal aggression in the sport is multiply determined and can arise for eight different sets of conditions or antecedents. (Author/LLL)
Albina Rodrigues Torres
Full Text Available There has been a considerable increase in the number of academic leagues active within undergraduate medical courses in Brazil over the last few years. However, this phenomenon has not been accompanied by adequate reflection on its determinants, on the role of the leagues within the institutions or even on their pedagogical function. From these observations, the authors analyze the scant literature on this topic, describe the experience of the academic leagues of Botucatu Medical School, Unesp, and reflect on the role of these leagues in medical training, in an attempt to partially fill this gap and contribute towards this important discussion.
Irwin, Carol; Irwin, Richard; Richey, Phyllis; Miller, Maureen; Boddie, Justin; Dickerson, Teresa
Professional sports organizations in the United States have notable celebrity status, and several teams have used this "star power" to collaborate with local schools toward the goal of affecting childhood obesity (e.g., NFL Play 60). Program effectiveness is unknown owing to the absence of comprehensive evaluations for any of these initiatives. In 2006, the Memphis Grizzlies, the city's National Basketball Association (NBA) franchise, launched "Get Fit with the Grizzlies," a 6-week, curricular addition focusing on nutrition and physical activity for the 4th and 5th grades in Memphis City Schools. The health-infused mini-unit was delivered by the physical education teachers during their classes. National and local sponsors whose business objectives matched the "Get Fit" objectives were solicited to fund the program. Here we highlight the program evaluation results from the first year of "Get Fit" and the Journal of School Health article. However, the "Get Fit" program has now taken place in Memphis area schools for 5 years. During the 2010-11 school-year, "Get Fit" evolved into a new program called "Healthy Home Court" with Kellogg's as the primary sponsor. "Healthy Home Court" included the original fitness part of the program and added a breakfast component at high schools where data indicated great need. Kellogg's sponsored special "carts" with healthy breakfast options (i.e., fruit, protein bars) for students to grab and eat. This program matched their existing program "Food Away from Home." Research supports the objectives of these programs and has shown that breakfast consumption can have a positive impact on academic achievement, behavior in school, and overall health status. Survey research employed over the first 4 years measured health knowledge acquisition and health behavior change using a matched pre/post test design (n=2210) in randomly chosen schools (n=18) from all elementary schools in the Memphis area. McNemar's test for significance (schools and
Jacob J. Bustad
Full Text Available In this article, we explore the relationship between public recreation policy and planning and the transformation of urban governance in the context of the Police Athletic League centers in Baltimore, Maryland. In light of contemporary discussions of the role of youth programs for sport and physical activity within post-industrial cities, the origination, development, and eventual demise of Baltimore’s network of Police Activity League centers is an instructive, if disheartening, saga. It illustrates the social and political rationales mobilized in justifying recreation policy and programming, the framing of sport and physical activity as preventative measures towards crime and juvenile delinquency, and the precarity of such initiatives given the efficiency-driven orthodoxies of neoliberal urban entrepreneurialism (Harvey, 1989. This analysis emphasizes how the PAL centers were designed to ‘fill the void’ left by a declining system of public recreation, thereby providing an example of a recreation program as part of the “social problems industry” (Pitter & Andrews 1997.
Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bickenbach, Jerome; Finch, Caroline F; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordenfelt, Lennart
Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.
Ehrmann, Fabian E; Duncan, Craig S; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Franzsen, William N; Greene, David A
This study investigated the relationship between GPS variables measured in training and gameplay and injury occurrences in professional soccer. Nineteen professional soccer players competing in the Australian Hyundai A-League were monitored for 1 entire season using 5 Hz Global Positioning System (GPS) units (SPI-Pro GPSports) in training sessions and preseason games. The measurements obtained were total distance, high-intensity running distance, very-high-intensity running distance, new body load, and meters per minute. Noncontact soft tissue injuries were documented throughout the season. Players' seasons were averaged over 1- and 4-week blocks according to when injuries occurred. These blocks were compared with each other and with players' seasonal averages. Players performed significantly higher meters per minute in the weeks preceding an injury compared with their seasonal averages (+9.6 and +7.4% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p Football Association regulations, the results of this study isolated 2 variables predicting soft tissue injuries for coaches and sports scientists to consider when planning and monitoring training.
Electronic sports (esports) is an ever growing phenomenon in the world with hundreds of millions of euros pouring into the field every year. Prize pools of the esports tournaments are on the rise and universities have started to treat players as traditional athletes through programs and scholarships. Even traditional sports teams have started to increasingly pay attention by investing in electronic sports teams and leagues. In Finland, people have noticed competitive gaming’s march towards th...
Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the impact of sponsorships in the videogaming industry on the buying behavior of customers, especially sponsorships in eSports (electronic Sports), in its various championships like the ESL (Electronic Sports League) and in the peer-to-peer internet streaming service called Twitch as well as in the video-sharing service YouTube. Methodology: This study utilizes a quantitative research method to evaluate the impact of sponsorships on the bu...
Weston, Matthew; Siegler, Jason; Bahnert, Andrew; McBrien, James; Lovell, Ric
To investigate the application of differential ratings of perceived exertion for the examination of internal load during Australian Football League (AFL) matches. Single cohort, observational study. Using the centiMax rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale, 26 professional AFL players provided ratings for match exertion (RPE-M), along with differential ratings for breathlessness (RPE-B), leg exertion (RPE-L), and technical demand (RPE-T) following 129 matches (5.0 ± 1.6 matches per player). Global positioning satellite (GPS) and accelerometer measures were also collected. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. RPE scores were 93.0 ± 8.2 AU (RPE-M), 89.0 ± 11.0 AU (RPE-B), 91.5 ± 9.8 AU (RPE-L), and 87.0 ± 10.0 AU (RPE-T). There was a most likely small difference between RPE-L and RPE-T (5.5%; ± 90% confidence limits 1.9%), a likely small difference between RPE-L and RPE-B (3.5%; ± 1.5%) and a possibly small difference between RPE-B and RPE-T (1.9%; ± 1.9%). Within-player correlations between RPE and GPS measures were small for RPE-M (r = 0.14-0.28), unclear to small for RPE-B (r = 0.06-0.24) and unclear to moderate for RPE-L (r = 0.06-0.37). Differential RPE's combined to explain 76% of the variance in RPE-M. For all RPE scores, within-player variability was moderate to high (typical error: 7.9-12.4%), and the thresholds for a likely between-match change were 8.8-13.7%. As differential RPE's represent distinct sensory inputs, the collection of these scores facilitate the interpretation of internal match loads and therefore represent a valuable addition to match data collection procedures. Moderate to high within-player variability should be considered when interpreting between-match changes in all RPE scores. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
C.H. Bruining; Dr. Johan de Jong
Main goal of the Sport Physical Education And Coaching in Health Project (SPEACH/Erasmus+ sport 557083-EPP-1-2014-1-NL-SPO-SCP) is to increase awareness and behavioural change in sport professionals and European citizens towards an active and healthy lifestyle. Sedentariness and physical inactivity
Castonguay, Helen C.
The League of Peaceful Schools was formed in Nova Scotia to support schools committed to building a culture of peace. Guided by League facilitators, member schools offer children models for building healthy relationships through service learning and elders programs. Member schools develop discipline policies that are proactive instead of punitive,…
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the th...
van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Burnett, Angus F; Whiteley, Rod; Bakken, Arnhild; Mosler, Andrea; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik
Hamstring injuries remain prevalent across a number of professional sports. In football, the incidence has even increased by 4% per year at the Champions League level over the last decade. The role of muscle strength or strength ratios and their association with risk of hamstring injury remain restricted by small sample sizes and inconclusive results. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for hamstring injury in professional football players in an adequately powered, prospective cohort study. Using both established (isokinetic) and novel (eccentric hamstring test device) measures of muscle strength, we aimed to investigate the relationship between these strength characteristics over the entire range of motion with risk of hamstring injury. All teams (n=18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their annual periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Doha, Qatar. Variables included isokinetic strength, Nordic hamstring exercise strength and dynamic hamstring: quadriceps ratios. Of the 413 players included (68.2% of all league players), 66 suffered a hamstring injury over the two seasons. Only isokinetic quadriceps concentric at 300°/s (adjusted for bodyweight) was associated with risk of hamstring injury when considered categorically. Age, body mass and playing position were also associated with risk of hamstring injury. None of the other 23 strength variables examined were found to be associated with hamstring injury. The clinical value of isolated strength testing is limited, and its use in musculoskeletal screening to predict future hamstring injury is unfounded. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Hastie, Peter A.; Ward, Jeffrey K.; Brock, Sheri J.
Background: A guiding principle of Sport Education is that all students get equal opportunity to play, which is expedited through the use of small-sided contests. One element included within the philosophy of Sport Education is that of "graded competition." In graded competition, leagues are arranged that match students of similar skill…
Full Text Available Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria. It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it constitutes rather an additional or redundant quality. A competitor focuses his/her attention first of all on the main aim assumed in planned or current rivalry. Emotional sensations which are experienced by athletes before, during or after competitions testify to mental and emotional stress which accompanies sports combat.
Till, Kevin; Cobley, Stephen; O'Hara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton
The current study provided a longitudinal evaluation of the anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players across three annual-age categories (i.e., under 13s, 14s and 15s) considering playing position and selection level. Longitudinal design. Eighty-one junior rugby league players selected to a talent development programme were tracked over a two year period. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds) and fitness (lower and upper body power, speed, change of direction speed and maximal aerobic power) characteristics were measured on three occasions (i.e., under 13s, 14s and 15s). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA; controlling chronological and maturational age) analysed changes across annual-age categories in relation to playing position and selection level. Findings identified significant improvements in anthropometric and fitness characteristics across annual-age categories (pMANCOVA analysis identified significant overall effects for playing position (p<0.001) and selection level (p<0.05) throughout the two year period. Interactions between playing position and time were identified for height, vertical jump and estimated V˙O2max (p<0.05). Selection level by time interactions were identified for 20m, 30m and 60m sprint (p<0.05). This study demonstrates the improvement of anthropometric and fitness characteristics within junior representative rugby league players. Interactive effects for playing position and selection level by time highlight the variation in the development of characteristics that occur during adolescence. Tracking the progression of characteristics longitudinally during adolescence, instead of at one-off time points, may assist selection and/or performance assessments within rugby league and other youth sport contexts. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wojtys, Edward M
... to making reasonable decisions about athletic participation. This past football bowl season brought the topic of sports injury risk to the forefront when Louisiana State University’s Leonard Fournette and Stanford’s Christian McCaffrey bypassed their school’s bowl games in difference to their professional football careers. The news surprised ma...
Brady, Don; Brady, Flo
Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…
King, D; Hume, P; Gianotti, S; Clark, T
King et al. reported that of 5 941 moderate to serious claims resulting in medical treatment for rugby league injuries, the knee, shoulder, and head and neck body sites and soft tissue and fracture-dislocation injuries were most frequent and costly in the New Zealand national no-fault injury compensation corporation database during 1999 to 2007. However, additional analyses of knee, shoulder and head and neck body sites by soft tissue and fracture-dislocation injury types was required to enable a greater understanding of the nature of injuries most likely to be seen by sports medical personnel dealing with rugby league players. From 1999 to 2007 the injury claims and costs for head and neck soft tissue, fracture-dislocations, shoulders soft tissue significantly increased. Knee soft tissue injury claims and costs significantly decreased from 1999 to 2007. There was no significant difference in knee fracture-dislocation injury claims but there was a significant increase in knee fracture-dislocation injury costs from 1999 to 2007. Changes in the nature of injuries may be related to changes in defensive techniques employed in rugby league during this time. Sports medical personnel dealing with rugby league players should focus their injury prevention strategies on reducing musculoskeletal injuries to the head and shoulder. There should be a focus on increasing awareness of correct tackling technique, head injury awareness and management of suspected cervical spine injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Malcolm, Dominic; Scott-Bell, Andrea; Waddington, Ivan
To compare the current methods of appointment, qualifications and occupational experience of club doctors and physiotherapists in English professional football with (i) those outlined in a study published in 1999, and (ii) Football Association (FA) medical regulations. Qualitative. Postal questionnaire survey of (head) doctors and physiotherapists at each of the clubs in the English Premiership, Championship and Football Leagues 1 and 2. Response rates of 35.8% and 45.6% respectively were obtained. The majority of football club doctors are GPs who have sports medicine qualifications and relevant occupational experience. Time commitments vary from full time to a few hours per week. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements and/or interview. Almost all football clubs have a chartered physiotherapist, many of whom have a postgraduate qualification. They work full time and long hours. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements. They are frequently interviewed but not always by someone qualified to judge their professional expertise. Football club medical provision has become more extensive and increasingly professional over the last 10-20years, with better qualified, more career-oriented and more formally contracted staff. It is likely that clinical autonomy has subsequently increased. However recruitment procedures still need to be improved, especially in relation to advertising vacancies, interviewing candidates, and including medical personnel on interview panels. In two aspects clubs appear not to be compliant with current FA medical regulations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... top priority.Whether you are a parent , youth sports coach , school coach , school professional , or health care provider , this ... am a… Youth Sports League Coach Parent Athlete Sports Official School Sports Coach Parent Athlete Sports Official School School ...
Juncker, D. F.
A large-scale movement toward sports clubs is evolving in colleges and universities in response to widespread professionalism in varsity sports, limited sports opportunities available to highly skilled student athletes, and most importantly, substantial increases in the desire for sports participation by students in general, as a supplement to…
Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...
The professionalization and commercialization of sport have created an increasing need for trained sports club managers globally and in South Africa. In the past, sports clubs in the country were run mainly by volunteers, but the new demands that require professionally educated, permanent staff mean that it is necessary to ...
Petrie, Trent A.; And Others
Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the precocity-longevity (P-L effect in North American professional basketball players who debuted between 1946 and 1979, and to determine whether playing position and decade of play influenced the relationship between age of career achievements and lifespan. Methods: 1852 players were evaluated from a recognized sports archive (i.e., sports-reference.com, which provided information on date of birth, death, and career debut, playing position, and indicators of achievement (i.e., All-Star team and/or All-League team selection. Athletes were categorized as above or below the median age of professional debut, and median age of selection to first All-Star team and/or All-League team. Analyses of deceased players (n = 598 were comprised of bivariate correlations between age of achievement (age of debut, age of first All-Star game and age of first All-League team selection and age of death, and t-tests to compared the average age of death of early and late achievers (p < .05. Survival analyses, using the entire sample (living and deceased players, compared the lifespans between those who debuted above and below the median age of achievement for each indicator of achievement. Results: Only the correlation between age of professional debut and age of death (r = .33, p < .001 and age of first all-star game and age of death (r = .29, p < .05 and the t-test comparing the average death age of early (66.4 y and later (69.3 y debut age groups (p =.01, reached statistical significance. However, survival analyses demonstrated a trend for lower risk of death for early achievers, with one exception (i.e., age of debut this trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Results did not support the P-L hypothesis, suggesting that sample characteristics (i.e., physical fitness of high performance athletes, and measurement methodologies, may influence support for the proposed hypothesis in sport. However, future research would benefit
Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.
Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…
This dissertation contains four chapters, all with a different topic that is of interest from a sports economic perspective. More specifically, from the economic perspective of professional football. Football is the most popular sport within Europe and the data that is used in the analyses stems
... Living with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey ... on the East and West coasts. There are teams and divisions all over the country for men, ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gianotti, Simon; Clark, Trevor
Rugby league is a popular participation sport, but there have been concerns raised regarding the possible high number of severe neck, back and spine injuries. Therefore an epidemiological overview of rugby league neck, back and spine injuries and associated costs of these injuries was undertaken in one country over nine years. The New Zealand national Accident Compensation Corporation data for moderate to serious injury entitlement claims (MSC) over nine years were analysed for the number, type and cost of neck, back and spine rugby league injuries resulting in medical treatment. There were 206 (3%) neck, back and spine MSC claims totalling NZD$1,585,927 (4%) of the total injury entitlement costs for rugby league over the nine-year period. The rate of MSC neck, back and spine rugby league injuries was 26 per 1000 total rugby league claims. Although the rate of neck, back and spine injuries varied over the nine years from 22 to 40 per 1000 injury claims, there was a significant increase over the duration of the study in the number of neck, back and spine MSC claims (χ2=849, df=8, p<0.001), and the cost per MSC injury claim (χ2=19,054, df=8, p<0.001). The frequency, severity and first 12 months cost of neck, back and spine injuries in rugby league is an issue that needs to be addressed. Unfortunately the ACC data base does not provide information on how or why the injuries occurred. A prospective injury epidemiology study needs to be conducted that will allow collection of information surrounding the mechanisms of injury and possible causative risk factors such as tackling technique. In the meantime it is suggested that coaches should ensure tackling technique is correctly taught to all rugby league players to reduce the risk of neck, back and spine injury. Team medical personnel should be trained in dealing with neck and spine injuries as well as head related injuries, and emergency procedures in dealing with players with a suspected neck or back injury should be
If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…
Martindale, Russell; Nash, Christine
While sport science can have significant and positive impact on coaches and athletes, there is still a general consensus that the transfer of sport science knowledge to coaching is poor. Given this apparent dilemma, this study investigated the perceptions of sport science from coaches across four different sports (football, rugby league, curling and judo) across three different levels (elite, developmental and novice). Specifically, 58 coaches (19 football; 21 rugby league; 9 curling; 9 judo) drawn evenly from novice, developmental and elite groups agreed to take part and were interviewed. Three key features emerged from the analysis 1) Practical application and relevance 2) Integration and access, 3) Language. In short, there was significant variability in the extent to which sport science was considered relevant and to whom, although interestingly this was not strongly related to coaching level. This inconsistency of understanding was a barrier to sport science engagement in some instances, as was the challenge of operationalising information for specific contexts. Furthermore, availability of opportunities and resources were often left to chance, while overuse of jargon and inability for research and practitioners to consider sport specific needs were also considered barriers to engagement. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Kelly, Vincent G; Leveritt, Michael D; Brennan, Christopher T; Slater, Gary J; Jenkins, David G
To investigate β-alanine supplementation use and level of knowledge amongst professional footballers. Cross-sectional survey of Australian professional football players. Questionnaires assessing β-alanine supplementation behaviours, level of knowledge and sources of information were completed by professional rugby union (RU) (n=87), rugby league (RL) (n=180) and Australian Rules Football (ARF) (n=303) players. Approximately 61% of athletes reported β-alanine use, however use by ARF football players (44%) was lower than that of RU (80%) and RL players (80%). The majority of respondents were not using β-alanine in accordance with recommendations. Only 35% of the participants were able to correctly identify the potential benefits of β-alanine supplementation. The main information sources that influenced players' decision to use β-alanine were strength and conditioning coach (71%) and dietitian (52%). Forty-eight per cent of athletes never read labels prior to supplementing and only 11% completed their own research on β-alanine. Compared to RL and ARF players, RU players had both a greater knowledge of β-alanine supplementation and better supplementation practices. Despite over half the surveyed professional footballers using β-alanine, the majority of athletes used β-alanine in a manner inconsistent with recommendations. A better understanding of the environment and culture within professional football codes is required before supplement use becomes consistent with evidence based supplement recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role.
Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P
Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.
Full Text Available The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts and retweets (re-posts works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world.
Takeichi, Yuki; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya
The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world.
Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine
Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.
Woods, Carl T; Sinclair, Wade; Robertson, Sam
To examine the extent at which match outcome and ladder position could be explained using team performance indicators in the National Rugby League (NRL). The dataset consisted of 13 performance indicators acquired from each NRL team across the 2016 season (n=376 observations). Data was sorted according to apriori match outcome (win/loss) and ladder position (one to 16). Given the binary and categorical nature of the response variables, two analysis approaches were used; a conditional interference classification tree and ordinal regression. Five performance indicators ('try assists', 'all run meters', 'offloads', 'line breaks' and 'dummy half runs') were retained within the classification tree, detecting 66% of the losses and 91% of the wins. A significant negative relationship was noted between ladder position and 'kick metres' (β (SE)=-0.002 (coaches and analysts as a basis for the development of practice conditions and game strategies that may increase their teams' likelihood of success. Beyond rugby league, this study presents analytical techniques that could be applied to other sports when examining the relationships between performance indicators and match derivatives. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Lambert, Michael; Stewart, William; Kerkhoffs, Gino
Objective: Recent reports suggest that exposure to repetitive concussions in sports is associated with an increased risk of symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance or substance abuse/dependence (typically referred as symptoms of common mental disorders[CMD]) and of later
People with epilepsy (PWE) have been discouraged from participating in exercise and sports because of the fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency, risks associated with such activities, stigma, and overprotection. Recently, there has been a shift in the medical recommendations toward encouraging, rather than restricting, participation. Cases of exercise-induced seizures are rare. Physical activity can exert beneficial actions, such as a reduction in seizure susceptibility and the number of seizures, improvement in quality of life (QOL), and better social integration. The antiepileptogenic and neuroprotective effects of exercise in epilepsy have been shown. The majority of sports are safe for PWE to participate in when special attention is paid to seizure control, direct supervision, etc. Human and animal studies have supported the use of exercise as a therapy for epilepsy, complementary to standard treatments. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy offers general guidelines concerning the participation of PWE in sports activities. Sports are divided into three categories based on the potential risk of injury or death. Engaging in physical exercise and sports activities has positive effects for PWE. The ILAE propose to use the regulations governing the issuance of fitness certificates for driving as a possible guide. The decision to participate in sports is based on whether the benefit outweighs the risk.
This article revises previous interpretations of the Imperial Maritime League, and adds new detail to our understanding of Edwardian patriotic leagues, by highlighting the relevance of radical right ideology. A product of division in the Navy League, the Imperial Maritime League channelled extra-parliamentary sentiment into specific navalist causes, and worked closely with likeminded newspaper editors and naval officers to challenge the Unionist leadership, Admiralty, and Navy League. The new...
Dahm, Diane L; Curriero, Frank C; Camp, Christopher L; Brophy, Robert H; Leo, Tony; Meister, Keith; Paletta, George A; Steubs, John A; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Pollack, Keshia M
Few studies have explored the frequency and impact of lower extremity injuries, such as those to the knee, among professional baseball players. The purpose of this study was to detail the epidemiology of knee injuries in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) players during the 2011-2014 seasons. It was hypothesized that knee injuries are a common occurrence in these athletes, and represent a significant source of time away from play. The MLB Health and Injury Tracking System database was searched to identify all patients diagnosed with knee injuries during the 2011-2014 seasons. All injuries that occurred during the preseason, regular season, and postseason that resulted in time away from play were included. Injury data analyzed included total number of knee injuries, specific diagnoses, injury mechanisms, locations, player positions, and time lost. Descriptive statistics were conducted and injury rates per athlete-exposures were calculated. During the 2011-2014 seasons, a total of 2171 knee injuries occurred in MLB and MiLB players, representing 6.5% of all injuries in professional baseball. The knee injury rate across both the MLB and MiLB was 1.2 per 1000 athlete-exposures. The mean number of days missed per injury across both leagues was 16.2 with a total of 30,449 days of missed play amongst all athletes over the 4 seasons. Injuries to the knee were the fifth most common cause of missed time in all of baseball, and the fourth most common reason for missed games in the MLB alone. Approximately 12% of all injuries required surgical intervention. The most common mechanism of injury was noncontact (44%), and base runners were injured more frequently than any other position (24%). The infield (30%) and home plate (23%) were the most common locations in which injuries occurred. These data can be utilized for targeted injury prevention initiatives.
In recent years, scholars have contested conventional narratives such as that the League of Nations was a complete ‘failure’ or that the United Nations was a novelty in comparison with the League. Scholars now offer more nuanced and archive-based analyses. However, while traditional research has...... emphasised the establishment of the first formally independent international civil service and the corresponding secretariat as one of the League's few big achievements, the subject has not substantially benefitted from these new historical studies. This article helps to shed some light on the secretariat......'s nature and how international the staff really was. After examining the prevailing image of the international civil service at the League, the data will be supplemented by an analysis of the archive material with regard to recruitment and selected personnel files. This article argues that the secretariat...
Song, Alex; Severini, Thomas; Allada, Ravi
.... Here, we examined the effects of jet lag, that is, travel that shifts the alignment of 24-h environmental cycles relative to the endogenous circadian clock, on specific performance metrics in Major League Baseball...
Wilk, Kevin E; Macrina, Lonard C; Yenchak, Adrian J; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R
Case report. Traumatic glenohumeral dislocations with concomitant rotator cuff and capsular injuries present a unique and challenging surgical and rehabilitative condition, particularly in the overhead-throwing athlete. Multiple injuries of the shoulder complex create the potential for complications in the course of recovery and place a full return to high-level sport at risk. The purpose of this case report is to present the multiphased rehabilitation approach of an elite professional quarterback after an acute 330° capsulolabral reconstruction and rotator cuff repair as a result of a luxatio erecta injury. A 26-year-old male professional football player, a quarterback, sustained a right luxatio erecta shoulder dislocation while trying to recover a fumble during a regular-season game. The injury occurred when he was hit in the back of his throwing shoulder, which was in an abducted and externally rotated position, while lying on the ground. Five days postinjury, he underwent a 330° capsulolabral repair, with concomitant rotator cuff repair and subacromial decompression. He completed 28 weeks of a multiphased rehabilitation program. The patient returned to play in the National Football League (NFL) 8 months later, for the start of the next season, during which he had his most productive year as a professional quarterback, leading the league in passing yards and finishing third in the league for the number of touchdowns. Since the injury, the patient has played 6 consecutive seasons, starting over 96 consecutive, regular-season games and maintaining a very high level of play. This case report highlights the clinical decision-making process and management of this rare, severe injury.
Posner, Matthew; Cameron, Kenneth L; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Belmont, Philip J; Owens, Brett D
Little is known about the injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) players, as a formal injury surveillance system does not exist. The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of MLB injuries over a 7-year period. Injuries in MLB would be common. Descriptive epidemiologic study. The authors analyzed the MLB disabled list data from 2002 through 2008. Injuries were analyzed for differences between seasons, as well as during seasons on a monthly basis. The injuries were categorized by major anatomic zones and then further stratified based on injury type. Position-specific subanalyses for pitcher and position players were performed. From the 2002 season through the 2008 season, an average of 438.9 players per year were placed on the disabled list, for a rate of 3.61 per 1000 athlete-exposures. There was a significant 37% increase in injuries between 2005 and 2008. The highest injury rate during the season was during the month of April (5.73/1000 exposures) and the lowest in September (0.54/1000 exposures). No differences were noted in the injury rates between the National League and the American League (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98, 1.15). Pitchers experienced 34% higher incidence rates for injury compared with fielders during the study period (IRR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.25, 1.44). Among all player injuries, upper extremity injuries accounted for 51.4% while lower extremity injuries accounted for 30.6%. Injuries to the spine and core musculature accounted for 11.7% while other injuries and illnesses were 6.3% of the total disabled list entries. There was a significant association between position played and anatomic region injured (P < .001), with pitchers experiencing a significantly greater proportion of injuries to the upper extremity (67.0%; 95% CI = 63.1%, 70.9%) compared with fielders (32.1%; 95% CI = 29.1%, 35.1%). Conversely, fielders experienced a significantly greater proportion of injuries to the lower
Full Text Available Sport commercialism has increased tremendously over the past twenty years. Major sporting events and organizations are at the point where most cannot survive without outside sponsor- ship revenue. This study on American attitudes towards sport sponsorships analyzes the increased sport commercialism’s impact on sport fans. Previous studies on sport sponsorship and commercialism showed that increased sport commercial- ism leads to a negative purchase intent although a younger fan may be resistant to the negative influence of over-commercial- ism. This study builds upon such research by comparing gen- der, age, type of sport (professional versus amateur and fan- avidity. Perhaps paradoxically, this research suggests there is no correlation between over-commercialism and sport interest across numerous demographic categories. This data of corporate influence on sport commercialism may provide insights for sport sponsors as they best position their brands to the sport avid consumer.
Full Text Available Home advantage in team sports has an important role in determining the outcome of a game. The aim of the present study was to identify the soccer game- related statistics that best discriminate home and visiting teams according to the team quality. The sample included all 380 games of the Spanish professional men's league. The independent variables were game location (home or away and the team quality. Teams were classified into four groups according to their final ranking at the end of the league. The game-related statistics registered were divided into three groups: (i variables related to goals scored; (ii variables related to offense and (iii variables related to defense. A univariate (t-test and Mann-Whitney U and multivariate (discriminant analysis analysis of data was done. Results showed that home teams have significantly higher means for goal scored, total shots, shots on goal, attacking moves, box moves, crosses, offsides committed, assists, passes made, successful passes, dribbles made, successful dribbles, ball possession, and gains of possession, while visiting teams presented higher means for losses of possession and yellow cards. In addition, the findings of the current study confirm that game location and team quality are important in determining technical and tactical performances in matches. Teams described as superior and those described as inferior did not experience the same home advantage. Future research should consider the influence of other confounding variables such as weather conditions, game status and team form
Gibson, Brett W; Webner, David; Huffman, G Russell; Sennett, Brian J
Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction is commonly performed in major league pitchers, but little is known about pitching performance after a return to major league play. Pitching performance after ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction returns to baseline by the second season after surgery. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Data were reviewed for 68 major league pitchers who pitched in at least 1 major league game before undergoing ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction between 1998 and 2003. Mean innings pitched per season, earned run average, and walks and hits per inning pitched were compared for each major league pitcher before and after surgery. All demographic and performance variables were analyzed for an association with ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency and a successful return to major league play. Fifty-six (82%) pitchers returned to major league play at a mean of 18.5 months after surgery with no significant change in mean earned run average or walks and hits per inning pitched. The mean innings pitched per season was not statistically different from controls by the second season after surgery. Starting pitchers demonstrated a higher risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury requiring reconstruction. More experienced pitchers and those with a higher earned run average were less likely to require ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction. No factors predictive of a successful return to play were identified. Most major league pitchers return from ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction by the second season after surgery with no statistical change in mean innings pitched, earned run average, or walks and hits per inning pitched from preinjury levels.
Wang, Andreas; Lilleslåtten, Martin Langslet; Svarverud, Sondre
Dockit League is a project focused around creating a multiplayer online battle arena(MOBA) game using the Unity game engine. The game revolves around playing against other players in a competitive environment, using Docking Kits which provide players with different tools and abilities. This thesis will go through the development of the game and detail how the project evolved throughout the process. Dockit League er et prosjekt fokusert rundt å skape et "multiplayer online battle arena" (MO...
Frazier, Joseph B
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Student Police Unity League as an effective program at fostering more positive views of the police from black citizens operating by the core tenants provided by Intergroup Contact Theory. It was expected that black students who participated in the Student Police Unity League would report higher levels of trust, legitimacy, willingness to work with the police, outcome justice, and lower level of perceived racial profiling. While the majority of the ...
Tuck, Geoffrey N.; Whitten, Athol R.
Annual draft systems are the principal method used by teams in major sporting leagues to recruit amateur players. These draft systems frequently take one of three forms: a lottery style draft, a weighted draft, or a reverse-order draft. Reverse-order drafts can create incentives for teams to deliberately under-perform, or tank, due to the perceived gain from obtaining quality players at higher draft picks. This paper uses a dynamic simulation model that captures the key components of a win-maximising sporting league, including the amateur player draft, draft choice error, player productivity, and between-team competition, to explore how competitive balance and incentives to under-perform vary according to league characteristics. We find reverse-order drafts can lead to some teams cycling between success and failure and to other teams being stuck in mid-ranking positions for extended periods of time. We also find that an incentive for teams to tank exists, but that this incentive decreases (i) as uncertainty in the ability to determine quality players in the draft increases, (ii) as the number of teams in the league reduces, (iii) as team size decreases, and (iv) as the number of teams adopting a tanking strategy increases. Simulation models can be used to explore complex stochastic dynamic systems such as sports leagues, where managers face difficult decisions regarding the structure of their league and the desire to maintain competitive balance. PMID:24312243
Geoffrey N Tuck
Full Text Available Annual draft systems are the principal method used by teams in major sporting leagues to recruit amateur players. These draft systems frequently take one of three forms: a lottery style draft, a weighted draft, or a reverse-order draft. Reverse-order drafts can create incentives for teams to deliberately under-perform, or tank, due to the perceived gain from obtaining quality players at higher draft picks. This paper uses a dynamic simulation model that captures the key components of a win-maximising sporting league, including the amateur player draft, draft choice error, player productivity, and between-team competition, to explore how competitive balance and incentives to under-perform vary according to league characteristics. We find reverse-order drafts can lead to some teams cycling between success and failure and to other teams being stuck in mid-ranking positions for extended periods of time. We also find that an incentive for teams to tank exists, but that this incentive decreases (i as uncertainty in the ability to determine quality players in the draft increases, (ii as the number of teams in the league reduces, (iii as team size decreases, and (iv as the number of teams adopting a tanking strategy increases. Simulation models can be used to explore complex stochastic dynamic systems such as sports leagues, where managers face difficult decisions regarding the structure of their league and the desire to maintain competitive balance.
Shahim, Pashtun; Linemann, Thomas; Inekci, Dilek; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Blennow, Kaj; Tegner, Yelverton; Zetterberg, Henrik; Henriksen, Kim
The diagnosis of sports-related concussion is mainly based on subjective clinical symptoms and neuropsychological tests. Therefore, reliable brain injury biomarkers to assess when it is safe to return to play are highly desirable. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of two newly described tau fragments for diagnosis and prognosis of sports-related concussions. This multi-center prospective cohort study involved all 12 teams of the top professional ice hockey league in Sweden. A total of 288 players consented to participate in the study. Thirty-five players sustained concussions, of whom 28 underwent repeated blood samplings at 1, 12, 36, and 144 h after the trauma, or when the player returned to play (7 to >90 days). There was no significant increase in the levels of Tau-A in post-concussion samples compared with preseason values. However, serum levels of Tau-C were significantly higher in post-concussion samples compared with preseason. Further, levels of Tau-A correlated with the duration of post-concussive symptoms. Tau-A in serum, which is newly discovered biomarker, could be used to predict when it is safe to return to play after a sports-related concussion.
Koerte, Inga K; Hufschmidt, Jakob; Muehlmann, Marc; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stamm, Julie M; Pasternak, Ofer; Giwerc, Michelle Y; Coleman, Michael J; Baugh, Christine M; Fritts, Nathan G; Heinen, Florian; Lin, Alexander; Stern, Robert A; Shenton, Martha E
Post-mortem studies reveal a high rate of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). It remains, however, to be determined whether or not the presence of CSP may be a potential in vivo imaging marker in populations at high risk to develop CTE. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP in former professional American football players presenting with cognitive and behavioral symptoms compared with noncontact sports athletes. Seventy-two symptomatic former professional football players (mean age 54.53 years, standard deviation [SD] 7.97) as well as 14 former professional noncontact sports athletes (mean age 57.14 years, SD 7.35) underwent high-resolution structural 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Two raters independently evaluated the CSP, and interrater reliability was calculated. Within National Football League players, an association of CSP measures with cognitive and behavioral functioning was evaluated using a multivariate mixed effects model. The measurements of the two raters were highly correlated (CSP length: rho = 0.98; Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC] 0.99; p football players compared with athlete controls. In addition, a greater length of CSP was associated with decreased performance on a list learning task (Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List A Immediate Recall, p = 0.04) and decreased test scores on a measure of estimate verbal intelligence (Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition Reading Test, p = 0.02). Given the high prevalence of CSP in neuropathologically confirmed CTE in addition to the results of this study, CSP may serve as a potential early in vivo imaging marker to identify those at high risk for CTE. Future research is needed to investigate the pathomechanism underlying the development of CSP after repetitive head impacts, and its potential association with neuropathologically confirmed CTE.
Camp, Christopher L; Curriero, Frank C; Pollack, Keshia M; Mayer, Stephanie W; Spiker, Andrea M; D'Angelo, John; Coleman, Struan H
Although sliding occurs frequently in professional baseball, little is known about the epidemiology and effect of injuries that occur during sliding in this population of elite athletes. To describe the incidence and characteristics of sliding injuries, determine their effect in terms of time out of play, and identify common injury patterns that may represent appropriate targets for injury prevention programs in the future. Descriptive epidemiologic study. All offensive sliding injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MLB) that resulted in time out of play during a span of 5 seasons (2011-2015) were identified. In addition to player demographics, data extracted included time out of play, location on field where injury occurred, level of play, treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical), direction of slide (head vs feet first), body region injured, and diagnosis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the distribution of these injuries, and injury rates were calculated per slide. From 2011 to 2015, 1633 injuries occurred as a result of a slide. The total number of days missed per season was 4263. Surgical intervention was required for 134 (8.2%) injuries, and the mean days missed was 66.5 for players treated surgically and 12.3 days for players treated nonoperatively ( P professional baseball result in a significant amount of time out of play for these elite athletes. Injuries occurring at second base and those occurring to the hands and fingers were most prevalent and may be an appropriate target for future injury prevention programs.
To identify the frequency of violent television commercials aired during major league baseball playoffs, traditionally thought to be a family-oriented viewing time. All 6 World Series games televised on the Fox Television Network (Fox), all 5 American League Championship Series playoff games televised by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and 4 first-round playoff games televised by ESPN Sports Television Network (ESPN) were videotaped in October 1996. During the 15 televised games reviewed, 104 (6.8%) of the 1528 commercials contained violent content. Sixty-one commercials (10 per game) that included violent interactions were noted during the World Series, 30 (6 per game) during the American League Championship Series, and 13 (3 per game) during the 4 first-round playoff games for a total of 104. In these 104 violent commercials, 69 contained at least 1 violent act, 90 contained at least 1 violent threat, and 27 contained evidence of at least 1 violent consequence. Seventy (67.3%) of the violent commercials were promotions for television programs, 7 (6.7%) were cable television program advertisements, and 20 (19.2%) were big-screen movie promotions. Twenty (71.4%) of 28 big-screen movie promotions were violent. Twenty-two (21.2%) of the 104 violent commercials and 7 "nonviolent" commercials contained blood or other graphic content, all of which were televised during the Fox presentation of the World Series. Fox also accounted for all 24 violent commercials that used a knife. Guns were involved in 25 violent commercials on NBC (5.0 per game), in 20 on Fox (3.33 per game), and in 7 on ESPN (1.75 per game). Overt violent content in commercials during the 1996 major league playoffs was common and consisted mainly of promotions for television programs and big-screen movies. It is counterintuitive to find such commercials in nonviolent programming and makes it difficult for parents to avoid exposing their children to this form of violence.
Šemsudin Džeko; Spasoje Bjelica
From sports activities to sports service, development and actualization of sport goes through particular forms of organization. Those are sports events, sports divisions, individual departments, types of sports and similar. This paper attempts to indicate the connection and correlation of the mentioned elements in the frame of an overall sport activity organization.
Full Text Available Today, it is difficult to imagine some sports without television and/or live broadcasting. Television has a decisive influence on our perception and understanding of sport. From the 1940’s, the popularity of sport has grown in proportion with the popularity of television. Not only has their expansion and popularity increased, but both have turned so to speak into a virtual theatre. The attempt of television to place sport in entertainment section of their programming was rewarded with a record number of viewers, however, sport paid a heavy price. Today, “raw” sport does not satisfy its viewers, because they expect it to be presented as any other commodity. Since the events do not always speak for themselves, instructions and narrative are necessary to create the sense of drama for the viewer. The expectations and the experience of sport have changed as well as with the viewing patterns. Television can turn sporting events into pure action by adding episodes and information, intended to enrich the viewing experience at home. Televised sport gained freshness and appeal which cannot be denied, whereas sporting events did not have anything strong enough to oppose this development. There are various forms of televised sports; however, almost every viewer is best acquainted with sport broadcasts. Broadcasts are never only an edit of the competition. Television gives the viewer the opportunity to see more than is usually accessible to the human eye. We can say for sure that television plays the decisive role in how we see and understand sport.
For a long time, badminton was considered to be only a slow and light game for children, a game that is played outdoors and is structurally undemanding.Today, it is not an unknown and unrecognised sport, especially after it was included into the Olympics Games in 1992. Badminton is one of the oldest sports in the world. It is suitable for all ages (for children and elderly equally), women and men and even handicapped persons. Beginners can start playing badminton matches early because the basics are learned quickly. As a recreational activity, badminton is very popular in Zagreb. In the last 10 years, a number of halls specialized for badminton or offering badminton as one of available sports activities have been opened in Zagreb. At present, there are over 70 professional playgrounds for training of top contestants but also for the citizens who can play recreational badminton.
[Introduction]: Inability to cope with stress in sport has been associated with sport withdrawal (Klint & Weis, 1986; Smith, 1986), decreased performance (Lazarus, 2000), and athletes not being able to pursue careers in professional sport (Holt & Dunn, 2004). It is therefore crucial to both researchers and practitioners working with athletes to have a greater understanding of coping in sport in order to design effective interventions and to make sport a more satisfying experience (Nicholls & ...
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Forsythe, Charles M; Crotin, Ryan L; Greenwood, Mike; Bhan, Shivam; Karakolis, Thomas
Among professional pitchers, anthropometric changes and their effect on statistics are relatively unknown. Bivariate analyses and repeated one-way ANOVA evaluated the impact of physical size on baseball pitching statistics and attributes within an elite talent sample of Major League pitching leaders. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from publicly available players' heights and weights to form a statistical database of 1028 pitching leaders from 1950-2010. Repeated measures ANOVAs examined differences in anthropometrics and baseball statistics between decades 1950-2010. Bivariate correlation evaluated BMI as an independent variable of influence on statistics, where all tests applied an a-priori significance level (P<0.05). BMI increased throughout the sixty year period with weight growth greater than height (P<0.001). Increased BMI reported earlier signing age, and age of debut (P<0.05), where larger pitchers showed small positive correlation seen among saves (P<0.001) concurrent to negative correlation with innings pitched and complete games (P≤0.001), as well as shutouts (P<0.05). A contrast between saves and complete games pitched was found where saves increased over time (P<0.001) while complete games pitched declined (P<0.001). Over time, throwing workloads showed better management for larger starting pitchers with less innings pitched and complete games thrown added to an extra rest day in the pitching rotation. In contrast, paralleled increases in physical size with recorded saves at present requires greater medical and training attention to protecting the throwing arm of the larger relief pitchers, as increased body size can increase force properties and ball velocity owing to greater injury risks.
Full Text Available Children and adolescents today, all before starting with regular sports activities and involvement in semi-professional and top professional sport, so it increases the num- ber of discovered stress fractures in this age. This type of injury can occur as a consequence of action one strong force, or the many repeated small force strength, to be exact, when the load (stress transcend ability reparations bones. Stress fractures are recorded and described up to the lower limbs. Research has been confirmed that the bones of lower leg are mostly made in injury, and with the el- derly and with the population of children and young adolescents. Occur in many sports, something to them is greater when the frequency of running and often are present in the female population. According to the results of numerous investigations, mistakes in the training are the most common cause of the emergence of stress fracture. In a direct comparison with complemented these injuries is the condition of muscles, so it is important that at the sa- me time carry out exercises strengthen muscles and stretching. Typical clinical signs of stress fractures are localized painful sensitivity to palpa- tion and runoff in a small number of cases. The basic diagnostic procedure is a medical check, it is the small, radiology and scintigraphyc diagnostics (most accurate and mag- netic resonance imaging. Treatment is usually without surgery and conservative, with rest and reducing stress, and its activity athlete breaks mainly between four and eight weeks. Only the very need surgical treatment The most important thing is that attention is focused on the proper prevention and to take all that it ever occurred to stress fractures that athletes ramble of the courts and the competition (better education of sports workers, separation of groups with increa- sed risk of the formation of an injury, adaptation activities age and abilities of athletes, adequate sports equipment, high-quality sports
Pitt, Hannah; Thomas, Samantha L; Bestman, Amy; Stoneham, Melissa; Daube, Mike
To investigate how children and adults recall the content and promotional channels for sports wagering marketing. A mixed methods study of 152 parent/child (8-16 years) dyads was conducted at AFL (Australian Football League), NRL (National Rugby League), and soccer sporting sites in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Questions related to the frequency of viewing AFL and NRL matches, sports wagering promotions and perceptions of the normalisation of wagering in sport. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse data. Children recruited from NRL (n=75, 96.2%) and AFL (n=46, 92.0%) sites were significantly more likely to have recalled having ever seen a promotion for sports wagering as compared to children from Soccer sites (n=18, 75.0%) (ptelevision, and at stadiums. Three-quarters of children (75.0%) and the majority of adults (90.0%) perceived that sports wagering was becoming a normal part of sport. This research shows that children engaged in particular sports have high awareness of wagering marketing, particularly as seen on television or at sporting matches. Regulation should comprehensively address the placement, quantity and content of wagering marketing aligned with sport to prevent current and/or future gambling harm. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
post-match fatigue in rugby league. Accelerometer data have not previously been ... These speed zones were chosen because they are typical of the locomotive activity profiles of intermittent team sport athletes. Data were normalised to the amount of time spent on the field to account for different playing times as a ...
Full Text Available Purpose : To study the structure of the motor activity of foreign (European football referees qualifications and Ukrainian arbitrators (Premier League, the first, second league. The objectives of the study was to determine the amount and direction of the motor activity of soccer referees. Also perform a comparative analysis of the motor activity of football referees of different qualifications in Europe and Ukraine. Material : The study involved 38 referees - soccer referees first, second, of the Premier League with the different regions of Ukraine, as well as foreign arbitrators FIFA. Results : It was found that in the period of the motor activity of the arbitrator was walking - 13.0% of the total distance when moving, running at a moderate pace - 67.4%, accelerating - 16.7%, jumps - 2.9%. Average per match referee overcomes distance 8970.2 m: foreign arbitrators - 12,030.0 m., Arbitrators Premier League - 9292.5 m., 1 league - 7530.0 m., 2 leagues - 7028.3 m. Ukrainian Premier League referees are inferior to move moderate jogging foreign arbitrators FIFA respectively - 6,425.0 m (69.1% and 9615.3 m (79.9%. Conclusions : The results of the research showed that the magnitude of motor activity during football matches in professional arbitrators may be different. It depends on their physical fitness Championship (competition, the league, the level of the teams playing, the nature of the intensity of the match. The arbitrator must remain near the gaming moments to control them and prevent possible confrontation.
Full Text Available Purpose : To study the structure of the motor activity of foreign (European football referees qualifications and Ukrainian arbitrators (Premier League, the first, second league. The objectives of the study was to determine the amount and direction of the motor activity of soccer referees. Also perform a comparative analysis of the motor activity of football referees of different qualifications in Europe and Ukraine. Material : The study involved 38 referees - soccer referees first, second, of the Premier League with the different regions of Ukraine, as well as foreign arbitrators FIFA. Results : It was found that in the period of the motor activity of the arbitrator was walking - 13.0% of the total distance when moving, running at a moderate pace - 67.4%, accelerating - 16.7%, jumps - 2.9%. Average per match referee overcomes distance 8970.2 m: foreign arbitrators - 12,030.0 m., Arbitrators Premier League - 9292.5 m., 1 league - 7530.0 m., 2 leagues - 7028.3 m. Ukrainian Premier League referees are inferior to move moderate jogging foreign arbitrators FIFA respectively - 6,425.0 m (69.1% and 9615.3 m (79.9%. Conclusions : The results of the research showed that the magnitude of motor activity during football matches in professional arbitrators may be different. It depends on their physical fitness Championship (competition, the league, the level of the teams playing, the nature of the intensity of the match. The arbitrator must remain near the gaming moments to control them and prevent possible confrontation.
Woods, Carl T; Robertson, Sam; Collier, Neil French; Swinbourne, Anne L; Leicht, Anthony S
Learning transfer is defined as an individual's capability to apply prior learnt perceptual, motor, or conceptual skills to a novel task or performance environment. In the sport sciences, learning transfers have been investigated from an athlete-specific perspective. However, sport scientists should also consider the benefits of cross-disciplinary learning to aid critical thinking and metacognitive skill gained through the interaction with similar quantitative scientific disciplines. Using team sports performance analysis as an example, this study aimed to demonstrate the utility of a common analytical technique in ecology in the sports sciences, namely, nonmetric multidimensional scaling. To achieve this aim, three novel research examples using this technique are presented, each of which enables the analysis and visualization of athlete (organism), team (aggregation of organisms), and competition (ecosystem) behaviors. The first example reveals the technical behaviors of Australian Football League Brownlow medalists from the 2001 to 2016 seasons. The second example delineates dissimilarity in higher and lower ranked National Rugby League teams within the 2016 season. Lastly, the third example shows the evolution of game play in the basketball tournaments between the 2004 and 2016 Olympic Games. In addition to the novel findings of each example, the collective results demonstrate that, by embracing cross-disciplinary learning and drawing upon an analytical technique common to ecology, novel solutions to pertinent research questions within sports performance analysis could be addressed in a practically meaningful way. Cross-disciplinary learning may subsequently assist sport scientists in the analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets.
Sports dentistry is one of the most recent and upcoming field in dentistry. It mainly includes the prevention and management of athletics-related orofacial injuries and associated oral diseases. The sports or team dentist assists athletes in the prevention, treatment, and diagnosis of oral injuries. The most significant aspect in preventing sports-related orofacial injuries is wearing basic protective devices such as properly-fitting helmets, face masks and/or mouth guards. Dental injuries ar...
McHale, Kevin J; Rozell, Joshua C; Milby, Andrew H; Carey, James L; Sennett, Brian J
Tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc) joint injuries commonly occur in National Football League (NFL) competition; however, the career effect of these injuries is unknown. To define the time to return to competition for NFL players who sustained Lisfranc injuries and to quantify the effect on athletic performance. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data on NFL players who sustained a Lisfranc injury between 2000 and 2010 were collected for analysis. Outcomes data included time to return to competition, total games played after season of injury, yearly total yards and touchdowns for offensive players, and yearly total tackles, sacks, and interceptions for defensive players. Offensive power ratings (OPR = [total yards/10] + [total touchdowns × 6]) and defensive power ratings (DPR = total tackles + [total sacks × 2] + [total interceptions × 2]) were calculated for the injury season and for 3 seasons before and after the injury season. Offensive and defensive control groups consisted of all players without an identified Lisfranc injury who competed in the 2005 season. The study group was composed of 28 NFL athletes who sustained Lisfranc injuries during the study period, including 11 offensive and 17 defensive players. While 2 of 28 (7.1%) players never returned to the NFL, 26 (92.9%) athletes returned to competition at a median of 11.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 10.3-12.5) months from time of injury and missed a median of 8.5 (IQR, 6.3-13.0) regular-season games. Analysis of pre- and postinjury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after Lisfranc injury. The magnitude of change in median OPR and DPR observed in offensive and defensive Lisfranc-injured study groups, -34.8 (IQR, -64.4 to 1.4) and -13.5 (-30.9 to 4.3), respectively, was greater than that observed in offensive and defensive control groups, -18.8 (-52.9 to 31.5) and -5.0 (-22.0 to 14.0), respectively; however, these differences did not reach statistical
Berisha, Visar; Wang, Shuai; LaCross, Amy; Liss, Julie; Garcia-Filion, Pamela
Reductions in spoken language complexity have been associated with the onset of various neurological disorders. The objective of this study is to analyze whether similar trends are found in professional football players who are at risk for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We compare changes in linguistic complexity (as indexed by the type-to-token ratio and lexical density) measured from the interview transcripts of players in the National Football League (NFL) to those measured from interview transcripts of coaches and/or front-office NFL executives who have never played professional football. A multilevel mixed model analysis reveals that exposure to the high-impact sport (vs no exposure) was associated with an overall decline in language complexity scores over time. This trend persists even after controlling for age as a potential confound. The results set the stage for a prospective study to test the hypothesis that language complexity decline is a harbinger of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maughan, R J
OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211
Johnston, R J; Watsford, M L; Austin, D; Pine, M J; Spurrs, R W
This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) units for measuring a standardized set of acceleration and deceleration zones and whether these standardized zones were capable of identifying differences between playing positions in professional Australian football. Eight well trained male participants were recruited to wear two 5 Hz or 10 Hz GPS units whilst completing a team sport simulation circuit to measure acceleration and deceleration movements. For the second part of this article 30 professional players were monitored between 1-29 times using 5 Hz and 10 Hz GPS units for the collection of acceleration and deceleration movements during the 2011 and 2012 Australian Football League seasons. Players were separated into four distinct positional groups - nomadic players, fixed defenders, fixed forwards and ruckman. The GPS units analysed had good to poor levels of error for measuring the distance covered (GPS units can be used for analysing the distance covered and time spent at the acceleration and deceleration zones used. Further, these standardized zones were proven to be capable of distinguishing between player positions, with nomadic players and fixed defenders required to complete more high acceleration and deceleration efforts during a match.
Full Text Available Super League (SL and Championship (RLC rugby league players will compete against each other in 2015 and beyond. To identify possible discrepancies, this study compared the anthropometric profile and body composition of current SL (full-time professional and RLC (part-time semi-professional players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. A cross-sectional design involved DXA scans on 67 SL (n=29 backs, n=38 forwards and 46 RLC (n=20 backs, n=26 forwards players during preseason. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare age, stature, body mass, soft tissue fat percentage, bone mineral content (BMC, total and regional (i.e., arms, legs and trunk fat and lean mass between SL forwards, SL backs, RLC forwards and RLC backs. No significant differences in age, stature or body mass were observed. SL forwards and backs had relatively less soft tissue fat (17.5 ± 3.7 and 14.8 ± 3.6 vs. 21.4 ± 4.3 and 20.8 ± 3.8%, greater BMC (4,528 ± 443 and 4,230 ± 447 vs. 4,302 ± 393 and 3,971 ± 280 g, greater trunk lean mass (37.3 ± 3.0 and 35.3 ± 3.8 vs. 34.9 ± 32.3 and 32.3 ± 2.6 kg and less trunk fat mass (8.5 ± 2.7 and 6.2 ± 2.1 vs. 10.7 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 2.9 kg than RLC forwards and backs. Observed differences may reflect selection based on favourable physical attributes, or training adaptations. To reduce this discrepancy, some RLC players should reduce fat mass and increase lean mass, which may be of benefit for the 2015 season and beyond.
Watson, Jack C; Way, William C; Hilliard, Robert C
The field of sport psychology is dynamic and growing. To continue building credibility with the public and allied professionals, effective and ethical practice is crucial. Advances in technology have allowed sport psychology professionals to consult with athletes from a distance, but practitioners must be mindful of their competency to use technology, confidentiality concerns, and the suitability of technology for their clients. Movement toward defining competency and clarifying issues of title usage are additional areas in which the field is gaining momentum. Recent attention has also been drawn to the topics of professional development and cultural competency. With the unique settings in which applied sport psychology practice takes place, attention to multiple relationships is another key ethical issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health
Andersen, M B; Van Raalte, J L; Brewer, B W
Although the parent discipline of sport psychology is psychology, the delivery of sport psychology services has its main roots in physical education and sports science (motor learning and control, skill acquisition). Thus, sport psychologists may look more like coaches than they look like clinicians or counselors. In this article, the authors trace the evolution of sport psychology services and contrast the temporal, spatial, and delivery issues of applied sport psychology with more mainstream counseling and clinical psychology. The looser boundaries of sport psychologist practice have both benefits and dangers, and the authors offer some examples to professional psychologists who are thinking of expanding their delivery of service to athletes and coaches.
Wright, Rick W; Steger-May, Karen; Klein, Sandra E
Changes in the dominant shoulder and elbow of professional pitchers have been noted on radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging scans, and ultrasound studies. The relationship of these findings to future injury and to time lost from play has not been identified. Degenerative changes of the shoulder and elbow are common findings on the radiographs of asymptomatic Major League Baseball pitchers. The changes are cumulative with increased pitching. These findings are not predictive of time on the disabled list. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-seven asymptomatic Major League Baseball pitchers participating in the St Louis Cardinals spring training camp underwent routine preseason radiographic screening of their dominant shoulder and elbow between 1986 and 1998. Radiographs were reviewed for osteophytes, cystic changes, joint-space narrowing, and loose bodies. All findings were recorded as present or absent. Public baseball records were reviewed for arm dominance, age, years of professional pitching, professional innings pitched, shoulder or elbow injury or surgery, and time on the disabled list. These factors were statistically evaluated for their possible association with findings seen on preseason radiographs. Shoulder radiographs were available for 57 pitchers, and elbow radiographs were available for 56 pitchers. Both groups had an average age of 29 years. The average number of radiographic findings was 3 for the shoulder and 7 for the elbow. Comparing pitchers on the disabled list for a shoulder or elbow injury with those not on the disabled list demonstrated no significant difference in the age, number of seasons pitched, or number of innings pitched between the 2 groups. When individual radiographic findings were compared, no single finding was predictive of disabled list status (P >.05 in all cases). The sum of radiographic findings for the shoulder was significantly correlated with the number of innings pitched in professional baseball
Fullinwider, Robert K.
Roughly forty million boys and girls between the ages of 5 and 18 take part in organized athletic activities, most of which are not school-based. Boys and girls play in sports as varied as swimming, baseball, soccer, wrestling, and field hockey. The great majority participate in "recreational" leagues in which teams enroll all-comers, compete…
Miko?ajec, Kazimierz; Maszczyk, Adam; Zaj?c, Tomasz
The main goal of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best determine sports level in the National Basketball Association (NBA) league. The research material consisted of all NBA game statistics at the turn of eight seasons (2003?11) and included 52 performance variables. Through detailed analysis the variables with high influence on game effectiveness were selected for final procedures. It has been proven that a limited number of factors, mostly offen...
Full Text Available This paper is aimed at comparing the use of technique elements by the teams and players who play in the elite level club competition Champions League and the Serbian professional football league. The results of the study were obtained by observing an overall of 20 randomly chosen games, 10 from the Champions League (CL and 10 from the Serbian SuperLiga (SSL. The processing and analysis of the results included each contact with the ball of the players during the play. In the previously designed observing protocol we recorded each technical element, of five groups of technical elements: ball kicks (6 variables - elements, ball receiving (12 variables - elements, disguising movements and dribbles (6 variables - elements, takeover and carrying the ball. The research showed that there are differences in using of certain technical elements in the two analysed competitions. Kicks, receiving and carrying of the ball are significantly more used in the CL while no differences were manifested regarding the use of certain types of kicks and ball receiving. Additionally, there are differences in distribution of certain types of kicks and ball receiving. In the CL significantly more applied are instep drives (70% of all kicks, while in the SSL headers and inside part hard kicks are by far more frequent compared to the CL. The way of ball receiving is partially conditioned by the stated difference in ball kick usage so exploiting of instep ball receiving (rolling ball is the dominant element of ball receiving technique especially in the competitions of the CL. Dribbling application did not show any difference between the football players of the two analysed competitions, where the basic dribbles were the most applied ones (65-70%.
Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben; O'Hara, John; Barlow, Matthew; Brightmore, Amy; Lees, Matthew; Hind, Karen
To compare the body size and 3-compartment body composition between academy and senior professional rugby league players using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Academy (age 18.1 ± 1.1 y, n = 34) and senior (age 26.2 ± 4.6 y, n = 63) rugby league players received 1 total-body DXA scan. Height, body mass, and body-fat percentage alongside total and regional fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) were compared. Independent t tests with Cohen d effect sizes and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for height and body mass, with partial eta-squared (η2) effect sizes, were used to compare total and regional body composition. Senior players were taller (183.2 ± 5.8 vs 179.2 ± 5.7 cm, P = .001, d = 0.70) and heavier (96.5 ± 9.3 vs 86.5 ± 9.0 kg, P MANCOVA identified significant overall main effects for total and regional body composition between academy and senior players. Senior players had lower total fat mass (P < .001, η2 = 0.15), greater total lean mass (P < .001, η2 = 0.14), and greater total BMC (P = .001, η2 = 0.12) than academy players. For regional sites, academy players had significantly greater fat mass at the legs (P < .001, η2 = 0.29) than senior players. The lower age, height, body mass, and BMC of academy players suggest that these players are still developing musculoskeletal characteristics. Gradual increases in lean mass and BMC while controlling fat mass is an important consideration for practitioners working with academy rugby league players, especially in the lower body.
Giménez Rodríguez, David
Treball Final de Grau en Psicologia. Codi: PS1048. Curs acadèmic 2014-2015 La autoeficacia es un constructo con enorme importancia dentro del campo de la psicología. Debido a esto, han sido muchos los autores que han intentado investigar sobre dicho constructos en diferentes ámbitos de la vida. Aunque se encuentran numerosos estudios sobre autoeficacia en el ámbito deportivo, e incluso en deportes específicos, no existen investigaciones en lo que respecta a los e-sports. Por el...
Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir
Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Paul Ciprian Patic
Full Text Available The organizers of the 9th edition of the Professional Contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION" were, as usual, the Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, together with the Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary and the Students League.
Wheeler, Robert F.
Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)
Male-dominated and sex segregated elite professional and amateur sport1 in North America constitutes a "sport nexus" (Burstyn, 1999; Heywood & Dworkin, 2003) that combines economic and cultural influence to reinforce and perpetuate gender injustice. The sport nexus is an androcentric sex-segregated commercially powerful set of institutions that is highly visible and at the same time almost completely taken for granted to the extent that its anti-democratic impetus goes virtually unnoticed...
Collins, L.; Collins, D
As a comparatively recent development, the adventure-sports coach struggles for a clear and distinct identity. The generic term ‘instructor’ no longer characterizes the role and function of this subgroup of outdoor professionals. Indeed, although the fields of adventure/outdoor education and leadership are comparatively well researched, the arrival of this ‘new kid on the block’ appears to challenge both the adventure-sports old guard and traditional views of sports coaching. In an attempt to...
Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Stanley, H. Eugene
Statistical analysis is a major aspect of baseball, from player averages to historical benchmarks and records. Much of baseball fanfare is based around players exceeding the norm, some in a single game and others over a long career. Career statistics serve as a metric for classifying players and establishing their historical legacy. However, the concept of records and benchmarks assumes that the level of competition in baseball is stationary in time. Here we show that power law probability density functions, a hallmark of many complex systems that are driven by competition, govern career longevity in baseball. We also find similar power laws in the density functions of all major performance metrics for pitchers and batters. The use of performance-enhancing drugs has a dark history, emerging as a problem for both amateur and professional sports. We find statistical evidence consistent with performance-enhancing drugs in the analysis of home runs hit by players in the last 25 years. This is corroborated by the findings of the Mitchell Report (2007), a two-year investigation into the use of illegal steroids in Major League Baseball, which recently revealed that over 5 percent of Major League Baseball players tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs in an anonymous 2003 survey.
Nor, Shahdiba Binti Md; Mahmud, Zamalia
The analysis of sports data has always aroused great interest among statisticians and sports data have been investigated from different perspectives often aim at forecasting the results. The study focuses on the 12 teams who join the Malaysian Super League (MSL) for season 2015. This paper used Bayesian Expectation Maximization for Generalized Bradley Terry Model to estimate all the football team's rankings. The Generalized Bradley-Terry model is possible to find the maximum likelihood (ML) estimate of the skill ratings λ using a simple iterative procedure. In order to maximize the function of ML, we need inferential bayesian method to get posterior distribution which can be computed quickly. The team's ability was estimated based on the previous year's game results by calculating the probability of winning based on the final scores for each team. It was found that model with tie scores does make a difference in affect the model of estimating the football team's ability in winning the next match. However, team with better results in the previous year has a better chance for scoring in the next game.
Rowan, Chip P; Kuropkat, Christiane; Gumieniak, Robert J; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K
The sport of ice hockey requires coordination of complex skills involving musculoskeletal and physiological abilities while simultaneously exposing players to a high risk for injury. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) was developed to assess fundamental movement patterns that underlie both sport performance and injury risk. The top 111 elite junior hockey players from around the world took part in the 2013 National Hockey League Entry Draft Combine (NHL Combine). The FMS was integrated into the comprehensive medical and physiological fitness evaluations at the request of strength and conditioning coaches with affiliations to NHL teams. The inclusion of the FMS aimed to help develop strategies that could maximize its utility among elite hockey players and to encourage or inform further research in this field. This study evaluated the outcomes of integrating the FMS into the NHL Combine and identified any links to other medical plus physical and physiological fitness assessment outcomes. These potential associations may provide valuable information to identify elements of future training programs that are individualized to athletes' specific needs. The results of the FMS (total score and number of asymmetries identified) were significantly correlated to various body composition measures, aerobic and anaerobic fitness, leg power, timing of recent workouts, and the presence of lingering injury at the time of the NHL Combine. Although statistically significant correlations were observed, the implications of the FMS assessment outcomes remain difficult to quantify until ongoing assessment of FMS patterns, tracking of injuries, and hockey performance are available.
Oleg N. Barabanov
Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the key stages of the establishment of Italy’s Northern League as a rightwing hard eurosceptic party. Being initially a continual supporter of European integration and considering the transition to common currency as an opportunity available only to northern regions, which could secede and form an independent state, Northern League after losing the main point of its political agenda when the whole Italy joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1998, became a eurosceptically-oriented party, which it is up to now. The authors dwell on the focal points of the party’s anti-EU program: Italy’s exit from the eurozone, the formation of Europe of macroregions, the reformation of supranational institutes and decision-making procedures. However, while confronting the Northern League policy with that of National Front in France and UKIP in the United Kingdom, the authors come to the conclusion that Euroscepticism for the former is just a sign of the shift in priorities rather than a strategy as for the latter. This can be explained by the fact that National Front and UKIP are still to fight for the place in the national mainstream, while Northern League has become its integral part long before. Nevertheless, under the new leadership of M.Salvini Northern League managed to become the fourth party on the national level according to the results of European parliament elections in 2014 and established itself as a significant power opponent to EU policy on a number of important issues, such as anti-Russian sanctions. Moreover, frequent visits of party members to Moscow and the party’s outspoken support of Russia on Crimea’s entrance into the Russian Federation provide an opportunity to consider Northern League a potential conductor of Russian interests in the European Union.
McNamara, Andrew R; Ensell, Scott; Farley, Timothy D
Friction blisters are a common sequela of many athletic activities. Their significance can range from minor annoyance to major performance disruptions. The latter is particularly true in baseball pitchers, who sustain repeated trauma between the baseball seams and the fingers of the pitching hand, predominately at the tips of the index and long fingers. Since 2010, 6 Major League Baseball (MLB) players accounted for 7 stints on the disabled list (DL) due to blisters. These injuries resulted in a total of 151 days spent on the DL. Since 2012, 8 minor league players spent time on the DL due to blisters. Moreover, there have been several documented and publicized instances of professional baseball pitchers suffering blisters that did not require placement on the DL but did result in injury time and missed starts. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology and pathophysiology of friction blisters with particular reference to baseball pitchers; provide an overview of past and current prevention methods; and discuss our experience in treating friction blisters in MLB pitchers.
The South African Journal of Sports Medicineis an international, refereed journal published for professionals with a primary interest in sports medicine and exercise science practice. The journal publishes original research and reviews covering diagnostics, therapeutics and rehabilitation in healthy and physically challenged ...
Moriarty, Micheline Wyn
The benefits of sport and physical activity are endorsed by a number of professionals as a means of improving children's health and their sense of well-being, and their unity with the natural world, other people and the Transcendent. For children, sport is a spiritual source of joy and wonder. Using Champagne's "spiritual modes of…
Zaichkowsky, Leonard; Naylor, Adam
The purpose of this article is to introduce psychologists and counselors who work in schools to the field of applied sport psychology. We begin with a brief history of how applied sport psychology developed in North America and other parts of the world. Landmark events such as the development of conferences, professional organizations and…
Malina, Robert M
Year-round training in a single sport beginning at a relatively young age is increasingly common among youth. Contributing factors include perceptions of Eastern European sport programs, a parent's desire to give his or her child an edge, labeling youth as talented at an early age, pursuit of scholarships and professional contracts, the sporting goods and services industry, and expertise research. The factors interact with the demands of sport systems. Limiting experiences to a single sport is not the best path to elite status. Risks of early specialization include social isolation, overdependence, burnout, and perhaps risk of overuse injury. Commitment to a single sport at an early age immerses a youngster in a complex world regulated by adults, which is a setting that facilitates manipulation - social, dietary, chemical, and commercial. Youth sport must be kept in perspective. Participants, including talented young athletes, are children and adolescents with the needs of children and adolescents.
Gavryushina Ekaterina Alexandrovna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of cultural and mental specificity of language units in the sport communication. The study was conducted on the material of English, Russian and German analytical articles, thematically related to tennis. Using the technique of cross-language comparison it is revealed significant characteristic parameters of sports discourse. The proposed comparative procedure consists in three stages of analysis: linguistic, cognitive-communicative and linguistic-cultural. During the analysis at each step there were identified certain criteria specific to the sport discourse in three linguasocieties. Sport communication reflects not only the specificity and originality of the language, but also the traditions, history, mentality, culture, and behavior patterns of modern professional sport community. Comparative study of sport discourse reveals the cultural, linguistic and cognitive features of sublanguage sports and allows to get a common view of the structure of sport analytical articles.
Elgán, Tobias H; Durbeej, Natalie; Holder, Harold D; Gripenberg, Johanna
Alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events and related problems, such as violence, are of great concern in many countries around the world. However, knowledge is scarce about whether or not alcohol is served to obviously intoxicated spectators at licensed premises inside and outside the sporting arenas, and if obviously intoxicated spectators are allowed entrance to these events. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the occurrences of overserving at licensed premises inside and outside arenas, and of allowed entry of obviously intoxicated spectators into arenas. An observational study assessing the rate of denied alcohol service and denied entry to arenas of trained professional actors portraying a standardized scene of obvious alcohol intoxication (i.e., pseudo-patrons) was conducted. The scene was developed by an expert panel, and each attempt was monitored by an observer. The settings were 2 arenas hosting matches in the Swedish Premier Football League in the largest city in Sweden and 1 arena in the second largest city, including entrances and licensed premises inside and outside the arenas. The rates of denied alcohol service were 66.9% at licensed premises outside the arenas (n = 151) and 24.9% at premises inside the arenas (n = 237). The rate of denied entry to the arenas (n = 102) was 10.8%. Overserving and allowed entry of obviously alcohol-intoxicated spectators are problematic at sporting events in Sweden and may contribute to high overall intoxication levels among spectators. The differences in server intervention rates indicate that serving staff at licensed premises inside the arenas and entrance staff are not likely to have been trained in responsible beverage service. This result underscores the need for server training among staff at the arenas. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Hutter, R. I (Vana); Pijpers, J. R (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.
Competent practice in sport psychology is of utmost importance for the professional status of the field, and hence proper assessment of competence for sport psychology practice is needed. We describe three cycles of action research to improve the assessment of competence in a sport psychology
Pooley, John C.
Physical education and sports programs have the potential to enhance the quality of life. Cheating and violence in sports have become international problems that tarnish the credibility of athletic programs. Professionals need to emphasize good sportsmanship and fair play in sports programs. (DF)
Municipalities throughout South Africa face increased demand for sport services. To meet this demand, they employ a variety of sport professionals, among whom are municipal sport officers. To prevent the voluntary turnover of their employees, municipalities have the obligation to ensure that the needs and expectations of ...
Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation is a professional journal of the Association of Psychology in Sport and Human Behaviour. It publishes a wide variety of original articles and reports relevant to cultural and sport behaviour, theoretical propositions, research outcomes ...
Los profesionales de la organización y gestión de actividad física y deporte en las instalaciones deportivas y entidades: características socio-demográficas y formativas. The professionals of the organization and management of physical activity and sport in the sports facilities and entities: typical associate demographic and formative.
Campos Izquierdo, Antonio
Full Text Available ResumenEste artículo pertenece al estudio realizado en la Comunidad Valenciana sobre la situación profesional de las personas que trabajan en funciones de actividad física y deporte. Primeramente se contextualiza las tareas de organización y gestión de la actividad física y deporte en el mercado laboral de la actividad física y el deporte y después se detalla aspectos específicos profesionales y técnicos de esta función laboral. Posteriormente se describe, reflexiona y concluye diversos aspectos sobre las características sociodemográficas de las personas que realizan las tareas de organización y gestión de la actividad física y deporte así como sus características formativas y las necesidad de que existan titulados de la actividad física y del deporte en esta función laboral de actividad física y deporte y dentro de estos que estén los más acordes según su formación y cualificación.AbstractThis article is based on the study realized in the Valencian Community on the professional situation of the persons who are employed at functions of physical activity and deport. Initially it is located the tasks of organization and management of the physical activity and sport on the labour market of the physical activity and the sport and later there are detailed specific professional and technical aspects of this labour function. Later it is described, thinks over and concludes diverse aspects on the characteristics demographic of the persons who realize the tasks of organization and management of the physical activity and deport as well as his formative characteristics and the need of which there exist graduates of the physical activity and of the sport in this labour function of physical activity and deport and inside these that are the most identical according to his formation and qualification.
Jones, David R.
The aim of this paper is to explore the institutional impact of sustainability league tables on current university agendas. It focuses on a narrative critique of one such league table, the UK's "Green League Table", compiled and reported by the student campaigning NGO, "People & Planet" annually between 2007 and 2013.…
Lawson-Graves, Winifert E.
Increasingly, females are taking the helm as president of colleges and universities in the United States, yet men still hold the majority of presidential positions (ACE, 2012). The Ivy League is an exception. In the Ivy League, the presidency is held by an equal number of females and males. For three of four Ivy League institutions where females…
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Breedveld, K.; Kamphuis, C.; Tiessen-Raaphorst, A.
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger in
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Cusimano, Michael D; Ilie, Gabriela; Mullen, Sarah J; Pauley, Christopher R; Stulberg, Jennifer R; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Zhang, Stanley
In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13-15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey. Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player's social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players' need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of the players' motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules.
Michael D Cusimano
Full Text Available In North America, more than 800,000 youth are registered in organized ice hockey leagues. Despite the many benefits of involvement, young players are at significant risk for injury. Body-checking and aggressive play are associated with high frequency of game-related injury including concussion. We conducted a qualitative study to understand why youth ice hockey players engage in aggressive, injury-prone behaviours on the ice.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 61 minor ice hockey participants, including male and female players, parents, coaches, trainers, managers and a game official. Players were aged 13-15 playing on competitive body checking teams or on non-body checking teams. Interviews were manually transcribed, coded and analyzed for themes relating to aggressive play in minor ice hockey.Parents, coaches, teammates and the media exert a large influence on player behavior. Aggressive behavior is often reinforced by the player's social environment and justified by players to demonstrate loyalty to teammates and especially injured teammates by seeking revenge particularly in competitive, body-checking leagues. Among female and male players in non-body checking organizations, aggressive play is not reinforced by the social environment. These findings are discussed within the framework of social identity theory and social learning theory, in order to understand players' need to seek revenge and how the social environment reinforces aggressive behaviors.This study provides a better understanding of the players' motivations and environmental influences around aggressive and violent play which may be conducive to injury. The findings can be used to help design interventions aimed at reducing aggression and related injuries sustained during ice hockey and sports with similar cultures and rules.
Hanna, W A; Laier, P
Each year 3.1% of German adults suffer from accidents related to sports and 75% of the injured athletes are male between 20 and 29 years old. The upper limbs are affected in more than 20% of cases and one third of these injuries involve the hands and fingers. More than half a million athletes are organized in combat sport associations in Germany with an increasing trend. Combat sports are commonly said to have a high risk of injuries to the hand. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis as well as to describe typical hand injuries associated with combat sports. A systematic review of literature (up to January 2015) in PubMed/Medline and The Cochrane Library as well as a secondary search in the reference lists were carried out. Conclusive comparative studies on the incidence and severity of hand injuries directly related to combat sports action could not be found in the currently available literature. The overall risk of suffering from a sports injury seems to be relatively low in combat sports compared to other sports. Boxing, however, seems to be the most dangerous sport for injuries to the upper extremities and especially the hand. The injury pattern after punching (emergency patients and professional boxers) shows that more than half of these fractures affect the 5th metacarpal and 25% of these are the classical boxer's fracture. This differs significantly from the fracture distribution generally associated with sports, where fractures of the phalanges are the most common. Two rare conditions that may occur as a result of repeated punching are referred to as carpal bossing and boxer's knuckle and excellent results are described for both injury forms after surgical therapy.
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
Sarah A. MacLean
Full Text Available Background: The National Football League (NFL Super Bowl is a widely-viewed sports event and the commercials are especially popular among viewers. Previous research has demonstrated risky health behaviors in advertisements aired during sporting events. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the advertisements aired during the 2017 NFL Super Bowl. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved examining the content of all commercials, with an emphasis on health-compromising behaviors. The themes and highlights of the advertisements were analyzed based on whether there was a reference to alcohol or violence. Results: A total of 103 unique commercials were analyzed. The most common themes were humor (n=43, happiness (n=25, innovation (n=25, and enjoyment or relaxation (n=25.Alcohol was referenced in 13 (12.6%, 95% CI 7.5%, 20.4% of the commercials. Advertisements with alcohol references were more likely to contain the themes of partying (odds ratio [OR]:16.2, 95% CI 1.4-193.4, P=0.041 and enjoyment or relaxation (OR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.4-15.6,P=0.014. There were 24 commercials with references to violence and these were more likely tobe promoting a movie (OR: 5.4, 95% CI 3.5-8.2, P<0.001 or television program (OR: 8.9,95% CI 2.6-30.26, P<0.001. Conclusion: Parents should consider whether it is appropriate for their children to watch a concentrated number of intense images containing references to alcohol and violence during this popular sporting event.
MacLean, Sarah A; Basch, Corey H; Garcia, Philip
Background: The National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl is a widely-viewed sports event and the commercials are especially popular among viewers. Previous research has demonstrated risky health behaviors in advertisements aired during sporting events. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the advertisements aired during the 2017 NFL Super Bowl. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved examining the content of all commercials, with an emphasis on health-compromising behaviors. The themes and highlights of the advertisements were analyzed based on whether there was a reference to alcohol or violence. Results: A total of 103 unique commercials were analyzed. The most common themes were humor (n=43), happiness (n=25), innovation (n=25), and enjoyment or relaxation (n=25).Alcohol was referenced in 13 (12.6%, 95% CI 7.5%, 20.4%) of the commercials. Advertisements with alcohol references were more likely to contain the themes of partying (odds ratio [OR]:16.2, 95% CI 1.4-193.4, P=0.041) and enjoyment or relaxation (OR: 4.7, 95% CI 1.4-15.6,P=0.014). There were 24 commercials with references to violence and these were more likely tobe promoting a movie (OR: 5.4, 95% CI 3.5-8.2, Ptelevision program (OR: 8.9,95% CI 2.6-30.26, P<0.001). Conclusion: Parents should consider whether it is appropriate for their children to watch a concentrated number of intense images containing references to alcohol and violence during this popular sporting event.
Bonacci, Jason; Manson, Brent; Bowe, Steven J; Gill, Stephen; Seward, Hugh; Hoy, Greg; Page, Richard
The purpose of this study was to review the surgical management procedures of shoulder instability injuries in Australian Football League (AFL) players, and determine outcomes regarding return to sport and injury recurrence. Retrospective cohort study. Elite AFL players with shoulder instability resulting in surgery were assessed in a retrospective cohort design (72 players/77 shoulders). Type of initial injury, surgical management, return to sport and injury recurrence were obtained. The mean follow-up period post-surgery was 2.9 years. Return to sport outcomes were compared between arthroscopic and open surgery using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Logistic regression modelling was used to determine associations between injury recurrence, type of injury, participant age and method of surgery. Shoulder instability injuries occurred most frequently during tackling (40%). Arthroscopic surgery was preferred for primary shoulder instability. Nine (16%) recurrences occurred in those who underwent arthroscopic surgery compared to two (9%) following open surgery. Return to the elite level was slightly but significantly (2 weeks, p=0.049) longer for open compared to arthroscopic surgery. Recurrence was 5 times more likely if the primary injury was a dislocation and more likely in players who were younger at the time of surgery. Tackling was the predominant mechanism for shoulder instability injuries in AFL players and arthroscopic surgery was more commonly performed for primary injuries. Sustaining a dislocation as the primary injury and younger age increased the likelihood of recurrent instability. Careful consideration should be given to the operative management of these individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The posting system used in major league baseball to obtain free agent players from Japan has some similarities and many differences from the transfer system used to obtain foreign free agents in European football. This paper uses auction theory to assess the efficiencies (or lack of) in the posting system and to suggest alternatives.
Full Text Available Using a Major League Baseball (MLB baseball field template for guidelines, we estimate the cost of building the largest possible field accepted under MLB standards. This includes finding the areas of both the clay and grassy regions and determining how many bags of clay and fertilizer are required to cover the field.
Kalist, David E.; Peng, Yingwei
The authors used duration analysis to examine the longevity of Major League Baseball players. Using data on players who were born between 1945 and 1964, the authors found that the hazard rate of death for players who only attended high school was almost 2.0 times higher than those players who attended a 4-year university, evidence that the…
This study aims to address this issue by exploring the reasons for providing sponsorship to super league football teams in Botswana. Ten representatives from the companies identified as potential sponsors from the Broadhurst Industrial Area and Gaborone Commercial Park were interviewed. An analysis of the data ...
Wang, Andreas; Lilleslåtten, Martin Langslet; Svarverud, Sondre
Dockit League is a project focused around creating a multiplayer online battle arena(MOBA) game using the Unity game engine. The game revolves around playing against other players in a competitive environment, using Docking Kits which provide players with different tools and abilities. This thesis will go through the development of the game and detail how the project evolved throughout the process.
The paper intends to contribute to the debate on ranking and league tables by adopting a critical approach to ranking methodologies from the point of view of a university benchmarking exercise. The absence of a strict benchmarking exercise in the ranking process has been, in the opinion of the author, one of the major problems encountered in the…
This study presents a profile of the body composition and somatotype characteristics of male Zimbabwean league basketball players, which information is lacking. Twenty six players aged 22.0±5.3 years were purposively sampled from the top teams of the Bulawayo Basketball Association. Anthropometric variables were ...
Alan Moore and Kevin O’Neill’s series The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, published since 1999, depicts a world which is populated by characters of fiction, from Allan Quatermain and Captain Nemo to James Bond and Harry Potter. The result is not only a meta-fictional bricolage of cornerstones...