WorldWideScience

Sample records for professional simultaneous interpreters

  1. Problems at simultaneous interpreting education: linguadidactic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishkova Elena Jurievna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problems which students are facing while mastering the skills of a simultaneous interpreting. The article offers a number of exercises to help solve these problems. The authors underline that it is hardly possible to prepare professional simultaneous interpreters among undergraduates for some reasons, and above all because of insufficient time and absence of technical equipment. Nevertheless, the authors conclude by stating the importance of systematic development of students' perceptive skills, attention, memory and reaction required for providing simultaneous interpreting. The main difficulties in simultaneous interpreting training can be connected with three stages of interpreting: listening, comprehension and speaking. Listening challenges deal with a bad speaker’s pronunciation, some technical problems, as well as regional accents or pigeons. As for comprehension problems they are usually connected with the fact that the interpreter isn’t well grounded in the discussion topic, or he isn’t good at topic terminology. It stands to reason that a well-skilled interpreter should prepare to the interpreting topic beforehand. Speaking difficulties can be connected with a poor interpreter’s pronunciation, often caused a stress factor and a lack of topic knowledge. As a rule an excellent pronunciation, a good articulation and a trained voice are necessary for a professional interpreter. The main principal of training exercises given in this article covers all interpreting difficulties mentioned above.

  2. Simultaneous interpreting: A cognitive perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Groot, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is one of the most complex language tasks imaginable. During SI, one has to listen to and comprehend the input utterance in one language, keep it in working memory until it has been receded and can be produced in the other language, and produce the translation of an

  3. Components of simultaneous interpreting: Comparing interpreting with shadowing and paraphrasing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Groot, A.M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex task where the interpreter is routinely involved in comprehending, translating and producing language at the same time. This study assessed two components that are likely to be major sources of complexity in SI: The simultaneity of comprehension and production,

  4. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  5. Expertise, Working Memory and Articulatory Suppression Effect: Their Relation with Simultaneous Interpreting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injoque-Ricle, Irene; Barreyro, Juan Pablo; Formoso, Jesica; Jaichenco, Virginia I

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex bilingual verbal activity that involves the auditory perception of an oral communication and the production of a coherent discourse. One of the cognitive functions underlying simultaneous interpreting is working memory. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between expertise, working memory capacity and articulatory suppression effect, and the ability to perform simultaneous interpreting. For this purpose, four working memory tasks and one simultaneous interpreting task were administered to thirty Spanish-speaking professional English interpreters. Results showed that simultaneous interpreting ability might be supported by the working memory´s capacity to store or process information, but also by the ability of the interpreter to cope with the articulatory suppression effect. We conclude that interpreters may have or develop resources to support the effect caused by articulatory suppression.

  6. [The professional interpreter disappears: quality is jeopardized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk-van den Berg, Irene; Verdonk, Petra; Abma, Tineke

    2014-01-01

    According to Dutch law, patients have the right to comprehensible communication. However, professional interpreters are not being used sufficiently: health care providers often do not recognize when language barriers interfere with comprehension. The use of professional interpreters declined even further when the Dutch government withdrew its funding for medical interpreters in January 2012. Additionally, the government's stance that non-native speakers have to master the language and organize translating help when needed seems to have given a signal to health care providers that this is not their responsibility. Nonetheless, health care providers are obliged by law to provide comprehensible information. Therefore, it is important to provide proper training so they can recognize language barriers and know when a professional interpreter is necessary. In addition, a financial aid system needs to be developed for those patients who cannot reasonably be expected to have mastered the language.

  7. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous interpreting is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, language production in a second language among others. It is however an open issue whether persons with experience in simultaneous interpreting possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations.

  8. The Optimum Text in Simultaneous Interpreting: A Cognitive Approach to Interpreters' Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexieva, Bistra

    A discussion of text translatability in simultaneous interpreting (SI) looks at semantic redundancy, the repetition of semantic components essential to creating an utterance, and offers some classroom techniques for teaching interpreting skills. It is proposed that the translatability of a text in SI should be studied in terms of the experiential…

  9. Using professional interpreters in undergraduate medical consultation skills teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aarti Bansal,1 Jennifer Swann,1 William Henry Smithson2 1Academic Unit of Primary Medical Care, University of Sheffield, UK; 2Department of General Practice, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in

  10. Cognitive Models of Professional Communication Discourse on Teaching the Interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshchanskaya Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the discourse on professional institutional communication and its modeling for training the interpreters. The aim of the study is the analysis of the cognitive models of the above discourse relating to the present development stage of the cognitive linguistics. The author makes the conclusion emphasizing the paradigmatic and syntagmatic orientation of the selected cognitive models and outlines the constant and variable factors for developing the didactic model of the professional communication discourse. The paper presents the discourse-analysis model of professional communication based on the systematic approach and designed for the case study of the mediated communication. The obtained results can be used for training both the interpreters and other professionals for whom the discursive competence is the key one. 

  11. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  12. Enunciative analysis of modals in libras-portuguese simultaneous interpretation's corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Almeida-Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the work of the sign Language interpreter in the condition of a second speaker within the speech production. These professionals, when interpreting, they look for re-create [actualize] the emanated concepts from the source language into the target language, creating, then, a second enunciative instance. The theoretical basis is situated in the perspective of the theory of enunciation (BENVENISTE, 1989; FLORES, 2008, 2009a, 2009b, 2010 and in the study of the modals in spoken languages and LIBRAS. We aim to find what are the marks left in the discourse by the second speaker of the text, in this case, the interpreter, regarding specifically to the use of modals, and additionally, to analyze their choices for using one or other type of modal (in the target text, which might have been made explicit or implicit in the first enunciative context (source text. In order to reach these goals, sampling was composed by a transcription of a video-recorded speech of a deaf person with the length of 40’ (forty minutes that was being simultaneously interpreted into spoken Portuguese. Six excerpts from the total speech, in which modal’s occurrences were attested within the source or target language, were submitted to the analysis. The main findings are: 1. the tendency of the deontic modality being almost always interpreted in the same way of the source language; 2. the interpreting choices are always guided by enunciative clues that are left in the speech of the first speaker, to which the interpreters must to demonstrate expertise in recognizing these language-specific aspects; 3. in the absence of explicit modals in the speech, the interpreters appears to be sensible to the modal’s notions spread by the whole text’s surface; 4. the temporal omission of epistemic modals with a high degree of certainty is understood as an interpretative strategy and not as an infidelity with the original information; 5. the term “tempo de

  13. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  14. Simultaneous interpreting as an aid in parallel-medium tertiary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    "those who need these hearing aids not to take them out of the conference venue as they are not remote controls or radios, and cannot be used to replay Mandela's speech in your room later on!" I have found that the best way to ensure that people make use of interpreting services is to hand out headsets personally, and.

  15. Language Labs and Translation Booths: Simultaneous Interpretation as a Learner Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Sane M.

    2000-01-01

    Reports successful outcomes for a Teaching English as a Foreign Language module based on simultaneous oral translation from Arabic into English. Learners worked individually in a traditional language laboratory. Results show that simultaneous interpretation significantly improves learner performance and is an excellent tool for diagnosing learner…

  16. Investigating the production of syntax-gesture interface constructions in intermodal simultaneous interpreting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lourenço

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the production of gestural and spatial constructions in intermodal simultaneous interpreting. Here, it is assumed that the spatial constructions in signed languages involve an external interface between syntax and the gestural space. In this sense, considering the Interface Hypothesis (SORACE, 2006, 2011, the occurrence of residual optionality is expected in an L2 production of these constructions. In addition, it is argued that the simultaneous interpreting process is cognitively demanding, resulting in an increased residual optionality in the production of sign language interpreters. Thus, an empirical study was conducted in order to compare the production of Brazilian Sign Language interpreters in three different tasks, to wit: a simultaneous interpreting task, a translation task and a translation task with a visual aid. The result is that there is statistically more production of spatial constructions in the translation tasks compared to the interpreting task. Additionally, the visual input enhances the production of spatial structures. On the other hand, there was a statistically greater quantity of non-target production in interpreting task than in translation tasks. No effect of the visual input on the occurrence of non-target production was identified.

  17. Investigating the production of syntax-gesture interface constructions in intermodal simultaneous interpreting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lourenço

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the production of gestural and spatial constructions in intermodal simultaneous interpreting. Here, it is assumed that the spatial constructions in signed languages involve an external interface between syntax and the gestural space. In this sense, considering the Interface Hypothesis (SORACE, 2006, 2011, the occurrence of residual optionality is expected in an L2 production of these constructions. In addition, it is argued that the simultaneous interpreting process is cognitively demanding, resulting in an increased residual optionality in the production of sign language interpreters. Thus, an empirical study was conducted in order to compare the production of Brazilian Sign Language interpreters in three different tasks, to wit: a simultaneous interpreting task, a translation task and a translation task with a visual aid. The result is that there is statistically more production of spatial constructions in the translation tasks compared to the interpreting task. Additionally, the visual input enhances the production of spatial structures. On the other hand, there was a statistically greater quantity of non-target production in interpreting task than in translation tasks. No effect of the visual input on the occurrence of non-target production was identified.

  18. Reevaluation of the effect of mandatory interpreter legislation on use of professional interpreters for ED patients with language barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginde, Adit A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Corel, Blanka; Caceres, J Alfredo; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-11-01

    We sought to compare emergency department (ED) use of professional interpreters in 2008 to previously reported 2002 data. We surveyed consecutive adult patients for two 24-h periods at 4 Boston EDs in 2008. We used identical questions as in our 2002 study to assess English language barriers and to measure use and type of interpreter for those with language barriers. We enrolled 498 patients (66% of eligible). Of these, 8% had a significant English language barrier, but any interpreter was used for only 69% of these patients; the corresponding data for 2002 were 11% and 89%, respectively. In 2008, compared to 2002, professional interpreter use was similar (18% vs. 15%; p = 0.70), but a friend or family member interpreted more often (59% vs. 24%; pinterpreters by Boston ED patients with language barriers remained low, despite publicity of the state mandatory interpreter law. However, a majority were comfortable with a friend or family member serving as the interpreter for the clinical encounter, a finding that may contribute to the limited usage of professional interpreters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EXPERIENCE IN PROFESSIONAL SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETERS’ TRAINING IN MODERN MULTICULTURAL NVIRONMENT OF A UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Куца

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of development of highly experienced simultaneous interpreters training is grounded. Advantages of simultaneous interpreting in modern multicultural communicational space are revealed. Technical specifications of simultaneous interpreting laboratory at TNPU are described and their compliance with international standards is presented. Theoretical framework of the course is featured. Video materials selection requirements for practical work in the laboratory of simultaneous translation are presented. Students’ opinion on the domain and type of the course video materials is studied. The content of the practical course in MOODLE platform is considered.

  20. Lost in translation: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of mental health professionals' experiences of empathy in clinical work with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Matthew A; Vetere, Arlene

    2009-09-01

    Although empathy is considered by many to be fundamental to psychotherapeutic practice, little is known about how working with an interpreter may affect empathy in clinical work. Accordingly, the present study aims to provide an exploration of mental health professionals' experiences of empathy in clinical work with an interpreter. A qualitative methodology was utilized in order to provide a rich understanding of participants' shared experiences of empathy in work with an interpreter. Data were gathered using a semi-structured interviewing approach. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was chosen as the method of analysis as this would provide a highly descriptive and in-depth account of participants' experiences. Interviews were conducted with 10 mental health professionals regularly working with linguistic interpreters. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using IPA. The analysis yielded four major themes which described the effects of translation upon empathic dialogues with service-users; changes in the quality of empathic communication with service-users; the effects of cultural similarities and dissimilarities upon empathy within client-interpreter and client-professional dyads; and opportunities for the interpreter to enrich participants' understanding of service-users' perspectives. The difficulties participants encountered in work with an interpreter highlight a need for training in cross-language empathy for interpreters and mental health professionals, and encourage the use of transcultural models of psychotherapy in work with non-English speaking service-users. Some of the difficulties associated with adopting traditional humanistic models of empathy, which tend to centralize the therapist within empathic processes, when working with interpreters are also discussed.

  1. Court Interpreters and Translators: Developing Ethical and Professional Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, Richard

    Changing needs in the courtroom have raised questions about the need for standards in court interpreter qualifications. In California, no formal training or familiarity with the legal system is required for certification, which is done entirely by language testing. The fact that often court interpreters are officers of the court may be…

  2. (Paralinguistic Correlates of Perceived Fluency in English-to-Chinese Simultaneous Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available (Paralinguistic parameters (e.g., un/filled pauses, speech rate are believed to underlie perceived fluency of simultaneous interpretation (SI. Little research, however, is available to ascertain whether and to what extent these (paralinguistic measures of SI fluency correlate with fluency ratings provided by human raters. This exploratory study investigates three questions: a how nine selected (paralinguistic parameters correlate with each other, b how the parameters correlate with rater-generated fluency ratings, and c which parameter or a combination of parameters could best discriminate an interpreter into pre-determined groups of interpretation fluency. The major results are: a three underlying dimensions of the perceived fluency emerged, including breakdown, speed, and repair fluency, b speech rate, phonation/time ratio, and mean length of a run had higher correlation with the fluency ratings, and c speech rate and phonation/time ratio were the best possible predictors of the interpreters’ group affiliation. Implications of the results are discussed regarding fluency assessment in SI. Keywords: Correlation, Disfluency, Fluency, (Paralinguistic Parameters, Simultaneous Interpretation

  3. Effect of simultaneous consolidation and creep on interpretation of test results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette Susanne

    2003-01-01

    A constitutive model describing the combined process of simultaneous consolidation and creep is used to evaluate the practical significance of time effects on iterpretation of test results and also on settlements in field. The constitutive model includes elastic strains, viscoplastic strains......, a yield stress and a hardening law and is generally formulated in three dimensions. The model is compared to other models and to traditional models of seperated processes of consolidation and creep. When a soil is assumed to consolidate and creep simultaneously the combined process depends on the strain...... rate or stress rate in the test. The results of conventional incremental consolidation tests have been evaluated based on the constitutive model, where the effect of rate has been considered. Focus is on preconsolidation stress, consolidation coefficient and interpretation of creep. Finally the model...

  4. Communicating with foreign language-speaking patients: is access to professional interpreters enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Alexander; Hudelson, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The importance of trained interpreters for ensuring adequate communication with limited English proficiency patients is well-established. However, in many contexts, health professionals continue to rely on ad hoc interpreters, such as bilingual employees or patients' relatives to provide linguistic assistance. This is worrisome because these strategies have been shown to be associated with poor quality health care. Examine attitudes and practices related to healthcare interpreting. Mailed, self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sample of medical and nursing department and service heads at the Geneva University Hospitals. Adequacy of attitudes and practices related to interpreter use. Ninety-nine questionnaires were completed and returned (66% response rate). Between 43% and 86% of respondents relied mainly on patients' relatives and bilingual employees for linguistic assistance, depending on the language in question. Professional interpreter use varied according to language (from 5% to 39%) and seems to reflect the availability of bilingual staff members for the different languages. Professional interpreters appear to be used only in the absence of other available options, due to cost concerns and scheduling difficulties. This practice is further reinforced by the belief that ad hoc interpreters are "good enough" even while recognizing the quality differential between trained and untrained interpreters (91.2% of respondents rated bilingual staff as satisfactory or good, and 79.5% rated family/friends as satisfactory or good). Simply making professional interpreter services available to healthcare professionals does not appear to guarantee their use for limited French proficiency (LFP) patients. Future efforts should focus on developing procedures for systematically identifying patients needing linguistic assistance, linguistic assistance strategies that are responsive to provider and institutional contexts and constraints, and institutional directives to

  5. Computerised decision support systems for healthcare professionals: an interpretative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Majeed, Azeem; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Computerised decision support systems are designed to support clinicians in making decisions and thereby enhance the quality and safety of care. We aimed to undertake an interpretative review of the empirical evidence on computerised decision support systems, their contexts of use, and summarise evidence on the effectiveness of these tools and insights into how these can be successfully implemented and adopted. We systematically searched the empirical literature to identify systematic literature reviews on computerised decision support applications and their impact on the quality and safety of healthcare delivery over a 13-year period (1997-2010). The databases searched included: MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, The Cochrane Methodology Register, The Health Technology Assessment Database, and The National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database. To be eligible for inclusion, systematic reviews needed to address computerised decision support systems, and at least one of the following: impact on safety; quality; or organisational, implementation or adoption considerations. Our searches yielded 121 systematic reviews relating to eHealth, of which we identified 41 as investigating computerised decision support systems. These indicated that, whilst there was a lack of investigating potential risks, such tools can result in improvements in practitioner performance in the promotion of preventive care and guideline adherence, particularly if specific information is available in real time and systems are effectively integrated into clinical workflows. However, the evidence regarding impact on patient outcomes was less clear-cut with reviews finding either no, inconsistent or modest benefits. Whilst the potential of clinical decision support systems in improving, in particular, practitioner performance is considerable, such technology may

  6. Computerised decision support systems for healthcare professionals: an interpretative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Cresswell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Computerised decision support systems are designed to support clinicians in making decisions and thereby enhance the quality and safety of care. We aimed to undertake an interpretative review of the empirical evidence on computerised decision support systems, their contexts of use, and summarise evidence on the effectiveness of these tools and insights into how these can be successfully implemented and adopted.Methods We systematically searched the empirical literature to identify systematic literature reviews on computerised decision support applications and their impact on the quality and safety of healthcare delivery over a 13-year period (1997–2010. The databases searched included: MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, The Cochrane Methodology Register, The Health Technology Assessment Database, and The National Health Service (NHS Economic Evaluation Database. To be eligible for inclusion, systematic reviews needed to address computerised decision support systems, and at least one of the following: impact on safety; quality; or organisational, implementation or adoption considerations.Results Our searches yielded 121 systematic reviews relating to eHealth, of which we identified 41 as investigating computerised decision support systems. These indicated that, whilst there was a lack of investigating potential risks, such tools can result in improvements in practitioner performance in the promotion of preventive care and guideline adherence, particularly if specific information is available in real time and systems are effectively integrated into clinical workflows. However, the evidence regarding impact on patient outcomes was less clear-cut with reviews finding either no, inconsistent or modest benefits.Conclusions Whilst the potential of clinical decision support systems in improving, in particular

  7. "Just Clicks": An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis of Professional Dancers' Experience of Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kate M.; Ollis, Stewart

    2006-01-01

    The subjective experience of flow in professional dancers was analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). Flow is believed to be a psychological state in which the mind and body "just click", creating optimal performance. Unfortunately, sport and performance research have severely neglected reviewing the flow experience in…

  8. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Basic skills in a complex task: A graphical model relating memory and lexical retrieval to simultaneous interpreting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffels, I.K.; de Gtoor, A.M.B.; Waldorp, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a complex skill, where language comprehension and production take place at the same time in two different languages. In this study we identified some of the basic cognitive skills involved in SI, focusing on the roles of memory and lexical retrieval. We administered

  10. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  11. Call for Papers: Special issue: The Ethics of Non-Professional Translation and Interpreting in Public Services and Legal Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Monzo; Melissa Wallace

    2017-01-01

    Translation and Interpreting Studies (TIS)Volume 15, Issue 1Special issue: The Ethics of Non-Professional Translation and Interpreting in Public Services and Legal SettingsGuest Editors: Esther Monzó-Nebot (Universitat Jaume I, Spain) and Melissa Wallace (University of Texas at San Antonio, United States)

  12. Interpreting change on the SCAT3 in professional ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Timo; Parkkari, Jari; Tuominen, Markku; Iverson, Grant L; Öhman, Juha; Vartiainen, Matti; Luoto, Teemu M

    2017-05-01

    To examine test-retest reliability of the SCAT3 for two consecutive seasons using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players, and to make recommendations for interpreting change on the test. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Preseason baseline testing was administered in the beginning of the seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to 179 professional male hockey players in rink side settings. The test-retest reliabilities of the SCAT3 components were uniformly low. However, the majority of athletes remained grossly within their own individual performance range when two pre-season SCAT3 baseline scores were compared to published normative reference values. Being tested by the same person or a different person did not influence the results. It was uncommon for the Symptom score to worsen by ≥3 points, the Symptom Severity score to worsen by ≥5 points, SAC total score to worsen by ≥3 points, M-BESS total error points to increase by ≥3, or the time to complete Tandem Gait to increase by ≥4s; each occurred in less than 10% of the sample. The SCAT3 has low test-retest reliability. Change scores should be interpreted with caution, and more research is needed to determine the clinical usefulness of the SCAT3 for diagnosing concussion and monitoring recovery. Careful examination of the natural distributions of difference scores provides clinicians with useful information on how to interpret change on the test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical professionalism in China and the United States: a transcultural interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao; Smith, Kirk L; Cong, Yali; Hu, Linying; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    As in other societies, medical professionalism in the Peoples' Republic of China has been rapidly evolving. One of the major events in this process was the endorsement in 2005 of the document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association (hereafter, the Charter)(1). More recently, a national survey, the first on such a large scale, was conducted on Chinese physicians' attitudes toward the fundamental principles and core commitments put forward in the Charter. Based on empirical findings from that study and comparing them to the published results of a similar American survey, the authors offer an in-depth interpretation of significant cross-cultural differences and important transcultural commonalities. The broader historical, socio-economic, and ethical issues relating to salient Chinese cultural practices such as family consent, familism (the custom of deferring decisions to family members), and the withholding of medical information, as well as controversial topics such as not respecting patients' autonomy, are examined. The Chinese Survey found that Chinese physicians supported the principles of the Charter in general. Here we argue that Chinese culture and traditional medical ethics are broadly compatible with the moral commitments demanded by modern medical professionalism. Methodologically and theoretically-recognizing the problems inherent in the hoary but still popular habit of dichotomizing cultures and in relativism-a transcultural approach is adopted that gives greater (due) weight to the internal moral diversity present within every culture, the common ground shared by different cultures, and the primacy of morality. Genuine cross-cultural dialogue, including a constructive Chinese-American dialogue in the area of medical professionalism, is not only possible, but necessary. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  14. Compromised communication: a qualitative study exploring Afghan families and health professionals' experience of interpreting support in Australian maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Jane; Riggs, Elisha; Szwarc, Josef; Casey, Sue; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Chesters, Donna; Wahidi, Sayed; Fouladi, Fatema; Brown, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Difficulties associated with communication are thought to contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes experienced by refugee background women living in developed countries. This study explored Afghan women and men's experience of language support during pregnancy, labour and birth, and health professionals' experiences of communicating with clients of refugee background with low English proficiency. Interviews were conducted with (1) Afghan women and men in the first year after having a baby in Australia, by multilingual, bicultural researchers and (2) midwives and medical practitioners providing care to families of refugee background. Analysis was conducted thematically. Sixteen Afghan women, 14 Afghan men, 10 midwives, five medical practitioners and 19 community-based health professionals (refugee health nurses, bicultural workers, counsellors) providing maternity or early postnatal care participated. Midwife and medical informants concurred that accredited interpreters are generally booked for the first pregnancy visit, but not routinely used for other appointments. Very few Afghan participants reported access to on-site interpreters. Men commonly interpreted for their wives. There was minimal professional interpreting support for imaging and pathology screening appointments or during labour and birth. Health professionals noted challenges in negotiating interpreting services when men were insistent on providing language support for their wives and difficulties in managing interpreter-mediated visits within standard appointment times. Failure to engage interpreters was apparent even when accredited interpreters were available and at no cost to the client or provider. Improving identification of language needs at point of entry into healthcare, developing innovative ways to engage interpreters as integral members of multidisciplinary healthcare teams and building health professionals' capacity to respond to language needs are critical to reducing social

  15. Professional judgment and the interpretation of viable mold air sampling data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Thompson, David; Clinkenbeard, Rodney; Redus, Jason

    2008-10-01

    Although mold air sampling is technically straightforward, interpreting the results to decide if there is an indoor source is not. Applying formal statistical tests to mold sampling data is an error-prone practice due to the extreme data variability. With neither established exposure limits nor useful statistical techniques, indoor air quality investigators often must rely on their professional judgment, but the lack of a consensus "decision strategy" incorporating explicit decision criteria requires professionals to establish their own personal set of criteria when interpreting air sampling data. This study examined the level of agreement among indoor air quality practitioners in their evaluation of airborne mold sampling data and explored differences in inter-evaluator assessments. Eighteen investigators independently judged 30 sets of viable mold air sampling results to indicate: "definite indoor mold source," "likely indoor mold source," "not enough information to decide," "likely no indoor mold source," or "definitely no indoor mold source." Kappa coefficient analysis indicated weak inter-observer reliability, and comparison of evaluator mean scores showed clear inter-evaluator differences in their overall scoring patterns. The responses were modeled on indicator "traits" of the data sets using a generalized, linear mixed model approach and showed several traits to be associated with respondents' ratings, but they also demonstrated distinct and divergent inter-evaluator response patterns. Conclusions were that there was only weak overall agreement in evaluation of the mold sampling data, that particular traits of the data were associated with the conclusions reached, and that there were substantial inter-evaluator differences that were likely due to differences in the personal decision criteria employed by the individual evaluators. The overall conclusion was that there is a need for additional work to rigorously explore the constellation of decision criteria

  16. Ethnographic video narratives inviting various personal and professional interpretations in the area of care for older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    her medicine and the way Benny moves and talks make the research participants draw on embodied knowledge and professional values and goals in various ways depending on their professional background and personal experiences. When they meet each other’s interpretation of the video narratives......The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential of ethnographic video narratives to initiate informal interdisciplinary learning by exposing the diversity in how different professionals interpret the same situation. In the paper we draw on data from a pilot study in Denmark in which we showed...... two ethnographic video narratives to interdisciplinary focus groups with health care professionals at 3 care centres. The video narratives are about Bodil in her home and Benny in a senior centre. When the participants had watched the video narratives they were asked to write down their impressions...

  17. Gender Problems in the Practice of Professional Interpreters Assisting Migrant Women in Australia: A Theoretical Case for Feminist Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norma, Caroline; Garcia-Caro, Olga

    2016-10-01

    Professional interpreters in Australia have little opportunity to undertake education on issues of violence against women. This article observes a lack of awareness of gender violence-related issues among community interpreters. It then notes examples of gender-related problems arising in the work of interpreters assisting migrant women. It repeats Maree Pardy's call for interpreter education, but diverges from her 1995 work by explicitly recommending this education be informed by feminist principles. It observes that, although community interpreters are key to migrant women accessing social services in Australia, the profession resists calls for specialized education. This resistance occurs in a country that is recognized internationally for its progressive public service interpreting policies. We question why this is the case, and suggest that adherence to a peculiarly superficial notion of "impartiality" dulls the profession's responsiveness to the reality of male violence. We draw on government and non-governmental organization (NGO) reports, as well as interpreting scholarship using a gender lens, to theorize the need for feminist education of professional community interpreters. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Bridging the language gap: a co-designed quality improvement project to engage professional interpreters for women during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Jane; Biro, Mary Anne; Dawson, Wendy; Riggs, Elisha; Vanpraag, Dannielle; Wigg, Karen; Antonopoulos, John; Morgans, Jenny; Szwarc, Jo; East, Chris; Brown, Stephanie

    2017-10-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to improve the engagement of professional interpreters for women during labour. Methods The quality improvement initiative was co-designed by a multidisciplinary group at one Melbourne hospital and implemented in the birth suite using the plan-do-study-act framework. The initiative of offering women an interpreter early in labour was modified over cycles of implementation and scaled up based on feedback from midwives and language services data. Results The engagement of interpreters for women identified as requiring one increased from 28% (21/74) at baseline to 62% (45/72) at the 9th month of implementation. Conclusion Improving interpreter use in high-intensity hospital birth suites is possible with supportive leadership, multidisciplinary co-design and within a framework of quality improvement cycles of change. What is known about the topic? Despite Australian healthcare standards and policies stipulating the use of accredited interpreters where needed, studies indicate that services fall well short of meeting these during critical stages of childbirth. What does the paper add? Collaborative approaches to quality improvement in hospitals can significantly improve the engagement of interpreters to facilitate communication between health professionals and women with low English proficiency. What are the implications for practice? This language services initiative has potential for replication in services committed to improving effective communication between health professionals and patients.

  19. Teaching Professionalism in Nursing: A Quantitative Survey of Beginning Student Nurse Perceptions of Professional Values Interpreted within a Leadership Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Jocelyn J.

    2016-01-01

    The researcher designed this quantitative dissertation research to explore the perceptions of beginning nursing students toward professionalism in nursing, specific to professional values within the context of curriculum delivery for a leadership and management course in one baccalaureate nursing program. In addition, the researcher reviewed the…

  20. Content Peculiarities of Master's Professional Foreign Language Training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the Universities of Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumeiko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the content analysis of peculiarities of Master's professional foreign language training in Translation Studies and Interpretation at the universities of Slovakia. In the context of globalization and integration processes the study of European countries' experience, in particular, of the Slovak Republic has been…

  1. Difficult decisions: An interpretative phenomenological analysis study of healthcare professionals' perceptions of oxygen therapy in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Carol Ann; O'Brien, Mary R

    2015-12-01

    The role of oxygen therapy to palliate dyspnoea is controversial. Without a clear evidence base oxygen is commonly prescribed, sometimes to the detriment of patients. This use of oxygen appears to be an entrenched culture, the roots of which remain obscure. To explore healthcare professionals' perceptions of oxygen therapy in palliative care. Interpretative phenomenological analysis study utilising semi-structured interviews to explore beliefs and behaviours of healthcare professionals regarding palliative oxygen therapy. Data were recorded, transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. A total of 34 healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, pharmacists and paramedics in the United Kingdom, who were involved in prescribing, or administering, oxygen therapy to palliate dyspnoea. Most healthcare professionals in this study were well informed about oxygen therapy; all recognised the role of oxygen in palliative care setting as important. The overarching theme of compassion identified sub-themes of 'comfort', 'do anything and everything' and 'family benefit'. However, the use of oxygen in the palliative care setting was not without its dilemmas, as additional sub-themes of 'controversy', 'doubt' and 'dependency' illustrated. Findings suggest that oxygen therapy in palliative care poses an on-going dilemma for healthcare professionals striving to provide optimum care. It seems patients and families often expect and welcome oxygen, but the perception of oxygen as a solution to dyspnoea can conflict with healthcare professionals' own doubt and experiences. There appears to be an emotional cost associated with this dilemma and the choices that need to be made. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Towards a gender neutral interpretation of professionalism in early childhood education and care (ECEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peeters

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de los cuidadores y educadores varones en los servicios de educación y atención a la primera infancia es muy escasa prácticamente en todos los países europeos y, a menudo, se encuentra sometida a debate. Tras ofrecer algunos datos al respecto, este artículo describe las recomendaciones y acciones emprendidas desde la Unión Europea para acortar esta brecha entre hombres y mujeres en el trabajo con los niños más pequeños y presenta la actividad llevada a cabo por el Departamento de Estudios sobre Bienestar Social de la Universidad de Gante en la última década. En concreto, el texto profundiza en los motivos que subyacen a esta segregación laboral por género y plantea un nuevo profesionalismo neutral en cuanto a género como vía para superarla. El artículo finaliza con una serie de propuestas y recomendaciones que deberían ser consideradas para lograr una situación más igualitaria entre hombres y mujeres en las profesiones vinculadas al cuidado y la educación infantil.Male childcare workers are quite scarce in Early Childhood Education and Care services in all the European Countries and often are a controversial subject. After offering some data about this issue, the article describes the recommendations and actions undertaken by European Union to reduce the gap between men and women in their work with the youngest children and shows the research of the Centre for Innovation in the Early Years of the Department of Social Welfare Studies (University of Ghent during the last decade. Specifically, the text describes the reasons below the fact of this gender inequality and proposes a gender neutral interpretation of professionalism as a way to avoid it. The article ends with proposals and recommendations that should be considered to achieve more equality between men and woman in the professions linked to childhood education and care.

  3. Understanding risk perceptions and responses of the public and health care professionals toward Clostridium difficile: A qualitative interpretive description study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Emma; Corlett, Joanne

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection is a major health-related risk. How the public and health care professionals perceive and respond to a health-related risk is shaped by socially and contextually structured evaluations and interpretations. Risk perceptions and responses are context dependent and therefore need to be understood within the context in which they are perceived and experienced. This interpretive description study used 8 public focus groups (39 participants) and 7 health care professional focus groups (29 participants) in 2 geographic areas (an area that had experienced a C difficile outbreak and an area that had not). Both the public and health care professionals expressed varying concerns about the perceived consequences of C difficile occurring and the potential influence on emotional and physical health and well-being. In doing so, they drew upon a range of direct and indirect experiences and accounts from the media. Conceptual factors found to be important in influencing risk perceptions and responses included feelings of vulnerability, attribution of responsibility, judgments about competence, and evaluations of risk communicators. If risk management and communication strategies are to achieve desired responses toward C difficile and wider risks, those responsible for managing risk must consider already established risk perceptions in addition to factors that have influenced them. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Breaking the taboo: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of healthcare professionals' experience of caring for palliative patients with disgusting symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, Joshua; Guy, Helen; Howard, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    Disgusting symptoms are common in healthcare settings. Previous research has identified that healthcare professionals systematically avoid contact with patients with disgusting symptoms, potentially compromising patient care. Furthermore, research has highlighted disgust in healthcare professionals as a possible contributory factor to dehumanisation and abuse of patients. Given that healthcare professionals often feel that disgust is unprofessional, they may also feel unable to express or process disgust in their work, potentially impacting their emotional health, and contributing to burning out. Given the ubiquity of disgust in palliative care, we investigated how palliative healthcare professionals' experience and cope with disgust in their work, and how they are supported in doing so. We interviewed six palliative healthcare professionals and analysed their transcripts using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, from which four themes are discussed. Three key findings emerged. Firstly, participants were uncomfortable talking about disgust at work, reducing their access to support for disgust. Secondly, participants often neglected their own emotional needs, and as a result, sometimes become emotionally entangled with patients. Finally, participants were at risk of reducing vital socio-emotional support for patients with disgusting symptoms. Based on our analysis, we suggest interventions to counteract these effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. 'I understand all the major things': how older people with limited English proficiency decide their need for a professional interpreter during health care after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Caroline Elizabeth; Mackintosh, Shylie F; Stanley, Mandy J; Crichton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    To explore the process of decision-making of older people with limited English proficiency (LEP) about using a professional interpreter during their health care after stroke. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used. Up to two in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 older people with LEP from seven different language groups, and one older person who preferred to speak English, who had recently received health care after an acute stroke. Professional interpreters assisted with 19 of the 24 study interviews. Data were analysed and theoretical processes developed using a constant comparative method. Professional interpreters were not a strong presence in the health care experience after stroke for participants. The use of professional interpreters was a complex decision for participants, influenced by their perception of the language and health care expertise of themselves and others, their perceived position to make the decision and whom they trusted. Getting by in English allowed participants to follow rules-based talk of health professionals, but did not enable them to understand detailed information or explanation, or to engage in the management of their condition in a meaningful way. Health professionals have an opportunity and a mandate to demonstrate leadership in the interpreter decision by providing knowledge, opportunity and encouragement for people with LEP, to use an interpreter to engage in, and understand, their health care after stroke. Health professionals may need to advise when interpretation is needed for health care situations, when communication difficulties may not be anticipated by the person with LEP.

  6. Collaboration Across Professional Boundaries – The Emergence of Interpretation Drift and the Collective Creation of Project Jargon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration among people with different knowledge backgrounds can raise complex issues. The risk of communication breakdowns increases due to the different worldviews and languages each professional brings to such a collective project. To solve this intercultural collaboration issue, previous...... rather than the minimizing of differences or understanding of one another’s social world. Professionals in design often maintain different social worlds and their understanding of others within them, even though they collaborate for a collective concern. In this paper, by introducing and analyzing two...... empirical collaborative design cases, we address the interpretation drift of common terms as an unavoidable integral aspect of the design process, and the ongoing collective creation of local languages or project jargon during the collaboration period as facilitators to enable collaborators to work beyond...

  7. Interpreting physical performance in professional soccer match-play: should we be more pragmatic in our approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    Academic and practitioner interest in the physical performance of male professional soccer players in the competition setting determined via time-motion analyses has grown substantially over the last four decades leading to a substantial body of published research and aiding development of a more systematic evidence-based framework for physical conditioning. Findings have forcibly shaped contemporary opinions in the sport with researchers and practitioners frequently emphasising the important role that physical performance plays in match outcomes. Time-motion analyses have also influenced practice as player conditioning programmes can be tailored according to the different physical demands identified across individual playing positions. Yet despite a more systematic approach to physical conditioning, data indicate that even at the very highest standards of competition, the contemporary player is still susceptible to transient and end-game fatigue. Over the course of this article, the author suggests that a more pragmatic approach to interpreting the current body of time-motion analysis data and its application in the practical setting is nevertheless required. Examples of this are addressed using findings in the literature to examine (a) the association between competitive physical performance and 'success' in professional soccer, (b) current approaches to interpreting differences in time-motion analysis data across playing positions, and (c) whether data can realistically be used to demonstrate the occurrence of fatigue in match-play. Gaps in the current literature and directions for future research are also identified.

  8. Crystal clear or tin ear: how do medical students interpret derogatory comments about patients and other professionals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Tariq

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the learning environment at our medical school, third-year medical students complete an 11-item survey called the Learning Environment for Professionalism (LEP at the end of each clerkship. The LEP survey asks about the frequency of faculty and resident professional and unprofessional behaviors that students observed; two of the items specifically address derogatory comments. This study used focus group methodology to explore how medical students interpret the derogatory comments they reported on the LEP survey. Methods: Seven focus groups were conducted with 82 medical students after they completed the LEP survey. Analysis of focus group transcripts was performed to better understand the nature and meaning that students ascribe to derogatory comments. Results: The study results provide insights into the types of derogatory comments that medical students heard during their clerkship rotations, why the comments were made and how they were interpreted. Emergent themes, labeled by the authors as 1 ‘onstage-offstage’, 2 ‘one bad apple’, and 3 ‘pressure cooker environment’, highlight the contextual aspects and understandings ascribed by students to the derogatory comments. Incidentally, students felt that the comments were not associated with fatigue, but were associated with cumulative stress and burn-out. Conclusions: The results suggest students have a clear understanding of the nature of unprofessional comments made by role models during clerkships and point to important systems-related issues that could be leveraged to improve clinical learning environments.

  9. Eating disorder therapists' personal eating disorder history and professional ethics: an interpretive description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Meris; Haverkamp, Beth E

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to explore and understand eating disorder (ED) therapists' perceptions of whether and how their personal ED histories had professional ethical relevance. Analysis of multiple interviews with 11 therapist-participants indicated that they perceived their personal ED histories as having substantial ethical relevance in their day-to-day practice with ED clients. The major categories of ethics experiences that emerged were: boundaries, therapist wellness, helpfulness of personal ED history, and openness regarding therapists' personal ED histories. The findings have practical utility for the education, training, and continuing education of ED-historied practitioners.

  10. Increased Access to Professional Interpreters in the Hospital Improves Informed Consent for Patients with Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan S; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gregorich, Steven E; Crawford, Michael H; Green, Adrienne; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Karliner, Leah S

    2017-08-01

    Language barriers disrupt communication and impede informed consent for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) undergoing healthcare procedures. Effective interventions for this disparity remain unclear. Assess the impact of a bedside interpreter phone system intervention on informed consent for patients with LEP and compare outcomes to those of English speakers. Prospective, pre-post intervention implementation study using propensity analysis. Hospitalized patients undergoing invasive procedures on the cardiovascular, general surgery or orthopedic surgery floors. Installation of dual-handset interpreter phones at every bedside enabling 24-h immediate access to professional interpreters. Primary predictor: pre- vs. post-implementation group; secondary predictor: post-implementation patients with LEP vs. English speakers. Primary outcomes: three central informed consent elements, patient-reported understanding of the (1) reasons for and (2) risks of the procedure and (3) having had all questions answered. We considered consent adequately informed when all three elements were met. We enrolled 152 Chinese- and Spanish-speaking patients with LEP (84 pre- and 68 post-implementation) and 86 English speakers. Post-implementation (vs. pre-implementation) patients with LEP were more likely to meet criteria for adequately informed consent (54% vs. 29%, p = 0.001) and, after propensity score adjustment, had significantly higher odds of adequately informed consent (AOR 2.56; 95% CI, 1.15-5.72) as well as of each consent element individually. However, compared to post-implementation English speakers, post-implementation patients with LEP had significantly lower adjusted odds of adequately informed consent (AOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.91). A bedside interpreter phone system intervention to increase rapid access to professional interpreters was associated with improvements in patient-reported informed consent and should be considered by hospitals seeking to improve

  11. The Analysis of Professional Practice, the Self-Reflection of Practitioners, and their Way of Doing Things. Resources of Biography Analysis and Other Interpretative Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Dausien

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article serves as an introduction into the subject matter of this thematic issue of FQS and deals with the question how problems of professional work can become a topic of qualitative research. Focusing on issues of professional work has had an important place in biographical research for a long time. The consequences of professional interventions for the life histories of clients have been at the center of many studies, but also the relationships between the structures of experience and interpretation of professionals, on the one hand, and the specific features of their practice and their case analyses, on the other hand. Biographical research provides an empirically grounded critique and "enlightenment" of professional practice. It is often taught and practiced at professional schools, and (future professionals can use it as a resource for discovery and understanding themselves—together with other interpretative approaches. By acquiring such research competencies they learn to look at their own practice with clients and the practice of others in a different way and they get ideas how to do things differently. The contributions to this thematic issue focus on preconditions, problems and consequences of professional work in different fields and illuminate the connection of the analysis of practice, professionals' self-reflection and their way of doing things. The articles were written by authors who belong to different disciplines in the social sciences and they are based on different approaches within the current spectrum of interpretative social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801615

  12. Language control is not a one-size-fits-all languages process: evidence from simultaneous interpretation students and the n-2 repetition cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpretation is an impressive cognitive feat which necessitates the simultaneous use of two languages and therefore begs the question: how is language management accomplished during interpretation? One possibility is that both languages are maintained active and inhibitory control is reduced. To examine whether inhibitory control is reduced after experience with interpretation, students with varying experience were assessed on a three language switching paradigm. This paradigm provides an empirical measure of the inhibition applied to abandoned languages, the n-2 repetition cost. The groups showed different patterns of n-2 repetition costs across the three languages. These differences, however, were not connected to experience with interpretation. Instead, they may be due to other language characteristics. Specifically, the L2 n-2 repetition cost negatively correlated with self-rated oral L2 proficiency, suggesting that language proficiency may affect the use of inhibitory control. The differences seen in the L1 n-2 repetition cost, alternatively, may be due to the differing predominant interactional contexts of the groups. These results suggest that language control may be more complex than previously thought, with different mechanisms used for different languages. Further, these data represent the first use of the n-2 repetition cost as a measure to compare language control between groups.

  13. Cardiotocography interpretation skills and the association with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellesen, Line; Sorensen, Jette Led; Hedegaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to examine whether cardiotocography (CTG) knowledge, interpretation skills and decision-making measured by a written assessment were associated with size of maternity unit, years of obstetric work experience and healthcare professional background. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: A national cross-sectional study in the setting of a CTG teaching intervention involving all 24 maternity units in Denmark. Participants were midwives (n=1260) and specialists (n=269) and residents (n=142) in obstetrics and gynecology who attended a one-day CTG course and answered a 30-item multiple...... less than 15 years of obstetric work experience. This might indicate a challenge in maintaining CTG skills in small units and among experienced staff but could also reflect different levels of motivation, test familiarity and learning culture. Whether the findings are transferable to the clinical...

  14. Sport Concussion Assessment Tool: Interpreting day-of-injury scores in professional ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Timo; Parkkari, Jari; Tuominen, Markku; Öhman, Juha; Howell, David R; Iverson, Grant L; Luoto, Teemu M

    2017-12-12

    To characterize the clinical utility of Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3) baseline and normative reference values for the assessment of acute concussion; and to identify the sensitivity of each SCAT3 subcomponent to the acute effects of concussion. Prospective cohort. The day-of-concussion SCAT3 results (n=27) of professional male ice hockey players (mean age=27, SD=4) were compared to athlete's individual baseline and to the league's normative reference values. Normative cutoffs corresponding to 10th percentile and natural distribution change cutoffs corresponding to 90th percentile cumulative frequency were considered uncommon. The percentages of the players with uncommon day-of-injury performance, when post-injury scores were compared to individual baseline versus (vs.) normative values, were as follows: symptoms: 96% vs. 100% (post-injury score: M=12, Md=12, SD=4; severity M=26, Md=23, SD=13); Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC): 33% vs. 27% (post-injury M=25, Md=26, SD=3); modified-BESS (M-BESS): 46% vs. 46% (post-injury M=7, Md=5, SD=7); Tandem Gait: 18% vs. 31% (post-injury M=11, Md=12, SD=4); coordination: both 8%. The number and severity of post-injury symptoms were significantly greater, with extremely large effect sizes (Cohen's d=2.44-3.92), than normative values and individual baseline scores. The post-injury SAC score was significantly lower relative to both baseline (d=0.68) and normative values (d=0.88). The post-injury M-BESS performance was significantly worse when compared to both individual baseline (d=1.06) and league normative values (d=1.46). No significant day-of-injury Tandem Gait deficits were observed using either comparison method. SCAT3 league normative values were as sensitive as individual baseline scores during day-of-injury assessments. Symptoms were the most sensitive post-concussion component of the SCAT3. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Working memory performance in expert and novice interpreters

    OpenAIRE

    Köpke, Barbara; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Simultaneous interpreting is generally assumed to be particularly demanding with respect to cognitive resources like attention and working memory, which are thought to gradually increase with professional practice. Experimental data to corroborate such an assumption is still sparse, however. Here we report an in-depth investigation of working memory capacity among 21 professional interpreters (experts), 18 second-year interpreting students (novices) and two control gro...

  16. Professional Medical Interpreters Influence the Quality of Acute Ischemic Stroke Care for Patients Who Speak Languages Other than English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan Erfe, Betty M; Siddiqui, Khawja A; Schwamm, Lee H; Kirwan, Chris; Nunes, Anabela; Mejia, Nicte I

    2017-09-21

    The inability to communicate effectively in a common language can jeopardize clinicians' efforts to provide quality patient care. Professional medical interpreters (PMIs) can help provide linguistically appropriate health care, in particular for the >25 million Americans who identify speaking English less than very well. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between use of PMIs and quality of acute ischemic stroke care received by patients who preferred to have their medical care in languages other than English. We analyzed data from 259 non-English-preferring acute ischemic stroke patients who participated in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program at our hospital from January 1, 2003, to April 30, 2014. We used descriptive statistics and logistic regression models to examine associations between involvement of PMIs and patients' receipt of defect-free stroke care. A total of 147 of 259 (57%) non-English-preferring patients received PMI services during their hospital stays. Multivariable analyses adjusting for other socioeconomic factors showed that acute ischemic stroke patients who did not receive PMIs had lower odds of receiving defect-free stroke care (odds ratio: 0.52; P=0.04). Our findings suggest that PMIs may influence the quality of acute ischemic stroke care. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  17. Interpretation of Gamma Index for Quality Assurance of Simultaneously Integrated Boost (SIB) IMRT Plans for Head and Neck Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiq, Maria; Atiq, Atia; Iqbal, Khalid; Shamsi, Quratul ain; Andleeb, Farah; Buzdar, Saeed Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Objective: The Gamma Index is prerequisite to estimate point-by-point difference between measured and calculated dose distribution in terms of both Distance to Agreement (DTA) and Dose Difference (DD). This study aims to inquire what percentage of pixels passing a certain criteria assure a good quality plan and suggest gamma index as efficient mechanism for dose verification of Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans. Method: In this study, dose was calculated for 14 head and neck patients and IMRT Quality Assurance was performed with portal dosimetry using the Eclipse treatment planning system. Eclipse software has a Gamma analysis function to compare measured and calculated dose distribution. Plans of this study were deemed acceptable when passing rate was 95% using tolerance for Distance to agreement (DTA) as 3mm and Dose Difference (DD) as 5%. Result and Conclusion: Thirteen cases pass tolerance criteria of 95% set by our institution. Confidence Limit for DD is 9.3% and for gamma criteria our local CL came out to be 2.0% (i.e., 98.0% passing). Lack of correlation was found between DD and γ passing rate with R2 of 0.0509. Our findings underline the importance of gamma analysis method to predict the quality of dose calculation. Passing rate of 95% is achieved in 93% of cases which is adequate level of accuracy for analyzed plans thus assuring the robustness of SIB IMRT treatment technique. This study can be extended to investigate gamma criteria of 5%/3mm for different tumor localities and to explore confidence limit on target volumes of small extent and simple geometry.

  18. Raising a beautiful swan: a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation of health professionals' experiences of participating in a mealtime intervention inspired by Protected Mealtimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Malene; Martinsen, Bente; Birkelund, Regner; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    The British concept named Protected Mealtimes is known for stopping all non-acute activities and giving health professionals an opportunity to focus on providing patients their meals without being interrupted or disturbed. PM involves a cultural and behavioural change in the clinical setting, since health professionals are asked to adjust their daily routines. This study investigate how health professionals experience participating in a mealtime intervention inspired by the concept of Protected Mealtimes and intend to change mealtime practices. Three focus group interviews was conducted and included a total of 15 interdisciplinary staff members. After transcribing the interviews, the text material was analysed and interpreted in a three-methodological-step process inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. In the analysis and interpretation three themes was identified. The themes were: (1) a chance towards a new and better scene; (2) a step towards a more neurologically friendly environment; and (3) a renewed view of the neurological patients. This study concludes that to the health professionals, the intervention was meaningful in several ways because it created structure during mealtimes and emphasized the importance of creating a calm environment for both patients and health professionals. The intervention was described as an eye-opening and well-regarded event in the field of neurological care that facilitated community, and reflections on nursing care and professional identity were expressed.

  19. Application of Individualized Speed Thresholds to Interpret Position Specific Running Demands in Elite Professional Rugby Union: A GPS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian Reardon

    Full Text Available A number of studies have used GPS technology to categorise rugby union locomotive demands. However, the utility of the results of these studies is confounded by small sample sizes, sub-elite player status and the global application of absolute speed thresholds to all player positions. Furthermore, many of these studies have used GPS units with low sampling frequencies. The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the high speed running (HSR demands of professional rugby union when utilizing micro-technology units sampling at 10 Hz and applying relative or individualised speed zones. The results of this study indicate that application of individualised speed zones results in a significant shift in the interpretation of the HSR demands of both forwards and backs and positional sub-categories therein. When considering the use of an absolute in comparison to an individualised HSR threshold, there was a significant underestimation for forwards of HSR distance (HSRD (absolute = 269 ± 172.02, individualised = 354.72 ± 99.22, p < 0.001, HSR% (absolute = 5.15 ± 3.18, individualised = 7.06 ± 2.48, p < 0.001 and HSR efforts (HSRE (absolute = 18.81 ± 12.25; individualised = 24.78 ± 8.30, p < 0.001. In contrast, there was a significant overestimation of the same HSR metrics for backs with the use of an absolute threshold (HSRD absolute = 697.79 ± 198.11, individualised = 570.02 ± 171.14, p < 0.001; HSR% absolute = 10.85 ± 2.82, individualised = 8.95 ± 2.76, p < 0.001; HSRE absolute = 41.55 ± 11.25; individualised = 34.54 ± 9.24, p < 0.001. This under- or overestimation associated with an absolute speed zone applies to varying degrees across the ten positional sub-categories analyzed and also to individuals within the same positional sub-category. The results of the present study indicated that although use of an individulised HSR threshold improves the interpretation of the HSR demands on a positional basis, inter

  20. Comparative Analysis of Ukrainian and Foreign Scholars' Views on Interpretation of Such Terms as Competency, Professional Competency, Professional Competency of Technicians in Food Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovchuk, Olha

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with a comparative analysis of the content of such terms as competency, competence and professional competency of technicians in food technology. Special attention has been given to domestic and foreign scholars' research findings on the matter in order to consider the genesis of the term "competency" and its spreading…

  1. Healthcare professional and interpreter perspectives on working with and caring for non-English speaking families in a tertiary paediatric healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anna; Oulton, Kate; Sell, Debbie; Wray, Jo

    2017-02-25

    To understand the perspectives of healthcare professionals and interpreters in relation to working with and caring for non-English speaking families accessing National Health Service paediatric tertiary health care services. Focus group and interview methods were used to elicit the views of healthcare professionals and interpreters at one tertiary paediatric hospital in the United Kingdom. Data were subjected to framework analysis. Participants identified a number of factors affecting communication and their interaction with non-English speaking families in this setting, including time, role uncertainty, and interlinked dimensions of culture and gender. They also described how the nature of this communication could impact on both the delivery of care and the patient and family experience. These findings highlight gaps in services, training, and support for families, staff and interpreters. These need to be recognised and addressed by those in practice to improve care delivery and help tackle health inequalities. Our data show how significant the impact of language barriers can be, and the need to consider not only how communication can be improved, but also how this is situated in the specific context of tertiary paediatric care as well as a wider social context of inequity.

  2. Target Practice: Reader Response Theory and Teachers' Interpretations of Students' SAT 10 Scores in Data-Based Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Becky M.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article examines how teachers read and respond to their students' Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT 10) scores with the goal of investigating the assumption that data-based teaching practice is more "objective" and less susceptible to divergent teacher interpretation. The study uses reader response theory to…

  3. Moral development, executive functioning, peak experiences and brain patterns in professional and amateur classical musicians: interpreted in light of a Unified Theory of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Frederick; Harung, Harald S; Lagrosen, Yvonne

    2011-12-01

    This study compared professional and amateur classical musicians matched for age, gender, and education on reaction times during the Stroop color-word test, brainwaves during an auditory ERP task and during paired reaction-time tasks, responses on the Gibbs Sociomoral Reflection questionnaire, and self-reported frequencies of peak experiences. Professional musicians were characterized by: (1) lower color-word interference effects (Stroop task), (2) faster categorization of rare expected stimuli (P3b), and a trend for faster processing of rare unexpected stimuli (P3a), (3) higher scores on the Sociomoral Reflection questionnaire, and (4) more frequent peak experiences during rest, tasks, and sleep. Both groups had high values on the Brain Integration Scale. These findings are interpreted in light of a Unified Theory of Performance, which posits that effectiveness in any area is influenced by one's level of mind-brain development-emotional, cognitive, moral, ego and cortical development-with higher mind-brain development supporting greater effectiveness in any domain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Convenient Access to Professional Interpreters in the Hospital Decreases Readmission Rates and Estimated Hospital Expenditures for Patients with Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Leah S.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Gregorich, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Twenty-five million people in the U.S. have limited English proficiency (LEP); this growing and aging population experiences worse outcomes when hospitalized. Federal requirements that hospitals provide language access services are very challenging to implement in the fast-paced, 24-hour hospital environment. Objective Determine if increasing access to professional interpreters improves hospital outcomes for older patients with LEP Design Natural experiment on a medicine floor of an academic hospital Participants Patients age ≥50 discharged between Jan 15, 2007–Jan 15, 2010. Exposure Dual-handset interpreter telephone at every bedside July 15, 2008–Mar 14, 2009 Outcome Measures 30-day readmission, length of stay (LOS), estimated hospital expenditures Results Of 8,077 discharges, 1,963 were for LEP, and 6,114 for English-proficient (EP) patients. There was a significant decrease in observed 30-day readmission rates for the LEP group during the 8-month intervention period compared to 18 months pre-intervention (17.8% vs. 13.4%); at the same time EP readmission rates increased (16.7% vs. 19.7%); results remained significant in adjusted analyses. This improved readmission outcome for the LEP group was not maintained during the subsequent post-intervention period when the telephones became less accessible. There was no significant intervention impact on LOS in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. After accounting for interpreter services costs, the estimated 119 readmissions averted during the intervention period were associated with estimated monthly hospital expenditure savings of $161,404. Conclusions Comprehensive language access represents an important, high value service that all medical centers should provide in order to achieve equitable, quality healthcare for vulnerable LEP populations. PMID:27579909

  5. Reflective professionalism : Interpreting CanMEDS' "professionalism"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, M. A.; De Bree, M. J.; Mourits, M. J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Residency training in the Netherlands is to be restructured over the coming years. To this end a general competence profile for medical specialists has been introduced. This profile is nearly the same as the Canadian CanMEDS 2000 model, which describes seven general areas of medical specialist

  6. Lower incidence of arm-to-head contact incidents with stricter interpretation of the Laws of the Game in Norwegian male professional football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørneboe, John; Bahr, Roald; Dvorak, Jiri; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2013-05-01

    Video analyses reveal that the rate of incidents with a propensity for injury caused by opponent-to-player contact has increased by about 50% from 2000 to 2010 in Norwegian male professional football. The aim of the study was to assess whether a stricter interpretation of the Laws of the Game (red cards for high elbows in heading duels and for late/two foot tackles) could reduce the potential for injuries in Norwegian male professional football. A preintervention/postintervention design was employed, where the rate of incidents and injuries from the 2010 season (pre) was compared to the 2011 season (post). An incident was recorded if the match was interrupted by the referee, and the player lay down for more than 15 s, and appeared to be in pain or received medical treatment. Time-loss injuries were recorded by the medical staff of each club. A total of 1421 contact incidents were identified, corresponding to a rate of 92.7 (95% CI 86.0 to 99.4) in the 2010 season and 86.6 (95% CI 80.3 to 99.4) in the 2011 season, with no difference between the two season. We found a reduction in the incidence of total head incidents (rate ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99), and head-incidents caused by arm-to-head contact (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97). We found no difference in tackling characteristics or contact injury rate. We found no significant differences in the overall rate of incidents after the introduction of stricter rule enforcement. However, the rate of head and arm-to head incidents was lower in the 2011 season.

  7. The influence of interpreters' professional background and experience on the interpretation of multimodality imaging of pulmonary lesions using 18F-3'-deoxy-fluorothymidine and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-xuan Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Based on the results of a recently accomplished multicenter clinical trial for the incremental value of a dual-tracer (18F-FDG and 18F-FLT, dual-modality (PET and CT imaging in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary lesions, we investigate some issues that might affect the image interpretation and result reporting. METHODS: The images were read in two separate sessions. Firstly the images were read and reported by physician(s of the imaging center on completion of each PET/CT scanning. By the end of MCCT, all images collected during the trial were re-read by a collective of readers in an isolated, blinded, and independent way. RESULTS: One hundred sixty two patients successfully passed the data verification and entered into the final analysis. The primary reporting result showed adding 18F-FDG image information did not change the clinical performance much in sensitivity, specifity and accuracy, but the ratio between SUVFLT and SUVFDG did help the differentiation efficacy among the three subgroups of patients. The collective reviewing result showed the diagnostic achievement varied with reading strategies. ANOVA indicated significant differences among (18F-FDG, (18F-FLT in SUV (F = 14.239, p = 0.004. CT had almost the same diagnostic performance as 18F-FLT. When the 18F-FDG, 18F-FLT and CT images read in pair, both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity improved. The best diagnostic figures were obtained in full-modality strategy, when dual-tracer PET worked in combination with CT. CONCLUSIONS: With certain experience and training both radiologists and nuclear physicians are qualified to read and to achieve the similar diagnostic accuracy in PET/CT study. Making full use of modality combination and selecting right criteria seems more practical than professional back ground and personal experience in the new hybrid imaging technology, at least when novel tracer or application is concerned.

  8. The influence of interpreters' professional background and experience on the interpretation of multimodality imaging of pulmonary lesions using 18F-3'-deoxy-fluorothymidine and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bai-xuan; Liu, Chang-bin; Wang, Rui-min; Shao, Ming-zhe; Fu, Li-ping; Li, Yun-gang; Tian, Jia-he

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of a recently accomplished multicenter clinical trial for the incremental value of a dual-tracer (18F-FDG and 18F-FLT), dual-modality (PET and CT) imaging in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary lesions, we investigate some issues that might affect the image interpretation and result reporting. The images were read in two separate sessions. Firstly the images were read and reported by physician(s) of the imaging center on completion of each PET/CT scanning. By the end of MCCT, all images collected during the trial were re-read by a collective of readers in an isolated, blinded, and independent way. One hundred sixty two patients successfully passed the data verification and entered into the final analysis. The primary reporting result showed adding 18F-FDG image information did not change the clinical performance much in sensitivity, specifity and accuracy, but the ratio between SUVFLT and SUVFDG did help the differentiation efficacy among the three subgroups of patients. The collective reviewing result showed the diagnostic achievement varied with reading strategies. ANOVA indicated significant differences among (18)F-FDG, (18)F-FLT in SUV (F = 14.239, p = 0.004). CT had almost the same diagnostic performance as 18F-FLT. When the 18F-FDG, 18F-FLT and CT images read in pair, both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity improved. The best diagnostic figures were obtained in full-modality strategy, when dual-tracer PET worked in combination with CT. With certain experience and training both radiologists and nuclear physicians are qualified to read and to achieve the similar diagnostic accuracy in PET/CT study. Making full use of modality combination and selecting right criteria seems more practical than professional back ground and personal experience in the new hybrid imaging technology, at least when novel tracer or application is concerned.

  9. Engaging teachers, interpreters and emergency management educators in disaster preparedness and EarthScope science through joint professional development workshops (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt-Sitaula, B. A.; Lillie, R. J.; Butler, R. F.; Hunter, N.; Magura, B.; Groom, R.; Hedeen, C. D.; Johnson, J. A.; Ault, C.; Olds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The same geological forces that form the spectacular beaches and headlands of the Pacific Northwest also threaten lives and infrastructure with earthquakes and tsunamis. A new project called the Cascadia EarthScope, Earthquake, and Tsunami Education Program (CEETEP), is helping to mitigate the effects of these potential disasters through collaboration building and professional development for K-12 teachers, park and museum interpreters, and emergency management outreach educators in communities along the Oregon and Washington coast. Tens of thousands of Oregon and Washington residents live within severe earthquake-shaking and tsunami-inundation zones, and millions of tourists visit state and federal parks in these same areas each year. Teachers in the K-12 school systems convey some basics about geological hazards to their students, and park rangers and museum educators likewise engage visitors at their sites. Emergency management educators make regular presentations to local residents about disaster preparedness. CEETEP is strengthening these efforts by providing community-based workshops that bring together all of these professionals to review the basic science of earthquakes and tsunamis, learn about EarthScope and other research efforts that monitor the dynamic Earth in the region, and develop ways to collectively engage students and the general public on the mitigation of coastal geologic hazards. As part of a nationwide effort, the NSF EarthScope Program has been deploying hundreds of seismic, GPS, and other geophysical instruments to measure movement of the Earth's crust and detect earthquakes along the Cascadia Subduction Zone. These instruments provide detail for ongoing research showing that coastal regions are storing energy that will be released in the next great Cascadia earthquake, with the resulting tsunami arriving onshore in 30 minutes or less. CEETEP is helping to convey these cutting-edge findings to coastal educators and fulfill Earth

  10. Should palliative care patients' hope be truthful, helpful or valuable? An interpretative synthesis of literature describing healthcare professionals' perspectives on hope of palliative care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsman, E.; Leget, C.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Willems, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare professionals? perspectives on palliative care patients? hope influence communication. However, these perspectives have hardly been examined. Aim: To describe healthcare professionals? perspectives on palliative care patients? hope found in the literature. Design: The

  11. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality...... in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the interpreter as an invisible language switcher. However, a closer look at the data shows that, even in a less complex constellation like the one analysed here, there is clear evidence of the interpreter's visibility. We shall identify various forms of visibility based on the discourse data...

  12. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  13. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpretive reliability of two common MMPI-2 profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Deskovitz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Users of multi-scale tests like the MMPI-2 tend not to interpret scales one at a time in a way that would correspond to standard scale-level reliability information. Instead, clinicians integrate inferences from a multitude of scales simultaneously, producing a descriptive narrative that is thought to characterize the examinee. This study was an attempt to measure the reliability of such integrated interpretations using a q-sort research methodology. Participants were 20 MMPI-2 users who responded to E-mail solicitations on professional listservs and in personal emails. Each participant interpreted one of two common MMPI-2 profiles using a q-set of 100 statements designed for MMPI-2 interpretation. To measure the “interpretive reliability” of the MMPI-2 profile interpretations, q-sort descriptions were intercorrelated. Mean pairwise interpretive reliability was .39, lower than expected, and there was no significant difference in reliability between profiles. There was also not a significant difference between within-profile and cross-profile correlations. Q-set item analysis was conducted to determine which individual statements had the most impact on interpretive reliability. Although sampling in this study was limited, implications for the field reliability of MMPI-2 interpretation are sobering.

  15. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  16. Interpreting Idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Susan; Estill, Robert

    A study investigated the immediate comprehension processes involved in the interpretation of English idiomatic expressions. Idioms such as "bury the hatchet" were presented to 48 college students in sentential contexts that either biased the subject toward a literal or a figurative interpretation or left the interpretation ambiguous. In control…

  17. On the Construction of Knowledge in the Context of Biographical Interpretations of Illness. Professional Interventions and Collective Therapeutic Processes among Women with Psychosomatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hohn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructing knowledge and dealing with different types and representations of knowledge are analyzed on the basis of interviews with female participants of post clinical psychosomatic groups in the women's health center of Bremen (Germany. This article shows how women's construction of knowledge is based, on the one hand, on interactions with professional experts and the confrontation with their medical, therapeutic and educational knowledge. On the other hand, these constructions emerge against the backdrop of biographical experiences and conceptions as well as in connection with the interactive and collective experiences within the context of the post clinical psychosomatic groups. While the knowledge communicated by the physicians and therapists is kept at a distance or rejected, the collectively produced knowledge through experience is characterized by its possibility to become incorporated into women's biographies. The collective therapeutic processes, the exchange among the women and the (reconstruction of experiences are shown to be relevant especially concerning sexual violence and problematic situations in relationships. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801480

  18. Using interpretation services during clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijbers, Laura; Gerritsen, Debby; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Although using professional interpreters is known to improve health outcomes for patients when language barriers are present, care providers often hesitate to use them. Training in how to use interpreters has been effective in increasing students' knowledge and self-efficacy, but little is known

  19. Interpretation miniatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the “Copenhagen” interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of “local nonreality” interpretation. About the many-world interpretation (MWI), we explain that it is neither local nor nonlocal, that it cannot explain the Born rule, that it suffers from the preferred basis problem, and that quantum suicide cannot be used to test it. About the Bohmian interpretation, we explain that it is analogous to dark matter, use it to explain that there is no big difference between nonlocal correlation and nonlocal causation, and use some condensed-matter ideas to outline how nonrelativistic Bohmian theory could be a theory of everything. We also explain how different interpretations can be used to demystify the delayed choice experiment, to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity, and to provide alternatives to quantum nonlocality. Finally, we explain why is life compatible with the second law.

  20. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  1. Different Bilingual Experiences Might Modulate Executive Tasks Advantages: Comparative Analysis between Monolinguals, Translators, and Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrard, Sébastien; Van Daele, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that being bilingual presents an advantage in executive control. However, it appears that knowing two (or more) languages is not enough to improve executive control. According to the adaptive control hypothesis (Green and Abutalebi, 2013), the interactional context in which bilinguals behave is a key factor that modulates cognitive advantage in executive control. Translation and simultaneous interpretation are performed in a dual-language context: professional bi- and multilinguals use two or more languages within the same context (at work). Simultaneous interpretation differs from translation though, because of its higher level of time pressure, which increases the cognitive demands on executive control. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between simultaneous interpretation and some aspects of executive control. To this end, we compare the performance of three groups (60 interpreters, 60 translators, and 60 monolinguals) in five computerized tasks designed to assess different executive processes as well as the speed of information processing. The results show that the interpreters perform better than the monolinguals in all tasks and better than the translators in all tasks except for the one designed to assess flexibility. The results also show that the age variable does not have the same effect on performance in tasks designed to assess updating, flexibility, and resistance of proactive inhibition in bilinguals (both interpreters and translators), or in tasks designed to assess the speed of information processing and inhibition of a prepotent response in interpreters only. In addition to the advantage that being bilingual presents in some aspects of executive control, the results suggest that interpreters have an additional advantage that may be explained by the characteristics of their work activity (especially heavy time pressure) and by how much experience they have in this activity (in terms of

  2. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  3. Legal and Ethical Imperatives for Using Certified Sign Language Interpreters in Health Care Settings: How to "Do No Harm" When "It's (All) Greek" (Sign Language) to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Angela M

    2016-09-01

    Communication obstacles in health care settings adversely impact patient-practitioner interactions by impeding service efficiency, reducing mutual trust and satisfaction, or even endangering health outcomes. When interlocutors are separated by language, interpreters are required. The efficacy of interpreting, however, is constrained not just by interpreters' competence but also by health care providers' facility working with interpreters. Deaf individuals whose preferred form of communication is a signed language often encounter communicative barriers in health care settings. In those environments, signing Deaf people are entitled to equal communicative access via sign language interpreting services according to the Americans with Disabilities Act and Executive Order 13166, the Limited English Proficiency Initiative. Yet, litigation in states across the United States suggests that individual and institutional providers remain uncertain about their legal obligations to provide equal communicative access. This article discusses the legal and ethical imperatives for using professionally certified (vs. ad hoc) sign language interpreters in health care settings. First outlining the legal terrain governing provision of sign language interpreting services, the article then describes different types of "sign language" (e.g., American Sign Language vs. manually coded English) and different forms of "sign language interpreting" (e.g., interpretation vs. transliteration vs. translation; simultaneous vs. consecutive interpreting; individual vs. team interpreting). This is followed by reviews of the formal credentialing process and of specialized forms of sign language interpreting-that is, certified deaf interpreting, trilingual interpreting, and court interpreting. After discussing practical steps for contracting professional sign language interpreters and addressing ethical issues of confidentiality, this article concludes by offering suggestions for working more effectively

  4. Interprofessional competencies in the curriculum: Interpretations of educators from five health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional (IP) practice embraces a range of collaborations among health professionals that includes referral networks, case management, and simultaneous co-management models of healthcare. How IP competencies are interpreted and enacted in the curriculum falls to health educators. The aim of this research was to examine health educators' interpretations of IP competencies in five health professions (chiropractic, naturopathy, osteopathy, physiotherapy, and podiatry) in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six educators. Transcripts were analysed using constant comparison to identify emergent themes. A number of interpretations of IP practice were evident (e.g. knowing professional scopes of practice and when to refer, and co-assessing and co-managing patients). Lack of resources limited IP practice enactment in the curriculum, including complementary medicine participation in IP teams.

  5. Penultimate interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation is at the center of psychoanalytic activity. However, interpretation is always challenged by that which is beyond our grasp, the 'dark matter' of our mind, what Bion describes as ' O'. O is one of the most central and difficult concepts in Bion's thought. In this paper, I explain the enigmatic nature of O as a high-dimensional mental space and point to the price one should pay for substituting the pre-symbolic lexicon of the emotion-laden and high-dimensional unconscious for a low-dimensional symbolic representation. This price is reification--objectifying lived experience and draining it of vitality and complexity. In order to address the difficulty of approaching O through symbolization, I introduce the term 'Penultimate Interpretation'--a form of interpretation that seeks 'loopholes' through which the analyst and the analysand may reciprocally save themselves from the curse of reification. Three guidelines for 'Penultimate Interpretation' are proposed and illustrated through an imaginary dialogue. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. Quantum interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goernitz, T.; Weizsaecker, C.F.V.

    1987-10-01

    Four interpretations of quantum theory are compared: the Copenhagen interpretation (C.I.) with the additional assumption that the quantum description also applies to the mental states of the observer, and three recent ones, by Kochen, Deutsch, and Cramer. Since they interpret the same mathematical structure with the same empirical predictions, it is assumed that they formulate only different linguistic expressions of one identical theory. C.I. as a theory on human knowledge rests on a phenomenological description of time. It can be reconstructed from simple assumptions on predictions. Kochen shows that mathematically every composite system can be split into an object and an observer. Deutsch, with the same decomposition, describes futuric possibilities under the Everett term worlds. Cramer, using four-dimensional action at a distance (Wheeler-Feynman), describes all future events like past facts. All three can be described in the C.I. frame. The role of abstract nonlocality is discussed.

  7. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  8. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  9. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

      This paper reports on an on-going investigation of conversational implicature in triadic speech events: Interpreter-mediated questionings in criminal proceedings in Danish district courts. The languages involved are Danish and English, and the mode of interpreting is the consecutive mode....... The court interpreters are all state-authorized court interpreters and thus fully competent professionals.   The centrality of pragmatics in triadic speech events has been demonstrated by a number of studies (e.g. Berk-Seligson 2002, Hale 2004, Jacobsen 2002). Thus, conversational implicatures, which...... are a normal part of any interaction, occur also in courtroom interaction where questions and answers are not always entirely explicit and straightforward. However, preserving degrees of ambiguity and non-explicitness is very difficult for interpreters who may have to resort to certain strategies to translate...

  10. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  11. Clinician-Educators as Dual Professionals: A Contemporary Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Hugh A; Brownfield, Erica D

    2016-07-01

    Physicians who teach face unique responsibilities and expectations because they must educate learners while simultaneously caring for patients. Recently this has become even more difficult as the environment for clinician-educators has been undermined by public antipathy toward both the education profession and the medicine profession.Erosion of public confidence in both professions is evidenced by three trends. First, the democratizing nature of the Internet and the availability of technical knowledge to laypeople have encroached on the domain of professional knowledge. Second, the responsibility of a professional to make decisions has been undercut by legal interpretations regarding how physicians are paid for patient care and how teachers are evaluated on performance. And finally, altruistic motivations in both professions have been called into question by external forces promoting "accountability" rather than trusting professionals to act for the best interest of their patients or students.In this climate of increasing accountability and decreasing trust for professionals, clinician-educators can best serve patients and learners through transdisciplinary collaboration with professional educators. Clinician-educators should rely on professional educators for judgment and specialized knowledge in the field of education rather than embodying both professions by themselves. Health care practice has become more team oriented; health care education should do likewise to counteract the social and political trends eroding public confidence in medicine and education. Relying on collaboration with education professionals constitutes a substantial change to how clinician-educators define themselves, but it holds the best promise for medical training in the current social milieu.

  12. A Study on the Interpretive Structural Model to Discuss the Analysis of Curriculum Planning and Benefit among Cosmetology and Hair Salon Professional Courses in College-Department of Cosmetic Applications and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ju-Hsuan; Lo, Tsai-Yun; Wu, Hsiao-Ling

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the Curriculum planning and benefit between departments of beautification in college and the professional courses by using ISM. To understand the link between different professional courses of beautification in college and find out the connections, Department of Cosmetic Science will be taken as an example. The result…

  13. Representing Interpreters' Knowledge: Why, What, and How?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a highly specialized communicative task which requires cooperation of a number of cognitive skills. Execution of these skills in a concrete act of interpreting requires immediate access to various kinds of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic. The command of such ...

  14. Who can monitor the court interpreter's performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    and the conflict about her competence was negotiated. Because of this unusual constellation, combined with a multi-method approach, this single case study can shed some light on the question of the participants' ability to monitor the interpreter's performance. Legal professional users of interpreters tend...

  15. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts....... We further observe considerable interpretive variation in how identity scripts are reproduced and enacted. We contribute to the emerging understanding of institutions as ‘inhabited’ by individuals and extend this literature by demonstrating that the institutional work of reinterpreting competing...

  16. COURT INTERPRETING AT DENPASAR COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Puspani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on interpreting (oral translation on a criminal case ofdrug user in the court proceedings at Denpasar Court. The study of theinterpreting is concerned with two-ways rendition from Indonesian into Englishand vice-versa. The study is related to: (1 the description of modes of interpretingapplied by the interpreter, (2 the application of translation strategies: shift,addition and deletion of information, (3 factors that underlie the application ofthe strategies, and (4 the impact of the application of those strategies towards thequality of the interpreting.The methodology applied in this study is qualitative based on eclectictheories (translation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The utilization of thetheories is in accordance with the type of the data analyzed in regard to thetranslation phenomena as an applied study and its complexity.The interpreting at court applied the consecutive and simultaneous modes.The strategy of shift was applied when there were differences in structure betweenthe source and the target languages. Addition of information was used when theinterpreter emphasized the message of the source language in the target language.The deletion of information applied if the context in the target language has beencovered, and it was not necessary for the interpreter to interpret the same thingbecause the message of the source language was pragmatically implied in thetarget language.The factors which underlie the application of the interpreting strategies incourt interpreting were communication factor and the differences in the languagesystems between the source and the target languages. The impact of the use of thestrategies towards the quality of the interpreting happened when the interpretationof the source language message into the message of the target language and themessage in the source language was not completely render into the targetlanguage.The novelties of the research are: (1 relevance theory and its

  17. La Interpretacion Consecutiva y la Ensenanza Avanzada de Idiomas (Delayed Interpretation and Advanced Language Teaching)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of interpretation. The importance of delayed interpretation, as opposed to simultaneous interpretation, is stressed, because of the emphasis on semantic meaning. (Text is in Spanish.) (NCR)

  18. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations.

  19. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  20. Informal interpreting in general practice: Comparing the perspectives of general practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2016-06-01

    To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters' role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties focusing on interpreter's role, power and trust in interpreters. In line with family interpreters' perspective, patients expected the interpreters to advocate on their behalf and felt empowered when they did so. GPs, on the contrary, felt annoyed and disempowered when the family interpreters performed the advocacy role. Family interpreters were trusted by patients for their fidelity, that is, patients assumed that family interpreters would act in their best interest. GPs, on the contrary, mistrusted family interpreters when they perceived dishonesty or a lack of competence. Opposing views were found between GPs on the one hand and family interpreters and patients on the other hand on interpreter's role, power dynamics and the different dimensions of trust. These opposing perspectives might lead to miscommunication and conflicts between the three interlocutors. GPs should be educated to become aware of the difficulties of family interpreting, such as conflicting role expectations, and be trained to be able to call on professional interpreters when needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Frenchglen Interpretive Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this interpretive plan is to provide guidance for the development of the interpretive exhibits for the Frenchglen Interpretive Center, as well as the...

  2. The accuracy of interpreting key psychiatric terms by ad hoc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from various professional groups in an ad hoc way. ... technical vocabulary. Problems with interpretation may arise as a result of these challenges. Difficulties in interpretation include the omission of information, bad paraphrasing, lack of translatable ... considerable challenges to accurate interpreting in this group, not.

  3. Language barriers among patients in Boston emergency departments: use of medical interpreters after passage of interpreter legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginde, Adit A; Clark, Sunday; Camargo, Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Since 2001, Massachusetts state law dictates that emergency department (ED) patients with limited English proficiency have the right to a professional interpreter. One year later, for two 24-h periods, we interviewed adult patients presenting to four Boston EDs. We assessed language barriers and compared this need with the observed use and type of interpreter during the ED visit. We interviewed 530 patients (70% of eligible) and estimated that an interpreter was needed for 60 (11%; 95% confidence interval, 7-12%) patients. The primary interpreter for these clinical encounters was a physician (30%), friend or family member age >or=18 years (22%), hospital interpreter services (15%), younger family member (11%), or other hospital staff (17%). We found that 11% of ED patients had significant language barriers, but use of professional medical interpreters remained low. One year after passage of legislation mandating access, use of professional medical interpreters remained inadequate.

  4. Audiometry screening and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation.

  5. Working with interpreters: practical advice for use of an interpreter in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive commentary is to improve communication in healthcare when an interpreter is used by providing practical advice to healthcare staff when they consider using interpreters. This descriptive commentary considered the issues of preparation and implementation of interpretation sessions to reveal the complexities and dilemmas of an effective healthcare encounter with interpreters. Using the design of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore and position of what is published in the literature on the topic studied and on the basis of previous studies to provide practical advice on the use of interpreters. The descriptive commentary showed that the interpreter should be used not only as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in the healthcare system. In preparing the interpretation session, it is important to consider the type (trained professional interpreter, family member or bilingual healthcare staff as interpreters) and mode (face to face and telephone) of interpreting. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interpreter's ethnic origin, religious background, gender, language or dialect, social group, clothes, appearance and attitude. During the healthcare encounter, the interpreter should follow the recommendations given in guidelines for interpreters. Healthcare staff should choose an appropriate room and be aware of their own behaviour, appearance and attitude during the healthcare encounter. Good planning is needed, with carefully considered choices concerning the right kind of interpreter, mode of interpretation and individual preferences for the interpretation in order to deliver high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. Depending on the nature of the healthcare encounter, healthcare staff need to plan interpreting carefully and in accordance with the individuals' desires and choose the type of interpreter and mode of interpreting that best suits the need in the actual healthcare situation in

  6. Professional ASPNET Design Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Millett, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Professional ASP.NET Design Patterns will show you how to implement design patterns in real ASP.NET applications by introducing you to the basic OOP skills needed to understand and interpret design patterns. A sample application used throughout the book is an enterprise level ASP.NET website with multi-tiered, SOA design techniques that can be applied to your future ASP.NET projects. Read about each design pattern in detail, including how to interpret the UML design, how to implement it in ASP.NET, its importance for ASP.NET development, and how it's integrated into the final project.

  7. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  8. [The common position of the Czech professional associations on the consensus of the European Atherosclerosis Society and the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine regarding investigation on blood lipids and interpretation of their levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soška, Vladimír; Franeková, Janka; Friedecký, Bedřich; Jabor, Antonín; Kraml, Pavel; Rosolová, Hana; Vrablík, Michal

    The aim of this opinion is to summarize and to comment the consensus of the European Atherosclerosis Society and European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, which covers two main areas: 1) whether it is necessary / required to be fasting or non-fasting before blood sampling for lipids measurement, and what are the changes in the concentration of blood lipids during the day; 2) What decision limits (cut off value) of lipids and lipoproteins should be reported from laboratories and what is the recommended procedure for people with extreme / critical blood lipid values. Following parameters are discused: total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a). This opinion should be the object of interest both for professionals in clinical laboratories and for physicians in hospitals and out-patients departments.Key words: apolipoproteins - blood collection - cholesterol - laboratory testing - lipoprotein(a) - cut off limits - triglycerides.

  9. Chain graph models and their causal interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    Chain graphs are a natural generalization of directed acyclic graphs and undirected graphs. However, the apparent simplicity of chain graphs belies the subtlety of the conditional independence hypotheses that they represent. There are many simple and apparently plausible, but ultimately fallacious......, interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to flawed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated from...... the equilibrium distributions of dynamic models with feed-back. These dynamic interpretations lead to a simple theory of intervention, extending the theory developed for directed acyclic graphs. Finally, we contrast chain graph models under this interpretation with simultaneous equation models which have...

  10. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  11. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  12. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We...

  13. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Sourcing and maintaining a pool of suitably skilled interpreters for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a relatively small campus, given the low numbers of simultaneous interpreters generally available, establishing and maintaining an interpreting service of this magnitude posed a serious challenge. This article (in a case study format) describes, firstly, the recruitment and selection, and secondly, the training of a pool of ...

  15. Vagueness as a recurring pattern in interpreted German speech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a study comparing simultaneously interpreted and autonomously produced speech in order to determine whether or not interpreted language is characterised by any of the patterns that have been found to feature in translated text, such as those articulated by Toury's (1995) law of growing ...

  16. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  17. Personality and Simultaneous Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stanley; And Others

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of the limitation and outcome of simultaneous speech to those dimensions of personality indexes by Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire. More than 500 conversations of 24 female college students were computer-analyzed for instances of simultaneous speech, and the frequencies with which they…

  18. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carried...... out by us all in everyday life, and the role of generic interpretation in scholarly work. The article argues that the role played by genre in interpretation has as much to do with the individual characteristics of an utterance as with its relationship to other utterances. An interest in the generic...... traits of an utterance will lead to a characterization of its individual, as well as its general characteristics. The article proceeds to describe three central concepts within genre studies that are applicable to generic interpretation: “horizon of expectation,” “world,” and the triad “theme...

  19. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  20. Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; López, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy. PMID:21930360

  1. Professional Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    True professionals develop and create together a better future by their human endeavors in synergy. They must operate comfortably in two cultures--the industrial culture which is disappearing, and the superindustrial or cyberculture which is emerging. (CT)

  2. Revolutionizing volunteer interpreter services: an evaluation of an innovative medical interpreter education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Avalos, Oswaldo; Pennington, Kaylin; Osterberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In our ever-increasingly multicultural, multilingual society, medical interpreters serve an important role in the provision of care. Though it is known that using untrained interpreters leads to decreased quality of care for limited English proficiency patients, because of a short supply of professionals and a lack of formalized, feasible education programs for volunteers, community health centers and internal medicine practices continue to rely on untrained interpreters. To develop and formally evaluate a novel medical interpreter education program that encompasses major tenets of interpretation, tailored to the needs of volunteer medical interpreters. One-armed, quasi-experimental retro-pre-post study using survey ratings and feedback correlated by assessment scores to determine educational intervention effects. Thirty-eight students; 24 Spanish, nine Mandarin, and five Vietnamese. The majority had prior interpreting experience but no formal medical interpreter training. Students completed retrospective pre-test and post-test surveys measuring confidence in and perceived knowledge of key skills of interpretation. Primary outcome measures were a 10-point Likert scale for survey questions of knowledge, skills, and confidence, written and oral assessments of interpreter skills, and qualitative evidence of newfound knowledge in written reflections. Analyses showed a statistically significant (P  0.8). The second half of the program was also quantitatively and qualitatively shown to be a vital learning experience, resulting in 18 % more students passing the oral assessments; a 19 % increase in mean scores for written assessments; and a newfound understanding of interpreter roles and ways to navigate them. This innovative program was successful in increasing volunteer interpreters' skills and knowledge of interpretation, as well as confidence in own abilities. Additionally, the program effectively taught how to navigate the roles of the interpreter to maintain

  3. PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process which Romanian commercial law underwent has affected both the term of ‘trader’, by redefining it, and the classification of professional categories. Currently, the term of ‘professional’ is conveyed by a descriptive listing of the categories of persons it comprises: traders, entrepreneurs, business operators, as well as any other person authorized to carry out economic or professional activities.

  4. Suppression in simultaneous masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastl, H; Bechly, M

    1983-09-01

    Suppression, i.e., the decrease of masked threshold caused by the addition of a second masker M2 to a first masker M1, is measured for the case of simultaneous masking. The magnitude of suppression decreases with increasing test tone duration; pulsed maskers elicit somewhat more suppression than continuous maskers. In comparison to suppression effects obtained in nonsimultaneous masking (post-masking, pulsation threshold) suppression in simultaneous masking is considerably smaller and was found only at the lower slopes of the two maskers. Suppression in simultaneous masking would not be predicted by those models of suppression which require nonsimultaneous presentation of maskers and test sound.

  5. Prosody and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erekson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

  6. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  7. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  8. Improving the effectiveness of interpreted consultations: Australian interpreter, general practitioner and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Farley, Rebecca; Claudio, Fernanda; Avila, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    interpreter roles and professional codes. A briefing session prior to the consultation, clarifying the roles of all parties, including any family or bicultural workers present, may help to establish respectful, flexible and effective interprofessional collaborations and to encourage participants to directly address any problems during the consultation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Metasurfaces: Simultaneous Stokes parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepetit, Thomas; Kanté, Boubacar

    2015-11-01

    Techniques for determining Stokes parameters, which fully define the polarization state of a wave, require multiple measurements, thus potentially leading to inaccuracies. Researchers now show how to simultaneously determine the parameters for visible light using periodic metal structures.

  10. Simultaneous consolidation and creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    Materials that exhibit creep under constant effective stress typically also show rate dependent behavior. The creep deformations and the rate sensitive behavior is very important when engineering and geological problems with large time scales are considered. When stress induced compaction (consol...... (consolidation) is retarded by slow drainage of excess pore pressure it is expected that consolidation and creep occur simultaneously. A constitutive model adressing the problems of rate sensitive behavior and simultaneous consolidation and creep is presented....

  11. Simultaneity, relativity and conventionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Allen I.

    2008-01-01

    The view of simultaneity presented by Max Jammer is almost breathtaking, encompassing, as the book's subtitle suggests, the period from antiquity to the 21st century. Many interesting things are to be found along the way. For example, what Jammer (p. 49) says "may well be regarded as probably the earliest recorded example of an operational definition of distant simultaneity" is due to St. Augustine (in his Confessions, written in 397 A.D.; for a modern translation, see Augustine, 2006). He was arguing against astrology by presenting the story of two women, one rich and one poor, who gave birth simultaneously. Although the two children thus had precisely the same horoscopes, their lives followed quite different courses. And how was it determined that the births were simultaneous? A messenger went from each birth site to the other, leaving the instant the child was born (and, presumably, traveling with equal speeds). Since the messengers met at the midpoint between the locations of the two births, the births must have been simultaneous. This is, of course, quite analogous to Albert Einstein's definition of simultaneity (given more than 1500 years later), which will be discussed in Section 2.1.

  12. The interpreter as co-interviewer: the role of the interpreter during interviews in cross-language health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurmond, Jeanine; Woudstra, Anke; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2016-07-01

    Interviews with ethnic minority patients provide a rich source of data to understand their perspectives of disease and its management. Language barriers are, however, often a problem so interpreters need to be used. We explored the impact of the interpreter on cross-language interviews between researchers and respondents. Secondary analysis of four interviews between researchers and patients involving professional interpreters. Interpreters were actively involved and influenced the interview in several ways: they assumed the interviewer's communicative role, edited information; initiated information-seeking, took over control of the interview, and took over the respondent's role. While the interpreter supported the interviewer, they posed risks to the quality of the interview. Researchers need to be aware of the influence of interpreters. Researchers should instruct interpreters carefully about their roles though they may benefit from interpreters' strategies to support them. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Hirsch on interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szahaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to reconstruct and critique E.D. Hirsch’s position in the debate about the necessary conditions and results of any interpretation. The author of this article seeks to demonstrate the difficulties connected with the intentionalist approach to the theory of interpretation which is typical of E.D. Hirsch and which unjustifiably privileges authorial intention. He also attempts to uncover the hidden assumptions of this approach by showing that, generally speaking, the dualist tendencies that are present in Hirsch’s theory cannot be justified. One of the objectives of this article is to propose an alternative approach to interpretation, which has been inspired by Stanley Fish and which emphasizes the integrity and monistic nature of interpretation as well as its constructivist and inevitably evaluative character. The author points to the fact that the arbitrarily established evaluation limits are unjustified as there is an element of evaluation on every level of interpretation and that the difference between understanding and interpretation cannot be validated. Also, one cannot interpret a text without each time referring to the social and cultural context.

  14. Psychoanalysis without Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail M. Reshetnikov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an invitation for professionals to discuss modifications of free associations technique and the position of therapist in analytic situation. Let me briefly formulate these ideas.

  15. Interpretation as doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the paper is to address and discuss relationships between the aesthetic perception and interpretation of contemporary landscape architecture. I will try to do this by setting up a cross-disciplinary perspective that looks into themes from the contemporary art scene and aesthetic...... concept of landscape and design in landscape architecture, and hereby address the question of how interpretation might be processed. It is also my premise that a key point in this is the interplay between different sensory experiences of both material and non-material aspects......, and that it is this interplay that the individual collects into an entity – an interpretation – through an intellectual process....

  16. USING VIDEO MATERIALS FOR TRAINING INTERPRETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Юрьевна Мощанская

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with using video materials for the development of combined ability to percept and understand auditory and visual components of the oral discourse at an early stage of training interpreters. The authors characterize the above-mentioned ability as a part of interpreter’s cultural and professional competences and describe the types of exercises and stages of using video materials.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-37

  17. Interpreting the CMMI a process improvement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Margaret K

    2008-01-01

    Written by experienced process improvement professionals who have developed and implemented computer based systems in organizations around the world, Interpreting the CMMI®: A Process Improvement Approach, Second Edition provides you with specific techniques for performing process improvement. Employing everyday language and supported by real world examples, the authors describe the fundamental concepts of the CMMI model, covering goals, practices, architecture, and definitions, and provide a structured approach for implementing the concepts of the CMMI into any organization. They discuss gett

  18. Interpretive Error in Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Stephen; Scott, Jinel; Gale, Brian; Fuchs, Travis; Kolla, Srinivas; Reede, Deborah

    2017-04-01

    Although imaging technology has advanced significantly since the work of Garland in 1949, interpretive error rates remain unchanged. In addition to patient harm, interpretive errors are a major cause of litigation and distress to radiologists. In this article, we discuss the mechanics involved in searching an image, categorize omission errors, and discuss factors influencing diagnostic accuracy. Potential individual- and system-based solutions to mitigate or eliminate errors are also discussed. Radiologists use visual detection, pattern recognition, memory, and cognitive reasoning to synthesize final interpretations of radiologic studies. This synthesis is performed in an environment in which there are numerous extrinsic distractors, increasing workloads and fatigue. Given the ultimately human task of perception, some degree of error is likely inevitable even with experienced observers. However, an understanding of the causes of interpretive errors can help in the development of tools to mitigate errors and improve patient safety.

  19. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  20. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation is the final phase of an LCA where the results of the other phases are considered together and analysed in the light of the uncertainties of the applied data and the assumptions that have been made and documented throughout the study. This chapter teaches how to perform...... an interpretation. The process of interpretation starts with identification of potentially significant issues in the previous stages of goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and impact assessment, and examples of potential significant issues are given for each phase. The significance is then determined...... is given on how to draw conclusions based on the previous steps of the interpretation, qualify the conclusions in terms of their robustness, and develop recommendations based on the results of the study....

  1. Interpreting Statistical Findings A Guide For Health Professionals And Students

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at those studying and working in the field of health care, including nurses and the professions allied to medicine, who have little prior knowledge of statistics but for whom critical review of research is an essential skill.

  2. Healthcare professionals' perspectives on traumatic childbirth - interpreting the data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Lamont, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    We would like to thank Cauldwell and Bewley (1) for their encouraging comments regarding our recent manuscript 'Blame and guilt - a mixed methods study of obstetricians' and midwives' experiences and existential considerations after involvement in traumatic childbirth' (2). The manuscript is the ...

  3. Professional and Institutional Morality: Building Ethics Programmes on the Dual Loyalty of Academic Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Andre; Wilderom, Celeste; Oost, Marlies

    2012-01-01

    Most professionals have the arduous task of managing their own dual loyalty: in one contextual relationship, they are members of a profession while simultaneously they are employed as members of a locally established organisation. This sense of a dual loyalty has to be taken into account when professional bureaucracies develop ethics programmes.…

  4. Sign Language Interpreters' Training

    OpenAIRE

    Andriakopoulou, Eirini; Bouras, Christos; Giannaka, Eri

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of technology and the increasing use of computers gave the opportunity for developing new methods of education of deaf individuals and sign language interpreters. The e-learning environments that have been developed for the education of sign language provide web-based courses, designed to effectively teach to anyone the Sign Language. Recognizing the difficulties and barriers of sign language training as well as the importance of sign language interpreters for the comm...

  5. Meta-interpreting SETL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aliffi

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a SETL interpreter written in SETL. This module may be reused as a basis to build debuggers, type checkers, symbolic executers, tracers, and many other general purpose programming tools. Other more advanced uses include experimenting with altered semantics for SETL and building interpreters for multi-paradigm languages, as in SetLog project, which aims at constructing a language integrating logic programming and set-oriented programming.

  6. Working with interpreters: an interactive Web-based learning module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Adina; Gany, Francesca; Senter, Lindsay

    2002-09-01

    Medical students are presented with unique challenges when they care for patients with limited English proficiency. Students must learn a complex set of skills needed to care for patients across cultural and language barriers and to understand the impact of their own attitudes and beliefs about caring for these patients. We developed and piloted a multimedia interactive Web-based module aimed at teaching students effective strategies for working with interpreters and diverse patient populations, and at raising their awareness of important legal, ethical, and cultural issues. First the learner completes a 37-multiple-choice-question (MCQ) pre-test that assesses attitudes, factual knowledge, and ability to analyze written clinical scenarios relevant to the module's content. Learners are then shown a series of professionally produced video vignettes, which reflect diverse patient populations, interpreters, and effectiveness of interpretation strategies (e.g., a Russian-speaking woman with chest pain whose daughter interprets, a medical student interpreting for a Chinese-speaking man using herbal medication, a Haitian woman told of an abnormal mammogram through a trained simultaneous interpreter). In each case, learners submit short answers to on-screen questions analyzing the effectiveness of the interpretation strategies demonstrated. Immediate feedback is given comparing student responses with those of experts. At any time during the module, the learners may view video commentary by legal, ethics, and cultural experts, or access a glossary and Web site links. Students conclude the module by again taking the MCQ test. A final screen compares their pre- and post-MCQ test responses and shows best answers, allowing them to assess their learning. The learners also complete a survey, providing personal cultural information and feedback on the module. All 160 first-year medical students completed the module and evaluated its effectiveness this year. On average, students

  7. Translators and Interpreters Certification in Australia, Canada, the USA and Ukraine: Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyba, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    The article presents an overview of the certification process by which potential translators and interpreters demonstrate minimum standards of performance to warrant official or professional recognition of their ability to translate or interpret and to practice professionally in Australia, Canada, the USA and Ukraine. The aim of the study is to…

  8. Interpreter-mediated Cognitive Assessments: Who Wins and Who Loses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambous, Betty; Tinney, Jean; LoGiudice, Dina; Lee, Sook Meng; Lin, Xiaoping

    2017-11-16

    The number of people with dementia from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds is increasing dramatically in Australia. Accurate cognitive assessments of people from CALD backgrounds can be achieved with the use of skilled interpreters. This study aimed to explore the experience of interpreter-mediated assessments from the perspectives of clinicians, interpreters and carers. Consultations with interpreters, clinicians and carers were conducted through individual interviews and focus groups. The consultations explored participants' experiences of interpreter-mediated assessments, including perception of the interpreting process, roles of interpreters, and challenges associated with interpreter-mediated assessments. Four themes emerged across groups: (1) the importance of having professional interpreters, (2) different perceptions of the roles of interpreters, (3) clinicians' feelings of having less control over assessments, and (4) particular challenges associated with cognitive assessments. Finding from this study highlight the important role that interpreters play in cognitive assessments with immigrants. However, there appears to be different perceptions of the role between clinicians and interpreters. When these different understandings are not resolved, they will lead to tension between clinicians and interpreters. These findings highlight the importance of relational aspects in interpreter-mediated assessment and suggest that the negotiation of the relationships between clinicians and interpreters is an important factor that determines the effectiveness and accuracy of these assessments. This study highlights the need for clinicians and interpreters education of roles of all parties in interpreter-mediated cognitive assessment. Areas to be covered in education could include: common misunderstandings of interpreters roles, and practice tips on how to improve communications in assessments, such as briefing before and after the assessment. Such

  9. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF

  10. "Her husband doesn't speak much English": conducting a family meeting with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Smith, Alexander K; Arnold, Robert M; Fernandez, Alicia

    2012-04-01

    A growing percentage of critically ill patients and their families in the United States speak limited English. We present the case of a palliative care consult conducted across language barriers to frame a discussion about the use of interpreters for family meetings, including the evidence for using a professional interpreter, the burden experienced by interpreters involved in end-of-life discussions, potential challenges encountered when conducting a family meeting with an interpreter, and recommended best practices for interpreter use in these settings.

  11. Sign language interpreter quality: the perspective of deaf sign language users in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Maya; Sluis, Irma

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the quality of sign language interpreters in the Netherlands from a deaf user perspective. Deaf sign language users select an interpreter according to situational factors, the interpreter’s professional skills and norms. The choice for a specific interpreter is based on a set of individual quality criteria. Results of the study indicate that consumers firstly aim to select an interpreter who will render a faithful and understandable interpretation. Further r...

  12. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant to incorp......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  13. Migrants' perceptions of using interpreters in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, E; Heikkilä, K; Albin, B; Hjelm, K

    2009-12-01

    The number of foreign-born people who do not share a common language has increased due to extensive international migration, which will increase in the future. There is limited knowledge about the users' perceptions of interpreters in health care. To describe how individuals from former Yugoslavia, living in Sweden, perceived the use of interpreters in Swedish healthcare services. A phenomenographic approach was employed. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews during 2006-2007 with 17 people, aged 29-75 years, from former Yugoslavia, living in Sweden. Three descriptive categories were identified: (1) prerequisites for good interpretation situations; (2) the interpretation situation - aspects of satisfaction or dissatisfaction; and (3) measures to facilitate and improve the interpreter situation. The interpreter's competence, attitude, appearance and an appropriate environment are important prerequisites for interpretation. The interpreter was perceived as being a communication aid and a guide in the healthcare system in terms of information and practical issues, but also as a hindrance. A desirable professional interpreter was perceived as highly skilled in medical terminology and language, working in face-to-face interaction. Using an interpreter was perceived as a hindrance, though also needed in communication with healthcare staff and as a guide in the healthcare system. Face-to-face interaction was preferred, with the interpreter as an aid to communication. As part of individual care planning it is important to use interpreters according to the patients' desires. Healthcare organizations and guidelines for interpreters need to be developed in order for patients to have easy access to highly skilled professional interpreters.

  14. Cutting Corners: Provider Perceptions of Interpretation Services and Factors Related to Use of an Ad Hoc Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Rachel; Parker, Veronica G; Sherrill, Windsor W; Coltman, Kinneil; Hudson, Matthew F; Nichols, Christina M; Yates, Adam M; Pribonic, Anne Paige

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed health providers' perceptions of factors related to professional interpretation services and the association between these factors and the potential use of ad hoc interpreters. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 150 health services providers at a large, regional health system in South Carolina. Providers rated "ability to communicate effectively during a clinical encounter" as paramount regarding the use of interpretation services. The most important factors related to the likely use of ad hoc interpreters (cutting corners) included locating a qualified interpreter, having to wait for a qualified interpreter, and technical difficulties regarding phone and video technology. Health care organizations may benefit from increasing staff awareness about patient safety and legal and regulatory risks involved with the use of ad hoc interpreters. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Being Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the professio......The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the...... professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation...... ‘storyline’, c.f. Bronwyn Davies and the empirical material consists of observations and interviews in the theoretical periods and in the traineeships....

  16. Users’ Quality Expectations in Conference Interpreting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Amini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of an unpublished doctoral thesis on “Conference Interpreting in Malaysia”. Expectations of users were explored by an on-site questionnaire-based survey study in Malaysian conference interpreting setting. The relative importance of various linguistic and non-linguistic criteria for quality was obtained through quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A reliable sample of 256 interpreting “users” (Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.81 were collected from five international conferences in Malaysia. Analysis of the results revealed that users attached high value to the linguistic criteria of sense-consistency with original message (94.1%, logical cohesion (91.1%, fluency of delivery (91%, correct terminology (89.8%, correct grammar (82.8%, completeness of interpretation (80.2%, synchronicity (73%, and style (70.5% rating the criteria very important or important. The parameters of pleasant voice (60.9%, lively intonation (60.4%, and native accent (57.3% were considered desirable, but not essential as they received the least importance by the users. Findings from the open-ended questions showed that users consider “wide range of topics” and “broadening one’s horizons” as the most interesting aspects of conference interpreting. Users indicated that they were willing to listen to the interpretation even if they understood it. These suggest that interpreters are seen as a professional source of knowledge from users’ perspectives. While stressing on the linguistic aspects and the importance of output-related quality criteria, the researcher calls for taking further notice of situational particularities and background variables, pragmatic communication issues, and contextual features with a more extensive view of the profession, in addition to the methodological issues that have always been argued in interpreting quality research.

  17. Understanding Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs about Professional Learning Communities and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Arthur L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study utilized the theoretical frameworks of constructivism, cognitivism, and socio-cultural theories to examine how professional learning communities influenced the professional development of mathematics teacher knowledge and student achievement. This study sought to comprehend and interpret the behaviors, beliefs and values of…

  18. (Destabilizing Self-Identities in Professional Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Buch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is characteristic of much professional work that it is performed in ambiguous contexts. Thus, uncertainty, unpredictability, indeterminacy, and recurrent organizational transformations are an integral part of modern work for, e.g., engineers, lawyers, business consultants, and other professionals. Although key performance indicators and other knowledge management systems are used to set standards of excellence for professionals, the character of professional work is still flexible, open to interpretation and heterarchical. The very successfulness (or unsuccessfulness of the work is established in a complex work context where various goals, interests, and perspectives are mediated, altered, contested, mangled, and negotiated in a process of sense-making. The work context is heterogeneously populated by various actors (e.g., the customer, the manager, the colleagues and actants (e.g., quality systems and technical equipment that give “voice” to (conflicting interpretations of what constitutes successful work. Thus, the professionals must navigate in a very complex environment where the locus of governance is far from stable. These characteristics of professional work seem to have implications for the way professionals make sense of their work and their own identities. The identity work of professionals is interwoven with their professional training and career background. With an academic training and a professional career, the individual typically identifies with the profession’s values and adopts a certain way of seeing and approaching the world. This professional outlook typically will constitute the basis of the individual’s appraisal of the work and lay out a horizon of expectations in relation to fulfillment, self-realization, and job satisfaction. In this way, the construction of self-identity becomes the yardstick for the individual’s sense-making and, a fortiori, for the individual’s sense of meaningful work. In this paper

  19. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  20. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickl Peter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  1. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  2. Normative interpretations of diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Normative interpretations of particular cases consist of normative principles or values coupled with social theoretical accounts of the empirical facts of the case. The article reviews the most prominent normative interpretations of the Muhammad cartoons controversy over the publication of drawings...... of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten. The controversy was seen as a case of freedom of expression, toleration, racism, (in)civility and (dis)respect, and the article notes different understandings of these principles and how the application of them to the controversy implied different...

  3. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  4. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  5. Conflicts in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; Hendriks, P.; Hoop, H. de; Krämer, I.; Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwarts, J.

    2007-01-01

    The leading hypothesis of this paper is that interpretation is a process of constraint satisfaction, conflict resolution, and optimization, along the lines of Optimality Theory. Support for this view is drawn from very different domains, and based on both experimental and theoretical research. We

  6. Listening and Message Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  7. Interpreting the Santal Rebellion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Birkelund

    2016-01-01

    Postcolonial studies have interpreted the Santal Rebellion, the hul of 1855, as a peasant rebellion that the colonial power construed as an ethnic rebellion (R. Guha). Anthropologists and historians have stressed the near-complete mobilisation of the Santals, whereas a later colonial historian (W...

  8. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  9. Diplomatic Worldview: Interpretative Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayzhol I. Karipbaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to topical issues of interpretative pluralism, which formed the basis of the modern worldview. The attitude "world as text" enables to reveal new methodological, ontological and axiological perspectives of man’s self-determination in this world, his possibilities to participate in social reality construction. Such approach, offered within postmodernism, enables to expand our epistemological horizons.

  10. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  11. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  12. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  13. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  14. That I won't translate! Experiences of a family medical interpreter in a multicultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelman, Rhona D; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2010-01-01

    Family members used as patients' interpreters are a common occurrence in the medical environments of multicultural societies. It is recognized that the use of the family-member interpreter may have some benefits. However, studies show that this option also has substantial disadvantages and therefore suggest that the use of professional medical interpreters is the preferable option for effective quality care. The purpose of the current study is to present the narrative of a family-member interpreter in Israel, a diverse immigrant society. While numerous studies have been done on the challenges in the doctor-interpreter-patient medical encounter, these studies tend to focus on the experiences of the physicians or the patients, and the perspective of the interpreter is often sidelined. After discussing the various interpreting options, we suggest that the perspective of the family-member interpreter strengthens assertions that professional interpretation is the best option for multilingual medical environments. 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  15. Professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  16. Professional C++

    CERN Document Server

    Gregoire, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Master complex C++ programming with this helpful, in-depth resource From game programming to major commercial software applications, C++ is the language of choice. It is also one of the most difficult programming languages to master. While most competing books are geared toward beginners, Professional C++, Third Edition, shows experienced developers how to master the latest release of C++, explaining little known features with detailed code examples users can plug into their own codes. More advanced language features and programming techniques are presented in this newest edition of the book,

  17. Language interpreter utilization in the emergency department setting: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Dorian; Engel, Kirsten G; Tang, Tricia S

    2008-05-01

    The emergency department (ED) serves as the entry point into the U.S. health care system for many patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). This paper reviews the literature on language interpreter utilization in the ED setting. We focused on three clinical issues related to professional language interpretation: (1) patient satisfaction, (2) health care delivery, and (3) current interpreter utilization practices. Compared with-English speaking patients, LEP patients report less satisfaction with medical encounters, have different rates of diagnostic testing, and receive less explanation and follow-up. Although professional interpretation has been associated with improvements in patient satisfaction, communication, and health care access, these services are largely under-utilized in ED settings. Reliance on untrained ad hoc interpreters, perceived time and labor associated with obtaining and working with an interpreter, and costs of implementing professional interpreter services serve as barriers to implementation and utilization.

  18. Le verbe qui vole; mot de l'enterprete (The Flying Verb; The Interpreter's Word)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Therese

    1975-01-01

    After a brief discussion on the nature of the interpreter's work, a survey is made of the beginnings of interpreting as a profession in 1953 and its growth since then in North America and Europe. Attention is called to the problem of incompetence brought about by the growing number of interpreters; and to the need for professional interpreter…

  19. Interpretation and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Rychlewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses some theoretical problems associated with the description of the modern book market. In particular, he is interested in the release notes and book covers in the context of the literary categories of interpretation and reception. He postulates that the marketing practices of publishers should be called a “manipulative interpretation”, insofar as the information about books and book covers fulfills a double function: that of advertising and affecting the reception of the text. Referring to the two types of interpretation, “exegesis” and “usage”, he believes that the discussed phenomena fall between these two extremes. Both the release notes and book covers are the domain of a limited “usage”, the accuracy of which verifies the market.

  20. IMAGE INTERPRETATION TASK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a research requirement of the Department of the Army, an extensive exploratory survey of human factors problems in image in...imagery. (2) How can the Army best utilize its available human resources to cope with ever increasing variety of image types and at the same time...experiments conduct ed to date within each of four subtask areas encompassed by the research program of the Image Interpretation Task.

  1. Measurement, Interpretation and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Lombardi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During many years since the birth of quantum mechanics, instrumentalistinterpretations prevailed: the meaning of the theory was expressed in terms of measurementsresults. However, in the last decades, several attempts to interpret it from a realist viewpointhave been proposed. Among them, modal interpretations supply a realist non-collapseaccount, according to which the system always has definite properties and the quantum staterepresents possibilities, not actualities. But the traditional modal interpretations faced someconceptual problems when addressing imperfect measurements. The modal-Hamiltonianinterpretation, on the contrary, proved to be able to supply an adequate account of themeasurement problem, both in its ideal and its non-ideal versions. Moreover, in the non-idealcase, it gives a precise criterion to distinguish between reliable and non-reliable measurements.Nevertheless, that criterion depends on the particular state of the measured system, and thismight be considered as a shortcoming of the proposal. In fact, one could ask for a criterionof reliability that does not depend on the features of what is measured but only on theproperties of the measurement device. The aim of this article is precisely to supply such acriterion: we will adopt an informational perspective for this purpose.

  2. Interpretation and creationism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, J L

    1994-08-01

    This paper is an attempt to raise questions about certain underlying and implicit assumptions in some hermeneutic and narrative approaches to psychoanalysis. Starting from the view that Freud saw interpretation in the clinical setting as an attempt to unveil the analysand's psychic reality, it is argued that he envisaged that psychoanalysis aims to interpret what is real in the analysand's inner world--an empirical line of thought underpinned by the idea of analytic neutrality and an emphasis on the analysand's capacity to judge reality. By contrast, the tendency within the hermeneutic-narrative tradition is to demote psychic reality in favour of an emphasis on the analyst's capacity to interpret in order to help his analysand construct meaning. This approach may be said to put the analyst's words in the place of those of the Creator; in other words, it amounts to a 'verbal creationism', which the author argues is rooted in the idealistic philosophy of Hegel, Vico and Descartes and, further back, can be traced to the Book of Genesis--a conclusion causing the author to express some reservations.

  3. Professional socialisation: an influence on professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of values, attitudes, skills and knowledge pertaining to a profession. This article reviews the definition and conceptualisation of professional socialisation through anticipatory and formal professional socialisation processes. It describes the core elements of professional ...

  4. Simultaneous Inference in Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The use of simultaneous confidence bands in linear regression is a vibrant area of research. This book presents an overview of the methodology and applications, including necessary background material on linear models. A special chapter on logistic regression gives readers a glimpse into how these methods can be used for generalized linear models. The appendices provide computational tools for simulating confidence bands. The author also includes MATLAB[registered] programs for all examples on the web. With many numerical examples and software implementation, this text serves the needs of rese

  5. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    , in some cases, all - professional users involved (judges, lawyers, prosecutors). As far as the non-Danish speaking users are concerned, it has, with one notable exception, unfortunately not been possible to obtain data from this group via questionnaires. As this type of data, however, is important...... deviations and sanctions in every case. By way of example: Several judges, who had given their consent to recordings of authentic data in connection with the research project, reported that they had experienced problems with insufficient language proficiency on the part of untrained interpreters speaking...... speaking these languages. This example does not immediately indicate that Translation Studies might be able to contribute to, for example, an improvement of the training situation for the group of court interpreters mentioned above. However, in our opinion, there is reason to believe that TS can make...

  6. Simultaneous immunization against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Z Tchilian

    Full Text Available BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, provides some protection against disseminated disease in infants but has little effect on prevention of adult pulmonary disease. Newer parenteral immunization prime boost regimes may provide improved protection in experimental animal models but are unproven in man so that there remains a need for new and improved immunization strategies.Mice were immunized parenterally, intranasally or simultaneously by both routes with BCG or recombinant mycobacterial antigens plus appropriate adjuvants. They were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. We show that simultaneous immunization (SIM of mice by the intranasal and parenteral routes is highly effective in increasing protection over parenteral BCG administration alone. Intranasal immunization induces local pulmonary immunity capable of inhibiting the growth of Mtb in the early phase (the first week of infection, while parenteral immunization has a later effect on Mtb growth. Importantly, these two effects are additive and do not depend on priming and boosting the immune response. The best SIM regimes reduce lung Mtb load by up to 2 logs more than BCG given by either route alone.These data establish SIM as a novel and highly effective immunization strategy for Mtb that could be carried out at a single clinic visit. The efficacy of SIM does not depend on priming and boosting an immune response, but SIM is complementary to prime boost strategies and might be combined with them.

  7. Geodesics of simultaneity in Schwarzschild

    CERN Document Server

    Paiva, F M

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic of simultaneity is a spacelike geodesic in which every pair of neighbour events are simultaneous ($g_{0\\mu}\\dd x^\\mu=0$). These geodesics are studied in the exterior region of \\Sch's metric.

  8. [Interpreting medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulygin, V P; Chepaĭkin, A G

    2002-01-01

    The specific properties of softwares for interpretation of physiological signals are discussed. Problems in the presentation of inaccurate knowledge and in the assessment of the quality of software realization of this knowledge are identified. Ways of describing inaccuracies by using the factors of certainty, inaccurate logic, linguistic approximations, and three-value logic are considered. Using the well-known approaches to testing the ECG and external respiration analyzing systems as examples, the authors show it necessary to develop special methods to evaluate the efficiency, selectivity, and stability of inferences for slight-magnitude conclusions.

  9. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... East leads to the need for an evidence-based history of Palestine. This volume analyses the consequences of the question: “If the Bible is not history, what is it then?” The editors, Hjelm and Thompson are members of the Copenhagen School, which was formed in the light of this question...

  10. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    ’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15......th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements...

  11. Arabic-speaking migrants' experiences of the use of interpreters in healthcare: a qualitative explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2014-06-16

    Arabic-speaking migrants have constituted a growing population in recent years. This entails major challenges to ensure good communication in the healthcare encounter in order to provide individual and holistic healthcare. One of the solutions to ensure good communication between patient and healthcare staff who do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. To our knowledge, no previous qualitative studies have been found concerning Arabic-speaking migrants and the use of interpreters. This study aims to ascertain their individual experiences which can help extend our understanding of the studied area. A purposive sample of 13 Arabic-speaking persons with experience of using interpreters in healthcare encounters. Data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013 by four focus-group interviews and analysed with qualitative analysis according to a method described for focus groups. Four categories appeared from the analysis: 1) The professional interpreter as spokesperson; 2) Different types of interpreters and modes of interpretation adapting to the healthcare encounter; 3) The professional interpreter's task and personal properties affected the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter; 4) Future planning of the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter. The main findings were that the use of interpreters was experienced both as a possibility and as a problem. The preferred type of interpreters depended on the interpreter's dialect and ability to interpret correctly. Besides the professional interpreter's qualities of good skill in language and medical terminology, translation ability, neutrality and objectivity, Arabic-speaking participants stated that professional interpreters need to share the same origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views as the patient in order to facilitate the interpreter use and avoid inappropriate treatment. The study showed that the personal qualities of a good

  12. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

  13. Note on Magnetism and Simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    The paper on "Magnetism and Simultaneity" by Adler provides an excellent new thought experiment involving the lack of simultaneity in Einstein's special relativity. Adler uses the lack of simultaneity rather than the Lorentz contraction to derive the formula for the magnetic force on a moving charged particle. Advantages of his derivation are that…

  14. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  15. Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyulko, Oleksandra

    acquisition challenging. This problem was resolved by integration of polarization optics into the optics of the attachment to enable simultaneous creation and spatial separation of two interferograms, which, combined with the background image, are used to reconstruct the intensity map of the specimen. Giving the name Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry to this approach, simultaneous acquisition of all interferograms per image has eliminated the issue of vibrations. The designed compound microscope attachment has been manufactured and tested; the system produces images of quality, sufficient to perform targeted cellular irradiation experiments.

  16. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  17. Performance of educational interpreter: partnership with teachers and authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferreira dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze and discuss the work of the Educational Interpreter (IE, which is a recent professional in our country in the field of deaf educacion, and the currently researches on their performance in the classroom are incipient. This article aimed to discuss in addition to the work of interpretation from one language to another (Brazilian Sign Language/Portuguese, their relationship of partnership with the teacher and how this may influence interpretation practices, and also the possibilities of creation and discursive authoring by professional IE. For this purpose, this research is based mostly on Bakhtinian theoretical frameworks (2009, 2010, and authors in the field of deafness, translation and interpretation. The data selected for this study was done in tape-recorder and subsequently transcribed, in a History classroom with the presence of interpreter, on the 6th year of elementary school that proposed be inclusive bilingual for the deaf. The analysis on the IE’s performance demonstrated that the work of Educational Interpreter is not restricted to the utterances translation and interpretations:  he is co-author of the discourses delivered by teachers in classroom, and your practices are connected with the teacher’s practice work development.

  18. Performance of educational interpreter: partnership with teachers and authorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ferreira dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze and discuss the work of the Educational Interpreter (IE, which is a recent professional in our country in the field of deaf educacion, and the currently researches on their performance in the classroom are incipient. This article aimed to discuss in addition to the work of interpretation from one language to another (Brazilian Sign Language/Portuguese, their relationship of partnership with the teacher and how this may influence interpretation practices, and also the possibilities of creation and discursive authoring by professional IE. For this purpose, this research is based mostly on Bakhtinian theoretical frameworks (2009, 2010, and authors in the field of deafness, translation and interpretation. The data selected for this study was done in tape-recorder and subsequently transcribed, in a History classroom with the presence of interpreter, on the 6th year of elementary school that proposed be inclusive bilingual for the deaf. The analysis on the IE’s performance demonstrated that the work of Educational Interpreter is not restricted to the utterances translation and interpretations: he is co-author of the discourses delivered by teachers in classroom, and your practices are connected with the teacher’s practice work development.

  19. Patterns of interpreter use for hospitalized patients with limited English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Nickleach, Dana; Karliner, Leah S

    2011-07-01

    Professional interpreter use improves the quality of care for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP), but little is known about interpreter use in the hospital. Evaluate interpreter use for clinical encounters in the hospital. Cross-sectional. Hospitalized Spanish and Chinese-speaking LEP patients. Patient reported use of interpreters during hospitalization. Among 234 patients, 57% reported that any kind of interpreter was present with the physician at admission, 60% with physicians during hospitalization, and 37% with nurses since admission. The use of professional interpreters with physicians was infrequent overall (17% at admission and 14% since admission), but even less common for encounters with nurses (4%, p interpreter was more common with physicians (28% at admission, 23% since admission) than with nurses (18%, p = 0.008). Few patients reported that physicians spoke their language well (19% at admission, 12% since admission) and even fewer reported that nurses spoke their language well (6%, p = 0.0001). Patients were more likely to report that they either "got by" without an interpreter or were barely spoken to at all with nurses (38%) than with physicians at admission (14%) or since admission (15%, p Interpreter use varied by type of clinical contact, but was overall more common with physicians than with nurses. Professional interpreters were rarely used. With physicians, use of ad hoc interpreters such as family or friends was most common; with nurses, patients often reported, "getting by" without an interpreter or barely speaking at all.

  20. System-level factors affecting clinicians' perceptions and use of interpreter services in California public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurer, Danielle; Yonek, Julie C; Cohen, Alan B; Restuccia, Joseph D; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana

    2014-04-01

    Professional language interpreters are skilled in the nuances of interpretation and are less likely to make errors of clinical significance but clinicians infrequently use them. We examine system-level factors that may shape clinicians' perceptions and use of professional interpreters. Exploratory qualitative study in 12 California public hospitals. We conducted in-person key informant interviews with hospital leadership, clinical staff, and administrative staff. Five emergent themes highlight system-level factors that may influence clinicians' perceptions and use of professional interpreters in hospitals: (1) organization-wide commitment to improving language access for LEP patients; (2) organizational investment in remote interpreter technologies to increase language access; (3)training clinicians on how to access and work with interpreters; (4) hospital supports the training and certification of bilingual staff to serve as interpreters to expand in-person, on-site, interpreter capacity; and (5)organizational investment in readily accessible telephonic interpretation. Multiple system-level factors underlie clinicians' use of professional interpreters. Interventions that target these factors could improve language services for patients with limited English proficiency.

  1. Evaluating Interpreter's Skill by Measurement of Prosody Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Saori; Nakazono, Kaoru; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    Sign language is a visual language in which main articulators are hands, torso, head, and face. For simultaneous interpreters of Japanese sign language (JSL) and spoken Japanese, it is very important to recognize not only the hands movement but also prosody such like head, eye, posture and facial expression. This is because prosody has grammatical rules for representing the case and modification relations in JSL. The goal of this study is to introduce an examination called MPR (Measurement of Prosody Recognition) and to demonstrate that it can be an indicator for the other general skills of interpreters. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments: the first studies the relationship between the interpreter's experience and the performance score on MPR (Experiment-1), and the second investigates the specific skill that can be estimated by MPR (Experiment-2). The data in Experiment-1 came from four interpreters who had more than 1-year experience as interpreters, and more four interpreters who had less than 1-year experience. The mean accuracy of MPR in the more experienced group was higher than that in the less experienced group. The data in Experiment-2 came from three high MPR interpreters and three low MPR interpreters. Two hearing subjects and three deaf subjects evaluated their skill in terms of the speech or sign interpretation skill, the reliability of interpretation, the expeditiousness, and the subjective sense of accomplishment for the ordering pizza task. The two experiments indicated a possibility that MPR could be useful for estimating if the interpreter is sufficiently experienced to interpret from sign language to spoken Japanese, and if they can work on the interpretation expeditiously without making the deaf or the hearing clients anxious. Finally we end this paper with suggestions for conclusions and future work.

  2. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio......'s social networks and roles, and how these changes affect the organisation's use of new technology (Barley 1986; 1990; Compton, White & DeWine 1991; Orlikowski 2000)....

  3. Interpreting social enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Borzaga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Institutional and organizational variety is increasingly characterizing advanced economic systems. While traditional economic theories have focused almost exclusively on profit-maximizing (i.e., for-profit enterprises and on publicly-owned organizations, the increasing relevance of non-profit organizations, and especially of social enterprises, requires scientists to reflect on a new comprehensive economic approach for explaining this organizational variety. This paper examines the main limitations of the orthodox and institutional theories and asserts the need for creating and testing a new theoretical framework, which considers the way in which diverse enterprises pursue their goals, the diverse motivations driving actors and organizations, and the different learning patterns and routines within organizations. The new analytical framework proposed in the paper draws upon recent developments in the theories of the firm, mainly of an evolutionary and behavioral kind. The firm is interpreted as a coordination mechanism of economic activity, and one whose objectives need not coincide with profit maximization. On the other hand, economic agents driven by motivational complexity and intrinsic, non-monetary motivation play a crucial role in forming firm activity over and above purely monetary and financial objectives. The new framework is thought to be particularly suitable to correctly interpret the emergence and role of nontraditional organizational and ownership forms that are not driven by the profit motive (non-profit organizations, mainly recognized in the legal forms of cooperative firms, non-profit organizations and social enterprises. A continuum of organizational forms ranging from profit making activities to public benefit activities, and encompassing mutual benefit organizations as its core constituent, is envisaged and discussed.

  4. What Language Do Interpreters Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gerald B.

    1982-01-01

    States that both the register and variety of an interpreter's speech are quite limited and analyzes the linguistic characteristics of "International English," the English used by interpreters at international conferences. (CFM)

  5. Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sczyrba, Alexander; Hofmann, Peter; Belmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Methods for assembly, taxonomic profiling and binning are key to interpreting metagenome data, but a lack of consensus about benchmarking complicates performance assessment. The Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI) challenge has engaged the global developer community to benchmark...

  6. Healthcare Professionals' Attitudes to Rehabilitation Programming for Male Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and interpret the attitudes and conduct of hospital healthcare professionals (HCPs) in association with male cancer survivors and their municipal rehabilitation participation. Design: Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted, consisting of participant...

  7. Structural interpretation of seismic data and inherent uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Clare

    2013-04-01

    associated further interpretation and analysis of the techniques and strategies employed. This resource will be of use to undergraduate, post-graduate, industry and academic professionals seeking to improve their seismic interpretation skills, develop reasoning strategies for dealing with incomplete datasets, and for assessing the uncertainty in these interpretations. Bond, C.E. et al. (2012). 'What makes an expert effective at interpreting seismic images?' Geology, 40, 75-78. Bond, C. E. et al. (2011). 'When there isn't a right answer: interpretation and reasoning, key skills for 21st century geoscience'. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 629-652. Bond, C. E. et al. (2008). 'Structural models: Optimizing risk analysis by understanding conceptual uncertainty'. First Break, 26, 65-71. Bond, C. E. et al., (2007). 'What do you think this is?: "Conceptual uncertainty" In geoscience interpretation'. GSA Today, 17, 4-10.

  8. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  9. The debbuggable interpreter design pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Vrany, Jan; Bergel, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed The use of Interpreter and Visitor design patterns has been widely adopted to implement programming language interpreters due to their expressive and simple design. However, no general approach to conceive a debugger is commonly adopted. This paper presents the debuggable interpreter design pattern as a general approach to extend a language interpreter with debugging facilities such as step-over and step-into. Moreover, it enables multiple debuggers coexisting and extends ...

  10. Interpreting at the End of Life: A Systematic Review of the Impact of Interpreters on the Delivery of Palliative Care Services to Cancer Patients with Limited English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Milagros D.; Genoff, Margaux; Zaballa, Alexandra; Jewell, Sarah; Stabler, Stacy; Gany, Francesca M.; Diamond, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    Context Language barriers can influence the health quality and outcomes of Limited English Poficiency (LEP) patients at end of life, including symptom assessment and utilization of hospice services. Objective To determine how professional medical interpreters influence the delivery of palliative care services to LEP patients. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature in all available languages of six databases from 1966 to 2014. Studies evaluated use of language services for LEP patients who received palliative care services. Data were abstracted from ten articles and collected on study design, size, comparison groups, outcomes and interpreter characteristics. Results Six qualitative and four quantitative studies assessed the use of interpreters in palliative care. All studies found that the quality of care provided to LEP patients receiving palliative services is influenced by the type of interpreter used. When professional interpreters were not used, LEP patients and families had inadequate understanding about diagnosis and prognosis during goals of care conversations, and patients had worse symptom management at the end of life, including pain and anxiety. Half of the studies concluded that professional interpreters were not utilized adequately and several suggested that pre-meetings between clinicians and interpreters were important to discuss topics and terminology to be used during goals of care discussions. Conclusion LEP patients had worse quality of end-of-life care and goals of care discussions when professional interpreters were not used. More intervention studies are needed to improve the quality of care provided to LEP patients and families receiving palliative services. PMID:26549596

  11. Interpreter-mediated neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish speakers with limited English proficiency, aged 18-65 years (M = 39.7, SD = 13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending on whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient's target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals.

  12. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  13. Student Interpretations of Political Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, Douglas; Moore, David M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and types of interpretations that fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders gave to 24 editorial cartoons in four issue areas and the effect of intelligence on political cartoon interpretation. Numerous misinterpretations and no interpretations indicates assumptions that cartoons are an effective teaching medium…

  14. Categories of theories and interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    In this paper we study categories of theories and interpretations. In these categories, notions of sameness of theories, like synonymy, bi-interpretability and mutual interpretability, take the form of isomorphism. We study the usual notions like monomorphism and product in the various theories.

  15. Simultaneity in Emotional Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.

    Emotions are described as emergent states, which exist only to the extent that multiple affective reactions to the same object occur at the same time. Emotions are thus the confluence of thoughts, feelings, expressions, desires, and so on. They emerge as meta-cognitive representations of embodied affective reactions. Emotions may be initiated by low-level, automatic, unconscious affective reactions, which are then iteratively re-processed with ever greater cognitive involvement until they become elaborated into emotional states. Affective and emotional reactions act as information about the value of objects of judgment and of accessible cognitions and inclinations during tasks. They influence judgment and thought when they are experienced simultaneously with sensory data about the world. Affective influences thus depend on our inability to disentangle affective from descriptive perceptions. To the extent that affective reactions reflect different, incommensurate sources of value (e.g., utilitarian, moral, aesthetic), perceived persons or objects may be experienced as being transcendently good or evil. Experiments varying people's attributions for their affective experiences allow the separate roles of affective and descriptive information to be examined. However, it is the inability to parse everyday experience into its separate sources of evaluative and descriptive information that gives rise to a colourful and transcendent reality.

  16. Professionalism Training For Surgical Residents: Documenting the Advantages of a Professionalism Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Mark S; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra; Gillespie, Colleen; Pachter, H Leon

    2016-09-01

    Professionalism education is a vital component of surgical training. This research attempts to determine whether an annual, year-long professionalism curriculum in a large surgical residency can effectively change professionalism attitudes. The ACGME mandated 6 competencies in 2003. The competencies of Professionalism and Interpersonal/Professional Communication Skills had never been formally addressed in surgical resident education in the past. A professionalism curriculum was developed focusing on specific resident professionalism challenges: admitting mistakes, effective communication with colleagues at all levels, delivering the news of an unexpected death, interdisciplinary challenges of working as a team, the cultural challenge of obtaining informed consent through an interpreter, and the stress of surgical practice on you and your family. These professionalism skills were then evaluated with a 6-station Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Identical OSCE scenarios were administered to 2 cohorts of surgical residents: in 2007 (before instituting the professionalism curriculum in 2008) and again in 2014. Surgical residents were rated by trained Standardized Patients according to a behaviorally anchored professionalism criteria checklist. An analysis of variance was conducted of overall OSCE professionalism scores (% well done) as the dependent variable for the 2 resident cohorts (2007 vs 2014). The 2007 residents received a mean score of 38% of professionalism items "well done" (SD 9%) and the 2014 residents received a mean 59% "well done" (SD 8%). This difference is significant (F = 49.01, P Professionalism education has improved surgical resident understanding, awareness, and practice of professionalism in a statistically significant manner from 2007 to 2014. This documented improvement in OSCE performance reflects the value of a professionalism curriculum in the care of the patients we seek to serve.

  17. 29 CFR 541.302 - Creative professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Employees of newspapers, magazines, television and other media are not exempt creative professionals if they... positions in advertising agencies. This requirement generally is not met by a person who is employed as a... contribute a unique interpretation or analysis to a news product. Thus, for example, newspaper reporters who...

  18. programme to the professional development of teachers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skills and values required to take action for the environment. .... teachers themselves) that professional development that occurs outside the classroom .... Methodology. The research was focused within the interpretive paradigm and followed a qualitative research approach. This article reports on the findings of focus group ...

  19. Elimination of Ideas and Professional Socialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravengaard, Gitte; Rimestad, Lene

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates and interprets social and cultural production and reproduction as we turn our attention to an important part of routinised practice in the newsroom: the early newsroom meetings. These meetings are essential sites for the building of the craft ethos and professional vision...

  20. intercultural communication; role of the translator-interpreter; interpreting; translation; T&I in the educational setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Criado González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of immigrant children arrive in Spain with no previous knowledge of Spanish and it can be very difficult for their teachers to relate to them and their families. Unable to overcome linguistic barriers, they are forced to rely on other forms of communication and this can often cause misunderstanding between the school staff and the immigrant family. We put forward, as a hypothesis, that the intervention of professional translators and interpreters is needed for immigrant pupils into the Spanish education system to ensure that the process is carried out in accordance with the professional principles of translation and interpreting in several educational centres of the south of Cadiz via a personal and professional analysis of the teachers. This analysis will be done through a survey which has been carried out in these educational centres of the municipalities in order to reach a conclusion which supports the hypothesis.

  1. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. The role of scientists in statutory interpretation of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhere, George F

    2017-04-01

    Like many federal statutes, the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) contains vague or ambiguous language. The meaning imparted to the ESA's unclear language can profoundly impact the fates of endangered and threatened species. Hence, conservation scientists should contribute to the interpretation of the ESA when vague or ambiguous language contains scientific words or refers to scientific concepts. Scientists need to know at least these 2 facts about statutory interpretation: statutory interpretation is subjective and the potential influence of normative values results in different expectations for the parties involved. With the possible exception of judges, all conventional participants in statutory interpretation are serving their own interests, advocating for their preferred policies, or biased. Hence, scientists can play a unique role by informing the interpretative process with objective, policy-neutral information. Conversely, scientists may act as advocates for their preferred interpretation of unclear statutory language. The different roles scientists might play in statutory interpretation raise the issues of advocacy and competency. Advocating for a preferred statutory interpretation is legitimate political behavior by scientists, but statutory interpretation can be strongly influenced by normative values. Therefore, scientists must be careful not to commit stealth policy advocacy. Most conservation scientists lack demonstrable competence in statutory interpretation and therefore should consult or collaborate with lawyers when interpreting statutes. Professional scientific societies are widely perceived by the public as unbiased sources of objective information. Therefore, professional scientific societies should remain policy neutral and present all interpretations of unclear statutory language; explain the semantics and science both supporting and contradicting each interpretation; and describe the potential consequences of implementing each interpretation

  3. PROBABLE FORECASTING IN THE COURSE OF INTERPRETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. B. Kagan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Translation practice has a heuristic nature and involves cognitive structures of consciousness of any interpreter. When preparing translators, special attention is paid to the development of their skill of probable forecasting.The aim of the present publication is to understand the process of anticipation from the position of the cognitive model of translation, development of exercises aimed at the development of prognostic abilities of students and interpreters when working with newspaper articles, containing metaphorical headlines.Methodology and research methods. The study is based on the competence approach to the training of students-translators, the complex of interrelated scientific methods, the main of which is the psycholinguistic experiment. With the use of quantitative data the features of the perception of newspaper texts on their metaphorical titles are characterized.Results and scientific novelty. On the basis of the conducted experiment to predict the content of newspaper articles with metaphorical headlines it is concluded that the main condition of predictability is the expectation. Probable forecasting as a professional competence of a future translator is formed in the process of training activities by integrating efforts of various departments of any language university. Specific exercises for the development of anticipation of students while studying the course of translation and interpretation are offered.Practical significance. The results of the study can be used by foreign language teachers of both language and non-language universities in teaching students of different specialties to translate foreign texts. 

  4. Use of extratransference interpretation in psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojić Boris R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In psychoanalytic psychotherapy, the transference analysis takes the central position of the work. The work in the extratransference sphere and experience in a professional practice with extratransference interventions have not been reported much in the literature. Extratransference sphere includes less transferring relation to a psychotherapist, transference to other objects, or may refer to the external reality rather than the psychic reality or fantasy. Case report. We pointed out extratransference interventions. We demonstrated an application of a genetic interpretation and reconstruction, too, which could restore and establish the connections between the past and the present, in order to understand the influences of the current reality and the past, and helping us, further, to resolve the infantile conflicts. Conclusion. Interpretation of extratransference situations takes an important part of an analytical work and it is an essential category of the interpretation. Analytic understanding should include transference and extratransference spheres, fantasy and reality, past and present. Working with neurotic patterns and character resistance needs an optimal choice of intervention in the given moment of the analytic process. Extratransference interventions are an essential category of intervention, irreplaceable for its effectiveness in the analytic process.

  5. Arabic-speaking migrants’ experiences of the use of interpreters in healthcare: a qualitative explorative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Arabic-speaking migrants have constituted a growing population in recent years. This entails major challenges to ensure good communication in the healthcare encounter in order to provide individual and holistic healthcare. One of the solutions to ensure good communication between patient and healthcare staff who do not share the same language is to use a professional interpreter. To our knowledge, no previous qualitative studies have been found concerning Arabic-speaking migrants and the use of interpreters. This study aims to ascertain their individual experiences which can help extend our understanding of the studied area. Method A purposive sample of 13 Arabic-speaking persons with experience of using interpreters in healthcare encounters. Data were collected between November 2012 and March 2013 by four focus-group interviews and analysed with qualitative analysis according to a method described for focus groups. Results Four categories appeared from the analysis: 1) The professional interpreter as spokesperson; 2) Different types of interpreters and modes of interpretation adapting to the healthcare encounter; 3) The professional interpreter’s task and personal properties affected the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter; 4) Future planning of the use of professional interpreters in a healthcare encounter. The main findings were that the use of interpreters was experienced both as a possibility and as a problem. The preferred type of interpreters depended on the interpreter’s dialect and ability to interpret correctly. Besides the professional interpreter’s qualities of good skill in language and medical terminology, translation ability, neutrality and objectivity, Arabic-speaking participants stated that professional interpreters need to share the same origin, religion, dialect, gender and political views as the patient in order to facilitate the interpreter use and avoid inappropriate treatment. Conclusion The study

  6. The meaning of being a pharmacist: Considering the professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings describe the attempts of first-year pharmacy students to internalise a professional identity during a first-semester module. By applying concepts of social identity theory to sequential reflective assignments, an emerging professional identity could be interpreted, which was denoted by an increasing sense of ...

  7. Professional Norms and Categorization Practices among Danish Social Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    social workers’ professional norms as they have been identified in 24 in-depth interviews with Danish social workers. Based on Emile Durkheim’s concepts of Professional Ethics and solidarity I interpret expressions about what drive social workers in their work with unemployed and/or disabled social...

  8. Narrative Construction of Professional Teacher Identity of Teachers with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Eila; Bell, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the development of teachers' professional identity in the context of educators that have diverse backgrounds. We elucidate how teachers with dyslexia working in tertiary education use narrative resources to construct and negotiate their professional teacher identities. The analysis of narrative interviews, interpreted within…

  9. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  10. Are rural health professionals also social entrepreneurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jane; Kilpatrick, Sue

    2009-12-01

    Social entrepreneurs formally or informally generate community associations and networking that produces social outcomes. Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new and poorly understood concept. Policy promotes generating community activity, particularly in rural areas, for health and social benefits and 'community resilience'. Rural health professionals might be well placed to generate community activity due to their status and networks. This exploratory study, conducted in rural Tasmania and the Highlands and Islands of Scotland considered whether rural health professionals act as social entrepreneurs. We investigated activities generated and processes of production. Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with general practitioners, community nurses, primary healthcare managers and allied health professionals living and working rurally. Interviewees were self-selecting responders to an invitation for rural health professionals who were 'formally or informally generating community associations or networking that produced social outcomes'. We found that rural health professionals initiated many community activities with social outcomes, most related to health. Their identification of opportunities related to knowledge of health needs and examples of initiatives seen elsewhere. Health professionals described ready access to useful people and financial resources. In building activities, health professionals could simultaneously utilise skills and knowledge from professional, community member and personal dimensions. Outcomes included social and health benefits, personal 'buzz' and community capacity. Health professionals' actions could be described as social entrepreneurship: identifying opportunities, utilising resources and making 'deals'. They also align with community development. Health professionals use contextual knowledge to envisage and grow activities, indicating that, as social entrepreneurs, they do not explicitly choose a social mission, rather they

  11. Evaluating your professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Steven; Neve, Hilary; Leung, Yee

    2016-11-02

    What does being professional look like? Does it mean that you do the 'right' thing, even when no-one is looking? How do you evaluate your professionalism knowledge, values and behaviour? How do you identify and address underperformance in professionalism? How can you transfer your professionalism to different circumstances?

  12. Professional and institutional morality : Building ethics programmes on the dual loyalty of academic professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Wilderom, C.P.M.; Oost, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most professionals have the arduous task of managing their own dual loyalty: in one contextual relationship, they are members of a profession while simultaneously they are employed as members of a locally established organisation. This sense of a dual loyalty has to be taken into account when

  13. The Absent Interpreter in Administrative Detention Center Medical Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau-Lutz, Murielle; Weber, Jean-Christophe

    2017-03-01

    The particular situation of the French administrative detention center (ADC) medical units appears to be an exemplary case to study the difficulties facing medical practice. Indeed, the starting point of our inquiry was an amazing observation that needed to be addressed and understood: why are professional interpreters so seldom requested in ADC medical units, where one would expect that they would be "naturally" present? Aiming to fully explore the meanings of the "absent interpreter", this article takes into account the possible meanings of this situation: the recourse to professional interpreters in France is far from expected given cumulative evidence of its benefits; perceptions of illegal immigrants and medical habitus itself may both hamper the use of a third party; the ADCs are a very stressful place for healthcare professionals, with conflicting missions, political issues enmeshed with medical goals, and heavy affective burden that may lead to self-protection. Silencing voices of suffering others might be seen as the hidden indecent truth of the "absent interpreter". These reflections open a window to a larger issue with regard to the full range of medicine: what are the place, the role and the function of patient's words and narratives in contemporary medicine? The highly invested somatic perspective and its political corollary giving primacy to bare life harbor potential risks of obscuring speeches and undervaluing narratives.

  14. The Methodology of Foreign Language Integrative Teaching at the Initial Stage of Interpreter Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedishenkova, Marina V.; Mironina, Anna Y.

    2016-01-01

    The topicality of the research is connected with the modern requirements to the education of future interpreters who are to speak a foreign language within the professional context. For this purpose, it is necessary to focus their language training at the initial stage of learning on forming their professional thinking. This raises the need for…

  15. Mantoux test and its interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tuberculin skin test is one of the few investigations dating from the 19 th century that are still widely used as an important test for diagnosing tuberculosis. Though very commonly used by physicians worldwide its interpretation always remains difficult and controversial. Various factors like age, immunological status coexisting illness etc influence its outcome, so also its interpretation. Utmost care is required while interpreting the result and giving an opinion. This article has been written with the purpose of elucidating the performance and interpretation of the standard tuberculin test.

  16. [Overcoming language barriers with telephone interpreters: first experiences at a German children's hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thorsten; Wirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Language barriers in the care for patients with limited German language proficiency contribute to impaired quality of care, more frequent medical errors and decreased patient satisfaction. However, professional interpreters are not systematically used in Germany. We conducted a pilot study in a German paediatric hospital to explore the demand for an interpreter by conducting a survey among parents and to test the use of telephone interpreters. Eight percent of the respondents said they were interested in interpreter support. All physicians and parents using a telephone interpreter were very satisfied with the quality and the organisation of the service. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Interpreter Roles and Transition for Public School Students Who Are Deaf: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, John T.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study research project examines interpreter use for students who are Deaf in the public school system and juxtaposes it with interpreter use found in the work sector after the school-to-work (STW) transition. Semi-structured interviews with 16 Deafness professionals and 6 study participants who are Deaf, as well as…

  18. Experiences of interpreters in supporting the transition from oncology to palliative care: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Emma; Broom, Alex; Good, Phillip; Bowden, Vanessa; Lwin, Zarnie

    2017-10-01

    Medical consultations focused on managing the transition to palliative care are interpersonally challenging and require high levels of communicative competence. In the context of non-English speaking patients, communication challenges are further complicated due to the requirement of interpreting; a process with the potential to add intense layers of complexity in the clinical encounter, such as misunderstanding, misrepresentation and power imbalances. The aim of the study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of professional interpreters in supporting the transition of culturally and linguistically diverse patients to specialist palliative care. Qualitative, semistructured interviews with 20 professional interpreters working in oncology and palliative care settings in two metropolitan hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Four key themes emerged from the thematic analysis: the challenges of translating the meaning of "palliative care"; managing interpreting in the presence of family care-givers; communicating and expressing sensitivity while remaining professional and interpreters' own emotional burden of difficult clinic encounters between doctor and patient negotiations. The results suggest that interpreters face a range of often concealed interpersonal and interprofessional challenges and recognition of such dynamics will help provide necessary support for these key stakeholders in the transition to palliative care. Enriched understanding of interpreters' experiences has clinical implications on improving how health professionals interact and work with interpreters in this sensitive setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Legitimacy, Self-Interpretation and Genre in Media Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alacovska, Ana

    2015-01-01

    . In contrast to prevalent theorisations of paratexts as simultaneous hermeneutic and marketing frameworks that regulate a reader’s interpretive practices (reception) and/or media purchasing habits (consumption), I suggest that paratexts are vehicles through which media production companies engage in auto......-communication, that is, self-interpret with a view to legitimating an ethical, virtuous and authentic institutional self. I furthermore suggest that a media company’s paratextual legitimation efforts unfold in reference to the genre, under the label of which its media products are produced, promoted and distributed...

  20. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings of a...

  1. [Smartphone application for blood gas interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Julien; Bardo, Pascale; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Ninety four per cent of health professionals use their smartphone for business purposes and more than 50% has medical applications. The «Blood Gas» application was created to be part of this dynamic and participate to e-health development in France. The «Blood Gas» application facilitates interpretation of the results of blood gas analysis using an algorithm developed with reference to a medical bibliography. It can detect some complex or intricate acid-base disorders in evaluating the effectiveness of the secondary response. The application also studied the respiratory status of the patient by calculating the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the alveol-arterial gradient. It also indicates the presence of a shunt effect. Finally, a specific module to calculate the SID (strong ion difference) depending on the model of Stewart can detect complex acid-base disorders.

  2. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  3. Professional development of distance education professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Professional development of distance education professionals (DEPs) at TSA: a profile of functions. J.F. van Koller. Institute for Staff Development, Technikon SA, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710 South Africa jvcoller@tsa.ac.za. This article deals with the development of a profile of the functions and required competencies of ...

  4. Teacher Professionalism: Analysis of Professionalism Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Cipto; Herdiani, Aulia; Sulikah

    2017-01-01

    Teacher professionalism has become a distinctive concern in educational discussions. Based on Teacher and Lecturer Act No.14 2005 carried out by Indonesian Government, teacher professionalism, considered as an assessment aspect of teacher quality, could be drawn by four competences, pedagogical competence, personal, competence, social competence,…

  5. Professional Environment for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Teaching and training are at the heart of the knowledge society where the continuing professional development of teachers and trainers provides the cornerstone for the development of a high quality education and training systems. The Aim of the Study. To identify a design of professional environment for teacher professional…

  6. Transforming Professional Development to Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews teacher professional development norms as they are shifting toward collaborative practice. It is posed that passive and individual practices are inadequate to prepare teachers to integrate the academic skills that learners need for both workforce and college readiness. Promising practices in professional development are…

  7. Professional Development Plus: Rethinking Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of professional development is to enhance educator practices so that students may achieve at high levels. Too often, professional development tends to be too broad, general, or unrelated to problems of practice that teachers face in their own classrooms. This action research project builds upon the scholarly research that recognizes…

  8. Dimensions of Trust: The Tensions and Challenges in Provider-Interpreter Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Ju, Hyejung; Kong, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    This study problemtizes provider-interpreter trust, examining the challenges to providers' and interpreters' collaboration in bilingual health care. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters (from 17 languages) and 32 providers (from 4 specialties) in the United States to provide an empirically-based framework of provider-interpreter trust. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. We identified four dimensions of trust, theoretical constructs that can strengthen or compromise provider-interpreter trust: interpreter's competence, shared goals, professional boundaries, and established patterns of collaboration. We further explore how these dimensions highlight tensions and challenges that are unique in provider-interpreter relationship. We concluded with practical guidelines that can enhance provider-interpreter trust and propose future research directions in bilingual health care. PMID:19826078

  9. Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The publication of the Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations, began July 1, 1875, with daily maps added in 1877. It was published for distribution...

  10. Interpreting Dynamically-Averaged Scalar Couplings in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Best, Robert B.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The experimental determination of scalar three-bond coupling constants represents a powerful method to probe both the structure and dynamics of proteins. The detailed structural interpretation of such coupling constants is usually based on Karplus relationships, which allow the measured couplings...... present a method to derive such parameters that uses ensembles of conformations determined through dynamic-ensemble refinement - a method that provides structural ensembles that simultaneously represent both the structure and the associated dynamics of a protein....

  11. Professional development for primary science teaching in Thailand: Knowledge, orientations, and practices of professional developers and professional development participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikul, Kusalin

    The purpose of this study was to examine an entire PD project as a case to understand the dynamic nature of science PD in a holistic manner. I used a pedagogical content knowledge model by Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) as my theoretical framework in examining the professional developers' and teacher participants' knowledge, orientation, and practice for professional development and elementary science teaching. The case study is my research tradition; I used grounded theory for data analysis. The primary data sources were interview, card sort activity, and observation field notes collected during the PD and subsequently in teacher participants' classrooms. Secondary data sources were documents and artifacts that I collected from the professional developers and teachers. An analysis of the data led me to interpret the following findings: (a) the professional developers displayed multiple orientations. These orientations included activity-driven, didactic, discovery, and pedagogy-driven orientations. The orientations that were found among the professional developers deviated from the reformed Thai Science Education Standards; (b) the professional developers had limited PCK for PD, which were knowledge of teachers' learning, knowledge of PD strategies, knowledge of PD curriculum, and knowledge of assessment.; (c) the professional developers' knowledge and orientations influenced their decisions in selecting PD activities and teaching approaches; (d) their orientations and PCK as well as the time factor influenced the design and implementation of the professional development; (e) the elementary teachers displayed didactic, activity-driven, and academic rigor orientations. The orientations that the teachers displayed deviated from the reformed Thai Science Education Standards; and (f) the elementary teachers exhibited limited PCK. It is evident that the limitation of one type of knowledge resulted in an ineffective use of other components of PCK. This study

  12. INTERGAS PLUS: INTERPRETATION OF ARTERIAL GASOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Brandão Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to present the InterGas Plus mobile application, which is able to perform calculations for the interpretation of arterial blood gas through data collected by health professionals. We used the Eclipse Juno integrated development environment (IDE with ADT plugin and Android Studio with the Java programming language and XML markup, from the standard Google Developer for Android developers. The application framework was built to enable the analysis of acid-base balance cases and provide an accurate diagnosis, similar to that of a human expert, automatically. The application has been translated into English and Spanish, and is available free of charge from the Google Play virtual store, where anyone with an Android operating system worldwide can use it. Based on user evaluations that downloaded the application on Google Play, system improvements have been produced and InterGas Plus is expected to contribute to improving the care provided by healthcare professionals to patients in ICUs.

  13. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with your healthcare team about your concerns, asking questions and getting the facts. Usually, office visits and ... or other healthcare professionals. Find a list of questions to ask at your next appointment . Healthcare professionals ...

  14. Professionalism in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Homer

    2017-02-01

    Is professionalism in medicine just another bureaucratic imposition on our practice or a fundamental concept for physicians at all stages in their career? In this review, the historical perspectives of professionalism are explored as well as the what, why, and how questions concerning this topic. The key words "professionalism" and "anesthesia" were used to conduct a search of the PubMed database, the policies and publications of relevant Canadian and international physician regulatory bodies and organizations, historical documents, and other internet publications. Professionalism in anesthesia has a long history. While there are many definitions for professionalism, some very dated, all are based on virtues, behaviour, or professional identity. Professionalism plays a central role in the balance between physician autonomy and social contract, and it has a significant impact on patient safety and medicolegal litigation. Considerable evidence exists to suggest that professionalism must be treated seriously, particularly in these times of social accountability and budgetary pressures.

  15. Communicating with Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  16. Communicating with Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  17. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  18. Investigating patients' experiences: methodological usefulness of interpretive interactionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Marion; Rowe, Jennifer; Wallis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the methodological usefulness of interpretive interactionism by applying it to the example of a study investigating healthcare experiences of women affected by domestic violence. Understanding patients' experiences of health, illness and health care is important to nurses. For many years, biomedical discourse has prevailed in healthcare language and research, and has influenced healthcare responses. Contemporary nursing scholarship can be developed by engaging with new ways of understanding therapeutic interactions with patients. Research that uses qualitative methods of inquiry is an important paradigm for nurses who seek to explain and understand or describe experiences rather than predict outcomes. Interpretive interactionism is an interpretive form of inquiry for conducting studies of social or personal problems that have healthcare policy implications. It puts the patient at the centre of the research process and makes visible the experiences of patients as they interact with the healthcare and social systems that surround them. Interpretive interactionism draws on concepts of symbolic interactionism, phenomenology and hermeneutics. Interpretive interactionism is a patient-centred methodology that provides an alternative way of understanding patients' experiences. It can contribute to policy and practice development by drawing on the perspectives and experiences of patients, who are central to the research process. It also allows research findings to be situated in and linked to healthcare policy, professional ethics and organisational approaches to care. Interpretive interactionism has methodological utility because it can contribute to policy and practice development by drawing on the perspectives and experiences of patients who are central to the research process. Interpretive interactionism allows research findings to be situated in and linked to health policy, professional ethics and organisational approaches to caring.

  19. Interpretation of correlations in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren Wright

    2017-11-01

    Critically analyzing research is a key skill in evidence-based practice and requires knowledge of research methods, results interpretation, and applications, all of which rely on a foundation based in statistics. Evidence-based practice makes high demands on trained medical professionals to interpret an ever-expanding array of research evidence. As clinical training emphasizes medical care rather than statistics, it is useful to review the basics of statistical methods and what they mean for interpreting clinical studies. We reviewed the basic concepts of correlational associations, violations of normality, unobserved variable bias, sample size, and alpha inflation. The foundations of causal inference were discussed and sound statistical analyses were examined. We discuss four ways in which correlational analysis is misused, including causal inference overreach, over-reliance on significance, alpha inflation, and sample size bias. Recent published studies in the medical field provide evidence of causal assertion overreach drawn from correlational findings. The findings present a primer on the assumptions and nature of correlational methods of analysis and urge clinicians to exercise appropriate caution as they critically analyze the evidence before them and evaluate evidence that supports practice. Critically analyzing new evidence requires statistical knowledge in addition to clinical knowledge. Studies can overstate relationships, expressing causal assertions when only correlational evidence is available. Failure to account for the effect of sample size in the analyses tends to overstate the importance of predictive variables. It is important not to overemphasize the statistical significance without consideration of effect size and whether differences could be considered clinically meaningful.

  20. Acknowledging hubris in interpretative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon

    2013-07-01

    AIM" To explore the notion of 'hubris' as an important consideration of reflexive thinking in qualitative research and how over-exuberant assumptions when interpreting data can impede conceptual development. The author draws on experiences of hubris in his grounded theory PhD study. The study has undergone two phases of data collection and analysis. Phase one involved semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 registered nurse mentors. Preliminary findings were further developed by theoretical sampling of nurse mentors and practice educators in four major health boards in the UK, including 12 focus groups (n=43) and three further semi-structured interviews. Recognising hubris as a critical component of reflexive thinking was a feature of a grounded theory study exploring mentors' experiences of assessing students on the borderline of achievement in nursing practice. Three examples of hubris contributing to hastily advanced interpretive analysis are discussed in terms of the researcher's personal and professional positioning towards participants, the development of categories and the ethical management of data. The complexity of hubris as an important aspect of . reflexive thinking is highlighted. Virtue ethics and the importance of keen interpretative husbandry as part of reflexive mindfulness are proposed, if not as solutions to the dilemmas of hubris, then at least as safeguarding against analytic pitfalls. The grounded theory study findings will make practice recommendations concerning mentors' support of students on the borderline of achievement of competence. The study will offer a theoretical perspective on mentorship conceptualised as a community of assessors throughout the duration of nursing programmes rather than purely an individual activity between student and mentor.

  1. Professionalism in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Susan R.; Mistry, Gianna Limone

    2012-01-01

    Professionalism in Dance Education is a complex construction. It can be imposed from the outside (degree completed, job status, salary) or can be identified from the professional herself. Seven graduate dance education students were interviewed with specific focus on the transition from student to professional and the feelings surrounding this…

  2. Professional Development. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…

  3. Interpreters: telephonic, in-person interpretation and bilingual providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Kristen L; Wiener, Ethan; Roosevelt, Genie; Bajaj, Lalit; Hampers, Louis C

    2010-03-01

    Language barriers affect health care interactions. Large, randomized studies of the relative efficacy of interpreter modalities have not been conducted. To compare the efficacy of telephonic and in-person medical interpretation to visits with verified bilingual physicians. This was a prospective, randomized trial. The setting was an urban pediatric emergency department at which approximately 20% of visits are by families with limited English proficiency. The participants were families who responded affirmatively when asked at triage if they would prefer to communicate in Spanish. Randomization of each visit was to (1) remote telephonic interpretation via a double handset in the examination room, (2) an in-person emergency department-dedicated medical interpreter, or (3) a verified bilingual physician. Interviews were conducted after each visit. The primary outcome was a blinded determination of concordance between the caregivers' description of their child's diagnosis with the physician's stated discharge diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were qualitative measures of effectiveness of communication and satisfaction. Verified bilingual providers were the gold standard for noninferiority comparisons. A total of 1201 families were enrolled: 407 were randomly assigned to telephonic interpretation and 377 to in-person interpretation, and 417 were interviewed by a bilingual physician. Concordance between the diagnosis in the medical record and diagnosis reported by the family was not different between the 3 groups (telephonic: 95.1%; in-person: 95.5%; bilingual: 95.4%). The in-person-interpreter cohort scored the quality and satisfaction with their visit worse than both the bilingual and telephonic cohorts (P bilingual-provider cohort were less satisfied with their language service than those in the in-person and telephonic cohorts (P bilingual provider as a gold standard, noninferiority was demonstrated for both interpreter modalities (telephonic and in-person) for quality

  4. The unmet need for interpreting provision in UK primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjit S Gill

    Full Text Available With increasing globalisation, the challenges of providing accessible and safe healthcare to all are great. Studies show that there are substantial numbers of people who are not fluent in English to a level where they can make best use of health services. We examined how health professionals manage language barriers in a consultation.This was a cross-sectional study in 41 UK general practices . Health professionals completed a proforma for a randomly allocated consultation session. Seventy-seven (63% practitioners responded, from 41(59% practices. From 1008 consultations, 555 involved patients who did not have English as a first language; 710 took place in English; 222 were in other languages, the practitioner either communicating with the patient in their own language/using an alternative language. Seven consultations were in a mixture of English/patient's own language. Patients' first languages numbered 37 (apart from English, in contrast to health practitioners, who declared at least a basic level of proficiency in 22 languages other than English. The practitioner's reported proficiency in the language used was at a basic level in 24 consultations, whereas in 21, they reported having no proficiency at all. In 57 consultations, a relative/friend interpreted and in 6, a bilingual member of staff/community worker was used. Only in 6 cases was a professional interpreter booked. The main limitation was that only one random session was selected and assessment of patient/professional fluency in English was subjective.It would appear that professional interpreters are under-used in relation to the need for them, with bilingual staff/family and friends being used commonly. In many cases where the patient spoke little/no English, the practitioner consulted in the patient's language but this approach was also used where reported practitioner proficiency was low. Further research in different setting is needed to substantiate these findings.

  5. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a "Hub" of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca's area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses) and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses) in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1), whereas the other brain regions of the "control network" showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2) translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation.

  6. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  8. Interpretation of wave energy spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, E.F

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines for interpreting nondirectional wave energy spectra and presented. A simple method is given for using the spectrum to estimate a significant height and period for each major wave train in most sea states...

  9. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing...... on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to which...... a source can be trusted to address the research question; triangulation with additional sources to confirm or question an interpretation and strengthen the overall findings; hermeneutics to relate sources to their original contexts and make their interpretation by a researcher today more robust...

  10. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  11. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  12. An interpretative phenomenological analysis exploring the lived experience of individuals dying from terminal cancer in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, Kara; O'Connell, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The experience of living with dying has attracted limited research. We utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis to explore the lived experience of individuals with terminal cancer receiving palliative care in Ireland. Participants were purposely selected from public interviews that had been conducted between 2006 and 2011. The study included the accounts of eight participants (N = 8; six females and two males) with a diagnosis of terminal cancer. Participant ages ranged from 36 to 68 years. Three master themes emerged from the analysis: the personal impact of diagnosis, the struggle in adjusting to change, and dying in context. The results revealed that participants were still living while simultaneously dying. Interestingly, participants did not ascribe new meaning to their lives. The terminal illness was understood within the framework of the life that had existed before diagnosis. They strove to maintain their normal routines and continued to undertake meaningful activities. Management of unfinished business and creation of a legacy were salient tasks. Social withdrawal was not present; rather, participants engaged in emotional labor to sustain valued roles. However, we found that within the public domain there is a paucity of education and discourse supporting individuals at the end of life. The hospice was noted as an important external resource. Each participant experienced a unique dying process that reflected their context. Healthcare professionals need to recognize the subjectivity of the dying process. Dying individuals require support and options to maintain their personhood.

  13. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  14. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ...... is presented in the thesis. Methods from abstract interpretation can also be used in correctness proofs of attribute grammars. This proof technique introduces a new class of attribute grammars based on domain theory. This method is illustrated with examples.......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  15. Open Online Research: Developing Software and Method for Collaborative Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bröer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the potentials of web-based collaboration, in 2014, a group of social scientists, students and information specialists started tinkering with software and methodology for open online collaborative research. The results of their research led to a gathering of academics at the #ethnography Conference Amsterdam 2014, where new material was collected, shared and collaboratively interpreted. Following the conference, they continued to develop software and methodology. In this contribution, we report on the aims, methodology, inspiring examples, caveats and results from testing several prototypes of open online research software. We conclude that open online collaborative interpretation is both feasible and desirable. Dialogue and reflexivity, we hold, are able to transcend separated perspectives and stimulate agreement on a set of distinct interpretations; they simultaneously respect the multiplicity of understandings of social phenomena whilst bringing order into this diversity. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160327

  16. Translation modalities applied to the interpretation in brazilian sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Nicoloso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article was developed from a chapter in a doctoral thesis from the first author, towards a specific focalized discussion, related to the practice of simultaneous interpretation in Brazilian Sign Language, based on translation modalities as proposed by Aubert (1998.  The interpreted text is called “Discovering who we are”, extracted from the book Learning to see, by Sherman, Wilcox and Phyllis, and translated by Tarcisio de Arantes Leite. The interpretations were recorded in a media studio, with the official consent from the Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil and the data was analyzed by means of the software ELAN. Results indicate that using a research method which considers translation modalities may contribute to obtain a clearer view regarding the similarities and differences between the selected linguistic pairs.

  17. Translation modalities applied to the interpretation in brazilian sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Nicoloso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was developed from a chapter in a doctoral thesis from the first author, towards a specific focalized discussion, related to the practice of simultaneous interpretation in Brazilian Sign Language, based on translation modalities as proposed by Aubert (1998. The interpreted text is called “Discovering who we are”, extracted from the book Learning to see, by Sherman, Wilcox and Phyllis, and translated by Tarcisio de Arantes Leite. The interpretations were recorded in a media studio, with the official consent from the Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil and the data was analyzed by means of the software ELAN. Results indicate that using a research method which considers translation modalities may contribute to obtain a clearer view regarding the similarities and differences between the selected linguistic pairs.

  18. Professional performance in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.

  19. Assessment of the efficiency of language interpreter services in a busy surgical and procedural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Christopher M; Anderson, Kathleen A; Xiong, YaPa; Guerra, Andrea E; Tschida-Reuter, Daniel A

    2017-07-04

    Surgical and procedural patient care settings require efficient patient flow. The primary goal of this study was to assess use and efficiency of language services for our limited English proficiency (LEP) patients undergoing surgical and outpatient procedures. Patient language services needs were recorded from our operating room and procedural locations over a two and a half month period in 2016. Time from in-person interpreter request to arrival was recorded. Frequency of language service modality used and reason for telephone and professional video remote interpreting (VRI) rather than in person professional services was queried. Mean time from in-person interpreter request until arrival was 19 min. Variation was high. No cases were cancelled due to lack of available interpretive services and no LEP patient underwent a procedure without requested interpretative service assistance. Time for in person professional interpreter assistance was short but highly variable. Access to telephone interpretive services and VRI services ensured assistance when in person interpreters were immediately unavailable. With the numbers of LEP patients increasing over time along with any new mandates for providing language assistance, the stress on hospital patient service units and the financial implications for many health care facilities will likely continue as challenges.

  20. PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL MOBILITY: THE CONJUGACY PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara B. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RETRACTED ARTICLEThe purpose of the paper is to develop a theoretical model conjugation of personal and professional mobility on the high school teachers’ example. Specific research problems of the study are to analyze the correlation properties of the mobile identity and mobile professional; the possibilities of forming professional mobility of teachers in the absence or underdevelopment of personal preconditions for mobility; search the features that can compensate this deficiency.Methods. The study is based on a theoretical analysis of different methodological approaches to the description of the personal and professional mobility. Also there were used the results of non-formal interview which was aimed at identifying the characteristics of the mobile professional teacher of high school.Results and scientific novelty. The concepts of «personal mobility» and «professional mobility» are clarified. Personal mobility is defined in the work as an integrative personal qualities, based on the individual properties (activity, plasticity, flexibility, adaptability, high energy source and manifests itself in the behavior and activities of the entity in the form of commitment, independence, openness to new experience, creativity and motivation for self-development, speed decisionmaking. Professional mobility is interpreted as a strategy to adapt to the changing conditions of professional activity, which is a special case of the general personal life strategy.Psychological readiness for pedagogical activity is considered as a link between the personal and professional mobility. Nine types of teacher's professional mobility, emerging as a result of different levels of personal mobility combined with the severity of psychological readiness for pedagogical activity are described.Practical significance. The analysis of the conjugacy problem of personal and professional mobility creates an informational basis for prolonged work on the formation of

  1. Dimensions of trust: the tensions and challenges in provider--interpreter trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Ju, Hyejung; Kong, Haiying

    2010-02-01

    In this study we examined the challenges to providers' and interpreters' collaboration in bilingual health care. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters (speaking 17 languages) and 32 providers (from four specialties) in the United States to provide an empirically based framework of provider-interpreter trust. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. We identified four dimensions of trust, theoretical constructs that can strengthen or compromise provider-interpreter trust: interpreter competence, shared goals, professional boundaries, and established patterns of collaboration. In this article we describe how these dimensions highlight tensions and challenges that are unique in provider-interpreter relationships. We conclude with practical guidelines that can enhance provider-interpreter trust, and propose future research directions in bilingual health care.

  2. Anatomical and functional changes in the brain after simultaneous interpreting training : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Putte, Eowyn; De Baene, W.; García-Pentón, Lorna; Woumans, Evy; Dijkgraaf, Aster; Duyck, Wouter

    In the recent literature on bilingualism, a lively debate has arisen about the long-term effects of bilingualism on cognition and the brain. These studies yield inconsistent results, in part because they rely on comparisons between bilingual and monolingual control groups that may also differ on

  3. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  4. Responses to professional identity threat: Identity management strategies in incident narratives of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Annemiek; de Gilder, Dick; van Dyck, Cathy; Groenewegen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore sensemaking of incidents by health care professionals through an analysis of the role of professional identity in narratives of incidents. Using insights from social identity theory, the authors argue that incidents may create a threat of professional identity, and that professionals make use of identity management strategies in response to this identity threat. The paper draws on a qualitative analysis of incident narratives in 14 semi-structured interviews with physicians, nurses, and residents at a Dutch specialist hospital. The authors used an existing framework of identity management strategies to categorize the narratives. The analysis yielded two main results. First, nurses and residents employed multiple types of identity management strategies simultaneously, which points to the possible benefit of combining different strategies. Second, physicians used the strategy of patronization of other professional groups, a specific form of downward comparison. The authors discuss the implications of the findings in terms of the impact of identity management strategies on the perpetuation of hierarchical differences in health care. The authors argue that efforts to manage incident handling may profit from considering social identity processes in sensemaking of incidents. This is the first study that systematically explores how health care professionals use identity management strategies to maintain a positive professional identity in the face of incidents. This study contributes to research on interdisciplinary cooperation in health care.

  5. Envisioning Curriculum as Six Simultaneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hanin; Conner, Lindsey; Mayo, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the discourse of complexity thinking to envision curriculum as six partial and coupled facets that exist simultaneously: curriculum as structure, curriculum as process, curriculum as content, curriculum as teaching, curriculum as learning and curriculum as activity. Such a curriculum is emergent and self-organising. It is emergent…

  6. Simultaneous stabilization using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, R.W.; Schmitendorf, W.E. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of simultaneously stabilizing a set of plants using full state feedback. The problem is converted to a simple optimization problem which is solved by a genetic algorithm. Several examples demonstrate the utility of this method. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  7. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.44 Section 1240.44 Aliens....44 Interpreter. Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the...

  8. 25 CFR 81.16 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interpreters. 81.16 Section 81.16 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.16 Interpreters. Interpreters, where needed, may be provided to explain the manner of voting... that the interpreter does not influence the voter in casting the ballot. The interpreter may accompany...

  9. Narrative pedagogy and art interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Hayden-Miles, Marie

    2011-04-01

    Contemporary practices in nursing education call for changes that will assist students in understanding a complex, rapidly changing world. Narrative pedagogy is an approach that offers teachers a way to actively engage students in the process of teaching and learning. The narrative approach provides ways to think critically, make connections, and ask questions to gain understanding through dialogue. The hermeneutic circle of understanding offers a way to interpret stories and discover meaning. Narratives exist in art forms that can be interpreted to evoke discussions and thinking that relate to nursing practice. Art interpretation is a way to gain access to others and acquire a deeper appreciation for multiple perspectives in the teaching-learning process. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  11. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yee Leong; Daniel Gheorghiu; Janardhan Rao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR) in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body bui...

  12. Restoring medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity.

  13. Experimental simulation of simultaneous vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gracia, Pablo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Sánchez-González, Álvaro; Sawides, Lucie; Marcos, Susana

    2013-01-17

    To present and validate a prototype of an optical instrument that allows experimental simulation of pure bifocal vision. To evaluate the influence of different power additions on image contrast and visual acuity. The instrument provides the eye with two superimposed images, aligned and with the same magnification, but with different defocus states. Subjects looking through the instrument are able to experience pure simultaneous vision, with adjustable refractive correction and addition power. The instrument is used to investigate the impact of the amount of addition of an ideal bifocal simultaneous vision correction, both on image contrast and on visual performance. the instrument is validated through computer simulations of the letter contrast and by equivalent optical experiments with an artificial eye (camera). Visual acuity (VA) was measured in four subjects (AGE: 34.3 ± 3.4 years; spherical error: -2.1 ± 2.7 diopters [D]) for low and high contrast letters and different amounts of addition. The largest degradation in contrast and visual acuity (∼25%) occurred for additions around ±2 D, while additions of ±4 D produced lower degradation (14%). Low additions (1-2 D) result in lower VA than high additions (3-4 D). A simultaneous vision instrument is an excellent tool to simulate bifocal vision and to gain understanding of multifocal solutions for presbyopia. Simultaneous vision induces a pattern of visual performance degradation, which is well predicted by the degradation found in image quality. Neural effects, claimed to be crucial in the patients' tolerance of simultaneous vision, can be therefore compared with pure optical effects.

  14. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    -sponsored program, mobile technology proved to have considerable interpretive flexibility with variation in perceived nature of technology, technology strategy, and technology use between agencies. What was first seen as a very promising innovation across the Danish home care sector subsequently became the topic...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  15. Vicarious posttraumatic growth among interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splevins, Katie A; Cohen, Keren; Joseph, Stephen; Murray, Craig; Bowley, Jake

    2010-12-01

    An emerging evidence base indicates that posttraumatic growth might be experienced vicariously by those working alongside trauma survivors. In this study we explored the vicarious experiences of eight interpreters working in a therapeutic setting with asylum seekers and refugees. We adopted a qualitative approach, using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four interrelated themes emerged from the findings: feeling what your client feels, beyond belief, finding your own way to deal with it, and a different person. Although all participants experienced distress, they also perceived themselves to have grown in some way. The implications for a theory of vicarious posttraumatic growth are discussed, along with clinical applications.

  16. Clinical interpretation of leukocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, K S; Rakich, P M

    1989-07-01

    Basic information has been presented concerning leukocyte (neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil, and basophil) function, production, kinetics, and response to various physiological and disease states. Using this information, veterinary practitioners should be able to interpret leukogram data from sick and healthy dogs and cats. Specifically, characteristic leukogram patterns such as physiological leukocytosis, corticosteroid-associated changes, and the presence of infection or severe inflammation should be recognized. In addition, interpretation of individual leukocyte responses should be possible. Several tables have been provided to assist in constructing a differential diagnosis to explain increases or decreases in absolute leukocyte numbers that lie outside of expected reference intervals.

  17. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Changes That Matter Find HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals ...

  18. Professionalism: rise and fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, M S

    1979-01-01

    Historically, the early professionalization movements in medicine and the law appear as organizational projects which aspire to monopolize income and opportunities in markets of services or labor and to monopolize status and work privileges in occupational hierarchies. Their central task is to standardize training and link it to actual or potential markets of labor or services, a linkage that is structurally effected in the modern university. The second wave of professionalization has different protagonists than the older "market professions": placed in a different structural situation, the bureaucratic professions transform the model of profession (which they adopt as a strategy of collective ascension) into an ideology. The import of the ideology of professionalism is examined in relation to two issues: the relationships between professional occupations and bureaucratic organizations; and the position of professional occupations within the larger structure of inequality. Analysis of the first point requires consideration of the distinctions between professional occupations in the public and private sectors, the use of professional knowledge and the image of profession in bureaucratic organizations, and the specific characteristics of professions that produce their own knowledge. In the discussion of the second point, professional occupations and their ideology are examined in relation to other occupations and to the possibilities of political awareness generated by uncertain professional statuses.

  19. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask Your ... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and ...

  20. Migrant General Practitioners' Experiences of Using Interpreters in Health-care: a Qualitative Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupic, Ferid; Samuelsson, Kristian; Fatahi, Nabi; Skoldenberg, Olof; Sayed-Noor, Arkan S

    2017-02-01

    According to the UNHCR, 250 million people currently live outside their country of birth. The growing multicultural population poses a major challenge to healthcare professionals who aim to provide individualized, holistic care, which respects the individual's autonomy. To ensure basic rights, healthcare interventions should be guided by the value of benefiting others; individuals should be treated honestly, equally, and impartially. To investigate immigrant doctors' experiences of using interpreters in the Swedish health-care system. Twenty-eight doctors, 12 men and 16 women from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia and Serbia participated in four focus group interviews (FGI). The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. The best results in the present study were achieved in situations where a professional interpreter was involved. In some cases, the doctors were forced to use relatives or a colleague to interpret, which in many cases proved to be a mistake. The consequences of poor interpretation routines included payment by mistake, a patient paying an interpreter who refused to interpret, time spent waiting for another interpreter, as well as disturbances to the daily work schedule. Finding someone who could replace an interpreter who did not show up caused time shortage and increased stress. Improved routines and more effective cooperation between interpreting services and health-care centers are needed in order to ensure that using professional interpreters guarantees appropriate, high quality care. Improvements are needed to provide satisfactory health-care to people with limited language skills. In order to achieve this, better education of interpreters is needed, especially regarding cultural diversity and medical terminology. These improvements present complex challenges, deserving empirical and critical reflection in order to improve the work situation for doctors.

  1. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability conservation. This is in contrast with the ...

  2. A Generator for Composition Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Composition of program components must be expressed in some language, and late composition can be achieved by an interpreter for the composition language. A suitable notion of component is obtained by identifying it with the semantics of a generalised structured command. Experiences from...... notion of components. Actual compositions can be type checked before execution....

  3. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  4. Interpretation bias characterizes trait rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Nilly; Hertel, Paula; Ngo, Thuy Anh; Shachar, Tal; Redak, Shimrit

    2014-03-01

    Rumination, a maladaptive cognitive style of responding to negative mood, is thought to be maintained by a variety of cognitive biases. However, it is unknown whether rumination is characterized by interpretation biases. Two experiments examined the link between rumination and interpretation biases, revealed in lexical-decision tasks (LDT). A homograph with both benign and ruminative or otherwise negative meaning was presented on each trial and followed by a letter string, to which participants responded by judging whether it was a word or a non-word. Letter strings were non-words or words related or unrelated to one meaning of the homograph. In both experiments, faster latencies to respond to targets related to the ruminative meaning of the homographs were produced by students with higher scores on self-report measures of rumination. Moreover, these biases were associated with both brooding, the maladaptive form of rumination, and reflection, the more adaptive component. No measure of rumination was significantly correlated with general biases toward negative meaning (Experiment 1) or with threatening interpretations of homographs (Experiment 2). The paucity of available rumination-related homographs dictated the use of non-fully randomized stimuli presentation (Experiment 1) or the use of only one set of the meanings associated with the homographs (Experiment 2). Rumination is associated with a tendency to interpret ambiguous information in a rumination-consistent manner. This tendency may exacerbate ruminative thinking and can possibly be a target for future intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his...

  6. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various nume...

  7. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This is in contrast with the conventional employment of a bi-orthogonal basis that precludes probabilistic interpretation, since wave ... In many textbooks, resonance is defined as a pole of the S matrix. It is, however, ..... [1] M Razavy, Quantum theory of tunneling §§5.2 & 5.3 (World Scientific, Singapore,. 2003) and references ...

  8. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... This article focused on Andries van Aarde's interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew. It argues that Van Aarde has changed his approach to Matthew in the course of time. At the beginning of his career he focused on structural analysis and even made a contribution to the Gattung problem from a structural ...

  9. A D To C Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Naming ...... ..... ....................... 111-2 Comments .............. ............. 111-3 .... Classes ...... .. ..... ......... . 111-4 Operators...of Punctuation Symbols ............. 111-8 Nv Abstract In a continuing effort to define and analyze the D langu - age a partial interpreter has been...except expression type checking. D contains weaknesses; most notably in its class construction. Although, this is a perceived problem and not a functional

  10. Interpreting chromosomal abnormalities using Prolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, G; Friedman, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes an expert system for interpreting the standard notation used to represent human chromosomal abnormalities, namely, the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Written in Prolog, this program is very powerful, easy to maintain, and portable. The system can be used as a front end to any database that employs cytogenetic notation, such as a patient registry.

  11. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  12. Local Outlier Detection with Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Micenková, Barbora; Assent, Ira

    2013-01-01

    that this learning task can be solved via the matrix eigen-decomposition and its solution contains essential information to reveal features that are most important to interpret the exceptional properties of outliers. We demonstrate the appealing performance of LODI via a number of synthetic and real world datasets...

  13. Software Copyright Interpretation. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, LeRoy

    1985-01-01

    This digest presents a reprint of an article which addresses the issue of the rights of computer software owners to duplicate materials. A conservative approach to software copyright is taken which looks to how the law will likely be interpreted, rather than waiting for the definitive decision by a court. Three major issues involved with software…

  14. Multiagent architecture for scene interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealet, Fabienne; Collin, Bertrand; Sella, G.; Garbay, Catherine

    2000-06-01

    Scene interpretation is a crucial problem for navigation and guidance systems. The necessary integration of a large variety of heterogeneous knowledge leads us to design an architecture that distributes knowledge and that performs parallel and concurrent processing. We choose a multi- agent approach which specialized agents implementation is based on incrementality, distribution, cooperation, attention mechanism and adaptability.

  15. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  16. Interpreting Hymns for Deaf Worshippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Madeline M.; Boster, Shirley

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the special problems of interpreting hymns written in archaic English and then matching words of a translation to music. Addresses the question of whether competence in ASL and knowledge of signs for religious terms are sufficient for hymns to be of value to deaf worshippers. (EKN)

  17. Judicial Deference to Inconsistent Agency Statutory Interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Yehonatan Givati; Matthew C. Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Although administrative law doctrine requires courts to defer to an agency's reasonable statutory interpretation, the doctrine is unclear as to whether an agency gets less deference when it changes its own prior interpretation. We formally analyze how judicial deference to revised agency interpretations affects the ideological content of agencies' interpretations. We find a nonmonotonic relationship between judicial deference to inconsistent agency interpretations and interpretive extremism. ...

  18. Judicial Deference to Inconsistent Agency Statutory Interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Givati, Yehonatan; Stephenson, Matthew Caleb

    2011-01-01

    Although administrative law doctrine requires courts to defer to an agency’s reasonable statutory interpretation, the doctrine is unclear as to whether an agency gets less deference when it changes its own prior interpretation. We formally analyze how judicial deference to revised agency interpretations affects the ideological content of agencies’ interpretations. We find a nonmonotonic relationship between judicial deference to inconsistent agency interpretations and interpretive extremism. ...

  19. The exploration of professionalism understanding of accounting educators?

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Ibrahim; Unti Ludigdo; Gugus Irianto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore professionalism understanding of accounting educators’ perspective. Professionalism is an implementable concept as a basic of self quality development in each profession. This study was conducted at Universitas Lestari, one of the private universities in the Province of Gorontalo. The paradigm employed in this study is the interpretative paradigm in which Husserl’s Transcendental Phenomenology is applied to the approach. Based on the result of the study, there are ...

  20. METHODICAL APPROACH TO AN ESTIMATION OF PROFESSIONALISM OF AN EMPLOYEE

    OpenAIRE

    Татьяна Александровна Коркина; Оксана Анатольевна Лапаева; Ольга Сергеевна Шивырялкина

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of definitions of «professionalism», reflecting the different viewpoints of scientists and practitioners, has shown that it is interpreted as a specific property of the people effectively and reliably carry out labour activity in a variety of conditions. The article presents the methodical approach to an estimation of professionalism of the employee from the position as the external manifestations of the reliability and effectiveness of the work and the position of the personal chara...

  1. Professional Competence in Psychosociology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it’s efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances’ evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced not only by factors depending on the person (the specific skills, the motivation, the degree of implication in decisional process, but olso by factors independent of person. Through the present study we have verified the interpretative-thoretical pattern suggessted for profesional competence (mental skills of cognitional kind and socio-emotional skills, the consciousness of profesional competence of a group of subjects that carried on in army. In this study the used method is secondary analysis, analysis and interpretation in a different manner of collected information with different reasons.

  2. Professional Competence in Psychosociology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it's efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances' evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced not only by factors depending on the person (the specific skills, the motivation, the degree of implication in decisional process, but olso by factors independent of person. Through the present study we have verified the interpretative-thoretical pattern suggessted for profesional competence (mental skills of cognitional kind and socio-emotional skills, the consciousness of profesional competence of a group of subjects that carried on in army. In this study the used method is secondary analysis, analysis and interpretation in a different manner of collected information with different reasons.

  3. Applying Intersubjectivity for Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvaldina Montoya Janecek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is an intersubjective review of Loewen, G. V. (2012. Hermeneutic Pedagogy: Teaching and learning as dialogue and interpretation. Alcoa, TN, USA. Old Moon Academic Press. The four authors of the review used a reflective-reflexive, dialogic process to interpret and analyze Loewen’s text. Their review is presented in a dialogue format that resulted after analyzing a much longer set of narrative data.[1][1] Editorial Note: This is a very unusual review! There are four points of interest that make this review an interesting read. The first one concerns the subject of the review: the book on hermeneutics. The second point is the form of the review: it is dialogue between the authors presented in its development. The third point of interest is the personal nature of the contents: the authors masterly show how their work on the review of the book penetrates their lives thus showing the real life with its changes, happiness, sadness, struggles and tribulations. The last point of interest that makes this review worth to be read  is the pioneering character of the work behind this review. Glenda Moss used this review as a tool for professional development for the colleagues in her department. In my humble opinion, this review is the result of the very courageous, pioneering and inspirational work! (Mikhail Gradovski

  4. Assuring the quality of interpretative comments in clinical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasikaran, Samuel; Sikaris, Kenneth; Kilpatrick, Eric; French, Jane; Badrick, Tony; Osypiw, Jacqui; Plebani, Mario

    2016-12-01

    The provision of interpretative advice on laboratory results is a post-analytic activity and an integral part of clinical laboratory services. It is valued by healthcare workers and has the potential to prevent or reduce errors and improve patient outcomes. It is important to ensure that interpretative comments provided by laboratory personnel are of high quality: comments should be patient-focused and answer the implicit or explicit question raised by the requesting clinician. Comment providers need to be adequately trained and qualified and be able to demonstrate their proficiency to provide advice on laboratory reports. External quality assessment (EQA) schemes can play a part in assessing and demonstrating the competence of such laboratory staff and have an important role in their education and continuing professional development. A standard structure is proposed for EQA schemes for interpretative comments in clinical chemistry, which addresses the scope and method of assessment including nomenclature and marking scales. There is a need for evidence that participation in an EQA program for interpretative commenting facilitates improved quality of comments. It is proposed that standardizing goals and methods of assessment as well as nomenclature and marking scales may help accumulate evidence to demonstrate the impact of participation in EQA for interpretative commenting on patient outcome.

  5. China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI): Test Review Based on the Language Pairing of English and Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hulin; Gu, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Test Purpose: The CATTI aims to measure competence in translation and interpreting (including simultaneous and consecutive interpreting) between Chinese and seven foreign languages: English, Japanese, French, Arabic, Russian, German, or Spanish. The test is intended to cover a wide range of domains including business, government, academia, and…

  6. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  7. Tax Professional Internships and Subsequent Professional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…

  8. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiping Shao; Cherry, Simon R.; Meadors, Ken; Siegel, Stefan; Silverman, Robert W. [Crump Institute for Biological Imaging, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Farahani, Keyvan [Department of Radiological Sciences, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Marsden, Paul K. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Clinical PET Centre, Division of Radiological Sciences, UMDS, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a prototype PET detector which is compatible with a clinical MRI system to provide simultaneous PET and MR imaging. This single-slice PET system consists of 48 2x2x10mm{sup 3} LSO crystals in a 38 mm diameter ring configuration that can be placed inside the receiver coil of the MRI system, coupled to three multi-channel photomultipliers housed outside the main magnetic field via 4 m long and 2 mm diameter optical fibres. The PET system exhibits 2 mm spatial resolution, 41% energy resolution at 511 keV and 20 ns timing resolution. Simultaneous PET and MR phantom images were successfully acquired. (author)

  9. From averaged to simultaneous controllability

    OpenAIRE

    Lohéac, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider a linear finite dimensional control system depending on unknown parameters. We aim to design controls, independent of the parameters, to control the system in some optimal sense. We discuss the notions of averaged control, according to which one aims to control only the average of the states with respect to the unknown parameters, and the notion of simultaneous control in which the goal is to control the system for all values of these parameters. We show ho...

  10. Certifying Enrollment Management Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…

  11. Whistleblowing & Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the moral dilemmas encountered daily by professionals and how the teaching of ethics may help resolve the conflicts individuals face with respect to whistleblowing. Included are consideration of responsibilities, role of ethics codes, and courses on professional ethics. (CS)

  12. Leading Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2006-01-01

    If the goal is to fundamentally change the culture inside schools, people need to move beyond the superficiality of professional learning communities and focus on a system of learners. Professional learning communities are in fact about establishing lasting new collaborative cultures. Collaborative cultures are ones that focus on building the…

  13. Promoting teachers' professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Pietsje Roelofje

    2008-01-01

    Because teacher quality has a great influence on pupil attainment, teachers’ professional development receives a lot of attention in educational policy. This dissertation contains five studies on how teachers’ professional development, in terms of learning at the workplace, can be explained and

  14. Evaluating professional development

    CERN Document Server

    Guskey, Thomas R

    2000-01-01

    This is a practical guide to evaluating professional development programs at five increasing levels of sophistication: participants' reaction to professional development; how much participants learned; evaluating organizational support and change; how participants use their new knowledge and skills; and improvements in student learning.

  15. Parents: Dilemmas for Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrea

    1988-01-01

    A British educational psychologist critically examines her practices toward parents. Aspects of the power relationship are explored, including acting as a friend, the trappings of professionalism, privacy and confidentiality, interprofessional trust, and service provision. Professional survival is seen to be the underlying motive in these…

  16. Educators' Professional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, R.; Anitha, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive model of professional characteristics of an educator that will prepare them for high standards of professional achievements, as all professions demand standardization and formulation of guidelines in today's competitive environment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature on essentials of an educator was sourced…

  17. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  18. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  19. Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Alison

    2017-01-01

    There are many professional development programmes on offer for primary science. The best of these involve teachers in developing practice over time, alongside engaging with theory. In this article, the author considers how working as part of a professional learning community can support a collaborative and evidence informed approach to improving…

  20. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  1. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.

  2. Owning your professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2012-01-01

    Professional development encompasses more than simply attending continuing education courses or returning to school for advanced degrees. It can also refer to looking up an unfamiliar diagnosis, changing your practice based on new evidence, and networking with peers about professional issues. Professional growth also involves having curiosity, wanting to provide the best possible care for your patients, and exuding excellence as a nurse. It is about investing in yourself! In doing so, you are not only growing as a professional but also promoting the image of nursing. Several national initiatives, such as Magnet and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM 's) Future of Nursing Report, are available to help improve and transform health care, and also to hopefully help motivate us.1 However, the impetus for professional development needs to come from within each individual nurse.

  3. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  4. A bridge between cultures: interpreters' perspectives of consultations with migrant oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis N; Lobb, Elizabeth; Jefford, Michael; Goldstein, David; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Girgis, Afaf; King, Madeleine; Sze, Ming; Aldridge, Lynley; Schofield, Penelope

    2012-02-01

    Migration is increasing worldwide. In previous research into people with cancer from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, interpreter accuracy, professionalism and continuity have emerged as key concerns for patients. Little is known about interpreters' perceptions of their role and the challenges they face. This study aimed to obtain their perspective. Thirty interpreters (Greek n = 7, Chinese n = 11, and Arabic n = 12) participated in four focus groups which were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed for themes using N-Vivo software. Skills as an interpreter were broadly perceived as conveying information accurately, being confidential and impartial. Three broad dilemmas faced by interpreters emerged: accuracy versus understanding; translating only versus cultural advocacy and sensitivity; and professionalism versus providing support. Some saw themselves as merely an accurate conduit of information, while others saw their role in broader terms, encompassing patient advocacy, cultural brokerage and provision of emotional support. Perceived challenges in their role included lack of continuity, managing their own emotions especially after bad news consultations, and managing diverse patient and family expectations. Training and support needs included medical terminology, communication and counselling skills and debriefing. Interpreters suggested that oncologists check on interpreter/patient's language or dialect compatibility; use lay language and short sentences; and speak in the first person. Resolving potential conflicts between information provision and advocacy is an important area of cross-cultural communication research. Further training and support is required to enhance interpreters' competence in managing delicate situations from a professional, cultural and psychological perspective; and to assist doctors to collaborate with interpreters to ensure culturally competent communication. Ultimately, this will improve interpreters' well-being and

  5. “Her Husband Doesn't Speak Much English”: Conducting a Family Meeting with an Interpreter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander K.; Arnold, Robert M.; Fernandez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A growing percentage of critically ill patients and their families in the United States speak limited English. We present the case of a palliative care consult conducted across language barriers to frame a discussion about the use of interpreters for family meetings, including the evidence for using a professional interpreter, the burden experienced by interpreters involved in end-of-life discussions, potential challenges encountered when conducting a family meeting with an interpreter, and recommended best practices for interpreter use in these settings. PMID:22107068

  6. A Phenomenological Study of the Relationship between Deaf Students in Higher Education and Their Sign Languge Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, Carrie L

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the relationship between deaf students in higher education who use sign language and need an interpreter to access course content. A sign language interpreter is a trained professional who translates between American Sign Language or another sign system and English. This phenomenological study draws from interviews with 10…

  7. Access to healthcare interpreter services: where are we and where do we need to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Alexander; Hudelson, Patricia

    2010-07-01

    Due to international migration, health care professionals in Switzerland increasingly encounter language barriers in communication with their patients. In order to examine health professionals' attitudes and practices related to healthcare interpreting, we sent a self-administered questionnaire to heads of medical and nursing departments in public healthcare services in the canton of Basel-Stadt (N = 205, response rate 56%). Strategies used to communicate with foreign-language speaking patients differed, depending on the patient's language. While nearly half of respondents relied on patients' relatives to translate for Albanian, Tamil, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Portuguese and Turkish, a third did so for Spanish, and a fourth did so for Arabic. Eleven percent relied on professional interpreters for Spanish and 31% did so for Tamil and Arabic. Variations in strategies used appear to mainly reflect the availability of bilingual staff members for the different languages. Future efforts should focus on sensitizing health professionals to the problems associated with use of ad hoc interpreters, as well as facilitating access to professional interpreters.

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ATTITUDE TOWARDS PHYSICAL EDUCATION AMONG PROFESSIONAL AND NON-PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Radhamani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title of this study is A Comparative study of Attitude towards Physical Education Between Professional and Non-professional College students. The level of attitude towards physical education may varyaccording to individual differences. To analyse and compare the level of attitude differences between professional and non-professional college students the investigator administered Adams scale of attitude towards physical education. This scale is consisted of 40 statements. Seven point Likert scale was used to measure thescale. Four hypotheses have been formulated.Hypotheses were formulated based on the following dimensions:1. Course2. Age3. Parental occupation4. LocalityA sample of 100 college students were taken for this study from various Professional and non – professional colleges located at in and around Salem. A random sampling technique was used to select theparticipantsparticipants. According to the course the participants were divided into two groups. I.e. professional and non-professional courses. According to the age the participantsparticipants were divided into two group’s i.e. 20 years & below and above 20 years. According to the occupation of the parents again the participants, they were divided into two groups i.e. self-employed and salary employed. Again according to the locality the participants were divided into groups. i.e. urban and rural. ‘t’-test and Chi – square were used to interpret and analyse the collected data. The overall finding of the study reveals that the boys studying in on-professionalcolleges showed higher positive attitude towards physical education than boys studying in professional colleges.The age of the subject and the occupation of the parent did not have any relationship with the subject’s attitude towards physical Education. But the locality of the subject has a significant relationship with their attitude towards physical education

  9. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  10. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  11. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  12. Computer enhancement through interpretive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, G.; Spaanenburg, H. A. E.; Stumpf, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    The improvement in the usage of the digital computer through the use of the technique of interpretation rather than the compilation of higher ordered languages was investigated by studying the efficiency of coding and execution of programs written in FORTRAN, ALGOL, PL/I and COBOL. FORTRAN was selected as the high level language for examining programs which were compiled, and A Programming Language (APL) was chosen for the interpretive language. It is concluded that APL is competitive, not because it and the algorithms being executed are well written, but rather because the batch processing is less efficient than has been admitted. There is not a broad base of experience founded on trying different implementation strategies which have been targeted at open competition with traditional processing methods.

  13. Translators and Interpreters Certification in Australia, Canada, the Usа and Ukraine: Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyba Kateryna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the certification process by which potential translators and interpreters demonstrate minimum standards of performance to warrant official or professional recognition of their ability to translate or interpret and to practice professionally in Australia, Canada, the USA and Ukraine. The aim of the study is to research and to compare the certification procedures of translators and interpreters in Australia, Canada, the USA and Ukraine; to outline possible avenues of creating a certification system network in Ukraine. It has been revealed that there is great variation in minimum requirements for practice, availability of training facilities and formal bodies that certify practitioners and that monitor and advance specialists’ practices in the countries. Certification can be awarded by governmental or non-governmental organizations or associations of professionals in the field of translation/interpretation. Testing has been acknowledged as the usual avenue for candidates to gain certification. There are less popular grounds to get certification such as: completed training, presentation of previous relevant experience, and/or recommendations from practicing professionals or service-user. The comparative analysis has revealed such elements of the certification procedures and national conventions in the researched countries that may form a basis for Ukrainian translators/interpreters certifying system and make it a part of a cross-national one.

  14. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  15. Geologic Interpretation of Gravity Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-19

    stratigraphic horizons/levels, but also in facial -lithologic special features of these rocks. Page 410-411. I I Doe-= 000002-02 2/2 8 U 4 l DOC - 88020221...38 (967, 11l). D e a n W. C. Frequency analisis for gravity and magnetic interpretation. Geophys.. vol. XXIII. No 1. 1958. E I c i n s T. A. The

  16. Genetic testing and risk interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya Miron-Shatz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 gives women the opportunity for early detection, surveillance, and intervention. One key feature of genetic testing and counseling is the provision of personal lifetime risk. However, little attention has been paid to how women interpret lifetime risk information, despite the fact that they base screening, treatment and family planning decisions on such information. To study this vital issue, we set out to test the ability of women to choose the most appropriate interpretation of National Cancer Institute's (NCI message about lifetime risk of developing cancer for a woman with altered BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Participants included 277 women who had not undergone genetic testing or had cancer and 207 women who had undergone genetic testing or had cancer. Over 50\\% of the women who had not undergone genetic testing or had cancer and 40\\% of those who had undergone genetic testing or had cancer misunderstood NCI's information. Furthermore, in line with a growing body of research, we found that high numeracy level (objective or subjective is positively associated with a woman's ability to correctly interpret NCI's message.

  17. University Interpreting: Linguistic Issues for Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Jemina

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated 10 Auslan/English interpreters' use of translation style when interpreting for a university lecture. Results found the interpreters predominantly used a free or literal interpretation approach, but switched between translation styles at particular points of a text, leading to the suggestion of the concept of translational…

  18. 10 CFR 19.4 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 19.4 Section 19.4 Energy NUCLEAR... interpretation by the General Counsel will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission. ...

  19. 10 CFR 50.3 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 50.3 Section 50.3 Energy NUCLEAR... interpretation by the General Counsel will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission. ...

  20. 10 CFR 36.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 36.5 Section 36.5 Energy NUCLEAR... interpretation by the General Counsel, will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission. ...

  1. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR... interpretation by the General Counsel, will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission. ...

  2. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National... ORGANIZATION Interpreters § 1605.81 Interpreters. (a) The local board, district appeal board and the National Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following oath...

  3. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  4. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22... EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately...

  5. Understanding AOP through the Study of Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I return to the question of what distinguishes AOP languages by considering how the interpreters of AOP languages differ from conventional interpreters. Key elements for static transformation are seen to be redefinition of the set and lookup operators in the interpretation of the language. This analysis also yields a definition of crosscutting in terms of interlacing of interpreter actions.

  6. A Framework for Assessing Continuing Professional Development Activities for Satisfying Pharmacy Revalidation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donyai, Parastou; Alexander, Angela M.; Denicolo, Pam M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The United Kingdom's pharmacy regulator contemplated using continuing professional development (CPD) in pharmacy revalidation in 2009, simultaneously asking pharmacy professionals to demonstrate the value of their CPD by showing its relevance and impact. The idea of linking new CPD requirements with revalidation was yet to be…

  7. Thinking through ethics : the processes of ethical decision-making by novice and expert American sign language interpreters

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    In the course of their work, sign language interpreters are faced with ethical dilemmas that require prioritizing competing moral beliefs and views on professional practice. There are several decision-making models, however, little research has been done on how sign language interpreters learn to identify and make ethical decisions. Through surveys and interviews on ethical decision-making, this study investigates how expert and novice interpreters discuss their ethical decision-making proces...

  8. Simultaneous field-aligned currents at Swarm and Cluster satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunlop, M. W.; Yang, J. Y.; Yang, Y. Y.

    2015-01-01

    We show for the first time, with direct, multispacecraft calculations of electric current density, and other methods, matched signatures of field-aligned currents (FACs) sampled simultaneously near the ionosphere at low (∼500km altitude) orbit and in the magnetosphere at medium (similar to 2.5 RE...... altitude) orbits using a particular Swarm and Cluster conjunction. The Cluster signatures are interpreted and ordered through joint mapping of the ground/magnetospheric footprints and estimation of the auroral zone boundaries (taken as indication of the boundaries of Region 1 and Region 2 currents). We...

  9. Information professionals: core competencies and professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We discuss the concept of core competencies applied to policies for teaching and training information professionals, particularly librarians. Method. Sixty graduates of the Institute were employed as information professionals. These sixty were asked to attribute degrees of importance to specific items associated with knowledge and skills that, within the scope of this research, were considered core competencies for meeting the demands of their jobs. Participants were also asked to cite knowledge they acquired in school and knowledge they use in exercising their profession, the skills that they consider necessary but that they did not gain in school, and the difficulties they encounter in exercising their profession and for which they were not sufficiently well prepared. Analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data analyses were performed. The data were tabulated using Access and several reports and cross-tabulations were generated. Results. The results suggest a gulf between knowledge and skills acquired in library school and those that are required by the job market. In particular, participants lacked the skills they needed to work with information and communication technologies. Conclusion. The concept of core competencies is increasingly taken into account by the productive sector of the economy. The educational system ought to keep up with this change. The empirical research described shows that there is a need to establish advanced and modern policies for the education of librarians, participants in the market for information professionals.

  10. Developing professional competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of university programs for professionals is to qualify the students to act competently in a subsequent job situation. Practical experiences as well as comprehensive research studies have shown that only a limited part of what is learned during the coursework is applied in the subsequent...... professional practice. There is too little transfer from the training programs to application in the workplace. Based on Danish research the relation between school and professional work, between scholastic knowledge and practical knowledge, is analyzed. Guideline for a new and more efficient curricula...

  11. Interpreting underwater acoustic images of the upper ocean boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulloa, Marco J [Departamento de Fisica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e IngenierIas, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolucion 1500, Sector Reforma, 44420 Guadalajara, Jal. (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    A challenging task in physical studies of the upper ocean using underwater sound is the interpretation of high-resolution acoustic images. This paper covers a number of basic concepts necessary for undergraduate and postgraduate students to identify the most distinctive features of the images, providing a link with the acoustic signatures of physical processes occurring simultaneously beneath the surface of the sea. Sonars are so sensitive that they detected a new acoustic signature at the breaking of surface gravity waves in deep water, which resembles oblique motion-like vortices.

  12. Sequential versus simultaneous market delineation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Møllgaard, Peter; Kastberg Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and geographical markets. Using a unique data setfor prices of Norwegian and Scottish salmon, we propose a methodologyfor simultaneous market delineation and we demonstrate that comparedto a sequential approach conclusions will be reversed.JEL: C3, K21, L41, Q22Keywords: Relevant market, econometric delineation......Delineation of the relevant market forms a pivotal part of most antitrustcases. The standard approach is sequential. First the product marketis delineated, then the geographical market is defined. Demand andsupply substitution in both the product dimension and the geographicaldimension...

  13. The "1+1:Life & Love" Simultaneous Exhibition: Cross-Border Collaboration in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a cross-border, "simultaneous exhibition" collaborative project in six post-conflict western Balkan countries. Through a process of collaboration, active learning, and audience development, professional and personal trust developed among eleven museums. Previously identified barriers were overcome and…

  14. Impact of Interpreter Services on Delivery of Health Care to Limited–English-proficient Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lauderdale, Diane S; Meltzer, David; Shorey, Jeanette M; Levinson, Wendy; Thisted, Ronald A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether professional interpreter services increase the delivery of health care to limited–English-proficient patients. DESIGN Two-year retrospective cohort study during which professional interpreter services for Portuguese and Spanish-speaking patients were instituted between years one and two. Preventive and clinical service information was extracted from computerized medical records. SETTING A large HMO in New England. PARTICIPANTS A total of 4,380 adults continuously enrolled in a staff model health maintenance organization for the two years of the study, who either used the comprehensive interpreter services (interpreter service group [ISG]; N = 327) or were randomly selected into a 10% comparison group of all other eligible adults (comparison group [CG]; N = 4,053). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The measures were change in receipt of clinical services and preventive service use. Clinical service use and receipt of preventive services increased in both groups from year one to year two. Clinical service use increased significantly in the ISG compared to the CG for office visits (1.80 vs 0.70; P interpreter services. CONCLUSION Professional interpreter services can increase delivery of health care to limited–English-speaking patients. PMID:11520385

  15. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  16. Interpretant Levels Presented by Higher Education Students about the Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzovo, Daniel Trevisan; Laburú, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the initial interpretant levels of the seasons of the year presented by students in a physics discipline of undergraduate course of a biological sciences degree at a state university of the south of Brazil. This study is qualitative, it analyzes textual oral representations and images about that astronomical phenomenon. It found that all students showed similar interpretant levels than those without any instruction, focusing their explanation of this concept in the variation of the distance between Earth and the Sun and indeterminate/confused representations. Another important result was the absence of a scientifically correct conception of the subject. The data from this study are in agreement with several studies on the weak training of science teachers in astronomy, and emphasizes the importance of both a re-structuration of the initial training of these future teachers, as well as the continuous teacher training of the working professional ones.

  17. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow- ... you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the ...

  18. Teacher professional development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge (PCK) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPCK) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Contexts Figure 3-1: The TPACK framework for educator knowledge (Koehler & Mishra, 2009) Teacher Professional Development  91 Table...

  19. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the ...

  20. Personal professional development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rao, S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Three workshop sessions on personal professional development were held during the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference. These were designed to teach participants about planning for career success, "survival skills," negotiation, and ways...

  1. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your next appointment . Healthcare professionals talk about why good communication is important A patient describes how he prepares for office visits Health reporter John Hammarley summarizes communication tips This content ...

  2. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... phone, at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from ... your next appointment . Healthcare professionals talk about why good communication is important A patient describes how he ...

  3. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ...

  4. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  5. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of High Cholesterol Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of ... HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals ...

  6. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this section when you talk to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other ... Visits - Questions To Ask Your Healthcare Professional Taking Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - ...

  7. Professional psychology in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagulha, T; Dana, R H

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes the history and current status of professional psychology in Portugal where a unique perspective combines training, research, and practical contributions from Europe and the Americas with their own history of psychological tradition and expertise. Training in professional psychology includes Social Psychology and Educational and Vocational Guidance specializations in addition to Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy and Counseling for the professional degree, Licenciatura. Advanced degrees are offered in Environmental Psychology, Career Development, Social Cognition, and other areas, primarily for academic positions. Research in all of these areas is expected to have applied outcomes that contribute to individual well being and an improved quality of life for the entire population. The result has been a rapid development of an indigenous professional psychology to address mental health, social, and environmental concerns that compel psychological attention and resources worldwide as well as those problems of local and national origins.

  8. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  9. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find a list ... Plan - Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - ...

  10. Simultaneous optimization of dynamic bioprocesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riascos C.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the optimal control may introduce significant economical benefits into production processes, thus being an important and challenging research area with practical relevance. The modeling and optimization of biotechnological processes has been object of research and their related results have generated improvements in operating conditions and strategies, however, the inherent features of dynamical bioprocesses prevent the application of conventional optimization algorithms, hence making necessary the development of tailored methods and strategies. The objective of this work is to develop mathematical programming strategies for simultaneous optimization of dynamic systems and evaluate their computational performance. Simultaneous optimization with orthogonal collocation is applied to a simplified model for biosynthesis of penicillin from glucose, which was studied by Cuthrell and Biegler (1989. The results show that discretization of differential equations systems (DAE by orthogonal collocation in finite elements efficiently transforms dynamic optimization problems into nonlinear programming (NLP problems, enabling to solve complex problems with several control variables and minimizing the approximation error.

  11. INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION OF LEGAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE UNITS IN PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenova, E.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the variety of borrowings, internationalisms, phraseological units, idioms in the professional-oriented texts is considered. It opens an opportunity to understand the statement of a thought and laconicism of its expression, including the field of jurisprudence. The research objective is demonstration the ways of interpretation and application of legal English language units in practice through characteristic features of English legal terminology. Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of phraseological units and their translation in oral and written speech.

  12. Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Memarian, Robabeh

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of clinical competency in professional roles especially in crucial situations can improve the nursing profession. This qualitative research was conducted to determine the process of acquiring clinical competency by nurses in its cultural context and within the health care delivery system in Iran. This study, using grounded theory methodology, took place in universities and hospitals in Tehran. Nurses (36) included nurse managers, tutors, practitioners, and members of the Iranian Nursing Organization. Simultaneous data collection and analysis took place using participant semistructured interviews. Three categories emerged: (a) personal characteristics such as philanthropy, strong conscience, being attentive, accepting responsibility, being committed to and respecting self and others; (b) care environment including appropriate management systems, in-service training provision, employment laws, and control mechanisms, suitable and adequate equipment; and (c) provision of productive work practices including love of the profession, critical thinking, nursing knowledge, and professional expertise. Professional ethics has emerged as the core variable that embodies concepts such as commitment, responsibility, and accountability. Professional ethics guarantees clinical competency and leads to the application of specialized knowledge and skill by nurses. The results can be used to form the basis of guiding the process of acquiring clinical competency by nurses using a systematic process.

  13. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  14. Building a professional portfolio.

    OpenAIRE

    Arhippainen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Building a professional portfolio is a thesis report with buiding a professional portfolio for the author with a background in graphic design and event management with main interest on aesthetics side. This report describes the main process of selecting materials, planning and actually producing the portfolio. In addition to the portfolio there is a chapter with inspection on LinkedIn and other social medias when planning for jobsearch. Altogether it is many channels and a combination of ...

  15. Journalists' professional identity

    OpenAIRE

    Grubenmann, Stephanie; Meckel, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The internet, and particularly social media, have brought far-reaching change to journalism by calling into question how journalists’ traditional roles are perceived. We introduce social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner 1986) ― specifically the concept of professional identity ― as a complementary approach to study journalistic role conceptions from a dynamic perspective. Building on existing findings in both research streams (professional identity and journalistic role conceptions), we und...

  16. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  17. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  18. French Professional Car Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veslav Kuranovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this scientific article is presented french professional car language, also it is analysed a problem of teaching professional language at the technical university. It is presented lot of methods which help student to acquire language skills and also it is presented importance of dialog between student and teacher. Psychology and pedagogy are 2 sciences strong related in teacher’s work.

  19. Retention of technical professionals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. The loss of skills and knowledge of technical professionals experienced by many organizations in South Africa has serious implications on the competitiveness of these organizations in the local and international markets. Organizations should come to realize that they should find creative ways to retain critical skills and knowledge and ensure continuity in terms of succession management. Technical professionals play a crucial role in society. They are responsible for maintaining the...

  20. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...... not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow...... and develop the children’s initiative....

  1. Process mining meets abstract interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Vargas, Josep; Cortadella Fortuny, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of process models out of system traces is an interesting problem that has received significant attention in the last years. In this work, a theory for the derivation of a Petri net from a set of traces is presented. The method is based on the theory of abstract interpretation, which has been applied successfully in other areas. The principal application of the theory presented is Process Mining, an area that tries to incorporate the use of formal models both in the design and us...

  2. Static Analysis Using Abstract Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthaud, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Short presentation about static analysis and most particularly abstract interpretation. It starts with a brief explanation on why static analysis is used at NASA. Then, it describes the IKOS (Inference Kernel for Open Static Analyzers) tool chain. Results on NASA projects are shown. Several well known algorithms from the static analysis literature are then explained (such as pointer analyses, memory analyses, weak relational abstract domains, function summarization, etc.). It ends with interesting problems we encountered (such as C++ analysis with exception handling, or the detection of integer overflow).

  3. Developing a Professionalism Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Pautler, PharmD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a way of being which underlies all the responsibilities of a pharmacist and associated general and professional abilities. The Student Affairs Committee was charged with developing a college-wide professionalism plan to meet the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE Standards 15.1 and 23. This plan was developed concurrently with a new curriculum. The plan was developed systematically with the following goals: 1 create a definition of professionalism, 2 determine outcomes of the plan, 3 identify existing components which should be continued and new components to be added, 4 ensure existing and new components are linked to outcomes and 5 develop a continuous assessment process for the plan. The proposed plan consists of curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities designed to help students gain experience in three professionalism pillars: Competence, Connection and Character, as defined by Brown et al in “Taxonomy of Professionalism”. While knowledge and skills will be enhanced, the focus of development will be on student virtues, values and attitudes—that what they do defines who they are. The goal is to help students develop as people and professionals who value the high ideals expected of a pharmacist.

  4. Leave and professional development benefits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martyniak, Cathleen; Keith, Brian

    2009-01-01

    ...; and professional development leaves such as dedicated research time and sabbaticals. Other professional development topics include financial support and relief from duties for conference attendance...

  5. Trans fat information on food labels: consumer use and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sonya; Glanville, N Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Consumers' use and interpretation of trans fat information on food labels were explored. Consumers completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire in one of three grocery stores selected purposively to represent geographical location. Data analysis involved examining the relationship of age, gender, grocery shopping habits, household size, and source of nutrition information with awareness, use, and interpretation of trans fat information. Ninety-eight percent (n=239) of participants were aware of trans fat, and most knew of the relationship between trans fat intake and cardiovascular disease. Although the majority of shoppers were aware of the "0 trans fat" nutrition claim on food packages (95%), they were more likely to use the Nutrition Facts panel (60%%) to reduce trans fat intake. Men and consumers under age 40 were least likely to be aware of food label information. While most consumers (75%) correctly interpreted the "0 trans fat" nutrition claim and thought foods with this claim could be healthy choices (64%), only 51% purchased these foods to reduce trans fat intake. Nutrition professionals should target messages to reduce trans fat intake at men and consumers under age 40. While general knowledge was good, further education is required to help consumers interpret trans fat information.

  6. The image-interpretation-workstation of the future: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S.; van de Camp, F.; Hafermann, J.; Wagner, B.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, professionally used workstations got increasingly complex and multi-monitor systems are more and more common. Novel interaction techniques like gesture recognition were developed but used mostly for entertainment and gaming purposes. These human computer interfaces are not yet widely used in professional environments where they could greatly improve the user experience. To approach this problem, we combined existing tools in our imageinterpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a special task in the image interpreting process: a geo-information system to geo-reference the images and provide a spatial reference for the user, an interactive recognition support tool, an annotation tool and a reporting tool. To further support the complex task of image interpreting, self-developed interaction systems for head-pose estimation and hand tracking were used in addition to more common technologies like touchscreens, face identification and speech recognition. A set of experiments were conducted to evaluate the usability of the different interaction systems. Two typical extensive tasks of image interpreting were devised and approved by military personal. They were then tested with a current setup of an image interpreting workstation using only keyboard and mouse against our image-interpretationworkstation of the future. To get a more detailed look at the usefulness of the interaction techniques in a multi-monitorsetup, the hand tracking, head pose estimation and the face recognition were further evaluated using tests inspired by everyday tasks. The results of the evaluation and the discussion are presented in this paper.

  7. TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL COMMITMENT AS AN INDICATOR OF PSYCHOLOGICAL READINESS TO THE PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Minyurova

    2017-01-01

    components of teachers’ commitment can be listed as follows: “professional affectivity” (identification and emotional attachment to the chosen specialty, satisfaction with the calling, feeling of professional pride, acceptance of the goals and values, “professional stability” (feeling of resignation challenges, feeling of a professional duty, and “professional activity” (feeling of full-time commitment and complete dedication, spending free time and energy for the sake of professional self-realization. It has been concluded that teacher’s awareness to adopt strict professional obligations is followed by the feeling of enormous emotional expenditure of the chosen profession, being one of the reasons for the increased uneasiness and low readiness of teachers to introduction of the professional standard. Practical significance. The article provides an interpretation of the available information for a better understanding of the teacher professional commitment specifics. The materials of the present article can be useful when developing the programmes for educators’ commitment to the profession. 

  8. From admission to discharge: patterns of interpreter use among resident physicians caring for hospitalized patients with limited english proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Amy S; Kruger, Jenna F; Quan, Judy; Fernandez, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Resident physicians' use of professional interpreters drives communication with hospitalized patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). We surveyed residents from three specialties across two hospitals affiliated with one academic medical institution about their communication with their last hospitalized LEP patient. Among 149 respondents (73% response rate), 71% reported using professional interpreters for fewer than 60% of hospital encounters. Most (91%) perceived their quality of communication with hospitalized LEP patients as worse than with English-speaking patients. Professional interpreter use varied substantially by resident and by hospital encounter, with more reporting use of ad hoc interpreters, their own language skills, or not talking to the patient due to time constraints during pre-rounds (39%), team rounds (49%), or check-ins (40%) than during procedural consents (9%) or family meetings (17%). The reported variation suggests targets for quality improvement efforts and the need for clear enforceable guidelines on resident communication with hospitalized LEP patients.

  9. Welfare Service Professionals, Migrants, and the Question of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze migrants’ interpretations of their encounters with welfare service professionals in Denmark, focusing on client trust and exploring its diversity across professions. It is based on qualitative interviews with migrants. Migrants as newcomers to the welfare state...

  10. Design Issues for Technology-Enhanced Formal Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Barbara; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    This research concerns the design, implementation and evaluation of a blended training course for interpreter trainers. Some of the complex issues pertaining to professional development in a rich web-based learner-centered environment are addressed. Findings confirm a socio-constructivist design within which participants developed the expected…

  11. Recovery from anorexia nervosa: a Durkheimian interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C J

    1996-11-01

    Attempts to explain "eating disorders" in contemporary western society have concentrated on aetiology at the expense of resolution. Most "recovered" anorectics, however, question medical definitions of "anorexia nervosa" and clinical criteria for recovery. This article refers to a study of 32 people at different stages of the recovery process, to reconceptualize the problem in sociological terms. Durkheim's account of asceticism offers a fresh interpretive framework in which anorexia and recovery are understood as the negative and positive phases respectively of a ritual of self-transformation. In western culture, where appropriate myths and rituals of re-incorporation are not readily available following a period of symbolic fasting, it is not surprising that recovery from anorexia is not automatic. Participants in this study referred to anorexia as a spiritual quest and for them recovery involved a re-discovery (or creation) of a threefold connection: inner, with others and with "nature". These connections are, for them, the defining features of spirituality. The negative phase of the ritualistic quest (anorexia) involves a confrontation with the inevitability of death as a condition of the positive phase (recovery) in which people actively choose life. This new theoretical approach provides a non-medicalized understanding of anorexia and simultaneously enables a re-interpretation of the fasting of medieval women saints. Recent scholarship in this area is re-evaluated to demonstrate that the continuity between asceticism and anorexia lies in the use of food as a metaphorical attempt to confront the universal problem of one's own mortality. In certain historical situations, asceticism served a socially valuable symbolic purpose. In contemporary society, however, this meaning is no longer available. Instead, it is recovery which constitutes the active and metaphorical "rebellion" against forces of social control. Finally, the work of Van Gennep is used to explore

  12. Biased interpretation and memory in children with varying levels of spider fear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.M.; Titulaer, G.; Simons, C.; Allart, E.; de Gier, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated multiple cognitive biases in children simultaneously, to investigate whether spider-fearful children display an interpretation bias, a recall bias, and source monitoring errors, and whether these biases are specific for spider-related materials. Furthermore, the independent

  13. Teaching Beginners To Shut Up and Listen. A Conference Interpreter Espouses Silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaggio, Sergio

    All beginners at simultaneous interpreting falter at the flow of oral language, unaware that their short-term semantic flow of oral language, unaware that his short-term semantic memory can be managed more efficiently if used to store units of meaning rather than discrete words. Beginners must learn to listen for sense from the start and focus…

  14. Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis and interpretation with SPSS

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many statistics texts tend to focus more on the theory and mathematics underlying statistical tests than on their applications and interpretation. This can leave readers with little understanding of how to apply statistical tests or how to interpret their findings. While the SPSS statistical software has done much to alleviate the frustrations of social science professionals and students who must analyze data, they still face daunting challenges in selecting the proper tests, executing the tests, and interpreting the test results.With emphasis firmly on such practical matters, this handbook se

  15. The Climate Change Challenge for Land Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    such as sea level rise and environmental degradation through global positioning infrastructures and data interpretation and presentation; • Implementing climate change adaptation and mitigation measures into land administration systems and systems for disaster risk management. This paper provides an overall...... understanding of the climate change challenge and looks at land governance as a key means of contributing to climate change adaptation as well disaster risk prevention and management. More specifically the paper looks at identifying the role of land professionals in addressing the climate change challenge...... in the wider context of sustainable land governance. The linkage between climate change adaptation and sustainable development should be self-evident but is not well understood by the public in general. Land professionals should take a leading role in explaining this linkage to the wider public. This should...

  16. Medical Professionals Designing Hospital Management Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg, Vibeke

    especially have been reformed due to the high proportion of resources they absorb and the apparent difficulty of prioritizing and coordinating health care within hospitals. There is abundant research literature on the topic of reforming hospital management models. Lacking from the literature, however......, is insight into how we can understand and explain how medical professionals adapt hospital management over time in relation to changing hospital management models that are global in their influence in hospital organizations. The aim of this dissertation is to understand and explain how medical professionals...... adapt, interpret and negotiate hospital management over time in relation to changing hospital management models in hospital organizations in the Nordic health system context, illustrated by the Danish health system....

  17. [Effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Sander; Nørregaard, Trine Maria; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-05-22

    An evaluation of the effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy is quite complex. In the few existing studies on the use of interpreters in psychotherapy no significant difference was found in treatment outcome related to whether an interpreter was used or not. On the other hand, the inclusion of an interpreter affects the therapeutic alliance and the relationships between the parties. The role of the interpreter in psychotherapy is characterized by diversity, and the included studies indicate the need for training to improve the cooperation between the interpreter and the therapist.

  18. Simultaneous shoulder and elbow dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanoğlu, Mutlu; Yumrukcal, Feridun; Karataş, Cengiz; Duygun, Fatih

    2014-05-23

    Ipsilateral shoulder and elbow dislocation is very rare and only six articles are present in the literature mentioning this kind of a complex injury. With this presentation we aim to emphasise the importance of assessing the adjacent joints in patients with trauma in order not to miss any accompanying pathologies. We report a case of a 43-year-old female patient with ipsilateral right shoulder and elbow dislocation treated conservatively. The patient reported elbow pain when first admitted to emergency service but she was diagnosed with simultaneous ipsilateral shoulder and elbow injury and treated conservatively. As a more painful pathology may mask the additional ones, one should hasten to help before performing a complete evaluation. Any harm caused to the patient due to this reason would not be a complication but a malpractice. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a “Hub” of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Elmer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca’s area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1, whereas the other brain regions of the control network showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2 translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation.

  20. Broca Pars Triangularis Constitutes a “Hub” of the Language-Control Network during Simultaneous Language Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Until now, several branches of research have fundamentally contributed to a better understanding of the ramifications of bilingualism, multilingualism, and language expertise on psycholinguistic-, cognitive-, and neural implications. In this context, it is noteworthy to mention that from a cognitive perspective, there is a strong convergence of data pointing to an influence of multilingual speech competence on a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, short-term- and working memory, set shifting, switching, and inhibition. In addition, complementary neuroimaging findings have highlighted a specific set of cortical and subcortical brain regions which fundamentally contribute to administrate cognitive control in the multilingual brain, namely Broca's area, the middle-anterior cingulate cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. However, a disadvantage of focusing on group analyses is that this procedure only enables an approximation of the neural networks shared within a population while at the same time smoothing inter-individual differences. In order to address both commonalities (i.e., within group analyses) and inter-individual variability (i.e., single-subject analyses) in language control mechanisms, here I measured five professional simultaneous interpreters while the participants overtly translated or repeated sentences with a simple subject-verb-object structure. Results demonstrated that pars triangularis was commonly activated across participants during backward translation (i.e., from L2 to L1), whereas the other brain regions of the “control network” showed a strong inter-individual variability during both backward and forward (i.e., from L1 to L2) translation. Thus, I propose that pars triangularis plays a crucial role within the language-control network and behaves as a fundamental processing entity supporting simultaneous language translation. PMID:27746729

  1. Language policies and sign language translation and interpreting: connections between Brazil and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2015v16n2p101 This paper is the result of an initial attempt to establish a connection between Brazil and Mozambique regarding sign language translation and interpreting. It reviews some important landmarks in language policies aimed at sign languages in these countries and discusses how certain actions directly impact political decisions related to sign lan­guage translation and interpreting. In this context, two lines of argument are developed. The first one addresses the role of sign language translation and interpreting in the Por­tuguese-speaking context, since Portuguese is the official language in both countries; the other offers some reflections about the Deaf movements and the movements of sign lan­guage translators and interpreters, the legal recognition of sign languages, the develop­ment of undergraduate courses and the contemporary challenges in the work of transla­tion professionals. Finally, it is suggested that sign language translators and interpreters in both Brazil and Mozambique undertake efforts to press government bodies to invest in: (i area-specific training for translators and interpreters, (ii qualification of the ser­vices provided by such professionals, and (iii development of human resources at mas­ter’s and doctoral levels in order to strengthen research on sign language translation and interpreting in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries.

  2. Fad diets: facts for dental professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The author examined fad diet practices associated with oral health status and the role of the dental practitioner in addressing relevant issues. The author reviewed the literature regarding overweight and obesity in the United States to interpret issues that might arise in reviewing fad diet practices among dental patients. The author provides suggestions for assisting patients in choosing dietary and lifestyle behaviors that are based on current public health evidence in support of achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight. Dental professionals are well-positioned to guide patients toward dietary choices that support dental health and the attainment of a healthy weight associated with a decreased risk of developing chronic diseases.

  3. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Daele, L

    1992-12-01

    The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a

  4. Hands-on Materials for Teaching about Global Climate Change through Graph Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Hallagan, Jean E.; Shaffer, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Teachers need to address global climate change with students in their classrooms as evidence for consequences from these environmental changes mounts. One way to approach global climate change is through examination of authentic data. Mathematics and science may be integrated by interpreting graphs from the professional literature. This study…

  5. Understanding New Hybrid Professions: Bourdieu, "Illusio" and the Case of Public Service Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, Helen; Guéry, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    Public spending reductions across the advanced capitalist world are creating new professions that have a "hybrid" status and/or role. However, research on professional learning has paid little attention to them. This qualitative study of one such profession, public service interpreting (PSI), addresses that lacuna. The paper focuses on…

  6. An analysis of oral radiographic findings and their interpretations in women with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigit Sirin

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: The presence of radiographically detectable caries and periapical lesions makes ED patients more susceptible to the risk of losing their functional teeth over time, especially when considered together with their inadequate oral hygiene practices and acidic-beverage consumption. Nonetheless, dental professionals with different backgrounds can interpret such radiographic findings with similar efficiency.

  7. Interpreted consultations as ‘business as usual’? : An analysis of organizational routines in general practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenhagh, T.; Voisey, C.J.; Robb, N.

    2007-01-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational

  8. Convergence and Divergence in the Interpretation of QuranicPolysemy and Lexical Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    alQinai, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The question of using synonyms in translating the Quran is a thorny issue that led to both different interpretations and different translations of the holy text. No matter how accurate or professional a translator attempts to be, Quranic translation has always been fraught with inaccuracies and the skewing of sensitive theological, cultural and…

  9. Reconciling the professional and student identities of clinical psychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen; Cossar, Jill A; Fawns, Tim; Murray, Aja L

    2013-10-01

    The study explored the ways in which qualified and trainee clinical psychologists perceived professional behaviour, as illustrated in a series of short vignettes, in student and clinical practice contexts. Comparisons were made to identify the extent to which ideas of professionalism differed across different learning contexts and between qualified and unqualified staff, with the aim of adding to the literature on which factors influence the development of professional identity in health professionals. An online questionnaire depicting a range of potentially unprofessional behaviours was completed by 265 clinical psychology trainees and 106 qualified clinical psychologists. The data were analysed using a general linear model with simultaneous entry in which rater (trainee vs qualified clinical psychologist), setting (student vs placement) and their interaction predicted acceptability ratings. We found that, in general, trainees and qualified staff agreed on those behaviours that were potentially unprofessional, although where significant differences were found, these were due to trainees rating the same behaviours as more professionally acceptable than qualified clinical psychologists. Despite trainees identifying a range of behaviours as professionally unacceptable, some percentage reported having engaged in a similar behaviour in the past. Irrespective of the status of the rater, the same behaviours tended to be viewed as more professionally unacceptable when in a placement (clinical) setting than in a student (university) setting. Generally, no support was found for a rater by setting interaction. The study suggests that trainee clinical psychologists are generally successful at identifying professional norms, although they do not always act in accordance with these. Conflicting student and professional norms may result in trainees viewing some potentially unprofessional behaviour as less severe than qualified staff. Health professional educators should be aware

  10. Perception of Simultaneous Auditive Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Christian

    Based on a model of pluralistic music, we may approach an aesthetic concept of music, which employs dichotic listening situations. The concept of dichotic listening stems from neuropsychological test conditions in lateralization experiments on brain hemispheres, in which each ear is exposed to a different auditory content. In the framework of such sound experiments, the question which primarily arises concerns a new kind of hearing, which is also conceivable without earphones as a spatial composition, and which may superficially be linked to its degree of complexity. From a psychological perspective, the degree of complexity is correlated with the degree of attention given, with the listener's musical or listening experience and the level of his appreciation. Therefore, we may possibly also expect a measurable increase in physical activity. Furthermore, a dialectic interpretation of such "dualistic" music presents itself.

  11. Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Rotter, Stefan

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience.

  12. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  13. Touch design and narrative interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len

    2016-01-01

    Interactivity is often considered as the defining feature of a book app. However, what constitutes interactivity in the context of apps is not always clear. We postulate in this chapter a multimodal social semiotic theory of interactivity, which considers interactivity as not simply a function...... of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...... and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....

  14. Interpreting physicochemical experimental data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Nicola; Wenlock, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    With the wealth of experimental physicochemical data available to chemoinformaticians from the literature, commercial, and company databases an increasing challenge is the interpretation of such datasets. Subtle differences in experimental methodology used to generate these datasets can give rise to variations in physicochemical property values. Such methodology nuances will be apparent to an expert experimentalist but not necessarily to the data analyst and modeller. This paper describes the differences between common methodologies for measuring the four most important physicochemical properties namely aqueous solubility, octan-1-ol/water distribution coefficient, pK(a) and plasma protein binding highlighting key factors that can lead to systematic differences. Insight is given into how to identify datasets suitable for combining.

  15. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Radiology Resident Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aine Marie; Gruppen, Larry D; Mullan, Patricia B

    2017-05-01

    Radiologists in teaching hospitals and in practices with residents rotating through are involved in the education of their residents. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires evidence that trainees are taught and demonstrate competency not only in medical knowledge and in patient care-the historic focus of radiology education-but also in the so-called non-interpretative core competencies, which include professionalism and interpersonal skills. In addition to accreditation agencies, the prominent assessment practices represented by the American Board of Radiology core and certifying examinations for trainees, as well as Maintenance of Certification for practitioners, are planning to feature more non-interpretative competency assessment, including professionalism to a greater extent. Because professionalism was incorporated as a required competency in medical education as a whole, more clarity about the justification and expected content for teaching about competence in professionalism, as well as greater understanding and evidence about appropriate and effective teaching and assessment methods, have emerged. This article summarizes justifications and expectations for teaching and assessing professionalism in radiology residents and best practices on how to teach and evaluate professionalism that can be used by busy radiology faculty in their everyday practice supervising radiology residents. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How to Give Professional Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.; Moss, Connie M.

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning "should be a joy," the authors write, "not an affliction." Feedback experts Brookhart and Moss show how professional feedback can best motivate educators to learn. Professional conversations should be dialogs between the teacher and the principal, and feedback should feed teacher professional learning…

  17. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  18. Social Interpretations of Readiness for Kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, M. Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Data from this ethnographic study of kindergartens in three communities suggest that teachers, parents, and the school as an institution interacted to develop a social interpretation of school readiness. This interpretation framed children's kindergarten experience in each community. (BC)

  19. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  20. Decoherence and Copenhagen Interpretation : A Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a reasonable explanation (not proof) to the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from the view point of decoherence theory. Mathematical physicists with strong mission must prove {\\bf the Copenhagen interpretation} at all costs.

  1. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  2. Davisson-Germer Experiment, Another Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Alfred, Jr.

    2002-03-01

    This work shows a new interpretation of the Davisson-Germer experiment. If this experiment represents a class of empirical results, and if the new interpretation has validity, then questions about the formulations of quantum mechanics may follow.

  3. Creative Double Bind in Oral Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eric E.; Langellier, Kristin M.

    1982-01-01

    Explains how oral interpretation is uniquely communicative and how the double bind theory of communication can include creativity. Discusses (1) double bind and oral interpretation, (2) creating aesthetic text, and (3) the performance of double bind. (PD)

  4. A modular interpretation of various cubic towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound.......In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound....

  5. Impact of an easy-access telephonic interpreter program in the acute care setting: an evaluation of a quality improvement intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuot, Delphine S; Lopez, Monica; Miller, Cecily; Karliner, Leah S

    2012-02-01

    Language barriers render interaction with the health care system difficult and lead to health disparities for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). Despite a long-standing legal obligation for large health care organizations in the United States to try to provide free language access services for patients with LEP, professional interpretation is not always widely accessible, and even when it is, its use is often suboptimal. A dual-handset phone with 24-hour access to professional telephonic interpretation was placed at the bedside of all patients admitted to the general medicine floor of a tertiary care academic hospital. Nurses and physicians were surveyed before and after the easy-access interpretation program's implementation. Distribution of pre- and postimplementation surveys to 127 and 122 nurses, respectively, yielded a total of 163 completed surveys (overall participation rate, 65%). Distribution of surveys to 96 and 78 physicians, respectively, yielded 116 completed surveys (overall participation rate, 67%). After implementation, use of professional telephonic interpreters for communication with LEP patients increased fourfold, without a decrease in use of professional in-person interpreters. There were significant increases in professional interpreter use during brief communications with high error potential, including medication administration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2) and pre-rounding (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.8). Increasing ease of access to dual-handset interpreter telephones promotes use of professional interpreters in the acute care setting. Future hospital policy should focus on further integrating language services into the hospital environment, accompanied by an educational program to assist in shifting professional norms toward use of professional interpreters.

  6. Teaching Professional Engineering Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2010-01-01

    evaluations, a questionnaire, and discussions with students confirm a genuinely positive attitude towards the role play simulation. The students engage in the role play and express an increased understanding of the requirements and the implicit rules of real-life engineering. The interaction between students....... The underlying argument for this approach is to establish a realistic learning environment that will foster the learning of professional skills. The role play simulation has been applied and reviewed in two engineering courses, i.e. at Lund University in Sweden and at the Technical University of Denmark. Course...... and the professional engineers act as a prime mover for the students to perform their best, which in turn strengthens the learning of the technical content. The study concludes that role play with participation of representatives from the industry can facilitate the teaching of professional skills in engineering...

  7. Globalisation, economics and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chay-Hoon; Macneill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of globalisation and attendant economic factors on the global practice of medicine, medical education, medical ethics and medical professionalism. The authors discuss the implications of these trends, citing case scenarios in the healthcare insurance, medical tourism, pharmaceutical industries, and the educational systems as well as in clinical practice, to illustrate the impact of globalisation and economics on professionalism. Globalisation, on the one hand, offers benefits for the global practice of medicine and for medical education. On the other, globalisation can have negative effects, particularly when the main driver is to maximise profitability across national boundaries rather than concern for human well-being. Appraising the effect of globalisation on professionalism involves assessing its effects at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional levels, and its effect on society at large.

  8. Functional interpretation and the existence property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two.......It is shown that functional interpretation can be used to show the existence property of intuitionistic number theory. On the basis of truth variants a comparison is then made between realisability and functional interpretation showing a structural difference between the two....

  9. [The Use of Interpreters in the Work with Refugee Children, Adolescents, their Families and Key Persons in Psychotherapeutic Care System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kießl, Gundula; Meißner, Tilo; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    The Use of Interpreters in the Work with Refugee Children, Adolescents, their Families and Key Persons in Psychotherapeutic Care System Psychotherapy with interpreters is demanding and poses specific challenges to all participants. Simultaneously it can generate resources which are beneficial to the therapeutic process. In the present paper, problems and chances of working with interpreters are discussed in reference to psychiatric and psychotherapeutic care for young refugees. Recommendations to optimize the work with interpreters in this field are presented in order to facilitate the establishment of quality standards.

  10. Emotional experience in patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease from the perspective of families, professional caregivers, physicians, and scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Cornelia R

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into families' and professionals' understanding of the emotional experience in patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease. A total of ten focus group interviews were carried out with 63 participants (relatives n = 20; caregivers n = 17; physicians n = 12; scientists n = 14) recruited using purposive sampling strategies. Each focus group was audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using the method of structured qualitative content analysis. Study findings show that for all groups with the exception of relatives, emotionality is one of the most important characteristics retained despite the illness. Indicators are patient's continued ability to produce emotional signals, be responsive to others, and retain emotional information despite memory loss. In the spectrum of emotions, professional caregivers emphasize positive emotional states more strongly than physicians or scientists. In contrast, relatives emphasize the loss of emotional experience. Critical indicators denying subjective emotional experience are impairment of (autobiographical) memory (especially the non-recognition of relatives), the reduction of means of verbal expression with simultaneous uncertainty in interpreting nonverbal expression as well as the perceived discrepancy between present emotional experience and behaviour and that of the premorbid personality. When relatives anchor on the premorbid personality, the perceived discontinuity of emotional reactions to stimuli triggering an emotional response in contrast to their own expectations gives rise to an extremely ambiguous situation. Training programmes should be developed for families to help them comprehend and respond to nonverbal emotional expression.

  11. Soft multifocal simultaneous image contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prados, Roque; Piñero, David P; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Madrid-Costa, David

    2017-03-01

    Soft multifocal simultaneous image contact lenses have boomed in recent years due to the growing number of presbyopic patients demanding visual solutions, allowing them to maintain their current standard of living. The concept of 'simultaneous image' is based on blur interpretation and/or blur tolerance of superimposed multiple images on the retina formed by various powers of a contact lens. This is the basis for a specific type of multifocal contact lens developed for the compensation of presbyopia. Manufacturers have released a great variety of soft simultaneous image lens designs to meet different patient needs but their fitting is still unsatisfactory in some cases. Some presbyopes discontinue wearing contact lenses due to some limitations in visual quality and comfort that can be overcome with an appropriate contact lens selection based on a comprehensive pre-fitting evaluation. This paper aims to review the different types of soft multifocal contact lenses that are currently available for presbyopic correction and to define the steps and factors crucial for their fitting, such as pupil, aberrations, accommodation and centring. A discussion about useful tools to achieve a customised fitting leading to a successful outcome, such as the defocus curve, power profile and questionnaires, is performed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  12. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 609.920 Section 609.920 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the Act and its implementing regulations that...

  13. 10 CFR 40.6 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 40.6 Section 40.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Provisions § 40.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the...

  14. 44 CFR 12.4 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized in writing by the Administrator, including internal instructions, no interpretation of the meaning of the... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretations. 12.4 Section...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1006 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 20.1006 Section 20.1006 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1006 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the...

  16. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or employee...

  17. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of the...

  18. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in...

  19. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by any officer or... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR...

  20. 10 CFR 25.7 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 25.7 Section 25.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACCESS AUTHORIZATION General Provisions § 25.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by...

  1. 10 CFR 21.4 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 21.4 Section 21.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE General Provisions § 21.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the...

  2. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.5 Section 1240.5 Aliens... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be...

  3. Informal interpreting in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    When health care providers and migrant patients do not share a common language, informal interpreters - usually family members of the patients - come along to bridge the language gap. While patients usually feel comfortable with having an informal interpreter, this type of interpreter-mediated

  4. 29 CFR 18.604 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interpreters. 18.604 Section 18.604 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.604 Interpreters. An interpreter is subject to the...

  5. Decoherence and the many worlds interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Carsten Thomas [University Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The theory of decoherence gives us a good account (at least for open systems) of how classical properties emerge from the quantum world. Recent experiments based on decoherence offers strong arguments against the quantum-classical division proposed by the early Copenhagen Interpretation. But even if decoherence may support the view that quantum mechanics can be considered as fundamental theory the question remains if this sheds new light to the question of how a realistic interpretation of quantum theory can be achieved? In the last years proponents of decoherence pointed out that the theory fits perfectly into the framework of many worlds interpretations. The question that I address is, in what sense these interpretations can be considered as realistic interpretations? To answer this question I argue that in the context of decoherence we have strong reasons to interpret quantum states in a realistic sense. A problem for many worlds interpretations arises when the meaning of Everett's relative states is considered since these interpretations strongly dependent on the interpretation of relative states. I show that einselection proposed by the decoherence theory will determine Everett's relative states in an objective sense but these states must be interpreted as epistemic states. I conclude that this ambiguity between realistic interpreted quantum states and epistemic relative states limits the strict realistic character of many worlds interpretation.

  6. Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Puga, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

  7. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  8. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  9. Professional Silverlight 4

    CERN Document Server

    Beres, Jason; Rader, Devin

    2010-01-01

    Everything .NET developers need to take advantage of Silverlight 4. Silverlight 4 is a major new release of Microsoft's flagship product for building rich, interactive applications that combine animation, graphics, audio, and video. This book, by seasoned Wrox authors and Silverlight experts, gives professional Web developers all the tools necessary to build RIAs using the new Silverlight capabilities. You will gain a complete, thorough understanding of both core and advanced platform concepts, with examples in both C# and VB.NET. Professional Silverlight 4 prepares Web developers to take

  10. Effective professional networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Mary Jo; Knestrick, Joyce M

    2017-08-01

    The reasons for nurse practitioners to develop a professional network are boundless and are likely to change over time. Networking opens doors and creates relationships that support new opportunities, personal development, collaborative research, policy activism, evidence-based practice, and more. Successful professional networking involves shared, mutually beneficial interactions between individuals and/or individuals and groups, regardless of whether it occurs face to face or electronically. This article combines nuggets from the literature with guidance based on the authors' combined experience in networking activities at the local, national, and international levels. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. Collaborative Professional Learning: Contributing to the Growth of Leadership, Professional Identity and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmer, Kaye

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to understanding of professionalism in early childhood education and argues that in working to implement a mandated curriculum framework, professional identity and professionalism can be enhanced. While primarily focused on examining the nature of leadership practice during professional development and learning to…

  12. Simultaneous seeing measurements at Atacama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Doi, Mamoru; Takato, Naruhisa; Miyashita, Akihiko; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Oyabu, Shinki; Soyano, Takao

    2004-10-01

    Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo is now planning to build a 6.5-m optical-infrared telescope in Atacama, Chile. This project is called "Univ. Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO)", and the site evaluation is now under way. As a part of this evaluation process, we started an investigation to compare the astronomical seeing at Atacama with that at Mauna Kea. Here, we report preliminary results of seeing measurements at several sites in Atacama, carried out on October 2003. In order to separate the temporal and site-to-site variation of the seeing, we used two sets of Differential Image Motion Monitors (DIMMs), each of which has two pairs of 7.4 cm sub-apertures with 20.5 cm separation. Three sites were investigated; the point near the TAO weather station (4,950m), the summit of Cello Chico (5,150m) and the point at 5,430m altitude on Cello Toco. Simultaneous measurements were carried out for three half nights out of four half nights measurements. Although the amount of our data is very limited, the results suggest following: 1) Seeing becomes better and more stable as time passing to midnight (eg. From 0."7 to 0."4 at V-band). 2) Higher altitude sites show better seeing than lower altitude sites.

  13. Professionalism and professional quality of life for oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Insil; Kim, Yuna; Kim, Kyunghee

    2016-10-01

    To identify the relationship between professionalism and professional quality of life among oncology nurses working at tertiary hospitals in Korea. Oncology nurses are combined with core competencies and qualities required in cancer patient care. Professionalism that means compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue is a main concept in problem-solving strategies as motivation. Their satisfaction is representative of professionalism and professional quality of life. However, little research has focused on professionalism and professional quality of life. A cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. A total of 285 nurses from two tertiary hospitals were included. Data collection was undertaken using Korean version of professionalism scale derived from the Hall Professional Inventory Scale and professional quality of life. Data were analysed by spss 21.0 for Windows Program using t-test, anova, and multiple regression. The mean score of professionalism in oncology nurses was 77·98 ± 7·31. The mean professional quality of life score for compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress was 33·84 ± 5·62, 28·38 ± 5·36 and 28·33 ± 5·48. Compassion satisfaction was affected by factors of professionalism with an explanatory power of 49·2%. Burnout and secondary traumatic stress were affected by factors of professionalism with an explanatory power of 39·3% and 4·8%. The higher the professionalism leads to the higher the compassion satisfaction, the lower the compassion fatigue. The relationship between professionalism and professional quality of life for a health work environment requires further investigation. Our study supports the idea that enhancing professionalism can increase professional quality of life. It is necessary to develop professionalism by recognised qualifications and applied rewards in advanced nursing organisational culture. Furthermore, compassion satisfaction is increased by

  14. Understanding music teachers’ professionalization: contributions from biographical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmary Vasconcelos de Abreu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses contributions of biographical approaches to an understanding of the process of professionalization of music teachers licensed in other area of knowledge that have become music teachers. To that end, it presents the methodological paths adopted in a piece of research presented in the form of a PhD thesis, which strategy was based on narratives of professionalization, carried out with ten school teachers. The data interpretation signals that to take the professionalization as a narrative constitutes a way in which the process of production of teachers’ subjectivity and their mobilization in the context can foster further discussions and other insights in the field of music teachers’ professionalization.

  15. Professional Ethics in Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Ethical issues in the professional life of faculty are discussed briefly: conduct of research, intellectual property rights, bias in instruction, student-teacher relationships, student assessment, responsibility to the institution and to colleagues, and responsibility to the community outside the institution. (MSE)

  16. Storytelling and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Brenton

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores the role that storytelling might play in the professional learning of English teachers. It begins by reflecting on the ways that stories shape our everyday lives, and then considers how the meaning-making potential of storytelling might enable us to gain insights into our work as educators. This is in contradistinction to the…

  17. Bibliography for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Helen, Comp.

    Information published between 1953 and 1970 on the American Indian is included in this annotated bibliography. The bibliography is designed to aid professional development in the field of education and attempts to categorize and separate fields of interest. Major topics are culture, education, ethnology, folklore, art, housing, history, language,…

  18. Whistleblowing and Professional Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Sissela

    1980-01-01

    Individuals who would blow the whistle by making public disclosure of impropriety in their own organizations face choices of public v private good. These dilemmas, along with institutional and professional standards that might ease the way of whistleblowers, are explored. (Author)

  19. Economics of professional football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation contains four chapters, all with a different topic that is of interest from a sports economic perspective. More specifically, from the economic perspective of professional football. Football is the most popular sport within Europe and the data that is used in the analyses stems

  20. Medical Physics Professional Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Herbert W.

    2008-03-01

    In the United States, two professional organizations provide support and educational activities for the medical physicist: the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American College of Medical Physics. The questions to be answered are: (1) what services are provided by each group; (2) how do they differ; and what are the benefits of membership?

  1. Police Attitudes and Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Joseph; Price, Keith

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study utilized Richard H. Hall's attitudinal attributes of a professional using a Likert scale. The survey was administered to officers in two similar mid-sized police departments. The first agency had 650 officers, while the second had 350 officers. Agency One requires all applicants to possess a bachelor's degree, while Agency…

  2. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ...

  3. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals ...

  4. Definition of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Forward, 2015

    2015-01-01

    President Obama signed into law the Every Student Succeeds Act, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, on December 10, 2015. "Learning Forward's focus in this new law is its improved definition of professional learning," said Stephanie Hirsh, executive director of Learning Forward. "We've long advocated…

  5. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it is important to follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow-up appointments by talking ... Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for ... of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - ...

  6. Professionalizing Intelligence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of professionalism in national security intelligence analysis in the U.S. Government. Since the introduction of major intelligence reforms directed by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA in December, 2004, we have seen notable strides in many aspects of intelligence professionalization, including in analysis. But progress is halting, uneven, and by no means permanent. To consolidate its gains, and if it is to continue improving, the U.S. intelligence community (IC should commit itself to accomplishing a new program of further professionalization of analysis to ensure that it will develop an analytic cadre that is fully prepared to deal with the complexities of an emerging multipolar and highly dynamic world that the IC itself is forecasting. Some recent reforms in intelligence analysis can be assessed against established standards of more fully developed professions; these may well fall short of moving the IC closer to the more fully professionalized analytical capability required for producing the kind of analysis needed now by the United States.

  7. Revisiting Professional Teacher Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Society for Music Education's (ASME) involvement in the development of professional standards for music educators was a significant and active research time in the history of the Society. As ASME celebrates its golden jubilee, it is appropriate to revisit that history and consider the future prospects of subject-specific standards.…

  8. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living for Heart.org Conditions for Heart.org Support for Heart.org Professional for Heart.org Research ... surgery, including how to maximize your recovery at home. Cardiac Rehab Tools & Resources Cardiac Rehab Referral Card | ...

  9. Professional Women and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Suzanne M.; Kalish, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Explored the phenomenon of late marriage in 41 highly educated professional women. Compared with normative marriers, the late-marrying women had higher career goals, a more egalitarian role structure in marriage, and were more accepting of premarital sex and cohabitation. Factors associated with family backgrounds were identified. (JAC)

  10. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  11. Medical interpretation for immigrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Linda; Masters, Deborah; Zanoni, Joseph; Avila, Susan; Chaidez, Francisco; Miller, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-born workers have high rates of occupational mortality and morbidity, despite downward trends for the U.S. workforce overall. They have limited access to health care services. Medical interpreters (MIs) facilitate care of acutely injured, low-English-proficiency (LEP) patients, including those sustaining occupational injuries. Our goal was to assess the potential for MIs to serve as advocates of LEP patients injured at work and to deliver preventive messages. We conducted interviews and a focus group of MIs regarding their attitudes toward foreign-born workers, knowledge of occupational health, and perceived roles. They were familiar with occupational injuries and sympathetic toward foreign-born workers, and they described their roles as conduits, cultural brokers, and advocates for hospitals, providers, and patients. More detailed and representative data would require a larger investigation. However, the time-sensitive nature of policy-making at this point mandates that occupational health stakeholders participate in the national dialogue on standards, training, and licensure for MIs to promote improved access and quality of health care for LEP patients who have been injured at work.

  12. Fitting and interpreting occupancy models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Welsh

    Full Text Available We show that occupancy models are more difficult to fit than is generally appreciated because the estimating equations often have multiple solutions, including boundary estimates which produce fitted probabilities of zero or one. The estimates are unstable when the data are sparse, making them difficult to interpret, and, even in ideal situations, highly variable. As a consequence, making accurate inference is difficult. When abundance varies over sites (which is the general rule in ecology because we expect spatial variance in abundance and detection depends on abundance, the standard analysis suffers bias (attenuation in detection, biased estimates of occupancy and potentially finding misleading relationships between occupancy and other covariates, asymmetric sampling distributions, and slow convergence of the sampling distributions to normality. The key result of this paper is that the biases are of similar magnitude to those obtained when we ignore non-detection entirely. The fact that abundance is subject to detection error and hence is not directly observable, means that we cannot tell when bias is present (or, equivalently, how large it is and we cannot adjust for it. This implies that we cannot tell which fit is better: the fit from the occupancy model or the fit ignoring the possibility of detection error. Therefore trying to adjust occupancy models for non-detection can be as misleading as ignoring non-detection completely. Ignoring non-detection can actually be better than trying to adjust for it.

  13. Psychoanalytic interpretation and cognitive transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, M F

    1981-01-01

    Psychoanalytic metapsychology should be recognized for what it is, namely a theory of cognition and affect that is not derived directly from clinical data but is advanced in order to provide the development background that will let us deal with the clinical findings of psychoanalysis as aberrations of and deviations from the normal and expected evolution of the thinking process. Its cornerstone is Freud's belief that thought depends on the forging of links between the sensory perception of objects and their appropriate verbal descriptions. He made no secret of his dissatisfaction with his metapsychology and repeatedly revised it in an attempt to encompass those clinical discoveries of psychoanalysis that outstripped the explanatory power of that metapsychology and demonstrated its shortcomings. Using what we now know about normal development in infancy and childhood through the work of Piaget, Vygotsky and other investigators, it is possible to formulate an explanatory theory that does justice to the varied and complex findings uncovered by the application of the psychoanalytic method. For example, the significance of Freud's postulated second censorship between the preconscious and consciousness, as well as the importance of the defence of disavowal that Freud emphasized in his writings after 1927, can now be accounted for with a theory of thought formation that was not available to the founder of psychoanalysis. The implications of this proposed reformulation for psychoanalytic interpretation and for the application of psychoanalysis to an increasingly wide range of psychopathology is discussed in some detail.

  14. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  15. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun; Esipova, Masha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  16. Coping with stress in the workplace: implications for new health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, M; Adamson, B

    2001-01-01

    Because health care professionals must provide high-quality care while simultaneously adjusting to the new demands of a rapidly changing health care system, work stress and possibly even burnout are prevalent issues for both senior professionals and recent health science graduates upon entry into the workforce. This article examines the experience of stress and the importance of coping abilities, particularly focusing on students enrolled in health professional courses and those who have recently entered the workforce. It also presents research pertaining to whether newly graduated health professionals are coping effectively with the demands of work. Suggestions for improving stress-coping abilities are given.

  17. Digital Capture and Fabrication Tools for Interpretation of Historic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, A.; Glekas, E.

    2017-08-01

    Historic sites and the narratives they produce can have a lasting impact on the community through public engagement and education. However, when these sites are neglected and lost over time, opportunities to engage the public with the history of these places is lost with them. The interpretation of heritage that has been lost or forgotten is an emerging trend in humanities studies. This trend, in combination with technological advancements in digital media and representation, presents an innovative opportunity for historic preservation professionals to create new paths for public engagement. This paper discusses applications of photogrammetry, 3D modeling, and digital fabrication in digitally reconstructing interpretive models of the Larz Anderson Estate (now Larz Anderson Park). This site has changed dramatically through its transition from a private estate to a public park and recreation area, with few remnants of the original estate remaining extant. The above stated use of digital strategies aims to create digital and physical models of the estate's change over time, with the aim of interpreting the site's lost heritage for the public. Combining existing archival research and heritage documentation methods with these digital representation techniques tells the story of a place that no longer exists.

  18. DIGITAL CAPTURE AND FABRICATION TOOLS FOR INTERPRETATION OF HISTORIC SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ackerman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Historic sites and the narratives they produce can have a lasting impact on the community through public engagement and education. However, when these sites are neglected and lost over time, opportunities to engage the public with the history of these places is lost with them. The interpretation of heritage that has been lost or forgotten is an emerging trend in humanities studies. This trend, in combination with technological advancements in digital media and representation, presents an innovative opportunity for historic preservation professionals to create new paths for public engagement. This paper discusses applications of photogrammetry, 3D modeling, and digital fabrication in digitally reconstructing interpretive models of the Larz Anderson Estate (now Larz Anderson Park. This site has changed dramatically through its transition from a private estate to a public park and recreation area, with few remnants of the original estate remaining extant. The above stated use of digital strategies aims to create digital and physical models of the estate’s change over time, with the aim of interpreting the site's lost heritage for the public. Combining existing archival research and heritage documentation methods with these digital representation techniques tells the story of a place that no longer exists.

  19. 12 CFR 220.128 - Treatment of simultaneous long and short positions in the same margin account when put or call...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... positions in the same margin account when put or call options or combinations thereof on such stock are also...) Interpretations § 220.128 Treatment of simultaneous long and short positions in the same margin account when put...), if there are simultaneous long and short positions in the same security in the same margin account...

  20. Sign Language Interpreting: The Relationship between Metalinguistic Awareness and the Production of Interpreting Omissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the first linguistic analysis of sign language interpreting carried out in Australia. A study was conducted on 10 Australian Sign Language/English interpreters to determine the rate and occurrence of interpreting omissions and the interpreters' level of metalinguistic awareness in relation to their production…