WorldWideScience

Sample records for professional role clarity

  1. Role clarity and role conflict among Swedish diabetes specialist nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Eva; Hörnsten, Asa; Lundman, Berit; Stenlund, Hans; Isaksson, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    To explore diabetes specialist nurses (DSNs)' perceptions of their role in terms of clarity, conflict and other psychosocial work aspects. A cross-sectional study was conducted among DSNs in a county in northern Sweden. The DSNs answered the Nordic Questionnaire of Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) about psychosocial aspects of their work. Statistical analysis compared DSNs with a reference group of different health professionals. Correlations between role clarity, role conflict, and other variables were analysed. The DSNs perceived more, and higher, job demands, including quantitative, decision-making and learning demands, but also more positive challenges at work compared with the reference group. Role clarity correlated with experiences of health promotion, perception of mastery, co-worker support, and empowering leadership, while role conflict correlated with quantitative and learning demands. The DSNs perceived high demands but also positive challenges in their work. Their role expectations correlated with several psychosocial work aspects. It is important that DSNs should be presented with positive challenges as meaningful incentives for further role development and enhanced mastery of their work. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE EFFECT OF VISION AND ROLE CLARITY ON TEAM PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Gary; Kalay, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTAlthough many studies conclude that vision and role clarity are important at the organizational level, the impacts of vision and role clarity on innovation/teams have received far less attention. A strong vision and role definition can provide direction to a team and can positively impact its ability to succeed. The purpose of this research is to discuss vision components and Role Clarity, and explore their impacts on team performance. After studying the vision on a series of nine inn...

  3. Enhancing Role Clarity for the Practical Nurse: A Leadership Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankshear, Sara; Rush, Janet; Weeres, Annette; Martin, Dianne

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine factors contributing to practical nurse (PN) role confusion and the impact on nursing intraprofessional team collaboration. There is limited literature describing the intraprofessional relationship of the RN and PN in areas such as role conflict, scope of practice, and team collaboration. A mixed-methods design was used targeting Ontario RNs and PNs, including an online survey and focus groups. Results (N = 1101) revealed varying levels of knowledge regarding the distinct and overlapping scope of practice for each role, with shared opinions regarding areas such as respect, teamwork, and the role of leadership. Nurses' roles will continue to evolve in response to changes in patient populations and healthcare systems. As such, role clarity is essential to support optimal use of nursing knowledge for safe patient care. Leadership is key to establishing parameters for professional practice and creating a culture of collaboration and respect.

  4. Who's in charge: role clarity in a Midwestern watershed group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floress, Kristin; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Ayres, Janet

    2011-10-01

    Studies of collaborative watershed groups show that effective leadership is an important factor for success. This research uses data from in-depth interviews and meeting observation to qualitatively examine leadership in a Midwestern collaborative watershed group operating with government funding. One major finding was a lack of role definition for volunteer steering-committee members. Lack of role clarity and decision-making processes led to confusion regarding project management authority among the group, paid project staff members, and agency personnel. Given the important role of government grants for funding projects to protect water quality, this study offers insight into leadership issues that groups with Clean Water Act Section 319 (h) funds may face and suggestions on how to resolve them.

  5. Emergency Preparedness and Role Clarity among Rescue Workers during the Terror Attacks in Norway July 22, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Janne Botha Pedersen

    Full Text Available Few studies address preparedness and role clarity in rescue workers after a disaster. On July 22, 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks; 77 people were killed and many injured. Healthcare providers, police officers and firefighters worked under demanding conditions. The aims of this study were to examine the level of preparedness, exposure and role clarity. In addition, the relationship between demographic variables, preparedness and exposure and a role clarity during the rescue operations and; b achieved mastering for future disaster operations.In this cross-sectional study, healthcare providers (n = 859, police officers (n = 252 and firefighters (n = 102 returned a questionnaire approximately 10 months after the terror attacks.The rescue personnel were trained and experienced, and the majority knew their professional role (healthcare providers M = 4.1 vs. police officers: M = 3.9 vs. firefighters: M = 4.2, p 5 fatalities (OR 1.6, p < .05 were all associated with role clarity, together with a feeling of control, not being obstructed in work and perceiving the rescue work as a success. Moreover, independent predictors of being more prepared for future operations were arousal during the operation (OR 2.0, p < .001 and perceiving the rescue work as a success (OR 1.5, p < .001.Most of the rescue workers were experienced and knew their professional role. Training and everyday-work-experience must be a focal point when preparing rescue workers for disaster.

  6. Emergency Preparedness and Role Clarity among Rescue Workers during the Terror Attacks in Norway July 22, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, May Janne Botha; Gjerland, Astrid; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Ekeberg, Øivind; Skogstad, Laila

    2016-01-01

    Few studies address preparedness and role clarity in rescue workers after a disaster. On July 22, 2011, Norway was struck by two terror attacks; 77 people were killed and many injured. Healthcare providers, police officers and firefighters worked under demanding conditions. The aims of this study were to examine the level of preparedness, exposure and role clarity. In addition, the relationship between demographic variables, preparedness and exposure and a) role clarity during the rescue operations and; b) achieved mastering for future disaster operations. In this cross-sectional study, healthcare providers (n = 859), police officers (n = 252) and firefighters (n = 102) returned a questionnaire approximately 10 months after the terror attacks. The rescue personnel were trained and experienced, and the majority knew their professional role (healthcare providers M = 4.1 vs. police officers: M = 3.9 vs. firefighters: M = 4.2, p 5 fatalities (OR 1.6, p clarity, together with a feeling of control, not being obstructed in work and perceiving the rescue work as a success. Moreover, independent predictors of being more prepared for future operations were arousal during the operation (OR 2.0, p < .001) and perceiving the rescue work as a success (OR 1.5, p < .001). Most of the rescue workers were experienced and knew their professional role. Training and everyday-work-experience must be a focal point when preparing rescue workers for disaster.

  7. Role clarity and clinical governance: keeping irish hospitals efficient and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andy; Chapman, Ysanne; Boyd, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The notion of role clarity, and its impact on clinical governance, has not been previously considered within academic literature. The purpose of this research article was to add to theoretical knowledge surrounding the clinical governance and the effect that role clarity has on governance operationally. The context of Irish health care and Irish hospital boards is used to explore this phenomenon. A mixed-methods approach was used to appreciate the central phenomenon. The doctoral dissertation this article was drawn from identified that the adoption of similar or consistent structures and processes between Irish acute care hospitals would aid efficiencies, both human and cost, on multiple levels. Ultimately, the article concludes that role clarity is a significant component in the determination of effective health care. Hospital boards and their individual members should be cognizant of the implications of role clarity and its impact on effective and efficient clinical governance.

  8. Attitude Certainty and Attitudinal Advocacy: The Unique Roles of Clarity and Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Lauren; Tormala, Zakary L

    2015-11-01

    When and why do people advocate on behalf of their attitudes? Past research suggests that attitude certainty is one important determinant. The current research seeks to provide more nuanced insight into this relationship by (a) exploring the unique roles of attitude clarity and attitude correctness, and (b) mapping clarity and correctness onto different forms of advocacy (sharing intentions and persuasion intentions). Across four studies, we find that correctness but not clarity plays an important role in promoting persuasion intentions, whereas both correctness and clarity help shape sharing intentions. Thus, this research unpacks the certainty-advocacy relation and helps identify experimental manipulations that uniquely drive persuasion and sharing intentions. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. The role of cultural identity clarity for self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usborne, Esther; Taylor, Donald M

    2010-07-01

    Knowing oneself and experiencing oneself as clearly defined has been linked to positive self-esteem and psychological well-being; however, this association has been tested only at the level of personal identity. The authors propose that a clear cultural identity provides the individual with a clear prototype with which to engage the processes necessary to construct a clear personal identity and, by extension, to achieve self-esteem and well-being. For samples of undergraduate students, Anglophone Quebecers, Francophone Québécois, Chinese North Americans, and Aboriginal Canadians, cultural identity clarity was positively related to self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and markers of subjective well-being. The relationship between cultural identity clarity and both self-esteem and well-being was consistently mediated by self-concept clarity. Interventions designed to clarify cultural identity might have psychological benefits for individuals facing cultural identity challenges.

  10. Social Workers' Perceived Role Clarity as Members of an Interdisciplinary Team in Brain Injury Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vungkhanching, Martha; Tonsing, Kareen N

    2016-08-11

    This study investigated social workers' role clarity as members of an interdisciplinary team in traumatic and acquired brain injury treatment settings. A total of 37 social workers from 7 Western countries completed an anonymous online survey questionnaire. The majority of participants have more than 10 years of experience working in brain injury treatment settings (59.5%), and about 54% have been in their current employment for more than 10 years. Findings revealed that there were significant positive correlations between perceived respect, team collaboration, and perceived value of self for team with role clarity. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived value of self for team was a significant predictor of role clarity (p < .05).

  11. Achieving therapeutic clarity in assisted personal body care: professional challenges in interactions with severely ill COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomborg, Kirsten; Kirkevold, Marit

    2008-08-01

    This paper aims to present a theoretical account of professional nursing challenges involved in providing care to patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The study objectives are patients' and nurses' expectations, goals and approaches to assisted personal body care. The provision of help with body care may have therapeutic qualities but there is only limited knowledge about the particularities and variations in specific groups of patients and the nurse-patient interactions required to facilitate patient functioning and well-being. For patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, breathlessness represents a particular challenge in the performance of body care sessions. We investigated nurse-patient interactions during assisted personal body care, using grounded theory with a symbolic interaction perspective and a constant comparative method. Twelve cases of nurse-patient interactions were analysed. Data were based on participant observation, individual interviews with patients and nurses and a standardized questionnaire on patients' breathlessness. Nurses and patients seemed to put effort into the interaction and wanted to find an appropriate way of conducting the body care session according to the patients' specific needs. Achieving therapeutic clarity in nurse-patient interactions appeared to be an important concern, mainly depending on interactions characterized by: (i) reaching a common understanding of the patient's current conditions and stage of illness trajectory, (ii) negotiating a common scope and structuring body care sessions and (iii) clarifying roles. It cannot be taken for granted that therapeutic qualities are achieved when nurses provide assistance with body care. If body care should have healing strength, the actual body care activities and the achievement of therapeutic clarity in nurses' interaction with patients' appear to be crucial. The paper proposes that patients' integrity and comfort in the body care

  12. Reflecting on Competences to Increase Role Clarity during Service Delivery in a Third World Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansubuga, Florence; Munene, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is essentially to examine the contribution of reflection in providing a stronger association between explicit competences and role clarity when reflection is used as a means of articulating competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes). Design/methodology/approach: The study employed a correlational survey design…

  13. Trauma and psychosis: The mediating role of self-concept clarity and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gavin John; Reid, Graeme; Preston, Phil; Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Sellwood, William

    2015-08-30

    Childhood trauma (CT) and psychosis may be associated. Drawing on the dissociation and social psychological literature, the current study examined the mediating role of structural aspects of self in explaining the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis. Twenty-nine individuals with psychosis were compared with 31 healthy volunteers regarding childhood trauma, dissociation and self-concept clarity (SCC). High rates of maltreatment were found in the psychosis sample. Additionally, clinical participants reported more dissociation and less self-concept clarity. Mediational analyses were carried out on pooled data from across both clinical and non-clinical samples. These suggested that the influence of physical neglect in increasing the likelihood of experiencing psychosis was explicable through the effects of increased dissociation. Self-concept clarity mediated the relationship between psychosis and total childhood trauma, emotional abuse, physical abuse, emotional and physical neglect. Furthermore, dissociation and self-concept clarity were strongly correlated providing evidence that they may form a unitary underlying concept of 'self-concept integration'. The study provides further evidence of the link between childhood trauma and psychosis. Self-concept integration may be adversely affected by negative childhood experiences, which increases psychosis risk. Methodological limitations, clinical implications and suggestions for future research are considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Getting to Know Me: Social Role Experiences and Age Differences in Self-Concept Clarity During Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W.

    2010-01-01

    The current research had 2 aims: (1) to determine the cross-sectional age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood and (2) to examine the importance of social role experiences for age differences in self-concept clarity. These aims were addressed in 2 large samples of adults ranging in age from 18 to 94 years. In both studies, self-concept clarity had a curvilinear relation to age such that self-concept clarity was positively related to age from young adulthood through middle age ...

  15. Getting to know me: social role experiences and age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W

    2010-10-01

    The current research had 2 aims: (1) to determine the cross-sectional age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood and (2) to examine the importance of social role experiences for age differences in self-concept clarity. These aims were addressed in 2 large samples of adults ranging in age from 18 to 94 years. In both studies, self-concept clarity had a curvilinear relation to age such that self-concept clarity was positively related to age from young adulthood through middle age and negatively related to age in older adulthood. This relationship was moderated by annual income and community investment. In addition, annual income and health-related social role limitations mediated age differences in self-concept clarity. Findings are discussed in terms of modern theories of identity development.

  16. Getting to Know Me: Social Role Experiences and Age Differences in Self-Concept Clarity During Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Roberts, Brent W.

    2011-01-01

    The current research had 2 aims: (1) to determine the cross-sectional age differences in self-concept clarity during adulthood and (2) to examine the importance of social role experiences for age differences in self-concept clarity. These aims were addressed in 2 large samples of adults ranging in age from 18 to 94 years. In both studies, self-concept clarity had a curvilinear relation to age such that self-concept clarity was positively related to age from young adulthood through middle age and negatively related to age in older adulthood. This relationship was moderated by annual income and community investment. In addition, annual income and health-related social role limitations mediated age differences in self-concept clarity. Findings are discussed in terms of modern theories of identity development. PMID:20663028

  17. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  18. The role of aberrant salience and self-concept clarity in psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Docherty, Anna R; Kerns, John G

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and oversampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be a result of neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict two other SPD criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms.

  19. The Role of Aberrant Salience and Self-Concept Clarity in Psychotic-Like Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Docherty, Anna R.; Kerns, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Most theories of psychotic-like experiences posit the involvement of social-cognitive mechanisms. The current research examined the relations between psychotic-like experiences and two social-cognitive mechanisms, high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity. In particular, we examined whether aberrant salience, or the incorrect assignment of importance to neutral stimuli, and low self-concept clarity interacted to predict psychotic-like experiences. The current research included three large samples (n = 667, 724, 744) of participants and over-sampled for increased schizotypal personality traits. In all three studies, an interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found such that participants with high aberrant salience and low self-concept clarity had the highest levels of psychotic-like experiences. In addition, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity interacted to predict a supplemental measure of delusions in Study 2. In Study 3, in contrast to low self-concept clarity, neuroticism did not interact with aberrant salience to predict psychotic-like experiences, suggesting that the relation between low self-concept clarity and psychosis may not be due to neuroticism. Additionally, aberrant salience and self-concept clarity did not interact to predict to other schizotypal personality disorder criteria, social anhedonia or trait paranoia, which suggests the interaction is specific to psychotic-like experiences. Overall, our results are consistent with several social-cognitive models of psychosis suggesting that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity might be important mechanisms in the occurrence of psychotic-like symptoms. PMID:22452775

  20. The Relationship between Family Functioning and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Emotional Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Daryanani, Issar; Olino, Thomas M.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation has been implicated in the etiology of depression. A first step in adaptive emotion regulation involves emotional clarity, the ability to recognize and differentiate one’s emotional experience. As family members are critical in facilitating emotional understanding and communication, we examined the impact of family functioning on adolescent emotional clarity and depressive symptoms. We followed 364 adolescents (ages 12–17; 52.5% female; 51.4 % Caucasian, 48.6% African American) and their mothers over 2 years (3 time points) and assessed emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and adolescent-reported and mother-reported family functioning. Emotional clarity mediated the relationship between adolescent-reported family functioning and depressive symptoms at all time points cross-sectionally, and according to mother-reported family functioning at Time 1 only. There was no evidence of longitudinal mediation for adolescent- or mother-reported family functioning. Thus, family functioning, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms are strongly related constructs during various time points in adolescence, which has important implications for intervention, especially within the family unit. PMID:26832726

  1. The Relationship Between Family Functioning and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Emotional Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D; Rubenstein, Liza M; Daryanani, Issar; Olino, Thomas M; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-03-01

    Emotion regulation has been implicated in the etiology of depression. A first step in adaptive emotion regulation involves emotional clarity, the ability to recognize and differentiate one's emotional experience. As family members are critical in facilitating emotional understanding and communication, we examined the impact of family functioning on adolescent emotional clarity and depressive symptoms. We followed 364 adolescents (ages 14-17; 52.5% female; 51.4 % Caucasian, 48.6% African American) and their mothers over 2 years (3 time points) and assessed emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and adolescents' and mothers' reports of family functioning. Emotional clarity mediated the relationship between adolescents' reports of family functioning and depressive symptoms at all time points cross-sectionally, and according to mothers' reports of family functioning at Time 1 only. There was no evidence of longitudinal mediation for adolescents' or mothers' reports of family functioning. Thus, family functioning, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms are strongly related constructs during various time points in adolescence, which has important implications for intervention, especially within the family unit.

  2. Effectiveness in top management group meetings: the role of goal clarity, focused communication, and learning behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Henning; Fuglesang, Synne L; Ovesen, Mariann R; Eilertsen, Dag Erik

    2010-06-01

    To explore the relationship between goal clarity, focused communication, learning behavior, and team effectiveness (i.e., task performance, relationship quality, and member satisfaction), self-report and observer data from eight top management groups that processed 56 agenda items during meetings were analyzed. We found that goal clarity and focused communication was positively related to team effectiveness. The effect of goal clarity on team effectiveness was partially mediated by focused communication. Speaking up when a goal was unclear increased focused communication, task performance and relationship quality. Speaking up when the discussion was off track was not related to task performance and member satisfaction, and was negatively related to relationship quality. These findings have implications for how to conduct an effective management meeting.

  3. Clarity standarderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiertzner, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Nærværende artikel præsenterer de væsentligste nyheder i clarity standarderne, der træder i kraft samlet formentlig for revision af regnskaber, der slutter 15.12. 2010 eller senere. Først præsenteres clarity standarderne overordnet. Efterfølgende behandles en række af de centrale nyskabelser, som...... særlige standarders skæbne skal afgøres. Endelig inddrages et afsnit om særlige erklæringsopgaver om intern kontrol efter ISAE 3402, der endnu ikke er oversat og udsendt af REVU, men som er et naturligt appendiks til clarity standarderne, idet RS 402 refererer til den enkelte brugerrevisors anvendelse af...

  4. Clarity in Multimedia: The Role of Interactive Media in Teaching Political Science Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The field of political science has encountered a unique obstacle in its development. Contemporary political theory has diverged in opposite paths, becoming more conceptual and abstract as well as focused and concrete. The unfortunate result of this has been a lack of clarity in communicating political theory to a new generation of political…

  5. The Role of Clarity and Blur in Guiding Visual Attention in Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, James T.; MacDonald, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Visual artists and photographers believe that a viewer's gaze can be guided by selective use of image clarity and blur, but there is little systematic research. In this study, participants performed several eye-tracking tasks with the same naturalistic photographs, including recognition memory for the entire photo, as well as recognition memory…

  6. Medical managers' managerial self-efficacy and role clarity: How do they bridge the budgetary participation-performance link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinati, Manuela S; Cantaluppi, Gabriele; Rizzo, Marco Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    This study explains the process ''how'' organizational accounting practices, such as budgetary participation, influence medical doctors' perceptions and beliefs associated with their hybrid role and what the consequences are on their performance. Building on social cognitive theory, we hypothesize a structural model in which managerial self-efficacy and role clarity mediate the effects of budgetary participation on performance. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The research hypotheses were tested employing a path model. The results suggest that role clarity and managerial self-efficacy fully mediate the link between budgetary participation and performance. From a managerial viewpoint results suggest that organizations that invest in budgetary participation will also affect individual beliefs about the perceived benefits of participation itself, since an information-rich internal environment allows employees to experience a clearer sense of direction through organizational goals. According to our results, organizations that seek self-directed employees should pay attention to the experience the medical managers acquire through budgetary participation. In fact, this event influences the employees' mental states-and specifically provides them with information needed to perform in the role and enhance their judgment of their own capabilities to organize and execute the required course of actions-which take on internal psychological motivation to reach performance levels.

  7. A proof-of-concept implementation of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) role: structural empowerment, role clarity and team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Nancye R; Jones, Pam O

    2014-03-01

    The quest for decreased cost of care and improved outcomes has created the need for highly effective clinical roles and teams. This article describes the role of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) within a proof-of-concept implementation of a new care delivery model, the Vanderbilt Anticipatory Care Team. Role clarity is central to both structural empowerment of the APRN and team effectiveness. A modified PeaceHealth Team Development Measure tool measured baseline role clarity as a component of overall team effectiveness. A role description for the unit-based APRN based on a comprehensive assessment of the proof-of-concept unit is provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Role Clarity and Strategic Fit on Average Project Success: Moderating Role of Market Turbulence on Telecom Companies of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam UL MABOOD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in technology has reshaped the businesses across the globe forcing companies to perform tasks and activities in the form of projects. Stakeholder behavior, stakeholder management, strategic fit, role and task clarity are some of the factors that redesign the project success. The current study examine the impact of strategic fit and role clarity on the Average project success and further it enlightens the moderating role of Market turbulence on the relationship between the aforementioned independent and dependent variables. The population of the study comprises of telecom sector of Pakistan. The Data was collected from 201 project team members working on diverse project in Telecom companies of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The Data was gathered through a questionnaires measured on Likert scale adopted from the study of Beringer, Jonas & Kock (2013. Each Questionnaire comprises of 3 items to measure each variable. SPSS 20.0 Version was used to analyze the data by applying Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis technique. Findings depicted that role clarity and strategic fit contributed significantly in enhancing success of a project. Results further evidenced that market turbulence negatively moderated the relationship of independent variables on Average project success. The study at the end highlights recommendations for the future researchers.

  9. Perceptions of the Role of the Doctor of Nursing Practice-Prepared Nurse: Clarity or Confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udlis, Kimberly A; Mancuso, Josephine M

    2015-01-01

    Confusion and disagreement about the DNP degree and its implications continues despite the rapid and steady growth of DNP programs. There is a paucity of literature that examines nurses' perceptions of the role of the DNP-prepared nurse. The purpose of this study was to explore how nurses perceive the role of the DNP-prepared nurse and identify areas of ambiguity in understanding the roles that DNP-prepared nurses fulfill. A descriptive, cross-sectional design, using self-administered questionnaires, explored the perceptions of n = 340 nurses with various educational levels and backgrounds. Descriptives of the sample and instruments were conducted as well as chi-square analyses to detect differences in perceptions across levels of education. Results indicated that nurses clearly supported the DNP degree with a focus on the improvement of health care outcomes through the roles of leadership in health organizations, policy, interprofessionalism, and translation of evidence into practice. Multiple areas of confusion concerning the role of DNP-prepared nurse existed in academia, academia leadership, and scholarship. In order to reduce role ambiguity, the distinctive contributions of the DNP-prepared nurse must be embraced, valued, and operationalized. Otherwise, the role of the DNP-prepared nurse will continue to be discussed, debated, and challenged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maintaining equilibrium in professional role identity: a grounded theory study of health visitors' perceptions of their changing professional practice context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Alison I; Machin, Tony; Pearson, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    This article reports the study of a group of United Kingdom health visitors' interactions with their changing practice context, focusing on role identity and influences on its stability. United Kingdom policies have urged health visitors to refocus their role as key public health nurses. Reduced role identity clarity precipitated the emergence of different models of health visiting public health work. An inconsistent role standard can lead to role identity fragmentation and conflict across a group. It may precipitate individual role crisis, affecting optimum role performance. Seventeen health visitors in two United Kingdom community healthcare organizations participated in a grounded theory study, incorporating constant comparative analysis. Direct observations and individual interviews were undertaken between 2002 and 2008. Four interlinked categories emerged: professional role identity (core category); professional role in action; interprofessional working; and local micro-systems for practice; each influencing participants' sense of identity and self-worth. The Role Identity Equilibrium Process explains interactive processes occurring at different levels of participants' practice. Re-establishing equilibrium and consistency in health visiting identity is a priority. This study's findings have significance for other nurses and health professionals working in complex systems, affected by role change and challenges to role identity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Understanding when bad moods foster creativity and good ones don't: the role of context and clarity of feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jennifer M; Zhou, Jing

    2002-08-01

    Using a mood-as-input model, the authors identified conditions under which negative moods are positively related, and positive moods are negatively related, to creative performance. Among a sample of workers in an organizational unit charged with developing creative designs and manufacturing techniques, the authors hypothesized and found that negative moods were positively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creative performance and clarity of feelings (a metamood process) were high. The authors also hypothesized and found that positive moods were negatively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creativity and clarity of feelings were high.

  12. The Ruse of Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This essay interrogates the concept of "clarity" that has become an imperative of effective student writing. I show that clarity is neither axiomatic nor transparent, and that the clear/unclear binary that informs the identification of clarity as a goal of effective student writing is itself unstable precisely because of the ideological baggage…

  13. The relationship between an orientation to the future and an orientation to the past: The role of future clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Simon A; Wilson, Samuel G; Irons, Melanie; Naivalu, Carmen

    2017-12-01

    Some research shows that people who often contemplate their future tend to be healthier. Yet the burgeoning literature on mindfulness demonstrates that people who are more attuned to their immediate experiences also enjoy many benefits. To reconcile these principles, many scholars recommend that people should distribute their attention, somewhat evenly, across the past, present, and future-but have not clarified how people should achieve this goal. We test the possibility that people who perceive their future as vivid and certain, called future clarity, might be able to both orient their attention to the future as well as experience mindfulness. Specifically, future clarity could diminish the inclination of people to reach decisions prematurely and dismiss information that contradicts these decisions, called need for closure-tendencies that diminish consideration of future consequences and mindfulness, respectively. In this cross-sectional study, 194 participants completed measures of mindfulness, consideration of future consequences, need for closure, and future clarity. Consistent with hypotheses, future clarity was positively associated with both mindfulness and consideration of future consequences. Need for closure partly mediated these relationships. Accordingly, interventions that empower people to shape and to clarify their future might generate the benefits of both mindfulness and a future orientation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. How to control self-promotion among performance-oriented employees : The roles of task clarity and personalized responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Eric; Emans, Ben; Turusbekova, Nonna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the performance orientation of employees and self-promotion in the form of overstating one's performance. It is hypothesized that this relationship depends on task clarity and personalized responsibility.

  15. Professionalism and the role of medical colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J; Grigg, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    There has been substantial interest and emphasis on medical professionalism over the past twenty years. This speaks to the history of the medical profession, but increasingly to a broader understanding of the importance of socialisation and professional identity formation. A literature review was undertaken of professionalism and the role of professions and medical professional organisations. A key outcome has been the recognition that medical professionalism must be actively taught and assessed. Substantial effort is required to improve the educational environment, so that it nurtures the development of professionalism within the work-place. Although medical colleges have been prominent in identifying and progressing the recent developments within professionalism there is still much to be done to deliver fully on the societal contract between the public and the profession. There are key gaps to address, particularly with regards to self-regulation, civil behaviour and effective leadership and advocacy. Medical colleges need to take direct responsibility for the professionalism of their members. The expectations of the community are increasingly clear in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress from Role Conflict: Consequences for Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ex-post facto data collected from 600 teachers and 2400 senior secondary two students from Cross River State were analyzed to determine the influence of stress arising from role conflict on professional effectiveness. One hypothesis was tested using One-Way Analysis of Variance. The result of the data analyses ...

  17. Revisionsprocessen efter clarity standarderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiertzner, Lars

    Nærværende bog omhandler revisionsprocessen som det ene hovedemne. Generelt er bogen baseret på clarity versionerne af processtandarderne RS 315, RS 330 og RS 500, der forventeligt træder i kraft for revision af regnskaber, der afsluttes 15.12. 2010 eller senere. Der indledes med en kort introduk......Nærværende bog omhandler revisionsprocessen som det ene hovedemne. Generelt er bogen baseret på clarity versionerne af processtandarderne RS 315, RS 330 og RS 500, der forventeligt træder i kraft for revision af regnskaber, der afsluttes 15.12. 2010 eller senere. Der indledes med en kort...... introduktion til standardsystemet i kapitel 1, herunder til clarity projektet og dermed til erstatningen af de gældende RS om revision med en helt ny og gennemarbejdet generation. I kapitel 2 præsenteres nyskabelserne i de tre processtandarder i forhold til den tidligere regulering i danske...... revisionsvejledninger.  Kapitel 3 og 4 analyserer revisionsprocessen i dybden, mens kapitel 5 diskuterer tilpasningen af revisionsprocessen i en mindre revisionsopgave, der stadig er den typiske danske sammenhæng. I kapitel 6 behandles bogens andet hovedemne i form af et udblik på ændringerne i de øvrige clarity...

  18. The role of emotional clarity and distress tolerance in deliberate self-harm in a sample of trauma-exposed inpatient adolescents at risk for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Woodward, Emma C; Raines, Elizabeth M; Hanna, Abigail E; Zvolensky, Michael J

    The purpose of this study was to examine distress tolerance as a moderator of the relationship between emotional clarity and deliberate self-harm (DSH) in a diverse sample of trauma-exposed adolescents in acute psychiatric care at high risk of suicidal behavior. It was hypothesized that distress tolerance would emerge as a significant moderator, such that the association between emotional clarity and DSH would be significant among youth with high, but not low, distress tolerance. Participants (N=50; 52.0% female; M=15.1years, SD=0.51; 44% White) completed measures of emotion dysregulation, DSH, history of suicide attempts, as well as a behavioral measure of distress tolerance. Controlling for history of suicide attempts, results revealed a significant interaction between distress tolerance and emotional clarity in relation to DSH. Specifically, emotional clarity difficulties were related to DSH at high, but not low, levels of distress tolerance. Findings suggest that DSH among trauma-exposed youth with high rates of past suicide attempts is most likely when low emotion clarity is coupled with a high tolerance for emotional distress. Given that DSH significantly increases risk for suicide among youth with psychiatric needs, assessment of emotional clarity and distress tolerance deficits is apt to be warranted to facilitate identification of these youth for targeted intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Daily cognitive appraisals, daily affect, and long-term depressive symptoms: the role of self-esteem and self-concept clarity in the stress process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Flynn, Sharon C; Pomaki, Georgia; Delongis, Anita; Biesanz, Jeremy C; Puterman, Eli

    2011-02-01

    The current study investigated how self-esteem and self-concept clarity are implicated in the stress process both in the short and long term. Initial and 2-year follow-up interviews were completed by 178 participants from stepfamily unions. In twice-daily structured diaries over 7 days, participants reported their main family stressor, cognitive appraisals (perceived stressor threat and stressor controllability), and negative affect. Results of multilevel modeling indicated that high self-esteem ameliorated the effect of daily negative cognitive appraisals on daily negative affect. Self-concept clarity also buffered the effect of low self-self-esteem on depressive symptoms 2 years later. Our findings point to the vulnerability of those having low self-esteem or low self-concept clarity in terms of both short- and long-term adaptation to stress. They indicate the need for the consideration of such individual differences in designing stress management interventions.

  20. Public Relations: Roles, Entry Requirements and Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Dwi Cahaya Putra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper attempts to describe that there is a chance for non-Public Relations graduates to work as or at the Public Relations industry. Studies have shown that Public Relations practitioners are mostly from generalist background (not Public Relations and even come into the job by chance. A Public Relations is a very sociable person, possess a mix of functional, managerial and negotiating abilities as well as analytical and well-developed communication and understand people and human psychology. With working roles of Expert Prescriber, Communication Facilitator, Problem Solving Facilitator and Communication Technician, a Public Relations needs to be well prepared by learning foreign language, joining personality improvement course, developing networking and understanding computer and communication technology. Areas of where a Public relations works are in-house (organization/company, consultancy and freelance practitioner having various titles showing their main function in the organization such as public affairs, event manager, community relations manager, marketing communication executive, employee relations manager, corporate communications manager, media coordinator. As there is an increased challenge of Public Relations’s professionalism, a true practitioner is best prepared by educational institutions with lecturers having sound education and practice combined with extensive link-and -match research and industrial-practical placement for the graduates.

  1. Professional nurses' perception of their clinical teaching role at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four themes representing the perceptions of the professional nurses emerged in the analysis: (i) the clinical teaching role; (ii) the complexities of clinical teaching; (iii) learners have their issues; and (iv) making it work. Conclusion. Professional nurses understand and appreciate their educational role in the development of ...

  2. A Definition of Gender Role Conflict among Black Professional Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ora

    2011-01-01

    There is very little literature that depicts the parental role of Black professional fathers positively or that samples Black participants from the upper economic strata. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how Black professional fathers experience or perceive gender role conflict and identify clinical implications. Grounded in…

  3. The psychological boundary of nurses separating professional and maternal roles

    OpenAIRE

    Laušmanová, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Author: Alexandra Laušmanová Institute: Institute of social medicine FM CU in Hradec Králové Nursing department Title: The Psychological Boundary of Nurses separating Professional and Maternal Roles Supervisor: Bc. Eva Prchalová Number of pages: 131 Number of attachments: 4 Year of defense: 2007 Keywords: psychological boundary, social role, family, child needs, psychological strain on nurses, work conditions of nurses, realistic options in compatibility of professional and parent role This b...

  4. The Role of Negative Affect and Self-Concept Clarity in Predicting Self-Injurious Urges in Borderline Personality Disorder Using Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, J Wesley; Levy, Kenneth N; Johnson, Benjamin N; Kivity, Yogev; Ellison, William D; Pincus, Aaron L; Wilson, Stephen J; Newman, Michelle G

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in identity as well as negative affect have been shown to predict self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, less is known about the interactive effects of these two predictors. We examined the moderating effect of a particular component of identity, self-concept, on the relationship between negative affect and self-injurious urges utilizing ecological momentary assessments. Outpatients diagnosed with either BPD (n = 36) or any anxiety disorder but no BPD (n = 18) completed surveys throughout the day over a 21-day period. Higher levels of momentary negative affect predicted greater subsequent urges to self-injure, but only when self-concept clarity was low (z = -3.60, p clarity has a protective effect against self-injurious urges in light of high negative affect, and that this effect may be transdiagnostic.

  5. The Role of Health Literacy in Professional Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoory, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This chapter marks the territory and leadership potential found in research, practice and policy related to the role of health literacy in higher education and professional training. There is limited published work that has summarized the role and scope of health literacy in higher education and professional training. This chapter will provide a review of the research in the area, a description of some of the educational practices in health literacy, and a case example of how policy might influence the role of health literacy in professional higher education.

  6. The Changing Roles Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Hermansen-Baez; N. Wulff

    2010-01-01

    As populations and urbanization expand in the Southern United States, human influences on forests and other natural areas are increasing. As a result, natural resource professionals are faced with complex challenges, such as managing smaller forest parcels for multiple benefits, and wildfire prevention and management in the wildland-urban interface (areas where urban...

  7. Gender Role Conflict, Professional Role Confidence, and Intentional Persistence in Engineering Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…

  8. Professional practice leadership roles: the role of organizational power and personal influence in creating a professional practice environment for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankshear, Sara; Kerr, Michael S; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Professional practice leadership (PPL) roles are those roles responsible for expert practice, providing professional leadership, facilitating ongoing professional development, and research. Despite the extensive implementation of this role, most of the available literature focuses on the implementation of the role, with few empirical studies examining the factors that contribute to PPL role effectiveness. This article will share the results of a research study regarding the role of organizational power and personal influence in creating a high-quality professional practice environment for nurses. Survey results from nurses and PPLs from 45 hospitals will be presented. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model and relationships between the key variables of interest. Results indicate that there is a direct and positive relationship between PPL organizational power and achievement of PPL role functions, as well as an indirect, partially mediated effect of PPL influence tactics on PPL role function. There is also a direct and positive relationship between PPL role functions and nurses' perceptions of their practice environment. The evidence generated from this study highlights the importance of organizational power and personal influence as significantly contributing to the ability of those in PPL roles to achieve desired outcomes. This information can be used by administrators, researchers, and clinicians regarding the factors that can optimize the organizational and systematic strategies for enhancing the practice environment for nursing and other health care professionals.

  9. Development of identity clarity and content in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Spain, Seth M; Cologgi, Kimberly; Roberts, Brent W

    2017-05-01

    The current research examines self-concept clarity over 2 assessment points with the aims of establishing patterns of stability and change in self-concept clarity across adulthood, modeling corollary changes in traits and health-related role limitations, and demonstrating the ways in which gender and age moderate these patterns. Within this sample of 461 adults age 19-86 years of age, self-concept clarity had robust rank-order stability and no significant mean-level change during a 3-year assessment window. However, significant interindividual variability was present in the developmental patterns of self-concept clarity over time. These individual differences in development of self-concept clarity corresponded to developmental patterns in Big Five personality traits and health-related role limitations. Results of this 2 wave longitudinal study suggest 3 primary conclusions: (a) self-concept clarity predicts and corresponds to trait maturation over time, (b) decreasing self-concept clarity corresponds to increasing role limitations, and (c) these effects are somewhat contingent on gender and age. Results are discussed in reference to the maturation of identity content and metacognitive identity evaluation over the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Professionals' Experiences of the Relations between Personal History and Professional Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Per-Einar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how workers in a crisis resolution home treatment (CRHT) team experience the relationship between their personal history and professional role. This paper is based on 13 in-depth interviews with health professionals working in CRHT. The interviews were analysed using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Participants expressed that there is a relationship between their personal history and professional role, and three themes are highlighted as particularly important in, namely experiences related to the participants as individuals, work-related experiences and family-related experiences. The participants write meaning into the relationship between their personal history and professional role. By relating and exploring their own life stories in the interviews, they work on forming meaning and identity. PMID:23589772

  11. Literature Suggests Information Professionals Have Adopted New Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin E. Miller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide a systematic review of the emerging or newly adopted roles of information professionals, over the past 14 years, as described in the Library and Information Science (LIS professional literature. Design – Systematic review of the literature. Setting – Databases featuring information science content, including ACM Digital Library, Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts (LISTA, Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA, Citeseer, Google Scholar, e-prints in Library and Information Science (e-LiS, Digital Library of Information Science and Technology (DLIST, Scopus, and Science Direct. The database Library Literature & Information Science Index was not included. Subjects – Through a systematic literature search, the authors identified 114 peer-reviewed studies published between 2000-2014. Methods – The authors searched selected databases using the terms “librarian/s role” and “information professional/s role” to collect literature about the roles of information professionals. The authors searched the selected databases in two phases. The initial search yielded 600 search results and the authors included 100 articles about “roles” information professionals have adopted. The authors excluded articles focused on specific positions, health and medical libraries, librarians’ professional skills, and development of specific programs or initiatives within libraries. In the second phase of searching, the authors refined search terms to include phrases specifically related to the roles identified in the 100 articles initially included in the review. There were 48 articles identified in the second search and 14 were included in the final pool of articles. The authors also cross-checked the references of all included literature. Main Results – The authors identified six roles of information professionals described in the literature during the review period. The role of “embedded librarian

  12. Ethics of caring and professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jens Erik

    2011-03-01

    Normative discussions about modern health care often revolve around principles stating what must not be done or how to ration scarce resources in the name of justice. These are important discussions. However, in order to have an impact on clinical roles, ethical reflection must be able to describe and address the complexities and challenges of modern nursing and doctoring, and maybe even the patient role. A multi-principled approach, such as the one suggested by Beauchamp and Childress, can obviously address almost any such issue, but a great deal of translation is often required in order to address role-related issues. I shall here argue that an ethics of caring is better suited to grasping the big picture when the question is how to create value-informed clinical roles in an era of rapid development.

  13. Supporting band 5 practitioners in professional and leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kathleen; Morrow, Karen

    2015-10-07

    Interest in professionalism and leadership has increased within the nursing and midwifery community. The NHS Lanarkshire Practice Development Centre established a study day on these concepts for band 5 practitioners. This formed part of NHS Lanarkshire's implementation of Scotland's nursing and midwifery leadership development strategy, Leading Better Care. The aims of the study day were to reinforce individual professional responsibility, promote the principles of professionalism and explore the concept of leadership in the band 5 role. This article reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of the study day.

  14. Fostering professionalism among doctors: the role of workplace discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Deborah; Griffin, Ann; Launer, John

    2014-10-01

    The professionalism of doctors has come in for increasing scrutiny and discussion, within the profession and in society. Professionalism has also become of central interest in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. There is a great deal of debate about the nature of medical professionalism, how to promote it and what approaches to learning are most effective. This study aims to identify the role of workplace-based discussion groups in encouraging and supporting the development of professionalism among doctors. Workplace-based discussion groups including doctors from all non-consultant grades and specialties were established in five hospitals over a 6 month period in 2010-2011. A mixed-methods approach was used to identify the perceived impact of these groups on participants, which included interviewing the group facilitators and education leaders at participating hospitals. Understanding of professionalism at an individual level was improved along with an increased awareness of the collective nature of professionalism in everyday clinical practice. Key to the success of the groups was the creation of a legitimate space to explore professionalism and professional challenges and the use of experienced facilitators who could build trust in the groups. A purely individualistic approach to professionalism does not resonate with contemporary, team-based healthcare. Work-based groups can provide a focus for an approach to professionalism that is mindful of self, the team, the culture and the organisation. This evaluation provides guidance to a range of stakeholders on how to develop educational interventions that foster professionalism, personal and collective, and offers some pointers towards the range of factors that may impact on the outcomes of such activities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Professional qualification in Social Education: the role of the Practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pereira Dominguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role to be performed by the Practicum in the training of social workers. For this purpose we have done a brief tour around the different criteria that have supported the professional development of social education and academic training. It offers thus an epistemological revision has its initial motivation in the need identified in several research projects in which we have participated in over the selection of studies in the early stages of post-compulsory education and compulsory secondary. The analysis of the different actors involved in the process of professionalization of social education and the importance of certain skills, lead us to propose a Practicum able to provide a framework for reflection on professional practices in a learning coordinated context, interdisciplinary and professionalism.

  16. Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byszewski Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was

  17. Wanted: role models--medical students' perceptions of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Hendelman, Walter; McGuinty, Caroline; Moineau, Geneviève

    2012-11-15

    Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA). Chi-square and Fischer's exact test (for cell count less than 5) were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship). Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to "celebrate" professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions. Students

  18. International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) position statement: the role of the professional medical writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Robert; Bowman, Aly; Fagan, Jean M; Gallagher, Eileen R; Geraci, Anna B; Gertel, Art; Hirsch, Laurence; Ross, Philip D; Stossel, Thomas P; Veitch, Keith; Woods, David

    2007-08-01

    The International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) is an independent, nonprofit professional association with members from the pharmaceutical, medical device, and biotechnology industries; publication planning and medical communications companies; academia; and medical journal staffs, including editors and publishers. ISMPP's mission is to support the educational needs of medical publication professionals by providing a forum to facilitate awareness and development of best practices in publication planning and implementation, and fostering consensus policies related to medical publishing. This position statement reflects our concern about the current climate of mistrust regarding the use of professional medical writers in the preparation of manuscripts. We acknowledge the skills and training of medical writing professionals and support their role in working with research teams to develop clear and concise manuscripts in a timely fashion. Further, we support complete and transparent disclosure of the role of the medical writer and the source of funding for the writing initiative in order to build awareness of, and trust in, the appropriate use of medical writing professionals. ISMPP endorses use of the contributorship model, which offers detailed information on the roles of all who participated in planning, conducting, developing, and publishing medical research. Further, we propose that this model be integrated into the standard operating procedures of the diverse organizations that comprise our membership because the responsibility for authorship disclosure is shared by sponsors, authors, study investigators, and medical writers. Finally, we commend the many organizations that have worked to increase recognition and understanding of the legitimate role of the medical writer, and are eager to work in concert with them to ensure the rigorous maintenance of all ethical standards for reporting the results of medical research.

  19. Assessor or mentor? Role confusion in professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lucy; Nettleton, Peggy

    2007-11-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of a multi-professional study involving nursing, medicine and midwifery, which aimed to investigate both mentee and mentor perceptions of the mentorship role and the context within which it is conducted. It is well recognised that mentorship plays a vital part in the support and training of healthcare professionals. Documentation published by regulatory bodies regarding the mentorship role and changes in it's implementation in practice has resulted in confusion among practitioners. This study consisted of questionnaires and semi-structured telephone interviews with both mentors and mentees, within three healthcare professions and focuses on the responses from the nursing profession. The mentors participating in the study struggled with their dual role as assessor and mentor and found conflict within this responsibility. The role of assessor was poorly recognised and the complexity of being both an assessor and a supporter/friend is discussed.

  20. The Role of the District Administration within Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, James; Martin, Barbara N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to examine the role of the superintendent in assessing the readiness for change in the implementation and support for Professional Learning Communities. The study findings revealed four major themes. They were: (1) the changing dynamics of leadership; (2) a sense of collective efficacy and responsibility…

  1. Multiple Roles of Specialized Literacy Professionals: The ILA 2017 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Rita M.; Kern, Diane; Griffith, Robin; Lacina, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This article compares the ILA 2017 Standards for preparing specialized literacy professionals with the 2010 Standards. The authors also describe levels of emphases for each specialized literacy role and implications of the new Standards for those serving in the field and for those who prepare them.

  2. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  3. The Role of Open and Distance Learning in Promoting Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Open and Distance Learning in Promoting Professional Training and Development in Tanzania. A Case Study of The Open University Tanzania. ... Hence, they opt for ODL institution as a medium of knowledge transmission, since they can benefit from the flexibility that it offers. In the course of this study, the ...

  4. The Role of Natural Resource Professionals in Addressing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorna B. Allred

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource professionals, ranging from forest managers and educators to floodplain managers, play a critical role in implementing and conducting outreach with regards to climate mitigation and adaptation appropriate to local and regional scales. Natural resource professionals can also pave the way by adopting actions that serve as demonstrations of efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions or adapt natural systems for the future. A web survey of 1488 natural resource professionals across New York State (NYS was conducted to assess their attitudes toward climate change, views toward climate change mitigation and adaptation priorities, actions taken to address climate change, and barriers faced as they relate to their professional responsibilities. The majority of natural resource professionals believe that climate change is happening, but there was slightly less agreement about human causes of climate change. Most natural resource professionals (69% see evidence of how climate change is impacting natural resources in NYS, but few (17% believed that there was sufficient information about how to address climate impacts at the local level. Nearly 60% of natural resources professionals undertook climate mitigation or adaptation actions in their work. Prominent influencing factors for action were proactive leadership and local impacts. Barriers to taking action on climate change were a lack of human and financial resources, the nature of costs relative to benefits, and lack of perceived threat. As managers and educators responsible for local water, land, and wildlife resources, natural resource professionals witness changes resulting from climate change first-hand. This paper will be useful to decision-makers at state and federal government levels regarding policies, incentives, and guidance that can be created with the goal of promoting a sound natural resource strategy in support of climate change readiness.

  5. Self-concept clarity and compulsive Internet use: The role of preference for virtual interactions and employment status in British and North-American samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Cristina; Kakabadse, Nada Korak

    2015-12-01

    Compulsive Internet Use (CIU) describes a maladaptive relationship with the Internet characterised by loss of control and conflict. Although also affecting adults, most studies use teenage samples, and theoretical development on risk factors is scarce. According to Davis (2001), the social connectivity function of the Internet is key in identifying traits associated with CIU. Since Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) is strongly related to social anxiety, and virtual interactions allow "self-edition", we hypothesized that individuals low in SCC could choose virtual interactions as safer alternative to satisfy their social needs. This could in turn increase the risk of CIU. Building on a previous study, we also expected CIU to be more harmful in the unemployed. We collected samples from the U.K. (N = 532) and U.S. (N = 502) with equal distribution of employed and unemployed individuals. We ran Measurement Invariance tests to confirm that the constructs were equivalent across countries. Subsequently, we conducted mediation and moderation analysis to test our hypothesis with Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Measurement Invariance was confirmed. The relationship between SCC and CIU was partially mediated by preference of virtual interactions in both countries. This preference was significantly related to lower social support. Short term unemployment seemed to accentuate the negative impact of CIU on life satisfaction in both countries, although only marginally significantly in the U.S. The unemployed reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. We demonstrated that SCC is a key vulnerability factor to CIU in adults, and confirmed the additional risks for the unemployed.

  6. SOCIO-EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE AND ITS ROLE IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF FUTURE OFFICERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HĂHĂIANU FLORENTINA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term competence has become a priority for public policies. In the field of education and professional training competences lie at the basis of curricula, of specializations in universities, of qualifications or professional standards. It is obvious that in any sector of human resources - be it economy, public services or policies, in any kind of activi - be it individual or at the level of organization, firm or collectivity, competences have become the key factor and the main reference. Thus, its popularity went hand in hand with its unlimited spread in the detriment of its conceptual clarity. Today we meet the term competence everywhere and at any time, but there is no minimal consensus with respect to terminology. We speak of competences and "skills" (a term difficult to translate in Romanian, key and basic competences, capabilities and abilities etc. With this article we will try to bring a better understanding of the concept. Moreover, since it plays an importnat role in an officer's activity or in their environment, we will tackle on the affective dimension in their competence profile: relations with others, decision-making process, work motivation and satisfaction, team work, self-control, etc. In order to become experts in a certain socio-emotional competence, such as team work or analyzing a conflictual situation, we need to develop an inner ability from the socio-emotional fundaments. Why? Because i nany activity the rational dimension doesn't suffice, there has to be an affective side, as well. Emotion depends on the way a person evaluates and assesses a situation. Affective and cognitive processes, though different in their nature, are inseparable and in tight connection in the activity of an intelligence officer, for instance.

  7. THE PROFESSIONAL ROLE OF TEACHER OF EDUCATION FOR FAMILY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zellma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of education for family life take all sorts of forms of professional activity in school. The activities are an important component of teachers’ professional role. They arise, among others, from applicable laws, professional obligations, curriculum assumptions in particular types of schools and social expectations. However, personal characteristics as well as professional qualifications and competence are of great importance. These factors determine the quality of professional activity of the teacher of education for family life. By analyzing the issue mentioned in the title of this thesis, attention was drawn to the rights and obligations of teachers of education for life in the family that relate to teaching, upbringing, prevention and care. Reference is made at the same time to the existing educational documents and curriculum assumptions. This made it possible to indicate what the proper fulfillment of teaching, educational-preventive and caring tasks of the teacher of education for life in the family depends on. It has been proved that regardless of the changes taking place in the socio-cultural realities, the needs and interests of students and the expectations of parents, teachers of education for life in the family is required to take fair and responsible participation in the issues relating to marriage and family. He also has to support his students in the integral development and shape social and moral attitudes based on universal moral and social values.

  8. Ethnic identity and mentoring among Latinas in professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzáles-Figueroa, Evelyn; Young, Angela M

    2005-08-01

    This study examined ethnic identity and mentoring (a known strategy to promote career success and advancement) in a sample of 103 Latina women with professional roles in the areas of business, academia, policy, and politics. Other variables examined included traditional gender roles and perceptions of professional success. Findings indicated that the women's ethnic identity was consistent with a bicultural profile; some received mentoring and, if given a choice, would prefer to be mentored by someone of similar ethnicity. This finding is critical and can allow researchers, service providers, and policy developers to apply culturally responsive strategies in communities and in organizations. Other hypotheses were not supported. A discussion of the findings, implications, and suggestions for future research are presented. (c) 2005 APA

  9. Organizational climate: Comparing private and public hospitals within professional roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the organizational climate differences within professional roles in private and public hospitals. We focused on how physicians, administrative, healthcare and non-healthcare staff either in the public or in the private perceived their work environment and each organizational climate dimension. Data came from organizational-climate questionnaires administered in 2010 and 2012 to 19616 and 1276 health employees in public and private hospitals in the Tuscany Region respectively. We applied exploratory factoranalysis to verify the validity and internal consistency between items in the questionnaire and t-test, one-way analysis of variance to compare mean perceptions regarding to the dimensions across different groups of respondents. We measured four dimensions: “training opportunities”, “managerial tools”, “organization” and “management & leadership style” and overall job satisfaction. Hospital status in the professional roles was found significant in the staff's perceptions (p≤0.05.

  10. The Role of the Professional Accountants in Business Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Ionescu

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the role of the accountant became very important not only for corporate or public entities, but also for small business. The consequences of the financial crisis of 2008 reveal the role of professional accountants in businss administration and the importance of accounting for the modern society. In my oppinion, accounting profession contribute to transparency in financial reporting system and may improve the business comunication.This research is based on the analysis of t...

  11. Roles for Information professionals in patient education: Librarians' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. MacDonald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Through an examination of librarians’ contributions to the PEPTalk research project, this article highlights roles for information professionals at various stages in the design and clinical implementation of an information system that delivers patient education. The Personal Education Plan (PEPTalk was a collaborative, multi-disciplinary research project (2005-2006 based at the University Health Network’s Princess Margaret Hospital that designed an information system to provide web-based health information resources to both patients and clinicians under a shared umbrella of patient education. This article provides an overview of the PEPTalk project methods and outcomes, and documents the contributions of librarians throughout the design and clinical implementation stages of the project. Librarians brought expertise about information seeking behaviours of both patients and clinicians to the project; liaised across institutional and professional boundaries; developed a classification system for online learning objects, and educated project team about information and health literacies. The contributions of librarians on the PEPTalk project illustrate the need for boundary spanners, information brokers, knowledge translators, and change champions in the design and implementation of patient education delivery systems. There are new roles emergent at the intersections of clinical practice and health information provision. There is a need for the traditional skills and expertise of librarians and other information professionals in tailoring health information. Yet the design and implementation of patient education systems also require the development of new skills and the application of advanced information literacy as it pertains to both clinicians and patients.

  12. Altruism in clinical research: coordinators' orientation to their professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A

    2012-01-01

    Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus reshaping their professional identities. The purpose of this study was to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semistructured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Altruism is adopted by research coordinators to: (1) Teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, (2) minimize the conflict between research and care, and (3) contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy used to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Altruism in Clinical Research: Coordinators’ Orientation to their Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus re-shaping their professional identities. Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. Method A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semi-structured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Discussion Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Conclusion Altruism is adopted by research coordinators: 1) to teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, 2) to minimize the conflict between research and care, and 3) to contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy employed to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. PMID:22083045

  14. Assessing the clarity of friction ridge impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicklin, R Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2013-03-10

    The ability of friction ridge examiners to correctly discern and make use of the ridges and associated features in finger or palm impressions is limited by clarity. The clarity of an impression relates to the examiner's confidence that the presence, absence, and attributes of features can be correctly discerned. Despite the importance of clarity in the examination process, there have not previously been standard methods for assessing clarity in friction ridge impressions. We introduce a process for annotation, analysis, and interchange of friction ridge clarity information that can be applied to latent or exemplar impressions. This paper: (1) describes a method for evaluating the clarity of friction ridge impressions by using color-coded annotations that can be used by examiners or automated systems; (2) discusses algorithms for overall clarity metrics based on manual or automated clarity annotation; and (3) defines a method of quantifying the correspondence of clarity when comparing a pair of friction ridge images, based on clarity annotation and resulting metrics. Different uses of this approach include examiner interchange of data, quality assurance, metrics, and as an aid in automated fingerprint matching. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Professional practice leader: a transformational role that addresses human diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournes, D A; DasGupta, T L

    1997-01-01

    The role of the professional practice leader is to provide leadership in the transformation of nursing practice from a provider focused model to a patient focused model. Nursing standards for patient focused care were developed to define the quality of the nurse-person relationship in a manner consistent with Parse's theory of human becoming. Multiple strategies have been developed to challenge nurses to redefine the purpose, vision, and core values by which they practice. It is only through uncovering the values and beliefs of every person that nurses will be able to care for individuals whom they recognize as unique human beings.

  16. Toward Principles of Construct Clarity: Exploring the Usefulness of Facet Theory in Guiding Conceptualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Conceptualization in theory development has received limited consideration despite its frequently stressed importance in Information Systems research. This paper focuses on the role of construct clarity in conceptualization, arguing that construct clarity should be considered an essential criterion for evaluating conceptualization and that a focus on construct clarity can advance conceptualization methodology. Drawing from Facet Theory literature, we formulate a set of principles for assessing construct clarity, particularly regarding a construct’s relationships to its extant related constructs. Conscious and targeted attention to this criterion can promote a research ecosystem more supportive of knowledge accumulation.

  17. Are emotional clarity and emotion differentiation related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J; Dizén, Mügé; Berenbaum, Howard; Baker, John P

    2013-01-01

    Distinct literatures have developed regarding the constructs of emotional clarity (people's meta-knowledge of their affective experience) and emotion differentiation (people's ability to differentiate affective experience into discrete categories, e.g., anger vs. fear). Conceptually, emotion differentiation processes might be expected to contribute to increased emotional clarity. However, the relation between emotional clarity and emotion differentiation has not been directly investigated. In two studies with independent, undergraduate student samples, we measured emotional clarity using a self-report measure and derived emotion differentiation scores from scenario-based (Study 1) and event-sampling-based (Study 2) measures of affect. We found that emotional clarity and emotion differentiation are: (i) associated to a very small and statistically insignificant degree; and (ii) differentially associated with trait and scenario-based/event-sampling-based measures of affect intensity and variability. These results suggest that emotional clarity and differentiation are distinct constructs with unique relations to various facets of affective experience.

  18. Program Standards and Expectations: Providing Clarity, Consistency, and Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Keith G.

    2016-01-01

    The effort described in this article resulted from requests for clarity and consistency from new and existing Extension/4-H educators as well as from recommendations by university auditors. The primary purpose of the effort was to clarify standards for effective county-based 4-H youth development programs and to help focus the roles of 4-H…

  19. High School Vocational Counseling Role in Leveraging Students` Professional Inclinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Brătucu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The experience of many countries with a well-educated workforce highlights the important role of vocational counselling services for advantageous youth professional orientation. Researchers manifest in their turn, a growing interest to study the role of vocational counselling, from the perspective of increasing the efficiency of investment in education and strengthening the capacity of enterprises to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy. In Romania, high school students have access to career guidance services, but there is little information on the extent to which they use or how useful they consider these services. Many times, there is a social conformism among high school graduates, which determines them to choose professions valued at a certain moment, without making a personal judgment. The aim of this paper is to analyse, as a good practice, the role of high school graduate vocational counselling in developing professional skills, in order to help them make the right career decision. In order to monitor the high school students` opinions on the vocational guidance and their perceptions of the integration in the labour market, a market research study has been conducted. This is a survey conducted on a sample of 2,364 high school students in their final year of study (twelve grade. The research has shown that a reduced percentage of the interviewed high school students have knowledge about the vocational guidance activity. From those who have used these services, most of them were satisfied. The study also highlighted the fact that the most important criteria for getting a job are the skills acquired during studies.

  20. Professional Associations: Their Role in Promoting Sustainable Development in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Hegarty, Kathryn; Whitman, Stuart; MacGregor, Val

    2012-01-01

    Professional associations have a strong influence on what is covered in the curricula of universities, especially that of professional degrees. They also provide members with professional development throughout their careers. Professional associations have the potential to facilitate development of sustainability competency in the workforce in…

  1. The "Shopping" Behavior of Parents of Mentally Retarded Children: The Professional Person's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathryn A.

    1971-01-01

    Discussed is the role of the professional in preventing or stopping diagnostic and therapeutic shopping (repeated visits to the same or different professionals without resolution of a resolvable problem), with emphasis on the initial informing interview. (KW)

  2. INTERNSHIP ROLES IN TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPEMENT OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Anca-Ioana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian specialist`s studies show a harsh reality: Romanian universities programs have only theoretical value, creating specialists but not for real life, but for a more abstract environment. Our university graduates are doing very well in a stable economic and institutional environment that offers relatively easy material and financial resources, with a set of skills and professional skills which fail to meet harsh reality of the labor market. An effective solution for professional skills development is the accumulation of work experience during college in the environment and on the job we have in view by following an internship program. As a form of practical education through work, internship meets young people, particularly students keen to gain experience through practical work in a job within a company or institution chosen, giving them the opportunity to translate theoretical knowledge into practice and to develop skills and experience of labor market activities that waits for them. This paper is an original applied research conducted in the West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. It aims to identify whether there is a need for specialization Management students to acquire work experience before graduating, to what extent they are able to assess their skills and work in a company and especially the role of internship programs in professional and personal development of students. The results show that participation in an internship program is beneficial not only for students but also for employers. Leading to increased competences and to training and professional skills and personal development, internship becomes a more attractive alternative for young people because it gives them the opportunity to be “a ringer" of an employee on the position you have in view. Without being employed, students can gain practical experience in a certain position they sought in a company or institution on the

  3. Wanted: role models--medical students' perceptions of professionalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byszewski, Anna; Hendelman, Walter; McGuinty, Caroline; Moineau, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education...

  4. The Role of Geoscience Departments in Preparing Future Geoscience Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments program ran a workshop on the role of geoscience departments in preparing geoscience professionals. Workshop participants asserted that geoscience departments can help support the flow of geoscience graduates into the geoscience workforce by providing students with information about jobs and careers; providing experiences that develop career-oriented knowledge, attitudes and skills; encouraging exploration of options; and supporting students in their job searches. In conjunction with the workshop, we have developed a set of online resources designed to help geoscience departments support their students’ professional development in these ways. The first step toward sending geoscience graduates into related professions is making students aware of the wide variety of career options available in the geosciences and of geoscience employment trends. Successful means of achieving this include making presentations about careers (including job prospects and potential salaries) in geoscience classes, providing examples of practical applications of course content, talking to advisees about their career plans, inviting alumni to present at departmental seminars, participating in institutional career fairs, and publishing a departmental newsletter with information about alumni careers. Courses throughout the curriculum as well as co-curricular experiences can provide experiences that develop skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will be useful for a range of careers. Successful strategies include having an advisory board that offers suggestions about key knowledge and skills to incorporate into the curriculum, providing opportunities for students to do geoscience research, developing internship programs, incorporating professional skills training (such as HazMat training) into the curriculum, and teaching professionalism. Students may also benefit from involvement with the campus career center or from conducting informational

  5. The Priceless Clarity of Inexperience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Marcy

    2017-04-01

    Updated several times a week with posts by a wide variety of authors, AJN's blog Off the Charts allows us to provide more timely-and often more personal-perspectives on professional, policy, and clinical issues. Best of the Blog will be a regular column to draw the attention of AJN readers to posts we think deserve a wider audience. To read more, please visit: www.ajnoffthecharts.com.

  6. Role of Pre-service Teachers Educators in Forming of Future Teachers Professional Competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Garabiková Pártlová, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation deals with the educators of future teachers and their roles in shaping the professional competencies of pre-service teachers during undergraduate training. The theoretical basis of the work is grounded in the theory of undergraduate education, as well as the concepts of professional competences of teachers and professional competences of pre-service teachers educators and related concept of model role. The empirical part, using mixed methods research, consists of several subs...

  7. The role of professional economists in the financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Porzecanski, Arturo C.

    2006-01-01

    Economists have always been interested in the workings of the financial markets, but most of them neither seek nor get the opportunity to work in a financial institution as a professional economist. Here we detail how (a minority of) economists became involved in the financial markets, and what that professional involvement has entailed, in order to come up with implications for economists who are considering working in the financial markets as well as for the universities that provide train...

  8. Auditor professional commitment and performance: An ethical issue role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kusumastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores to what extent the auditor’s idealism and relativism ethical orientation influences the professional commitment and the auditor’s performance. This study uses questionnaire’s survey from the auditors who work for Public Accountant Office in Indonesia. The data is analyzed by using the Structural Equation Model. The study reveals that the idealism and relativism ethical orientation have a significant influence to the professional commitment and the auditors’ performance

  9. Clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the co-existence of clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study using interpretive discourse analysis of interviews with employees at a corporate communication department to examine...... how they perceived the writing, reading and enactment of their organization’s new corporate communication strategy. Findings – The analysis reveals the presence of both clarity and ambiguity in the employees’ understanding of the strategy. Both in terms of formulation and implementation. For instance......, there is clarity on the main objectives of the strategy, but ambiguity in relation to how they should be achieved and the extent to which they represent a shift in focus or not. Though this co-presence might cause the members to feel a lack of ownership, it does not impede the department’s practices...

  10. Clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the co-existence of clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study using interpretive discourse analysis of interviews with employees at a corporate communication department to examine...... how they perceived the writing, reading and enactment of their organization’s new corporate communication strategy. Findings – The analysis reveals the presence of both clarity and ambiguity in the employees’ understanding of the strategy. Both in terms of formulation and implementation. For instance......, there is clarity on the main objectives of the strategy, but ambiguity in relation to how they should be achieved and the extent to which they represent a shift in focus or not. Though this co-presence might cause the members to feel a lack of ownership, it does not impede the department’s practices...

  11. Deficits in Emotional Clarity and Vulnerability to Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Peer victimization is a significant risk factor for a range of negative outcomes during adolescence, including depression and anxiety. Recent research has evaluated individual characteristics that heighten the risk of experiencing peer victimization. However, the role of emotional clarity, or the ability to understand one's emotions, in being the target of peer victimization remains unclear. Thus, the present study evaluated whether deficits in emotional clarity increased the risk of experiencing peer victimization, particularly among adolescent girls, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms. In the present study, 355 early adolescents (ages 12-13; 53% female; 51% African American) who were part of the Adolescent Cognition and Emotion project completed measures of emotional clarity, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at baseline, and measures of peer victimization, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms at follow-up. Moderation analyses indicated that deficits in emotional clarity predicted greater peer victimization among adolescent girls, but not adolescent boys. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that deficits in emotional clarity contributed to relational peer victimization, which, in turn, predicted prospective levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms among adolescent girls, but not boys. These findings indicate that deficits in emotional clarity represent a significant risk factor for adolescent girls to experience relational peer victimization, which, in turn, contributed to prospective levels of internalizing symptoms. Thus, prevention programs should target deficits in emotional clarity to prevent peer victimization and subsequent internalizing symptoms among adolescent girls.

  12. C-A5-01: Clarity and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Jamila; Schmidt, Mark; Perkins, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Clarity is the reporting database for Epic data. Clarity was created to extract data from the Epic production server and store it in a relational database and a dedicated reporting server. Clarity can reside on variance platforms such as Teradata or Oracle. Most tables in Clarity are updated nightly by a feed from Chronicles. There are also weekly and monthly updates for the more static tables. Queries and reports generated from Clarity can be are very comprehensive and provide complete infor...

  13. Developing Professional Identity in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students: A Role for Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylrea, Martina F; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Glass, Beverley D

    2017-03-24

    Professional identity development, seen as essential in the transition from student to professional, needs to be owned by the universities in order to ensure a workforce appropriately prepared to provide global health care in the future. The development of professional identity involves a focus on who the student is becoming, as well as what they know or can do, and requires authentic learning experiences such as practice exposure and interaction with pharmacist role models. This article examines conceptual frameworks aligned with professional identity development and will explore the role for self-determination theory (SDT) in pharmacy professional education. SDT explains the concepts of competence, relatedness and autonomy and the part they play in producing highly motivated individuals, leading to the development of one's sense of self. Providing support for students in these three critical areas may, in accordance with the tenets of SDT, have the potential to increase motivation levels and their sense of professional identity.

  14. Goal Clarity and Financial Planning Activities as Determinants of Retirement Savings Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Hershey, Douglas A.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.

    2007-01-01

    Retirement counselors, financial service professionals, and retirement intervention specialists routinely emphasize the importance of developing clear goals for the future; however, few empirical studies have focused on the benefits of retirement goal setting. In the present study, the extent to which goal clarity and financial planning activities…

  15. Teachers' Professional Learning: The Role of Knowledge Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Karissa

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the degree to which knowledge management strategies addressed teacher professional learning at the high school level. In the setting of a Connecticut public high school, interviews were conducted which explored teacher perceptions of knowledge sharing practices in the school and how those practices influenced their…

  16. Second Career Professionals: Transitioning to the Faculty Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Betsy; O'Hern, Brenda; Lawler, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    With midlife career transitions becoming more common, and colleges and universities needing to replace retiring faculty members, more professionals who have attained doctoral degrees may be transitioning to a second career in the academy. While their practitioner-based knowledge and leadership skills might be welcomed, especially in applied degree…

  17. The Role of Discourse in Teaching Intercultural Professional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartabayeva, Ayana A.; Zhaitapova, Altynai A.

    2016-01-01

    With Kazakhstan's accession to the Bologna Process, particular importance is attached to the professionally-oriented approach of teaching foreign languages to students, which facilitates formation of their foreign language communicative ability. The article deals with the problem of teaching English to students for the purpose of formation of…

  18. The Role of Principals in Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Joan L.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify how principals shape the adoption and implementation of professional learning communities. The study employed a sequential mixed-methods approach in which interviews, observations, and document analysis informed survey design. Teachers were surveyed in four elementary schools about the practices and…

  19. Enhancing Teacher Performance: The Role of Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Sears, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Current teacher accountability initiatives such as those included in the "No Child Left Behind" legislation in the United States create particular difficulties that impact deleteriously on the performance of professional educators. The quality of public education is undermined when teachers are held accountable to an external authority…

  20. Geoethics and the Role of Professional Geoscience Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Palka, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Mogk, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Codes of Ethics (Conduct) for geoscientists are formulated primarily by professional societies and the codes must be viewed in the context of the Goals (Missions, Values) of the societies. Our survey of the codes of approximately twenty-five societies reveals that most codes enumerate principles centered on practical issues regarding professional conduct of individuals such as plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification, and the obligation of individuals to the profession and society at large. With the exception of statements regarding the ethics of peer review, there is relatively little regarding the ethical obligations of the societies themselves. In essence, the codes call for traditionally honorable behavior of individual members. It is striking, given that the geosciences are largely relevant to the future of Earth, most current codes of societies fail to address our immediate obligations to the environment and Earth itself. We challenge professional organizations to consider the ethical obligations to Earth in both their statements of goals and in their codes of ethics. Actions by societies could enhance the efforts of individual geoscientists to serve society, especially in matters related to hazards, resources and planetary stewardship. Actions we suggest to be considered include: (1) Issue timely position statements on topics in which there is expertise and consensus (some professional societies such as AGU, GSA, AAAS, and the AMS, do this regularly, yet others not at all.); (2) Build databases of case studies regarding geoethics that can be used in university classes; (3) Hold interdisciplinary panel discussions with ethicists, scientists, and policy makers at annual meetings; (4) Foster publication in society journals of contributions relating to ethical questions; and (5) Aggressively pursue the incorporation of geoethical issues in undergraduate and graduate curricula and in continuing professional development.

  1. Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design : Qualitative study. Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis : We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Athletes in our study viewed injuries as "part and parcel" of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities.

  2. Professional role identity in shaping community nurses' reactions to nursing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lawrie; Kennedy, Catriona; Raeside, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To establish the extent to which professional role identity shapes community nurses' reactions before the implementation of a policy that sought to introduce a generic role. Many countries seek to alter community nurse roles to address changes in population health and health workforce. We know little about the influences that might shape nurses' reaction to these policies before their implementation and our theoretical understanding is poorly developed at this point in the policy-making cycle. Self completed cross-sectional survey of 703 community nurses before the introduction of a generic Community Health Nurse role in Scotland. The minority (33%) supported the new role. The professional role identity of those who were supportive differed significantly from those who did not support the policy or were uncertain of it. It is possible that the new policy acted to increase the value of the professional role identity of those who were supportive and conversely devalued the professional role identity of those who were unsupportive or uncertain of it. Professional role identity should be considered by policy makers in any country seeking to introduce policies that aim to radically change the role of community nurses and that this is acknowledged at an early stage in the policy-making cycle. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Modeling water clarity in oceans and coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    In oceans and coastal waters, phytoplankton is the primary producer of organic compounds which form the base for the food chain. The concentration of phytoplankton is a major factor controlling water clarity and the depth to which light penetrates in the water column. The light i...

  4. Drivers of change for lakewater clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Baker; Johanna E. Schussler; Stephanie A. Snyder

    2008-01-01

    Lakes in the Upper Midwest have undergone extensive lakeshore development over the past 30 years, raising concerns about eutrophication. We examined 11 case study lakes in Minnesota that had undergone substantial shoreline development over the past 30 years to evaluate drivers of change in clarity. Relationships between current Secchi disk transparency (SDT) and the...

  5. Theoretical clarity is not “Manicheanism”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    researchers in the field. Therefore it should not be taken personally, and the debate should focus on the substance. Marcia Bates has contributed considerably to information science. In spite of this some of her theoretical points of departure may be challenged. It is important to seek theoretical clarity...

  6. Preparing, Developing, and Credentialing K-12 School Leaders: Continuous Learning for Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patricia; Berry, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Professional preparation in educational administration has been a university-based state requirement that oriented aspiring school administrators to the roles of principal or superintendent. Professional and state expectations for preparation, development, and credentialing are shifting as the complexity of leadership and administration has…

  7. Attitudes toward Professional Psychological Help Seeking in South Asian Students: Role of Stigma and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Prerna G.; Metz, Kristina; Carlson, Cindy I.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) the roles of perceived and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking and (b) the effects of these constructs across gender in South Asians. Personal stigma and being male was negatively associated with attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking; no difference in the…

  8. Role of Outsourcing in Stress and Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janell R.

    2016-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing poses a potential job loss threat to IT professionals, which can decrease job security, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. The problem that this study addressed was the perceived role of IT outsourcing in the job stress, job dissatisfaction, and turnover intention of IT professionals. The…

  9. The impact of professional identity on role stress in nursing students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Gao, Ying; Yang, Juan; Zang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yao-Gang

    2016-11-01

    As newcomers to the clinical workplace, nursing students will encounter a high degree of role stress, which is an important predictor of burnout and engagement. Professional identity is theorised to be a key factor in providing high-quality care to improve patient outcomes and is thought to mediate the negative effects of a high-stress workplace and improve clinical performance and job retention. To investigate the level of nursing students' professional identity and role stress at the end of the first sub-internship, and to explore the impact of the nursing students' professional identity and other characteristics on role stress. A cross-sectional study. Three nursing schools in China. Nursing students after a 6-month sub-internship in a general hospital (n=474). The Role Stress Scale (score range: 12-60) and the Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing students (score range: 17-85) were used to investigate the levels of nursing students' role stress and professional identity. Higher scores indicated higher levels of role stress and professional identity. Basic demographic information about the nursing students was collected. The Pearson correlation, point-biserial correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The mean total scores of the Role Stress Scale and Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing Students were 34.04 (SD=6.57) and 57.63 (SD=9.63), respectively. In the bivariate analyses, the following independent variables were found to be significantly associated with the total score of the Role Stress Scale: the total score of the Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing Students (r=-0.295, pstudent was an only child or not (r=-0.114, pstudent had experience in community organisations or not (r=0.151, pNursing Students (standardised coefficient Beta: -0.260, pstudent had experience in community organisations (standardised coefficient Beta: 0.107, pnursing students' level of role stress at the end of

  10. The role of legitimation in the professional socialization of second-year undergraduate athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossner, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Professional socialization during formal educational preparation can help students learn professional roles and can lead to improved organizational socialization as students emerge as members of the occupation's culture. Professional socialization research in athletic training is limited. To present the role of legitimation and how it influences the professional socialization of second-year athletic training students. Modified constructivist grounded theory and case study methods were used for this qualitative study. An accredited undergraduate athletic training education program. Twelve second-year students were selected purposively. The primary sample group (n = 4) was selected according to theoretical sampling guidelines. The remaining students made up the cohort sample (n = 8). Theoretically relevant data were gathered from 14 clinical instructors to clarify emergent student data. Data collection included document examination, observations, and interviews during 1 academic semester. Data were collected and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Data triangulation, member checking, and peer-review strategies were used to ensure trustworthiness. Legitimation from various socializing agents initiated professional socialization. Students viewed trust and team membership as rewards for role fulfillment. My findings are consistent with the socialization literature that shows how learning a social or professional role, using rewards to facilitate role performance, and building trusting relationships with socializing agents are important aspects of legitimation and, ultimately, professional socialization.

  11. Networked practices of intangible urban heritage: the changing public role of Dutch heritage professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the changing roles of heritage professionals by focusing on the participatory practices of intangible urban heritage. Developments towards democratisation in the heritage sector led to a growing expectation that heritage

  12. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  13. Role Stressors, Engagement and Work Behaviours: A Study of Higher Education Professional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Tara M.; Prottas, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The study used data provided by 349 professional staff employees from 17 different US higher education institutions to assess aspects of their working conditions that could influence their own work engagement and the work-related behaviours of their colleagues. Relationships among three role stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict and role…

  14. Health and productivity: a role for occupational health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, R J

    2001-01-01

    The impressive economic gains achieved by many nations within the past decade have been attributed primarily to improvements in productivity from technological changes. The resultant low unemployment levels, however, emphasize the importance of human capital in the success of any enterprise. Concurrently, some economists have proposed an alternative economic view regarding the relationship between health and income, postulating that improvements in the health of the nation's population have a substantial effect on its economic viability. Such a view directly pertains to occupational health professionals, who are often charged with promoting the health of the worker. Although studies relating the beneficial impact of occupational health on productivity and human performance are limited, some efforts have shown impressive effects, as measured primarily by reduced absenteeism. The prompt, assertive management of occupational injuries and illnesses and their treatment have been well documented. Illnesses not considered traditional occupational ailments, such as migraine headaches, allergic disorders, infectious diseases, and depression, offer opportunities for occupational health professionals to ensure an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment for minimizing the impact on work performance. Considerable opportunities exist for occupational health professionals to demonstrate the importance of certain services to productivity.

  15. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements: specifying the role of professional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-08-04

    Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies in the literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements. This study builds on a view of organisational and professional projects as closely intertwined, where professionals take up organising roles and where organisations shape professionalism. The analysis is based on a case study of the introduction and routinisation of explicit discharge arrangements for patients with prostate cancer in two hospitals in Denmark. This represents a typical case that involves changes in professional practice without being first and foremost a professional project. The multiple case design also makes the findings more robust. The analysis draws from 12 focus groups with doctors, nurses and secretaries conducted at two different stages in the process of the making of the local discharge arrangements. From the analysis, two distinct local models of discharge arrangements that connect more or less directly to existing professional practice emerge: an 'add-on' model, which relies on extra resources, special activities and enforced change; and an 'embedded model', which builds on existing ways of working, current resources, and perspectives of professional groups. The two models reveal differences in the roles of professional groups in terms of their stakes and involvement in the process of organisational change: whereas in the 'add on' model the professional groups remain at a distance, in the 'embedded model' they are closely engaged. In terms of understanding the

  16. The Medical Library Association: promoting new roles for health information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J Michael; McGowan, Julie J

    2002-01-01

    As the Medical Library Association (MLA) enters its second century, its role in providing leadership and focus for the education of health information professionals in a changing environment will be critical. MLA members face dramatic changes in the health care environment as well as significant opportunities and must position themselves to thrive in the new environment. This paper examines new roles for health information professionals, new approaches to education and training, and related issues of credentialing, certification/and licensure.

  17. Administrative professional's role in the processing, retrieval, dissemination and repackaging of information in the networked enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish the administrative professional's role in the processing, retrieval, dissemination and repackaging of digital information in the networked enterprise, and to determine how the administrative professional can add value to the organisation and enhance its competitive position in industry. The digital economy has changed business practices to such an extent that research of the digital office environment and the administrative professional’s role in ...

  18. Exploring Current and Future Roles of Non-Dental Professionals: Implications for Dental Hygiene Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Hannah L; Farrell, Christine; Gwozdek, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The health care system is undergoing transformation in which oral health is not only valued as an aspect of overall health, but health care delivery systems are aligning to better deliver total patient care. As a result of this transformation, education for many non-dental professionals incorporates oral health content to prepare them to practice in comprehensive delivery models. While some non-dental professionals already incorporate oral health care in their service, many opportunities exist for expansion of oral health care delivery by other non-dental professionals, including radiologic technicians, nursing staff, and human services professionals. As non-dental professionals take on expanded roles in oral health care, the dental hygiene workforce must be prepared to practice in settings with new types of professionals. Dental hygiene curricula should prioritize interprofessional education to best prepare these students for practice in evolved delivery models. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century."

  19. Experiences of nurse case managers within a central discharge planning role of collaboration between physicians, patients and other healthcare professionals: A sociocultural qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Jorun E; Waite, Marion A

    2017-11-17

    To gain knowledge of nurse case managers' experiences within the German acute care context of collaboration with patients and physicians in a discharge planning role; further to learn about patients' assignment to the management of the nurse case managers; and explicitly to explore critical incidences of interactions between nurse case managers, patients and healthcare practitioner in discharge planning to understand the factor that contributes to effective collaboration. The defined role of nurse case managers in many contexts is a patient-centred responsibility for a central task of discharge management of patients with complex physical and social needs. Some studies have indicated that the general impact of the role reduces readmission rates. Given the necessity to work interprofessionally to achieve a safe discharge, little is known about how nurse case managers achieve this collaboratively. A qualitative case study within a German teaching hospital of nurse case managers (N = 8). Data were collected through semi-structured interviews prompted by a critical incident technique and rigorously analysed through the lenses of sociocultural theory. Consistent object being worked upon was a safe and effective discharge from hospital with a focus on patient advocacy. Significant themes were a self-value or recognition by others of professional expertise, reciprocal value on the capabilities of others thorough relational expertise and negotiation with patients and an identification of case trajectories. More continuity of nurse case managers' care and management, clarity of role and transparency to peers, physicians and other professionals would be beneficial in ensuring appropriate referral of complex patients to nurse case managers responsibility. Clearer role description and benefit realisation of the nurse case managers could be achieved by interventions that are interprofessional and focus on the tasks that matter from a collaborative perspective. This could lead

  20. Teaching Medical Students to Communicate with Empathy and Clarity Using Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan-Liss, Evonne; Lantz-Gefroh, Valeri; Bass, Elizabeth; Killebrew, Deirdre; Ponzio, Nicholas M; Savi, Christine; O'Connell, Christine

    2017-10-20

    Medical educators widely accept that health care providers need strong communication skills. The authors sought to develop a course incorporating improvisation to teach health professions students communication skills and build empathy. Teaching health care professionals to communicate more effectively with patients, the public, and each other is a goal of the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science at Stony Brook University. The authors designed an interprofessional elective for medical, nursing, and dental students that differed in several respects from traditional communication training. The Communicating Science elective, which was offered by the Alda Center from 2012-2016, used verbal and nonverbal exercises, role-playing, and storytelling, including improvisation exercises, to teach students to communicate with empathy and clarity. In course evaluations completed by 76 students in 2012 and 2013, 100% said they would recommend the course to fellow students, saw the relevance of the course content to their careers, and desired more of the course content in their school's curriculum. As a result of this positive feedback, from 2014-2016, ten hours of instruction pairing empathy and communication training were embedded in the preclinical curriculum at the Stony Brook University School of Medicine. This course could be an effective model, and one other institutions could employ, for improving communication skills and empathy in the next generation of health care professionals. Next steps include advocating for communication skills training to be embedded throughout the curriculum of a four-year medical school program.

  1. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: THE ROLE OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilia Helena de Sousa Mascarenhas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the advance of globalization and high competition between the companies, the need of continuous improvement is a requirement of the market. The implementation of the System of Management Integrated (SGI enables the company to and qualify its participants to have higher productivity, with smaller cost, preserving the health of its employees and the environment. The SGI involves the application of approaches for attend to the requirements of the Quality Systems, Environmental management, System of Security and Health in the Work and Social Responsibility, which are determined by Brazilian and/or international standards. In this context it is possible to see the changes in the profile of the executive secretarial professional, making him more qualified and acting straightly in the management skills and assisting in its management processes to ensure satisfactory outcomes for the organization. The present article covers through bibliographical research the concepts of the various management systems and the importance of the action of the executive secretarial professional assistance to the manager in the implementation of the System of Management Integrated.

  2. [Promoting factors for breastfeeding: the role of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Quijano, María Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    By the end of their first year of life, infants are ready to sit at the dinner table, to eat the same food as their family and to accept a variety of foods in sufficient quantity to maintain adequate nutritional status. In this context, breastfeeding contributes through different mechanisms such as: self-regulation in milk consumption and exposure to different flavors to assure a good nutrition and to create adequate feeding habits. However, breastfeeding is one of several options available to feed a newborn and a behavior that women need to learn. Today, the responsibility to counsel and guide women and their families in breastfeeding falls upon health professionals, specifically the general practitioner. This paper discusses the characteristics and functioning of the mammary gland as well as anatomical and physiological bases of suction exerted by the baby on the breast, so the health professional can recognize the factors that promote successful breastfeeding and to solve the problems or difficulties that could arise. Also are discussed here the main elements of a practice and proper technique, which are essential to provide breastfeeding counseling.

  3. Professionals’ Experiences of the Relations between Personal History and Professional Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Sjølie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how workers in a crisis resolution home treatment (CRHT team experience the relationship between their personal history and professional role. This paper is based on 13 in-depth interviews with health professionals working in CRHT. The interviews were analysed using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Participants expressed that there is a relationship between their personal history and professional role, and three themes are highlighted as particularly important in, namely experiences related to the participants as individuals, work-related experiences and family-related experiences. The participants write meaning into the relationship between their personal history and professional role. By relating and exploring their own life stories in the interviews, they work on forming meaning and identity.

  4. An Analysis of Student Affairs Professionals' Management of Role Conflict and Multiple Roles in Relation to Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nicole Lepone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to study how student affairs professionals manage role conflict in relation to work/life balance based on the challenging culture of the field. The underlying goals are to identify the barriers or challenges of managing multiple roles as a student affairs administrator and identify strategies to assist employees in…

  5. Enabling professional development in mental health nursing: the role of clinical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, G; Happell, B; Reid-Searl, K

    2015-10-01

    Clinical leadership is acknowledged as important to the nursing profession. While studies continue to identify its significance in contributing to positive outcomes for consumers, the role that clinical leadership has in enabling and supporting professional development in mental health nursing is poorly understood. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore the characteristics clinicians consider important for clinical leadership and its significance for mental health nursing in day-to-day clinical practice. Individual face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurses working in mental health settings. Participants described the important role that clinical leaders play in enabling professional development of others through role modelling and clinical teaching. They describe how nurses, whom they perceive as clinical leaders, use role modelling and clinical teaching to influence the professional development of nursing staff and undergraduate nursing students. Attributes such as professionalism and honesty were seen, by participants, as enablers for clinical leaders in effectively and positively supporting the professional development of junior staff and undergraduate nurses in mental health nursing. This paper examines clinical leadership from the perspective of mental health nurses delivering care, and highlights the important role of clinical leaders in supporting professional development in mental health nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Examining Emotional Support Animals and Role Conflicts in Professional Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Younggren, Jeffrey N.; Boisvert, Jennifer A.; Boness, Cassandra L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role conflicts that psychologists may face in their practices related to the evaluation and certification of emotional support animals (ESAs). It reviews the legal differences between ESAs and service animals (SAs), outlines ethical guidelines and legal policies/regulations regarding the use of ESAs, and examines the potential role conflicts that exist when a treating psychologist is certifying the need for an ESA. Finally, it makes recommendations to assist psycholo...

  7. Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazi, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.

  8. Bringing CLARITY to Gray Matter Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Rory D.; Kurth, Florian; Itoh, Noriko; Mongerson, Chandler R.L.; Wailes, Shannon H.; Peng, Mavis S.; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J.

    2015-01-01

    Gray matter atrophy has been shown to be a strong correlate to clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its most commonly used animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the relationship between gray mater atrophy and the spinal cord pathology often observed in EAE has never been established. Here EAE was induced in Thy1.1-YFP mice and their brains imaged using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The brains and spinal cords were subsequently optically cleared using Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel (CLARITY). Axons were followed 5 mm longitudinally in three dimensions in intact spinal cords revealing that 61% of the axons exhibited a mean of 22 axonal ovoids and 8% of the axons terminating in axonal end bulbs. In the cerebral cortex, we observed a decrease in the mean number of layer V pyramidal neurons and a decrease in the mean length of the apical dendrites of the remaining neurons, compared to healthy controls. MRI analysis demonstrated decreased cortical volumes in EAE. Cross-modality correlations revealed a direct relationship between cortical volume loss and axonal end bulb number in the spinal cord, but not ovoid number. This is the first report of the use of CLARITY in an animal model of disease and the first report of the use of both CLARITY and MRI. PMID:25038439

  9. 14 CFR 221.71 - Requirement of clarity and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement of clarity and specificity. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Amendment of Tariffs § 221.71 Requirement of clarity and specificity. Amendments to tariffs shall identify with specificity and clarity the material being amended and...

  10. Self-Concept Clarity and the Management of Social Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Zapf, Dieter

    In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with

  11. Self-concept clarity and the management of social conflict.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtoldt, M.N.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 4 studies we examined the relationship between selfconcept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher selfconcept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with

  12. Unpacking the Roles of the Facilitator in Higher Education Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Leonor; Pareja Roblin, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Facilitators are central for the success of professional learning communities (PLCs). Yet, their specific roles in supporting teacher learning remain still largely underexplored. To address this gap, the current multiple case study examines the roles of 4 university PLC facilitators, the strategies they used to support teacher learning, and the…

  13. The Roles of Professional Engineers at the Institutions of Higher Learning in Nation-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Zambri; Khamis, Nor Kamaliana; Isa, Mohamad Dali; Hashim, Hashimah

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles of professional engineers (PEs) who are attached to the Institutions of Higher Learning (IHLs) and how their contributions are as important as their counterparts in the industry. This paper highlights the roles for PEs at IHLs based on a survey conducted at selected IHLs in Malaysia. Academician-professional…

  14. Professionalizing the Role of Peer Leaders in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany; Doyle, Maureen; Taylor, Jennifer; Antes, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors frequently utilize peer mentors and/or leaders. At Northern Kentucky University, the STEM Ambassador (SA) program involves students in the creation of a STEM community through multifaceted roles as mentors, peer-learning facilitators, and social…

  15. Students with Anxiety: The Role of the Professional School Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanie, Evelyn H.; Stanard, Rebecca Powell

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how school counselors can support students suffering from anxiety. The causes and prevalence of anxiety are presented as well as the differences between normal and problematic anxiety. The role of school personnel in early identification is discussed with particular emphasis on the responsibilities of the school counselor.…

  16. HPV, oropharyngeal cancer, and the role of the dentist: a professional ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Manji, Naila; Piamonte, Romney T; More, Frederick G; Katz, Ralph V

    2012-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an emerging risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer, especially among younger patients, and must be thoughtfully addressed by the dental community. The professional ethical decision-making model first advanced by Ozar and Sokol for use by dentists at chairside (define the dilemma, assess the facts, identify and rank the alternatives, and choose a course of action) was modified to delineate clearly inputs, considerations, and feedback loops based on what is professionally and ethically at stake in advising patients. As the link between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer is established through scientific studies, the role of the dentist in primary and secondary prevention will be crucial. In the absence of definitive evidence, the professional ethical decision-making framework presented here allows dentists to systematically work through available alternatives. Ultimately, the role of the dentist is to use discretion in choosing a professional and ethical course of action for each patient.

  17. Changing Roles and Identities in a Teacher Driven Professional Development Community

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dusen, Ben

    2012-01-01

    In a climate where teachers feel deprofessionalized at the hands of regulations, testing, and politics, it is vital that teachers become empowered both in their own teaching and as agents of change. This physics education research study investigates the Streamline to Mastery professional development program, in which the teachers design professional development opportunities for themselves and for fellow teachers. The research reported here describes the process of teacher professional growth through changes in roles and identities. Videos, emails, and interviews were analyzed to glean insight into practice and participation shifts as these physical science teachers formed a community and engaged in their own classroom research. Implications for the role of PER in teacher professional development and teacher preparation will be discussed.

  18. Health federalism: the role of health care professionals in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K

    2009-01-01

    Nepal has entered from its unitary system into a new "Federal Democratic Republic State". The current constitution presents basic health care services as a fundamental right. The Ministry for Health and Population has been providing resources to meet health demands, but managers are wrestling to meet these demands. Persistent disparities between rural and urban and across regions resulted inferior health outcomes, e.g., life expectancy in an urban district like Bhaktapur is 71 years, whereas in the rural district of Mugu it is 44 years. The poor health and poor access to health care in the past systems prompted people to seek a different model. Ultimately, all political parties except one have agreed on federalism. The exact number of federal states that are going to be created is unknown. In federalism, all federated states have to assume certain relationships between the locality, the region, and the nation that apply not only in politics but in health care too. Managing changes in health care organization during the transitional period and after restructuring the unitary Nepal into federal states should be carefully planned. In case, if new system also fails to deliver necessary health care services, the possibility of igniting of dissatisfaction, public unrest and even disintegration cannot be ignored. In order to outline a structure and give life to a health care system under federalism, health care professionals need to engage themselves seriously.

  19. Role conflicts in nursing and allied health: a comparison of professional and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, L G; Rigolizzo-Gurenlian, J

    1985-02-01

    Role compatibility and conflict between organizational and professional commitment for nurses, high school teachers, college faculty, and social workers have been the focus of several studies over the past two decades. The typical view has been that the professional employee must choose between the profession and the employing organization, since the values of each conflict. Primarily, studies have shown a basic incompatibility between professionals and organizations: the professional is seen as responding to authority based on expertise, while the organization is characterized by authority based on hierarchical position. Since a study of this type has not been conducted in allied health specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine whether bureaucratic and professional role concepts conflict with the allied health professional. Recent graduates and graduates with two years of employment experience representing nursing and four allied health disciplines at one institution were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the respondents were able to maintain a high degree of professional commitment without perceiving undue conflict from the demands of the organization. Based on the findings, allied health educators are encouraged to examine the curriculum to ensure graduates are prepared for the realities of employment as well as committed to their respective professions.

  20. Reconciling professional identity: A grounded theory of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L

    2017-12-01

    Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ROLE OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN SELF-REALIZATION OF PSYCHOLOGISTS-TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S I Kudinov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the problem of the role of professional identity in self-realization of psychologists- teachers. Within the frame of a system-defined approach the research identifies and describes the individual- typological features of the phenomena interesting to us. The works that focus on the study of self-realization are subjected to the analysis, as the result it is noted that in this field there are still gaps in the understanding of this issue. Thus, the study from the perspective of the influence of professional identity on the successful self-realization of the personality is recognized as relevant. In the framework of this study the following assumptions are put forward: there is a relationship between the professional identity and successful self- realization of the personality; the level of formation of professional identity has an impact on the success of personality self-realization; the professional identity not fully formed acts as a barrier for creativity, activity, internality and constructive self- realization; fully formed professional identity provides a high success rate of self-realization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of self- realization and professional identity of psychologists-teachers. For the study, we used “Multidimensional questionnaire of personality self-realization” (MQPS by S.I. Kudinov, for the study of professional identity the following methods were used: “Professional identity-marginalism” questionnaire by E.P. Ermolaeva and Methods of measuring professional identity (MMPI by L.B. Schneider. The results obtained were subjected to quantitative analysis. In the article the author relies on the data gathered as a result of a study conducted at the Institute of Education Development of the Republic of Bashkortostan (GAOU DPO IRO RB, city of Ufa. The sample consisted of 142 educational psychologists. As a result of the conducted research, the specific relationship

  2. The role of professional knowledge in case-based reasoning in practical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Gloeckner, Claire; Fortunato, Angela

    2015-06-01

    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one's professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: (1) Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. (2) Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. (3) The non-research group--students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student's level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills.

  3. How we developed a role-based portfolio for teachers' professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyörälä, Eeva

    2014-09-01

    Faculty development requires practical tools for supporting teachers' professional development. In a modern medical education context, teachers need to adapt to various educational roles. This article describes how a role-based portfolio with a qualitative self-assessment scale was developed. It strives to encourage and support teachers' growth in different educational roles. The portfolio was developed between 2009 and 2012 at the University of Helsinki in dialogue with teachers involved in faculty development. It is based on the role framework presented by Harden and Crosby. Today, it also involves the educational premises of constructive alignment, reflection and a scholarly approach to teaching. The role-based portfolio has led the teachers to discover new educational roles and set goals in their professional development.

  4. C-A5-01: Clarity and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Jamila; Schmidt, Mark; Perkins, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Clarity is the reporting database for Epic data. Clarity was created to extract data from the Epic production server and store it in a relational database and a dedicated reporting server. Clarity can reside on variance platforms such as Teradata or Oracle. Most tables in Clarity are updated nightly by a feed from Chronicles. There are also weekly and monthly updates for the more static tables. Queries and reports generated from Clarity can be are very comprehensive and provide complete information at the individual data point level.

  5. Time to clarify--the value of advanced practice nursing roles in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Grainne; Plummer, Virginia; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Boyd, Leanne

    2012-03-01

    This article presents a discussion of the importance of providing meaningful advanced practice nursing role definition and clarity to improve international standards of nursing titles and scopes of practice. A plethora of international literature exists discussing advanced practice nursing roles and their contribution to healthcare delivery in various countries. However, lack of consistency around title, role definition and scope of practice remains. CINAHL and Medline databases were searched using 'nurse practitioner', 'nurse practitioner role', 'nurse practitioner practice', 'nurse practitioner in public health', 'advanced practice nursing roles' and 'development of new nursing roles' with articles limited to years 1995-2010. Citations used in those articles were also explored. All cited articles were in the English language. This article supports the need to strengthen the Nurse Practitioner role in health care and professional clarity is identified as a strategy to enhance this. Themes around role clarity, professional identity, ability to enhance healthcare provision and inter-professional issues are examined. The need to more clearly articulate advanced nursing roles in light of the evolution of the Nurse Practitioner role is highlighted. Much work has already occurred in this domain and a means of adapting and broadening these developments for a wider, more global audience whilst maintaining local context is discussed. Although evidence exists that advanced practice nursing roles are increasing internationally, uncertainty around role clarity remains. This is problematic because the valuable contribution of nursing roles is lost, if the ability to clearly express their function does not exist. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Emotional Clarity as a Buffer in the Association Between Perceived Mental Illness Stigma and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Weiss, Nicole H.; Pachankis, John E.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Among people living with psychiatric disorders, mental illness stigma has been identified as a major barrier to recovery by contributing to low self-esteem and interfering with treatment-seeking. The present research examined the association between perceived mental illness stigma and suicide risk severity and considered the role of emotional clarity (i.e., the ability to identify and understand one’s emotional experiences), a critical component of emotion regulation, as a moderator of this association. A sample of individuals who had experienced recent psychiatric hospitalizations (N = 184) completed self-report measures of perceived stigma associated with their psychiatric diagnoses, deficits in emotional clarity, and behaviors that have been found to confer risk for suicide. A moderation analysis revealed that perceived mental illness stigma was positively associated with suicide risk severity, but only for individuals who have greater deficits in emotional clarity. These findings highlight the role of emotional clarity as a resource for individuals coping with mental illness stigma and underscore the potential utility of targeting deficits in emotional clarity in prevention and intervention efforts for reducing suicide risk. PMID:28090587

  7. Between self-clarity and recovery in schizophrenia: reducing the self-stigma and finding meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Elhasid, Noa; Yanos, Philip T; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2014-04-01

    Although there are extensive theoretical reviews regarding the self-experience among persons with schizophrenia, there is limited research that addresses the implications of self-clarity on the recovery of persons with schizophrenia while exploring the role of possible mediators within this process. Accordingly, the current study explored the relationship between self-clarity and recovery while examining the possible mediating role of self-stigma and sense of meaning in life. 80 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered four scales: self-concept clarity, self-stigma, meaning in life, and recovery. Results confirmed the hypothesized model in which self-clarity affects self-stigma, self-stigma affects meaning in life, and meaning in life affects recovery. No direct relationship was uncovered between self-clarity and recovery. Implications of the current study for future research and clinical practice are discussed with the emphasis on the importance of the self-experience with regard to the process of recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emotional Clarity as a Buffer in the Association Between Perceived Mental Illness Stigma and Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Weiss, Nicole H; Pachankis, John E; Link, Bruce G

    2016-11-01

    Among people living with psychiatric disorders, mental illness stigma has been identified as a major barrier to recovery by contributing to low self-esteem and interfering with treatment-seeking. The present research examined the association between perceived mental illness stigma and suicide risk severity and considered the role of emotional clarity (i.e., the ability to identify and understand one's emotional experiences), a critical component of emotion regulation, as a moderator of this association. A sample of individuals who had experienced recent psychiatric hospitalizations ( N = 184) completed self-report measures of perceived stigma associated with their psychiatric diagnoses, deficits in emotional clarity, and behaviors that have been found to confer risk for suicide. A moderation analysis revealed that perceived mental illness stigma was positively associated with suicide risk severity, but only for individuals who have greater deficits in emotional clarity. These findings highlight the role of emotional clarity as a resource for individuals coping with mental illness stigma and underscore the potential utility of targeting deficits in emotional clarity in prevention and intervention efforts for reducing suicide risk.

  9. Emerging Roles for Librarians in the Medical School Curriculum and the Impact on Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the impact on professional identity for health sciences librarians participating in the curriculum revision and development process. A qualitative survey, designed to examine the current roles, values, and self-identification of health sciences librarians involved in curricular revision, was conducted. The respondents discussed how they had participated in the planning, implementation, and rollout phases of revised curricula. They identified skills and values essential to successful participation and described the impact of expanded professional relationships on new identities as educators, change agents, and problem solvers. The study may add to the knowledge base of skills and attitudes needed for successful practice in these newly emerging roles.

  10. The Role of Health Information Management Professionals in the Use of Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in healthcare has expanded rapidly. Although the use of GIS has increased quickly, very little consensus has been reached on which healthcare professionals are best suited to be trained in and use GIS. A moderate amount of research has addressed the use of GIS in healthcare, but very little research has addressed selecting and training healthcare professionals in the area of GIS. As the use of GIS becomes more closely tied to electronic health records (EHRs), the thought arises that those best versed in EHRs, health information management (HIM) professionals, would be best suited to take on the GIS role. This mixed-methods study explored the current status of HIM professionals' role in GIS as well as the extent to which GIS is being taught in health information educational programs. Although the findings indicate that few HIM professionals are currently using GIS in their jobs and few HIM programs are currently teaching GIS, there is interest in GIS in the future for HIM professionals and in HIM educational programs.

  11. Corneal clarity measurements in healthy volunteers across different age groups: Observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Carley, Fiona; Brahma, Arun; Morley, Debbie; Hillarby, M Chantal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize and investigate the changes in corneal clarity with age. Densitometry software for the Oculus Pentacam was used to examine corneal clarity at different age groups.A total of 192 eyes from 97 healthy participants were included in this cohort comparative nonrandomized, cross-sectional study. An Oculus Pentcam was used to image the cornea of healthy participants grouped by age (between 10 and 70 years old). Data from the densitometry output have been used to determine clarity in concentric zones and different depths of the cornea.Corneal densitometry (CD) across all ages showed significant differences between groups when divided into the following layers: anterior, central, and posterior or divided into 0 to 2, 2 to 6, and 6 to 10 mm concentric zones (P < .05). The most striking decrease in clarity occurred with age in all 3 layers of the periphery (6-10 mm) (P < .05). In addition, we showed that the 10 to 19-year age group had lower clarity than the 20 to 30-age group (P < .05), and after 30 years, the cornea shows a steady progression of increased or decreased clarity.The values for CD, as well as for separate subdivisions based on layer and surface area, might provide a standard for use in further studies and clinical practice. This study established that relation between CD and age is differed when the cornea is divided into layers and zones. This study suggests that there are other factors that may play an essential role in corneal clarity as well as age.

  12. Graduates' development of interprofessional practice capability during their early socialisation into professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C Jane

    2017-07-01

    Graduates entering the healthcare workforce can expect to undertake interprofessional practices, requiring them to work at the intersection of knowledge and practice boundaries that have been built over years of socialisation in their respective professions. Yet, in complex health environments, where health challenges go beyond the knowledge and skills of any single profession, there is a growing concern that healthcare practitioners lack capability to collaborate with each other. This article presents the findings from a year-long hermeneutic phenomenological study of graduates' temporal experiences of practice roles in their respective fields of healthcare and in collaboration with other professions. Research findings emerged through an inductive analytic process using thematic analysis techniques and provides an insight into graduates' early professional practice in contemporary healthcare contexts and the development of their professional practice at the interface of professional boundaries. The 18 graduates from six health professions developed their professional practice in working contexts where intersecting professional boundaries resulted in strengthening professional identity in their chosen professions, through articulating distinct knowledge and skills to other professions during collaborative work. Concurrently they established flexible working relationships with members of other professions, resulting in expanding health perspectives and extending practice knowledge and skills beyond their distinct professions. The study provides new understanding of the relationship between areas of professionalism, identity, and collaborative practice in an evolving health workforce, through the experiences of graduates in their early work as registered health practitioners.

  13. Guiding role of typical cases in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.

  14. Physicians' views on the professional roles of pharmacists in patient care in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awalom, Merhawi Teklai; Kidane, Medhanie Elias; Abraha, Biruck Woldai

    2013-10-01

    A collaborative relationship between physicians and pharmacists is crucial in the patient oriented role of pharmacists. In order to get an optimal patient outcome, strong cooperation between pharmacists and physicians is necessary. It is evident that in patient-oriented activities of pharmacists, their roles should be appropriately perceived and welcomed by physicians. This survey, thus, aimed to explore the perception of Eritrean physicians towards the professional roles of pharmacists in patient care. The study was conducted in all hospitals in Asmara. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to the physicians working in Asmara hospitals. The instrument contained questions to evaluate the physicians' level of agreement using a 5-point Likert type scale. Opinions of physicians on the professional role of pharmacists. Out of the 55 questionnaires distributed 50 were completed and returned, giving a response rate of 90.91 %. Most of the physicians accepted the reprofessionalization of pharmacy profession (88 %); majority disagreed that pharmacists are using their full potential in patient care (60 %); physicians strongly agreed or agreed that they should accept pharmacists' recommendations on patients' medication (96 %). Generally the physicians appreciated the professional role of pharmacists in patient care. They agreed with the idea of re-professionalization of pharmacy into patient care. For conclusive evidence nationwide study is recommended.

  15. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  16. Professional Role Expectations and Related Feelings When Solving Pedagogical Dilemmas: A Comparison of Pre- and In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toompalu, Aivi; Leijen, Äli; Kullasepp, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' professional identity development. Using Dialogical Self Theory and a socio-cultural semiotic mediational perspective, we focused on pre- and in-service teachers' communication of professional role expectations and related feelings when solving pedagogical dilemmas to reveal aspects of their professional identity…

  17. A Mixed-Methods Study Examining the Role of the Instructional Coach within a Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Christie L.

    2016-01-01

    Although instructional coaching and professional learning communities provide ongoing, job-embedded support and professional learning, little is known about what role the instructional coach serves within the setting of the professional learning community or what coaching skills teachers find most helpful within this setting. Research examining…

  18. Teacher Design Teams as a Strategy for Professional Development: The Role of the Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becuwe, Heleen; Tondeur, Jo; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Thys, Jeroen; Castelein, Els

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to explore the role and importance of the facilitator in teacher design teams. The study took place in the context of a pre-service teacher education institution in Belgium, where teacher design teams were set up to facilitate the professional development of teacher educators. The findings from focus-group…

  19. Special Education Trainee Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional World: Motives, Roles, and Expectations from Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Bella

    2017-01-01

    To open a window into perceptions entailed in the professional world view of special education teacher trainees, three research questions were developed: (a) What are their motives for joining the profession? (b) How do they perceive the role of the special education teacher? and (c) What are their expectations from teacher training? The research…

  20. Moving Theory to Practice: One State's Role in Professional Learning for School and District Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine-Shaw, Donna

    2016-01-01

    As a continuum of professional learning for building and district leaders transitioning from leadership preparation programs into practice, the state of Kansas enacted mentoring and induction requirements as part of their role in supporting development of leadership skills important to on-the-job application of essential knowledge. One approved…

  1. The Changing Roles and Identities of Professional Managers in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitchurch, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Professional managers in UK universities represent an increasingly diverse grouping of staff. As boundaries blur between academic activity and the contributory functions required to deliver that activity in mass higher education systems and markets, their roles have become more fluid. Quasi-academic territories are developing in which professional…

  2. Networking for Learning The role of Networking in a Lifelong Learner's Professional Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, Kamakshi

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the role the social activity of networking plays in lifelong learners’ professional and personal continuous development. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that networking is a learning strategy for lifelong learners, in which conversations are key activities through

  3. Teacher Educators' Professional Journeys: Pedagogical and Systemic Issues Affecting Role Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Teacher educators in many countries share similar concerns as they aspire to improve education for learners and stimulate interest in further study and careers. The roles and professional development of school teachers have been researched, but little attention has been given to teacher educators. Using a small-scale, illuminative study in England…

  4. Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barra, Luca

    2013-01-01

    abstractWith the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay

  5. The Role the Collegiate American Marketing Association Plays in Professional and Entrepreneurial Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Scovotti, Carol; Pointer, Lucille

    2008-01-01

    Professional student organizations offer members a wide range of learning opportunities for applied marketing experiences. Little research exists in the marketing education literature on the role student organizations play in preparing their members for life beyond school. Understanding what students seek as members of such organizations and how…

  6. Collaborative IT Offshoring Relationships and Professional Role Identities: Reflections from a Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Angelika; Ravishankar, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    While IT offshoring has generated heated debates both in scholarly circles and in the popular press, its impact on professional role identities and career experiences of situated individuals in both onshore and offshore locations has received much less attention. In this paper, we present a qualitative case study featuring a large global German…

  7. The Impact of Inbreeding and Immobility on the Professional Role and Scholarly Performance of Academic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Jeffrey E.

    This paper explores the effects of limited experience resulting from professional immobility on faculty teaching and research role orientations and faculty productivity. The correlates of institutional inbreeding treated as a form of immobility are examined. Data are provided from a large-scale, nationally representative survey of college and…

  8. The Role of Mentors in the Career Development of Young Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cheryl A.; Wright, Scott D.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the literature on mentoring including benefits and costs, issues related to women and minorities, and the role of mentoring in the academic community. Emphasizes the need for peer-mentoring in the academic community. Emphasizes the need for peer-mentoring relationship for young professionals in addition to professor-graduate student…

  9. Teacher Perceptions of Professional Role and Innovative Teaching at Elementary Schools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Lun; Li, Feng-Chin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the association between primary school teachers' perceptions of professional role and their innovative teaching in Central Taiwan. Quantitative research methods were employed, and data were collected from 554 Central Taiwanese teachers. The results of the present study indicated that elementary school…

  10. Professional Role and Identity of Icelandic Preschool Teachers: Effects of Stakeholders' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Arna H.; Coleman, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the reality of Icelandic preschool teachers who are, as in most other countries, predominantly female. The gendered nature of the role and the current identity adopted by preschool teachers appear to impact on their perceived status and professionalism. In this process, stakeholders in early childhood education (ECE),…

  11. The Role of Elective Courses in Students' Professional Development: Foreign Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movchan, Larysa; Zarishniak, Inna

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the role of elective courses in professional development of students of economics. Modern European education is developing on the principles of democratization and humanization, where democratization implies the involvement of all agents/participants of the education process into forming its content and solving numerous…

  12. What is the veterinary professional identity? Preliminary findings from web-based continuing professional development in veterinary professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage-Chan, E; Maddison, J; May, S A

    2016-03-26

    Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Self-concept clarity and the management of social conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Nijstad, Bernard A; Zapf, Dieter

    2010-04-01

    In 4 studies we examined the relationship between self-concept clarity and conflict management. Individuals with higher self-concept clarity were overall more active and showed more cooperative problem-solving behavior than people with low self-concept clarity. There were no relationships with contending or yielding. The positive relationship with cooperative behavior was mediated by less rumination (Study 2) and moderated by conflict intensity (Study 3). Specifically, it applied to relatively mild conflicts (Study 3). Finally, Study 4 extended these findings to the group level: Dyad members with higher self-concept clarity engaged in problem solving, whereas dyad members with lower self-concept clarity did not. We conclude that higher self-concept clarity associates with proactive problem solving in social conflict.

  14. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Liza M; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-07-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one's own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls' tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementation of interprofessional learning activities in a professional practicum: The emerging role of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Isabelle; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; St-Denis, Louise; Lebel, Paule

    2015-01-01

    To prepare future healthcare professionals to collaborate effectively, many universities have developed interprofessional education programs (IPE). Till date, these programs have been mostly courses or clinical simulation experiences. Few attempts have been made to pursue IPE in healthcare clinical settings. This article presents the results of a pilot project in which interprofessional learning activities (ILAs) were implemented during students' professional practicum and discusses the actual and potential use of informatics in the ILA implementation. We conducted a pilot study in four healthcare settings. Our analysis is based on focus group interviews with trainees, clinical supervisors, ILA coordinators, and education managers. Overall, ILAs led to better clarification of roles and understanding of each professional's specific expertise. Informatics was helpful for developing a common language about IPE between trainees and healthcare professionals; opportunities for future application of informatics were noted. Our results support the relevance of ILAs and the value of promoting professional exchanges between students of different professions, both in academia and in the clinical setting. Informatics appears to offer opportunities for networking among students from different professions and for team members' professional development. The use of technology facilitated communication among the participants.

  16. An exploration of role model influence on adult nursing students' professional development: A phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate

    2016-02-01

    Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reverberant speech recognition exploiting clarity index estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Pablo Peso; Sharma, Dushyant; Naylor, Patrick A.; Waterschoot, Toon van

    2015-12-01

    We present single-channel approaches to robust automatic speech recognition (ASR) in reverberant environments based on non-intrusive estimation of the clarity index ( C 50). Our best performing method includes the estimated value of C 50 in the ASR feature vector and also uses C 50 to select the most suitable ASR acoustic model according to the reverberation level. We evaluate our method on the REVERB Challenge database employing two different C 50 estimators and show that our method outperforms the best baseline of the challenge achieved without unsupervised acoustic model adaptation, i.e. using multi-condition hidden Markov models (HMMs). Our approach achieves a 22.4 % relative word error rate reduction in comparison to the best baseline of the challenge.

  18. Achieving patient-centred care: the potential and challenge of the patient-as-professional role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Short, Alison; Kenning, Annie; Dugdale, Paul; Nugus, Peter; McGowan, Russell; Greenfield, David

    2015-12-01

    The patient-as-professional concept acknowledges the expert participation of patients in interprofessional teams, including their contributions to managing and coordinating their care. However, little is known about experiences and perspectives of these teams. To investigate (i) patients' and carers' experiences of actively engaging in interprofessional care by enacting the patient-as-professional role and (ii) clinicians' perspectives of this involvement. A two-phased qualitative study. In Phase 1, people with chronic disease (n = 50) and their carers (n = 5) participated in interviews and focus groups. Phase 2 involved interviews with clinicians (n = 14). Data were analysed thematically. Patients and carers described the characteristics of the role (knowing about the condition, questioning clinicians, coordinating care, using a support network, engaging an advocate and being proactive), as well as factors that influence its performance (the patient-clinician partnership, benefits, barriers and applicability). However, both patients and carers, and clinicians cautioned that not all patients might desire this level of involvement. Clinicians were also concerned that not all patients have the required knowledge for this role, and those who do are time-consuming. When describing the inclusion of the patient-as-professional, clinicians highlighted the patient and clinician's roles, the importance of the clinician-patient relationship and ramifications of the role. Support exists for the patient-as-professional role. The characteristics and influencing factors identified in this study could guide patient engagement with the interprofessional team and support clinicians to provide patient-centred care. Recognition of the role has the potential to improve health-care delivery by promoting patient-centred care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    .... Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis...

  20. An Analysis of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Among Air Force Information Management Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Server in the Enterprise 6. MCP - Internetworking with MS TCP/IP on MS Win NT 4.0 7. MCP - Implementing and Supporting MS IIS 4.0 8. CompTIA ...Network+ Certified Professional (2001) 9. CompTIA A+ Hardware Certified Professional (2002, includes Win2K); I am qualified in the following: 1. Panduit...following: 1. CompTIA A+ Course: http://www.comptia.org/certification/aplus/index.htm 2. CompTia Network+ Course: http://www.comptia.org/certification

  1. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol-Cuadra, Assumpció; Galbany-Estragué, Paola; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció; Burjales-Martí, Maria Dolors; Rodríguez-Martín, Dolors; Ballester-Ferrando, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships. METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities. RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances. CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum. PMID:26312637

  2. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpció Rigol-Cuadra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships.METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities.RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances.CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum.

  3. A systematic review of evidence about extended roles for allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Kathryn; Kersten, Paula; George, Steve; Lattimer, Val; Breton, Alice; Ellis, Bridget; Kaur, Dawn; Frampton, Geoff

    2006-10-01

    Extending the role of allied health professionals has been promoted as a key component of developing a flexible health workforce. This review aimed to synthesize the evidence about the impact of these roles. A systematic review of extended scope of practice in five groups: paramedics, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, radiographers, and speech and language therapists. The nature and effect of these roles on patients, health professionals and health services were examined. An inclusive approach to searching was used to maximize potential sources of interest including multiple databases, 'grey' literature and subject area experts. An expanded Cochrane Collaboration method was used in view of the anticipated lack of randomized controlled trials and heterogeneity of designs. Papers were only excluded after the search stage for lack of relevance. A total of 355 papers was identified as meeting relevance criteria and 21 studies progressed to full review and data extraction. The primary reason for exclusion from data extraction was that the study included neither qualitative nor quantitative data or because methodological flaws compromised data quality. It was not possible to evaluate any pooled effects as patient health outcomes were rarely considered. A range of extended practice roles for allied health professionals have been promoted and are being undertaken, but their health outcomes have rarely been evaluated. There is also little evidence as to how best to introduce such roles, or how best to educate, support and mentor these practitioners.

  4. The changing role of health care professionals in nursing homes: A systematic literature review of a decade of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stenis, A.R. (Arend R.); J. Van Wingerden (Jessica); Tanke, I.K. (Isolde Kolkhuis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAlthough, the role of health care professionals is known to have changed over the last years, few formal efforts have been made to examine this change through means of a scientific review. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the changing role of health care professionals

  5. [Role of biological training in the formation of professional capacities in parasitologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Abdiukhina, T I; Imamkuliev, K D; Pautova, E A

    2013-01-01

    A competence approach is the methodological basis for a new educational system. Fundamental training in the formation of physicians' professional capacities plays a crucial and more increasing role in the structure of medical education. Biology as a fundamental natural science discloses the regularities of emergence and development, as well as essential conditions for life maintenance. The investigation has determined the didactic bases (goals and content) of a system for biological training of parasitologists in continuing medical education, which ensure the formation of their professional capacities. A set of methodical conditions for implementing the system of the physicians' biological training in postgraduate and advanced medical education as a tool to upgrade the quality of parasitologists' professional training has been determined.

  6. Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Barra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay explores the ‘invisible art’ of TV adaptation and dubbing, explaining its procedures, traditions and challenges. Adaptation has to consider both the technical necessities of the audio-visual and cross-cultural aspects of translation, while dubbing involves extremely intricate production routines, professionals with different skills, written and unwritten rules, a range of different workplaces, economic investments and traditions. The result is a new text, modified following contrasting linguistic, cultural and professional goals.

  7. Faculty role modeling of professional writing: one baccalaureate nursing program's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Sarah E

    2008-01-01

    According to The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 1998), professional writing is an important outcome of baccalaureate nursing education. Most baccalaureate nursing programs in the United States expect formally written student papers to adhere to the style requirements outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2001). It is essential for the baccalaureate nursing faculty members who evaluate student papers to be role models for the desired writing behaviors to facilitate student attainment of professional writing outcomes. However, to what extent nursing faculty members' writing behaviors and knowledge of the APA style requirements impact student writing outcomes is not known because the issue has not been addressed in the literature. The purpose of this article is to describe one Midwestern baccalaureate nursing program's faculty development efforts to assess faculty familiarity with the APA style requirements and how such knowledge may impact baccalaureate nursing students' writing outcomes.

  8. Professional Education, Training and Role of the Cardiac Sonographer in Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Irene; Barletta, Valentina; Conte, Lorenzo; Fabiani, Iacopo; Morgantini, Alessandro; Lastrucci, Giovanna; Bello, Vitantonio Di

    2013-01-01

    Performing a good echocardiographic examination requires intensive training and highly qualified technical staff personnel, which, in many countries, is represented by the Cardiac Sonographer. Being an operator-dependent diagnostic method, a long debate has been held to help identifying the most appropriate curriculum for the training of this professional profile. Although guidelines for the education of the Cardiac Sonographers have been suggested by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) several years ago and many scientific publications have given credibility, trust and enhance to this professional profile in Italy, this figure is not yet recognized by the National Health System. It is encouraging that in the last decade, national authorities, such as the SIEC (Società Italiana di Ecografia Cardiovascolare), have expressed interest in recognizing the Cardiac Sonographers as professionals in our country. Per their guidelines, the Cardiocirculatory Physiopathology Cardiovascular Perfusion technicians (TFCPCs) seem to be, among the professionals, the most suitable, due to their educational training and the role they play. Taking inspiration from the positive experience of this professional figure in the USA and in the Anglo Saxon countries, it could aims to be a valid support in terms of cost and quality for the Italian health system. PMID:28465879

  9. The Role of the Administrative Professional in the Management of Complex Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Piscopo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As a profession that dates back the scribes’ time, the secretariat has significantly evolved over time but research on this field seems not to follow the practitioners’ role. Nowadays, the specialization required from the administrative professional involves not only the previously skills that for long time characterized the secretary’s job but also a set of new ones that are more related to the organization’s management. They may include but are not limited to enabling results in a wide sense as getting involved in change management, creativity and entrepreneurship, productivity increasing plans, cost cutting actions, and project management. Due to the complexity that characterizes the business environment and companies’ projects, this article aims at investigating the role of the administrative professional in the management of complex projects. As an exploratory research, three case studies have been conducted with global companies in which complex projects are part of their reality and the administrative professional is officially existent. Findings show that the involvement of this professional has been very positive to project performance due to the way he supported the project manager and the project team. Both secretary’s hard and soft skills were of great importance to project performance, especially communication, negotiation, and attitude. The executive secretariat has moved from an operational to a strategic perspective. To continue growing in the profession the secretary needs to improve his knowledge on project management.

  10. The Ethics of Clarity and/or Obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Nate

    2013-01-01

    The essay examines the ethical tensions surrounding the common cultural and disciplinary demand that writers write "clearly." The essay seeks to advance the discipline's engagement with Linda Kintz's and Sharon Crowley's separate critiques of the "ideology of clarity," arguing that clarity potentially manipulates audiences primarily through either…

  11. Tampa Bay Water Clarity Model (TBWCM): As a Predictive Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Bay Water Clarity Model was developed as a predictive tool for estimating the impact of changing nutrient loads on water clarity as measured by secchi depth. The model combines a physical mixing model with an irradiance model and nutrient cycling model. A 10 segment bi...

  12. Virtuous Mess and Wicked Clarity: Struggle in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the value of clarity--of theory, method and purposes--in educational research. It draws upon the work of early critical theorist, Theodor Adorno, and particularly his notion of negative dialectics and his challenge to the traditional dichotomy of theory and practice. Using the notions of virtuous mess and wicked clarity, I…

  13. 17 CFR 260.7a-21 - Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clarity. 260.7a-21 Section 260.7a-21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, TRUST INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 General Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-21 Clarity...

  14. Daily dynamics of personal identity and self-concept clarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, S.J.; Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Hale, W.W.; Frijns, T.; Oosterwegel, A.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the daily dynamics among self-concept clarity and identity processes, and their effects on distress, among a sample of 580 Dutch adolescents. Participants completed measures of identity, self-concept clarity, anxiety and depression at annual intervals; and daily single-item measures of

  15. Aberrant salience, self-concept clarity, and interview-rated psychotic-like experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Docherty, Anna R; Becker, Theresa M; Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2015-02-01

    Many social-cognitive models of psychotic-like symptoms posit a role for self-concept and aberrant salience. Previous work has shown that the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity is associated with self-reported psychotic-like experiences. In the current research with two structured interviews, the interaction between aberrant salience and self-concept clarity was found to be associated with interview-rated psychotic-like experiences. The interaction was associated with psychotic-like experiences composite scores, delusional ideation, grandiosity, and perceptual anomalies. In all cases, self-concept clarity was negatively associated with psychotic-like experiences at high levels of aberrant salience, but unassociated with psychotic-like experiences at low levels of aberrant salience. The interaction was specific to positive psychotic-like experiences and not present for negative or disorganized ratings. The interaction was not mediated by self-esteem levels. These results provide further evidence that aberrant salience and self-concept clarity play an important role in the generation of psychotic-like experiences.

  16. Managing professionals: The emerging leadership role of Victorian Maternal and Child Health coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiger, Kerreen; Keleher, Helen

    2004-04-01

    Drawing on research into cultural and organizational change in the Victorian Maternal and Child Health Service during the 1990s, this paper examines implications for the nursing leadership provided by service coordinators. The project included a quantitative survey of nurses and semistructured interviews with managers and coordinators. Under a strongly neo-liberal state government in Victoria, Australia, services were fundamentally restructured through tendering processes. A competitive, productivist culture was introduced that challenged the professional ethos of nurses and a primary health orientation to the care of mothers and infants. This paper focuses on the pressures that the entrepreneurial environment presented to maternal and child health nurses' identity and collegial relations and to the coordination role. It argues that coordinators emerged as a significant nursing management group at the interface of administrative change and the management of professional practice. Although many nurses skillfully negotiated tensions with peers and management, their leadership role needs further clarification and support.

  17. Longitudinal mentorship to support the development of medical students? future professional role: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kal?n, Susanne; Ponzer, Sari; Seeberger, Astrid; Kiessling, Anna; Sil?n, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background Mentoring has been employed in medical education in recent years, but there is extensive variation in the published literature concerning the goals of mentoring and the role of the mentor. Therefore, there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the meaning of mentoring for medical students? learning and development. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore how formal and longitudinal mentoring can contribute to medical students? professional development. Methods Sixte...

  18. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  19. Extended roles for allied health professionals: an updated systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxon RL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Robyn L Saxon,1–3 Marion A Gray,1,2 Florin I Oprescu1,2 1School of Health and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, 2Cluster for Health Improvement, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, 3Queensland Health, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Background: Internationally, health care services are under increasing pressure to provide high quality, accessible, timely interventions to an ever increasing aging population, with finite resources. Extended scope roles for allied health professionals is one strategy that could be undertaken by health care services to meet this demand. This review builds upon an earlier paper published in 2006 on the evidence relating to the impact extended scope roles have on health care services. Methods: A systematic review of the literature focused on extended scope roles in three allied health professional groups, ie, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology, was conducted. The search strategy mirrored an earlier systematic review methodology and was designed to include articles from 2005 onwards. All peer-reviewed published papers with evidence relating to effects on patients, other professionals, or the health service were included. All papers were critically appraised prior to data extraction. Results: A total of 1,000 articles were identified by the search strategy; 254 articles were screened for relevance and 21 progressed to data extraction for inclusion in the systematic review. Conclusion: Literature supporting extended scope roles exists; however, despite the earlier review calling for more robust evaluations regarding the impact on patient outcomes, cost-effectiveness, training requirements, niche identification, or sustainability, there appears to be limited research reported on the topic in the last 7 years. The evidence available suggests that extended scope practice allied health practitioners could be a cost-effective and consumer

  20. Evaluating the role of health informatics professionals in saudi arabia: the need for collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkraiji, Abdullah I; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Saudi health authorities have acknowledged the role of health informatics professionals in improving the quality of medical services in Saudi Arabia. Different academic programs have been launched by different universities and medical colleges to produce qualified Saudi health informatics professionals. To date, there are no studies that have explained the role of health informaticians and their contribution towards the development of the Saudi health information infrastructure. In this study, the authors clarify health informatics practices and the different skills and job activities accomplished by health informaticians. With the growth in the number of Health Informatics programs within the country, there is a need to identify the current and future of HI professionals and to specify and clearly define the type of job titles describing health informatics roles. The Saudi HI educational programs need to work on linking their program objectives with a Saudi Health Informatics Career Framework (SHICF) and labor market needs. Ignoring such an important issue may result in unemployed Saudi HI graduates or HI graduates working in related fields other than HI.

  1. Exploring perceptions of healthcare professionals in the implementation of a new professional role of clinical telehealth coordinator within a university integrated healthcare network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Carine; Desrochers, Johanne; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Richer, Marie-Claire

    2010-06-01

    As telehealth networks develop across Canada, new professional roles start to emerge. A university healthcare center part of an integrated health network has identified the need to introduce a clinical coordinator for specialized telehealth programs. However, very little is found in the current literature about the description or core competencies that such a professional should possess as well as the ways to implement this role. The objective of this study was to explore how healthcare professionals (HCPs) involved in a specialized teleoncology program perceive a new clinical telehealth coordinator (CTC) role within a university integrated healthcare network (UIHN) in a metropolitan area in Québec, Canada. A descriptive qualitative design was used and a purposive sample of nine HCPs, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists who were members of a UIHN teleoncology committee, was recruited. The HCPs identified that the CTC was a multifaceted role. The core competencies identified by the HCPs included knowledge, expertise, and experience. Participants identified three key factors in the implementation of this role, namely, the structural support, having a common language, and making the implementation of this role relevant. The results suggest that this CTC role may be more complex than originally expected and that the diverse competencies suggest an expanded nature to this role. This has important implications for administrative strategies when addressing the key factors in the implementation of this role.

  2. The role of sustained professional development in science teacher renewal and retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Janice Dawn

    The Texas Regional Collaboratives for Excellence in Science Teaching (TRC) is a sustained professional development program serving over 700 teachers in Texas. The teacher participants receive over 105 contact hours of professional development each year. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TRC professional development program in science teacher renewal and retention. Sixty current and former members of the TRC were intentionally selected and surveyed to determine the impact of the program on science teacher renewal. One-on-one interviews were also conducted with selected participants to verify and describe their respective TRC experiences. Study participants averaged 13.4 years of teaching experience and 3.3 years participating in the TRC program. Findings revealed teachers joined the TRC program to enhance the learning of their students, remained in the program for the classroom lessons and materials and left the program due to family reasons. Findings also revealed six factors impacting science teacher renewal: Building confidence in teaching ability; creating professional environments; providing classroom materials; providing current information on statewide issues; providing leadership opportunities; and providing networking opportunities. These factors impacting renewal are supported in literature on science teacher retention and renewal and are all important for science teacher renewal to occur.

  3. The role of fencing in the formation of professional competence of future teachers in the sphere of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriventsova I.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Here the notion of professional competence of future teachers in the sphere of physical culture is defined. It is proved that in a training of a teacher of any specialty a big part is assigned to knowledge, skills, facilities and experience in the sphere of physical culture. The ways of forming professional competence in the sphere of physical culture among future teachers are shown. The role and facilities of fencing in the forming professional competence are disclosed.

  4. The roles of policy and professionalism in the protection of processed clinical data: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Theadom, Alice; Dhoul, Neil

    2007-04-01

    Routinely collected clinical data is increasingly used for health service management, audit, and research. Even apparently anonymised data are subject to data protection. The relevant principles were set out in a treaty of the Council of Europe and subsequent policy has been based on these. However, little has been written about implementing policy and the role of health informaticians in this process. To define the elements of an effective implementation policy; the role of the health informatician in protecting processed clinical data. We performed a literature review of bibliographic databases, a manual search of the major medical informatics associations' websites, relevant working groups and an affiliated journal. Fifty-four papers relevant to implementation were identified. The effective implementation of policy requires consideration of technical, organisational, personnel and professional issues. However, there is no clearly defined formula for successful implementation of data protection policy. Patients and professionals need a system they can trust, and processes that can be easily incorporated into everyday practice. The lack of a core generalisable theory or strong professional code in health informatics limits the ability of the health informaticians to implement policy.

  5. Against professionalizing leadership: the roles of self-formation and practical wisdom in leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Svane, Marita Susanna

    2018-01-01

    misconceives the role of leadership education to be only a question of acquiring epistemic (rational and universal) knowledge and skills while it fails to acknowledge technê as craft and art and local and situated awareness and sensitivity. Practical wisdom involves all dimensions. Leadership education......Based on the concepts self-formation and phronesis (practical wisdom), this chapter argues against professionalizing leadership. Professionalization implies rules, guidelines, procedures, and accreditation standards in relation to contents, curricula and the pedagogy of education. It thus...... is important because of its potential to nurture a creative, critical and responsible relation to the world. Leadership thus requires a practice-based educational program and a “free space” for experimentation, reflection and self-formation, which is inconsistent with turning leadership into a profession....

  6. Integrating information literacy into the education of public health professionals: roles for librarians and the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobus, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews the core competencies for public health professionals presented in the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century; describes improving information literacy (IL) as a mechanism for integrating the core competencies in public health education; and showcases IL as an opportunity for solidifying partnerships between academic librarians and public health educators. The IOM competencies, along with explicit examples of library support from a literature review of current IL trends in the health sciences, are analyzed. Librarians can play a fundamental role in implementing the IOM's core competencies in shaping public health education for the twenty-first century. A partnership between public health educators and librarians through a transdisciplinary approach is recommended. IL skills and competencies integrated into public health curricula through a collaborative partnership between public health educators and librarians can help integrate the IOM's core competencies and improve public health education.

  7. Supporting transition to law school and student well-being: The role of professional legal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Field

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The empirically established decline in law student well-being during the first year of law school is a red-flagged imprimatur for first year curriculum change. This article suggests that by engaging law students with the concept of a positive professional identity, student engagement and intrinsic motivation will increase because they are working towards a career goal that has meaning and purpose. Law school is a time of professional transformation and the legal academy can take steps to ensure that this transformation is inculcated with positive messages. Literature from the fields of law and psychology is analysed in this article, to explain how a positive conception of the legal profession (and a student’s future role within it can increase a student’s psychological well-being – at law school and beyond.

  8. The Emergence of Hybrid Professional Roles: GPs and secondary school teachers in a context of public sector reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Wiljan; van Gestel, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    Responding to recent calls for more context and history in studying (semi-)professionals in the public sector, this article examines the emergence of hybrid professional roles along with large scale reforms of Dutch healthcare and education since 1965. Using a theoretical framework based on public

  9. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals: Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conway, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tobey, D. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greitzer, Frank L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dalton, Angela C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pusey, Portia K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  10. The Role of Elective Courses in Students′ Professional Development: Foreign Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movchan Larysa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of elective courses in professional development of students of economics. Modern European education is developing on the principles of democratization and humanization, where democratization implies the involvement of all agents/participants of the education process into forming its content and solving numerous related problems. Moreover, in order to be competitive in global labour market, modern specialists must develop such features as mobility, cultural, language and religious empathy, professionalism, commitment to the human virtues, etc. The content of education expressed in the curriculum is now not a rigid unity. Offering elective courses, university curricula can be easily modified to the students′ needs and aspirations. The analysis of the curricula of the economic faculties at some leading European universities has showed a great amount of elective courses mainly in general subjects such as Psychology, Pedagogy, Philosophy, History, Politology, Social Science, etc. These courses make up approximately 10 % of the total study load and are meant to realize interdisciplinary links, deepen students′ understanding of economic phenomena and develop analytical and strategic thinking. On the one hand, by choosing elective courses students are more agitated in learning, more interested and motivated. On the other hand, universities think harder over the supply of subjects and their content. At the same time, it increases lecturers′ motivation to consider new approaches, update information, and on the whole do their best to make their subjects appealing to students. The research has proved that elective courses realize an important role in students′ professional and personal development by integrating knowledge of many subjects, through their participation in tailoring the curricula and enriching their professional portfolio.

  11. The Roles and Performance of Professional Driving Instructors in Novice Driver Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulhaidi M. Jawi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article aimed to analyse existing literature regarding the roles and performance of professional driving instructors (PDIs in novice driver education (DE. A systematic classification scheme was adopted to analyse identified articles to determine the study context of PDIs in novice DE, the competency level of PDIs in relation to experienced and learner drivers and the contributions of PDIs to the novice driver learning process. A total of 14 original research articles were identified, with no systematic reviews or meta-analyses available. Overall, all of the articles were found to be inadequate in providing an in-depth understanding of the roles and performance of PDIs in novice DE. There is an urgent need to improve current understanding of the roles of PDIs in novice DE and to work towards an internationally recognised PDI management approach.

  12. Role of health care professionals in multidisciplinary pain treatment facilities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Philip; Stinson, Jennifer N; Choiniere, Manon; Dion, Dominique; Intrater, Howard; LeFort, Sandra; Lynch, Mary; Ong, May; Rashiq, Saifee; Tkachuk, Gregg; Veillette, Yves

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the role of health care professionals in multidisciplinary pain treatment facilities (MPTF) for the treatment of chronic pain across Canada. METHODS: MPTF were defined as clinics that advertised specialized multidisciplinary services for the diagnosis and management of chronic pain, and had staff from a minimum of three different health care disciplines (including at least one medical specialty) available and integrated within the facility. Administrative leaders at eligible MPTF were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire on their infrastructure as well as clinical, research, teaching and administrative activities. RESULTS: A total of 102 MPTF returned the questionnaires. General practitioners, anesthesiologists and physiatrists were the most common types of physicians integrated in the MPTF (56%, 51% and 32%, respectively). Physiotherapists, psychologists and nurses were the most common nonphysician professionals working within these MPTF (75%, 68% and 57%, respectively), but 33% to 56% of them were part-time staff. Only 77% of the MPTF held regular interdisciplinary meetings to discuss patient management, and 32% were staffed with either a psychologist or psychiatrist. The three most frequent services provided by physiotherapists were patient assessment, individual physiotherapy or exercise, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The three most common services provided by psychologists were individual counselling, cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic therapy. The major roles of nurses were patient assessment, assisting in interventional procedures and patient education. CONCLUSION: Different health care professionals play a variety of important roles in MPTF in Canada. However, few of them are involved on a full-time basis and the extent to which pain is assessed and treated in a truly multidisciplinary manner is questionable. PMID:19225605

  13. The Crucial Role of Amateur-Professional Networks in the Golden Age of Large Surveys (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. E.

    2017-06-01

    (Abstract only) With ongoing projects such as HATNet, SuperWASP, KELT, MEarth, and the CoRoT and Kepler/K2 mission, we are in a golden era of large photometric surveys. In addition, LSST and TESS will be coming online in the next three to five years. The combination of all these projects will increased the number of photometrically monitored stars by orders of magnitude. It is expected that these surveys will enhance our knowledge of circumstellar architecture and the early stages of stellar and planetary formation, while providing a better understanding of exoplanet demographics. However, the success of these surveys will be dependent on simultaneous and continued follow up by large networks. With federal scientific funding reduced over the past few years, the availability of astronomical observations has been directly affected. Fortunately, ground based amateur-professional networks like the AAVSO and the KELT Follow-up Network (KELT-FUN) are already providing access to an international, independent resource for professional grade astronomical observations. These networks have both multi-band photometric and spectroscopic capabilities. I provide an overview of the ongoing and future surveys, highlight past and current contributions by amateur-professional networks to scientific discovery, and discuss the role of these networks in upcoming projects.

  14. PUBLICATION ACTIVITY AND ITS ROLE IN ASSESSMENT OF PROFESSIONAL ENGAGEMENT OF HEI ACADEMIC STAFF (RUSSIAN PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Ardashkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze and summarize the Russian best practices of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the professional activity of the academic staff; to identify the role of motivational factors as a method to manage and control the publication activity of the academic staff.Methods. The authors address the methodology of comprehensive research based on the method of document analysis, comparative analysis, and method of secondary use of sociological and psychological data.Results and scientific novelty concludes in presenting Russian and international best practices generalized on using the publication activity to assess the engagement of HEI (Higher Educational Institution academic staff; the most appropriate formats of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the research component of the academic staff engagement are defined. Degree of reliability of this criterion is shown – its strengths and shortcomings. The conclusion is drawn on need of the essential changes in management of publication activity affecting both professional and motivational spheres of scientific and pedagogical staff. The most acceptable options of measurement of staff work efficiency of this category are formulated.Practical significance. The research outcomes can be the corpus for designing the assessment method for the professional engagement of the academic staff.

  15. Pharmacist professionals in the prevention of drug abuse: updating roles, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arantes Wagner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to prepare and provide resources to pharmacists and other healthcare professionals, enabling them to carry out a critical analysis on drug abuse, acquiring knowledge in several areas that effectively contribute to their personal development in this professional field. Professionals play a crucial role in the reduction and prevention of substances abuse, since they are able to advise patient about illicit drugs, psychotropic medicines and alcohol abuse. There is an urgent need to specialize pharmacists to act in the national public health service and contribute to actions aimed at the surrounding community.Esse artigo tem o intuito de preparar e fornecer subsídios a farmacêuticos e outros profissionais de saúde a realizarem uma análise crítica sobre o abuso de drogas adquirindo conhecimento em diversas áreas que contribuam para o seu próprio desenvolvimento nesse campo de atuação. O profissional é fundamental na redução e prevenção ao abuso de substâncias, pois é capaz de aconselhar pacientes sobre o abuso de drogas ilícitas, medicamentos psicotrópicos e álcool. Há urgência na especialização de farmacêuticos para atuarem na saúde pública nacional contribuindo nas ações dirigidas à comunidade.

  16. Burnout and health among critical care professionals: The mediational role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Oscar; Aparicio-Zaldivar, Eva

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the mediational role of resilience in relationships between burnout and health in critical care professionals; to determine relationships among resilience level, three burnout dimensions, and physical/mental health; and to establish demographic differences in psychological variables evaluated. Cross-sectional study. A total of 52 critical care professionals, mainly nurses, were recruited from an intensive care unit of Madrid (Spain). All participants were assessed with the questionnaires 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Short Form-12 Health Survey. No demographic differences were found. Three burnout dimensions were negatively associated with mental health and resilience. Mediational analyses revealed resilience mediated 1) the relationships between emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation with mental health (partial mediations) and 2) the relationship between personal accomplishment and mental health (total mediation). Resilience minimises and buffers the impact of negative outcomes of workplace stress on mental health of critical care professionals. As a result, resilience prevents the occurrence of burnout syndrome. Resilience improves not only their mental health, but also their ability to practice effectively. It is therefore imperative to develop resilience programs for critical care nurses in nursing schools, universities and health centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of EPO Professionals in Communicating and Teaching the Science of NASA and NSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, D.; Swilley, S.; Andrews, J.

    2008-06-01

    NSF and NASA have similar Education and Public Outreach (EPO) requirements and each endorses an important community of outreach professionals to facilitate broader impact goals. EPO professionals hold a critical role in the national quest for a scientifically and technologically literate population, and are often key connectors between investigators conducting cutting-edge research at NASA and NSF centers, pre-college educators and the public. Each owns unique perspectives on how to translate science and engineering research into effective research-based programs. NASA and NSF center EPO professionals could share lessons learned and best practices to promote efficient and effective education program development and implementation that includes leading scientists and engineers. Both groups could explore collaboration opportunities between the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the National Science Foundation Research Center Educators Network to build on specific strengths and similarities. Through collaboration, each group can better promote recognition of this emerging field and profession. Working together, collaborators will enhance existing expertise, improve job performance, promote standards for this emerging profession, and achieve well-deserved recognition. Collaboration will improve individual ability to meet the higher standards of accountability to which each group is held and improve efforts in this new, flat world.

  18. Clarity: an open-source manager for laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Nigel F; Rojas Echenique, José I; Marx, Christopher J

    2013-04-01

    Software to manage automated laboratories, when interfaced with hardware instruments, gives users a way to specify experimental protocols and schedule activities to avoid hardware conflicts. In addition to these basics, modern laboratories need software that can run multiple different protocols in parallel and that can be easily extended to interface with a constantly growing diversity of techniques and instruments. We present Clarity, a laboratory automation manager that is hardware agnostic, portable, extensible, and open source. Clarity provides critical features including remote monitoring, robust error reporting by phone or email, and full state recovery in the event of a system crash. We discuss the basic organization of Clarity, demonstrate an example of its implementation for the automated analysis of bacterial growth, and describe how the program can be extended to manage new hardware. Clarity is mature, well documented, actively developed, written in C# for the Common Language Infrastructure, and is free and open-source software. These advantages set Clarity apart from currently available laboratory automation programs. The source code and documentation for Clarity is available at http://code.google.com/p/osla/.

  19. The mediating role of spirituality on professional values and self-efficacy: a study of senior nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the significance of spirituality in enhancing self-efficacy related to professional values in senior nursing students. Self-efficacy can predict job satisfaction and performance as professional nurses in clinical settings. Senior nursing students should have the level of self-efficacy that enables them to perform professional roles based on professional values, because they will enter clinical settings immediately after graduation. Spirituality may help senior nursing students during the transition to professional life to reflect on their skills, knowledge and situations to enhance self-efficacy based on professional values. An exploratory, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 194 senior nursing students in South Korea were recruited in 2014. They completed self-reported questionnaires consisting of demographic questions, Spiritual Assessment Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale and Nursing Professional Values inventory. A Sobel test was done to determine the mediating effect of spirituality on the relationship between nursing professional values and self-efficacy. The findings showed a positive correlation between professional values, spirituality and self-efficacy in nursing students. According to the Sobel test, spirituality had a mediating effect on the relationship between professional values and self-efficacy in senior nursing students. Spirituality can be a foundation that provides senior nursing students with higher self-efficacy so that they are able to perform their professional roles based on their professional values. The findings can guide nursing educators to include spiritual development of nursing students to enhance the self-efficacy of senior nursing students, the future of the nursing profession. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Reconfiguring health workforce: a case-based comparative study explaining the increasingly diverse professional roles in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette de Bont

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade the healthcare workforce has diversified in several directions with formalised roles for health care assistants, specialised roles for nurses and technicians, advanced roles for physician associates and nurse practitioners and new professions for new services, such as case managers. Hence the composition of health care teams has become increasingly diverse. The exact extent of this diversity is unknown across the different countries of Europe, as are the drivers of this change. The research questions guiding this study were: What extended professional roles are emerging on health care teams? How are extended professional roles created? What main drivers explain the observed differences, if any, in extended roles in and between countries? Methods We performed a case-based comparison of the extended roles in care pathways for breast cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. We conducted 16 case studies in eight European countries, including in total 160 interviews with physicians, nurses and other health care professionals in new roles and 600+ hours of observation in health care clinics. Results The results show a relatively diverse composition of roles in the three care pathways. We identified specialised roles for physicians, extended roles for nurses and technicians, and independent roles for advanced nurse practitioners and physician associates. The development of extended roles depends upon the willingness of physicians to delegate tasks, developments in medical technology and service (redesign. Academic training and setting a formal scope of practice for new roles have less impact upon the development of new roles. While specialised roles focus particularly on a well-specified technical or clinical domain, the generic roles concentrate on organising and integrating care and cure. Conclusion There are considerable differences in the number and kind of extended roles between both countries and care

  1. The role of mental health professionals in gender reassignment surgeries: unjust discrimination or responsible care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Giordano, Simona

    2014-12-01

    Recent literature has raised an important ethical concern relating to the way in which surgeons approach people with gender dysphoria (GD): it has been suggested that referring transsexual patients to mental assessment can constitute a form of unjust discrimination. The aim of this paper is to examine some of the ethical issues concerning the role of the mental health professional in gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). The role of the mental health professional in GRS is analyzed by presenting the Standards of Care by the World Professional Association of Transgender Health, and discussing the principles of autonomy and non-discrimination. Purposes of psychotherapy are exploring gender identity; addressing the negative impact of GD on mental health; alleviating internalized transphobia; enhancing social and peer support; improving body image; promoting resilience; and assisting the surgeons with the preparation prior to the surgery and the patient's follow-up. Offering or requesting psychological assistance is in no way a form of negative discrimination or an attack to the patient's autonomy. Contrarily, it might improve transsexual patients' care, and thus at the most may represent a form of positive discrimination. To treat people as equal does not mean that they should be treated in the same way, but with the same concern and respect, so that their unique needs and goals can be achieved. Offering or requesting psychological assistance to individuals with GD is a form of responsible care, and not unjust discrimination. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  2. The Role of Professional Societies in the Professional Formation of Specialists in Computer Sciences: Experience of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pododimenko, Inna

    2014-01-01

    The most urgent problem of training competitive specialists in higher educational establishments in the conditions of socio-economical dynamics of transformation of Ukraine and its entry into the world society has been considered. On the basis of professional requirements' analysis the row of contradictions and disparities among the specialists in…

  3. Medical students and professionalism - Do the hidden curriculum and current role models fail our future doctors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Gavin Matthew; Wong, Wai-Tat; Ling, Lowell; Lee, Anna

    2017-12-21

    Formal medical curricula aim to promote professionalism through learning from lectures, interactive tutorials and simulations. We report an exploratory voting exercise, conducted within a new integrated professional teaching module, examining the likely influence on students' knowledge and perceptions of truth telling. Responses were collected from cohorts of final year students over a six-year period. Students were asked to pick between two responses to a standardized clinical vignette, firstly the response that they personally thought was the more desirable action, and subsequently the response they believed would most likely result in the context of everyday real-life clinical practice. The difference (proportional change) in voting for "avoid full disclosure" from vote 1 (more desirable action) to vote 2 (likely real-life response) was 50% (95% CI: 36-64%, p curriculum, and the perception generated by the hidden curriculum. Medical Schools should develop strategies to manage the hidden curriculum, prepare clinical teachers to be good role models, and prepare students to be discerning about the hidden curriculum and when choosing role models.

  4. Leading Learning: The Role of School Leaders in Supporting Continuous Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John G.; O'Sullivan, Kerry-Ann; Howe, Cathie

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary school settings, leaders seeking to support professional development are faced with many challenges. These challenges call for educators who can undertake professional learning that is continuous and adaptive to change. As a term, continuous professional development (CPD) reflects many different forms of professional development in…

  5. Clarity: An Open Source Manager for Laboratory Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Nigel F.; Echenique, José Rojas; Marx, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Software to manage automated laboratories interfaces with hardware instruments, gives users a way to specify experimental protocols, and schedules activities to avoid hardware conflicts. In addition to these basics, modern laboratories need software that can run multiple different protocols in parallel and that can be easily extended to interface with a constantly growing diversity of techniques and instruments. We present Clarity: a laboratory automation manager that is hardware agnostic, portable, extensible and open source. Clarity provides critical features including remote monitoring, robust error reporting by phone or email, and full state recovery in the event of a system crash. We discuss the basic organization of Clarity; demonstrate an example of its implementation for the automated analysis of bacterial growth; and describe how the program can be extended to manage new hardware. Clarity is mature; well documented; actively developed; written in C# for the Common Language Infrastructure; and is free and open source software. These advantages set Clarity apart from currently available laboratory automation programs. PMID:23032169

  6. The Role of Empathy in Developing Professional Identity of would-be Economists in the home Reading Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Grineva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the growing professional orientation of all the aspects of foreign language teaching is widely recognized as one of the major trends in the process of enhancing foreign languages curriculum at higher education institutions which specialize in training non-linguistic students majoring in various fields of international relations. Professionally oriented foreign language teaching implies using the foreign language classroom as a source of forming a wide range of professionally meaningful competences (both linguistic and non-linguistic of would-be specialists along with developing their sense of professional identity. Despite the fact that professional identity - usually interpreted as individuals' perception of themselves as members of a certain profession - is the culmination of a long process of professional development, its cultivation with future specialists should be seen as a priority as early as at a higher education level - a college or university. Referring to psychological research, the author states that emotional factors play a decisive role in shaping professional identity at early stages of a person's professional development. It reveals the importance of analyzing the potential of literary texts in a foreign language in terms of their ability to contribute to developing prospective specialists' professional identity, as such texts represent a valuable text material which provokes readers' powerful emotional response and thus triggers empathy. The novel "The Firm" byJ. Grisham and "The Headhunter" byj. Mead were selected by the author for the home reading classroom with would-be economists, as coupled with a competence-based learning aid they allow teachers to create a unique discourse, which facilitates the process of developing students' professional competences and their professional identity. Along with their clear professional content, they appeal to students, as the problems raised in them are relevant to those of

  7. [Health and safety professional roles and competencies to promote company-level integration of preventive actions. A Delphy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual Llorens, Clara; Velarde Collado, José María; Portell Vidal, Mariona; Boix Ferrando, Pere

    2014-01-01

    To describe the view of faculty who train health and safety professionals on the roles and competencies needed to promote the integration of preventive actions at the company level. We used a Delphi method, in three rounds, on an intentional sample of experts, and asked them to rate the appropriateness, relevance and acceptability of 8 professional roles, on a scale of 1 to 9 points. We also asked them to formulate and rank order the corresponding competencies, in order of importance. Participant responses (n=76, 58% of the initially identified faculty) show a broad consensus when assessing professional roles (over 85% of participants rated two of these roles highly, with scores between 7 and 9) and general agreement on the three most important competencies in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes to promote the integration of preventive actions. The experts participating in this study agreed that the main roles to be performed by health and safety professionals to promote prevention integration are as advisors and trainers. The competencies considered most important are knowledge about the company activity, its risks and the problems linked to the activity (to know), ability to work in multidisciplinary teams (to know how), and to perform professional duties ethically, with independence and impartiality (to know how to be). Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  8. Preparing for New and Changing Roles in Research Libraries – the Need for Continuing Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Larsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that library staff are qualified to offer high quality services to users visiting the physical library. Likewise, it is expected that they have substantial knowledge and skills needed for developing and maintaining electronic services and for dissemination of relevant services and facilities requested by the web-user. Serving remote library users calls for additional competencies, such as marketing, branding and communications skills in the electronic environment as well as knowledge of measuring and evaluation of the use of electronic services. It is a challenge to the staff to match particular needs and demands from different user groups, but also to library management staff to ensure that the competencies and skills are available in the organisation to match the needs of the user – wherever s/he might be located. Competencies are, in this context, defined as the combination of knowledge and experience that make the individual able to take the right actions in the daily working environment. What education and training needs emerge from the changing roles and new tasks? How might we identify the needs for continuing professional development? And how can we maintain and update skills and competencies acquired maybe 25 years ago? These are key questions – not only to be addressed to library managers, but also to be considered carefully by those institutions responsible for continuing education and professional development of library staff.

  9. The roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals to achieve ONE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Pal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.

  10. Integrating information literacy into the education of public health professionals: roles for librarians and the library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobus, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The paper reviews the core competencies for public health professionals presented in the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century; describes improving information literacy (IL) as a mechanism for integrating the core competencies in public health education; and showcases IL as an opportunity for solidifying partnerships between academic librarians and public health educators. Methods: The IOM competencies, along with explicit examples of library support from a literature review of current IL trends in the health sciences, are analyzed. Results: Librarians can play a fundamental role in implementing the IOM's core competencies in shaping public health education for the twenty-first century. A partnership between public health educators and librarians through a transdisciplinary approach is recommended. Conclusions: IL skills and competencies integrated into public health curricula through a collaborative partnership between public health educators and librarians can help integrate the IOM's core competencies and improve public health education. PMID:18219378

  11. THE ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS FOR THE STANDARD OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENTAL EDUCATION PROFESSIONAL HIGH EDUCATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF STUDENTS FOR THE PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Petrovna Akutina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal: the educational research of educational effectiveness FGOS PVO for the professional preparation.The research method and the methodological approach: to enlighten the goals of the Federal Governmental Education Standard (FGOS of the high professional education (VPO of the psycho-pedagogical field within the education system reforming; to create new didactical materials, programs, plans, training courses; to model the educational effectiveness of a high education institution according to the competence approach.The clue of the educational effectiveness is in the developing an individual educational path for students in the comprehensive phase, and as a result the role of an educator, and a tutor increases; the changes in social cultural sphere of an educational institution, the importance of students self-management are to remodel the formulating personal needs paradigm in professional, private, intellectual, cultural and modal advancing.The research results are to open valuable possibilities of educational effectiveness in FGOS VPO influencing the professional preparation, that is filled with innovative forms, me-thods, technological approaches in cooperation between students and educators; to organize socially oriented process within the educational and extra educational context, to construct an individual educational path to obtain a qualification, to guaranty the realization of a new educational system for educators’ cooperation, for tutors and social partners; all these permit to act in different cultural spheres acquiring positive experience of professional training.The application field: the research results are applied in the pedagogical activity to prepare professional figures in the psycho pedagogical area, in educational projects with students, in cooperating with various social partners.

  12. Personal Genomic Information Management and Personalized Medicine: Challenges, Current Solutions, and Roles of HIM Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Amal; Zhou, Leming; Watzlaf, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term personalized medicine has received more and more attention in the field of healthcare. The increasing use of this term is closely related to the astonishing advancement in DNA sequencing technologies and other high-throughput biotechnologies. A large amount of personal genomic data can be generated by these technologies in a short time. Consequently, the needs for managing, analyzing, and interpreting these personal genomic data to facilitate personalized care are escalated. In this article, we discuss the challenges for implementing genomics-based personalized medicine in healthcare, current solutions to these challenges, and the roles of health information management (HIM) professionals in genomics-based personalized medicine. PMID:24808804

  13. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  14. Intelligibility and Clarity of Reverberant Speech: Effects of Wide Dynamic Range Compression Release Time and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Paul N.; Souza, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) release time on intelligibility and clarity of reverberant speech. The study also considered the role of individual working memory. Method: Thirty older listeners with mild to moderately-severe sloping sensorineural hearing loss…

  15. Perceptions of Unprofessional Attitudes and Behaviors: Implications for Faculty Role Modeling and Teaching Professionalism During Pathology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissette, Mark D; Johnson, Kristen A; Raciti, Patricia M; McCloskey, Cindy B; Gratzinger, Dita A; Conran, Richard Michael; Domen, Ronald E; Hoffman, Robert D; Post, Miriam D; Roberts, Cory Anthony; Rojiani, Amyn M; Powell, Suzanne Zein-Eldin

    2017-10-01

    - Changes occurring in medicine have raised issues about medical professionalism. Professionalism is included in the Core Competencies and Milestones for all pathology residents. Previous studies have looked at resident professionalism attitudes and behaviors in primary care but none have looked specifically at pathology. - To examine behavior and attitudes toward professionalism within pathology and to determine how professionalism is taught in residency programs. - Surveys were sent to all College of American Pathologists junior members and all pathology residency program directors, and responses were compared. - Although no single behavior received the same professionalism rating among residents and program directors, both groups identified the same behaviors as being the most unprofessional: posting identifiable patient information or case images to social media, making a disparaging comment about a physician colleague or member of the support staff on social media or in a public hospital space, and missing work without reporting the time off. Faculty were observed displaying most of these behaviors as often or more often than residents by both groups. The most common means to teach professionalism in pathology residencies is providing feedback as situations arise and teaching by example. Age differences were found within each group and between groups for observed behaviors and attitudes. - As teaching by example was identified as a common educational method, faculty must be aware of the role their behavior and attitudes have in shaping resident behavior and attitudes. These results suggest a need for additional resources to teach professionalism during pathology residency.

  16. Beyond Climate Focus and Disciplinary Myopia. The Roles and Responsibilities of Hospitals and Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Ulhøi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls for the need to address climate change within the concept of sustainable development, in recognition of the interrelationships between environmental, economic and social systems. So far, health- providing organizations such as hospitals have paid surprisingly little attention to the relationships between environmental change (e.g. climate change and human health, or between hospitals (as professional organizations and their impact on sustainable development. Although it is usually such industries as the chemical, extractive and metal industries, etc., that are associated with environmentally harmful activities, there is also an urgent need to emphasize the roles and responsibilities of hospitals and their embeddedness in a wider ecological, economic and social context. The key objective here is to discuss the relevance of sustainability and environmental management issues in a sector that until now has conveniently ignored its roles and responsibilities in relation to sustainability issues. The paper concludes that arguments based on systems theory, environment, medicine, economics and innovation strongly urge hospitals to reconsider their present roles and environmental responsibilities.

  17. Decreased Self-Concept Clarity in People with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David Colin; Martin, Elizabeth A; Becker, Theresa M; Kerns, John G

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances in the perception of self are thought to be central to the development of psychosis. Self-concept clarity (SCC) is the extent to which one's beliefs about oneself are internally consistent, stable, and clear. Participants with schizophrenia (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 32) completed the Me Not-Me Decision Task (MNMDT), in which they decided whether 60 adjectives (30 pairs of antonyms) did or did not describe themselves. SCC is conceptualized as the number of consistent responses. Participants also completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS). Compared to healthy controls, participants with schizophrenia scored lower on the MNMDT and SCCS, and scores were negatively correlated with positive and negative symptoms. In a simultaneous regression, SCCS scores were uniquely associated with positive symptoms, whereas MNMDT scores were uniquely associated with negative symptoms. This suggests that people with schizophrenia have decreased self-concept clarity that is related to positive and negative symptoms.

  18. Professionalism, scientific freedom and dissent: individual and institutional roles and responsibilities in geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2015-04-01

    geoscientists have a responsibility to behave ethically in such contested areas of science - both with regards to their own work and its dissemination, and in examining the claims of others. But learned and professional scientific bodies also have an important role to play. Increasingly, they are expected to establish and police the ethical 'rules of engagement' of scientific practice and discourse, whether through codes of conduct or developing non-mandatory guidelines and cultures of best practice. This presentation will examine how professional standards can be developed and promulgated, so as to foster a diversity of scientific views and permit dissenting voices to be heard, while also allowing scientifically and professionally illegitimate behaviours to be identified and addressed.

  19. Modelling the effect of perceived interdependence among mental healthcare professionals on their work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals). We wanted to examine the effect of perceived interdependence among MHCPs on their work role performance in the context of mental healthcare. For this purpose, we developed and tested a model coherent with the Input-Mediator-Outcome-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness. Data from questionnaires administered to 315 MHCPs from four local health service networks in Quebec, Canada were analysed through structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data and explained 51% of the variance of work role performance. Perceived collaboration, confidence in the advantages of interprofessional collaboration, involvement in the decision process, knowledge sharing, and satisfaction with the nature of the work partially mediated the effect of perceived interdependence among team members on work role performance. Therefore, perceived interdependence among team members had a positive impact on the work role performance of MHCPs mostly through its effect on favourable team functioning features. This implies, in practice, that increased interdependence of MHCPs would be more likely to truly enhance work role performance if team-based interventions to promote collaborative work and interprofessional teaching and training programs to support work within interprofessional teams were jointly implemented. Participation in the decision process and knowledge sharing should

  20. Regional assessment of lake water clarity using satellite remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. SKOLE

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake water clarity as measured by Secchi disk transparency (SDT is a cost-effective measure of water quality. However, in regions where there are thousands of lakes, sampling even a small proportion of those lakes for SDT year after year is cost prohibitive. Remote sensing has the potential to be a powerful tool for assessing lake clarity over large spatial scales. The overall objective of our study was to examine whether Landsat-7 ETM+ could be used to measure water clarity across a large range of lakes. Our specific objectives were to: 1 develop a regression model to estimate SDT from Landsat data calibrated using 93 lakes in Michigan, U.S.A., and to 2 examine how the distribution of SDT across the 93 calibration lakes influenced the model. Our calibration dataset included a large number of lakes with a wide range of SDT values that captured the summer statewide distribution of SDT values in Michigan. Our regression model had a much lower r2 value than previously published studies conducted on smaller datasets. To examine the importance of the distribution of calibration data, we simulated a calibration dataset with a different SDT distribution by sub-sampling the original dataset to match the distribution of previous studies. The sub-sampled dataset had a much higher percentage of lakes with shallow water clarity, and the resulting regression model had a much higher r2 value than our original model. Our study shows that the use of Landsat to measure water clarity is sensitive to the distribution of water clarity used in the calibration set.

  1. Postgraduate internal medicine residents' roles at patient discharge - do their perceived roles and perceptions by other health care providers correlate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Sharon Elizabeth; Ward, Heather A; Chipperfield, Dylan; Sheppard, M Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Knowing one's own role is a key collaboration competency for postgraduate trainees in the Canadian competency framework (CanMEDS®). To explore methods to teach collaborative competency to internal medicine postgraduate trainees, baseline role knowledge of the trainees was explored. The perceptions of roles (self and others) at patient discharge from an acute care internal medicine teaching unit amongst 69 participants, 34 physicians (25 internal medicine postgraduate trainees and 9 faculty physicians) and 35 health care professionals from different professions were assessed using an adapted previously validated survey (Jenkins et al., 2001). Internal medicine postgraduate trainees agreed on 8/13 (62%) discharge roles, but for 5/13 (38%), there was a substantial disagreement. Other professions had similar lack of clarity about the postgraduate internal medicine residents' roles at discharge. The lack of interprofessional and intraprofessional clarity about roles needs to be explored to develop methods to enhance collaborative competence in internal medicine postgraduate trainees.

  2. Effects of wide dynamic-range compression on the perceived clarity of individual musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Stone, Michael A; McKinney, Martin F; Fitz, Kelly; Moore, Brian C J

    2015-04-01

    The effects of wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) on the ability of hearing-impaired subjects to hear out individual instruments or voices (called "sources") in a mixture were explored. On each trial, the subjects were asked to judge the relative clarity of the target in two repetitions of the same music excerpt (mixture of sources) that were processed in different ways. The stimuli were processed via a five-channel simulated WDRC hearing aid, using individual insertion gains and compression ratios recommended by the CAM2 fitting procedure. Both fast- and slow-acting WDRC and a condition with linear amplification and frequency-response shaping were used. To investigate the role of cross-modulation (the partial correlation of the envelopes of different sources caused by the time-varying gain applied by the compressor), conditions were included where the sounds from different sources were compressed before being added together and where the sounds were added together before being compressed. The results showed no effect of cross-modulation, lower clarity with WDRC than with linear amplification, and no significant overall effect of compression speed, although some subjects consistently rated clarity as greater with slow compression. The deleterious effect of WDRC may be related to changes in temporal-envelope shape or reduced spectral contrast produced by WDRC.

  3. "You've Changed": Low Self-Concept Clarity Predicts Lack of Support for Partner Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lydia F; Gardner, Wendi L; Finkel, Eli J; Carswell, Kathleen L

    2017-11-01

    People often pursue self-change, and having a romantic partner who supports these changes increases relationship satisfaction. However, most existing research focuses only on the experience of the person who is changing. What predicts whether people support their partner's change? People with low self-concept clarity resist self-change, so we hypothesized that they would be unsupportive of their partner's changes. People with low self-concept clarity did not support their partner's change (Study 1a), because they thought they would have to change, too (Study 1b). Low self-concept clarity predicted failing to support a partner's change, but not vice versa (Studies 2 and 3), and only for larger changes (Study 3). Not supporting a partner's change predicted decreases in relationship quality for both members of the couple (Studies 2 and 3). This research underscores the role of partners in self-change, suggesting that failing to support a partner's change may stem from self-concept confusion.

  4. The effect of preceptor role effectiveness on newly licensed registered nurses' perceived psychological empowerment and professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Chanell; Hart, Patricia L; Mareno, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    The first year turnover rate for newly licensed registered nurses is roughly 30% and increases to about 57% in the second year (Twibell et al., 2012). An effective preceptorship has been shown to better facilitate the first year transition (Hodges et al., 2008) and increase retention rates (Pine and Tart, 2007). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between newly licensed registered nurses' perceived preceptor role effectiveness, psychological empowerment and professional autonomy. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive research design was used. Sixty-nine newly licensed registered nurses were recruited and surveyed. Newly licensed registered nurses were found to have moderately high levels of perceived preceptor role effectiveness, psychological empowerment, and professional autonomy. Preceptor role effectiveness had significant, moderately, positive relationships with professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. There was also a significant relationship found between professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. Results show that preceptor role effectiveness is linked to increased professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. Therefore, effective preceptorships are necessary in easing the newly licensed registered nurse's transition to practice. Strategies to ensure effective preceptorships and enhance the NRLN's transition to practice are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factor analysis as a tool for survey analysis using a professional role orientation inventory as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Laura L; Beckstead, Jason W; Bebeau, Muriel J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how confirmatory factor analysis can be used to extend and clarify a researcher's insight into a survey instrument beyond that afforded through the typical exploratory factor analytic approach. The authors use as an example a survey instrument developed to measure individual differences in professional role orientation among physical therapists, the Professional Role Orientation Inventory for Physical Therapists (PROI-PT). Five hundred three physical therapists responded to a mail survey instrument that was sent to a random sample of 2,000 American Physical Therapy Association members. An adapted version of the Professional Role Orientation Inventory, a 40-item Likert-scale instrument developed to assess professional role orientation on 4 dimensions (authority, responsibility, agency, and autonomy), was used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the factorial validity of the PROI-PT. Exploratory factor analysis served as a starting point for examining the factor structure of the instrument. Confirmatory factor analysis then was used to test the hypothesized factor structure and to suggest refinements to the PROI-PT that would improve a psychometric property (internal consistency). Although further refinement of the PROI-PT is needed, an instrument that yields valid and reliable measurements of individual differences in professionalism among physical therapists could further our understanding of the psychosocial aspects of physical therapist practice. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses can be used by researchers who study various psychosocial constructs in physical therapy.

  6. Clinical Skills Performed By Iranian Emergency Nurses: Perceived Competency Levels and Attitudes Toward Expanding Professional Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Hasanzadeh, Firooz; Powers, Kelly A; Dadash Zadeh, Abbas; Rajaie, Rouzbeh

    2017-07-26

    Emergency nurses play an important role in the care of critically ill and injured patients, and their competency to perform clinical skills is vital to safe and effective patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical skills performed and perceived competency levels among Iranian emergency nurses. In addition, attitudes toward expanding the professional roles of Iranian emergency nurses were also assessed. In this descriptive correlational study, 319 emergency nurses from 30 hospitals in northwest Iran participated. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to present the findings. Overall competency of the emergency nurses was 73.31 ± 14.2, indicating a good level of perceived competence. The clinical skills most frequently performed were in the domains of organizational and workload competencies (3.43 ± 0.76), diagnostic function (3.25 ± 0.82), and the helping role (3.17 ± 0.83). A higher level of perceived competence was found for skills within these domains. Less frequently, participants performed skills within the domains of effective management of rapidly changing situations (2.70 ± 0.94) and administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions (2.60 ± 0.97); a lower perceived level of competence was noted for these clinical skills. There was a significant correlation between frequency of performing clinical skills and perceived competency level (r = 0.651, P nurse managers and educators who may consider offering more frequent experiential and educational opportunities to emergency nurses. Expansion of nurses' roles could also result in increased experience in clinical skills and higher levels of competency. Research is needed to investigate nurses' clinical competence using direct and observed measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Hidden Curriculum in Medical and Law Schools: A Role for Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Linda A.; Phye, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses responsibilities for student affairs professionals in law and medical schools. It poses that student affairs staff are particularly suited to teach the hidden curriculum of the professional schools, described as inculcating professional values. The chapter ends with four strategies for such instruction.

  8. The Role of Professional Development in Bridging Research and Practice in Adult Literacy and Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cristine

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, Cristine Smith discusses the development and use of professional development activities at the national, state and local program level. Professional development systems and funding exist in every state, and the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) has prioritized high-quality professional development for…

  9. The Role of Fitness Professionals in Public Health: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lyon, Alexander T. C.; Neville, Ross D.; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Kinesiology researchers have long had an interest in physical activity, fitness, and health issues and in the professional education and work practices of teachers and coaches. The professional development needs and practices of "fitness professionals," however, have not been a major concern for researchers in the field. The purpose of…

  10. The Roles of School Psychology Associations in Promoting the Profession, Professionals, and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.

    2014-01-01

    Professions are strong only to the extent they are represented by active and effective professional associations. Professional associations are strong only to the extent that they are composed of active and effective professionals. This article highlights the belief that the contributions of capable, creative, and committed colleagues who provide…

  11. Effects of Leadership Practices on Professional Learning Communities: The Mediating Role of Trust in Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Yin, Hongbiao; Liu, Yuan; Ke, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The building of professional learning communities has been widely recognized as an effective strategy for schools wanting to improve student performance and enhance teachers' professional capacity. This study explored the relationship between leadership practices and professional learning communities, with a particular focus on the mediating role…

  12. Prime movers: Advanced practice professionals in the role of stroke coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Nicholas A; Damush, Teresa M; Luckhurst, Cherie; Bauer-Martinez, Catherine J; Homoya, Barbara J; Miech, Edward J

    2017-07-01

    Following a stroke quality improvement clustered randomized trial and a national acute ischemic stroke (AIS) directive in the Veterans Health Administration in 2011, this comparative case study examined the role of advanced practice professionals (APPs) in quality improvement activities among stroke teams. Semistructured interviews were conducted at 11 Veterans Affairs medical centers annually over a 3-year period. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interviews from clinical providers through a mixed-methods, data matrix approach linking APPs (nurse practitioners and physician assistants) with Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs and a group organization measure. Five of 11 facilities independently chose to staff stroke coordinator positions with APPs. Analysis indicated that APPs emerged as boundary spanners across services and disciplines who played an important role in coordinating evidence-based, facility-level approaches to AIS care. The presence of APPs was related to engaging in group-based evaluation of performance data, implementing stroke protocols, monitoring care through data audit, convening interprofessional meetings involving planning activities, and providing direct care. The presence of APPs appears to be an influential feature of local context crucial in developing an advanced, facility-wide approach to stroke care because of their boundary spanning capabilities. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Fluid role boundaries: exploring the contribution of the advanced nurse practitioner to multi-professional palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona; Brooks Young, Patricia; Nicol, Jacqueline; Campbell, Karen; Gray Brunton, Carol

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the introduction of Advanced Nurse Practitioners in a specialist, multi-professional palliative care context. The objective is to explore the core domains and competencies of the advanced nurse practitioner role in a multi-professional palliative care context. New models of health care and service delivery are emerging alongside expanded levels of autonomy, skills and decision-making for nurses and midwives. This has resulted in some confusion in the health service community internationally about the professional role and scope of the advanced nurse practitioner. A qualitative evaluation study (n = 21). Three phases of data collection were conducted over 10 months. Twenty-one participants took part from a specialist palliative care unit in one health board in a U.K. region spanning ANPs (n = 2) multi-professional staff (n = 14) and patients/carers (n = 5). Data collection methods included individual and focus group interviews with key stakeholders and observation of the advanced nurse practitioners at work and their reflexive diaries. The findings of this evaluation demonstrate that if the advanced nurse practitioner role can flourish it has the potential to shape 'new identities', re-construct the boundaries of nursing roles and emphasise the relationship based elements of excellent nursing work. The advanced nurse practitioner has the potential to enhance specialist palliative care service delivery through fluid role boundaries. The context in which advanced nurse practitioner roles are developed is important as acceptance of the role is linked to the co-construction of a different nursing identity. Our findings support the need to define, defend and name the work of advanced nursing roles. The advanced nurse practitioner roles were regarded as providing a unique contribution to service delivery and were characterised by fluid role boundaries which crossed the traditional disciplinary boundaries between nursing and medicine. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  14. THE ROLE OF THE ACCOUNTANCY PROFESSIONAL BODIES IN DEVELOPING SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girbina Madalina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In March 2010, the European Commission renewed its strategy to promote Corporate Social Responsibility in order to ensure long term employee and consumer trust. Corporate Social Responsibility is considered more relevant in the context of the economic crisis because it can help to build (and rebuild trust in business and to identify new forms of value creation based on addressing societal challenges, which may represent a way out of the crisis. A priority area is repesented by companies transparency on environmental and social issues. This research aims to assess the involvement of the professional accountancy bodies in the development of social and environmental reporting. After a review of research studies on corporate social and environmental disclosure and the role of the accounting profession in this context, the research identifies the strategies, policies and actions taken by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC and of the Federation of European Expert Accountants (FEE based on content analysis of public documents issued by the two bodies. The cases were selected having the influence exerted by the two organisms on other professional bodies and their ability to trace the strategic lines of the accounting profession at the international and European level. The basis upon which the accounting profession was founded and continues to exist is public trust, which is the degree to which the public has confidence in the services provided by the accounting profession. Society is currently expressing high demands on the discipline of accounting and therefore the profession is under pressure to expand its horizons to better reflect these demands. The research revealed that both accounting bodies had an intense activity and initiated political actions in the corporate social and environmental reporting field including sustainability in their strategic objectives. The following areas of involvement have been identified: issuance of

  15. Inclusion or Integration: Towards Conceptual Clarity in the Provision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of this, the paper further presents the situation of Special Needs Education as it has historically developed in Zimbabwe, noting that it was, and largely informed by the philosophy of integration. The argument is then made that there is need for conceptual clarity if integration and inclusion are not to be confused in ...

  16. Clarity and causality needed in claims about Big Gods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    We welcome Norenzayan et al.'s claim that the prosocial effects of beliefs in supernatural agents extend beyond Big Gods. To date, however, supporting evidence has focused on the Abrahamic Big God, making generalisations difficult. We discuss a recent study that highlights the need for clarity about the causal path by which supernatural beliefs affect the evolution of big societies.

  17. Development and Validation of the Clarity Indicators Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to create a reliable and valid low- to medium-inference, multidimensional measure of instructor clarity from seminal work across several academic fields. Five hundred and sixty six students responded to an initial pool of 87 items and were split into two samples to investigate the factor structure of the new measurement…

  18. Advances and perspectives in tissue clearing using CLARITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reveles Jensen, Kristian; Berg, Rune W.

    2017-01-01

    CLARITY is a tissue clearing method, which enables immunostaining and imaging of large volumes for 3D-reconstruction. The method was initially time-consuming, expensive and relied on electrophoresis to remove lipids to make the tissue transparent. Since then several improvements and simplifications...

  19. Emotional variability and clarity in depression and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Gotlib, Ian H

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of elucidating specific patterns of emotion that characterise mental disorders. We examined two emotion traits, emotional variability and emotional clarity, in relation to both categorical (diagnostic interview) and dimensional (self-report) measures of major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) in women diagnosed with MDD only (n = 35), SAD only (n = 31), MDD and SAD (n = 26) or no psychiatric disorder (n = 38). Results of the categorical analyses suggest that elevated emotional variability and diminished emotional clarity are transdiagnostic of MDD and SAD. More specifically, emotional variability was elevated for MDD and SAD diagnoses compared to no diagnosis, showing an additive effect for co-occurring MDD and SAD. Similarly diminished levels of emotional clarity characterised all three clinical groups compared to the healthy control group. Dimensional findings suggest that although emotional variability is associated more consistently with depression than with social anxiety, emotional clarity is associated more consistently with social anxiety than with depression. Results are interpreted using a threshold and dose-response framework.

  20. Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of ade...

  1. Effects of submerged vegetation on water clarity across climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosten, S.; Lacerot, G.; Jeppesen, E.; Motta Marques, D.M.L.; Nes, van E.H.; Mazzeo, N.; Scheffer, M.

    2009-01-01

    A positive feedback between submerged vegetation and water clarity forms the backbone of the alternative state theory in shallow lakes. The water clearing effect of aquatic vegetation may be caused by different physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms and has been studied mainly in temperate

  2. A literature review of the Dutch debate on the nurse practitioner role: efficiency vs. professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maten-Speksnijder, A; Grypdonck, M; Pool, A; Meurs, P; van Staa, A L

    2014-03-01

    To explore the debate on the development of the nurse practitioner profession in the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, the positives and negatives of nurse practitioners working in the medical domain have been debated since the role was introduced in 1997. The outcome of the debate is crucial for nurse practitioners' professional development and society's justification of their tasks. Review of 14 policy documents, 35 opinion papers from nurses, 363 opinion articles from physicians and 24 Dutch research papers concerning nurse practitioners from 1995 to 2012. Two discourses were revealed: one related to efficiency and one to the development of the profession. In both, the nurse practitioner role was presented as a solution for healthcare and workforce problems, while arguments differed. The efficiency discourse seemed most influential. Opinions of nurse practitioners were underrepresented; taking up new responsibilities was driven by the wish to improve patient care. While most physicians were willing to delegate tasks to nurse practitioners, they wished to retain final responsibility for medical care. All available publications were extensively studied, which could not include unpublished policy documents from the government or influential parties. This may have led to some selectivity. The case of the Netherlands shows that nurses in developing their advanced role are facing barriers, similar to those in other countries. The dominance of efficiency arguments combined with protection of medical autonomy undermines the development towards nursing care that really benefits patients. Nurse practitioners should strive to obtain positions in which they are allowed to make their own decisions and wise use of healthcare resources for the good of patients and society. Nurse practitioners should aim to become members of influential healthcare Boards in their countries, in which they can raise their voices and be involved in policy making. © 2013 International Council of

  3. To Study and Compare Perception of Health Care Professionals Regarding the Role of Pharmacist in Health Care System in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashfeen Akhtar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare team is mainly a triad of Physicians, Pharmacist & Nurses. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to help healthcare professionals understand more clearly the role of pharmacists within a health care team, especially inter-professional communication, pharmacists' responsibilities, and availability issues. A total of 200 samples were selected from 4 hospitals which include 100 samples of doctors and 100 of the nurses. Each sample is basically a questionnaire comprising of 23 questions. A total of two hundred questionnaires were distributed and one hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were returned resulting in the response rate of 88%. Pharmacists are being one of the major healthcare professional groups in the world after physicians and nurses are playing a very significant role in health care system. This understanding is a requirement for better communication and collaboration among the professions and for accomplishing the combined goal of better health care system.

  4. Professional Supervision as Storied Experience: Narrative Analysis Findings for Australian-Based Registered Music Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Jeanette D; Baker, Felicity A; Daveson, Barbara A

    2017-03-01

    Limited research exists to inform a music therapist's supervision story from their pre-professional training to their practice as a professional. Evidence is needed to understand the complex nature of supervision experiences and their impact on professional practice. This qualitative study explored the supervisory experiences of Australian-based Registered Music Therapists, according to the: 1) themes that characterize their experiences, 2) influences of the supervisor's professional background, 3) outcomes of supervision, and 4) roles of the employer, the professional music therapy association, and the university in supervision standards and practice. Seven professionals were interviewed for this study. Five stages of narrative analysis were used to create their supervision stories: a life course graph, narrative psychological analysis, component story framework and narrative analysis, analysis of narratives, and final integration of the seven narrative summaries. Findings revealed that supervision practice is influenced by a supervisee's personal and professional needs. A range of supervision models or approaches is recommended, including the access of supervisors from different professional backgrounds to support each stage of learning and development. A quality supervisory experience facilitates shifts in awareness and insight, which results in improved or increased skills, confidence, and accountability of practice. Participants' concern about stakeholders included a limited understanding of the role of the supervisor, a lack of clarity about accountability of supervisory practice, and minimal guidelines, which monitor professional competencies. The benefits of supervision in music therapy depend on the quality of the supervision provided, and clarity about the roles of those involved. Research and guidelines are recommended to target these areas.

  5. An intrepreneurial innovative role: integration of the clinical nurse specialist and infection prevention professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Paula A

    2013-01-01

    Hospital quality and financial sustainability rely on reducing healthcare-associated events/infections, length of stay, and readmissions. This project focused on designing an integrated role for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and the infection prevention professional (IPP) to proactively manage the delivery of evidence-based practice to high-risk surgical patients. The healthcare industry is in the midst of a paradigm shift driven by changing health policy focusing on quality indicators, patient satisfaction, and lowering costs. Coupled with these indicators is the expectation and responsibility to provide evidence-based practice at all levels of the healthcare continuum. This paradigm shift places healthcare facilities in a very competitive atmosphere as they rally for the revenue of a fixed payer mix. A literature search using CINHAL, PubMed, and the CNS national listserve databases was completed to identify if there was any previously written information available on an integrated role of the CNS/IPP. An online business plan template was used to communicate the significance, implications, and return on organizational investment to practice with establishing this role. Chronic health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms can place patients at an increased risk for developing a surgical site infection or complications. The CNS/IPP will proactively manage these risk factors, including the patient and family in a preventive care model to manage the acute inpatient high-risk surgical patient. Care management will include coordinated, collaborative, and consultative follow-up by the CNS/IPP in the acute care, long-term care facilities, and home settings. The infection prevention skill set brings a level of clinical expertise that makes a unique CNS. The IPP is immersed in using epidemiological principles that examine the impact of comorbidities and the added risk that can

  6. Women in STEM Majors and Professional Outcome Expectations: The Role of Living-Learning Programs and Other College Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Denson, Nida; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2004-2007 National Study of Living Learning Programs, the only national dataset offering longitudinal information on outcomes associated with living-learning (L/L) program participation, this study investigated the role of L/L programs and other college environments in the professional outcome expectations of women in science,…

  7. Learnt and perceived professional roles of a new type of nurse specialized in Gerontology and Geriatrics, a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, Petra; Finnema, Evelyn; Roodbol, Petrie

    Aim. To gain insight into a new type of nurse specialized in gerontology and geriatrics, how they find meaning in the care of older persons and how this relates to the seven professional roles derived from the CanMEDS theoretical framework. Background. To promote the quality of care for older

  8. The role of personal resources in explaining well-being and performance : A study among young veterinary professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, N. J. J. M.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; van Beukelen, P.; Demerouti, E.; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of three personal resources (i.e., proactive behaviour, reflective behaviour, and self-efficacy) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in order to predict self and other ratings of performance. The sample consisted of 860 Dutch veterinary professionals and 170

  9. The role of personal resources in explaining well-being and performance: A study among young veterinary professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, N. J. J. M.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; van Beukelen, P.; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of three personal resources (i.e., proactive behaviour, reflective behaviour, and self-efficacy) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in order to predict self and other ratings of performance. The sample consisted of 860 Dutch veterinary professionals and 170

  10. Community College Vice Presidents for Institutional Advancement: Role Expectations, Fundraising Responsibilities, Professional Relationships, and Commitment to the Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Donna Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the role expectations, responsibilities toward fundraising, and professional relationships by the vice president of institutional advancement influenced commitment to the institution. A qualitative analysis was conducted across the mid-Atlantic region by interviewing community college vice presidents of institutional…

  11. The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. The User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Marilyn Strachan; Urquiza, Anthony J.

    This manual is intended to provide mental health professionals with the information needed in the evaluation and treatment of maltreated children and their families. An introductory chapter briefly considers the roles of the various mental health disciplines in child abuse intervention, including psychiatry, psychology, clinical social work,…

  12. "We All Share a Common Vision and Passion": Early Years Professionals Reflect upon Their Leadership of Practice Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Early Years Professionals are graduate leaders working with children below 5 years of age, their families and practitioners in early years settings in the private, voluntary and independent sectors and children's centres in England. Their leadership of practice role is central to raising the quality of early years provision and practice. In this…

  13. PS1-48: Where to Find Inpatient Utilization Data in Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Jamila

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Clarity is the reporting database for Epic data. Clarity was created to extract data from the Epic production server Chronicles and store it in a relational database and a dedicated reporting servers. Clarity can reside on variance platforms such as Teradata or Oracle. Most tables in Clarity are updated nightly by a feed from Chronicles. There are also weekly and monthly updates for the more static tables. Queries and reports generated from Clarity can be are very comprehensive and can be challenging. This presentation is targeted to programmers on how to look for IP diagnosis, procedures, events and data flow in Clarity.

  14. Emotional Clarity, Anxiety Sensitivity, and PTSD Symptoms Among Trauma-Exposed Inpatient Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Hanna, Abigail E; Woodward, Emma C; Raines, Elizabeth M; Paulus, Daniel J; Berenz, Erin C; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-05-23

    Although several investigations-on primarily adult samples-demonstrate a potential role of emotion dysregulation in the etiology and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), investigations into the mechanisms that may underlie these associations in general and among adolescents in particular are lacking. The present study examined associations among emotional clarity (i.e., the extent to which individuals are confused about the specific emotions they are experiencing), (Gratz, Journal of Psychopathology Behavioral Assessment 26(1):41-54, 2004) anxiety sensitivity, and DSM-IV PTSD symptom cluster severity (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms) in a diverse sample of trauma-exposed inpatient adolescents. It was hypothesized that anxiety sensitivity would underlie association between emotional clarity and PTSD symptoms. Participants (N = 50; 52.0% female; M age = 15.1 years, SD = 0.51; 44% White) completed measures of emotion dysregulation, anxiety sensitivity, and PTSD. Lower emotional clarity was significantly associated with greater total PTSD symptoms, as well as re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms. Additionally, there were indirect effects for lack of emotional clarity via anxiety sensitivity in relation to total PTSD symptoms [B = 0.17, SE = 0.08, BC 95% CI (0.04, 0.35)], re-experiencing symptoms [B = 0.15, SE = 0.08, BC 95% CI (0.03, 0.36)], avoidance symptoms [B = 0.12, SE = 0.07, BC 95% CI (0.02, 0.29)], and hyperarousal symptoms [B = 0.17, SE = 0.08, BC 95% CI (0.04, 0.36)]. Reversed models were violated, supporting the direction of hypothesized effects. Difficulties recognizing and accurately understanding emotions may increase risk for PTSD symptoms among trauma-exposed youth. Furthermore, anxiety sensitivity may be a promising intervention target among youth at risk for PTSD, especially among those demonstrating poorer emotional clarity.

  15. Specialist nurse key worker in children's cancer care: Professionals' perspectives on the core characteristics of the role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Aldiss, Susie; Gibson, Faith

    2016-10-01

    To describe the development and implementation of the specialist nurse key worker role across 18 children's cancer centres in the United Kingdom, and draw out significant factors for success to inform future development of the role across a range of specialities. Data were obtained through 42 semi-structured interviews and a focus group with 12 key workers. Framework analysis revealed two main themes: models of care and key workers' perspectives of the role. Four models of care were identified and described, roles were organised along a continuum of in reach and outreach with either the presence or absence of home visits and direct delivery of clinical care. Key workers' perspectives of the advantages of the role included: coordination of care (being the main point of contact for families/professionals), experience and expertise (communication/information) and the relationship with families. The main challenges identified were: time, caseload size, geographical area covered, staffing numbers and resources available in the hospital and community. The label 'key worker' was disliked by many participants, as the loss of 'specialist nurse' in the title failed to reflect professional group. Leaving aside terminology, key workers shared core role elements within a continuum of in reach and outreach work and their involvement in direct clinical care varied throughout the pathway. Irrespective of the model they worked in, the key worker provided clinical, emotional, educational, and practical support to families, through the coordination of care, experience and expertise and relationship with families and professionals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Personal experience in professional narratives: the role of helpers' families in their work with terror victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Michal

    2005-06-01

    This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.

  17. Profiles of mental health care professionals based on work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-12-01

    The worldwide burden of mental disorders is considerable, and on the rise, putting pressure on health care systems. Current reforms aim to improve the efficiency of mental health care systems by increasing service integration in communities and strengthening primary mental health care. In this context, mental health care professionals (MHPs) are increasingly required to work on interdisciplinary teams in a variety of settings. Little is known, however, about the profiles of MHPs in relation to their perceived work role performance. MHPs in Quebec (N = 315) from four local service networks completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on individual and team characteristics, as well as team processes and states. Profiles of MHPs were created using a two-step cluster analysis. Five profiles were generated. MHPs belonging to profiles labelled senior medical outpatient specialized care MHPs and senior psychosocial outpatient specialized care MHPs perceived themselves as more performing than MHPs in other profiles. The profile labelled low-collaborators was significantly less performing than all other groups. Two other profiles were identified, positioned between the aforementioned groups in terms of the perceived performance of MHPs: the junior primary care MHPs and the diversified specialized care MHPs. Seniority within the team, delivering specialized type of care, and positive team processes were all features associated with profiles where perceived work performance was high. Overall, this study supports the case for initiatives aimed at improving stability and interdisciplinary collaboration in health teams, especially in primary care.

  18. Midwives' experiences of working conditions, perceptions of professional role and attitudes towards mothers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphson, Katja; Axemo, Pia; Högberg, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    low- and middle-income countries still have a long way to go to reach the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. Mozambique has accomplished a reduction of maternal mortality since the 1990s, but still has among the highest in the world. A key strategy in reducing maternal mortality is to invest in midwifery. the objective was to explore midwives' perspectives of their working conditions, their professional role, and perceptions of attitudes towards mothers in a low-resource setting. midwives in urban, suburban, village and remote areas; working in central, general and rural hospitals as well as health centres and health posts were interviewed in Maputo City, Maputo Province and Gaza Province in Mozambique. the study had a qualitative research design. Nine semi-structured interviews and one follow-up interview were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. two main themes were found; commitment/devotion and lack of resources. All informants described empathic care-giving, with deep engagement with the mothers and highly valued working in teams. Lack of resources prevented the midwives from providing care and created frustration and feelings of insufficiency. the midwives perceptions were that they tried to provide empathic, responsive care on their own within a weak health system which created many difficulties. The great potential the midwives possess of providing quality care must be valued and nurtured for their competency to be used more effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teacher Training for Secondary Schools in Italy: Professional Role and Reflective Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Macinai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this contribution the main guidelines that have characterised the training of secondary teachers in Italy in the last 15 years will be drawn. They will highlight the legislative and regulatory issues for the completion of university education in order to gain access to the paths of employment in secondary schools. In particular, we will emphasise the organisational and political conditions that have given form and content to the paths of specialisation/ teaching qualification and, on the basis of a widely established literature in the current debate, we will reflect on how much and how these settings correspond to precise cultural views that feed a certain idea of school, of teacher and ultimately of society. In the second part, starting from direct experience of initial training for secondary school teachers, we will resume the steps of a reflective practice on the political and cultural role for the teacher, whose valorisation must be explicitly invoked in the context of training and refresher courses, to complete the process of professional preparation adequate for the challenges of our time.

  20. The evaluator’s profile in certifying professional competences: a new educational role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadia Martín Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accreditation, Evaluation and Recognition Systems are intended at certifying professional competences associated to a specific professional profile acquired through any kind of learning (formal, non-formal and informal. The key element in this system is the process of evaluation which leads to verify such competences. In this paper we focus on the professional profile of the evaluator in the accreditation, evaluation and recognition systems, highlighting the development of a new line of professional development for teachers and trainers in formal and non-formal education.

  1. Nurses as role models in health promotion: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darch, Joy; Baillie, Lesley; Gillison, Fiona

    2017-09-28

    There are national and international expectations that nurses are healthy role models; however, there is a lack of clarity about what this concept means. This study used concept analysis methodology to provide theoretical clarity for the concept of role models in health promoting behaviour for registered nurses and students. The framework included analysis of literature and qualitative data from six focus groups and one interview. Participants (n=39) included pre-registration students (adult field), nurse lecturers and registered nurses (RNs), working in NHS Trusts across London and South East London. From the findings, being a role model in health promoting behaviour involves being an exemplar, portraying a healthy image (being fit and healthy), and championing health and wellness. Personal attributes of a role model in health promoting behaviour include being caring, non-judgemental, trustworthy, inspiring and motivating, self-caring, knowledgeable and self-confident, innovative, professional and having a deep sense of self.

  2. Teaching Sociology in Professional Schools: Stereotypes, Role Conflicts, and Career Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    Examines some of the behavioral aspects of teaching sociology in professional schools. Maintains that teaching in a professional school means that one's scholarly accomplishments must impress two different audiences with distinctly different values and expectations. By-products of this situation are overspecialization and a sense of intellectual…

  3. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Botswana: The Role of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangope, Boitumelo; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The continuing professional development of teachers is crucial for implementation of inclusive education and improving the quality of educational service delivery of all learners. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore teachers' beliefs about professional development for inclusive education in two primary and two secondary schools in…

  4. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2015-02-01

    (1) To determine the nonphysician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management. (2) To examine nutrition professionals' current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care. (3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals' quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. A 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. nonphysician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy) was analyzed. Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high-quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high-quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74 vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (Pcounseling to obese patients. Yet nutrition professionals' receipt of high-quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. Role of Professional Development Associations in the Future of Our Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jim I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the interconnectedness of three professional development associations, the impact of various factors on collaboration and fragmentation, and suggestions for future directions. The three adult education professional associations being discussed in this article are the American Association of Adult and…

  6. The importance of bass clarity in pop and rock venues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert

    2008-01-01

    High levels of bass sound have been shown to stimulate the part of the brain that controls such basic instincts as sexual desire and hunger [Todd, 2000]. In rock and pop music, the bass frequencies from 40-125 Hz get amplified to very loud levels. Easily half of the electrical power of the PA...... with audio engineers and bass players give the perspective that artificial reverberation is rarely, if ever, added to bass-frequencies. This supports the idea that a hall should be as dry as possible at low-frequencies. In the mid-treble frequency range, sound absorption, and thereby 'clarity', is easily...... obtained through the presence of the audience that absorbs 4-6 times more mid/high frequency sound energy than bass sound energy. In the low-frequency range 'clarity' is not so easily obtained. This paper discusses the challenge in depth and proposes design solutions....

  7. Clearing skeletal muscle with CLARITY for light microscopy imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgroom, Andrew; Ralston, Evelyn

    2016-04-01

    Viewing subcellular details over large tissue volumes is becoming an essential condition of the success of large-scale projects aimed at visualizing cell connections in whole organs or tissues. However, tissue opacity remains an obstacle to deep tissue imaging. This situation has brought renewed interest for techniques of tissue clearing; new protocols, such as CLARITY (Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging/Immunostaining/In situ hybridization-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel), have recently been developed. So far, most of the tests of these techniques have been applied to brain or other soft tissues. Here we show that CLARITY clears mouse hindlimb skeletal muscles and maintains the basic structural features of muscle and its fibers. However, tagging with fluorescent markers was not successful. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Goal clarity and trust in management in educational mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. May

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore employees' opinions on goal clarity, trust in management and perceptions of organisational readiness for change in the context of the changes caused by the merger to form the Durban Institute of Technology (DIT in order to increase knowledge about the human aspects of mergers. Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey of staff was conducted, with a sample of respondents completing a questionnaire, which investigated whether or not there were relationships among the change variables, namely goal clarity, trust in management and perception of organisational readiness for change. Findings: The key finding of the study is that the goals of the institution were not clarified sufficiently during the change process at DIT. The correlation of goal clarity, trust in management and perceptions of organisational readiness for change were all significant at the p < 0.01 level; and the direction of the relationship between the variables was strongly positive (between 0.7 and 1.0. Implications: The results suggest that management success in identifying organisational goals clearly during a change initiative could help improve employees' attitudes, thereby increasing the likelihood of merger success, and minimising the negative reactions and staff dissatisfaction often associated with mergers. Originality/Value: Although there is a lot of research in the generic field of mergers and considerable research into mergers in higher education, both overseas and in South Africa, there is a lack of research in the human aspects of mergers. This is especially true of the three key change variables of perceptions of readiness for change, goal clarity and trust in management. Furthermore, what research there is has not focussed on the opinions of individual employees, but on the opinions of trade unions and student representatives. Therefore, this study contributes to filling an important gap in the literature on higher education

  9. An optical method to assess water clarity in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of water clarity in coastal regions is highly desired by various activities such as search and recovery operations, dredging and water quality monitoring. This study intends to develop a practical method for estimating water clarity based on a larger in situ dataset, which includes Secchi depth (Z sd ), turbidity, chlorophyll and optical properties from several field campaigns in turbid coastal waters. The Secchi depth parameter is found to closely vary with the concentration of suspended sediments, vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K d (m(-1)) and beam attenuation coefficient c (m(-1)). The optical relationships obtained for the selected wavelengths (i.e. 520, 530 and 540 nm) exhibit an inverse relationship between Secchi depth and the length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d )). The variation in Secchi depth is expressed in terms of undetermined coupling coefficient which is composed of light penetration factor (expressed by z(1%)K d (λ)) and a correction factor (ξ) (essentially governed by turbidity of the water column). This method of estimating water clarity was validated using independent in situ data from turbid coastal waters, and its results were compared with those obtained from the existing methods. The statistical analysis of the measured and the estimated Z sd showed that the present method yields lower error when compared to the existing methods. The spatial structures of the measured and predicted Z sd are also highly consistent with in situ data, which indicates the potential of the present method for estimating the water clarity in turbid coastal and associated lagoon waters.

  10. Clarity and diagnostic quality of digitized conventional intraoral radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goga, R; Chandler, N P; Love, R M

    2004-03-01

    To compare digital images of conventional radiographs with the original radiographs for perceived clarity of endodontic files, periapical lesions and carious lesions, and to establish the diagnostic value of the digital images. Four groups of ten radiographs were used: standardized bitewings demonstrating carious lesions, periapical radiographs of apical lesions, periapical radiographs showing endodontic files of various sizes at working length, and standardized periapical radiographs with size 08 files at working length. Radiographs were photographed using an Olympus C 2500-L digital camera and a Nikon D1X digital camera and were scanned using a Nikon Supercoolscan 4000 ED film/slide scanner. The digital images were then transferred to a Toshiba Satellite 2210 laptop. Three general dental practitioners compared each conventional radiograph with the three matching digital images. Images were ranked for clarity and were assessed for diagnostic quality. Data were analysed using General Estimating Equations. The clarity and diagnostic quality of the conventional radiographs were superior to the digital images produced by the three techniques (P harness the potential of digital technology.

  11. Role of Creative Activity in the Formation of Professional and Personal Experience of the Future Music Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Popovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated and substantiated the role of creative activity in the formation of professional and personal experience of the future music teacher. It was determined that the creative activity as a complex personality formation acts as a prerequisite and the result of musical and educational activities, provides an unusual approach and creative solution of professional problems. It is proved that the high level of creative activity is determined by positive motivation, strong interest and focus on music and teaching activities, expression of emotions and significant willpower, self-reliance, initiative, imagination, the ability to perform the academic tasks in a non-standard way, and the availability of adequate self-assessment of one’s own musical abilities and professional activities.

  12. The evolving professional identity of the clinical research nurse: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhunny, Swapna; Salmon, Debra

    2017-12-01

    To examine the perspectives of CRNs in the UK on their professional role identity, in order to inform the professional practice of Clinical Research Nursing. Clinical research nurses (CRN) make a significant contribution to healthcare research within the UK and internationally. However, lack of clarity about their role, and scope of practice renders their contribution within the profession and in the minds of the wider public invisible. This has implications in terms of promoting the role nurses play not only in terms of recruitment, retention, and care of research participants but also as research leaders of the future. Exploratory qualitative design using thematic analysis conducted within a realist paradigm. Participants viewed the positive aspects of their identity 'as agents of change' who were fundamental to the clinical research process. Resourcefulness and the ability to guide members of the research team were valued as key to job satisfaction. Successful navigation through the complexity of advice, support, management and leadership tasks related to their role in caring for research patients were role affirming and generated a sense of pride. However, lack of recognition, clarity of the role and career development opportunities within an identified structure undermined the CRN identity and optimism about progression in the future. Participants reported feeling invisible to colleagues within the clinical community, isolated and excluded from wider nursing groups. The study describes UK CRN practice, highlighting the positive benefits and challenges associated with the role, including the need to support professional and career development to maximise their research contribution. This study provides nurses, health care and research organisations and academic nursing educators with a broadened understanding of the professional role, identity and context of clinical research nursing practice in the United Kingdom, with recommendations to improve its

  13. Open access behaviours and perceptions of health sciences faculty and roles of information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda T; Questier, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the faculty's awareness, attitudes and use of open access, and the role of information professionals in supporting open access (OA) scholarly communication in Tanzanian health sciences universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 librarians, while questionnaires were physically distributed to 415 faculty members in all eight Tanzanian health sciences universities, with a response rate of 71.1%. The study found that most faculty members were aware about OA issues. However, the high level of OA awareness among faculty members did not translate into actual dissemination of faculty's research outputs through OA web avenues. A small proportion of faculty's research materials was made available as OA. Faculty were more engaged with OA journal publishing than with self-archiving practices. Senior faculty with proficient technical skills were more likely to use open access than junior faculty. Major barriers to OA usage were related to ICT infrastructure, awareness, skills, author-pay model, and copyright and plagiarism concerns. Interviews with librarians revealed that there was a strong support for promoting OA issues on campus; however, this positive support with various open access-related tasks did not translate into actual action. It is thus important for librarians and OA administrators to consider all these factors for effective implementation of OA projects in research and academic institutions. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study focusing on the health sciences faculty's and librarians' behaviours and perceptions of open access initiatives in Tanzania and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing open access initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.

  14. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  15. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  16. Teaching professionalism in graduate medical education: What is the role of simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Eisha; Pinto, Jayant M; Cappaert, Melissa; Lambrix, Marcie; Blood, Angela D; Blair, Elizabeth A; Small, Stephen D

    2016-09-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature concerning simulation-based teaching and assessment of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education professionalism competencies to elucidate best practices and facilitate further research. A systematic review of English literature for "professionalism" and "simulation(s)" yielded 697 abstracts. Two independent raters chose abstracts that (1) focused on graduate medical education, (2) described the simulation method, and (3) used simulation to train or assess professionalism. Fifty abstracts met the criteria, and seven were excluded for lack of relevant information. The raters, 6 professionals with medical education, simulation, and clinical experience, discussed 5 of these articles as a group; they calibrated coding and applied further refinements, resulting in a final, iteratively developed evaluation form. The raters then divided into 2 teams to read and assess the remaining articles. Overall, 15 articles were eliminated, and 28 articles underwent final analysis. Papers addressed a heterogeneous range of professionalism content via multiple methods. Common specialties represented were surgery (46.4%), pediatrics (17.9%), and emergency medicine (14.3%). Sixteen articles (57%) referenced a professionalism framework; 14 (50%) incorporated an assessment tool; and 17 (60.7%) reported debriefing participants, though in limited detail. Twenty-three (82.1%) articles evaluated programs, mostly using subjective trainee reports. Despite early innovation, reporting of simulation-based professionalism training and assessment is nonstandardized in methods and terminology and lacks the details required for replication. We offer minimum standards for reporting of future professionalism-focused simulation training and assessment as well as a basic framework for better mapping proper simulation methods to the targeted domain of professionalism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of workforce redesign policies on role boundaries in 'generalist' podiatry practice: expert views within the professional body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressing, Samantha J; Borthwick, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes and a predicted rise in the prevalence of chronic illness have led to a range of health policies in the UK (and elsewhere) focused on workforce flexibility and extended roles for the allied health professions. Whilst much academic attention has been paid to extended specialised roles for allied health professionals such as podiatrists, little work has addressed the likely impact of these policy changes on non-specialist, 'generalist' podiatry practice. This study aimed to explore expert professional views on the impact of role flexibility on generalist podiatry practice. Expert podiatry practitioners drawn from within the professional body, the Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists/College of Podiatry were recruited to 3 focus groups and 4 individual semi structured interviews and the data subject to a thematic analysis. Three key themes emerged, reflecting concerns about the future of generalist podiatry practice in the NHS, a perceived likelihood that generalist care will move inexorably towards private sector provision, and a growth in support worker grades undermining the position of generalist practice in the mainstream health division of labour. Up skilling generalist practitioners was viewed as the strongest defence against marginalisation. An emphasis on enhanced and specialised roles in podiatry by NHS commissioners and profession alike may threaten the sustainability of generalist podiatry provision in the state funded NHS. Non-specialist general podiatry may increasingly become the province of the private sector.

  18. Clarity and Coherence of Lesson Goals as a Scaffold for Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Tina; Rimmele, Rolf; Prenzel, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    The article addresses clarity and coherence of lesson goals as a scaffold for student learning. In 13 physics classes video recordings of the introductory lesson of two topics were rated with respect to clarity and coherence of the lesson structure. HLM analyses showed a positive effect of classes with high goal clarity and coherence on the…

  19. Medication Information Seeking Behavior in a Social Context: The Role of Lay and Professional Social Network Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Kjos, Pharm.D., Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provided a view of the social context of medication information seeking from a patient’s perspective.This was an exploratory qualitative study with 40 adults to determine how patients communicate within social networks to seek medication information. Semi-structured interviews were used to determine the structure (who, the content provided (what, and the function of social sources of information (how/why. Data underwent ethnographic content analysis using theory and prior research driven themes. Coding matrices were created to identify emerging patterns for who supplied what information and how the information was used. Participants described seeking medication information from health professional or lay social network sources. Health professional sources’ strongest role was to provide factual information. In contrast, lay sources provided factual information and affective information such as personal experiences and beliefs or attitudes. Information sought from social sources displayed similar functioning roles in terms of how the information was used by the participants seeking the information. The study concluded that medication information is sought from social sources both inside and outside of healthcare. Emerging patterns found that lay sources may provide patients more than affective information about medications. Further, patients may be receiving factually based information other than from health professionals. By coming to a more complete understanding of the social nature of the information environment, health professionals can better understand information needs from a patient’s perspective.

  20. The role of time perspective in professional self-determination of students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egorenko T.A; Rodina E.M

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the peculiarities of time perspective in university students at one of the stages of their professional self-identification and presents the results of studies by foreign authors...

  1. End-of-Life Caregiver Social Support Activation: The Roles of Hospice Clinicians and Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Caregivers of those with life-limiting illness face many complicated tasks, including providing direct patient care, communicating with professionals, and managing the logistical demands of daily activities. To assist with caregiving responsibilities, caregivers require social support from social network members at all points in the illness process. This study analyzes themes from interviews with 61 caregivers of patients enrolled in hospice services to identify the types of support caregivers mobilize from new social network members for social support during the end-of-life care process. Themes indicate that caregivers receive accessible, immediate, caregiver-centered emotional support from hospice health care professionals, and situationally tailored, understandable informational support from other types of professionals. In addition, caregivers received overlapping emotional and informational support from hospice health care professionals. Findings enhance the understanding of how caregivers receive tailored emotional and informational support.

  2. Professional Women’s Well-Being: The Role of Discrimination and Occupational Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Torsheika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived discrimination, workplace racial composition, and three outcomes--psychological distress, life dissatisfaction, and job dissatisfaction--among a sample of professional Black (n=72) and White (n=74) women. As a comparison, these relationships were analyzed to determine if they varied from those observed in more traditionally studied populations: Whites and non-professional Blacks, using data from a population of working women in the 1995 De...

  3. Investigation of the role of aesthetics in differentiating between photographs taken by amateur and professional photographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shao-Fu; Lin, Qian; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lee, Seungyon; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Automatically quantifying the aesthetic appeal of images is an interesting problem in computer science and image processing. In this paper, we incorporate aesthetic properties and convert them into computable image features for classifying photographs taken by amateur and professional photographers. In particular, color histograms, spatial edge distribution, and repetition identification are used as features. Results of experiments on professional and amateur photograph data sets confirm the discriminative power of these features.

  4. Professional women's well-being: the role of discrimination and occupational characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Torsheika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived discrimination, workplace racial composition, and three outcomes-psychological distress, life dissatisfaction, and job dissatisfaction-among a sample of Black (n = 72) and White (n = 74) professional women. As a comparison, these relationships were analyzed to determine if they varied from those observed in more traditionally studied populations: Whites and non-professional Blacks, using data from a population of working women in the 1995 Detroit Area Study (N = 533). Perceived discrimination was associated with differences in psychological distress and job dissatisfaction but not with life dissatisfaction. The correlation between perceived discrimination and psychological distress was larger for White professional women than for Black professional women (White women odds ratio [OR]: 1.99; Black women OR: 0.80). A larger correlation between race and job dissatisfaction was observed for Black professional women than for Black non-professional women. The racial composition of the workplace was unrelated to any of the outcomes. Study results emphasized the importance of decreasing the frequency of discrimination for positive mental health and underscored the need for more systematic research on discrimination and health among Black women of higher socioeconomic status, a growing sub-population in the United States.

  5. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT: THE ROLE OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONALS AMONG EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cristina Gianini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With several opportunities in the labor market, hence the professional secretary has the opportunity to perform in various industries. This is because of his knowledge and training multifunctional pluralistic in many areas of knowledge and the ability to organize, plan, execute and optimize tasks yet. He is currently responsible for valuable information, assume positions of leadership, executive and consultant in many situations a manager. This article aims to address information concerning the action of Professional Secretary in educational organizations and open space for discussion that this professional training for its comprehensive, is able to act in academic environments and not only in traditional enterprise settings. This work grounded in bibliographic study raises questions regarding the professional practice of executive secretary, interweaving their activities with those of the educational manager. The study results show that the professional executive secretary is able to perform their professional activities also in academic environment, given its pluralistic training, ensuring effective performance of functions corresponding to this segment.

  6. School nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of role as opinion leader, and professional practice regarding human papillomavirus vaccine for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L

    2015-02-01

    Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine. We used a cross-sectional design by recruiting members from the National Association of School Nurses. All participants (N = 505) were e-mailed a survey designed for this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested direct and indirect effects. Overall, school nurses had knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and positive attitudes toward the vaccine. They had less-than-enthusiastic perceptions of their role as opinion leaders regarding the vaccine and implemented few activities related to providing vaccine information. The model revealed a good fit (χ(2)=20.238 [df=8, popinion leaders. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  7. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGERS: PROFESSIONAL PROFILE AND THE ROLE IN THE CROSS-FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia de Abreu; Rosane Lúcia Chicarelli Alcântara

    2015-01-01

    Supply Chain Management can be seen as a way to achieve integration of all corporate functions. In practice, Supply Chain Management is complex and characterized by numerous activities spread over multiple functions and organizations, which pose challenges to reach effective implementation. Based on literature review, the objective of this paper is to present the theoretical indications regarding professional profile recommended for the Supply Chain Management and discuss the role of these pr...

  8. Professional self-efficacy as a predictor of burnout and engagement: the role of challenge and hindrance demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Mercedes; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to analyze the role of professional self-efficacy as a predictor of psychosocial well-being (i.e., burnout and engagement) following the Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura (1997). Structural Equation Modeling was performed in a sample of secondary school teachers (n = 460) and users of Information and Communication Technology (n = 596). Results show empirical support for the predicting role that professional self-efficacy plays in the perception of challenge (i.e., mental overload) and hindrance demands (i.e., role conflict, lack of control, and lack of social support), which are in turn related to burnout (i.e., erosion process) and engagement (i.e., motivational process). Specifically, employees with more professional self-efficacy will perceive more challenge demands and fewer hindrance demands, and this will in turn relate to more engagement and less burnout. A multi-group analysis showed that the research model was invariant across both samples. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  9. Self-concept clarity buffers the impact of societal threat to safety on right-wing authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Manzi, Claudia; Roccato, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to societal threat can elicit an increase in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In this study, using a quasi-experimental vignette design (Italian community sample, N = 86), we tested the moderating role of self-concept clarity (SCC). A moderated regression showed that manipulated societal threat to safety fostered RWA only among low SCC scorers. It is concluded that SCC is an important resource for individuals facing threat conditions.

  10. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (pcounseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  11. Developing the role of big data and analytics in health professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Pusic, Martin V; Galbraith, Robert M; Cameron, Terri

    2014-03-01

    As we capture more and more data about learners, their learning, and the organization of their learning, our ability to identify emerging patterns and to extract meaning grows exponentially. The insights gained from the analyses of these large amounts of data are only helpful to the extent that they can be the basis for positive action such as knowledge discovery, improved capacity for prediction, and anomaly detection. Big Data involves the aggregation and melding of large and heterogeneous datasets while education analytics involves looking for patterns in educational practice or performance in single or aggregate datasets. Although it seems likely that the use of education analytics and Big Data techniques will have a transformative impact on health professional education, there is much yet to be done before they can become part of mainstream health professional education practice. If health professional education is to be accountable for its programs run and are developed, then health professional educators will need to be ready to deal with the complex and compelling dynamics of analytics and Big Data. This article provides an overview of these emerging techniques in the context of health professional education.

  12. Automated clarity assessment of retinal images using regionally based structural and statistical measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alan D; Philip, Sam; Goatman, Keith A; Sharp, Peter F; Olson, John A

    2012-09-01

    An automated image analysis system for application in mass medical screening must assess the clarity of the images before analysing their content. This is the case in grading for diabetic retinopathy screening where the failure to assess clarity could result in retinal images of people with retinopathy being erroneously classed as normal. This paper compares methods of clarity assessment based on the degradation of visible structures and based on the deviation of image properties outside expected norms caused by clarity loss. Vessel visibility measures and statistical measures were determined at locations in the image which have high saliency and these were used to obtain an image clarity assessment using supervised classification. The usefulness of the measures as indicators of image clarity was assessed. Tests were performed on 987 disc-centred and macula-centred retinal photographs (347 with inadequate clarity) obtained from the English National Screening Programme. Images with inadequate clarity were detected with 92.6% sensitivity at 90% specificity. In a set of 2000 macula-centred images (200 with inadequate clarity) from the Scottish Screening Programme, inadequate clarity was detected with 96.7% sensitivity at 90% specificity. This study has shown that structural and statistical measures are equally useful for retinal image clarity assessment. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Advances and perspectives in tissue clearing using CLARITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian H Reveles; Berg, Rune W

    2017-12-01

    CLARITY is a tissue clearing method, which enables immunostaining and imaging of large volumes for 3D-reconstruction. The method was initially time-consuming, expensive and relied on electrophoresis to remove lipids to make the tissue transparent. Since then several improvements and simplifications have emerged, such as passive clearing (PACT) and methods to improve tissue staining. Here, we review advances and compare current applications with the aim of highlighting needed improvements as well as aiding selection of the specific protocol for use in future investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  15. The Changing Role of Health Care Professionals in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Literature Review of a Decade of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend R. van Stenis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of health care professionals is known to have changed over the last years, few formal efforts have been made to examine this change through means of a scientific review. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the changing role of health care professionals in nursing homes, as well as the conditions that make this change possible. A systematic review of health care literature published in the last decade (2007–2017 was utilized to address these goals. Our findings suggest that although health care in nursing homes is shifting from task-oriented care to relation-oriented care (e.g., through an increased focus on patient dignity, various obstacles (e.g., negative self-image, work pressure, and a lack of developmental opportunities, needs (e.g., shared values, personal development, personal empowerment, team development, and demonstrating expertise, and competences (e.g., communication skills, attentiveness, negotiation skills, flexibility, teamwork, expertise, and coaching and leadership skills still need to be addressed in order to successfully facilitate this change. As such, this paper provides various implications for health care research, health care institutions, practitioners, HR professionals and managers, and occupational health research.

  16. The Changing Role of Health Care Professionals in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Literature Review of a Decade of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stenis, Arend R; van Wingerden, Jessica; Kolkhuis Tanke, Isolde

    2017-01-01

    Although the role of health care professionals is known to have changed over the last years, few formal efforts have been made to examine this change through means of a scientific review. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the changing role of health care professionals in nursing homes, as well as the conditions that make this change possible. A systematic review of health care literature published in the last decade (2007-2017) was utilized to address these goals. Our findings suggest that although health care in nursing homes is shifting from task-oriented care to relation-oriented care (e.g., through an increased focus on patient dignity), various obstacles (e.g., negative self-image, work pressure, and a lack of developmental opportunities), needs (e.g., shared values, personal development, personal empowerment, team development, and demonstrating expertise), and competences (e.g., communication skills, attentiveness, negotiation skills, flexibility, teamwork, expertise, and coaching and leadership skills) still need to be addressed in order to successfully facilitate this change. As such, this paper provides various implications for health care research, health care institutions, practitioners, HR professionals and managers, and occupational health research.

  17. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGERS: PROFESSIONAL PROFILE AND THE ROLE IN THE CROSS-FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia de Abreu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management can be seen as a way to achieve integration of all corporate functions. In practice, Supply Chain Management is complex and characterized by numerous activities spread over multiple functions and organizations, which pose challenges to reach effective implementation. Based on literature review, the objective of this paper is to present the theoretical indications regarding professional profile recommended for the Supply Chain Management and discuss the role of these professionals in cross-functional business processes. The literature review demonstrated a growing interest in the thematic, especially because the “soft” aspects (human and behavioral to achieve supply chain internal and external integration. All functions must be involved in Supply Chain Management and supply chain managers have a critical role to play: challenge the supremacy of functions in the organizational structure, implementing the practice of "horizontal work" through cross-functional teams. Overall, this research contributes to academic and practical professionals by the description of the job profile of the supply chain managers and presentation of forms to achieve internal integration.

  18. The Influence of Teacher Education on Mentor Teachers' Role Perception in Professional Development Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Aviva; Oster-Levinz, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Apprenticeship and professional development schools (PDSs) are two models for teacher education. The mentors that are the focus for this research completed their initial teacher training through one of these models and now mentor in PDSs. The paper reports on how the way in which they were trained as student teachers influenced their role…

  19. White Voice in Multiculturalism: Belonging, Professional Respect, and Role as Cultural Broker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Lynn K.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Wilder retraces the steps of a personal journey as a White faculty member researching, publishing, and presenting at conferences in the field of multiculturalism. She shares insight into her experiences--while advocating for diversity--of overcoming the challenge to belong in collegial circles, to give and receive professional respect, and to…

  20. Employee Participation in Non-Mandatory Professional Development--The Role of Core Proactive Motivation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Kim S.; Machin, M. Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With a focus on the self-initiated efforts of employees, this study examined a model of core proactive motivation processes for participation in non-mandatory professional development (PD) within a proactive motivation framework using the Self-Determination Theory perspective. A multi-group SEM analysis conducted across 439 academic and general…

  1. Academic Professionalism in the Era of Change: Role Subidentities and Transformation of Time Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Roman Nikolaevich; Gruzdev, Ivan Andreevich; Terentyev, Evgeny Andreevich

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a case study conducted within the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) that examined the identity fragmentation of academic professionals in the context of current educational and academic reforms in Russia. Seven hundred and five professors were surveyed for the study, which focused on…

  2. On the Role of ExperienceLab in Professional Domain Ambient Intelligence Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, E.J.; Van de Sluis, B.M.; De Ruyter, B.; Aarts, E.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Concept development for professional domain AmI solutions involvesdifferent stakeholders than those for consumer products, and puts different requirements on experience test methods and facilities. Philips ExperienceLab facility for experience research is described, aswell as trends and lessons

  3. Supporting Evidence Use in Networked Professional Learning: The Role of the Middle Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; DeLuca, Christopher; Klinger, Don A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Canada, contemporary collaborative professional learning models for educators utilise multiple forms of evidence to inform practice. Commonly, two forms of evidence are prioritised: (a) research-based evidence and (b) classroom-based evidence of student learning. In Ontario, the integration of these two forms of evidence within…

  4. Preparing School Counselors to Support LGBT Youth: The Roles of Graduate Education and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Ryan M.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether school counselors' LGBT-related graduate education and professional development predicted more frequent efforts to support LGBT students, and whether their LGBT-related self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their training experiences and supportive efforts. Results from ordinary least squares (OLS) regression…

  5. In Search of a Professional Identity: Higher Education in Macau and the Academic Role of Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in Macau, China, is characterized by vocationalization of institutions, lack of faculty professionalization, and little or no shared governance. Using general statistics of higher education in Macau and a case study of one university, this paper illustrates not only the status of the profession but also the structural, cultural,…

  6. New practices in science communication: Roles of professionals in science and technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrmann, Caroline; Dijkstra, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Science Communication (SC) professionals who are working in the context of science and technology development, have various jobs at universities, government agencies, NGOs and industry. Their positions have changed in recent years, due to developments in science and technology and to

  7. The role of time perspective in professional self-determination of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorenko T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the peculiarities of time perspective in university students at one of the stages of their professional self-identification and presents the results of studies by foreign authors on the subject of future time perspective, commitment to future, balanced time perspective and the way they relate to students’ motivation, academic achievements, intrapersonal characteristics

  8. Professional School Counselors' Role in Partnering with Military Families during the Stages of Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebekah F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to help each student to be successful in school, as outlined in the ASCA National Model, professional school counselors are called to partner with military families in order to work for their children's social, emotional, and academic success during deployments. Possible school-family partnerships that may occur before, during, and after…

  9. An Occupation's Responsibility: The Role of Social Foundations in the Cultivation of Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the author argues that inquiry and engagement in the social foundations of education is fundamental to cultivating professionalism in education. As many commentators on the subject have noted, teaching does not meet many of the criteria of a profession derived from the sociological study of fields of work. As Joseph Newman observes,…

  10. Leveraging Experiential Learning to Encourage Role Transition from "Student" to "Professional": Insights from Identity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Douglas R.; Ewing, Randall L.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on identity theory, this conceptual inquiry posits a need to redefine the standard that individuals use to judge themselves as a "business student." Learners will be more likely to succeed in a corporate context if they experience daily interactions throughout a curriculum that approximate a professional environment. These social…

  11. Measuring Theoretical Orientations of Counselor Trainees in Turkey: The Role of Personal and Professional Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ilkay; Gazioglu, Esra Ismen

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised, and the second aim was to understand the relative influence of personal and professional variables on the choice of a guiding theoretical orientation among Turkish counselor trainees. Results showed…

  12. Teacher Professional Development through a School-University Partnership. What Role Does Teacher Identity Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the continuing professional development of one group of secondary school English language teachers who participated in a school-university partnership in Hong Kong. Grounded in a framework of teacher identity and using in-depth interviews conducted over the entire 12 month period of the partnership, the study explores the…

  13. The Role of International Accreditation in Promoting Academic and Professional Preparation in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Peter; McFarland, Max; Gonzalez, Ruth; Hass, Michael; Stiles, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of rigorous and universally respected quality assurance procedures that monitor and recognize the delivery of effective and ethically responsible public services has become increasingly evident in many countries. However, within professional psychology, these developments generally are located in individual countries. With a few…

  14. The Professional Learning Community in Special Education Schools: The Principal's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Chen; Feldman, Niv

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a professional learning community is characterized by the networks of learning processes which exist among its members, where teachers continuously deliberate with one another on how to solve problems that relate to teaching and learning. Interestingly, whereas a growing number of studies have focused on how to promote collective…

  15. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  16. Globalization, Information Technology and Higher Education in Nigeria: The Roles of Library Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwhekadom, Ejimaji Emmanuel; Olawolu, Oladunni Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The influence of globalization and information technology on higher education in Nigeria was investigated through a descriptive survey design. Forty-five professional librarians from University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni Port Harcourt, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku Rivers…

  17. A comprehensive SWOT audit of the role of the biomedical physicist in the education of healthcare professionals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, C J; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M; Aurengo, A; Dendy, P P; Karenauskaite, V; Malisan, M R; Meijer, J H; Mihov, D; Mornstein, V; Rokita, E; Vano, E; Weckstrom, M; Wucherer, M

    2010-04-01

    Although biomedical physicists provide educational services to the healthcare professions in the majority of universities in Europe, their precise role with respect to the education of the healthcare professions has not been studied systematically. To address this issue we are conducting a research project to produce a strategic development model for the role using the well-established SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) methodology. SWOT based strategic planning is a two-step process: one first carries out a SWOT position audit and then uses the identified SWOT themes to construct the strategic development model. This paper reports the results of a SWOT audit for the role of the biomedical physicist in the education of the healthcare professions in Europe. Internal Strengths and Weaknesses of the role were identified through a qualitative survey of biomedical physics departments and biomedical physics curricula delivered to healthcare professionals across Europe. External environmental Opportunities and Threats were identified through a systematic survey of the healthcare, healthcare professional education and higher education literature and categorized under standard PEST (Political, Economic, Social-Psychological, Technological-Scientific) categories. The paper includes an appendix of terminology. Defined terms are marked with an asterisk in the text. Copyright 2009 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rethinking medical professionalism: the role of information technology and practice innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, David

    2008-06-01

    Physician leaders and the public have become increasingly concerned about the erosion of medical professionalism. Changes in the organization, economics, and technology of medical care have made it difficult to maintain competence, meet patients' expectations, escape serious conflicts of interest, and distribute finite resources fairly. Information technology (IT), electronic health records (EHRs), improved models of disease management, and new ways of relating to and sharing responsibility for patients' care can contribute to both professionalism and quality of care. The potential of IT, EHRs, and other practice facilitators for professionalism is assessed through diverse but relevant literatures, examination of relevant websites, and experience in working with medical leaders on renewing professionalism. IT and EHRs are the basis of needed efforts to reinforce medical competence, improve relationships with patients, implement disease management programs, and, by increasing transparency and accountability, help reduce some conflicts of interest. Barriers include the misalignment of goals with payment incentives and time pressures in meeting patients' expectations and practice demands. Implementing IT and EHRs in small, dispersed medical practices is particularly challenging because of short-term financial costs, disruptions in practice caused by learning and adaptation, and the lack of confidence in needed support services. Large organized systems like the VA, Kaiser Permanente, and general practice in the United Kingdom have successfully overcome such challenges. IT and the other tools examined in this article are important adjuncts to professional capacities and aspirations. They have potential to help reverse the decline of primary care and make physicians' practices more effective and rewarding. The cooperation, collaboration, and shared responsibility of government, insurers, medical organizations, and physicians, as well as financial and technical support

  19. NIEHS/FDA CLARITY-BPA research program update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J.; Newbold, Retha R.; Bucher, John R.; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K. Barry; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Churchwell, Mona I.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; McLellen, Michelle; Chidambaram, Mani; Bryant, Matthew; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Ferguson, Sherry A.; Flaws, Jodi; Howard, Paul C.; Walker, Nigel J.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Fostel, Jennifer; Favaro, Carolyn; Schug, Thaddeus T.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program. PMID:26232693

  20. NIEHS/FDA CLARITY-BPA research program update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha R; Bucher, John R; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Churchwell, Mona I; Twaddle, Nathan C; McLellen, Michelle; Chidambaram, Mani; Bryant, Matthew; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Ferguson, Sherry A; Flaws, Jodi; Howard, Paul C; Walker, Nigel J; Zoeller, R Thomas; Fostel, Jennifer; Favaro, Carolyn; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. How Do Allied Health Professionals Construe the Role of the Remote Workforce? New Insight into Their Recruitment and Retention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle Campbell

    Full Text Available Allied health workforce recruitment and retention in remote areas is a global problem. Using case studies from the Australian allied health workforce, this paper adds new information by combining personality trait information with a detailed understanding of how the cases construe the demands of remote work, which may be useful in addressing this problem.Four cases (two urban, two remote are presented from a mixed methods study (n = 562, which used (1 the Temperament and Character Inventory to investigate personality traits of allied health professionals; and (2 repertory grid interviews to reveal quantitatively and qualitatively how the cases construed their Ideal work role compared with their Current and a Remote role. Cases also self-assessed their fit ('suited' or 'not suited' with remote.Differences in the way cases construed their fit with remote work was related to prior experience. However all were satisfied with their work, perceiving their Current role as similar to their Ideal. All saw remote work as requiring generalist expertise and a reliance on relationships. Personality traits, especially Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance, fit with how allied health professionals perceived their role.The combination of two distinct lines of investigation, illustrates what more can be revealed about allied health professional's career choices by taking into account the fit or lack of fit between their personality tendencies, their construing of remote work and their life circumstances. Understanding the combined influence of perceptions and traits on an individual toward or away from remote work may enhance recruitment and retention internationally.

  2. Trying on the professional self: nursing students' perceptions of learning about roles, identity and teamwork in an interprofessional clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kerry; Cant, Robyn; Leech, Michelle; Baulch, Julie; Gilbee, Alana

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to describe how senior nursing students viewed the clinical learning environment and matured their professional identity through interprofessional learning in a student-led hospital 'ward'. Undergraduate nursing and medical student teams participated in a trial of ward-based interprofessional clinical learning, managing patients over 2 weeks in a rehabilitation ward. Qualitative and quantitative program evaluation was conducted using exit student focus groups and a satisfaction survey. Twenty-three nursing and medical students in three placement rounds provided positive feedback. Five main themes emerged describing their engagement in 'trying on' a professional role: 'experiencing independence and autonomy'; 'seeing clearly what nursing's all about'; 'altered images of other professions'; 'ways of communicating and collaborating' and 'becoming a functioning team'. Ward-based interprofessional clinical placements offer senior students authentic ideal clinical experiences. We consider this essential learning for future interprofessional collaboration which should be included in senior nursing students' education. © 2014.

  3. The educational needs and professional roles of Canadian physicians and nurses regarding genetic testing and adult onset hereditary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Blaine, Sean; Carroll, June C; Esplen, Mary Jane; Evans, Jane; Nicolson Klimek, Mary Lou; Meschino, Wendy; Ritvo, Paul

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, professional involvement and confidence of Canadian nurses and physicians in providing genetic services for adult onset hereditary disease. 1,425 physicians and 1,425 nurses received a mailed questionnaire with reminders. The response rates were 50% (n = 543) and 79% (n = 975), respectively. Forty-eight percent of physicians and 31% of nurses lacked formal education in genetics. Respondents reported being involved in caring for people at risk for adult onset hereditary disease. Their levels of confidence that they could perform tasks, such as counselling about predictive genetic tests, however, were lower than their levels of expectation that it would be important for them to provide these services. The expected roles and educational needs of Canadian nurses and physicians have broad areas of overlap suggesting the possibility of combined professional education programs and multiple ways of organizing teams to provide genetic services to people at risk for adult onset hereditary disease. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. All change within the academy: dissonance and role conflict, or the potential for new forms of professionalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dillon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions (HEIs in Britain face ever increasing challenges in the twenty first century as they continue to adapt to public sector management systems originally introduced under the Thatcher government administration, rapid technological advancements, globalisation and policy directives to widen participation. This paper initially foregrounds the changing organisational context of HEIs in Britain by drawing upon relevant literature and case study examples from a post-1992 University. The paper goes on to illustrate some of the micro-consequences of manageralism and marketisation through widening participation and briefly assesses their impact vis-à-vis gender, the pedagogical relationship and workload intensification. The author argues that recent trends and associated organisational changes within HEIs in Britain have led to dissonance and role conflict and the erosion of academic professionalism, but that new forms of professionalism are possible

  5. Emotional clarity as a function of neuroticism and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J; Kuppens, Peter; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-10-01

    Investigators have begun to document links between emotional clarity and forms of negative emotionality, including neuroticism and major depressive disorder (MDD). Researchers to date have relied almost exclusively on global self-reports of emotional clarity; moreover, no studies have examined emotional clarity as a function of valence, although this may prove to be crucial in understanding the relation of emotional clarity to maladjustment. In 2 studies, we used experience-sampling methodology and multilevel modeling to examine the associations between emotional clarity and 2 constructs that have been linked theoretically with emotional clarity: neuroticism and depression. In Study 1 we assessed 95 college students who completed a self-report measure of neuroticism. In Study 2 we examined 53 adults diagnosed with MDD and 53 healthy adults. Reaction times to negative and positive emotion ratings during the experience-sampling protocols were used as an indirect measure of emotional clarity. Neuroticism was related to lower clarity of negative, but not of positive, emotion. Similarly, compared with the healthy controls, individuals with MDD had lower clarity of negative, but not of positive, emotion. It is important to note, findings from both studies held after controlling for baseline RTs and current levels of negative and positive emotion. These findings highlight the importance of assessing valence when examining emotional clarity and increase our understanding of the nature of the emotional disturbances that characterize neuroticism and MDD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. "Towards Professional Multilingualism?" Reconceptualising the School Coordinator Role in Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, John; Mutton, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the school coordinator role in initial teacher training (ITT) in England. Recognising that mentoring is fully embedded and highly researched in ITT, it argues the role of the coordinator, while integral to partnerships, is far less researched. This paper investigates tensions in the role, between managing programme-wide…

  7. The role of a practice model in professional education: The case of nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievert, Anne; Chaiklin, Seth

    of the professional practice for which students are being prepared. Without such a model, how will teachers be able to show the connections between specific topics and the practice in general, and how will students be able to relate specific topics? In our case, we focus on nursing as the professional practice...... for understanding nursing practice, and give a tool for both teachers and nursing students to relate specific topics in the nursing education to the practice of nursing. We conclude with some illustrations of how this model can be used in teaching specific topics within the nursing education....... attempt to formulate such a general model for nursing practice. As part of his work on developing a general approach for subject-matter teaching for schoolchildren, Vasili Davydov elaborated the importance of using models as a way of developing theoretical thinking (i.e., understanding the general...

  8. Graduate Professional Education from a Community of Practice Perspective: The Role of Social and Technical Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Linda G.

    This chapter describes academic life at the intersection of three related topics: community of practice (CoP), a pedagogical model; digital culture, as embodied in the current and future student population; and post-secondary education, in particular graduate professional education. The aim is to illustrate ways in which social computing applications enable the use of a CoP model in graduate professional education. The illustrations are drawn from two hybrid, or blended, degree programs (a mix of face-to-face and online interactions) at the graduate school of education and psychology at Pepperdine University. These fully accredited programs have each been in operation for more than a decade. One is the MA degree in educational technology, begun in 1998; the other is the EdD degree in educational technology leadership, begun in 1995.

  9. Exploring the Role of Information Professionals in Improving Research Reproducibility:A Case Study in Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, A.; West, J.

    2016-12-01

    The validity of Geosciences research is of great significance to general public and policy-makers. In an earlier study, we surveyed 136 faculty and graduate students in geosciences. The result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing, suggesting a general lack of research reproducibility in geosciences. Although there is much enthusiasm for creation of technologies such as workflow system, literate programming, and cloud-based system to facilitate reproducibility, much less emphasis has been placed on the information services essential for meaningful use of these tools. Library and Information Science (LIS) has a rich tradition of providing customized service for research communities. LIS professionals such as academic librarians have made strong contribution to resources locating, software recommending, data curation, metadata guidance, project management, submission review and author training. In particular, university libraries have been actively developing tools and offering guidelines, consultations, and trainings on Data Management Plan (DMP) required by National Science Foundation (NSF). And effective data management is a significant first step towards reproducible research. Hereby we argue that LIS professionals may be well-positioned to assist researchers to make their research reproducible. In this study, we aim to answer the question: how can LIS professionals assist geoscience researchers in making their research capable of being reproduced? We first synthesize different definitions of "reproducibility" and provide a conceptual framework of "reproducibility" in geosciences to resolve some of the misunderstandings around related terminology. Using a case study approach, we then examine 1) university librarians' technical skills, domain knowledge, professional activities, together with their awareness of, readiness for, and attitudes towards research reproducibility and

  10. The role of the circuit inspector in the professional development of principals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ed. (Educational Management) The present crisis in Black education in South Africa centres largely around the problem of educating and re-educating principals. Major deficiencies in the teaching of Mathematics and Physical Science exacerbate the acute shortage of adequately qualified teachers. During the past two decades there have been even greater uncertainties, fears and instabilities in the field of professional development. The problem of upgrading Black principals also seems to hav...

  11. Role of professional motivation in the system of education of students in physical culture high schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanchenko N.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main approaches to the professional motivation formation in the system of education in the physical culture шт. high educational institutions have been determined in the article. Content of programs, textbooks and training manuals of professionally orientated disciplines aiming to determine their topic orientation on the sport pedagogue profession have been analyzed. It has been shown that didactical provision of the "Theory and Methods of the Chosen Type of Sports" and psychological-pedagogical disciplines, generally, does reflect a setting towards forming of theoretical competence in students. The main conditions of the students motivation development have been noted, such as renewing of the content and technology of the educational activity in the high educational institutions with including such components like didactical provision (of content, methods of realization, means of cooperation in the system "lecturer-student", which is based on the integration of pedagogical and sport components of context approach based training; professionally oriented tasks, which are actualizing students life experience in connection with the specialty; taking part in the pedagogical activity; psychological-pedagogical interaction in motivation development.

  12. Job crafting among health care professionals: The role of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of job crafting on the quality of the work environment of health care professionals. Job crafting refers to proactive behavior aimed at optimizing the fit between person and job. Using job demands-resources theory, we hypothesized that job crafting would be positively related to job resources and person-organisation fit, and negatively to hindrance demands. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these relationships would be qualified by work engagement. A total of 5,272 health care professionals from one of 35 different organisations filled out an electronic questionnaire (response is 55%). Regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Consistent with hypotheses, job crafting in the form of increasing job resources was positively related to opportunities for development, performance feedback and P-O fit; and negatively related to hindrance job demands - particularly when work engagement was high. The combination of job crafting and work engagement is important for the realization of a resourceful work environment and fit between person and organisation. Interventions aimed at fostering job crafting should be tailored to the motivation of health care professionals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Role of Generic Competencies in the Entrustment of Professional Activities: A Nationwide Competency-Based Curriculum Assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Karsten A; Teunissen, Pim W; Driessen, Erik W; Scheele, Fedde

    2016-10-01

    Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) seek to translate essential physician competencies into clinical practice. Until now, it is not known whether EPA-based curricula offer enhanced assessment and feedback to trainees. This study examined program directors' and senior residents' justifications for entrustment decisions and what role generic, cross-specialty competencies (such as communication skills, collaboration, and understanding health care systems) play in these decisions. Entrustment decisions for all Dutch obstetrics and gynecology residents between January 2010 and April 2014 were retrieved from their electronic portfolios. Justifications for entrustment were divided into 4 categories: the resident's experience, his or her technical performance, the presence of a generic competency, and training. Template analysis was used to analyze in depth the types of justifications, which play a role in entrustment decisions. A total of 5139 entrustment decisions for 375 unique residents were extracted and analyzed. In 59% of all entrustment decisions, entrusting a professional task to a resident was justified by the experience of the resident. Generic competencies were mentioned in 0.5% of all entrustment decisions. Template analysis revealed that the amount of exposure and technical skills are leading factors, while the quality of the performance was not reported to be of any influence. Entrustment decisions only rarely are based on generic competencies, despite the introduction of competency frameworks and EPAs. For program directors, a leading factor in entrustment decisions is a resident's exposure to an activity, and the quality of a resident's performance appears to play only a minor role.

  14. The efforts of direct support professionals to facilitate inclusion: the role of psychological determinants and work setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, E; Otten, S; Vlaskamp, C

    2015-10-01

    Various studies have found that direct support professionals (DSPs) play an important role in determining the degree to which people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are included in society. However, less research has been conducted on the psychological processes that may influence the behavioural intentions of DSPs to actually engage with and invest effort in supporting their clients' inclusion. Five possible psychological variables are identified in the literature: attitudes, social norms, experienced competencies, identity and meta-evaluation. In our research, we tested whether these processes influence the (intended) efforts DSPs make to facilitate their clients' inclusion. A structured questionnaire was sent to 927 DSPs working in one of three different locations (an ordinary non-segregated setting, a reversed non-segregated setting and a residential facility). Of these, 336 DSPs completed the questionnaire. Several variables revealed differences between the three locations, specifically in efforts to facilitate inclusion, attitudes, social norms, experienced competencies and professional identity. Looking at the overall means, we found (relatively) high scores for the experienced competencies, role identity and meta-evaluation. In contrast, the means were relatively negative regarding the DSPs' attitudes to inclusion and their assumed social norms. Direct support professionals' efforts to facilitate inclusion depend on their attitude towards inclusion, the experienced competencies, their role identity, the DSPs' meta-evaluation and, indirectly through attitudes, also on the assumed social norms of the relevant stakeholders. Organizations responsible for supporting people with ID and which may want their DSPs to make greater efforts to facilitate inclusion should pay attention to these psychological variables. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. INTERDISCIPLINARY TUTORING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL-SIMULATION ROLE-PLAYS/TUTORIZACIÓN INTERDISCIPLINAR PARA EL DESARROLLO DE JUEGOS DE SIMULACIÓN PROFESIONAL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristina Castillo Rodríguez; Deborah García Magna; Sonia Ríos Moyano; Carmen Cristófol Rodríguez; Rosa Rodríguez Mérida; María-Jesús Carrasco Santos

    2012-01-01

    ... premise, we have performed an interdisciplinary role-play so as to allow our students to acquire those professional competences. However, to carry out this performance a well-organised tutorial plan, divided into several tutoring sessions, was required to succeed in the use of this active methodology. KEY WORDS Interdisciplinarity - Active methodology - Role-play - Professional-simulation - tutoring RESUMEN La sociedad actual se caracteriza por la creciente tendencia de los profesionales de distinto...

  16. Position Paper by Canadian Dental Sleep Medicine Professionals Regarding the Role of Different Health Care Professionals in Managing Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  17. Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals on the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Luc; Almeida, Fernanda; Arcache, Jean-Patrick; Ashton-McGregor, Catherine; Coté, David; Driver, Helen S; Ferguson, Kathleen A; Lavigne, Gilles J; Martin, Philippe; Masse, Jean-François; Morisson, Florence; Pancer, Jeffrey; Samuels, Charles Harry; Schachter, Maurice; Sériès, Frédéric; Sullivan, Glendon Edward

    2012-01-01

    The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists) and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  18. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention. Methods Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey. Analysis Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important), and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention. Results Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88), geriatrician (4.87), police officer (4.87), GEM (geriatric emergency management) nurse (4.80), GEM social worker (4.78), community health worker (4.76), social worker/counsellor (4.74), family physician in community (4.71), paramedic (4.65), financial worker (4.59), lawyer (4.59), pharmacist (4.59), emergency physician (4.57), geriatric psychiatrist (4.33), occupational therapist (4.29), family physician in hospital (4.28), Crown prosecutor (4.24), neuropsychologist (4.24), bioethicist (4.18), caregiver advocate (4.18), victim support worker (4

  19. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  20. The development of a non-linear autoregressive model with exogenous input (NARX) to model climate-water clarity relationships: reconstructing a historical water clarity index for the coastal waters of the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron C.; Sheridan, Scott C.; Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin; Pirhalla, Douglas E.; Ransibrahmanakul, Varis; Shein, Karsten

    2017-10-01

    The coastal waters of the southeastern USA contain important protected habitats and natural resources that are vulnerable to climate variability and singular weather events. Water clarity, strongly affected by atmospheric events, is linked to substantial environmental impacts throughout the region. To assess this relationship over the long-term, this study uses an artificial neural network-based time series modeling technique known as non-linear autoregressive models with exogenous input (NARX models) to explore the relationship between climate and a water clarity index (KDI) in this area and to reconstruct this index over a 66-year period. Results show that synoptic-scale circulation patterns, weather types, and precipitation all play roles in impacting water clarity to varying degrees in each region of the larger domain. In particular, turbid water is associated with transitional weather and cyclonic circulation in much of the study region. Overall, NARX model performance also varies—regionally, seasonally and interannually—with wintertime estimates of KDI along the West Florida Shelf correlating to the actual KDI at r > 0.70. Periods of extreme (high) KDI in this area coincide with notable El Niño events. An upward trend in extreme KDI events from 1948 to 2013 is also present across much of the Florida Gulf coast.

  1. Human Connections and Their Roles in the Occupational Well-being of Healthcare Professionals: A Study on Loneliness and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soler-Gonzalez

    2017-08-01

    associated with collateral effects (r = 0.22; p < 0.001. Neither family burden, nor work dedication to clinics or management activities were associated with the three collateral effects measured. These findings support an important role for empathy in the prevention of work stress in healthcare professionals. They also confirm that loneliness, as a multidimensional and domain specific experience, is detrimental to occupational well-being.

  2. The contemporary healthcare crisis in China and the role of medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Edwin C

    2010-08-01

    The healthcare crisis that has developed in the last two decades during China's economic reform has caused healthcare and hospital financing reforms to be largely experienced by patients as a crisis in the patient-healthcare professional relationship (PPR) at the bedside. The nature and magnitude of this crisis were epitomized by the "Harbin Scandal"-an incident that took place in August 2005 in a Harbin teaching hospital in which the family of an elderly patient hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 66 days paid over RMB yen6 million. The news was publicized globally and ended in the firing of six top hospital administrators including the hospital president and the ICU director. This paper seeks to show that the Chinese healthcare crisis is ultimately linked to a conflict of interests between patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), which is inherent in the reformed healthcare system of China. Hence the crisis is, at its core, a crisis of fidelity and confidence that must be restored to the PPR. At the "macro" level, it is simplistic to blame the crisis on the failure of the market system, and at the "micro" level, it is naïve to expect that a contractual understanding of the PPR will effectively restore the confidence of patients. This paper will show that the fiduciary relationship and medical professionalism share similar attributes, with fidelity being the core value of both. It concludes that the loss of medical fidelity implies the dissolution of the PPR and the demise of the medical profession and challenges Chinese HCPs to keep their fidelity as a means to both protect their patients' interests and to preserve their profession's survival.

  3. Ethics and the professional practice of psychologists: the role of virtues and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A E; Meara, N M

    1990-04-01

    We evaluate the potential relevance of virtue ethics to the training and practice of professional psychologists, and we contrast them with principle ethics. Typically, principles are used to facilitate the selection of socially and historically acceptable answers to the question "What shall I do?" when confronted by ethical dilemmas. Virtue ethics, however, generally focus on the question "Who shall I be?" Strengths and weaknesses of each approach are presented. The impact of each is discussed with respect to informed consent and the therapeutic construct "genuineness." We conclude that virtue ethics are an essential component of responsible ethical training and practice.

  4. The Effects Of Leadership Styles On Goal Clarity And Fairness Mediated Used Performance Measure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amris Rusli Tanjung; Yesi Mutia Basri

    2015-01-01

    .... We used leadership style initiating structure and consideration and performance measure use objective and subjective measures on managerial work related attitudes goal clarity and evaluation fairness...

  5. The Relationship of Secondary Special Education Teachers' Roles and Factors that Lead to Professional Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embich, Jeanne L.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 300 learning disability teachers in middle and high schools found teachers were experiencing high levels of emotional exhaustion, specifically those who team teach with a general educator. Role conflict, role ambiguity, perceived workload, and lack of principal support contributed to the teachers' feelings of emotional exhaustion.…

  6. Role of Clinical Education Experiences on Athletic Training Students' Development of Professional Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Context: Limited evidence exists on the role clinical education can play in the development of athletic training student commitment for the profession. Objective: Investigating the role clinical education experiences play on the development of passion for athletic training. Design: Exploratory qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training…

  7. The Role of Competition in the Europeanization of the Professional Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This contribution develops a theoretical framework in the vein of accounts of sociology of professions which highlight the role of professions in advancing social integration and the role of competition in this context. Against this theoretical backdrop, I will develops a critical account of the ...

  8. A concept mapping exploration of social workers' and mental health nurses' understanding of the role of the Approved Mental Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel T; Wells, Harvey; Graham, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    This study uses concept mapping and participant interviews to explore how differing professional viewpoints and levels of knowledge held by social workers and mental health nurses affect perceptions of the Approved Mental Health Professional (AMHP) role during an interprofessional training programme. The results suggest that social workers entering the programme had a greater understanding of the role in comparison to mental health nurses; however, on completion of the programme, both professional groups demonstrated similar levels of learning. The study challenges assumptions that nurses may be inherently disadvantaged by their professional background in terms of learning about a role that is traditionally associated with social work practice. Study participants valued the concept mapping process and felt that the approach may be a valuable tool for clinical supervision. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How Do Allied Health Professionals Construe the Role of the Remote Workforce? New Insight into Their Recruitment and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Narelle; Eley, Diann S.; McAllister, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Allied health workforce recruitment and retention in remote areas is a global problem. Using case studies from the Australian allied health workforce, this paper adds new information by combining personality trait information with a detailed understanding of how the cases construe the demands of remote work, which may be useful in addressing this problem. Methods Four cases (two urban, two remote) are presented from a mixed methods study (n = 562), which used (1) the Temperament and Character Inventory to investigate personality traits of allied health professionals; and (2) repertory grid interviews to reveal quantitatively and qualitatively how the cases construed their Ideal work role compared with their Current and a Remote role. Cases also self-assessed their fit (‘suited’ or ‘not suited’) with remote. Findings Differences in the way cases construed their fit with remote work was related to prior experience. However all were satisfied with their work, perceiving their Current role as similar to their Ideal. All saw remote work as requiring generalist expertise and a reliance on relationships. Personality traits, especially Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance, fit with how allied health professionals perceived their role. Conclusions The combination of two distinct lines of investigation, illustrates what more can be revealed about allied health professional’s career choices by taking into account the fit or lack of fit between their personality tendencies, their construing of remote work and their life circumstances. Understanding the combined influence of perceptions and traits on an individual toward or away from remote work may enhance recruitment and retention internationally. PMID:27907073

  10. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  11. Family Caregivers in Cancer: Roles and Challenges (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the challenges faced by family caregivers of cancer patients. This summary focuses on typical caregiver roles and concerns, and helpful interventions for caregivers.

  12. The Psychosocial Implications of Managing Work and Family Caregiving Roles: Gender Differences Among Information Technology Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Nicole; Polenick, Courtney A; Davis, Kelly D; Moen, Phyllis; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2017-08-01

    An increasing number of adults, both men and women, are simultaneously managing work and family caregiving roles. Guided by the stress process model, we investigate whether 823 employees occupying diverse family caregiving roles (child caregiving only, elder caregiving only, and both child caregiving and elder caregiving, or "sandwiched" caregiving) and their noncaregiving counterparts in the information technology division of a white-collar organization differ on several indicators of psychosocial stress along with gender differences in stress exposure. Compared with noncaregivers, child caregivers reported more perceived stress and partner strain whereas elder caregivers reported greater perceived stress and psychological distress. With the exception of work-to-family conflict, sandwiched caregivers reported poorer overall psychosocial functioning. Additionally, sandwiched women reported more family-to-work conflict and less partner support than their male counterparts. Further research on the implications of combining a white-collar employment role with different family caregiving roles is warranted.

  13. Self-concept clarity across adolescence: longitudinal associations with open communication with parents and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Marloes P A; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T; Hale, William W; Meeus, Wim

    2014-11-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study examined linkages between self-concept clarity, adolescents' open communication with parents, and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms. Dutch youths (N = 323; 51.1 % girls; mean age Time 1 = 13.3 years) reported on these constructs over four consecutive annual measurements. Concurrent positive links between open communication and self-concept clarity were found at Time 1. Over time, higher levels of open communication with parents predicted higher self-concept clarity only in middle adolescence (mean age between 14 and 15 years). We also found concurrent associations between self-concept clarity and both depressive and anxiety symptoms. Longitudinally, lower self-concept clarity predicted relatively higher levels of depressive symptoms across all waves, and also higher anxiety levels from Time 1 to Time 2. Conversely, higher levels of anxiety also predicted lower levels of self-concept clarity during the first three waves. Self-concept clarity did not mediate the longitudinal associations between open communication and internalizing symptoms. This study is one of the first to investigate self-concept clarity across adolescence. It highlights the possible importance of both anxiety symptoms and communication with parents in understanding the development of a clear self-concept, and demonstrates an association between lower self-concept clarity and higher levels of later depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  14. Oppositional Identities: Dissimilarities in How Women and Men Experience Parent versus Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    As stereotypes of social groups undergo change, group members gain access to previously denied social and cultural roles. Although such access is desirable, to the extent that the behavior, traits, and attitudes required to succeed in a new role are in opposition to those required to do well in a still-valued old role, conflict in the self-concept may ensue. Specifically, the individual must necessarily fall short in social comparisons of the self to the ideal group member in one or both roles, threatening self-integrity. Examining the specific case of oppositional identities between career and mom roles, we argue that women respond to this conflict by shifting back and forth between activation of whichever identity is relevant in a given situational context in a way that men do not. This shifting of self-associations is hypothesized to deplete scarce cognitive resources, interfering with performance on a task that requires executive function capacity. In addition, to the extent the identities are viewed as trading off against one another, failure in one domain may be responded to by activating the alternate identity in an effort to restore self-integrity, again in a way that is not true for men. These hypotheses are explored across four studies, utilizing both college students in the midst of formulating – and working parents in the midst of negotiating – these PMID:23713699

  15. To Share or Not to Share: Malaysian Healthcare Professionals' Views on Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment Decision Making Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew Kong; Lee, Ping Yein; Cheong, Ai Theng; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Ong, Teng Aik; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul

    2015-01-01

    To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs) on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically. The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4), government urologists (n = 6), urology trainees (n = 6), government policy maker (n = 1) and oncologists (n = 3). HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family) included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture. A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.

  16. To Share or Not to Share: Malaysian Healthcare Professionals' Views on Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment Decision Making Roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Kong Lee

    Full Text Available To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa treatment.Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically.The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4, government urologists (n = 6, urology trainees (n = 6, government policy maker (n = 1 and oncologists (n = 3. HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture.A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.

  17. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention. Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey. Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important), and an interquartile rangepublic guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88), geriatrician (4.87), police officer (4.87), GEM (geriatric emergency management) nurse (4.80), GEM social worker (4.78), community health worker (4.76), social worker/counsellor (4.74), family physician in community (4.71), paramedic (4.65), financial worker (4.59), lawyer (4.59), pharmacist (4.59), emergency physician (4.57), geriatric psychiatrist (4.33), occupational therapist (4.29), family physician in hospital (4.28), Crown prosecutor (4.24), neuropsychologist (4.24), bioethicist (4.18), caregiver advocate (4.18), victim support worker (4.18), and respite care worker (4.12). A large and diverse group of multidisciplinary, intersectoral collaborators was deemed necessary to address the complex needs of abused older adults, each having important roles and responsibilities to fulfill within a model comprehensive elder abuse intervention.

  18. THE PARENTING COORDINATOR: A NEW PROFESSIONAL ROLE FOR THE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rodríguez-Domínguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of the parenting coordinator in the United States was born in the 90s, to help families to resolve conflicts when the couple’s separation means that everyday disputes have not been able to be resolved, producing a high level of conflict and a large number of interventions with social workers, as well as health and/or legal interventions. The aim of this study is to present the role of the parenting coordinator, a highly specialized person that intervenes effectively in these families to minimize interparental conflict, to the benefit of the children and also the parents. The experience of the role of the parenting coordinator in other countries has been a useful model in the reduction and resolution of conflicts in the family courts.

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes of Allied Health Professional Students regarding the Stroke Rehabilitation Team and the Role of the Speech and Language Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Aine; Pettigrew, Catharine M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: One of the major barriers to effective team working among healthcare professionals is a lack of knowledge of each other's roles. The importance of understanding Irish healthcare students' attitudes towards team working and each other's roles led to the development of this study. Aims: The aims were to investigate allied health…

  20. Impact of Post-Professional Doctor of Physical Therapy Education on the Role of a School Based Physical Therapist: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Susan; Brown, Suzanne Robben

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the impact of the post-professional doctor of physical therapy curriculum on the role of one physical therapist employed as a special education related service provider. Physical therapists working in the public school setting play an important role in promoting success for students with physical disabilities as…

  1. Radiology report clarity: a cohort study of structured reporting compared with conventional dictation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Annette J; Chen, Michael Y M; Zapadka, Michael E; Lyders, Eric M; Littenberg, Benjamin

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if radiology residents who use a structured reporting system (SRS) produce reports of greater clarity than residents who use free-text dictation to report cranial MR imaging in patients with clinical suspicion of stroke. This double-cohort study included residents creating reports for 25 cranial MR imaging studies using an SRS in the intervention group and free text in the control group (report n = 1,685). Attending physicians from multiple subspecialties were surveyed seeking clarity ratings of randomly selected reports. Two neuroradiology fellows rated the clarity of 180 of the reports. Clarity ratings were analyzed by using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test for paired data and the Mann-Whitney U test for unpaired data. Forty-three of 95 surveyed physicians returned completed surveys, with mean clarity ratings for SRS (4.9) and free-text (5.1) reports that did not differ significantly. Respondents' comments most often referred to confusing syntax, unfamiliar terms, or format preferences. Fellow raters rated the clarity of SRS reports lower than that of free-text reports (P < .001). The use of an SRS to create MRI reports did not seem to improve or worsen attending physicians' perceptions of report clarity. Experience level may affect clarity-related report preferences. Future SRS should probably include definitions of key terms and be formatted to minimize syntactical errors. Copyright 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-concept clarity across adolescence : Longitudinal associations with open communication with parents and internalizing symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Marloes P. A.; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study

  3. Self-Concept Clarity Across Adolescence : Longitudinal Associations With Open Communication With Parents and Internalizing Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marloes; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Hawk, Skyler T.; Hale, William W.; Meeus, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Higher self-concept clarity is related to several adjustment indices and may be promoted by open communication with parents, while problems with self-concept clarity development could enhance internalizing problems (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) in adolescence. This longitudinal study

  4. Two Meta-Analyses Exploring the Relationship between Teacher Clarity and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titsworth, Scott; Mazer, Joseph P.; Goodboy, Alan K.; Bolkan, San; Myers, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of two meta-analyses that explored the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning. Combined, the results suggest that teacher clarity has a larger effect for student affective learning than for cognitive learning. However, neither the effects for cognitive learning nor affective learning were…

  5. Disrupting Façades of Clarity in the Teaching and Learning of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Rozana; Pasque, Penny A.; Kuntz, Aaron M.; Contreras-­McGavin, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    In this article we examine two methodological façades of clarity that commonly shroud critical qualitative educational inquiry. More specifically, we interrogate discussions of reflexivity and positionality and explore the ways in which methodology curricula and instructional practices perpetuate façades of clarity, or a false sense of coherence,…

  6. The Contribution of Deficits in Emotional Clarity to Stress Responses and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the contribution of deficits in emotional clarity to children's socioemotional adjustment. Specifically, this study examined the proposal that deficits in emotional clarity are associated with maladaptive interpersonal stress responses, and that maladaptive interpersonal stress responses act as a mechanism linking…

  7. Negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and life stress: integrating vulnerabilities to depression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Alloy, Lauren B; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2013-01-01

    Negative inferential style and deficits in emotional clarity have been identified as vulnerability factors for depression in adolescence, particularly when individuals experience high levels of life stress. However, previous research has not integrated these characteristics when evaluating vulnerability to depression. In the present study, a racially diverse community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12 and 13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit 9 months later. Inferential style, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events and depressive symptoms were assessed at follow-up. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between adolescents' weakest-link negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and intervening life stress predicting depressive symptoms at follow-up, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Adolescents with low emotional clarity and high negative inferential styles experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms following life stress. Emotional clarity buffered against the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with negative inferential styles. Similarly, negative inferential styles exacerbated the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with low emotional clarity. These results provide evidence of the utility of integrating inferential style and emotional clarity as constructs of vulnerability in combination with life stress in the identification of adolescents at risk for depression. They also suggest the enhancement of emotional clarity as a potential intervention technique to protect against the effects of negative inferential styles and life stress on depression in early adolescence.

  8. Emotional Clarity as a Mechanism Linking Emotional Neglect and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessar, Allison J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether emotional abuse and neglect differentially predicted decreases in emotional clarity, and whether emotional clarity, in turn, predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Participants included 204 early adolescents (52% African American; 54% female; M age = 12.85 years) who completed four assessments with measures…

  9. The Student, the Private and the Professional Role: Students' Social Media Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Pernilla; Hrastinski, Stefan; Pargman, Daniel; Pargman, Teresa C.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that students perceive a distinct divide between educational and private use of social media. The present study explores this divide by focusing on master students' perception of roles when using social media in a higher education context. A qualitative method has been used, mainly comprising of analyses of home exams and…

  10. Working as a locum GP: their professional role in organizational context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Hassel, D. van; Velden, L. van der

    2012-01-01

    Context: The workforce of General Practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands is closely monitored and planned to ensure their pivotal role in primary care and the Dutch health care system. While the majority of GPs have their own practice or are employed by other GP practices or health community

  11. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vuuren, T. van; Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Lange, A.H. de

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aims

  12. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; van Vuuren, Tinka C.V.; Kooij, Dorien T.A.M.; de Lange, Annet H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aims

  13. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education : The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; van Vuuren, T.; Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aims

  14. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinka van Vuuren; Beatrice van der Heijden; Annet de Lange; Dorien Kooij

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper

  15. Bridging the Divide: Examining Professional Unity and the Extended Teacher Union Role in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Sweden has experienced increasing educational inequity levels within its highly decentralized school system. With a reduced capacity to bargain collectively, the two Swedish teacher trade unions, the Swedish Teachers' Union (Lärarförbundet) and the National Union of Teachers in Sweden (Lärarnas Riksförbund), have sought to extend their role in…

  16. The Role of the State School Psychology Organizations in the Promotion of Professional Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.; Wenger, Ralph D.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the role of state school psychology organizations in advocating for and monitoring the ethical practice of their members. Results revealed that 76 percent of the responding organizations had adopted a code of ethics, while only 43 percent had instituted due process procedures. (Author)

  17. Becoming Socialized into a New Professional Role: LPN to BN Student Nurses' Experiences with Legitimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Melrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a qualitative descriptive study that explored the professional socialization experiences of Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs who attended an online university to earn a Baccalaureate degree in nursing (BN, a prerequisite to writing the Canadian Registered Nurse (RN qualifying exam. The project was framed from a constructivist worldview and Haas and Shaffir’s theory of legitimation. Participants were 27 nurses in a Post-LPN to BN program who came from across Canada to complete required practicums. Data was collected from digital recordings of four focus groups held in different cities. Transcripts were analyzed for themes and confirmed with participants through member checking. Two overarching themes were identified and are presented to explain how these unique adult learners sought to legitimize their emerging identity as Registered Nurses (RNs. First, Post-LPN to BN students need little, if any, further legitimation to affirm their identities as “nurse.” Second, practicum interactions with instructors and new clinical experiences are key socializing agents.

  18. Beyond teacher training: the critical role of professional development in maintaining curriculum fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G; Clark, Kim R; Chapple, Sabrina

    2014-03-01

    To examine how teacher characteristics affected program fidelity in an impact evaluation study of the Positive Prevention PLUS program, and to propose a comprehensive teacher training and professional development structure to increase program fidelity. Curriculum fidelity logs, lesson observations, and teacher surveys were used to measure teacher characteristics and implementation fidelity including adherence, adaptation, and lesson quality. Compared with non-health credentialed teachers, credential health education teachers had greater comfort and self-efficacy regarding sex-related instruction. Teacher self-efficacy and comfort were significant predictors of adherence. Implementation fidelity may be linked to teacher characteristics that can be enhanced during curriculum training. A 2-day teacher training may not adequately address teacher facilitation skills or the maintenance of institutional supports for implementing a program with fidelity and quality. A new model of comprehensive teacher training and support is offered. This new training infrastructure is intended to contribute to the school district's institutionalization of higher-quality comprehensive sexual health education and increase program fidelity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of sociocultural perspectives in eating disorder treatment: A study of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Su

    2017-06-01

    Eating disorders are now often approached as biopsychosocial problems, because they are widely recognised as multifactorial in origin. However, it has been suggested that there is a substantial and unwarranted imbalance within this biopsychosocial framework, with the 'social' aspects of the equation relegated to secondary or facilitating factors within treatment contexts. Drawing on data from 12 qualitative interviews with health professionals in a UK region, this article examines the extent to which sociocultural perspectives on eating disorders are valued and explored in eating disorder treatment, with a particular focus on the relationship between eating disorders and gender. As girls/women are widely acknowledged to be disproportionately affected by eating problems, the article draws on feminist perspectives on eating disorders to explore whether the relationships between cultural constructions of femininity and experiences of body/eating distress are actively addressed within treatment. The study reveals high levels of inconsistency in this regard, as while some participants see such issues as central to treatment, others have 'never really considered' them before. In addition, the study examines the potential limitations of how such sociocultural issues are conceptualised and addressed, as well as why they might be marginalised in the current climate of evidence-based eating disorder treatment. The article then considers the implications of the findings for thinking about feminist perspectives on eating disorders - and the significance of gender in treatment - at the level of both research and practice.

  20. 2005 Distinguished Academician Lecture: Evolution of postgraduate medical education in Singapore--role of professional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    2005-12-01

    From 1910 to 1945, doctors in Singapore received postgraduate training through apprenticeship. During the early post-war period, some doctors in the public service were given scholarships to study in Britain and to obtain higher professional qualifications from the British Royal Colleges. The events that most influenced subsequent development of postgraduate education in Singapore occurred between 1956 and 1969: the formation of the Academy of Medicine and the Singapore Medical Association (SMA); organisation of courses for candidates preparing for examinations of the Royal Australasian and British Colleges; competition between the Academy and the University over responsibility for postgraduate medical education; the inauguration of the School of Postgraduate Medical Studies (SPMS); and the introduction of Master of Medicine (M Med) degrees in various medical specialties. From 1970 to 1999, there was expansion in several aspects of postgraduate medical education: SPMS awarded more than 2000 M Med degrees; the Singapore Medical Council (SMC) established a Register of Specialists and formed a Specialist Accreditation Board; the Academy formed Chapters in 10 specialties and developed Advanced Specialty Training programmes leading to Fellowship of the Academy of Medicine Singapore (FAMS); the SMA formed Societies in some 20 specialties; and a College of Family Physicians was inaugurated. There have been more developments from 2000 to 2005: the University restructured SPMS as a Division of Graduate Medical Studies within the Faculty of Medicine; the SMC implemented compulsory Continuing Medical Education; and the Academy converted 6 of its 10 Chapters into Colleges.

  1. Experience in implementing ICRP recommendations: IRPA's perspective on the role of the radiation protection professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, K R

    2012-01-01

    The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) has a membership of approximately 17,000 individuals who are members of 48 national societies in 60 countries worldwide. As such, IRPA's vision is to be recognised as the international voice of the radiation protection professional. This article will discuss elements of the outcome of the 12th International Congress of IRPA ('Focus on the future'), objectives and current activities of IRPA, criteria and priorities for the engagement of IRPA with international organisations, current IRPA initiatives in the areas of radiation protection culture and certification/qualification of radiation protection experts, planning for the 13th International Congress of IRPA, comments on the implementation of recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and suggestions about IRPA and ICRP collaboration in their implementation. IRPA recognises that ICRP is the international body to determine policy and to make recommendations for protection against ionising radiation, and IRPA is in a position to participate in and facilitate the implementation of those recommendations. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Role of health care professionals in preventative activities and vaccination programs during outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Sándor; Papp, Renáta; Busa, Csilla; Csikós, Ágnes

    2016-12-01

    The general purpose of TELL ME study was to give an insight into the experiences of European family physicians with management of H1N1 pandemic flu. Qualitative research methods (focus group discussions, one-to-one interviews, and online data collection) were used to explore family doctors' opinion and suggestions. Overall 158 family physicians took part in the study from six European countries. Family doctors' most important experience was that the official campaign was not able to compensate negative effects of the mass media. Due to the poor evidence-based information about new vaccines, it was difficult to convince the public and some health care professionals too. Lack of unified directives - under unclear circumstances - made the routine patient care more difficult and hampered the collaboration between different health care providers. Family physicians felt a pressure from health authorities to achieve high immunization rate, but got only a little support from them. Despite the difficulties, vaccination program was a success, mainly among high-risk population. For better handling of a future pandemic, Hungarian family physician made many general and practical suggestions.

  3. Professional judgement and decision-making in adventure sports coaching: the role of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study presents the view that coaching practice places demands on the coach's adaptability and flexibility. These requirements for being adaptive and flexible are met through a careful process of professional judgement and decision-making based on context-appropriate bodies of knowledge. Adventure sports coaches were selected for study on the basis that adventure sports create a hyper-dynamic environment in which these features can be examined. Thematic analysis revealed that coaches were generally well informed and practised with respect to the technical aspects of their sporting disciplines. Less positively, however, they often relied on ad hoc contextualisation of generalised theories of coaching practice to respond to the hyper-dynamic environments encountered in adventure sports. We propose that coaching practice reflects the demands of the environment, individual learning needs of the students and the task at hand. Together, these factors outwardly resemble a constraints-led approach but, we suggest, actually reflect manipulation of these parameters from a cognitive rather than an ecological perspective. This process is facilitated by a refined judgement and decision-making process, sophisticated epistemology and an explicit interaction of coaching components.

  4. Workplace spirituality and organisational commitment: Role of emotional intelligence among Indian banking professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Pradhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present times the concept of “workplace spirituality” has been acknowledged as an important discipline so called a “transient advantage” in corporate world for supplementing a meaningful atmosphere to one’s workplace. The domains like behavioral science and human resource has embraced the topic as a promising research area with an assumption to offer fresh and significant insights to the business world. However, it is presumed that the present state of academic research in the field of workplace spirituality is in many ways reminiscent of where theories of leadership and other similar developmental intervention in Hr domain were there some fifty years ago. Today’s organizations’ are seeking for a committed workforce as organizational commitment and emotional involvement in one’s respective job profile is viewed as a business necessity. This is apparently possible when the professionals in a work set-up are able to derive meaning and significance in their work profile. Therefore, this present study has attempted through a field survey to document the findings from selected executives of public and private sector banking industries of Indian sub-continent on the relationships between workplace spirituality, organizational commitment and emotional intelligence. Regression analysis has revealed that emotional intelligence stood as a potential moderator between workplace spirituality and organizational commitment. The paper has brought out the potential benefits of bringing spirituality into the workplace; providing suggestions for Hr and behavioral practitioners to incorporate spirituality in organizations.

  5. The role of physician oversight on advanced practice nurses' professional autonomy and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Polly A; Way, Sandra M

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of physician oversight on advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs). Examination of these relationships provides insight into the strength of independent practice. The purpose of this study was to examine whether APRNs' perceptions of autonomy and empowerment varied according to type of physician oversight, whether facilitative or restrictive. A cross-sectional survey design was used to examine whether APRNs' perceptions of autonomy and empowerment varied according to physician oversight, geographical location, and practice setting. Five hundred questionnaires were mailed in March 2013 with 274 returned. Participants were asked about autonomy, empowerment, demographics, physician oversight, geographical location, and practice setting. Among surveyed respondents, physician oversight was related to increased empowerment, regardless of whether the oversight was defined in facilitative or restrictive terms; both had similar positive effects on empowerment. If APRNs are to be part of the solution to the growing problem of healthcare access, it is important to study factors that contribute to their success. We speculate that increasing opportunities for collaboration and interaction with physicians, and possibly other healthcare professionals, could facilitate APRN empowerment, optimizing their contribution. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. Greek health professionals' perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanidou, Christina; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2016-06-03

    Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals' role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information. This was an in-depth, qualitative study, employing a stratified, purposeful sampling. Fifteen face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with health care professionals from a variety of disciplines: pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, infectious diseases, pharmacy, dermatology, general practice. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to analyze participants' accounts. Five major themes were identified: health care professionals' perceptions towards the HPV vaccine (recognition of importance, concerns about safety, effectiveness and impact of long-term use), animosity between medical specialties (territorial disputes among professional bodies, role advocacy, role limitations), health care professionals' perceptions of the public's attitudes (effects of cultural beliefs, health professionals' attitudes, media and family), the role of the state (health policy issues, lack of guidance, unmet expectations) and their own role (provision of health information, sex education). Health professionals' concerns, lack of role definition and uniform information provision have led to territorial disputes among professional bodies and distrust among different medical specialties. Positive and negative judgements deriving from a multitude of sources have resulted in the confusion of the general public, as manifested by low vaccination

  7. In search of clarity: self-esteem and domains of confidence and confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Danu Anthony; Wood, Joanne V; Doxey, Juliana R

    2008-11-01

    To date, research suggests that self-concept clarity is a monolithic construct: Some people have clearly defined self-concepts in all domains, whereas others do not. The authors argued that self-concept clarity is instead multifaceted and varies across trait domains. The authors predicted that social commodities (SCs; e.g., looks, popularity, social skills) would show less self-concept clarity than would communal qualities (CQs; e.g., kindness, warmth, honesty), due to domain differences in observability, ambiguity, and controllability. Results replicated past findings that self-esteem predicts self-concept clarity but also demonstrated that participants' SC self-views were less clear than their CQ self-views. Moreover, people showed greater clarity about traits that were lower in observability and higher in ambiguity and controllability. These findings suggest that everyone, regardless of self-esteem, has self-concept domains of relative confidence and confusion.

  8. The Role of Attitudes to, and the Frequency of, Domestic Violence Encounters in the Healthcare Professionals' Handling of Domestic Violence Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorjan, Saša; Smrke, Urška; Šprah, Lilijana

    2017-09-01

    Domestic violence is recognized as a public health problem with a high prevalence in the general population. Healthcare professionals play an important role in the recognition and treatment of domestic violence. Hence, conducting research on factors that facilitate or inhibit appropriate actions by healthcare professionals is of the upmost importance. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between healthcare professionals' attitudes toward the acceptability of domestic violence and their responses when dealing with victims of domestic violence. The sample consisted of 322 healthcare professionals (physicians, dentists, nursing staff and other healthcare workers; 85.2% female), who completed a questionnaire, assessing their attitudes towards domestic violence, experience, behaviour and perceived barriers in recognizing and treating domestic violence in the health care sector. The study was cross-sectional and used availability sampling. The results showed no significant differences in domestic violence acceptability attitudes when comparing groups of healthcare professionals who reported low or high frequency of domestic violence cases encounters. Furthermore, we found that domestic violence acceptability attitudes were negatively associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was high and medium. However, the attitudes were not associated with action taking when the frequency of encounters with domestic violence cases was low. The results highlight the important role of attitudes in action taking of healthcare professionals when it comes to domestic violence. This indicates the need for educational interventions that specifically target healthcare professionals' attitudes towards domestic violence.

  9. DSM-III diagnoses in chronic pain. Confusion or clarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, R G

    1986-05-01

    The assessment of patients with chronic pain is receiving increasing attention by psychiatrists. Recent publications have put forward the concept of the "pain-prone disorder" as a variant of depressive illness. This study describes a series of 50 consecutive patients with chronic pain in terms of the five axes of the DSM-III nosology. Diagnoses were made after a 90- to 120-minute psychiatric interview, and a check on diagnostic reliability was made on a small subsample. Psychological factors affecting physical condition were diagnosed in 34% and dysthymic disorder was diagnosed in 28%, while major depression, psychogenic pain disorder, somatization disorder, and anxiety disorders were each respectively diagnosed in 8%. Only 6% had no diagnosis on axis I and 4% had no diagnosis on axis III. Personality disorder was diagnosed in 40%, and traits of dependence, compulsiveness, and anxiety were common. Overall, the patients had experienced a high degree of psychosocial stress with fair to poor adaptive functioning. The notion of chronic pain as a variant of depressive disease is questioned on the basis of these findings. The author suggests that although pain-proneness is a useful psychodynamic concept, the case for its establishment as a new psychobiological disorder is not proven. Furthermore, the concepts of pain-proneness, depression, and psychogenic pain have become confused. The author argues that the current classification is adequate to deal with the varieties of depression associated with chronic pain and that psychogenic pain disorder should be remerged with conversion disorder for the sake of clarity.

  10. Modeling Water Clarity and Light Quality in Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abdelrhman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton is a primary producer of organic compounds, and it forms the base of the food chain in ocean waters. The concentration of phytoplankton in the water column controls water clarity and the amount and quality of light that penetrates through it. The availability of adequate light intensity is a major factor in the health of algae and phytoplankton. There is a strong negative coupling between light intensity and phytoplankton concentration (e.g., through self-shading by the cells, which reduces available light and in return affects the growth rate of the cells. Proper modeling of this coupling is essential to understand primary productivity in the oceans. This paper provides the methodology to model light intensity in the water column, which can be included in relevant water quality models. The methodology implements relationships from bio-optical models, which use phytoplankton chlorophyll a (chl-a concentration as a surrogate for light attenuation, including absorption and scattering by other attenuators. The presented mathematical methodology estimates the reduction in light intensity due to absorption by pure seawater, chl-a pigment, non-algae particles (NAPs and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, as well as backscattering by pure seawater, phytoplankton particles and NAPs. The methods presented facilitate the prediction of the effects of various environmental and management scenarios (e.g., global warming, altered precipitation patterns, greenhouse gases on the wellbeing of phytoplankton communities in the oceans as temperature-driven chl-a changes take place.

  11. Clarity Versus Accuracy and Objectivity in Written Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Janulevičienė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyse the most important grammatical and, specifically, syntactic features and to point out some prominent lexical ones, which aim at accuracy and objectivity of a written legal document, and to discuss how these features influence clarity and transparency of the legal documents. The study covers the analysis of some EU, UK, US legislative acts alongside with some extracts from contract samples. The analysis reveals that written legal English is distinguished by long compound sentences, often with inverted word order and numerous embeddings, passive constructions and nominalisations, specific use of personal pronouns and collocations of synonyms (doublets and triplets, etc. These means allow to achieve the most possible accuracy and objectivity in legal texts but make them complicated and difficult to comprehend at once. Formality, achieved by the mentioned means, makes legal English distant from everyday language and often becomes a reason for criticism. Plain English supporters encourage simplifying legal language; however, long traditions of legal English make changes slow and difficult. Therefore, comprehension and usage of legal English still requires special knowledge of its lexical and grammatical features.

  12. Workplace Bullying among Business Professionals: Prevalence, Gender Differences and the Role of Organizational Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Salin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe the prevalence of bullying experienced by business professionals and to further the understanding of bullying by analyzing to what extent gender aspects and organizational politics may contribute to bullying in knowledge-intensive career-oriented jobs. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey study among members of a professional organization for employees with a university degree in business studies. In addition, written stories were collected to increase the understanding of bullying. This article presents data on the prevalence of bullying, gender differences in bullying, and the relationship between bullying and organizational politics. In addition, some implications for both researchers and managers are presented. The article is based on the author’s doctoral thesis.Cet article décrit la prévalence du harcèlement professionnel dans le milieu des affaires et tente de comprendre cette réalité en considérant dans quelle mesure les différences homme-femme et la culture organisationnelle contribuent au harcèlement dans un milieu de travail compétitif où les emplois sont basés sur le savoir. Une étude transversale a été réalisée auprès de membres d’une organisation professionnelle de diplômés universitaires du milieu des affaires. Des comptes rendus écrits d’épisodes de harcèlement ont également été utilisés. Les résultats présentés décrivent la prévalence du harcèlement, les différences de genre à cet égard, ainsi que les liens entre le harcèlement et la culture organisationnelle. Des retombées intéressant les chercheurs et les gestionnaires sont également présentées. L’article est basé sur la thèse de doctorat de l’auteur.El objetivo de este artículo es describir la prevalencia de la intimidación (bullying vivida por profesionales del área de negocios con formación superior y orientación carrierista,así como incrementar la comprensi

  13. The Role of Oral Health Care Professionals in Providing Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Michael; Greenberg, Barbara L

    2017-08-01

    Integration of oral health care professionals (OHCPs) into medical care could advance efforts to control increasingly prevalent conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and hepatitis C infection, each of which is associated with significant morbidity and health care costs. Prevention and early intervention are effective for reducing the incidence and severity of these diseases, while increasing cost of health care may drive the need for nontraditional models of health education and delivery. Studies have suggested that a dental office is a suitable setting for the purpose of screening and referrals for these conditions and may result in medical expenditure savings. Such innovations would challenge the current dental educational model and the education and training of faculty. Implementing this change would require recognizing opportunities and challenges for the profession and the need for new competencies in dental curricula. Challenges and opportunities are described, including reimbursement models and integration of OHCPs into emerging health care delivery models. Ideas for curricular change are presented, including the need for added emphasis on biological sciences and the introduction of new courses to address systems thinking and forces driving preventive behavior. To embrace the evolving health care arena and be a part of the future interprofessional health care delivery dynamic, dental curricula should also include substantive interprofessional education opportunities. Such opportunities would provide the basic skills and training to recognize and appreciate patients' oral health issues in the broader context of their overall health and well-being. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  14. Phronesis: practical wisdom the role of professional practice knowledge in the clinical reasoning of Bobath instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Graham, Julie; Cott, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Clinical reasoning is an essential aspect of clinical practice, however is largely ignored in the current rehabilitation sciences evidence base. Literature related to clinical reasoning and clinical expertise has evolved concurrently although rehabilitation reasoning frameworks remain relatively generic. The purpose of this study was to explicate the clinical reasoning process of Bobath instructors of a widely used neuro-rehabilitation approach, the Bobath concept. A qualitative interpretive description approach consisting of stimulated recall using video-recorded treatment sessions and in-depth interviews. Purposive sampling was used to recruit members of the International Bobath Instructors Training Association (IBITA). Interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim providing the raw data. Data analysis was progressive, iterative, and inductive. Twenty-two IBITA instructors from 7 different countries participated. Ranging in clinical experience from 12 to 40 years, and instructor experience from 1 to 35 years. Three themes were developed, (a) a Bobath clinical framework, (b) person-centered, and (c) a Bobath reasoning approach, highlighting the role of practical wisdom, phronesis in the clinical reasoning process. In particular the role of visuospatial-kinesthetic perception, an element of technical expertise, was illuminated as an integral aspect of clinical reasoning in this expert group. This study provides an interpretive understanding of the clinical reasoning process used by IBITA instructors illustrating an inactive embodied view of clinical reasoning, specifically the role of phronesis, requiring further investigation in nonexpert Bobath therapists, as well as in novice and experienced therapists in other specialty areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Choice and Participation of Career by STEM Professionals with Sensory and Orthopedic Disabilities and the Roles of Assistive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Heather A.

    This is a qualitative study about sources of self-efficacy and roles of assistive technologies (AT) associated with the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) choice and participation of STEM professionals and graduate students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities. People with disabilities are underrepresented in STEM, which can be traced back along the STEM pipeline to early undergraduate participation in STEM. Little research exists, however, about pathways and factors associated with successful STEM participation for people with disabilities at any point along their trajectories. Eighteen STEM professionals and graduate students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities were interviewed for this study. Sources of self-efficacy were sought from interview transcripts, as were emergent themes associated with the types, uses and roles of AT. Findings suggest that people with sensory and orthopedic disabilities weigh sources of self-efficacy differently from white males without disabilities in STEM and more like other underrepresented minorities in STEM. Social persuasions were most frequently reported and in far more detail than other sources, suggesting that this source may be most impactful in the development of self-efficacy beliefs for this group. Additionally, findings indicate that AT is critical to the successful participation of people with sensory and orthopedic disabilities in STEM at all points along their STEM pathways. Barriers center around issues of access to full engagement in mainstream STEM classrooms and out of school opportunities as well as the impact of ill-informed perceptions about the capabilities of people with disabilities held by parents, teachers and college faculty who can act as gatekeepers along STEM pathways. Gaps in disability specialists' knowledge about STEM-specific assistive technologies, especially at the college level, are also problematic. The prevalence of mainstream public school attendance reported by

  16. Annual precipitation regulates spatial and temporal drivers of lake water clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kevin C; Greb, Steven R; Diebel, Matthew; Turner, Monica G

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how and why lakes vary and respond to different drivers through time and space is needed to understand, predict, and manage freshwater quality in an era of rapidly changing land use and climate. Water clarity regulates many characteristics of aquatic ecosystems and is responsive to watershed features, making it a sentinel of environmental change. However, whether precipitation alters the relative importance of features that influence lake water clarity or the spatial scales at which they operate is unknown. We used a data set of thousands of northern temperate lakes and asked (1) How does water clarity differ between a very wet vs. dry year? (2) Does the relative importance of different watershed features, or the spatial extent at which they are measured, vary between wet and dry years? (3) What lake and watershed characteristics regulate long-term water clarity trends? Among lakes, water clarity was reduced and less variable in the wet year than in the dry year; furthermore, water clarity was reduced much more in high-clarity lakes during the wet year than in low-clarity lakes. Climate, land use/land cover, and lake morphometry explained most variance in clarity among lakes in both years, but the spatial scales at which some features were important differed between the dry and wet years. Watershed percent agriculture was most important in the dry year, whereas riparian zone percent agriculture (around each lake and upstream features) was most important in the wet year. Between 1991 and 2012, water clarity declined in 23% of lakes and increased in only 6% of lakes. Conductance influenced the direction of temporal trend (clarity declined in lakes with low conductance), whereas the proportion of watershed wetlands, catchment-to-lake-area ratio, and lake maximum depth interacted with antecedent precipitation. Many predictors of water clarity, such as lake depth and landscape position, are features that cannot be readily managed. Given trends of

  17. How to assess communication, professionalism, collaboration and the other intrinsic CanMEDS roles in orthopedic residents: use of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Glover Takahashi, Susan; Kennedy Hynes, Melissa; Herold, Jodi; Wasserstein, David; Nousiainen, Markku; Ferguson, Peter; Wadey, Veronica; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Leroux, Tim; Semple, John; Hodges, Brian; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell

    2014-08-01

    Assessing residents' understanding and application of the 6 intrinsic CanMEDS roles (communicator, professional, manager, collaborator, health advocate, scholar) is challenging for postgraduate medical educators. We hypothesized that an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) designed to assess multiple intrinsic CanMEDS roles would be sufficiently reliable and valid. The OSCE comprised 6 10-minute stations, each testing 2 intrinsic roles using case-based scenarios (with or without the use of standardized patients). Residents were evaluated using 5-point scales and an overall performance rating at each station. Concurrent validity was sought by correlation with in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) from the last 12 months and an ordinal ranking created by program directors (PDs). Twenty-five residents from postgraduate years (PGY) 0, 3 and 5 participated. The interstation reliability for total test scores (percent) was 0.87, while reliability for each of the communicator, collaborator, manager and professional roles was greater than 0.8. Total test scores, individual station scores and individual CanMEDS role scores all showed a significant effect by PGY level. Analysis of the PD rankings of intrinsic roles demonstrated a high correlation with the OSCE role scores. A correlation was seen between ITER and OSCE for the communicator role, while the ITER medical expert and total scores highly correlated with the communicator, manager and professional OSCE scores. An OSCE designed to assess the intrinsic CanMEDS roles was sufficiently valid and reliable for regular use in an orthopedic residency program.

  18. Evaluation of Viewpoints of Health Care Professionals on the Role of Ethics Committees and Hospitals in the Resolution of Clinical Ethical Dilemmas Based on Practice Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Carlson, Jestin N; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals' viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals (one tertiary care academic medical center, three large community hospitals and two small community hospitals). The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals (108-tertiary care center, 92-large community hospitals, 40-small community hospitals) completed the survey (response rate: 63.6 %). Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location.

  19. Professional Organizations and the Professionalizing of Practice: The Role of MER, EdCom, and the NAEA Museum Education Division, 1969-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai-Kee, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of the Museum Education Roundtable (MER) in 1969, the formation of the Committee on Education of the American Association of Museums (AAM) in 1973, and the creation of the Museum Education Division of the National Art Education Association (NAEA) in 1981 all represent milestones in the professionalization of museum education…

  20. Application of MODIS Imagery for Intra-Annual Water Clarity Assessment of Minnesota Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Voth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water clarity trends is necessary for water resource managers. Remote sensing based methods are well suited for monitoring clarity in water bodies such as the inland lakes in Minnesota, United States. This study evaluated the potential of using imagery from NASA’s MODIS sensor to study intra-annual variations in lake clarity. MODIS reflectance images from six dates throughout the 2006 growing season were used with field collected Secchi disk transparency data to estimate water clarity in large lakes throughout Minnesota. The results of this research indicate the following: water clarity estimates derived from MODIS imagery are largely similar to those derived from lower temporal resolution sensors such as Landsat, robust water clarity estimates can be derived using MODIS for many dates throughout a growing season (R2 values between 0.32 and 0.71, and the relatively low spatial resolution of MODIS restricts its applicability to a subset of the largest inland lakes (>160 ha, or 400 acres. This study suggests that water clarity maps developed with MODIS imagery and bathymetry data may be useful tools for resource managers concerned with intra- and inter-annual variations in large inland lakes.

  1. Self-concept clarity and religious orientations: prediction of purpose in life and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażek, Magdalena; Besta, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    The present study concerns the relationship between self-concept clarity, religiosity, and well-being, as well as the mediating influence of religiosity on the relationship between self-concept clarity and sense of meaning in life and self-esteem. Self-concept clarity was found to be a significant predictor of sense of meaning in life and self-esteem; intrinsic religious orientation was found to be a predictor of sense of meaning in life, while the quest religious orientation was a predictor for self-esteem. The cross-products of self-concept clarity and intrinsic religious orientation were found to be related to the sense of purpose in life, which would point to religiosity being a mediator of the relationship between self-concept clarity and sense of purpose in life. The cross-products of self-concept clarity and quest religious orientation were found to be a predictor of self-esteem, which indicates a mediating effect of this religious orientation in the relationship of self-concept clarity and self-esteem.

  2. Reasons for inpatients not to seek clarity at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital, Pretoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Omole, Olufemi B; Govender, Indiran; Ndimande, John V

    2014-03-10

    Healthcare practitioners should provide patients with information regarding their clinical conditions. Patients should also feel free to seek clarity on information provided. However, not all patients seek this clarity. To explore the reasons inpatients gave for not seeking clarity on information that was received but not understood. This was a qualitative arm of a larger study, titled 'Are inpatients aware of the admission reasons and management plans of their clinical conditions? A survey at a tertiary hospital in South Africa', conducted in 2010. Of the 264 inpatients who participated in the larger study, we extracted the unstructured responses from those participants (n = 152) who had indicated in the questionnaire that there was information they had not understood during their encounter with healthcare practitioners, but that they had nonetheless not sought clarity.Data were analysed thematically. Themes that emerged were that inpatients did not ask for clarity as they perceived healthcare practitioners to be 'too busy', aloof, non-communicators and sometimes uncertain about patients' conditions. Some inpatients had unquestioning trust in healthcare practitioners,whilst others had experiences of bad treatment. Inpatients had poor self-esteem, incapacitating clinical conditions, fear of bad news and prior knowledge of their clinical conditions. Some inpatients stated that they had no reason for not seeking clarity. The reasons for not seeking clarity were based on patients' experiences with the healthcare practitioners and their perceptions of the latter and of themselves. A programme should be developed in order to educate inpatients on effective communication with their healthcare practitioners.

  3. The art of staying engaged : The role of personal resources in mental well-being of young veterinary professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents research on mental well-being of veterinary professionals at the beginning of their professional career. It aims to assess the prevalence of burnout and work engagement and to identify its work and person related antecedents in this specific group of professionals. Additionally

  4. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  5. Role models and professional development in dentistry: an important resource: The views of early career stage dentists at one academic health science centre in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Osama, O; Gallagher, J E

    2017-02-08

    The importance of role models, and their differing influence in early, mid- and late careers, has been identified in the process of professional development of medical doctors. There is a paucity of evidence within dentistry on role models and their attributes. To explore the views of early career dentists on positive and negative role models across key phases of professional development, together with role models' attributes and perceived influence. This is a phenomenological study collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews based on a topic guide. Dentists in junior (core training) hospital posts in one academic health science centre were all invited to participate. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Twelve early career stage dentists, 10 of whom were female, reported having role models, mainly positive, in their undergraduate and early career phases. Participants defined role models' attributes in relation to three distinct domains: clinical attributes, personal qualities and teaching skills. Positive role models were described as "prioritising the patient's best interests", "delivering learner-centred teaching and training" and "exhibiting a positive personality", whilst negative role models demonstrated the converse. Early career dentists reported having largely positive dentist role models during- and post-dental school and report their impact on professional values and aspirations, learning outcomes and career choice. The findings suggest that these early career dentists in junior hospital posts have largely experienced and benefitted from positive role models, notably dentists, perceived as playing an important and creative influence promoting professionalism and shaping the career choices of early career stage dentists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Empowering workplace and wellbeing among healthcare professionals: the buffering role of job control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Fabbri, Daniele; Pilia, Ilaria; Campagna, Marcello

    2016-05-26

    Health care workers are exposed to several job stressors that can adversely affect their wellbeing. Workplace incivility is a growing organizational concern with the potential to create workplaces harmful to individuals' wellbeing and increase occupational health risks. Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of two resources (organizational empowerment and job control) on individuals' well-being (emotional exhaustion) and attitude at work (unit affective commitment). A total of 210 hospital workers completed a self-administered questionnaire that was used to measure organizational empowerment, workplace incivility, job control, exhaustion, and affective commitment. Data were collected in 2014. Data were examined via linear regression analyses. The results showed that workplace incivility was positively related to emotional exhaustion and negatively related to affective commitment. Workplace empowerment was positively related to affective commitment and negatively related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, the positive relationship between workplace empowerment and affective commitment was significantly moderated by job control. Our results found support for the JD-R model. Specifically, results showed the buffering effect of job control in the relationship between empowerment and affective commitment. Our findings may concretely contribute to the stress literature and offer additional suggestions to promote healthy workplaces.

  7. Effect of professional self-concept on burnout among community health nurses in Chengdu, China: the mediator role of organisational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Lin; Tian, Lang; Diao, Yongshu; Hu, Xiuying

    2015-10-01

    To examine the associations among professional self-concept, organisational commitment and burnout, and to analyse the mediating role of organisational commitment on the relationship between professional self-concept and burnout among community health nurses in Chengdu, China. Previous studies have focused on work environmental variables that contributed to burnout in nurses. However, no study has explored the mediating effect of organisational commitment on the correlation between professional self-concept and burnout in community health nurses. A cross-sectional descriptive study. This study was conducted at 36 community health centres in Chengdu, China with 485 nurses sampled using a two-stage sampling method. The measures used in our study included Nurses' Self-concept Questionnaire, Organisational Commitment Scale and Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results of structural equation model techniques indicated that, in the direct approach, positive professional self-concept resulted in increased organisational commitment and reduced burnout. Higher organisational commitment resulted in less burnout. In the indirect approach, organisational commitment performed as a partial mediator on the correlation between professional self-concept and burnout. Positive perception of professional self-concept can result in reduced burnout via enhancing organisational commitment. It is crucial for nursing administrators to develop effective intervention strategies such as skills escalator training and assertive training, and establishing a supportive working environment to enhance nurses' professional self-concept and organisational commitment, and decrease burnout. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Faculty Dispositions: Seeking Clarity while Looking at Muddy Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Jacalyn; Boyce, B. Ann; Oates, Richard; Fiorentino, Leah

    2010-01-01

    If one reads the paper or listens to the news, professional disposition are almost becoming critical job skills in the world of work. Similarly, faculty dispositions, defined in this article as "attitudes, values, and beliefs demonstrated through both verbal and non-verbal behaviors as educators interact with students, families, colleagues, and…

  9. The role of relationships in the professional formation of physicians: case report and illustration of an elicitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Hatem, David S; Fecile, Mary Lynn; Stein, Howard F; Haley, Heather-Lyn A; Kimmel, Barbara; Mossbarger, David L; Inui, Thomas S

    2008-09-01

    Studies of physicians' professional development highlight the important effect that the learning environment has in shaping student attitudes, behaviors, and values. The objective of this study was to better understand the interplay among relationships and experiences in mediating the effects of the learning environment. We randomly recruited 2nd- and 4th-year students from among volunteers at each of five medical schools. One interviewer at each school conducted a face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interview with each student. The interviewers used a method called 'life-circle diagramming' to direct the student to draw a picture of all of the relationships in his/her life that had an influence on the sort of doctor that each student saw him/herself becoming. Interviews lasted between 60 and 120 min. Using a narrative framework that focuses on elements of students' stories (e.g., setting, characters, plot), we analyzed transcripts through an iterative process of individual reading and group discussion to derive themes and relationships among themes. Twenty students completed interviews. These students are embedded in complex webs of relationships with colleagues, friends, family, role models, patients, and others. Most students entered medical school with formed notions of what they wanted to 'be like' as physicians. While students generally gravitated toward relationships with like-minded people, their experiences varied, and some students could sense themselves changing as they moved through school. Such changes were often related to important events or issues. The relationships that students found themselves in during the context of these events had an important effect on students' beliefs about what kinds of behaviors and attitudes were possible and desirable in their future practice. Students proceed through medical school embedded in complex webs of relationships that exert a powerful influence (both positive and negative) on their formation as

  10. [Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Herkt, Martyna; Ossowski, Roman

    2017-02-28

    The researchers involved in the studies of burnout indicate its 3 sources: the structure of the personality, the specificity of interpersonal relationships, and the organizational factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout and personality characteristics of prison officers, as well as to determine predictors of burnout in this occupational group. The study was conducted among prison officers, who were divided into 2 groups, the officers working in direct contact with prisoners (group I) and those employed in the prison administration (group II). The study used 2 tools: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ). Analysis of personality traits in the study group showed high severity traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, the best results were obtained in terms of extraversion and the lowest in the range of conscientiousness. The level of burnout in both groups was found to be within the upper limit of the average results, without statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that people working in direct contact with prisoners experience greater disappointments and psychophysical exhaustion at work. The analyses showed that the level of exhaustion and disappointment of the employees surveyed increases with increasing seniority. It was also shown that the level of neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness is the predictor of effectiveness. The level of burnout in the study group falls within the upper limit of the average results. Personality traits are an important determinant for the development of symptoms of burnout in the penitentiary officers, and their role changes over the years of continuous prison service. The position at work diversifies the degree of experiencing symptoms of burnout. Med Pr 2017;68(1):85-94.

  11. Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The researchers involved in the studies of burnout indicate its 3 sources: the structure of the personality, the specificity of interpersonal relationships, and the organizational factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout and personality characteristics of prison officers, as well as to determine predictors of burnout in this occupational group. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among prison officers, who were divided into 2 groups, the officers working in direct contact with prisoners (group I and those employed in the prison administration (group II. The study used 2 tools: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ. Results: Analysis of personality traits in the study group showed high severity traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, the best results were obtained in terms of extraversion and the lowest in the range of conscientiousness. The level of burnout in both groups was found to be within the upper limit of the average results, without statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that people working in direct contact with prisoners experience greater disappointments and psychophysical exhaustion at work. The analyses showed that the level of exhaustion and disappointment of the employees surveyed increases with increasing seniority. It was also shown that the level of neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness is the predictor of effectiveness. Conclusions: The level of burnout in the study group falls within the upper limit of the average results. Personality traits are an important determinant for the development of symptoms of burnout in the penitentiary officers, and their role changes over the years of continuous prison service. The position at work diversifies the degree of experiencing symptoms of burnout. Med Pr 2017;68(1:85–94

  12. Fostering integrated learning and clinical professionalism using contextualized simulation in a small-group role-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Sarah; Pierce, Stephanie E; May, Stephen A

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and learning in a clinical setting is important in veterinary and medical training but presents many challenges, including providing enough hands-on experience while not putting patients (animal or human) at risk. Some of the issues have been addressed with the introduction of clinical skills laboratories and communication skills training using role play. However, in both instances skills are learned in isolation, whereas the real task requires the integration of many skills including technical competencies, effective communication, decision making, and professionalism. In our study, we trialed "contextualized simulation" by combining role play with a simulator, the haptic cow, in a small-group tutorial, the Simulated Fertility Visit. Students took turns as the veterinarian; they had to establish the cow's history from the farmer (a role player), palpate the simulation, make a diagnosis, and decide on treatment, if appropriate. We included scenarios varying from common cases to challenging situations. The tutorial was introduced in the farm-animal clinical rotation, and feedback was gathered from students by means of a questionnaire. The tutorial was attended by 178 students (98% of that year's students), and 151 questionnaires were returned (85% response rate). Students reported that the tutorial was a positive learning experience and recognized that it presented an opportunity to integrate the skills needed for clinical work. Student feedback suggests that contextualized simulation provides a valuable complement to clinical cases, and we recommend extending this teaching method to other clinical scenarios and species, particularly because it provides a safe environment in which to experience, and learn from, mistakes.

  13. Views of West African surgeons on how well their educational and professional backgrounds may have prepared them for health leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O; Nkanga, Dennis; Onakoya, Adeola

    2010-12-01

    Because of the appalling health indices in West Africa, Physicians there need to be at the forefront of the organizational challenge in managing and improving health systems. To collate the views of West African surgeons on how well their educational and professional backgrounds may have prepared them for leadership and managerial roles in health care, and draw appropriate policy implications. Filled structured questionnaires from 110 surgeons that were attending an annual conference were analyzed. The respondents' bio data, professional, educational, health administrative backgrounds were probed. Their views on justifications for physicians' involvement in health managerial roles, probable influence of some physicians' characteristic traits and professional attributes on health leadership roles, and suggestions for improvement were also collated. 71.8% of the respondents had held or were then holding health-related administrative posts; 90% had attended different varieties of management courses; 95.4% identified physicians as the inherent leaders of the health care team; but only 28.4% adjudged their health management role "strongly important" (28.4%) among their multi-faceted roles; and they largely agreed that some stated professional and characteristic traits of physicians tend to make them poor leaders and managers. Our findings suggest that the preparations that the respondents got from their formal and professional education for leadership and managerial roles in health care were not optimal. We recommend for a paradigm shift for physicians on health leadership issue which is to be facilitated by a well-focused short time duration health management course for all physicians, particularly specialists.

  14. Views of West African surgeons on how well their educational and professional backgrounds may have prepared them for health leadership roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O.; Nkanga, Dennis; Onakoya, Adeola

    2010-01-01

    Background: Because of the appalling health indices in West Africa, Physicians there need to be at the forefront of the organizational challenge in managing and improving health systems. Aim: To collate the views of West African surgeons on how well their educational and professional backgrounds may have prepared them for leadership and managerial roles in health care, and draw appropriate policy implications. Material and Methods: Filled structured questionnaires from 110 surgeons that were attending an annual conference were analyzed. The respondents’ bio data, professional, educational, health administrative backgrounds were probed. Their views on justifications for physicians’ involvement in health managerial roles, probable influence of some physicians’ characteristic traits and professional attributes on health leadership roles, and suggestions for improvement were also collated. Results: 71.8% of the respondents had held or were then holding health-related administrative posts; 90% had attended different varieties of management courses; 95.4% identified physicians as the inherent leaders of the health care team; but only 28.4% adjudged their health management role “strongly important” (28.4%) among their multi-faceted roles; and they largely agreed that some stated professional and characteristic traits of physicians tend to make them poor leaders and managers. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the preparations that the respondents got from their formal and professional education for leadership and managerial roles in health care were not optimal. We recommend for a paradigm shift for physicians on health leadership issue which is to be facilitated by a well-focused short time duration health management course for all physicians, particularly specialists. PMID:22558571

  15. Qualitative analysis of healthcare professionals' viewpoints on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Shank, Gary; Carlson, Jestin N; Venkat, Arvind

    2015-03-01

    Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict.

  16. El papel mediador de la Autoeficacia Profesional entre situaciones de Demandas de Rol y Salud Autopercibida (The mediating role of Professional Self-efficacy between Role Demands situations and Self-perceived Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Soler Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between role stress, professional self-efficacy, and self-perceived health using the Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R model. The proposed model hypothesizes that professional self-efficacy mediates the relationship between role ambiguity and role conflict on the one hand, and self-perceived health on the other. To test this hypothesis, data were collected from 272 workers from southern Spain. Mediation analyses were performed using the macro PROCESS for SPSS developed by Hayes (2013. Results showed that role conflict, role ambiguity, and self-efficacy were significant predictors of self-perceived health. In addition, self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between role stress and health.

  17. A Study of the Effect of the Type and Timing of Professional Development and Job Satisfaction in the Nurse Faculty Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble-Britton, Pinky A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to adapt to one's profession and display satisfaction while in that role has been a subject of discussion for educators. This quantitative, cross-sectional survey examined how types of professional development activities and their timing affected job satisfaction among nurse faculty members in Tennessee. Results indicated that the…

  18. School Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions of Role as Opinion Leader, and Professional Practice Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional…

  19. The Effect of Perceived Spiritual Leadership on Envy Management of Faculty Members through the Role of Professional Development Mediation and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Zarin Daneshvar; Saidabadi, Reza Yousefi; Niazazari, Kiumars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: the present study aimed to investigate the effect of perceived spiritual leadership on envy management of faculty members of Islamic Azad Universities of East Azerbaijan province through the role of professional development mediation and job satisfaction. Methodology: this study was a descriptive and correlational study that was conducted…

  20. An empirical study of the role of the corporate HR function in global talent management in professional and financial service firms in the global financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrow, P.; Farndale, E.; Scullion, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an empirical exploration of a theory-driven framework of corporate human resource (CHR) roles in global talent management (GTM). Specifically, it expands our knowledge of the process of GTM in two sectors: financial and professional services. Based on in-depth interview data from

  1. Perceptions of patients, significant others and health professionals of the role of significant others in programs for chronic non-malignant pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna A; Bjerrum, Merete Bender

    2016-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify and synthesize the perceptions of patients, significant others and health professionals regarding the role of significant others in chronic pain programs or healthcare regimens that target patients with chronic non......-malignant pain. More specifically, the objective is to identify the role of significant others in chronic pain programs and healthcare regimens for adult patients with chronic non-malignant pain in primary, secondary or tertiary healthcare settings....

  2. Landsat imagery reveals declining clarity of Maine’s lakes during 1995-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Sader, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Water clarity is a strong indicator of regional water quality. Unlike other common water-quality metrics, such as chlorophyll a, total P, or trophic status, clarity can be accurately and efficiently estimated remotely on a regional scale. Satellite-based remote sensing is useful in regions with many lakes where traditional field-sampling techniques may be prohibitively expensive. Repeated sampling of easily accessed lakes can lead to spatially irregular, nonrandom samples of a region. Remote sensing remedies this problem. We applied a remote monitoring protocol we had previously developed for Maine lakes >8 ha based on Landsat satellite data recorded during 1995–2010 to identify spatial and temporal patterns in Maine lake clarity. We focused on the overlapping region of Landsat paths 11 and 12 to increase availability of cloud-free images in August and early September, a period of relative lake stability and seasonal poor-clarity conditions well suited for annual monitoring. We divided Maine into 3 regions (northeastern, south-central, western) based on morphometric and chemical lake features. We found a general decrease in average statewide lake clarity from 4.94 to 4.38 m during 1995–2010. Water clarity ranged from 4 to 6 m during 1995–2010, but it decreased consistently during 2005–2010. Clarity in both the northeastern and western lake regions has decreased from 5.22 m in 1995 to 4.36 and 4.21 m, respectively, in 2010, whereas lake clarity in the south-central lake region (4.50 m) has not changed since 1995. Climate change, timber harvesting, or watershed morphometry may be responsible for regional water-clarity decline. Remote sensing of regional water clarity provides a more complete spatial perspective of lake water quality than existing, interest-based sampling. However, field sampling done under existing monitoring programs can be used to calibrate accurate models designed to estimate water clarity remotely.

  3. Negative Inferential Style, Emotional Clarity, and Life Stress: Integrating Vulnerabilities to Depression in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Negative inferential style and deficits in emotional clarity have been identified as vulnerability factors for depression in adolescence, particularly when individuals experience high levels of life stress. However, previous research has not integrated these characteristics when evaluating vulnerability to depression. Method In the present study, a racially-diverse community sample of 256 early adolescents (ages 12 and 13) completed a baseline visit and a follow-up visit nine months later. Inferential style, emotional clarity, and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline, and intervening life events and depressive symptoms were assessed at follow-up. Results Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between adolescents’ weakest-link negative inferential style, emotional clarity, and intervening life stress predicting depressive symptoms at follow-up, controlling for initial depressive symptoms. Adolescents with low emotional clarity and high negative inferential styles experienced the greatest increases in depressive symptoms following life stress. Emotional clarity buffered against the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with negative inferential styles. Similarly, negative inferential styles exacerbated the impact of life stress on depressive symptoms among adolescents with low emotional clarity. Conclusions These results provide evidence of the utility of integrating inferential style and emotional clarity as constructs of vulnerability in combination with life stress in the identification of adolescents at risk for depression. They also suggest the enhancement of emotional clarity as a potential intervention technique to protect against the effects of negative inferential styles and life stress on depression in early adolescence. PMID:23215673

  4. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-09-28

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination.

  5. Combining lake and watershed characteristics with Landsat TM data for remote estimation of regional lake clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cyndy; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Water clarity is a reliable indicator of lake productivity and an ideal metric of regional water quality. Clarity is an indicator of other water quality variables including chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus and trophic status; however, unlike these metrics, clarity can be accurately and efficiently estimated remotely on a regional scale. Remote sensing is useful in regions containing a large number of lakes that are cost prohibitive to monitor regularly using traditional field methods. Field-assessed lakes generally are easily accessible and may represent a spatially irregular, non-random sample of a region. We developed a remote monitoring program for Maine lakes >8 ha (1511 lakes) to supplement existing field monitoring programs. We combined Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) brightness values for TM bands 1 (blue) and 3 (red) to estimate water clarity (secchi disk depth) during 1990–2010. Although similar procedures have been applied to Minnesota and Wisconsin lakes, neither state incorporates physical lake variables or watershed characteristics that potentially affect clarity into their models. Average lake depth consistently improved model fitness, and the proportion of wetland area in lake watersheds also explained variability in clarity in some cases. Nine regression models predicted water clarity (R2 = 0.69–0.90) during 1990–2010, with separate models for eastern (TM path 11; four models) and western Maine (TM path 12; five models that captured differences in topography and landscape disturbance. Average absolute difference between model-estimated and observed secchi depth ranged 0.65–1.03 m. Eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes consistently were estimated more accurately than oligotrophic lakes. Our results show that TM bands 1 and 3 can be used to estimate regional lake water clarity outside the Great Lakes Region and that the accuracy of estimates is improved with additional model variables that reflect

  6. The role of professional and team commitment in nurse-physician collaboration: A dual identity model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Guberti, Monica; Borgognoni, Patrizia; Prandi, Carmen; Spaggiari, Ivana; Vezzani, Emanuela; Iemmi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Nurse-physician collaboration involves healthcare operators from different professions working together. The dual identity model predicts that nurse-physician interprofessional collaboration could improve if these operators feel they belong to both their professional category and care unit. This study tested this prediction by analyzing the effect of professional and team commitments on interprofessional collaboration between nurses and physicians in a hospital based in Northern Italy. A cross-section questionnaire survey was administered to 270 nurses and 95 physicians. Results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is positively affected by team commitment, while professional commitment had no effect. In accordance with the dual identity model, results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is higher when: (i) both professional and team commitment is high, and (ii) when team commitment is high and professional commitment is low. These results support dual identity model predictions and suggest that interprofessional collaboration can be increased by bolstering both team and professional commitment of nurses and physicians.

  7. Chinese preservice teachers’ professional identity links with education program performance: The roles of task value belief and learning motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Yan eZhang; Skyler eHawk; Xiaohui eZhang; Hongyu eZHAO

    2016-01-01

    AbstractProfessional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic ...

  8. Chinese Preservice Teachers’ Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning...

  9. Social policy formulation and the role of professionals: the involvement of social workers in parliamentary committees in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, John; Weiss-Gal, Idit

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of social care professionals in the social policy formulation process by studying social workers' involvement in parliamentary committees in Israel. The study methodology is a quantitative content analysis of the minutes of parliamentary committees that met between the years 1999 and 2006. The findings indicate that social workers participated in 13% of the deliberations of parliamentary committees concerning diverse social policy and social care issues and that two-thirds of these participants are affiliated with non-profit organisations and local government. The findings also offer an insight into the types of parliamentary committees in which social workers participate, and the subjects upon which these focused. Finally, the data shed light on organisational and demographic characteristics of the social workers participating in parliamentary committees in the Israeli parliament. These findings appear to offer support for the discourse within international social work literature that advocates greater involvement of social workers in social policy formulation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Implicit bias against sexual minorities in medicine: cycles of professional influence and the role of the hidden curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin-Bennett, Keisa

    2015-05-01

    Despite many recent advances in rights for sexual and gender minorities in the United States, bias against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people still exists. In this Commentary, the author briefly reviews disparities with regard to LGBT health, in both health care and medical education, and discusses the implications of Burke and colleagues’ study of implicit and explicit biases against lesbian and gay people among heterosexual first-year medical students, published in this issue of Academic Medicine. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which physicians’ implicit bias against LGBT people can create a cycle that perpetuates a professional climate reinforcing the bias. The hidden curriculum in academic health centers is discussed as both a cause of this cycle and as a starting point for a research and intervention agenda. The findings from Burke and colleagues’ study, as well as other evidence, support raising awareness of LGBT discrimination, increasing exposure to LGBT individuals as colleagues and role models in academic health centers, and modifying medical education curricula as methods to break the cycle of implicit bias in medicine.

  11. "Failure Is a Major Component of Learning Anything": The Role of Failure in the Development of STEM Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amber; Maltese, Adam

    2017-04-01

    The term failure typically evokes negative connotations in educational settings and is likely to be accompanied by negative emotional states, low sense of confidence, and lack of persistence. These negative emotional and behavioral states may factor into an individual not pursuing a degree or career in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). This is of particular concern considering the low number of women and underrepresented minorities pursing and working in a STEM field. Utilizing interview data with professionals across STEM, we sought to understand the role failure played in the persistence of individuals who enter and pursue paths toward STEM-related careers. Findings highlighted how participants' experiences with failure (1) shaped their outlooks or views of failure, (2) shaped their trajectories within STEM, and (3) provided them with additional skills or qualities. A few differences based on participants' sex, field, and highest degree also manifested in our analysis. We expect the results from this study to add research-based results to the current conversation around whether experiences with failure should be part of formal and informal educational settings and standards-based practices.

  12. A Multi-Method Investigation of the Association Between Emotional Clarity and Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckland, Nathaniel S; Leyro, Teresa M; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Thompson, Renee J

    2017-11-27

    Higher emotional clarity, the extent to which people unambiguously identify, label, and describe their own emotions, is related to a host of positive intrapersonal factors but its relation to interpersonal factors is unexplored. We hypothesized that emotional clarity would be related to cognitive empathy (i.e., perceiving others' emotions) and to accurately understanding others' negative affect (NA), but not positive affect (PA), in the context of a stressful situation. After completing self-reports of trait emotional clarity and cognitive and affective empathy (i.e., one's emotional reaction to others), participants (N = 94 undergraduate students; i.e., perceivers) viewed a series of video clips of adults (i.e., targets) completing a stressful laboratory task in a previous research study. Before and after the stress task, targets reported their state NA and PA. While viewing the recordings, perceivers rated how they thought the targets were feeling at the corresponding time points. Correspondence between perceivers' and targets' affect ratings were used as indices of the outcome variable, performance-based cognitive empathy. As expected, self-reported emotional clarity was related to the self-reported cognitive, but not affective, empathy. Moreover, perceivers' emotional clarity was related to higher cognitive empathy for NA not PA after the stressful task. Our findings provide preliminary support for the importance of emotional clarity in the ability to accurately understand others' affective experiences, which has important interpersonal implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Self-clarity and different clusters of insight and self-stigma in mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Lysaker, Paul H; Roe, David

    2016-06-30

    The current study explored the self-experience of persons with Serious Mental Illness (SMI) by investigating the associations between different insight and self-stigma clusters, self-clarity, hope, recovery, and functioning. One hundred seven persons diagnosed with a SMI were administered six scales: self-concept clarity, self-stigma, insight into the illness, hope, recovery, and functioning. Correlations and cluster analyses were performed. Insight, as measured by a self-report scale was not related to any other variable. Self-stigma was negatively associated with self-clarity, hope, recovery and functioning. Three clusters emerged: moderate stigma/high insight (n=31), high stigma/moderate insight (n=28), and low stigma/low insight (n=42). The group with low stigma and low insight had higher mean levels of self-clarity and hope than the other two groups. There were no significant differences between cluster 1 (moderate stigma/high insight) and cluster 2 (high stigma/moderate insight) in all the variables beside self-clarity. The group with moderate stigma and high insight had significantly higher mean levels of self-clarity than the group with high stigma and moderate insight. Results reveal that when people diagnosed with SMI do not have high levels of self-stigma they often report a positive and clear sense of self accompanied with hope, regardless of having low insight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dark Side of Clarity: Its Effect on Knowledge Production and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Wolfberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement decision-makers rely on intelligence analysts to produce intelligence products that are clear. Yet, intelligence analysts live in a world characterised by ambiguity and information overload. This paper examines the intellectual journey that leads to clarity of thought, and the effect of the dark side of clarity on producing knowledge for decision-making. The paper asked, how does the dark side of clarity manifest itself to analyst and decision-maker? The result is counterintuitive; while the bright side of clarity is expected, and demanded because of its benefit to decision-making, the dark side of clarity co-exists in the shadows of certainty and makes it difficult to think critically. Neither analyst nor decision-maker is likely aware of this negative effect. To make this dark side of clarity visible, recommendations are made that begin with raising analyst awareness by augmenting existing training. Then, decision-maker awareness can be approached through training and facilitated coaching.

  15. Aspirin for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: In Need of Clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Michael D; Huguelet, Joseph; Virani, Salim S

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin remains one of the most extensively studied cardiovascular medications in the history of medicine. However, despite multiple, well-designed, large randomized controlled trials evaluating the potential of aspirin to prevent cardiovascular events in individuals without known cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of aspirin in primary prevention is currently unclear. The initial aspirin trials included largely low-risk individuals with primary outcomes mostly focused on myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, and showed a significant reduction in these CVD outcomes, especially MI. The more recently conducted trials have focused on older, higher CVD risk populations with high rates of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications use. These studies have used broader CVD outcomes as their primary end points and have failed to show a significant benefit of aspirin therapy in primary prevention. The exact reasons for the lack of efficacy in these recent trials are unclear but may be related to low rate of atherothrombotic events relative to other CVD events in the populations studied. Four large randomized controlled trials are currently underway which should provide some clarity in determining the optimal use of aspirin in the primary prevention of CVD.

  16. A mini-midwifery business institute in a midwifery professional roles course: an innovative teaching strategy for successful career planning and business management of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, D Elizabeth; Dewees, Connie; McDowell, William C

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to include teaching strategies in midwifery education that address career planning and the business aspects of practice. This article presents the Mini-Midwifery Business Institute (M-MBI), an innovative teaching strategy for midwives that can also be applied to other advanced practice professions. The M-MBI can be integrated into a professional roles course. Before and after graduation, midwifery students and other advanced practice professionals can use the information to gain confidence and skills for successful career planning and the business management of practice. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. Does GPs' self-perception of their professional role correspond to their social self-image? - A qualitative study from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a decline in the relative numbers of general practitioners in Germany. Earlier research showed that the professional relationship between general practitioners and specialists is overshadowed by conflicts which could influence medical students not to choose a career in general practice. The aim of the study is to analyse potential discrepancies between general practitioners' self-perception of their professional role and their social self-image in relation to medical specialists and to identify potential barriers that might prevent medical students from becoming a general practitioner. Methods A qualitative study design consisting of 16 interviews with general practitioners was chosen. Data analysis was carried out using the qualitative content analysis by Philipp Mayring. Results There is a discrepancy between general practitioners' professional self-perception and how they perceive they are viewed by specialists. General practitioners communicate a positive self-perception of their professional role. While general practitioners think that specialists in outpatient care have a positive view on general practice, it is assessed to be negative by specialists working in hospitals and as medical teachers. Conclusion The negatively influenced social self-image may originate particularly from "badmouthing" general practitioners at universities and in hospitals. "Badmouthing" demonstrates the importance of the consideration of psychological aspects in medical teachers and hospital specialists acting as role models. Negative comments should be considered as an important factor in influencing medical students and trainees' career choices. These aspects should be more integrated in future medical education curricula.

  18. Moving Latino/a Students into STEM Majors in College: The Role of Teachers and Professional Communities in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Stephanie; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia; Stearns, Elizabeth; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Dancy, Melissa; Wright, Eric; Valentino, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    We argue that Latino/a students are more likely to major in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college if they were educated in high schools where they studied with satisfied teachers who worked in collaborative professional communities. Quantitative results demonstrate that collaborative professional communities in high school…

  19. How working in cross-functional teams relates to core attributes of professional occupations and the moderating role of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Eric; Broekhuis, Manda

    In this study, we related the extent to which professional workers participate in cross-functional teams (CFTs) to 3 facets of professional occupations: domain distinctiveness, accountability, and task autonomy. Furthermore, we investigated whether these relationships are moderated by 3 personality

  20. The Relationship between Psychological Capital and Professional Commitment of Preschool Teachers: The Moderating Role of Working Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsing-Ming; Chou, Mei-Ju; Chin, Chia-Hui; Wu, Ho-Tang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research mainly lies in exploration of influence of psychological capital of preschool teachers on professional commitment, and moderation effect of their working years on the influential relationship between psychological capital and professional commitment. 400 Taiwan preschool teachers took part in this research as the…

  1. Universities' New Role in Professional Training - Combining Education and Practice Learning in Environmental Management and Cleaner Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the experiences from the continued academic education in Environmental Management at DTU and identifies the demands that these types of professional educations forces on universities.......The article presents the experiences from the continued academic education in Environmental Management at DTU and identifies the demands that these types of professional educations forces on universities....

  2. Performers and Postulates: The Role of Evolving Socio-Historical Contexts in Shaping New Teacher Professional Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Simon N.; Roberts, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In this article we investigate the generative causes of variation in the professional identity of new teachers. Building on previous work that has shown a link between professional identity and socio-political context, we argue that the context experienced in late adolescence and early adulthood is particularly significant in shaping how beginning…

  3. Medical teachers' perception of professional roles in the framework of the German National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM)-A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griewatz, Jan; Wiechers, Steffen; Ben-Karacobanim, Hadiye; Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Based on CanMEDS and others, the German National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) were recently consented. International studies recommend integrating national and cultural context when transferring a professional roles framework in different countries. Teachers' misconceptions may establish barriers in role understanding and implementation. The aim is to analyze medical teachers' rating and perception of NKLM roles in order to reveal differences to official definitions. A two-step sequential mixed methods design was used including a survey and focus groups with N = 80 medical teachers from four German universities. Most of the teachers highly valued the importance of the role "Medical Expert" and understood comprehensively. The Communicator and the Collaborator were rated fairly and perceived to a large extent. Other intrinsic roles like Health Advocate and Scholar showed more deficits in perception and less importance by the participants. This was seen generally problematic and should be considered carefully. Manager and professional showed one-sided weaknesses either in importance or perception. Medical teachers considered NKLM roles relevant for medical practice, although their role perception differed considerably. The value and risk matrix visualizes the specific role profile and offers strategic implications for NKLM communication and handling, thus supporting change management.

  4. Combined Effects of Form- and Meaning-Based Predictability on Perceived Clarity of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoret, Carine; Johnsrude, Ingrid; Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary

    2017-05-29

    The perceptual clarity of speech is influenced by more than just the acoustic quality of the sound; it also depends on contextual support. For example, a degraded sentence is perceived to be clearer when the content of the speech signal is provided with matching text (i.e., form-based predictability) before hearing the degraded sentence. Here, we investigate whether sentence-level semantic coherence (i.e., meaning-based predictability), enhances perceptual clarity of degraded sentences, and if so, whether the mechanism is the same as that underlying enhancement by matching text. We also ask whether form- and meaning-based predictability are related to individual differences in cognitive abilities. Twenty participants listened to spoken sentences that were either clear or degraded by noise vocoding and rated the clarity of each item. The sentences had either high or low semantic coherence. Each spoken word was preceded by the homologous printed word (matching text), or by a meaningless letter string (nonmatching text). Cognitive abilities were measured with a working memory test. Results showed that perceptual clarity was significantly enhanced both by matching text and by semantic coherence. Importantly, high coherence enhanced the perceptual clarity of the degraded sentences even when they were preceded by matching text, suggesting that the effects of form- and meaning-based predictions on perceptual clarity are independent and additive. However, when working memory capacity indexed by the Size-Comparison Span Test was controlled for, only form-based predictions enhanced perceptual clarity, and then only at some sound quality levels, suggesting that prediction effects are to a certain extent dependent on cognitive abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Ways of understanding being a healthcare professional in the role of family member of a patient admitted to hospital. A phenomenographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Eva; Carlsson, Agneta Anderzén; Prenkert, Malin; Svantesson, Mia

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare professionals' experience of being family member of a patient can contribute to knowledge development and organizational learning in further ways than the experiences of general family members. However, there is little research on healthcare professionals' experience being on 'the other side of the bed'. To describe how healthcare professionals understand the role of being a healthcare professional and a family member of a patient admitted to hospital. Qualitative with a phenomenographic approach. Three Swedish hospitals. All healthcare professionals in three hospitals were invited. Twenty-one volunteered for the study and 18 met the inclusion criteria; to have one year of professional experience and to have visited the family member in hospital daily during hospitalization. Family members in maternity or psychiatric care were excluded. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Transcripts were analyzed with a phenomenographic method to describe variation and commonality in the ways of understanding the phenomenon under study. Four dominant ways of understanding the phenomenon were identified; the informed bystander, the supervisor, the advocate and the carer. The four ways of understanding were hierarchically related with "The informed bystander" being least involved in the care of the family member and "The carer" more or less taking over the patient's care because of inappropriate, unsafe or omitted care. Common for all ways of understanding the phenomenon, except "The informed bystander", was the difficult balance between their loyalty toward the family member and their colleagues among the staff. "The informed bystander" and "The supervisor" are ways of understanding the phenomenon under study that, to our knowledge, has not been described before. This study describes how being a family member of a patient can be understood in four different ways when the family member is a healthcare professional. The findings show similarities to

  6. Emotion, power and identity. Emotional display of envy when taking on management roles in a professional hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrant, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a previous study of organising processes and the construction of identity in a Swedish geriatric clinic, the impact of emotions is brought to the fore in the interpretation of power relations among professional groups. The purpose of this paper is to find a way to interpret emotions as discursively constructed in organising processes. A sequence of critical events is described where leading positions were negotiated at the clinic. Senior physicians and head nurses are highlighted as opposing forces in a struggle where envious emotions seemed to be a driving force in the political interplay. The empirical material in this paper comes from the previous study. It is a set of participant observations and parts of interviews that took place before and after the implementation of a new organisational plan for the clinic. The envious and regressive undertone in the relationships between the actors made them act for egocentric reasons instead of creating new ways of collaborating and learning new leading roles. The power relations of the medical hierarchy were reproduced, which made new ways of relating threatening and difficult to achieve. The results of the study confirm that people involved and perhaps in conflict with each other have to be able to, or get help to, make sense of their emotional experiences to employ them constructively. Otherwise they fall back into well-known patterns in order to feel secure. A vital part of learning in change processes is the support to individuals and groups in gaining emotional understanding of themselves and others. Leaders and managers who often are initiators of change ought to be aware of the importance of emotional support in change processes. If they are not, they are destined to be a part of the confusion and unable to lead or support their staff in change processes.

  7. The Role of Health Care Professionals in Breaking Bad News about Death: the Perspectives of Doctors, Nurses and Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rassin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The way a death is notified to family members has a long-term effect on their coping with their loss. The words caregivers use and the sentiments they express can stay with their hearers for the rest of theirlife. Aims: To study the views of three caregivers groups—doctors, nurses and social workers—as to their role in breaking a death news in an ED.Methods: One hundred and fifteen health care professionals participated in the research (51 nurses, 38 doctors and 26 social workers. They completed a 72-item questionnaire comprising behaviour descriptions, attitudes and statements. Content validation of the questionnaire was conducted by the help of experts group, and the internal reliability, measures in all its parts was 0.78 on average (α = 0.78.Results: Doctors gave a higher score than the other groups to their responsibility for breaking bad news (p<0.005 and to the content of the information they provide. Social workers scored the mental support given the family significantly higher than doctors and nurses did (p<0.000. Nurses scored the instrumental support given(tissues, water to drink significantly higher than doctors and social workers (p<0.000. Breaking bad news caused social workers more mental distress than it did either doctors or nurses. All three groups gave a high score to the emotional exhaustion, sadness and identification this task caused them. Nurses felt more fear at theprospect of a notifying a death and made more effort to escape the task.Conclusions: The findings of the study will help develop performance guidelines for notifying a death and provide input for simulation and other training workshops.

  8. Sources of information on water issues used by local elected policymakers: What role do environmental professionals play?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, N.L.; Berry, K.A.; Stewart, M.J.; Giewat, G.R. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    At all levels of government, the means through which policymakers acquire information about water issues is instrumental to their construction of policy. Sources of education and information shape the scientific, political, economic and social context within which water policy develops. Both the general direction and the specific construction of policy are influenced by the availability, source and perceived reliability of information on water issues. This study examines local policymakers` formal and informal education and use and perception of information sources on water issues. A mail survey was used. Respondents were county commissioners and city council members in select rural, mixed, and urban counties in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. Sources of information examined included private technical and legal experts, local county and city government staff and managers, federal and state agency personnel, colleges and universities, local utilities, private industry, constituents, concerned citizens groups and nonprofit organizations, and print and broadcast media. Respondents were asked about the frequency with which they utilized each source to (1) obtain general information on water issues and (2) assist in making policy decisions. Sources were evaluated in terms of availability, relevancy (useful and timely) and reliability (authoritative and credible). Respondents were also asked to provide information on educational attainment and coursework taken pertaining to water and natural resource policy, law, and management. The results of the survey are used to compare the sources of information most frequently utilized by policymakers coming from differing geographic locales and to identify those information sources perceived to be most available and of the highest quality. The relationship between perceived quality and frequency of use is examined. The role of environmental professionals as sources of information to be used in the policymaking arena is discussed.

  9. The current and future role of the medical oncologist in the professional care for cancer patients: a position paper by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.

  10. Informal caregivers' views on the division of responsibilities between themselves and professionals: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Yvette; Kwekkeboom, Rick; Staaks, Janneke; Verhoeff, Arnoud; de Boer, Alice

    2017-12-18

    This scoping review focuses on the views of informal caregivers regarding the division of care responsibilities between citizens, governments and professionals and the question of to what extent professionals take these views into account during collaboration with them. In Europe, the normative discourse on informal care has changed. Retreating governments and decreasing residential care increase the need to enhance the collaboration between informal caregivers and professionals. Professionals are assumed to adequately address the needs and wishes of informal caregivers, but little is known about informal caregivers' views on the division of care responsibilities. We performed a scoping review and searched for relevant studies published between 2000 and September 1, 2016 in seven databases. Thirteen papers were included, all published in Western countries. Most included papers described research with a qualitative research design. Based on the opinion of informal caregivers, we conclude that professionals do not seem to explicitly take into account the views of informal caregivers about the division of responsibilities during their collaboration with them. Roles of the informal caregivers and professionals are not always discussed and the division of responsibilities sometimes seems unclear. Acknowledging the role and expertise of informal caregivers seems to facilitate good collaboration, as well as attitudes such as professionals being open and honest, proactive and compassionate. Inflexible structures and services hinder good collaboration. Asking informal caregivers what their opinion is about the division of responsibilities could improve clarity about the care that is given by both informal caregivers and professionals and could improve their collaboration. Educational programs in social work, health and allied health professions should put more emphasis on this specific characteristic of collaboration. © 2017 The Authors. Health and Social Care in the

  11. The role of family in educational and professional choices of young people [Rola rodziny w wyborach edukacyjno-zawodowych młodzieży

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula GAŁĘSKA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The world and the surrounding reality are subject to constant and rapid changes. To follow them, it is indispensable for young adults to make proper educational and professional choices. The choices should never be a single, one – try action and due to this young people take advantages of potential support in the selection of studies and, in a longer term, profession. That families influence young adults' educational and professional decisions is indisputable. Therefore, the questions arise: In what way does family affect the choices? What is the role of the family in shaping a young person’s future prefessional career? Theoretical considerations of the topic are a part of this paper and they stand for the basis of practical research on a representative group of Karkonoska Państwowa Szkoła Wyższa in Jelenia Góra students. The analysis of literature and the results of the research will enable up-to-date conclusions on the role of family in educational and professional choices of young adults within the field of education at present, and in a longer term – their professional career.

  12. [Estimation of water clarity in offshore marine areas based on modified semi-analysis spectra model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liu-Sheng; Chen, Shui-Sen; Chen, Xiu-Zhi; Li, Dan; Li, Yong; Sun, Lin; Lu, Chu-Qian; Chen, Wei-Qi

    2014-02-01

    The main objectives of the research described in the present paper are to develop a semi-analysis model of water clarity for case 2 waters without inputting the absorption and scattering coefficient, which are not easy to be obtained for offshore marine areas so far. Based on the Zsd (Secchi depth)inversion theory, a simple semi-analysis spectra model was established for offshore seawater clarity by analyzing the relationship between vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K(d) (490) and the beam attenuation coefficient c(490) with remote sensing reflectance. This semi-analysis spectra model needed two band reflectance ratios on- ly, while tidal correction was produced for this model to improve the precision of the retrieving results. The semi-analysis spectra model was applied to ASD hyperspectral reflectance data measured in the Pearl River Estuary Ecological Zone (October 21, 23, 2012, November 2, 2012; N=20) and the Xuwen Coral Reef Protection Zone (January 13, 14, 2013, N=25) which covered different water body of tidal times and different pollution sources. The results indicated that the changing tendency of predicted values was consistent with the synchronous measurement values after comparing them. However, water clarity calculated by the ASD hyperspectral reflectance measured in spring tidal time, generated 0. 4 m deviation compared with in-situ water clarity, while water clarity calculated by the ASD hyperspectral reflectance measured in neap tidal time is close to the in-situ water clarity. So the tidal correction coefficient of 0.4 was further applied for the model. After modification, the coefficient of determination between the inversed and measured water clarity was 0. 663, the average absolute error was 0. 14 m and the average relative error was 19.5%. Research demonstrated that this semi-analysis inversion algorithm just needs two band reflectance ratio to complete the inversion of water clarity, which is simple and works relatively well for lower

  13. Bringing CLARITY to the human brain: visualization of Lewy pathology in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A K L; Hurry, M E D; Ng, O T W; DeFelice, J; Lai, H M; Pearce, R K B; Wong, G T-C; Chang, R C-C; Gentleman, S M

    2016-10-01

    CLARITY is a novel technique which enables three-dimensional visualization of immunostained tissue for the study of circuitry and spatial interactions between cells and molecules in the brain. In this study, we aimed to compare methodological differences in the application of CLARITY between rodent and large human post mortem brain samples. In addition, we aimed to investigate if this technique could be used to visualize Lewy pathology in a post mortem Parkinson's brain. Rodent and human brain samples were clarified and immunostained using the passive version of the CLARITY technique. Samples were then immersed in different refractive index matching media before mounting and visualizing under a confocal microscope. We found that tissue clearing speed using passive CLARITY differs according to species (human vs. rodents), brain region and degree of fixation (fresh vs. formalin-fixed tissues). Furthermore, there were advantages to using specific refractive index matching media. We have applied this technique and have successfully visualized Lewy body inclusions in three dimensions within the nucleus basalis of Meynert, and the spatial relationship between monoaminergic fibres and Lewy pathologies among nigrostriatal fibres in the midbrain without the need for physical serial sectioning of brain tissue. The effective use of CLARITY on large samples of human tissue opens up many potential avenues for detailed pathological and morphological studies. © 2015 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society.

  14. Automated assessment of diabetic retinal image quality based on clarity and field definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alan D; Philip, Sam; Goatman, Keith A; Olson, John A; Sharp, Peter F

    2006-03-01

    To evaluate the performance of an automated retinal image quality assessment system for use in automated diabetic retinopathy grading. Algorithmic methods have been developed for assessing the quality of 45 degrees single field retinal images for use in diabetic retinopathy screening. For this purpose, image quality was defined by two aspects: image clarity and field definition. An image with adequate clarity was defined as one that shows sufficient detail for automated retinopathy grading. The visibility of the macular vessels was used as an indicator of image clarity, since these vessels are known to be narrow and become less visible with any image degradation. An image with adequate field definition was defined as one that shows the desired field of view for retinopathy grading, including the full 45 degrees field of view, the optic disc, and at least two optic disc diameters of visible retina around the fovea. From 489 patients attending a diabetic retinopathy screening program, 1039 retinal images were obtained. The images were graded by a clinician for image clarity and field definition, with a comprehensive image-quality grading scheme. The sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 100% and 90.9% for inadequate clarity detection, 95.3% and 96.4% for inadequate field definition detection, and 99.1% and 89.4% for inadequate overall quality detection. The automated system performs with sufficient accuracy to form part of an automated diabetic retinopathy grading system.

  15. The role of peer meetings for professional development in health science education : A qualitative analysis of reflective essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub-de Jong, M.A.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Dekker, H.; Verkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The development of professional behaviour is an important objective for students in Health Sciences, with reflective skills being a basic condition for this development. Literature describes a variety of methods giving students opportunities and encouragement for reflection. Although

  16. Chinese Preservice Teachers' Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    .... This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program...

  17. Professional performance in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.

  18. Supporting Novice Special Education Teachers through Quality Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The special education teaching environment is a teaching environment with unique duties that often challenge novice special education teachers. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain clarity of the work environment of special education teachers to uncover professional development practices that would work to support them. Research…

  19. Professionalism in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Homer

    2017-02-01

    Is professionalism in medicine just another bureaucratic imposition on our practice or a fundamental concept for physicians at all stages in their career? In this review, the historical perspectives of professionalism are explored as well as the what, why, and how questions concerning this topic. The key words "professionalism" and "anesthesia" were used to conduct a search of the PubMed database, the policies and publications of relevant Canadian and international physician regulatory bodies and organizations, historical documents, and other internet publications. Professionalism in anesthesia has a long history. While there are many definitions for professionalism, some very dated, all are based on virtues, behaviour, or professional identity. Professionalism plays a central role in the balance between physician autonomy and social contract, and it has a significant impact on patient safety and medicolegal litigation. Considerable evidence exists to suggest that professionalism must be treated seriously, particularly in these times of social accountability and budgetary pressures.

  20. The Effects Of Leadership Styles On Goal Clarity And Fairness Mediated Used Performance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amris Rusli Tanjung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigate the effects of superiors performance evaluation behaviors on subordinates work-related attitudes mediated used performance measure. We used leadership style initiating structure and consideration and performance measure use objective and subjective measures on managerial work related attitudes goal clarity and evaluation fairness. We test our hypotheses using survey data from 56 middle-level managers in 4 services organizations. The results from Structural Equation Model with PLS show that an initiating structure leadership style has significant effect goal clarity and used objective performance measure mediated relationship initiating structure and goal clarity and used subjective performance measure not mediated relationship consideration leadership style and fairness in evaluation. Consideration leadership behavior instead only has a direct impact on fairness in evaluation. These findings have important implications for management accounting research on superiors use of performance measures and provide an explanation of some of the problematic findings in the literature.

  1. A study of entropy/clarity of genetic sequences using metric spaces and fuzzy sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, D N; Karakasidis, T E; Nieto, Juan J; Torres, A

    2010-11-07

    The study of genetic sequences is of great importance in biology and medicine. Sequence analysis and taxonomy are two major fields of application of bioinformatics. In the present paper we extend the notion of entropy and clarity to the use of different metrics and apply them in the case of the Fuzzy Polynuclotide Space (FPS). Applications of these notions on selected polynucleotides and complete genomes both in the I(12×k) space, but also using their representation in FPS are presented. Our results show that the values of fuzzy entropy/clarity are indicative of the degree of complexity necessary for the description of the polynucleotides in the FPS, although in the latter case the interpretation is slightly different than in the case of the I(12×k) hypercube. Fuzzy entropy/clarity along with the use of appropriate metrics can contribute to sequence analysis and taxonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mutual relationships of suspended sediment, turbidity and visual clarity in New Zealand rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Ballantine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many river water quality monitoring programmes do not measure suspended particulate matter (SPM mass concentrations despite significant interest in its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Regular monthly sampling usually intercepts rivers in baseflow when suspended sediment mass concentrations and fluxes are relatively low and not of particular interest. New Zealand’s National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN is probably typical in not measuring SPM mass, although visual clarity and nephelometric turbidity are routinely measured. In order to better characterize SPM in NZ rivers, total suspended sediment (TSS was temporarily added to the NRWQN. Turbidity, visual clarity and TSS are mutually inter-related over all 77 sites, although with considerable data scatter. However, within individual rivers turbidity and visual clarity are typically fairly closely related to TSS and provide fair to excellent surrogates. Therefore, TSS need not be measured routinely because it can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from visibility or turbidity.

  3. Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics: A Call for Conceptual Clarity

    OpenAIRE

    Rochon, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increase in and evolving nature of armed conflicts, the ethical issues faced by military physicians working in such contexts are still rarely examined in the bioethics literature. Military physicians are members of the military, even if they are non-combatants; and their role is one of healer but also sometimes humanitarian. Some scholars wonder about the moral compatibility of being both a physician and soldier. The ethical conflicts raised in the literature regarding military ph...

  4. The Margins as "Third Space": EAP Teacher Professionalism in Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Teachers of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in the Canadian university setting often experience professional marginalization in terms of lack of status, clarity of mandate, or administrative home within their institutions. Despite having broadly benefited the ESL/EAL sector in Canada, traditional trait-focused professionalization efforts have…

  5. Perceptions of primary healthcare professionals towards their role in type 2 diabetes mellitus patient education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodstein Regina CA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study was to analyze the perceptions, knowledge, and practices of primary healthcare professionals in providing patient education to people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A total of 23 health professionals working in primary healthcare units in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, participated in a focus group in order to discuss their patient education practices and the challenges for effective patient education in diabetes self-management. Results The results were categorized as follows: 1 lack of preparation and technical knowledge among the health professionals on some aspects of diabetes mellitus and the health professionals' patient education practices; 2 work conditions and organization; 3 issues related or attributed to the clientele themselves; and 4 diabetes care model. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of reorienting the patient education practices, health professionals' skills and work goals, and evaluation of the educational interventions, in order to establish strategies for health promotion and prevention and control of the disease. Descriptors Health Education; Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus; Primary Healthcare

  6. Disrupting Façades of Clarity in the Teaching and Learning of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Contreras-McGavin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine two methodological façades of clarity that commonly shroud critical qualitative educational inquiry. More specifically, we interrogate discussions of reflexivity and positionality and explore the ways in which methodology curricula and instructional practices perpetuate façades of clarity, or a false sense of coherence, ultimately undermining the transformative potential of critical educational research. We identify specific pedagogical opportunities, spaces, and strategies for dismantling these façades and offer ways to reconstruct methodological practices congruent with the emancipatory and empowering aims of critical scholarship.

  7. PEA-CLARITY: 3D molecular imaging of whole plant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William M; Martin, Antony P; Flynn, Jamie R; Reed, Stephanie L; White, Rosemary G; Furbank, Robert T; Grof, Christopher P L

    2015-09-02

    Here we report the adaptation of the CLARITY technique to plant tissues with addition of enzymatic degradation to improve optical clearing and facilitate antibody probe penetration. Plant-Enzyme-Assisted (PEA)-CLARITY, has allowed deep optical visualisation of stains, expressed fluorescent proteins and IgG-antibodies in Tobacco and Arabidopsis leaves. Enzyme treatment enabled penetration of antibodies into whole tissues without the need for any sectioning of the material, thus facilitating protein localisation of intact tissue in 3D whilst retaining cellular structure.

  8. CLARITY-compatible lipophilic dyes for electrode marking and neuronal tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian HR; Berg, Rune W.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent lipophilic dyes, such as DiI, stain cellular membranes and are used extensively for retrograde/anterograde labeling of neurons as well as for marking the position of extracellular electrodes after electrophysiology. Convenient histological clearing techniques, such as CLARITY, enable...... that are modified to be CLARITY-compatible candidates. We use the challenging adult, myelin-rich spinal cord tissue, which requires prolonged lipid–clearing, of rats and mice. All three dyes remained in the tissue after lipid–clearing, but CM-DiI had the sharpest and FM 1–43FX the strongest fluorescent signal....

  9. Measure of microscopy mineral image clarity constructed using the sequentially combined toggle and top-hat based contrast operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi

    2013-08-01

    Correctly and effectively quantifying the clarity of microscopy mineral image is important and useful to produce clear image for mineral analysis. To well quantify the clarity of mineral image, an effective measure constructed using the sequentially combined toggle and top-hat based contrast operator is proposed in this article. First, the sequentially combined toggle and top-hat based contrast operator is used to extract the effective features which represent the clarity of mineral image. Second, the multiscale clarity features corresponding to each scale are extracted. Finally, after combining the multiscale clarity features in one feature image, the mean value of the feature image is constructed as the measure of mineral image clarity. Because the sequentially combined toggle and top-hat based contrast operator could effectively extract the clarity features, the clarity features are directly used as the measure of image clarity. Therefore, the proposed measure is effective and reasonable. The experimental results on different types of microscopy mineral images verified the effective performance of the proposed measure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Entropy production and generation: Clarity from nanosystems considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2015-06-01

    The interest in designing of nanosystems is continuously growing. In engineering many optimization approaches exist to design macroscopic machines. If these methods could be introduced in the nanosystems designing, a great improvement would be obtained in nanotechnologies. But, it is necessary to obtain a link between classical thermodynamics and nanosystems. The aim of this letter is to obtain a first step towards this link. Some considerations on the role of power, time and non equilibrium temperature are discussed and a link between non equilibrium temperature and macroscopic thermodynamic quantities is suggested. This last result opens to new questions.

  11. Professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  12. The factors influencing young mothers' infant feeding decisions: the views of healthcare professionals and voluntary workers on the role of the baby's maternal grandmother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernie, Kate

    2014-04-01

    Increasing rates of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life is important to ensure that infants achieve "optimal growth, development, and health" and could generate over £40 million in annual savings for the National Health Service. Interventions targeting young mothers are recommended because of low breastfeeding rates. Women's mothers have been identified as potential influences on whether women choose to breastfeed. This study explored health, social, and voluntary care professionals' perceptions of young mothers' attitudes to breastfeeding and the role of maternal grandmothers. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine professionals working with young mothers. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data and identify key themes. Professionals felt that prevalent attitudes among young mothers who bottle fed were that breastfeeding is embarrassing, deviant from the social norm, and detrimental to their social life and relationships but that women understand the health benefits. Grandmothers were identified as important influences on some women, and, in particular, concerns were raised that grandmothers sometimes undermined intentions to breastfeed by offering to bottle feed infants. However, potential problems with involving grandmothers in breastfeeding promotion strategies were identified, and more pressing issues were raised, particularly inadequate postnatal support for young mothers. Professionals recognize grandmothers as an important influence and source of support for many mothers but identified other priorities for interventions, particularly improving the level of support in postnatal care. Their ultimate focus is to build positive relationships with women and empower them to make informed decisions.

  13. An exploration of emotional protection and regulation in nurse-patient interactions: The role of the professional face and the emotional mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Penelope; Glass, Nel

    2015-01-01

    While interpersonal styles of nurse-patient communication have become more relaxed in recent years, nurses remain challenged in emotional engagement with patients and other health professionals. In order to preserve a professional distance in patient care delivery however slight, nurses need to be able to regulate their emotions. This research aimed to investigate nurses' perceptions of emotional protection and regulation in patient care delivery. A qualitative approach was used for the study utilising in-depth semi-structured interviews and researcher reflective journaling. Participants were drawn from rural New South Wales. Following institutional ethics approval 5 nurses were interviewed and reflective journaling commenced. The interviews and the reflective journal were transcribed verbatim. The results revealed that nurses' emotional regulation demonstrated by a 'professional face' was an important strategy to enable delivery of quality care even though it resulted in emotional containment. Such regulation was a protective mechanism employed to look after self and was critical in situations of emotional dissonance. The results also found that nurses experience emotional dissonance in situations where they have unresolved personal emotional issues and the latter was a individual motivator to manage emotions in the workplace. Emotions play a pivotal role within nurse-patient relationships. The professional face can be recognised as contributing to emotional health and therefore maintaining the emotional health of nurses in practice. This study foregrounds the importance of regulating emotions and nurturing nurses' emotional health in contemporary practice.

  14. The integration of Mathematics, Science and Technology in early childhood education and the foundation phase: The role of the formation of the professional identities of beginner teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Botha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the professional identity formation of six beginner teachers (three in early childhood education and three in the foundation phase, involved in the teaching of Mathematics, Science and Technology (MST. Attention is in particular being paid to the role of professional identity in how they applied innovative teaching methods such as enquiry-based teaching. The study is based on the personal narratives of the six teachers, regarding their own learning experiences in MST, the impact of their professional training at an institution of higher education, as well as their first experiences as MST teachers in the workplace. A qualitative research design was applied and data was obtained through visual (photo collages and written stories, observation and interviews. Whilst all the teachers held negative attitudes towards Mathematics, this situation was turned around during their university training. The three teachers in early childhood education experienced their entrance to the profession as positive, due mainly to the support of colleagues in their application of innovative teaching methods. Two teachers in the foundation phase, however, experienced the opposite. The findings emphasise the complex processes in the moulding of a professional teacher identity and how teaching practices are influenced by these processes.

  15. Effects of speech clarity on recognition memory for spoken sentences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin J Van Engen

    Full Text Available Extensive research shows that inter-talker variability (i.e., changing the talker affects recognition memory for speech signals. However, relatively little is known about the consequences of intra-talker variability (i.e. changes in speaking style within a talker on the encoding of speech signals in memory. It is well established that speakers can modulate the characteristics of their own speech and produce a listener-oriented, intelligibility-enhancing speaking style in response to communication demands (e.g., when speaking to listeners with hearing impairment or non-native speakers of the language. Here we conducted two experiments to examine the role of speaking style variation in spoken language processing. First, we examined the extent to which clear speech provided benefits in challenging listening environments (i.e. speech-in-noise. Second, we compared recognition memory for sentences produced in conversational and clear speaking styles. In both experiments, semantically normal and anomalous sentences were included to investigate the role of higher-level linguistic information in the processing of speaking style variability. The results show that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech lead to improved speech recognition in challenging listening conditions and, crucially, to a substantial enhancement in recognition memory for sentences.

  16. Effects of Speech Clarity on Recognition Memory for Spoken Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J.; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research shows that inter-talker variability (i.e., changing the talker) affects recognition memory for speech signals. However, relatively little is known about the consequences of intra-talker variability (i.e. changes in speaking style within a talker) on the encoding of speech signals in memory. It is well established that speakers can modulate the characteristics of their own speech and produce a listener-oriented, intelligibility-enhancing speaking style in response to communication demands (e.g., when speaking to listeners with hearing impairment or non-native speakers of the language). Here we conducted two experiments to examine the role of speaking style variation in spoken language processing. First, we examined the extent to which clear speech provided benefits in challenging listening environments (i.e. speech-in-noise). Second, we compared recognition memory for sentences produced in conversational and clear speaking styles. In both experiments, semantically normal and anomalous sentences were included to investigate the role of higher-level linguistic information in the processing of speaking style variability. The results show that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech lead to improved speech recognition in challenging listening conditions and, crucially, to a substantial enhancement in recognition memory for sentences. PMID:22970141

  17. Journalists' professional identity

    OpenAIRE

    Grubenmann, Stephanie; Meckel, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The internet, and particularly social media, have brought far-reaching change to journalism by calling into question how journalists’ traditional roles are perceived. We introduce social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner 1986) ― specifically the concept of professional identity ― as a complementary approach to study journalistic role conceptions from a dynamic perspective. Building on existing findings in both research streams (professional identity and journalistic role conceptions), we und...

  18. Comparison between the Journalistic Cultures of Switzerland, Spain and Ecuador. The effects of context influences on the journalists’ perception of professional roles and the idea of objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oller Alonso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of worldwide, comparative journalistic culture researches is increasing. More and more, the samples of countries for comparisons are putting No-Western cultures at the center of its enquiry. In this article we analyze the self-perception of professional roles and the idea of objectivity of Swiss, Spanish and Ecuadorian journalists. To study these dimensions we use fieldwork based on in-depth interviews with 70 journalists from 15 media in three countries and multilevel analysis of the context influences. The objective is to determine the journalists’ self-perception of their professional roles and the idea of objectivity as an ideal and method within their contexts. Results show that Spanish journalists tend to have an interventionist roll and are opposed to the government. Swiss journalists tend towards greater passivity and objectivity than Spanish journalists and, even though they do not see themselves as watchdogs, they have a critical position towards the centers of power. And, finally, Ecuadorian journalists believe themselves to be neutral and impartial professionals, feeling that they must inform the citizens, and the objectivity as philosophical concept is not as a goal for their profession.

  19. Exploring the role of classroom-based learning in professional identity formation of family practice residents using the experiences, trajectories, and reifications framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke Y C; Hubinette, Maria M

    2017-08-01

    Classroom-based learning such as academic half day has undervalued social aspects. We sought to explore its role in the professional identity development of family medicine residents. In this case study, residents and faculty from four training sites in the University of British Columbia Department of Family Practice were interviewed. The "experiences, trajectories, and reifications (ETR) framework" was used as a sensitizing tool for modified inductive (thematic) analysis of the transcripts. Classroom-based learning provided a different context for residents' interpretation of their clinical experiences, characterized as a "home base" for rotating urban residents, and a connection to a larger academic community for residents in rural training sites. Both these aspects were important in creating a positive trajectory of professional identity formation. Teaching directed at the learning needs of family physicians, and participation of family practice faculty as teachers and role models was a precipitation of a curriculum "centered in family medicine." Interactions between family medicine residents and faculty in the classroom facilitated the necessary engagements to reify a shared understanding of the discipline of family practice. Classroom-based learning has substantial impact on professional identity formation at an individual and collective level.

  20. The Role of Demographics as Predictors of Successful Performance of Sales Professionals in Business-to-Business Sales Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frino, Michael G.; Desiderio, Katie P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact demographic variables of gender and sales experience have on the performance of business-to-business (B2B) sales professionals. If a deeper understanding can be established of how gender and sales experience variables relate to B2B sales performance, human resource development (HRD) and human…