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Sample records for professional role behaviors

  1. The "Shopping" Behavior of Parents of Mentally Retarded Children: The Professional Person's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathryn A.

    1971-01-01

    Discussed is the role of the professional in preventing or stopping diagnostic and therapeutic shopping (repeated visits to the same or different professionals without resolution of a resolvable problem), with emphasis on the initial informing interview. (KW)

  2. Perceptions of Unprofessional Attitudes and Behaviors: Implications for Faculty Role Modeling and Teaching Professionalism During Pathology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissette, Mark D; Johnson, Kristen A; Raciti, Patricia M; McCloskey, Cindy B; Gratzinger, Dita A; Conran, Richard Michael; Domen, Ronald E; Hoffman, Robert D; Post, Miriam D; Roberts, Cory Anthony; Rojiani, Amyn M; Powell, Suzanne Zein-Eldin

    2017-10-01

    - Changes occurring in medicine have raised issues about medical professionalism. Professionalism is included in the Core Competencies and Milestones for all pathology residents. Previous studies have looked at resident professionalism attitudes and behaviors in primary care but none have looked specifically at pathology. - To examine behavior and attitudes toward professionalism within pathology and to determine how professionalism is taught in residency programs. - Surveys were sent to all College of American Pathologists junior members and all pathology residency program directors, and responses were compared. - Although no single behavior received the same professionalism rating among residents and program directors, both groups identified the same behaviors as being the most unprofessional: posting identifiable patient information or case images to social media, making a disparaging comment about a physician colleague or member of the support staff on social media or in a public hospital space, and missing work without reporting the time off. Faculty were observed displaying most of these behaviors as often or more often than residents by both groups. The most common means to teach professionalism in pathology residencies is providing feedback as situations arise and teaching by example. Age differences were found within each group and between groups for observed behaviors and attitudes. - As teaching by example was identified as a common educational method, faculty must be aware of the role their behavior and attitudes have in shaping resident behavior and attitudes. These results suggest a need for additional resources to teach professionalism during pathology residency.

  3. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals: Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conway, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tobey, D. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greitzer, Frank L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dalton, Angela C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pusey, Portia K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  4. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  5. Medication Information Seeking Behavior in a Social Context: The Role of Lay and Professional Social Network Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Kjos, Pharm.D., Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provided a view of the social context of medication information seeking from a patient’s perspective.This was an exploratory qualitative study with 40 adults to determine how patients communicate within social networks to seek medication information. Semi-structured interviews were used to determine the structure (who, the content provided (what, and the function of social sources of information (how/why. Data underwent ethnographic content analysis using theory and prior research driven themes. Coding matrices were created to identify emerging patterns for who supplied what information and how the information was used. Participants described seeking medication information from health professional or lay social network sources. Health professional sources’ strongest role was to provide factual information. In contrast, lay sources provided factual information and affective information such as personal experiences and beliefs or attitudes. Information sought from social sources displayed similar functioning roles in terms of how the information was used by the participants seeking the information. The study concluded that medication information is sought from social sources both inside and outside of healthcare. Emerging patterns found that lay sources may provide patients more than affective information about medications. Further, patients may be receiving factually based information other than from health professionals. By coming to a more complete understanding of the social nature of the information environment, health professionals can better understand information needs from a patient’s perspective.

  6. Professional Identity and "Intrapreneurial" Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Keith M.

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey that asked library administrators who had demonstrated intrapreneurial behavior to describe themselves as entrepreneurs. The results are presented as profiles of behavioral characteristics and views shared by these individuals. (CLB)

  7. What guides professional behavior of dentists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the question of what guides professional behavior in the hope that those who read it will reflect on how they conduct their relationships with patients, business associates, and employees. I propose that the ADA Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct are only a portion of what guides dentists' ethical behavior. The Principles and Code are founded on basic personal ethics and societal standards, and in the U.S. they are in turn the foundation for the state dental practice acts.

  8. Professional e-government seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with professional e-government seeking behavior. With the digitalization of governments, expectations have been raised with regard to changes in the composition of employee work tasks. The purpose of our study is to determine whether these changes affect seeking...... behavior and if so how they change it. We focus on the status of current seeking behavior in a Danish government administration. The results showed that information needs are commonly verificative and consciously topical and that information seeking most often takes the form of mere “look-ups.” Employees...

  9. Future Professionals: A Study of Sustainable Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Martins Lohn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in an organizational environment involves a form of management that allows attaining a balance between the economic, environmental and social dimensions, and can contribute to the sustainable behavior of employees and administrators. Nevertheless, studies that evaluate sustainable behavior of future professionals using a multidimensional approach to create a scale to measure sustainable behavior of students are relatively rare and there is a need for research in this field. Therefore, the objective of this article is to analyze the sustainable behavior of potential professionals, using the multidimensional approach of item response theory (IRT. A set of 13 items evaluated by specialists and tested by graduate students was applied to 492 undergraduate students from a community university in Southern Brazil in the schools of administration, human resources, accounting, law, civil engineering and biology. The results indicate that the students have higher sustainable behavior in the social dimension and lower in the economic dimension, highlighted by participation in voluntary activities. This result can provide important information to companies, given that in their processes for recruiting and selecting new employees, many have included issues related to sustainable practices, not only from an economic perspective, but particularly from environmental and social perspectives.

  10. Role of Behavior Theory in Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.

    1992-01-01

    Defines behavioral medicine as multidisciplinary field that combines research methods from behavioral and biomedical sciences. Examines the role of behavior theory in behavioral medicine. Uses new advances in basic research on learning to illustrate that findings from behavioral science have implications for the field of contemporary behavioral…

  11. Professionalism and the role of medical colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J; Grigg, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    There has been substantial interest and emphasis on medical professionalism over the past twenty years. This speaks to the history of the medical profession, but increasingly to a broader understanding of the importance of socialisation and professional identity formation. A literature review was undertaken of professionalism and the role of professions and medical professional organisations. A key outcome has been the recognition that medical professionalism must be actively taught and assessed. Substantial effort is required to improve the educational environment, so that it nurtures the development of professionalism within the work-place. Although medical colleges have been prominent in identifying and progressing the recent developments within professionalism there is still much to be done to deliver fully on the societal contract between the public and the profession. There are key gaps to address, particularly with regards to self-regulation, civil behaviour and effective leadership and advocacy. Medical colleges need to take direct responsibility for the professionalism of their members. The expectations of the community are increasingly clear in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress from Role Conflict: Consequences for Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ex-post facto data collected from 600 teachers and 2400 senior secondary two students from Cross River State were analyzed to determine the influence of stress arising from role conflict on professional effectiveness. One hypothesis was tested using One-Way Analysis of Variance. The result of the data analyses ...

  13. Behavioral Ratings of Health Professionals' Interactions with the Geriatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports the reliability and validity of the Health Professional-Geriatric Patient Interaction Behavior Rating Code, an observational instrument that is used to quantify the interpersonal behaviors of health professionals in the care of the geriatric patient. Condensed 15 behavioral factors into 10 operationally defined behavioral categories.…

  14. Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byszewski Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was

  15. Wanted: role models--medical students' perceptions of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Hendelman, Walter; McGuinty, Caroline; Moineau, Geneviève

    2012-11-15

    Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA). Chi-square and Fischer's exact test (for cell count less than 5) were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship). Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to "celebrate" professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions. Students

  16. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  17. Professional Identity and Coping Behaviors in Dual-Career Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Gloria W.; Schnurman-Crook, Abrina

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study of 15 dual-career couples examines the connection between partners' professional identity and coping behaviors implemented in response to work and family stressors. The analysis provided evidence that dual-career couples enact professional and family identities that rely on being competent and responsible in both work and…

  18. Public Relations: Roles, Entry Requirements and Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Dwi Cahaya Putra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper attempts to describe that there is a chance for non-Public Relations graduates to work as or at the Public Relations industry. Studies have shown that Public Relations practitioners are mostly from generalist background (not Public Relations and even come into the job by chance. A Public Relations is a very sociable person, possess a mix of functional, managerial and negotiating abilities as well as analytical and well-developed communication and understand people and human psychology. With working roles of Expert Prescriber, Communication Facilitator, Problem Solving Facilitator and Communication Technician, a Public Relations needs to be well prepared by learning foreign language, joining personality improvement course, developing networking and understanding computer and communication technology. Areas of where a Public relations works are in-house (organization/company, consultancy and freelance practitioner having various titles showing their main function in the organization such as public affairs, event manager, community relations manager, marketing communication executive, employee relations manager, corporate communications manager, media coordinator. As there is an increased challenge of Public Relations’s professionalism, a true practitioner is best prepared by educational institutions with lecturers having sound education and practice combined with extensive link-and -match research and industrial-practical placement for the graduates.

  19. Cross-validation of an instrument for measuring professionalism behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Katherine A; Stanke, Luke D; Rabi, Suzanne M; Kuba, Sarah E; Janke, Kristin K

    2011-11-10

    To cross-validate an instrument to measure behavioral aspects of professionalism in pharmacy students using a rating scale that minimizes ceiling effects. Seven institutions collaborated to create a 33-item assessment tool that included 5 domains of professionalism: (1) Reliability, Responsibility and Accountability; (2) Lifelong Learning and Adaptability; (3) Relationships with Others; (4) Upholding Principles of Integrity and Respect; and (5) Citizenship and Professional Engagement. Each item was rated based on 5 levels of competency which were aligned with a modified Miller's Taxonomy (Knows, Knows How, Shows, Shows How and Does, and Teaches). Factor analyses confirmed the presence of 5 domains for professionalism. The factor analyses from the 7-school pilot study demonstrated that professionalism items were good fits within each of the 5 domains. Based on a multi-institutional pilot study, data from the Professionalism Assessment Tool (PAT), provide evidence for internal validity and reliability. Use of the tool by external evaluators should be explored in future research.

  20. Professional nurses' perception of their clinical teaching role at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four themes representing the perceptions of the professional nurses emerged in the analysis: (i) the clinical teaching role; (ii) the complexities of clinical teaching; (iii) learners have their issues; and (iv) making it work. Conclusion. Professional nurses understand and appreciate their educational role in the development of ...

  1. A Definition of Gender Role Conflict among Black Professional Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ora

    2011-01-01

    There is very little literature that depicts the parental role of Black professional fathers positively or that samples Black participants from the upper economic strata. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how Black professional fathers experience or perceive gender role conflict and identify clinical implications. Grounded in…

  2. Teaching and Maintaining Ethical Behavior in a Professional Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Brodhead, Matthew T.; Higbee, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to continuing education mandates by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), behavior-analytic professional organizations may adopt systems that teach and maintain ethical behavior in its employees. Systems of ethical supervision and management may allow for an organization to customize training that prevents ethical misconduct by employees. These systems may also allow supervisors to identify ethical problems in their infancy, allowing the organization to mitigate concern...

  3. EXECUTIVES' BEHAVIOR TYPES AND PROFESSIONAL OF SECRETARIAT'S ATTITUDE

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    Rosane Fontanella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available After the technological revolution and globalization, many professions have had an up and, consequently, they were forced to adapt to the new reality. Within this new reality, the profile of the secretarial professional evolved and developed a path of struggles and victories, changing significantly. With the change it also increased the responsibilities and challenges. Playing purely operational functions, the professional of secretarial began to think and act strategically with their executives, engaging in projects and goals and also meeting these goals. This paper shows how professionals can perform secretarial duties and manage its function to assist executives with very different behavioral types. It indicates the position that secretarial professionals need to adopt towards these types of behavior and the use of elements of Emotional Intelligence and Social Intelligence can help creating a friendly atmosphere where everyone can live in harmony.

  4. Shiraz medical students’ perceptions of their colleagues’ professional behavior

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    MEHRDAD ASKARIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, development of professionalism is a critical aim of medical schools. Studies have demonstrated that medical students’ perceived level of professionalism is inadequate worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the medical students’ perceptions of their colleagues’ professional behavior. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study with 280 medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in their fifth to seventh year of study as the sample. The study was performed during one month in 2013, using stratified random sampling method. The instrument of the study was the Persian version of the questionnaire of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM.The questionnaire includes demographic information, questions about the meaning of the professionalism, history of medical ethics education programs and 12 behavioral questions. The data were analyzed using student t-test and Pearson correlation test. The significance level was set as 0.05. Results: Forty percent of respondents did not know the meaning of professionalism. The mean±SD score of behavioral questions was 5.91±1.2 on a scale from 0 to 10. The mean±SD score of excellence questions was 4.94±1.7. It was 7.05±1.9 for ‘honor/integrity’, and 6.07±2.1 for ‘altruism/respect’ questions. There was a significant association between gender and excellence score (p=0.007. Conclusion: Medical students assessed their colleagues’ professional behavior as poor. They did not have proper information about professionalism. Medical students are future general practitioners and respecting medical ethics by them is very important in a perfect health system. Universities should emphasize the importance of teaching professionalism to medical students and faculty members, using innovative education methods.

  5. The psychological boundary of nurses separating professional and maternal roles

    OpenAIRE

    Laušmanová, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Author: Alexandra Laušmanová Institute: Institute of social medicine FM CU in Hradec Králové Nursing department Title: The Psychological Boundary of Nurses separating Professional and Maternal Roles Supervisor: Bc. Eva Prchalová Number of pages: 131 Number of attachments: 4 Year of defense: 2007 Keywords: psychological boundary, social role, family, child needs, psychological strain on nurses, work conditions of nurses, realistic options in compatibility of professional and parent role This b...

  6. Information Technology Professionals as Collaborative Change Agents: A Case Study from Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Linda; Marion, David

    1998-01-01

    Highlights a case study from behavioral health care and focuses on the information technology professional's role as change agent. Discusses commercial applications, a conflict of cultures, dissemination and training interventions, and technological evolution and adaptation. Describes six steps for change agents' promotion of innovation and…

  7. Board Certified Behavior Analysts and Related Ethical and Professional Practice Considerations for Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Anthony L.; Mayton, Michael R.; Yurick, Amanda L.

    2017-01-01

    When rural school districts employ Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) to assist in meeting the needs of students with disabilities, it is important that they be aware of the ethical and professional guidelines to which BCBAs are required to adhere. This article describes the role of these guidelines within the practice of BCBAs and presents…

  8. Professional behaviors, sense of belonging, and professional socialization of early career clinical laboratory scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Janna Marie

    Professional socialization is a process that individuals experience as members of a profession and consists of the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences that influence and shape their professional identity. The process of professional socialization has not been studied in the clinical laboratory science profession. Clinical laboratory science is an allied health profession that is faced by a workforce shortage that has been caused by a decrease in new graduates, decreased retention of qualified professionals, and increased retirements. Other allied health professions such as nursing, athletic training, and pharmacy have studied professional socialization as a way to identify factors that may influence the retention of early career professionals. This mixed method study, which quantitatively used Hall's Professionalism Scale (1968) in addition to qualitative focus group interviews, sought to identify the professional attitudes and behaviors, sense of belonging, and professional socialization of early career clinical laboratory scientists. Early career clinical laboratory scientists were divided into two groups based upon the amount of work experience they had; new clinical laboratory science graduates have had less than one year of work experience and novice clinical laboratory scientists had between one and three years of work experience. This study found that early career clinical laboratory scientists have established professional identities and view themselves as members of the clinical laboratory science field within four proposed stages of professional socialization consisting of pre-arrival, encounter, adaptation, and commitment. New CLS graduates and novice clinical laboratory scientists were found to be at different stages of the professional stage process. New CLS graduates, who had less than one year of work experience, were found to be in the encounter stage. Novice clinical laboratory scientists, with one to three years of work experience, were found to

  9. The Role of Health Literacy in Professional Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoory, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This chapter marks the territory and leadership potential found in research, practice and policy related to the role of health literacy in higher education and professional training. There is limited published work that has summarized the role and scope of health literacy in higher education and professional training. This chapter will provide a review of the research in the area, a description of some of the educational practices in health literacy, and a case example of how policy might influence the role of health literacy in professional higher education.

  10. The Changing Roles Professional Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Hermansen-Baez; N. Wulff

    2010-01-01

    As populations and urbanization expand in the Southern United States, human influences on forests and other natural areas are increasing. As a result, natural resource professionals are faced with complex challenges, such as managing smaller forest parcels for multiple benefits, and wildfire prevention and management in the wildland-urban interface (areas where urban...

  11. Gender Role Conflict, Professional Role Confidence, and Intentional Persistence in Engineering Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…

  12. Understanding Pica Behavior: A Review for Clinical and Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Lillian N.

    2005-01-01

    Pica is defined as the compulsive, recurrent consumption of nonnutritive items. Pica behavior often occurs in individuals with developmental disabilities; therefore, education and clinical professionals may be required to participate in various aspects of management, including identification, assessment, and treatment. This article will discuss…

  13. Professional practice leadership roles: the role of organizational power and personal influence in creating a professional practice environment for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankshear, Sara; Kerr, Michael S; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Professional practice leadership (PPL) roles are those roles responsible for expert practice, providing professional leadership, facilitating ongoing professional development, and research. Despite the extensive implementation of this role, most of the available literature focuses on the implementation of the role, with few empirical studies examining the factors that contribute to PPL role effectiveness. This article will share the results of a research study regarding the role of organizational power and personal influence in creating a high-quality professional practice environment for nurses. Survey results from nurses and PPLs from 45 hospitals will be presented. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model and relationships between the key variables of interest. Results indicate that there is a direct and positive relationship between PPL organizational power and achievement of PPL role functions, as well as an indirect, partially mediated effect of PPL influence tactics on PPL role function. There is also a direct and positive relationship between PPL role functions and nurses' perceptions of their practice environment. The evidence generated from this study highlights the importance of organizational power and personal influence as significantly contributing to the ability of those in PPL roles to achieve desired outcomes. This information can be used by administrators, researchers, and clinicians regarding the factors that can optimize the organizational and systematic strategies for enhancing the practice environment for nursing and other health care professionals.

  14. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department: a comparative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interventions and the mechanisms driving behavior change. In this study, applied behavior analysis is used to analyze the function and impact of different behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork. Methods A comparative case study design was applied. Two sections of an emergency department implemented multi-professional teamwork involving changes in work processes, aimed at increasing inter-professional collaboration. Behavior change interventions and staff behavior change were studied using observations, interviews and document analysis. Using a hybrid thematic analysis, the behavior change interventions were categorized according to the DCOM® model. The functions of the behavior change interventions were then analyzed using applied behavior analysis. Results The two sections used different behavior change interventions, resulting in a large difference in the degree of staff behavior change. The successful section enabled staff performance of teamwork behaviors with a strategy based on ongoing problem-solving and frequent clarification of directions. Managerial feedback initially played an important role in motivating teamwork behaviors. Gradually, as staff started to experience positive outcomes of the intervention, motivation for teamwork behaviors was replaced by positive task-generated feedback. Conclusions The functional perspective of applied behavior analysis offers insight into the behavioral mechanisms that describe how and why behavior

  15. Professionals' Experiences of the Relations between Personal History and Professional Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Per-Einar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how workers in a crisis resolution home treatment (CRHT) team experience the relationship between their personal history and professional role. This paper is based on 13 in-depth interviews with health professionals working in CRHT. The interviews were analysed using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Participants expressed that there is a relationship between their personal history and professional role, and three themes are highlighted as particularly important in, namely experiences related to the participants as individuals, work-related experiences and family-related experiences. The participants write meaning into the relationship between their personal history and professional role. By relating and exploring their own life stories in the interviews, they work on forming meaning and identity. PMID:23589772

  16. Literature Suggests Information Professionals Have Adopted New Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin E. Miller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide a systematic review of the emerging or newly adopted roles of information professionals, over the past 14 years, as described in the Library and Information Science (LIS professional literature. Design – Systematic review of the literature. Setting – Databases featuring information science content, including ACM Digital Library, Library, Information Science and Technology Abstracts (LISTA, Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA, Citeseer, Google Scholar, e-prints in Library and Information Science (e-LiS, Digital Library of Information Science and Technology (DLIST, Scopus, and Science Direct. The database Library Literature & Information Science Index was not included. Subjects – Through a systematic literature search, the authors identified 114 peer-reviewed studies published between 2000-2014. Methods – The authors searched selected databases using the terms “librarian/s role” and “information professional/s role” to collect literature about the roles of information professionals. The authors searched the selected databases in two phases. The initial search yielded 600 search results and the authors included 100 articles about “roles” information professionals have adopted. The authors excluded articles focused on specific positions, health and medical libraries, librarians’ professional skills, and development of specific programs or initiatives within libraries. In the second phase of searching, the authors refined search terms to include phrases specifically related to the roles identified in the 100 articles initially included in the review. There were 48 articles identified in the second search and 14 were included in the final pool of articles. The authors also cross-checked the references of all included literature. Main Results – The authors identified six roles of information professionals described in the literature during the review period. The role of “embedded librarian

  17. Ethics of caring and professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jens Erik

    2011-03-01

    Normative discussions about modern health care often revolve around principles stating what must not be done or how to ration scarce resources in the name of justice. These are important discussions. However, in order to have an impact on clinical roles, ethical reflection must be able to describe and address the complexities and challenges of modern nursing and doctoring, and maybe even the patient role. A multi-principled approach, such as the one suggested by Beauchamp and Childress, can obviously address almost any such issue, but a great deal of translation is often required in order to address role-related issues. I shall here argue that an ethics of caring is better suited to grasping the big picture when the question is how to create value-informed clinical roles in an era of rapid development.

  18. Supporting band 5 practitioners in professional and leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kathleen; Morrow, Karen

    2015-10-07

    Interest in professionalism and leadership has increased within the nursing and midwifery community. The NHS Lanarkshire Practice Development Centre established a study day on these concepts for band 5 practitioners. This formed part of NHS Lanarkshire's implementation of Scotland's nursing and midwifery leadership development strategy, Leading Better Care. The aims of the study day were to reinforce individual professional responsibility, promote the principles of professionalism and explore the concept of leadership in the band 5 role. This article reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of the study day.

  19. Alcohol use and health behavior among nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Marcelle Aparecida de Barros; Ferreira, Maria Cristina de Moura; Soares, Gabriel Terêncio; Brito, Isadora Eufrásio de; Pires, Priscilla Larissa Silva; Santos, Manoel Antônio Dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2017-11-27

    To evaluate the problematic use of alcohol and health behavior among the nursing staff of a general hospital. Cross-sectional study conducted at a general hospital. A questionnaire with socio-demographic information, the alcohol and substance use screening test, and a questionnaire on health behavior were applied. A total of 416 professionals participated in the study. In the final model of logistical regression, male professionals (OR 4.3), singles (OR 3.7), those that professed to having other religions (OR 3.8), worked as nursing technician (OR 2.3), did not consume low doses of alcoholic beverages per day (OR 2.0), used tobacco (OR 8.9), avoided consuming beverages with caffeine (OR 1.9) and avoided noisy environments (OR 2.0) showed higher chances of consuming alcohol at a problematic level. Among nursing professionals, the use of alcohol and not engaging in health behavior are strongly associated. These findings have implications for the implementation of strategies for the promotion of health and the prevention of alcohol use in work relationships.

  20. Fostering professionalism among doctors: the role of workplace discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Deborah; Griffin, Ann; Launer, John

    2014-10-01

    The professionalism of doctors has come in for increasing scrutiny and discussion, within the profession and in society. Professionalism has also become of central interest in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. There is a great deal of debate about the nature of medical professionalism, how to promote it and what approaches to learning are most effective. This study aims to identify the role of workplace-based discussion groups in encouraging and supporting the development of professionalism among doctors. Workplace-based discussion groups including doctors from all non-consultant grades and specialties were established in five hospitals over a 6 month period in 2010-2011. A mixed-methods approach was used to identify the perceived impact of these groups on participants, which included interviewing the group facilitators and education leaders at participating hospitals. Understanding of professionalism at an individual level was improved along with an increased awareness of the collective nature of professionalism in everyday clinical practice. Key to the success of the groups was the creation of a legitimate space to explore professionalism and professional challenges and the use of experienced facilitators who could build trust in the groups. A purely individualistic approach to professionalism does not resonate with contemporary, team-based healthcare. Work-based groups can provide a focus for an approach to professionalism that is mindful of self, the team, the culture and the organisation. This evaluation provides guidance to a range of stakeholders on how to develop educational interventions that foster professionalism, personal and collective, and offers some pointers towards the range of factors that may impact on the outcomes of such activities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. The impact of health care professionals' service orientation on patients' innovative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrike, Hannemann-Weber; Schultz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of medical information and the rising relevance of patient communities drive the active role of health consumers in health care processes. Patients become experts on their disease and provide valuable stimuli for novel care solutions. Medical encounters evolve toward a more collaborative health care service process, where patients are accepted as equal partners. However, the patient's active role depends on the interaction with the involved health care professionals. The aim of this article is to examine whether the service orientation of health care professionals and their proactive and adaptive work behavior and the extent of shared goals within the necessary interdisciplinary health professional team influence patients' innovative behavior. We address six rare diseases and use interview and survey data to test theoretically derived hypotheses. The sample consists of 86 patients and their 160 health care professionals. Sixty patients provided additional information via interviews. Patients' innovative behavior is reflected by the number of generated ideas as well as the variety of ideas. The service orientation of work teams plays an important role in the innovation process of patients. As hypothesized, the extent of shared goals within the health care teams has a direct effect on patients' idea generation. Work adaptivity and proactivity and shared goals both reinforce the positive effect of service orientation. Furthermore, significant associations between the three independent variables and the second outcome variable of patient's idea variety are confirmed. The study underlines (1) the important role of patients within health care service innovation processes, (2) the necessity of a service-oriented working climate to foster the development of innovative care solutions for rare diseases, and (3) the need for an efficient cooperation and open mindset of health care professionals to motivate and support patient innovation.

  2. Sexual behavior and job stress in software professionals, Bengaluru - India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Giridhara R; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Detels, Roger

    2013-05-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are now gradually affecting the general population groups increasingly. Our earlier observations from qualitative research called for an effort to understand the sexual exposure, activity and behavior of the workers in these software professionals in Bengaluru, India. The current study is explored to understand the association of the sexual behaviors with Job. The study design employed was a cross-sectional study using a mixed sampling method. A total of 1071 subjects from software sector in Bengaluru, the capital city of Karnataka completed the self-administered questionnaire. The source population comprised all information technology/information technology enabled services (IT/ITES) professionals aged 20-59 years working in "technical functions" in 21 selected worksites (units) of the software industry. The exposure of interest was job stressors and the outcome measures were sexual behaviors in the form of having multiple sexual partners, paid sex in last 3 months and frequency of intercourse with irregular sexual partners and condom use with regular partners during last sexual act. Among the study population, 74.3% reported not using a condom during their last vaginal intercourse with their regular partner. Regression estimates indicated that workers with high physical stressors had 6 times odds of having paid for sex in last 3 months and those with a moderate level of income related stress had 2.4 times likelihood of not using a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their regular partner. There is scope for starting prevention programs among young professionals in the IT/ITES sector to mitigate their possible risk behaviors.

  3. Motivations and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of sexuality professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Mijal; Byers, E Sandra; Voyer, Susan D; Mock, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the motivations for entering the field and sexual attitudes, experiences, and behavior of an international group of sexuality professionals. Participants were 252 individuals attending the XVII World Congress of Sexology who completed a questionnaire in English, Spanish or French. Most participants' reported professional rather than personal motivations for entering the field in addition to interest. On average, participants reported little sexual communication with their parents as children. About one-third had experienced unwanted sexual activity as a child. Participants were mostly accepting of a range of sexual activities, although they were less accepting of some behaviors than of others. Twelve of the participants who had engaged in sexual activity with a casual or anonymous partner in the previous 2 years had not used a condom consistently. Participants reported high sexual satisfaction and good sexual communication with their partner. Nevertheless, 45% of the women and 35% of the men reported regularly experiencing one or more sexual problems. Few participants reported that their profession affected their sexual functioning negatively; in contrast most reported that it had positive effects on their sexual functioning. These results suggest that there are few differences between sexuality professionals and the general public.

  4. Professional qualification in Social Education: the role of the Practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pereira Dominguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role to be performed by the Practicum in the training of social workers. For this purpose we have done a brief tour around the different criteria that have supported the professional development of social education and academic training. It offers thus an epistemological revision has its initial motivation in the need identified in several research projects in which we have participated in over the selection of studies in the early stages of post-compulsory education and compulsory secondary. The analysis of the different actors involved in the process of professionalization of social education and the importance of certain skills, lead us to propose a Practicum able to provide a framework for reflection on professional practices in a learning coordinated context, interdisciplinary and professionalism.

  5. International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) position statement: the role of the professional medical writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Robert; Bowman, Aly; Fagan, Jean M; Gallagher, Eileen R; Geraci, Anna B; Gertel, Art; Hirsch, Laurence; Ross, Philip D; Stossel, Thomas P; Veitch, Keith; Woods, David

    2007-08-01

    The International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) is an independent, nonprofit professional association with members from the pharmaceutical, medical device, and biotechnology industries; publication planning and medical communications companies; academia; and medical journal staffs, including editors and publishers. ISMPP's mission is to support the educational needs of medical publication professionals by providing a forum to facilitate awareness and development of best practices in publication planning and implementation, and fostering consensus policies related to medical publishing. This position statement reflects our concern about the current climate of mistrust regarding the use of professional medical writers in the preparation of manuscripts. We acknowledge the skills and training of medical writing professionals and support their role in working with research teams to develop clear and concise manuscripts in a timely fashion. Further, we support complete and transparent disclosure of the role of the medical writer and the source of funding for the writing initiative in order to build awareness of, and trust in, the appropriate use of medical writing professionals. ISMPP endorses use of the contributorship model, which offers detailed information on the roles of all who participated in planning, conducting, developing, and publishing medical research. Further, we propose that this model be integrated into the standard operating procedures of the diverse organizations that comprise our membership because the responsibility for authorship disclosure is shared by sponsors, authors, study investigators, and medical writers. Finally, we commend the many organizations that have worked to increase recognition and understanding of the legitimate role of the medical writer, and are eager to work in concert with them to ensure the rigorous maintenance of all ethical standards for reporting the results of medical research.

  6. Assessor or mentor? Role confusion in professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lucy; Nettleton, Peggy

    2007-11-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of a multi-professional study involving nursing, medicine and midwifery, which aimed to investigate both mentee and mentor perceptions of the mentorship role and the context within which it is conducted. It is well recognised that mentorship plays a vital part in the support and training of healthcare professionals. Documentation published by regulatory bodies regarding the mentorship role and changes in it's implementation in practice has resulted in confusion among practitioners. This study consisted of questionnaires and semi-structured telephone interviews with both mentors and mentees, within three healthcare professions and focuses on the responses from the nursing profession. The mentors participating in the study struggled with their dual role as assessor and mentor and found conflict within this responsibility. The role of assessor was poorly recognised and the complexity of being both an assessor and a supporter/friend is discussed.

  7. The Role of the District Administration within Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, James; Martin, Barbara N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to examine the role of the superintendent in assessing the readiness for change in the implementation and support for Professional Learning Communities. The study findings revealed four major themes. They were: (1) the changing dynamics of leadership; (2) a sense of collective efficacy and responsibility…

  8. Multiple Roles of Specialized Literacy Professionals: The ILA 2017 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Rita M.; Kern, Diane; Griffith, Robin; Lacina, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This article compares the ILA 2017 Standards for preparing specialized literacy professionals with the 2010 Standards. The authors also describe levels of emphases for each specialized literacy role and implications of the new Standards for those serving in the field and for those who prepare them.

  9. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  10. The Role of Open and Distance Learning in Promoting Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Open and Distance Learning in Promoting Professional Training and Development in Tanzania. A Case Study of The Open University Tanzania. ... Hence, they opt for ODL institution as a medium of knowledge transmission, since they can benefit from the flexibility that it offers. In the course of this study, the ...

  11. Faculty role modeling of professional writing: one baccalaureate nursing program's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Sarah E

    2008-01-01

    According to The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 1998), professional writing is an important outcome of baccalaureate nursing education. Most baccalaureate nursing programs in the United States expect formally written student papers to adhere to the style requirements outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2001). It is essential for the baccalaureate nursing faculty members who evaluate student papers to be role models for the desired writing behaviors to facilitate student attainment of professional writing outcomes. However, to what extent nursing faculty members' writing behaviors and knowledge of the APA style requirements impact student writing outcomes is not known because the issue has not been addressed in the literature. The purpose of this article is to describe one Midwestern baccalaureate nursing program's faculty development efforts to assess faculty familiarity with the APA style requirements and how such knowledge may impact baccalaureate nursing students' writing outcomes.

  12. The Role of Natural Resource Professionals in Addressing Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorna B. Allred

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource professionals, ranging from forest managers and educators to floodplain managers, play a critical role in implementing and conducting outreach with regards to climate mitigation and adaptation appropriate to local and regional scales. Natural resource professionals can also pave the way by adopting actions that serve as demonstrations of efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions or adapt natural systems for the future. A web survey of 1488 natural resource professionals across New York State (NYS was conducted to assess their attitudes toward climate change, views toward climate change mitigation and adaptation priorities, actions taken to address climate change, and barriers faced as they relate to their professional responsibilities. The majority of natural resource professionals believe that climate change is happening, but there was slightly less agreement about human causes of climate change. Most natural resource professionals (69% see evidence of how climate change is impacting natural resources in NYS, but few (17% believed that there was sufficient information about how to address climate impacts at the local level. Nearly 60% of natural resources professionals undertook climate mitigation or adaptation actions in their work. Prominent influencing factors for action were proactive leadership and local impacts. Barriers to taking action on climate change were a lack of human and financial resources, the nature of costs relative to benefits, and lack of perceived threat. As managers and educators responsible for local water, land, and wildlife resources, natural resource professionals witness changes resulting from climate change first-hand. This paper will be useful to decision-makers at state and federal government levels regarding policies, incentives, and guidance that can be created with the goal of promoting a sound natural resource strategy in support of climate change readiness.

  13. Association of health professional leadership behaviors on health promotion practice beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jacqueline D; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Attoh, Prince; D'Abundo, Michelle; Gong, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Leadership is a process by which an individual influences a group or individual to achieve a common goal, in this case health promotion for individuals with disabilities. (1) To examine the association between the transformational leadership behaviors of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) network professionals and their practice beliefs about health promotion activities, specifically cardiovascular fitness and healthy weight, for people with disabilities. (2) To determine if discipline and/or years of practice moderate the association between transformational leadership behaviors and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. There is a positive association between transformational leadership behaviors and health professionals practice beliefs regarding health promotion activities for persons with disabilities. A quantitative cross-sectional web-based survey design was used to determine the association between leadership behaviors and practices beliefs regarding health promotion for people with disabilities. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and an adapted version of the Role of Health Promotion in Physical Therapy Survey were used to measure leadership and practice beliefs, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the association of leadership behaviors with health promotion practice beliefs variables. Transformational leadership behaviors of the AUCD network professionals were positively associated with health promotion practice beliefs about cardiovascular fitness for people with disabilities. Years post licensure and discipline did not moderate the association between transformational leadership and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. Transformational leadership may facilitate health professionals' health promotion practices for people with disabilities. Further research and training in leadership is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. THE PROFESSIONAL ROLE OF TEACHER OF EDUCATION FOR FAMILY LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zellma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers of education for family life take all sorts of forms of professional activity in school. The activities are an important component of teachers’ professional role. They arise, among others, from applicable laws, professional obligations, curriculum assumptions in particular types of schools and social expectations. However, personal characteristics as well as professional qualifications and competence are of great importance. These factors determine the quality of professional activity of the teacher of education for family life. By analyzing the issue mentioned in the title of this thesis, attention was drawn to the rights and obligations of teachers of education for life in the family that relate to teaching, upbringing, prevention and care. Reference is made at the same time to the existing educational documents and curriculum assumptions. This made it possible to indicate what the proper fulfillment of teaching, educational-preventive and caring tasks of the teacher of education for life in the family depends on. It has been proved that regardless of the changes taking place in the socio-cultural realities, the needs and interests of students and the expectations of parents, teachers of education for life in the family is required to take fair and responsible participation in the issues relating to marriage and family. He also has to support his students in the integral development and shape social and moral attitudes based on universal moral and social values.

  15. Ethnic identity and mentoring among Latinas in professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzáles-Figueroa, Evelyn; Young, Angela M

    2005-08-01

    This study examined ethnic identity and mentoring (a known strategy to promote career success and advancement) in a sample of 103 Latina women with professional roles in the areas of business, academia, policy, and politics. Other variables examined included traditional gender roles and perceptions of professional success. Findings indicated that the women's ethnic identity was consistent with a bicultural profile; some received mentoring and, if given a choice, would prefer to be mentored by someone of similar ethnicity. This finding is critical and can allow researchers, service providers, and policy developers to apply culturally responsive strategies in communities and in organizations. Other hypotheses were not supported. A discussion of the findings, implications, and suggestions for future research are presented. (c) 2005 APA

  16. Organizational climate: Comparing private and public hospitals within professional roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the organizational climate differences within professional roles in private and public hospitals. We focused on how physicians, administrative, healthcare and non-healthcare staff either in the public or in the private perceived their work environment and each organizational climate dimension. Data came from organizational-climate questionnaires administered in 2010 and 2012 to 19616 and 1276 health employees in public and private hospitals in the Tuscany Region respectively. We applied exploratory factoranalysis to verify the validity and internal consistency between items in the questionnaire and t-test, one-way analysis of variance to compare mean perceptions regarding to the dimensions across different groups of respondents. We measured four dimensions: “training opportunities”, “managerial tools”, “organization” and “management & leadership style” and overall job satisfaction. Hospital status in the professional roles was found significant in the staff's perceptions (p≤0.05.

  17. The Role of the Professional Accountants in Business Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Ionescu

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades the role of the accountant became very important not only for corporate or public entities, but also for small business. The consequences of the financial crisis of 2008 reveal the role of professional accountants in businss administration and the importance of accounting for the modern society. In my oppinion, accounting profession contribute to transparency in financial reporting system and may improve the business comunication.This research is based on the analysis of t...

  18. Geoethics and the Role of Professional Geoscience Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.; Palka, J. M.; Geissman, J. W.; Mogk, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Codes of Ethics (Conduct) for geoscientists are formulated primarily by professional societies and the codes must be viewed in the context of the Goals (Missions, Values) of the societies. Our survey of the codes of approximately twenty-five societies reveals that most codes enumerate principles centered on practical issues regarding professional conduct of individuals such as plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification, and the obligation of individuals to the profession and society at large. With the exception of statements regarding the ethics of peer review, there is relatively little regarding the ethical obligations of the societies themselves. In essence, the codes call for traditionally honorable behavior of individual members. It is striking, given that the geosciences are largely relevant to the future of Earth, most current codes of societies fail to address our immediate obligations to the environment and Earth itself. We challenge professional organizations to consider the ethical obligations to Earth in both their statements of goals and in their codes of ethics. Actions by societies could enhance the efforts of individual geoscientists to serve society, especially in matters related to hazards, resources and planetary stewardship. Actions we suggest to be considered include: (1) Issue timely position statements on topics in which there is expertise and consensus (some professional societies such as AGU, GSA, AAAS, and the AMS, do this regularly, yet others not at all.); (2) Build databases of case studies regarding geoethics that can be used in university classes; (3) Hold interdisciplinary panel discussions with ethicists, scientists, and policy makers at annual meetings; (4) Foster publication in society journals of contributions relating to ethical questions; and (5) Aggressively pursue the incorporation of geoethical issues in undergraduate and graduate curricula and in continuing professional development.

  19. Roles for Information professionals in patient education: Librarians' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. MacDonald

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Through an examination of librarians’ contributions to the PEPTalk research project, this article highlights roles for information professionals at various stages in the design and clinical implementation of an information system that delivers patient education. The Personal Education Plan (PEPTalk was a collaborative, multi-disciplinary research project (2005-2006 based at the University Health Network’s Princess Margaret Hospital that designed an information system to provide web-based health information resources to both patients and clinicians under a shared umbrella of patient education. This article provides an overview of the PEPTalk project methods and outcomes, and documents the contributions of librarians throughout the design and clinical implementation stages of the project. Librarians brought expertise about information seeking behaviours of both patients and clinicians to the project; liaised across institutional and professional boundaries; developed a classification system for online learning objects, and educated project team about information and health literacies. The contributions of librarians on the PEPTalk project illustrate the need for boundary spanners, information brokers, knowledge translators, and change champions in the design and implementation of patient education delivery systems. There are new roles emergent at the intersections of clinical practice and health information provision. There is a need for the traditional skills and expertise of librarians and other information professionals in tailoring health information. Yet the design and implementation of patient education systems also require the development of new skills and the application of advanced information literacy as it pertains to both clinicians and patients.

  20. Altruism in clinical research: coordinators' orientation to their professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A

    2012-01-01

    Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus reshaping their professional identities. The purpose of this study was to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semistructured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Altruism is adopted by research coordinators to: (1) Teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, (2) minimize the conflict between research and care, and (3) contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy used to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Altruism in Clinical Research: Coordinators’ Orientation to their Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus re-shaping their professional identities. Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. Method A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semi-structured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Discussion Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Conclusion Altruism is adopted by research coordinators: 1) to teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, 2) to minimize the conflict between research and care, and 3) to contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy employed to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. PMID:22083045

  2. Professional practice leader: a transformational role that addresses human diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournes, D A; DasGupta, T L

    1997-01-01

    The role of the professional practice leader is to provide leadership in the transformation of nursing practice from a provider focused model to a patient focused model. Nursing standards for patient focused care were developed to define the quality of the nurse-person relationship in a manner consistent with Parse's theory of human becoming. Multiple strategies have been developed to challenge nurses to redefine the purpose, vision, and core values by which they practice. It is only through uncovering the values and beliefs of every person that nurses will be able to care for individuals whom they recognize as unique human beings.

  3. School Absenteeism and School Refusal Behavior: A Review and Suggestions for School-Based Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Bensaheb, Arva

    2006-01-01

    School absenteeism and school refusal behavior are particularly difficult problems that school health professionals often face. Unfortunately, few recommendations are available to such professionals about how to address this population. In this article, we (1) outline the major characteristics of school absenteeism and school refusal behavior, (2)…

  4. RELATION OF COACHING BEHAVIOR AND ROLE AMBIGUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamousalidis G.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between coaching behavior and role ambiguity in defensive responsibilities using interdependent Greek sport teams. Athlete perceptions of role ambiguity (defense were assessed using a questionnaire developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys and Carron (2002 andcoaching behavior was assessed using the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire, (Williams, et. al., 2003. The sample consisted of 409 athletes of basketball, volleyball, handball and soccer. Confirmatory factor analysis provided the construct validity of the questionnaires and correlations among the scales confirmed construct validity. The implications of the results are discussed and future research should continue to investigate the multidimensional models of both coaching behavior and role ambiguity in sport settings.

  5. [Promoting factors for breastfeeding: the role of health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Quijano, María Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    By the end of their first year of life, infants are ready to sit at the dinner table, to eat the same food as their family and to accept a variety of foods in sufficient quantity to maintain adequate nutritional status. In this context, breastfeeding contributes through different mechanisms such as: self-regulation in milk consumption and exposure to different flavors to assure a good nutrition and to create adequate feeding habits. However, breastfeeding is one of several options available to feed a newborn and a behavior that women need to learn. Today, the responsibility to counsel and guide women and their families in breastfeeding falls upon health professionals, specifically the general practitioner. This paper discusses the characteristics and functioning of the mammary gland as well as anatomical and physiological bases of suction exerted by the baby on the breast, so the health professional can recognize the factors that promote successful breastfeeding and to solve the problems or difficulties that could arise. Also are discussed here the main elements of a practice and proper technique, which are essential to provide breastfeeding counseling.

  6. High School Vocational Counseling Role in Leveraging Students` Professional Inclinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Brătucu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The experience of many countries with a well-educated workforce highlights the important role of vocational counselling services for advantageous youth professional orientation. Researchers manifest in their turn, a growing interest to study the role of vocational counselling, from the perspective of increasing the efficiency of investment in education and strengthening the capacity of enterprises to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy. In Romania, high school students have access to career guidance services, but there is little information on the extent to which they use or how useful they consider these services. Many times, there is a social conformism among high school graduates, which determines them to choose professions valued at a certain moment, without making a personal judgment. The aim of this paper is to analyse, as a good practice, the role of high school graduate vocational counselling in developing professional skills, in order to help them make the right career decision. In order to monitor the high school students` opinions on the vocational guidance and their perceptions of the integration in the labour market, a market research study has been conducted. This is a survey conducted on a sample of 2,364 high school students in their final year of study (twelve grade. The research has shown that a reduced percentage of the interviewed high school students have knowledge about the vocational guidance activity. From those who have used these services, most of them were satisfied. The study also highlighted the fact that the most important criteria for getting a job are the skills acquired during studies.

  7. Professional Associations: Their Role in Promoting Sustainable Development in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ian; Hegarty, Kathryn; Whitman, Stuart; MacGregor, Val

    2012-01-01

    Professional associations have a strong influence on what is covered in the curricula of universities, especially that of professional degrees. They also provide members with professional development throughout their careers. Professional associations have the potential to facilitate development of sustainability competency in the workforce in…

  8. Professional Orchestral Conductors' Use of Selected Teaching Behaviors in Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive study examined professional conductors' use of rehearsal time in sequential pattern components, discussing task presentation targets, and using verbal imagery and modeling techniques. Commercially available videos of 15 professional conductors rehearsing prominent orchestras were scripted, coded, and timed for selected teaching…

  9. Does interpersonal behavior of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, Janna I; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees' interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.

  10. Does interpersonal behavior of psychotherapy trainees differ in private and professional relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, Janna I.; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees’ interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees’ relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees’ level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees’ interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training. PMID:26106347

  11. INTERNSHIP ROLES IN TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPEMENT OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Anca-Ioana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian specialist`s studies show a harsh reality: Romanian universities programs have only theoretical value, creating specialists but not for real life, but for a more abstract environment. Our university graduates are doing very well in a stable economic and institutional environment that offers relatively easy material and financial resources, with a set of skills and professional skills which fail to meet harsh reality of the labor market. An effective solution for professional skills development is the accumulation of work experience during college in the environment and on the job we have in view by following an internship program. As a form of practical education through work, internship meets young people, particularly students keen to gain experience through practical work in a job within a company or institution chosen, giving them the opportunity to translate theoretical knowledge into practice and to develop skills and experience of labor market activities that waits for them. This paper is an original applied research conducted in the West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration. It aims to identify whether there is a need for specialization Management students to acquire work experience before graduating, to what extent they are able to assess their skills and work in a company and especially the role of internship programs in professional and personal development of students. The results show that participation in an internship program is beneficial not only for students but also for employers. Leading to increased competences and to training and professional skills and personal development, internship becomes a more attractive alternative for young people because it gives them the opportunity to be “a ringer" of an employee on the position you have in view. Without being employed, students can gain practical experience in a certain position they sought in a company or institution on the

  12. The Caring Professionals Program: educational approaches that integrate caring attitudes and empathic behaviors into health professions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, David R; Mitcham, Maralynne D; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Wise, Holly H; Jacques, Paul; Edlunc, Barbara; Annan-Coultas, Dusti

    2012-01-01

    Caring attitudes and empathic behaviors are considered by most Americans to be an essential and intrinsic element of appropriate health care, yet little attention is given to this in the curricula of most healthcare professional training programs. This paper describes an ongoing educational intervention to develop healthcare professionals with caring attitudes and empathic behaviors that will be sustained in their professional practice environments. The Caring Professionals Program was designed to enhance and redesign existing learning experiences in four academic programs: physical therapy, occupational therapy, physician assistant, and nurse practitioner. Students entering in the summer of 2009 were engaged in the initial program and study. Six educational elements were employed in the Caring Professionals Program: experience, reflection, problem-solving, didactic, active participation, and role modeling. Educational interventions were designed to be appropriate to the students' temporal progress through their programs, specifically the early, middle or late stages. The Caring Professionals Program may serve as a model for other allied health schools and also contribute to a college culture that supports caring and humanism.

  13. Wanted: role models--medical students' perceptions of professionalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byszewski, Anna; Hendelman, Walter; McGuinty, Caroline; Moineau, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education...

  14. Role of behavioral health in management of pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinnert, Mary D; Booster, Genery; Copeland, Mandy; Darr, Jennifer Moyer; Meltzer, Lisa J; Miller, Michael; Oland, Alyssa; Perry, Shauna; Wise, Brian K; Bender, Bruce G

    2018-01-01

    To describe the behavioral components and complications in treating pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and the critical role of behavioral health professionals in addressing disease impact and behavioral aspects of disease management for these patients and families. Studies and review articles were selected from medical and psychology databases for relevance to pertinent topics. AD has significant negative effects in affected individuals and their families on quality of life, behavioral, emotional, and sleep disturbances, and family functioning. Effective treatment strategies for AD are available, but the challenges for children and parents in coping with disease-related concerns and in following through with the multiple aspects of treatment are considerable. A biopsychosocial model, which incorporates the interplay among biological, psychological, and social dimensions of medical care, can be implemented in various treatment settings to achieve an integrated medical and behavioral health care approach. By sharing a family orientation, using a stress and coping model, and taking into account children's developmental capabilities and concerns, medical and behavioral health care providers are equipped to bring an in-depth understanding and different evidence-based therapeutic tools to address emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal challenges imposed by moderate to severe AD in children and families. Behavioral health and medical providers working together to provide integrated care play a critical role in helping children and families cope with the burdens imposed by AD, successfully manage the disease, and achieve optimal quality of life for affected children and their families. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Maintaining equilibrium in professional role identity: a grounded theory study of health visitors' perceptions of their changing professional practice context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Alison I; Machin, Tony; Pearson, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    This article reports the study of a group of United Kingdom health visitors' interactions with their changing practice context, focusing on role identity and influences on its stability. United Kingdom policies have urged health visitors to refocus their role as key public health nurses. Reduced role identity clarity precipitated the emergence of different models of health visiting public health work. An inconsistent role standard can lead to role identity fragmentation and conflict across a group. It may precipitate individual role crisis, affecting optimum role performance. Seventeen health visitors in two United Kingdom community healthcare organizations participated in a grounded theory study, incorporating constant comparative analysis. Direct observations and individual interviews were undertaken between 2002 and 2008. Four interlinked categories emerged: professional role identity (core category); professional role in action; interprofessional working; and local micro-systems for practice; each influencing participants' sense of identity and self-worth. The Role Identity Equilibrium Process explains interactive processes occurring at different levels of participants' practice. Re-establishing equilibrium and consistency in health visiting identity is a priority. This study's findings have significance for other nurses and health professionals working in complex systems, affected by role change and challenges to role identity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The Professionalism Assessment of Clinical Teachers (PACT): the reliability and validity of a novel tool to evaluate professional and clinical teaching behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Meredith E; Cruess, Sylvia R; Cruess, Richard L; Steinert, Yvonne

    2014-03-01

    Physicians function as clinicians, teachers, and role models within the clinical environment. Negative learning environments have been shown to be due to many factors, including the presence of unprofessional behaviors among clinical teachers. Reliable and valid assessments of clinical teacher performance, including professional behaviors, may provide a foundation for evidence-based feedback to clinical teachers, enable targeted remediation or recognition, and help to improve the learning environment. However, few tools exist for the evaluation of clinical teachers that include a focus on both professional and clinical teaching behaviors. The Professionalism Assessment of Clinical Teachers (PACT) was developed and implemented at one Canadian institution and was assessed for evidence of reliability and validity. Following each clerkship rotation, students in the 2009-2010 third-year undergraduate clerkship cohort (n = 178) anonymously evaluated a minimum of two clinical teachers using the PACT. 4,715 forms on 567 faculty members were completed. Reliability, validity, and free text comments (present in 45 % of the forms) were examined. An average of 8.6 PACT forms were completed per faculty (range 1-60), with a reliability of 0.31 for 2.9 forms (harmonic mean); 12 forms were necessary for a reliability of 0.65. Global evaluations of teachers aligned with ratings of free-text comments (r = 0.77, p performance related negatively with variability of performance (r = -0.72, p performance. The PACT is a moderately reliable tool for the assessment of professional behaviors of clinical teachers, with evidence supporting its validity.

  17. [Childhood sexual behavior as an indicator of sexual abuse: professionals' criteria and biases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-01-01

    Some sexual behaviors are related to child sexual abuse experiences, but none unequivocally. Therefore, professionals might use non-empirical-based criteria and be biased when detecting and reporting victims. To check this hypothesis, we presented 974 Spanish and Latin American professionals from different fields (Psychology, Education, Health, Social Services, Justice, and Police Force) with hypothetical situations of child sexual behavior (varying the sex, age and behavior) by using an experimental vignette method based on Factorial Survey. Participants were asked to indicate whether such behaviors are a sign of abuse and whether they would report them. We also measured demographic, academic, professional and attitude factors. According to the analysis, professionals' suspicion of abuse is more affected by personal factors, whereas their reporting intention depends more on situational factors. The main criterion adopted is the type of sexual behavior, with professionals being more likely to suspect and report in response to aggressive sexual behavior and precocious sexual knowledge. Professionals' attitudes to sexuality seem to generate biases, as those who are erotophobic are more likely to suspect abuse. None of the sexual behaviors was seen as evidence of abuse.

  18. Wellness, Professional Quality of Life, and Career-Sustaining Behaviors: What Keeps Us Well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gerard; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 506 professional counselors who were members of the American Counseling Association completed measures of professional quality of life, career-sustaining behaviors (CSBs), and wellness. Significant differences were found both within the sample based on caseload characteristics and between the participants and available norm groups.…

  19. The Role of Geoscience Departments in Preparing Future Geoscience Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Building Strong Geoscience Departments program ran a workshop on the role of geoscience departments in preparing geoscience professionals. Workshop participants asserted that geoscience departments can help support the flow of geoscience graduates into the geoscience workforce by providing students with information about jobs and careers; providing experiences that develop career-oriented knowledge, attitudes and skills; encouraging exploration of options; and supporting students in their job searches. In conjunction with the workshop, we have developed a set of online resources designed to help geoscience departments support their students’ professional development in these ways. The first step toward sending geoscience graduates into related professions is making students aware of the wide variety of career options available in the geosciences and of geoscience employment trends. Successful means of achieving this include making presentations about careers (including job prospects and potential salaries) in geoscience classes, providing examples of practical applications of course content, talking to advisees about their career plans, inviting alumni to present at departmental seminars, participating in institutional career fairs, and publishing a departmental newsletter with information about alumni careers. Courses throughout the curriculum as well as co-curricular experiences can provide experiences that develop skills, knowledge, and attitudes that will be useful for a range of careers. Successful strategies include having an advisory board that offers suggestions about key knowledge and skills to incorporate into the curriculum, providing opportunities for students to do geoscience research, developing internship programs, incorporating professional skills training (such as HazMat training) into the curriculum, and teaching professionalism. Students may also benefit from involvement with the campus career center or from conducting informational

  20. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION OF TEENAGERS INCLINED TO DEVIANT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina N. Zhulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the peculiarities of teenagers’ professional self-determination inclined to deviant behavior, the design of the psychological and pedagogical program of professional self-determination for adolescents. Methods. The methods involve theoretical analysis on the research problem, empirical methods and techniques (methods in diagnostics of tendency to deviant behavior (SOPS by A. N. Orel, questionnaire to determine the professional readiness by L. N. Kabardova; questionnaire «The knowledge about the world of professions» by E. A. Klimov; the questionnaire for determining personal professional perspective by N. S. Pryazhnikov, methods of mathematical statistics (the MannWhitney test. Results. The age differences of some components of adolescents’ professional self-determination are revealed. It is proved that there are differences for some components of professional self-determination of adolescents, inclined and not inclined to deviant behavior. The program project of psychological and pedagogical support of professional self-determination for adolescents is proposed. Scientific novelty and theoretical significance of the work consists in the expansion of scientific ideas about the psychological characteristics of adolescents who are prone to deviant forms of behavior. The study clarifies the scientific view of professional self-determination of a teenager and organization of psychological and pedagogical support of driving in instability of society. Practical significance. The results allow to solve practical problems of professional self-determination of adolescents. The obtained results can be used in advisory, developmental directions of practical psychologist in education, in building programs of prevention deviant behavior for teenagers. The results of the study served as the basis for designing the program of psycho-pedagogical support of adolescents’ professional self-determination. 

  1. Felt and behavioral engagement in workgroups of professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpf, S.A.; Tymon, W.G.; Dam, van N.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This research proposes a two-dimensional measure of engagement for professionals in technically-oriented workgroups. It examines the relationship of their engagement to five workgroup outcomes: innovation, performance, satisfaction with the organization, career success, and intentions to stay. Three

  2. Type A behavior, job satisfaction, and stress among black professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, G O; Matteson, M T

    1992-02-01

    Most studies of work-related Type A behavior have been conducted with samples of white men. Using a mail questionnaire to assess Type A behavior, job satisfaction, and daily stress and tension among 250 black men and 233 black women public accountants, the prevalence of Type A behavior and its relationship with satisfaction and stress were highly consistent with those reported for other samples of white men and women.

  3. Recapturing Desired Family Routines: A Parent-Professional Behavioral Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbacher, Pamelazita; Fox, Lise; Clarke, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Children with complex disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders and Landau Kleffner syndrome often lack means to participate in everyday family routines. Serious problem behaviors may result from their challenges in responding to and initiating communicative interactions. These behaviors can change routine family activities such that the…

  4. Role of Pre-service Teachers Educators in Forming of Future Teachers Professional Competencies

    OpenAIRE

    Garabiková Pártlová, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation deals with the educators of future teachers and their roles in shaping the professional competencies of pre-service teachers during undergraduate training. The theoretical basis of the work is grounded in the theory of undergraduate education, as well as the concepts of professional competences of teachers and professional competences of pre-service teachers educators and related concept of model role. The empirical part, using mixed methods research, consists of several subs...

  5. The role of professional economists in the financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Porzecanski, Arturo C.

    2006-01-01

    Economists have always been interested in the workings of the financial markets, but most of them neither seek nor get the opportunity to work in a financial institution as a professional economist. Here we detail how (a minority of) economists became involved in the financial markets, and what that professional involvement has entailed, in order to come up with implications for economists who are considering working in the financial markets as well as for the universities that provide train...

  6. Auditor professional commitment and performance: An ethical issue role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kusumastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores to what extent the auditor’s idealism and relativism ethical orientation influences the professional commitment and the auditor’s performance. This study uses questionnaire’s survey from the auditors who work for Public Accountant Office in Indonesia. The data is analyzed by using the Structural Equation Model. The study reveals that the idealism and relativism ethical orientation have a significant influence to the professional commitment and the auditors’ performance

  7. Teaching Sociology in Professional Schools: Stereotypes, Role Conflicts, and Career Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    Examines some of the behavioral aspects of teaching sociology in professional schools. Maintains that teaching in a professional school means that one's scholarly accomplishments must impress two different audiences with distinctly different values and expectations. By-products of this situation are overspecialization and a sense of intellectual…

  8. The role of attention in motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J

    2015-08-01

    All too frequently, people fail to take actions that are in their best interest (e.g., not taking necessary medications). Researchers have attempted to explain such behaviors by identifying subtle motivational forces that foster an avoidance of attractive outcomes. However, in many cases, such motivational forces have been difficult to identify. We propose that failures such as these to act in valued ways are in some cases caused by insufficient levels of orienting attention. To test this hypothesis, we first created a laboratory analog of real-world failures to act in valued ways, 1 in which participants persisted in viewing lower-valenced images even though they could have, at no cost, viewed a higher-valenced image. When we experimentally increased their orienting attention toward a caption stating they had the option to switch, participants more frequently elected to view the higher valenced image (Studies 1a-c). In real-world behavioral contexts, increasing attention, without an apparent change in valuation, also led to increased levels of approach motivation in behavioral contexts involving purchasing apples (Study 2) and electing to take the stairs instead of the escalator (Studies 3a-c). In light of these findings, we consider the role of orienting attention in motivated behavior. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Oncology patients' and professional nurses' perceptions of important nurse caring behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani Azad; Azimzadeh Roghaieh; Zamanzadeh Vahid; Valizadeh Leila

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Caring is the essence of nursing. Caring to be meaningful needs to be based on mutual agreement between nurses and patients as to what constitutes nurse caring behaviors. As a result, healthcare professional can enhance patients' satisfaction of care by providing appropriate caring behavior. However, previous research that combined multiple types of patients, nurses and institutions demonstrated disagreement in prioritizing important behaviors. This paper reports a study t...

  10. The effect of nursing leadership on hospital nurses' professional practice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa

    2005-01-01

    To understand the effect of unit-level nursing leadership on the relationship of structural empowerment and nursing self-efficacy to professional nursing practice behaviors. Nursing leadership at both organizational and unit levels is a major influence on professional nursing practice. The interaction between environmental factors, such as structural empowerment and unit-based nursing leadership, and self-efficacy for nursing practice may determine whether a nurse's practice behaviors are either professional or more task-focused. A nonexperimental, comparative survey design was used. Instruments included the Conditions for Work Effectiveness-II, Caring Efficacy Scale, Manager's Activities Scale, and Nurse Activity Scale. Multigroup path analysis demonstrated the effects of strong and weak nursing leadership on variables of interest. Nursing leadership contributed to the effects of empowerment and self-efficacy on practice behaviors. Strong nursing leadership also contributed to an additional relationship between empowerment and self-efficacy. Nursing leadership helped to explain 46% of the variance in nursing practice behaviors overall. Nurses may be able to practice more professionally when they perceive strong nursing leadership. By providing more access to structural empowerment factors for staff, strong unit-level nursing leadership may also influence nurses' self-efficacy, which in turn leads to more professional practice behaviors.

  11. Performance Implications of In-role and Extra-role Behavior of Frontline Service Employees

    OpenAIRE

    D. VANDAELE; P. GEMMEL

    2006-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature on different employee behaviors such as organizational citizenship behavior or boundary spanning behavior, few research studies have investigated the impact of both in-role and extra-role behavior on performance outcomes, especially in business services settings. In this study we investigate how in-role behavior, extra-role behavior, and their interrelation influences employee performed productivity and quality in business security services. Data from 1,...

  12. Addressing School Refusal Behavior: Suggestions for Frontline Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Bates, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    School refusal behavior refers to a student's refusal to attend school or difficulty remaining in classes for an entire day. The problem is pervasive and exacts a heavy toll on students and school systems if left unaddressed. Although assessment and treatment protocols have been developed for this population, they are not always amenable to…

  13. Internet guidance in oncology practice: determinants of health professionals' Internet referral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Yvette; de Groot, Jos; Wetzels, Wendy; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2013-01-01

    Many cancer patients turn to the Internet to obtain information on their disease. This digital quest is often motivated by a perceived discrepancy between the information received from health professionals and patients' actual informational needs. This discrepancy may be reduced by supplementing standard patient education with reliable online information sources. This study investigates health professionals' opinions, cognitions, and behavior regarding referring cancer patients to Internet-based information. Online and written questionnaires were distributed among Dutch oncology nurses and medical specialists, measuring perception of patients' informational needs, prompted and unprompted Internet referral, and socio-cognitive factors regarding referral behavior. Health professionals (N = 130) positively appraised Internet use among cancer patients. Despite recognizing patients' needs for additional information (84%) and need for referral to reliable websites (67%), only 20% frequently referred patients to Internet-based information. Prompted Internet referral was higher (64%). Motives for nonreferral included unfamiliarity with websites and uncertainty about information quality. Intentions towards future referral were moderate to high. To translate intentions into referral, health professionals need reminder tools and information on reliability and content of websites. Cognitive determinants of referral behavior included professionals' attitude, self-efficacy, and intentions regarding referral. Recognition of patients' information needs does not culminate in Internet referral among health professionals in cancer care. High intentions to change, however, indicate good prospects for future referral. This study yields valuable insights into behavioral determinants of health professionals' Internet referral behavior. Targeting determinants and barriers in future interventions will provide opportunities for optimization of educational practices. Copyright © 2011 John

  14. Developing Professional Identity in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students: A Role for Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylrea, Martina F; Sen Gupta, Tarun; Glass, Beverley D

    2017-03-24

    Professional identity development, seen as essential in the transition from student to professional, needs to be owned by the universities in order to ensure a workforce appropriately prepared to provide global health care in the future. The development of professional identity involves a focus on who the student is becoming, as well as what they know or can do, and requires authentic learning experiences such as practice exposure and interaction with pharmacist role models. This article examines conceptual frameworks aligned with professional identity development and will explore the role for self-determination theory (SDT) in pharmacy professional education. SDT explains the concepts of competence, relatedness and autonomy and the part they play in producing highly motivated individuals, leading to the development of one's sense of self. Providing support for students in these three critical areas may, in accordance with the tenets of SDT, have the potential to increase motivation levels and their sense of professional identity.

  15. Teachers' Professional Learning: The Role of Knowledge Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Karissa

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the degree to which knowledge management strategies addressed teacher professional learning at the high school level. In the setting of a Connecticut public high school, interviews were conducted which explored teacher perceptions of knowledge sharing practices in the school and how those practices influenced their…

  16. Second Career Professionals: Transitioning to the Faculty Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Betsy; O'Hern, Brenda; Lawler, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    With midlife career transitions becoming more common, and colleges and universities needing to replace retiring faculty members, more professionals who have attained doctoral degrees may be transitioning to a second career in the academy. While their practitioner-based knowledge and leadership skills might be welcomed, especially in applied degree…

  17. The Role of Discourse in Teaching Intercultural Professional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartabayeva, Ayana A.; Zhaitapova, Altynai A.

    2016-01-01

    With Kazakhstan's accession to the Bologna Process, particular importance is attached to the professionally-oriented approach of teaching foreign languages to students, which facilitates formation of their foreign language communicative ability. The article deals with the problem of teaching English to students for the purpose of formation of…

  18. The Role of Principals in Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, Joan L.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify how principals shape the adoption and implementation of professional learning communities. The study employed a sequential mixed-methods approach in which interviews, observations, and document analysis informed survey design. Teachers were surveyed in four elementary schools about the practices and…

  19. Enhancing Teacher Performance: The Role of Professional Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Sears, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    Current teacher accountability initiatives such as those included in the "No Child Left Behind" legislation in the United States create particular difficulties that impact deleteriously on the performance of professional educators. The quality of public education is undermined when teachers are held accountable to an external authority…

  20. Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design : Qualitative study. Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis : We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Athletes in our study viewed injuries as "part and parcel" of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities.

  1. Professional role identity in shaping community nurses' reactions to nursing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lawrie; Kennedy, Catriona; Raeside, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To establish the extent to which professional role identity shapes community nurses' reactions before the implementation of a policy that sought to introduce a generic role. Many countries seek to alter community nurse roles to address changes in population health and health workforce. We know little about the influences that might shape nurses' reaction to these policies before their implementation and our theoretical understanding is poorly developed at this point in the policy-making cycle. Self completed cross-sectional survey of 703 community nurses before the introduction of a generic Community Health Nurse role in Scotland. The minority (33%) supported the new role. The professional role identity of those who were supportive differed significantly from those who did not support the policy or were uncertain of it. It is possible that the new policy acted to increase the value of the professional role identity of those who were supportive and conversely devalued the professional role identity of those who were unsupportive or uncertain of it. Professional role identity should be considered by policy makers in any country seeking to introduce policies that aim to radically change the role of community nurses and that this is acknowledged at an early stage in the policy-making cycle. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Preparing, Developing, and Credentialing K-12 School Leaders: Continuous Learning for Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patricia; Berry, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Professional preparation in educational administration has been a university-based state requirement that oriented aspiring school administrators to the roles of principal or superintendent. Professional and state expectations for preparation, development, and credentialing are shifting as the complexity of leadership and administration has…

  3. Attitudes toward Professional Psychological Help Seeking in South Asian Students: Role of Stigma and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Prerna G.; Metz, Kristina; Carlson, Cindy I.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) the roles of perceived and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking and (b) the effects of these constructs across gender in South Asians. Personal stigma and being male was negatively associated with attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking; no difference in the…

  4. Role of Outsourcing in Stress and Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Janell R.

    2016-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing poses a potential job loss threat to IT professionals, which can decrease job security, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. The problem that this study addressed was the perceived role of IT outsourcing in the job stress, job dissatisfaction, and turnover intention of IT professionals. The…

  5. The impact of professional identity on role stress in nursing students: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Gao, Ying; Yang, Juan; Zang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yao-Gang

    2016-11-01

    As newcomers to the clinical workplace, nursing students will encounter a high degree of role stress, which is an important predictor of burnout and engagement. Professional identity is theorised to be a key factor in providing high-quality care to improve patient outcomes and is thought to mediate the negative effects of a high-stress workplace and improve clinical performance and job retention. To investigate the level of nursing students' professional identity and role stress at the end of the first sub-internship, and to explore the impact of the nursing students' professional identity and other characteristics on role stress. A cross-sectional study. Three nursing schools in China. Nursing students after a 6-month sub-internship in a general hospital (n=474). The Role Stress Scale (score range: 12-60) and the Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing students (score range: 17-85) were used to investigate the levels of nursing students' role stress and professional identity. Higher scores indicated higher levels of role stress and professional identity. Basic demographic information about the nursing students was collected. The Pearson correlation, point-biserial correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The mean total scores of the Role Stress Scale and Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing Students were 34.04 (SD=6.57) and 57.63 (SD=9.63), respectively. In the bivariate analyses, the following independent variables were found to be significantly associated with the total score of the Role Stress Scale: the total score of the Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing Students (r=-0.295, pstudent was an only child or not (r=-0.114, pstudent had experience in community organisations or not (r=0.151, pNursing Students (standardised coefficient Beta: -0.260, pstudent had experience in community organisations (standardised coefficient Beta: 0.107, pnursing students' level of role stress at the end of

  6. The role of legitimation in the professional socialization of second-year undergraduate athletic training students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klossner, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Professional socialization during formal educational preparation can help students learn professional roles and can lead to improved organizational socialization as students emerge as members of the occupation's culture. Professional socialization research in athletic training is limited. To present the role of legitimation and how it influences the professional socialization of second-year athletic training students. Modified constructivist grounded theory and case study methods were used for this qualitative study. An accredited undergraduate athletic training education program. Twelve second-year students were selected purposively. The primary sample group (n = 4) was selected according to theoretical sampling guidelines. The remaining students made up the cohort sample (n = 8). Theoretically relevant data were gathered from 14 clinical instructors to clarify emergent student data. Data collection included document examination, observations, and interviews during 1 academic semester. Data were collected and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Data triangulation, member checking, and peer-review strategies were used to ensure trustworthiness. Legitimation from various socializing agents initiated professional socialization. Students viewed trust and team membership as rewards for role fulfillment. My findings are consistent with the socialization literature that shows how learning a social or professional role, using rewards to facilitate role performance, and building trusting relationships with socializing agents are important aspects of legitimation and, ultimately, professional socialization.

  7. Networked practices of intangible urban heritage: the changing public role of Dutch heritage professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the changing roles of heritage professionals by focusing on the participatory practices of intangible urban heritage. Developments towards democratisation in the heritage sector led to a growing expectation that heritage

  8. Using Role-Play for Expert Science Communication with Professional Stakeholders in Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Lindsey; Stokes, Alison; Crowley, Kate; Roberts, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores role-play pedagogies in learning and communicating about cutting-edge flood science by flood risk management professionals in local government. It outlines role-play process/structure and evaluates participant perceptions of their learning experiences. Issues were impacts of prior role-play experience on attitudes brought to…

  9. Role Stressors, Engagement and Work Behaviours: A Study of Higher Education Professional Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Tara M.; Prottas, David J.

    2017-01-01

    The study used data provided by 349 professional staff employees from 17 different US higher education institutions to assess aspects of their working conditions that could influence their own work engagement and the work-related behaviours of their colleagues. Relationships among three role stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict and role…

  10. Health and productivity: a role for occupational health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, R J

    2001-01-01

    The impressive economic gains achieved by many nations within the past decade have been attributed primarily to improvements in productivity from technological changes. The resultant low unemployment levels, however, emphasize the importance of human capital in the success of any enterprise. Concurrently, some economists have proposed an alternative economic view regarding the relationship between health and income, postulating that improvements in the health of the nation's population have a substantial effect on its economic viability. Such a view directly pertains to occupational health professionals, who are often charged with promoting the health of the worker. Although studies relating the beneficial impact of occupational health on productivity and human performance are limited, some efforts have shown impressive effects, as measured primarily by reduced absenteeism. The prompt, assertive management of occupational injuries and illnesses and their treatment have been well documented. Illnesses not considered traditional occupational ailments, such as migraine headaches, allergic disorders, infectious diseases, and depression, offer opportunities for occupational health professionals to ensure an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment for minimizing the impact on work performance. Considerable opportunities exist for occupational health professionals to demonstrate the importance of certain services to productivity.

  11. The making of local hospital discharge arrangements: specifying the role of professional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Viola; Bro, Flemming

    2015-08-04

    Timely discharge is a key component of contemporary hospital governance and raises questions about how to move to more explicit discharge arrangements. Although associated organisational changes closely intersect with professional interests, there are relatively few studies in the literature on hospital discharge that explicitly examine the role of professional groups. Recent contributions to the literature on organisational studies of the professions help to specify how professional groups in hospitals contribute to the introduction and routinisation of discharge arrangements. This study builds on a view of organisational and professional projects as closely intertwined, where professionals take up organising roles and where organisations shape professionalism. The analysis is based on a case study of the introduction and routinisation of explicit discharge arrangements for patients with prostate cancer in two hospitals in Denmark. This represents a typical case that involves changes in professional practice without being first and foremost a professional project. The multiple case design also makes the findings more robust. The analysis draws from 12 focus groups with doctors, nurses and secretaries conducted at two different stages in the process of the making of the local discharge arrangements. From the analysis, two distinct local models of discharge arrangements that connect more or less directly to existing professional practice emerge: an 'add-on' model, which relies on extra resources, special activities and enforced change; and an 'embedded model', which builds on existing ways of working, current resources, and perspectives of professional groups. The two models reveal differences in the roles of professional groups in terms of their stakes and involvement in the process of organisational change: whereas in the 'add on' model the professional groups remain at a distance, in the 'embedded model' they are closely engaged. In terms of understanding the

  12. Lending a helping hand: Provision of helping behaviors beyond professional career responsibilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Emmerik, IJ.H.; Jawahar, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate if gender and altruism evidence similar relationships with the different types of helping behaviors (e.g. organizational citizenship behaviors, OCBs; volunteering, vol; and helping kin, HK). Design/methodology/approach – Data from websurveys of 178 professional employees are analyzed using Zellner’s seemingly unrelated regression (SURE). Findings – Results indicate women engage in HK to a greater extent than men, however this diff...

  13. The Medical Library Association: promoting new roles for health information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J Michael; McGowan, Julie J

    2002-01-01

    As the Medical Library Association (MLA) enters its second century, its role in providing leadership and focus for the education of health information professionals in a changing environment will be critical. MLA members face dramatic changes in the health care environment as well as significant opportunities and must position themselves to thrive in the new environment. This paper examines new roles for health information professionals, new approaches to education and training, and related issues of credentialing, certification/and licensure.

  14. Administrative professional's role in the processing, retrieval, dissemination and repackaging of information in the networked enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish the administrative professional's role in the processing, retrieval, dissemination and repackaging of digital information in the networked enterprise, and to determine how the administrative professional can add value to the organisation and enhance its competitive position in industry. The digital economy has changed business practices to such an extent that research of the digital office environment and the administrative professional’s role in ...

  15. Exploring Current and Future Roles of Non-Dental Professionals: Implications for Dental Hygiene Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Hannah L; Farrell, Christine; Gwozdek, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The health care system is undergoing transformation in which oral health is not only valued as an aspect of overall health, but health care delivery systems are aligning to better deliver total patient care. As a result of this transformation, education for many non-dental professionals incorporates oral health content to prepare them to practice in comprehensive delivery models. While some non-dental professionals already incorporate oral health care in their service, many opportunities exist for expansion of oral health care delivery by other non-dental professionals, including radiologic technicians, nursing staff, and human services professionals. As non-dental professionals take on expanded roles in oral health care, the dental hygiene workforce must be prepared to practice in settings with new types of professionals. Dental hygiene curricula should prioritize interprofessional education to best prepare these students for practice in evolved delivery models. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century."

  16. Testing the Relationship of Gender and Business Major to Professional Development Behaviors and Expected Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Hill, Theodore L.; Snell, Corinne; Atwater, Craig; Halbert, Terry; Zuckerman, M. Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study's results, with 664 surveyed graduating business students, demonstrated that creating four groups, using gender and quantitative or nonquantitative major, was useful for testing their relationships to professional development behaviors and expected employment. Results showed that male-nonquantitative majors (n = 144) reported the lowest…

  17. Teachers' Personal and Professional Influences Related to School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broskey, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on understanding teachers' personal and professional experiences that influence the fidelity of implementation of a school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) program within their classrooms. Research has focused on the implementation fidelity of school-wide positive support programs, academic impact on students, teacher…

  18. A Correlational Study: Code of Ethics in Testing and EFL Instructors' Professional Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hamid; Kafi, Zahra; Saeedan, Azaam

    2018-01-01

    The present study has aimed at delving the code of ethics in testing in English language institutions to see how far adhering to these ethical codes will result in EFL teachers' professional behavior. Therefore, 300 EFL instructors teaching at English language schools in Khorasan Razavi Province, Zabansara Language School, as well as Khorasan…

  19. Facebook Band Director's Group: Member Usage Behaviors and Perceived Satisfaction for Meeting Professional Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, David A.; Brewer, Wesley D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate participation in a Facebook social media community known as Band Director's Group (BDG) through examination of members' demographic profiles, self-reported usage behaviors, and perceptions about how group activity satisfies their professional development needs. Respondents to an online survey (n = 336)…

  20. Nutrition, Learning and Behavior in Children: A Resource List for Professionals. March 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Jennifer K.; Hill, Elizabeth N.

    2004-01-01

    This Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) Resource List is a quick guide designed to help professionals find information related to nutrition, learning and behavior in children. Each resource has been placed into one of five categories, in alphabetical order, by title.

  1. Influence of Teacher Empowerment on Teachers' Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogler, Ronit; Somech, Anit

    2004-01-01

    The present study focuses on the relationship between teacher empowerment and teachers' organizational commitment, professional commitment (PC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). It examines which subscales of teacher empowerment can best predict these outcomes. The data were collected through a questionnaire returned by a sample of…

  2. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leflot, G.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Onghena, P.; Colpin, H.

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school.

  3. INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: THE ROLE OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilia Helena de Sousa Mascarenhas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the advance of globalization and high competition between the companies, the need of continuous improvement is a requirement of the market. The implementation of the System of Management Integrated (SGI enables the company to and qualify its participants to have higher productivity, with smaller cost, preserving the health of its employees and the environment. The SGI involves the application of approaches for attend to the requirements of the Quality Systems, Environmental management, System of Security and Health in the Work and Social Responsibility, which are determined by Brazilian and/or international standards. In this context it is possible to see the changes in the profile of the executive secretarial professional, making him more qualified and acting straightly in the management skills and assisting in its management processes to ensure satisfactory outcomes for the organization. The present article covers through bibliographical research the concepts of the various management systems and the importance of the action of the executive secretarial professional assistance to the manager in the implementation of the System of Management Integrated.

  4. Professionals’ Experiences of the Relations between Personal History and Professional Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Sjølie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore whether and how workers in a crisis resolution home treatment (CRHT team experience the relationship between their personal history and professional role. This paper is based on 13 in-depth interviews with health professionals working in CRHT. The interviews were analysed using a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Participants expressed that there is a relationship between their personal history and professional role, and three themes are highlighted as particularly important in, namely experiences related to the participants as individuals, work-related experiences and family-related experiences. The participants write meaning into the relationship between their personal history and professional role. By relating and exploring their own life stories in the interviews, they work on forming meaning and identity.

  5. An Analysis of Student Affairs Professionals' Management of Role Conflict and Multiple Roles in Relation to Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nicole Lepone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to study how student affairs professionals manage role conflict in relation to work/life balance based on the challenging culture of the field. The underlying goals are to identify the barriers or challenges of managing multiple roles as a student affairs administrator and identify strategies to assist employees in…

  6. Effects of organizational and professional identification on the relationship between administrators' social influence and professional employees' adoption of new work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekman, David R; Steensma, H Kevin; Bigley, Gregory A; Hereford, James F

    2009-09-01

    Administrative social influence is a principal tool for motivating employee behavior. The authors argue that the compliance of professional employees (e.g., doctors) with administrative social influence will depend on the degree to which these employees identify with their profession and organization. Professional employees were found to be most receptive to administrator social influence to adopt new work behavior when they strongly identified with the organization and weakly identified with the profession. In contrast, administrator social influence was counterproductive when professional employees strongly identified with the profession and weakly identified with the organization.

  7. Enabling professional development in mental health nursing: the role of clinical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, G; Happell, B; Reid-Searl, K

    2015-10-01

    Clinical leadership is acknowledged as important to the nursing profession. While studies continue to identify its significance in contributing to positive outcomes for consumers, the role that clinical leadership has in enabling and supporting professional development in mental health nursing is poorly understood. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore the characteristics clinicians consider important for clinical leadership and its significance for mental health nursing in day-to-day clinical practice. Individual face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nurses working in mental health settings. Participants described the important role that clinical leaders play in enabling professional development of others through role modelling and clinical teaching. They describe how nurses, whom they perceive as clinical leaders, use role modelling and clinical teaching to influence the professional development of nursing staff and undergraduate nursing students. Attributes such as professionalism and honesty were seen, by participants, as enablers for clinical leaders in effectively and positively supporting the professional development of junior staff and undergraduate nurses in mental health nursing. This paper examines clinical leadership from the perspective of mental health nurses delivering care, and highlights the important role of clinical leaders in supporting professional development in mental health nursing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Use of Individual Feedback during Human Gross Anatomy Course for Enhancing Professional Behaviors in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…

  9. The Relationship between School Principals' Leadership Behaviors and the Development of Professional Learning Communities in Schools with Teacher Study Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Casey D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the strength and the direction of the relationship between principals' leadership behaviors and the development of professional learning communities, specifically teacher study groups. In effect, I sought to uncover principal leadership behaviors that positively affect the development of professional learning communities (PLC)…

  10. stress from role conflict: consequences for professional effectiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress may be physiological, psychological and or behavioral. Where a ... militating against worker's happiness, efficiency and maximum ... social psychology. Similarities may exist between the findings of this study and earlier studies and it is hoped that this will spur the interest of other researchers. Literature Review.

  11. Examining Emotional Support Animals and Role Conflicts in Professional Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Younggren, Jeffrey N.; Boisvert, Jennifer A.; Boness, Cassandra L.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role conflicts that psychologists may face in their practices related to the evaluation and certification of emotional support animals (ESAs). It reviews the legal differences between ESAs and service animals (SAs), outlines ethical guidelines and legal policies/regulations regarding the use of ESAs, and examines the potential role conflicts that exist when a treating psychologist is certifying the need for an ESA. Finally, it makes recommendations to assist psycholo...

  12. Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazi, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.

  13. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: A survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Junni, E-mail: junxinni@163.com [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Hansen, Alana, E-mail: alana.hansen@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Zhang, Ying, E-mail: ying.zhang@sydney.edu.au [Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Li, Hong [Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiyuan 030001 Shanxi (China); Liu, Qiyong, E-mail: liuqiyong@icdc.cn [State Key Laboratory for Infectious Diseases Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Jinan 250012, Shandong (China); Sun, Yehuan, E-mail: yhsun@sina.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui (China); Bi, Peng, E-mail: peng.bi@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Background: A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government's policy-making, service provider's guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. Results: More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents' perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. Conclusion: There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in

  14. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A; Gudzune, Kimberly A

    2015-02-01

    (1) To determine the nonphysician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management. (2) To examine nutrition professionals' current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care. (3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals' quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. A 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. nonphysician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy) was analyzed. Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high-quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high-quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74 vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (Pcounseling to obese patients. Yet nutrition professionals' receipt of high-quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  15. The evolution of behavior guidance: a history of professional, practice, corporate and societal influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, David M

    2014-01-01

    Behavior guidance in pediatric dentistry is a composite of influences including expert opinion, historical precedent, scientific studies, and social factors including the law and the media. The early icons of pediatric dentistry injected their personal views on child management, and those often reflected the child-rearing norms of the times. The business of pediatric dentistry with its efficiency and quality orientations also shaped approaches to behavior management. Scientific studies contributed minimally. A major influence on behavior guidelines in recent years has been external scrutiny of techniques prompted by media and other exposure of both private practice and corporate management of children. Changing parenting and reaction of society to authority have also had significant impact on behavior. This paper describes in more detail the evolution of behavior guidance and the subsequent codification of practices into professionally derived guidelines.

  16. Unpacking the Roles of the Facilitator in Higher Education Professional Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Leonor; Pareja Roblin, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Facilitators are central for the success of professional learning communities (PLCs). Yet, their specific roles in supporting teacher learning remain still largely underexplored. To address this gap, the current multiple case study examines the roles of 4 university PLC facilitators, the strategies they used to support teacher learning, and the…

  17. The Roles of Professional Engineers at the Institutions of Higher Learning in Nation-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Zambri; Khamis, Nor Kamaliana; Isa, Mohamad Dali; Hashim, Hashimah

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles of professional engineers (PEs) who are attached to the Institutions of Higher Learning (IHLs) and how their contributions are as important as their counterparts in the industry. This paper highlights the roles for PEs at IHLs based on a survey conducted at selected IHLs in Malaysia. Academician-professional…

  18. Professionalizing the Role of Peer Leaders in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Bethany; Doyle, Maureen; Taylor, Jennifer; Antes, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors frequently utilize peer mentors and/or leaders. At Northern Kentucky University, the STEM Ambassador (SA) program involves students in the creation of a STEM community through multifaceted roles as mentors, peer-learning facilitators, and social…

  19. Students with Anxiety: The Role of the Professional School Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanie, Evelyn H.; Stanard, Rebecca Powell

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how school counselors can support students suffering from anxiety. The causes and prevalence of anxiety are presented as well as the differences between normal and problematic anxiety. The role of school personnel in early identification is discussed with particular emphasis on the responsibilities of the school counselor.…

  20. HPV, oropharyngeal cancer, and the role of the dentist: a professional ethical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Manji, Naila; Piamonte, Romney T; More, Frederick G; Katz, Ralph V

    2012-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an emerging risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer, especially among younger patients, and must be thoughtfully addressed by the dental community. The professional ethical decision-making model first advanced by Ozar and Sokol for use by dentists at chairside (define the dilemma, assess the facts, identify and rank the alternatives, and choose a course of action) was modified to delineate clearly inputs, considerations, and feedback loops based on what is professionally and ethically at stake in advising patients. As the link between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer is established through scientific studies, the role of the dentist in primary and secondary prevention will be crucial. In the absence of definitive evidence, the professional ethical decision-making framework presented here allows dentists to systematically work through available alternatives. Ultimately, the role of the dentist is to use discretion in choosing a professional and ethical course of action for each patient.

  1. Changing Roles and Identities in a Teacher Driven Professional Development Community

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dusen, Ben

    2012-01-01

    In a climate where teachers feel deprofessionalized at the hands of regulations, testing, and politics, it is vital that teachers become empowered both in their own teaching and as agents of change. This physics education research study investigates the Streamline to Mastery professional development program, in which the teachers design professional development opportunities for themselves and for fellow teachers. The research reported here describes the process of teacher professional growth through changes in roles and identities. Videos, emails, and interviews were analyzed to glean insight into practice and participation shifts as these physical science teachers formed a community and engaged in their own classroom research. Implications for the role of PER in teacher professional development and teacher preparation will be discussed.

  2. Health federalism: the role of health care professionals in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulal, R K

    2009-01-01

    Nepal has entered from its unitary system into a new "Federal Democratic Republic State". The current constitution presents basic health care services as a fundamental right. The Ministry for Health and Population has been providing resources to meet health demands, but managers are wrestling to meet these demands. Persistent disparities between rural and urban and across regions resulted inferior health outcomes, e.g., life expectancy in an urban district like Bhaktapur is 71 years, whereas in the rural district of Mugu it is 44 years. The poor health and poor access to health care in the past systems prompted people to seek a different model. Ultimately, all political parties except one have agreed on federalism. The exact number of federal states that are going to be created is unknown. In federalism, all federated states have to assume certain relationships between the locality, the region, and the nation that apply not only in politics but in health care too. Managing changes in health care organization during the transitional period and after restructuring the unitary Nepal into federal states should be carefully planned. In case, if new system also fails to deliver necessary health care services, the possibility of igniting of dissatisfaction, public unrest and even disintegration cannot be ignored. In order to outline a structure and give life to a health care system under federalism, health care professionals need to engage themselves seriously.

  3. Role conflicts in nursing and allied health: a comparison of professional and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, L G; Rigolizzo-Gurenlian, J

    1985-02-01

    Role compatibility and conflict between organizational and professional commitment for nurses, high school teachers, college faculty, and social workers have been the focus of several studies over the past two decades. The typical view has been that the professional employee must choose between the profession and the employing organization, since the values of each conflict. Primarily, studies have shown a basic incompatibility between professionals and organizations: the professional is seen as responding to authority based on expertise, while the organization is characterized by authority based on hierarchical position. Since a study of this type has not been conducted in allied health specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine whether bureaucratic and professional role concepts conflict with the allied health professional. Recent graduates and graduates with two years of employment experience representing nursing and four allied health disciplines at one institution were surveyed. Results of the study indicated that the respondents were able to maintain a high degree of professional commitment without perceiving undue conflict from the demands of the organization. Based on the findings, allied health educators are encouraged to examine the curriculum to ensure graduates are prepared for the realities of employment as well as committed to their respective professions.

  4. Reconciling professional identity: A grounded theory of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L

    2017-12-01

    Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ROLE OF PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY IN SELF-REALIZATION OF PSYCHOLOGISTS-TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S I Kudinov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the problem of the role of professional identity in self-realization of psychologists- teachers. Within the frame of a system-defined approach the research identifies and describes the individual- typological features of the phenomena interesting to us. The works that focus on the study of self-realization are subjected to the analysis, as the result it is noted that in this field there are still gaps in the understanding of this issue. Thus, the study from the perspective of the influence of professional identity on the successful self-realization of the personality is recognized as relevant. In the framework of this study the following assumptions are put forward: there is a relationship between the professional identity and successful self- realization of the personality; the level of formation of professional identity has an impact on the success of personality self-realization; the professional identity not fully formed acts as a barrier for creativity, activity, internality and constructive self- realization; fully formed professional identity provides a high success rate of self-realization. The purpose of this study was to investigate the features of self- realization and professional identity of psychologists-teachers. For the study, we used “Multidimensional questionnaire of personality self-realization” (MQPS by S.I. Kudinov, for the study of professional identity the following methods were used: “Professional identity-marginalism” questionnaire by E.P. Ermolaeva and Methods of measuring professional identity (MMPI by L.B. Schneider. The results obtained were subjected to quantitative analysis. In the article the author relies on the data gathered as a result of a study conducted at the Institute of Education Development of the Republic of Bashkortostan (GAOU DPO IRO RB, city of Ufa. The sample consisted of 142 educational psychologists. As a result of the conducted research, the specific relationship

  6. Does academic dishonesty relate to unethical behavior in professional practice? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Trevor S; Carpenter, Donald D; Finelli, Cynthia J; Passow, Honor J

    2004-04-01

    Previous research indicates that students in engineering self-report cheating in college at higher rates than those in most other disciplines. Prior work also suggests that participation in one deviant behavior is a reasonable predictor of future deviant behavior. This combination of factors leads to a situation where engineering students who frequently participate in academic dishonesty are more likely to make unethical decisions in professional practice. To investigate this scenario, we propose the hypotheses that (1) there are similarities in the decision-making processes used by engineering students when considering whether or not to participate in academic and professional dishonesty, and (2) prior academic dishonesty by engineering students is an indicator of future decisions to act dishonestly. Our sample consisted of undergraduate engineering students from two technically-oriented private universities. As a group, the sample reported working full-time an average of six months per year as professionals in addition to attending classes during the remaining six months. This combination of both academic and professional experience provides a sample of students who are experienced in both settings. Responses to open-ended questions on an exploratory survey indicate that students identify common themes in describing both temptations to cheat or to violate workplace policies and factors which caused them to hesitate in acting unethically, thus supporting our first hypothesis and laying the foundation for future surveys having forced-choice responses. As indicated by the responses to forced-choice questions for the engineering students surveyed, there is a relationship between self-reported rates of cheating in high school and decisions to cheat in college and to violate workplace policies; supporting our second hypothesis. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrates connections between decision-making about both academic and professional dishonesty. If better

  7. The role of professional knowledge in case-based reasoning in practical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Gloeckner, Claire; Fortunato, Angela

    2015-06-01

    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one's professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: (1) Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. (2) Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. (3) The non-research group--students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student's level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills.

  8. How we developed a role-based portfolio for teachers' professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyörälä, Eeva

    2014-09-01

    Faculty development requires practical tools for supporting teachers' professional development. In a modern medical education context, teachers need to adapt to various educational roles. This article describes how a role-based portfolio with a qualitative self-assessment scale was developed. It strives to encourage and support teachers' growth in different educational roles. The portfolio was developed between 2009 and 2012 at the University of Helsinki in dialogue with teachers involved in faculty development. It is based on the role framework presented by Harden and Crosby. Today, it also involves the educational premises of constructive alignment, reflection and a scholarly approach to teaching. The role-based portfolio has led the teachers to discover new educational roles and set goals in their professional development.

  9. Design of formative assessment model for professional behavior using stages of change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Akram; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Shirazi, Mandana; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. This study was conducted to design a model for formative assessment of professional commitment in medical students according to stages of change theory. Methods: In this qualitative study, data were collected through literature review & focus group interviews in the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2013 and analyzed using content analysis approach. Results: Review of the literature and results of focus group interviews led to design a formative assessment model of professional commitment in three phases, including pre-contemplation, contemplation, and readiness for behavior change that each one has interventional and assessment components. In the second phase of the study, experts' opinion collected in two main categories: the educational environment (factors related to students, students' assessment and educational program); and administrative problems (factors related to subcultures, policymakers or managers and budget). Moreover, there was a section of recommendations for each category related to curriculum, professors, students, assessments, making culture, the staff and reinforcing administrative factors. Conclusion: This type of framework analysis made it possible to develop a conceptual model that could be effective on forming the professional commitment and behavioral change in medical students.

  10. The role of leadership in organizational behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mojić Dušan

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with defining leadership as one of the basic determinants of behavior in organizations. It points to the increasing importance of the discipline of organizational behavior (OB), which is devoted, as an interdisciplinary field of study, to better understanding and managing human side of the work. Three basic levels of analysis in OB are individual, group and organizational level. Leadership represents the key variable of organizational behavior, which is predominantly determin...

  11. The main problem solving differences between high school and university in mathematical beliefs and professional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akhlaghi Garmjani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching science and math has been underdeveloped in nurturing the talents and motivations of young people who are in search of professions in these fields. Identifying and strengthening the students' problem solving beliefs and behaviors, can be a great help to those involved in teaching mathematics. This study investigates on the university and high school students, teachers and professors' problem solving beliefs and behaviors. Considering the research method, this study is a field research in which questionnaire is used. Participants in this research were senior high school and university students, math teachers and math professors. Data collection method for beliefs and behavior variables was via the use of a questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney test results showed that problem solving in high school and university was different and the main difference was in mathematical professional beliefs and behaviors.

  12. Individual Behavior: In-role and Extra-role

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Behavior, as a variable, has caused widespread concerns in various disciplines. Based on different perspectives, different disciplines define it differently. Based on the different interpretations of behavior in various disciplines, this research defines the individual behavior of the employee as ¡°a series of dynamic reactions of the employee, as a member of the organization, to the internal and the external environmental stimulates¡±. On the basis of previous studies, this research tries to...

  13. Misconceptions about traumatic brain injury among U.S. Army behavioral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Lonnie S

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the knowledge and misconceptions about traumatic brain injury (TBI) held by behavioral health care professionals providing services to an active-duty military population. Active duty U.S. Army psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses from locations across the Department of Defense, and behavioral health professionals from a major military hospital (N = 181) were surveyed on 19 common myths and misconceptions about TBI (Gouvier, Prestholdt, & Warner, 1988). Eight new items were added to the survey to more specifically assess misconceptions pertaining to mild TBI (mTBI). Mean percentages for the subcomponents of the questionnaire suggested that responses were generally accurate for general information about brain damage (83.61% correct) but less accurate for unconsciousness (45.81%), amnesia or memory loss (53%), and recovery items (64.8%). The total percent correct was 51% on the new mTBI items with a sizable minority of the sample viewing mTBI as being associated with lengthier recovery and poorer outcome than what has been indicated by recent research. Overall, misconceptions, particularly about mTBI, are prevalent among U.S. Army behavioral health providers. These findings raise concern about the dissemination of TBI information to health care professionals in the U.S. Army and to military personnel who may not be receiving accurate information about TBI recovery. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2010-01-01

    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  15. Emerging Roles for Librarians in the Medical School Curriculum and the Impact on Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the impact on professional identity for health sciences librarians participating in the curriculum revision and development process. A qualitative survey, designed to examine the current roles, values, and self-identification of health sciences librarians involved in curricular revision, was conducted. The respondents discussed how they had participated in the planning, implementation, and rollout phases of revised curricula. They identified skills and values essential to successful participation and described the impact of expanded professional relationships on new identities as educators, change agents, and problem solvers. The study may add to the knowledge base of skills and attitudes needed for successful practice in these newly emerging roles.

  16. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGERS: PROFESSIONAL PROFILE AND THE ROLE IN THE CROSS-FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia de Abreu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management can be seen as a way to achieve integration of all corporate functions. In practice, Supply Chain Management is complex and characterized by numerous activities spread over multiple functions and organizations, which pose challenges to reach effective implementation. Based on literature review, the objective of this paper is to present the theoretical indications regarding professional profile recommended for the Supply Chain Management and discuss the role of these professionals in cross-functional business processes. The literature review demonstrated a growing interest in the thematic, especially because the “soft” aspects (human and behavioral to achieve supply chain internal and external integration. All functions must be involved in Supply Chain Management and supply chain managers have a critical role to play: challenge the supremacy of functions in the organizational structure, implementing the practice of "horizontal work" through cross-functional teams. Overall, this research contributes to academic and practical professionals by the description of the job profile of the supply chain managers and presentation of forms to achieve internal integration.

  17. Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care: Consulting, Coordinating and Collaborating Among Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah J; Davis, Melinda; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Gunn, Rose; Hall, Jennifer; deGruy, Frank V; Peek, C J; Green, Larry A; Stange, Kurt C; Pallares, Carla; Levy, Sheldon; Pollack, David; Miller, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    This paper sought to describe how clinicians from different backgrounds interact to deliver integrated behavioral and primary health care, and the contextual factors that shape such interactions. This was a comparative case study in which a multidisciplinary team used an immersion-crystallization approach to analyze data from observations of practice operations, interviews with practice members, and implementation diaries. The observed practices were drawn from 2 studies: Advancing Care Together, a demonstration project of 11 practices located in Colorado; and the Integration Workforce Study, consisting of 8 practices located across the United States. Primary care and behavioral health clinicians used 3 interpersonal strategies to work together in integrated settings: consulting, coordinating, and collaborating (3Cs). Consulting occurred when clinicians sought advice, validated care plans, or corroborated perceptions of a patient's needs with another professional. Coordinating involved 2 professionals working in a parallel or in a back-and-forth fashion to achieve a common patient care goal, while delivering care separately. Collaborating involved 2 or more professionals interacting in real time to discuss a patient's presenting symptoms, describe their views on treatment, and jointly develop a care plan. Collaborative behavior emerged when a patient's care or situation was complex or novel. We identified contextual factors shaping use of the 3Cs, including: time to plan patient care, staffing, employing brief therapeutic approaches, proximity of clinical team members, and electronic health record documenting behavior. Primary care and behavioral health clinicians, through their interactions, consult, coordinate, and collaborate with each other to solve patients' problems. Organizations can create integrated care environments that support these collaborations and health professions training programs should equip clinicians to execute all 3Cs routinely in practice

  18. The Role of Health Information Management Professionals in the Use of Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in healthcare has expanded rapidly. Although the use of GIS has increased quickly, very little consensus has been reached on which healthcare professionals are best suited to be trained in and use GIS. A moderate amount of research has addressed the use of GIS in healthcare, but very little research has addressed selecting and training healthcare professionals in the area of GIS. As the use of GIS becomes more closely tied to electronic health records (EHRs), the thought arises that those best versed in EHRs, health information management (HIM) professionals, would be best suited to take on the GIS role. This mixed-methods study explored the current status of HIM professionals' role in GIS as well as the extent to which GIS is being taught in health information educational programs. Although the findings indicate that few HIM professionals are currently using GIS in their jobs and few HIM programs are currently teaching GIS, there is interest in GIS in the future for HIM professionals and in HIM educational programs.

  19. Graduates' development of interprofessional practice capability during their early socialisation into professional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C Jane

    2017-07-01

    Graduates entering the healthcare workforce can expect to undertake interprofessional practices, requiring them to work at the intersection of knowledge and practice boundaries that have been built over years of socialisation in their respective professions. Yet, in complex health environments, where health challenges go beyond the knowledge and skills of any single profession, there is a growing concern that healthcare practitioners lack capability to collaborate with each other. This article presents the findings from a year-long hermeneutic phenomenological study of graduates' temporal experiences of practice roles in their respective fields of healthcare and in collaboration with other professions. Research findings emerged through an inductive analytic process using thematic analysis techniques and provides an insight into graduates' early professional practice in contemporary healthcare contexts and the development of their professional practice at the interface of professional boundaries. The 18 graduates from six health professions developed their professional practice in working contexts where intersecting professional boundaries resulted in strengthening professional identity in their chosen professions, through articulating distinct knowledge and skills to other professions during collaborative work. Concurrently they established flexible working relationships with members of other professions, resulting in expanding health perspectives and extending practice knowledge and skills beyond their distinct professions. The study provides new understanding of the relationship between areas of professionalism, identity, and collaborative practice in an evolving health workforce, through the experiences of graduates in their early work as registered health practitioners.

  20. Guiding role of typical cases in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the change of the concept of graduate enrollment, the recruiting proportion of clinical medicine professional degree graduate students is more and more, and the training of professional degree graduate students is increasingly focusing on practical. In our experience in clinical training for ophthalmology professional degree graduate students, increasing the ward clinical practice time is important. For particular emphasis on the guiding role of the typical cases, each professional group combined their professional characteristics of the typical cases to instruct the graduate students, training their clinical diagnosis and treatment ability, training their microsurgical techniques. From clinical medical writing, record summary, literature review, professional degree graduate students could expand their knowledge structure, practice their thesis writing ability. Based on the typical cases, expansion of knowledge coverage, they could improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment for special disease cases. In this rigorous training system, professional degree graduate students can learn by analogy, and focus on typical cases to get the most intuitive panoramic understanding of the diseases, with a minimum of time to master the most clinical knowledge, to enrich clinical experience, and to lay the foundation for future work in the assessment.

  1. Identifying and Intervening with Students Exhibiting Signs of Gaming Addiction and Other Addictive Behaviors: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Young, Tabitha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses strategies professional school counselors can use to recognize and intervene with students who are presenting with signs of addictive behaviors. First, the authors present a definition of addictive behaviors. The authors then define and discuss the most common addictive behaviors impacting adolescents, with a special…

  2. Physicians' views on the professional roles of pharmacists in patient care in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awalom, Merhawi Teklai; Kidane, Medhanie Elias; Abraha, Biruck Woldai

    2013-10-01

    A collaborative relationship between physicians and pharmacists is crucial in the patient oriented role of pharmacists. In order to get an optimal patient outcome, strong cooperation between pharmacists and physicians is necessary. It is evident that in patient-oriented activities of pharmacists, their roles should be appropriately perceived and welcomed by physicians. This survey, thus, aimed to explore the perception of Eritrean physicians towards the professional roles of pharmacists in patient care. The study was conducted in all hospitals in Asmara. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to the physicians working in Asmara hospitals. The instrument contained questions to evaluate the physicians' level of agreement using a 5-point Likert type scale. Opinions of physicians on the professional role of pharmacists. Out of the 55 questionnaires distributed 50 were completed and returned, giving a response rate of 90.91 %. Most of the physicians accepted the reprofessionalization of pharmacy profession (88 %); majority disagreed that pharmacists are using their full potential in patient care (60 %); physicians strongly agreed or agreed that they should accept pharmacists' recommendations on patients' medication (96 %). Generally the physicians appreciated the professional role of pharmacists in patient care. They agreed with the idea of re-professionalization of pharmacy into patient care. For conclusive evidence nationwide study is recommended.

  3. Health promoting practices and personal lifestyle behaviors of Brazilian health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Hidalgo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the lifestyle behaviors and health promoting practices of physicians, nurses, and community health workers in Brazil. Methods A random sample of primary health care units in Brazil was selected, and a pretested questionnaire was administered via phone interviews, in 2011, to 182 physicians, 347 nurses, and 269 community health workers, totaling 798 health professionals. The total initial sample included 1600 eligible health professionals. Variables measured included physical activity, alcohol intake, hours of sleep, diet, and perceived self-efficacy to provide preventive counseling on related lifestyle behaviors. Results More than 25 % of physicians, nurses, and community health workers reported eating 0–2 portions of fruits and vegetables per day. In terms of cervical and breast cancer, nurses reported to be ‘very prepared’ to advise patients on these topics more frequently than physicians. The prevalence of smoking ranged from 4.9 % among nurses to 7.4 % among community health workers. The proportion of physical inactivity ranged from 40.3 % among nurses to 52.1 % among community health workers. Conclusion A reasonably high proportion of physicians, nurses, and community health workers report not engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors that impact chronic diseases, thus, they may be less likely to encourage such behaviors in their patients.

  4. The second-to-fourth digit ratio correlates with aggressive behavior in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perciavalle, Valentina; Di Corrado, Donatella; Petralia, Maria Cristina; Gurrisi, Lino; Massimino, Simona; Coco, Marinella

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that high levels of testosterone during prenatal life, testified by a low second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), as well as in adulthood affect the aggressive behavior of professional soccer players. Using 18 male professional players from a first level Italian Soccer Team we calculated: i) the 2D:4D ratio of the right hand, ii) the number of yellow and red cards per game, iii) the mean salivary testosterone concentration (Sal/T) and iv) the handling of aggressive impulses as assessed by the Picture Frustration test (PFT). Soccer players with a lower 2D:4D ratio had a higher number of fouls per game. A significant negative correlation was observed between Sal/T and 2D:4D ratio, as well as between 2D:4D ratio and the aggressiveness of players. By contrast, a significant positive correlation of Sal/T and fouls/game score and PFT was detected. No significant correlation was detected between 2D:4D or Sal/T and the playing position of players. Results of this study revealed that in professional soccer players, aggressive behavior, with the consequent increased risk of fouls during the game, is more likely to occur in individuals with high testosterone levels, not only in adulthood, but also during their intrauterine life.

  5. Personality as a predictor of professional behavior in dental school: comparisons with dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, T C; Catano, V M; Cunningham, D P

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of personality measures to predict the success of dental students (N = 87) in clinical and academic courses and to compare their personality profiles to those of dental practitioners (N = 130). A second purpose of the study was to develop a new criterion measure, the Student Professionalism Scale, based on competencies previously identified as necessary for professional success. The Canadian Dental Aptitude Test (DAT) predicted first-year, preclinical academic success; the DAT Reading Comprehension component predicted third-year clinical performance; and Perceptual Ability, the ability to deal with two- and three-dimensional objects, predicted student professionalism. Results from the personality measure indicated that Conscientiousness and Neuroticism, and to a lesser extent Agreeableness, were significant predictors of both first-year academic performance and professional behavior. In comparing the personality profiles of dental students to dental practitioners, students who were more similar to the dentists did better in their first year of coursework. Implications of the findings are discussed in the context of the dental admissions process.

  6. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  7. Professional Role Expectations and Related Feelings When Solving Pedagogical Dilemmas: A Comparison of Pre- and In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toompalu, Aivi; Leijen, Äli; Kullasepp, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' professional identity development. Using Dialogical Self Theory and a socio-cultural semiotic mediational perspective, we focused on pre- and in-service teachers' communication of professional role expectations and related feelings when solving pedagogical dilemmas to reveal aspects of their professional identity…

  8. A Mixed-Methods Study Examining the Role of the Instructional Coach within a Professional Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Christie L.

    2016-01-01

    Although instructional coaching and professional learning communities provide ongoing, job-embedded support and professional learning, little is known about what role the instructional coach serves within the setting of the professional learning community or what coaching skills teachers find most helpful within this setting. Research examining…

  9. The Impact of Training on School Professionals' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Regarding HIV/AIDS and Adolescent Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remafedi, Gary

    1993-01-01

    Examines the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) training on 129 secondary school professionals. Training focused on adolescents and homosexuality. Results indicate the trained professionals increased knowledge and tolerance, exhibited constructive behaviors, and were more likely to teach about…

  10. Teacher Design Teams as a Strategy for Professional Development: The Role of the Facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becuwe, Heleen; Tondeur, Jo; Pareja Roblin, Natalie; Thys, Jeroen; Castelein, Els

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to explore the role and importance of the facilitator in teacher design teams. The study took place in the context of a pre-service teacher education institution in Belgium, where teacher design teams were set up to facilitate the professional development of teacher educators. The findings from focus-group…

  11. Special Education Trainee Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional World: Motives, Roles, and Expectations from Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Bella

    2017-01-01

    To open a window into perceptions entailed in the professional world view of special education teacher trainees, three research questions were developed: (a) What are their motives for joining the profession? (b) How do they perceive the role of the special education teacher? and (c) What are their expectations from teacher training? The research…

  12. Moving Theory to Practice: One State's Role in Professional Learning for School and District Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine-Shaw, Donna

    2016-01-01

    As a continuum of professional learning for building and district leaders transitioning from leadership preparation programs into practice, the state of Kansas enacted mentoring and induction requirements as part of their role in supporting development of leadership skills important to on-the-job application of essential knowledge. One approved…

  13. The Changing Roles and Identities of Professional Managers in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitchurch, Celia

    2007-01-01

    Professional managers in UK universities represent an increasingly diverse grouping of staff. As boundaries blur between academic activity and the contributory functions required to deliver that activity in mass higher education systems and markets, their roles have become more fluid. Quasi-academic territories are developing in which professional…

  14. Networking for Learning The role of Networking in a Lifelong Learner's Professional Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, Kamakshi

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation discusses the role the social activity of networking plays in lifelong learners’ professional and personal continuous development. The main hypothesis of this thesis is that networking is a learning strategy for lifelong learners, in which conversations are key activities through

  15. Teacher Educators' Professional Journeys: Pedagogical and Systemic Issues Affecting Role Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braund, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Teacher educators in many countries share similar concerns as they aspire to improve education for learners and stimulate interest in further study and careers. The roles and professional development of school teachers have been researched, but little attention has been given to teacher educators. Using a small-scale, illuminative study in England…

  16. Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barra, Luca

    2013-01-01

    abstractWith the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay

  17. The Role the Collegiate American Marketing Association Plays in Professional and Entrepreneurial Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Scovotti, Carol; Pointer, Lucille

    2008-01-01

    Professional student organizations offer members a wide range of learning opportunities for applied marketing experiences. Little research exists in the marketing education literature on the role student organizations play in preparing their members for life beyond school. Understanding what students seek as members of such organizations and how…

  18. Collaborative IT Offshoring Relationships and Professional Role Identities: Reflections from a Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Angelika; Ravishankar, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    While IT offshoring has generated heated debates both in scholarly circles and in the popular press, its impact on professional role identities and career experiences of situated individuals in both onshore and offshore locations has received much less attention. In this paper, we present a qualitative case study featuring a large global German…

  19. The Impact of Inbreeding and Immobility on the Professional Role and Scholarly Performance of Academic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Jeffrey E.

    This paper explores the effects of limited experience resulting from professional immobility on faculty teaching and research role orientations and faculty productivity. The correlates of institutional inbreeding treated as a form of immobility are examined. Data are provided from a large-scale, nationally representative survey of college and…

  20. The Role of Mentors in the Career Development of Young Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cheryl A.; Wright, Scott D.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the literature on mentoring including benefits and costs, issues related to women and minorities, and the role of mentoring in the academic community. Emphasizes the need for peer-mentoring in the academic community. Emphasizes the need for peer-mentoring relationship for young professionals in addition to professor-graduate student…

  1. Teacher Perceptions of Professional Role and Innovative Teaching at Elementary Schools in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Lun; Li, Feng-Chin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the association between primary school teachers' perceptions of professional role and their innovative teaching in Central Taiwan. Quantitative research methods were employed, and data were collected from 554 Central Taiwanese teachers. The results of the present study indicated that elementary school…

  2. Professional Role and Identity of Icelandic Preschool Teachers: Effects of Stakeholders' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Arna H.; Coleman, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the reality of Icelandic preschool teachers who are, as in most other countries, predominantly female. The gendered nature of the role and the current identity adopted by preschool teachers appear to impact on their perceived status and professionalism. In this process, stakeholders in early childhood education (ECE),…

  3. The Role of Elective Courses in Students' Professional Development: Foreign Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movchan, Larysa; Zarishniak, Inna

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the role of elective courses in professional development of students of economics. Modern European education is developing on the principles of democratization and humanization, where democratization implies the involvement of all agents/participants of the education process into forming its content and solving numerous…

  4. Teachers' Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Examining the Boundary between In-Role Behavior and Extra-Role Behavior from the Perspective of Teachers, Principals and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belogolovsky, Elena; Somech, Anit

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how different stakeholders in school (principals, teachers, parents) conceptualize teachers' role breadth, i.e., whether they define given behaviors commonly assumed to be OCBs as in-role or extra-role behaviors. Drawing on a survey of 29 principals, 245 teachers and 345 parents, the results showed that principals and teachers…

  5. Behavior change interventions and policies influencing primary healthcare professionals' practice-an overview of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Jeyaraman, Maya M; Mann, Amrinder Singh; Lys, Justin; Skidmore, Becky; Sibley, Kathryn M; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2017-01-05

    There is a plethora of interventions and policies aimed at changing practice habits of primary healthcare professionals, but it is unclear which are the most appropriate, sustainable, and effective. We aimed to evaluate the evidence on behavior change interventions and policies directed at healthcare professionals working in primary healthcare centers. Study design: overview of reviews. MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), The Cochrane Library (Wiley), CINAHL (EbscoHost), and grey literature (January 2005 to July 2015). two reviewers independently, and in duplicate, identified systematic reviews, overviews of reviews, scoping reviews, rapid reviews, and relevant health technology reports published in full-text in the English language. two reviewers extracted data pertaining to the types of reviews, study designs, number of studies, demographics of the professionals enrolled, interventions, outcomes, and authors' conclusions for the included studies. We evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies using the AMSTAR scale. For the comparative evaluation, we classified interventions according to the behavior change wheel (Michie et al.). Of 2771 citations retrieved, we included 138 reviews representing 3502 individual studies. The majority of systematic reviews (91%) investigated behavior and practice changes among family physicians. Interactive and multifaceted continuous medical education programs, training with audit and feedback, and clinical decision support systems were found to be beneficial in improving knowledge, optimizing screening rate and prescriptions, enhancing patient outcomes, and reducing adverse events. Collaborative team-based policies involving primarily family physicians, nurses, and pharmacists were found to be most effective. Available evidence on environmental restructuring and modeling was found to be effective in improving collaboration and adherence to treatment guidelines. Limited evidence on nurse-led care approaches were found

  6. Implementation of interprofessional learning activities in a professional practicum: The emerging role of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Isabelle; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; St-Denis, Louise; Lebel, Paule

    2015-01-01

    To prepare future healthcare professionals to collaborate effectively, many universities have developed interprofessional education programs (IPE). Till date, these programs have been mostly courses or clinical simulation experiences. Few attempts have been made to pursue IPE in healthcare clinical settings. This article presents the results of a pilot project in which interprofessional learning activities (ILAs) were implemented during students' professional practicum and discusses the actual and potential use of informatics in the ILA implementation. We conducted a pilot study in four healthcare settings. Our analysis is based on focus group interviews with trainees, clinical supervisors, ILA coordinators, and education managers. Overall, ILAs led to better clarification of roles and understanding of each professional's specific expertise. Informatics was helpful for developing a common language about IPE between trainees and healthcare professionals; opportunities for future application of informatics were noted. Our results support the relevance of ILAs and the value of promoting professional exchanges between students of different professions, both in academia and in the clinical setting. Informatics appears to offer opportunities for networking among students from different professions and for team members' professional development. The use of technology facilitated communication among the participants.

  7. Role Perceptions and Satisfaction with Leader Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Philip J.; Enns, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a study of the levels of personal and job satisfaction experienced by employees in the central office of a large urban school system as they responded to the leader behavior of their immediate superiors. The study tests aspects of propositions put forward in Path-Goal Theory. (Author/IRT)

  8. An exploration of role model influence on adult nursing students' professional development: A phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate

    2016-02-01

    Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Achieving patient-centred care: the potential and challenge of the patient-as-professional role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Rebecca L; Short, Alison; Kenning, Annie; Dugdale, Paul; Nugus, Peter; McGowan, Russell; Greenfield, David

    2015-12-01

    The patient-as-professional concept acknowledges the expert participation of patients in interprofessional teams, including their contributions to managing and coordinating their care. However, little is known about experiences and perspectives of these teams. To investigate (i) patients' and carers' experiences of actively engaging in interprofessional care by enacting the patient-as-professional role and (ii) clinicians' perspectives of this involvement. A two-phased qualitative study. In Phase 1, people with chronic disease (n = 50) and their carers (n = 5) participated in interviews and focus groups. Phase 2 involved interviews with clinicians (n = 14). Data were analysed thematically. Patients and carers described the characteristics of the role (knowing about the condition, questioning clinicians, coordinating care, using a support network, engaging an advocate and being proactive), as well as factors that influence its performance (the patient-clinician partnership, benefits, barriers and applicability). However, both patients and carers, and clinicians cautioned that not all patients might desire this level of involvement. Clinicians were also concerned that not all patients have the required knowledge for this role, and those who do are time-consuming. When describing the inclusion of the patient-as-professional, clinicians highlighted the patient and clinician's roles, the importance of the clinician-patient relationship and ramifications of the role. Support exists for the patient-as-professional role. The characteristics and influencing factors identified in this study could guide patient engagement with the interprofessional team and support clinicians to provide patient-centred care. Recognition of the role has the potential to improve health-care delivery by promoting patient-centred care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The protective role of prosocial behaviors on antisocial behaviors: the mediating effects of deviant peer affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Gustavo; Mestre, Maria Vicenta; McGinley, Meredith M; Tur-Porcar, Ana; Samper, Paula; Opal, Deanna

    2014-06-01

    Prosocial behaviors, actions intended to help others, may serve a protective function against association with deviant peers and subsequent delinquent and antisocial behaviors. The present study examined the relations among specific types of prosocial behaviors, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquent and aggressive behaviors. Six hundred and sixty-six adolescents (46% girls; M age = 15.33, SD = .47) from Valencia, Spain completed questionnaires of prosocial behaviors, affiliation with deviant peers, antisocial behaviors, and aggression. Results showed that antisocial behaviors were negatively related only to specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Further analyses showed that deviant peer affiliation mediated the relations between compliant prosocial behavior and delinquency and aggression. Although altruism was not directly related to delinquency and aggression, it was indirectly linked to the behaviors via deviant peer affiliation. Discussion focuses on the relevance of specific forms of prosocial behaviors to antisocial behaviors and the risk of deviant peers for prosocial youth. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of sport medicine professionals in addressing psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation: professional athletes' views

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    .... Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis...

  12. An Analysis of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Among Air Force Information Management Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Server in the Enterprise 6. MCP - Internetworking with MS TCP/IP on MS Win NT 4.0 7. MCP - Implementing and Supporting MS IIS 4.0 8. CompTIA ...Network+ Certified Professional (2001) 9. CompTIA A+ Hardware Certified Professional (2002, includes Win2K); I am qualified in the following: 1. Panduit...following: 1. CompTIA A+ Course: http://www.comptia.org/certification/aplus/index.htm 2. CompTia Network+ Course: http://www.comptia.org/certification

  13. The Role of Social Media Advertising in Consumer Buying Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel; Ahmad Ammoura

    2016-01-01

    .... This study has been designed to answer main question about the role of social media advertising on consumer buying behavior in very active field which is fashion retail industry, then determine...

  14. The Role of Social Media Advertising in Consumer Buying Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel; Ahmad Ammoura

    2017-01-01

    .... This study has been designed to answer main question about the role of social media advertising on consumer buying behavior in very active field which is fashion retail industry, then determine...

  15. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol-Cuadra, Assumpció; Galbany-Estragué, Paola; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció; Burjales-Martí, Maria Dolors; Rodríguez-Martín, Dolors; Ballester-Ferrando, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships. METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities. RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances. CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum. PMID:26312637

  16. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpció Rigol-Cuadra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships.METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities.RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances.CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum.

  17. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (pcounseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  18. A systematic review of evidence about extended roles for allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Kathryn; Kersten, Paula; George, Steve; Lattimer, Val; Breton, Alice; Ellis, Bridget; Kaur, Dawn; Frampton, Geoff

    2006-10-01

    Extending the role of allied health professionals has been promoted as a key component of developing a flexible health workforce. This review aimed to synthesize the evidence about the impact of these roles. A systematic review of extended scope of practice in five groups: paramedics, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, radiographers, and speech and language therapists. The nature and effect of these roles on patients, health professionals and health services were examined. An inclusive approach to searching was used to maximize potential sources of interest including multiple databases, 'grey' literature and subject area experts. An expanded Cochrane Collaboration method was used in view of the anticipated lack of randomized controlled trials and heterogeneity of designs. Papers were only excluded after the search stage for lack of relevance. A total of 355 papers was identified as meeting relevance criteria and 21 studies progressed to full review and data extraction. The primary reason for exclusion from data extraction was that the study included neither qualitative nor quantitative data or because methodological flaws compromised data quality. It was not possible to evaluate any pooled effects as patient health outcomes were rarely considered. A range of extended practice roles for allied health professionals have been promoted and are being undertaken, but their health outcomes have rarely been evaluated. There is also little evidence as to how best to introduce such roles, or how best to educate, support and mentor these practitioners.

  19. Self-regulatory Behaviors and Approaches to Learning of Arts Students: A Comparison Between Professional Training and English Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Min-Chen; Chen, Chia-Cheng

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the self-regulatory behaviors of arts students, namely memory strategy, goal-setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, environmental structuring, learning responsibility, and planning and organizing. We also explored approaches to learning, including deep approach (DA) and surface approach (SA), in a comparison between students' professional training and English learning. The participants consisted of 344 arts majors. The Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire and the Revised Learning Process Questionnaire were adopted to examine students' self-regulatory behaviors and their approaches to learning. The results show that a positive and significant correlation was found in students' self-regulatory behaviors between professional training and English learning. The results indicated that increases in using self-regulatory behaviors in professional training were associated with increases in applying self-regulatory behaviors in learning English. Seeking assistance, self-evaluation, and planning and organizing were significant predictors for learning English. In addition, arts students used the deep approach more often than the surface approach in both their professional training and English learning. A positive correlation was found in DA, whereas a negative correlation was shown in SA between students' self-regulatory behaviors and their approaches to learning. Students with high self-regulation adopted a deep approach, and they applied the surface approach less in professional training and English learning. In addition, a SEM model confirmed that DA had a positive influence; however, SA had a negative influence on self-regulatory behaviors.

  20. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  1. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in cognition and behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, F.A.; Jonker, C.; Scheltens, P.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a crucial role in behavior and is a common site for damage due to different types of injuries, e.g., closed head injuries, cerebrovascular accidents, tumors, neurosurgical interventions. Despite the (severe) behavioral changes following OFC lesions, persons with

  2. The changing role of health care professionals in nursing homes: A systematic literature review of a decade of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stenis, A.R. (Arend R.); J. Van Wingerden (Jessica); Tanke, I.K. (Isolde Kolkhuis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAlthough, the role of health care professionals is known to have changed over the last years, few formal efforts have been made to examine this change through means of a scientific review. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the changing role of health care professionals

  3. [Role of biological training in the formation of professional capacities in parasitologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Abdiukhina, T I; Imamkuliev, K D; Pautova, E A

    2013-01-01

    A competence approach is the methodological basis for a new educational system. Fundamental training in the formation of physicians' professional capacities plays a crucial and more increasing role in the structure of medical education. Biology as a fundamental natural science discloses the regularities of emergence and development, as well as essential conditions for life maintenance. The investigation has determined the didactic bases (goals and content) of a system for biological training of parasitologists in continuing medical education, which ensure the formation of their professional capacities. A set of methodical conditions for implementing the system of the physicians' biological training in postgraduate and advanced medical education as a tool to upgrade the quality of parasitologists' professional training has been determined.

  4. Invisible Mediations: The Role of Adaptation and Dubbing Professionals in Shaping US TV for Italian Audiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Barra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing global circulation of media products, professionals devoted to the process of audiovisual translation and ‘national mediation’ for foreign ready-made programmes have gained a central role in contemporary TV. Presenting the results of an ethnographical study, this essay explores the ‘invisible art’ of TV adaptation and dubbing, explaining its procedures, traditions and challenges. Adaptation has to consider both the technical necessities of the audio-visual and cross-cultural aspects of translation, while dubbing involves extremely intricate production routines, professionals with different skills, written and unwritten rules, a range of different workplaces, economic investments and traditions. The result is a new text, modified following contrasting linguistic, cultural and professional goals.

  5. Professional Education, Training and Role of the Cardiac Sonographer in Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Irene; Barletta, Valentina; Conte, Lorenzo; Fabiani, Iacopo; Morgantini, Alessandro; Lastrucci, Giovanna; Bello, Vitantonio Di

    2013-01-01

    Performing a good echocardiographic examination requires intensive training and highly qualified technical staff personnel, which, in many countries, is represented by the Cardiac Sonographer. Being an operator-dependent diagnostic method, a long debate has been held to help identifying the most appropriate curriculum for the training of this professional profile. Although guidelines for the education of the Cardiac Sonographers have been suggested by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) several years ago and many scientific publications have given credibility, trust and enhance to this professional profile in Italy, this figure is not yet recognized by the National Health System. It is encouraging that in the last decade, national authorities, such as the SIEC (Società Italiana di Ecografia Cardiovascolare), have expressed interest in recognizing the Cardiac Sonographers as professionals in our country. Per their guidelines, the Cardiocirculatory Physiopathology Cardiovascular Perfusion technicians (TFCPCs) seem to be, among the professionals, the most suitable, due to their educational training and the role they play. Taking inspiration from the positive experience of this professional figure in the USA and in the Anglo Saxon countries, it could aims to be a valid support in terms of cost and quality for the Italian health system. PMID:28465879

  6. Does Sex Role Behavior Influence the Way Teachers Evaluate Students?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Michael E.

    1979-01-01

    Teachers read and rated a description of either a male or female student who demonstrated either masculine or feminine sex role behavior, and whose major course of study was either English or physics. Student sex role influenced both teachers' perceptions of students and their evaluation of student writing. (Author/RD)

  7. The Role of the Administrative Professional in the Management of Complex Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Piscopo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As a profession that dates back the scribes’ time, the secretariat has significantly evolved over time but research on this field seems not to follow the practitioners’ role. Nowadays, the specialization required from the administrative professional involves not only the previously skills that for long time characterized the secretary’s job but also a set of new ones that are more related to the organization’s management. They may include but are not limited to enabling results in a wide sense as getting involved in change management, creativity and entrepreneurship, productivity increasing plans, cost cutting actions, and project management. Due to the complexity that characterizes the business environment and companies’ projects, this article aims at investigating the role of the administrative professional in the management of complex projects. As an exploratory research, three case studies have been conducted with global companies in which complex projects are part of their reality and the administrative professional is officially existent. Findings show that the involvement of this professional has been very positive to project performance due to the way he supported the project manager and the project team. Both secretary’s hard and soft skills were of great importance to project performance, especially communication, negotiation, and attitude. The executive secretariat has moved from an operational to a strategic perspective. To continue growing in the profession the secretary needs to improve his knowledge on project management.

  8. Changing Health Professionals' Attitudes and Practice Behaviors Through Interprofessional Continuing Education in Oral-Systemic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, Stephanie; Hein, Casey; Walsh, Tanya; MacDonald, Laura; Grymonpre, Ruby; Sisler, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Integration of oral-systemic science into clinical care holds promise for improving patient outcomes and presenting opportunities for individuals in various health care professions to learn with, from, and about each other. The aim of this study was to examine whether an interprofessional continuing education program dedicated to oral-systemic health improved participants' attitudes toward interprofessional education and collaboration between dental and non-dental health care professionals and whether it influenced the physicians' practice of screening for debilitating oral diseases. The study took place in 2014 and used a mixed-methods approach, consisting of Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) surveys conducted before, immediately after, and six months after the intervention, as well as surveys of self-reported practice behaviors and semi-structured interviews. A total of 231 health care professionals participated in the lectures and roundtable discussions. Of those, 134 responded to the pre-program survey (58% response rate), 110 responded to the post-program survey (48% response rate), and 58 responded to the survey six months after the program (25% response rate). The participants' median total RIPLS score at baseline was 76.5, which increased significantly immediately following the program (81.0) but returned to baseline six months later (76.5). Participants' RIPLS domain scores also increased significantly by profession from before to after the event, with effects returning to baseline after six months. Significantly more physicians reported screening for caries and periodontal disease after the intervention. An overall theme of "learning with, from, and about each other" was drawn from the interviews with 15 participants. The physicians took away a message of "just look in the mouth," while the dental professionals reported feeling valued as members of the health care team. Although reported improvements in oral-systemic health practice

  9. Chinese preservice teachers’ professional identity links with education program performance: The roles of task value belief and learning motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Yan eZhang; Skyler eHawk; Xiaohui eZhang; Hongyu eZHAO

    2016-01-01

    AbstractProfessional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic ...

  10. Chinese Preservice Teachers’ Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning...

  11. Managing professionals: The emerging leadership role of Victorian Maternal and Child Health coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiger, Kerreen; Keleher, Helen

    2004-04-01

    Drawing on research into cultural and organizational change in the Victorian Maternal and Child Health Service during the 1990s, this paper examines implications for the nursing leadership provided by service coordinators. The project included a quantitative survey of nurses and semistructured interviews with managers and coordinators. Under a strongly neo-liberal state government in Victoria, Australia, services were fundamentally restructured through tendering processes. A competitive, productivist culture was introduced that challenged the professional ethos of nurses and a primary health orientation to the care of mothers and infants. This paper focuses on the pressures that the entrepreneurial environment presented to maternal and child health nurses' identity and collegial relations and to the coordination role. It argues that coordinators emerged as a significant nursing management group at the interface of administrative change and the management of professional practice. Although many nurses skillfully negotiated tensions with peers and management, their leadership role needs further clarification and support.

  12. Extra-role behavior modelling: personality concept and the role of servant leadership

    OpenAIRE

    ISMAIL VERNI Y.; ARMANU A.; HADIWIDJOJO DJUMILAH; INDRAWATI NUR KHUSNIYAH

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, extra-role behavior has become one of the important outcomes for organization. Because in order to achieve their success; organizations need employees who are willing to do more work than what they are supposed to do. The purpose of this article is to develop extra-role behavior model based on personality concept as employee’s internal factor, and the role of servant leadership in organizational environment. Personality concept is developed using two approaches, namely traits approa...

  13. Impact and role of justice types and identification on extra role behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Salojärvi, Samuli

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the role and impact of different types of organizational justice and multi-level identification on employees’ discretionary behavior. At the workplace, requirements of a job are typically defined by the role one is performing. Extra role behavior is understood as that part of employee’s discretionary contribution, which is not driven by explicit job description or rewarding structure, but still benefits the organization. Social Identity is considered to be ...

  14. Exploring the utility of measures of critical thinking dispositions and professional behavior development in an audiology education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Stella L; Bartlett, Doreen J; Lucy, S Deborah

    2013-05-01

    Discussions about professional behaviors are growing increasingly prevalent across health professions, especially as a central component to education programs. A strong critical thinking disposition, paired with critical consciousness, may provide future health professionals with a foundation for solving challenging practice problems through the application of sound technical skill and scientific knowledge without sacrificing sensitive, empathic, client-centered practice. In this article, we describe an approach to monitoring student development of critical thinking dispositions and key professional behaviors as a way to inform faculty members' and clinical supervisors' support of students and ongoing curriculum development. We designed this exploratory study to describe the trajectory of change for a cohort of audiology students' critical thinking dispositions (measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory: [CCTDI]) and professional behaviors (using the Comprehensive Professional Behaviors Development Log-Audiology [CPBDL-A]) in an audiology program. Implications for the CCTDI and CPBDL-A in audiology entry-to-practice curricula and professional development will be discussed. This exploratory study involved a cohort of audiology students, studied over a two-year period, using a one-group repeated measures design. Eighteen audiology students (two male and 16 female), began the study. At the third and final data collection point, 15 students completed the CCTDI, and nine students completed the CPBDL-A. The CCTDI and CPBDL-A were each completed at three time points: at the beginning, at the middle, and near the end of the audiology education program. Data are presented descriptively in box plots to examine the trends of development for each critical thinking disposition dimension and each key professional behavior as well as for an overall critical thinking disposition score. For the CCTDI, there was a general downward trend from time point 1 to

  15. Longitudinal mentorship to support the development of medical students? future professional role: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kal?n, Susanne; Ponzer, Sari; Seeberger, Astrid; Kiessling, Anna; Sil?n, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background Mentoring has been employed in medical education in recent years, but there is extensive variation in the published literature concerning the goals of mentoring and the role of the mentor. Therefore, there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the meaning of mentoring for medical students? learning and development. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore how formal and longitudinal mentoring can contribute to medical students? professional development. Methods Sixte...

  16. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1989-02-01

    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  17. Extended roles for allied health professionals: an updated systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxon RL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Robyn L Saxon,1–3 Marion A Gray,1,2 Florin I Oprescu1,2 1School of Health and Sports Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, 2Cluster for Health Improvement, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, 3Queensland Health, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Background: Internationally, health care services are under increasing pressure to provide high quality, accessible, timely interventions to an ever increasing aging population, with finite resources. Extended scope roles for allied health professionals is one strategy that could be undertaken by health care services to meet this demand. This review builds upon an earlier paper published in 2006 on the evidence relating to the impact extended scope roles have on health care services. Methods: A systematic review of the literature focused on extended scope roles in three allied health professional groups, ie, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology, was conducted. The search strategy mirrored an earlier systematic review methodology and was designed to include articles from 2005 onwards. All peer-reviewed published papers with evidence relating to effects on patients, other professionals, or the health service were included. All papers were critically appraised prior to data extraction. Results: A total of 1,000 articles were identified by the search strategy; 254 articles were screened for relevance and 21 progressed to data extraction for inclusion in the systematic review. Conclusion: Literature supporting extended scope roles exists; however, despite the earlier review calling for more robust evaluations regarding the impact on patient outcomes, cost-effectiveness, training requirements, niche identification, or sustainability, there appears to be limited research reported on the topic in the last 7 years. The evidence available suggests that extended scope practice allied health practitioners could be a cost-effective and consumer

  18. Using Insights from Applied Moral Psychology to Promote Ethical Behavior Among Engineering Students and Professional Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Scott D

    2016-10-01

    In this essay I discuss a novel engineering ethics class that has the potential to significantly decrease the likelihood that students (and professionals) will inadvertently or unintentionally act unethically in the future. This class is different from standard engineering ethics classes in that it focuses on the issue of why people act unethically and how students (and professionals) can avoid a variety of hurdles to ethical behavior. I do not deny that it is important for students to develop cogent moral reasoning and ethical decision-making as taught in traditional college-level ethics classes, but as an educator, I aim to help students apply moral reasoning in specific, real-life situations so they are able to make ethical decisions and act ethically in their academic careers and after they graduate. Research in moral psychology provides evidence that many seemingly irrelevant situational factors affect the moral judgment of most moral agents and frequently lead agents to unintentionally or inadvertently act wrongly. I argue that, in addition to teaching college students moral reasoning and ethical decision-making, it is important to: 1. Teach students about psychological and situational factors that affect people's ethical judgments/behaviors in the sometimes stressful, emotion-laden environment of the workplace; 2. Guide students to engage in critical reflection about the sorts of situations they personally might find ethically challenging before they encounter those situations; and 3. Provide students with strategies to help them avoid future unethical behavior when they encounter these situations in school and in the workplace.

  19. Analysis of health professional security behaviors in a real clinical setting: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Sánchez-Henarejos, Ana; Toval, Ambrosio; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Hernández-Hernández, Isabel; Fernandez-Luque, Luis

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the security behavior of healthcare professionals in a real clinical setting. Standards, guidelines and recommendations on security and privacy best practices for staff personnel were identified using a systematic literature review. After a revision process, a questionnaire consisting of 27 questions was created and responded to by 180 health professionals from a public hospital. Weak passwords were reported by 62.2% of the respondents, 31.7% were unaware of the organization's procedures for discarding confidential information, and 19.4% did not carry out these procedures. Half of the respondents (51.7%) did not take measures to ensure that the personal health information on the computer monitor could not be seen by unauthorized individuals, and 57.8% were unaware of the procedure established to report a security violation. The correlation between the number of years in the position and good security practices was not significant (Pearson's r=0.085, P=0.254). Age was weakly correlated with good security practices (Pearson's r=-0.169, P=0.028). A Mann-Whitney test showed no significant difference between the respondents' security behavior as regards gender (U=2536, P=0.792, n=178). The results of the study suggest that more efforts are required to improve security education for health personnel. It was found that both preventive and corrective actions are needed to prevent health staff from causing security incidents. Healthcare organizations should: identify the types of information that require protection, clearly communicate the penalties that will be imposed, promote security training courses, and define what the organization considers improper behavior to be and communicate this to all personnel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the role of health informatics professionals in saudi arabia: the need for collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkraiji, Abdullah I; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Saudi health authorities have acknowledged the role of health informatics professionals in improving the quality of medical services in Saudi Arabia. Different academic programs have been launched by different universities and medical colleges to produce qualified Saudi health informatics professionals. To date, there are no studies that have explained the role of health informaticians and their contribution towards the development of the Saudi health information infrastructure. In this study, the authors clarify health informatics practices and the different skills and job activities accomplished by health informaticians. With the growth in the number of Health Informatics programs within the country, there is a need to identify the current and future of HI professionals and to specify and clearly define the type of job titles describing health informatics roles. The Saudi HI educational programs need to work on linking their program objectives with a Saudi Health Informatics Career Framework (SHICF) and labor market needs. Ignoring such an important issue may result in unemployed Saudi HI graduates or HI graduates working in related fields other than HI.

  1. Exploring perceptions of healthcare professionals in the implementation of a new professional role of clinical telehealth coordinator within a university integrated healthcare network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Carine; Desrochers, Johanne; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Richer, Marie-Claire

    2010-06-01

    As telehealth networks develop across Canada, new professional roles start to emerge. A university healthcare center part of an integrated health network has identified the need to introduce a clinical coordinator for specialized telehealth programs. However, very little is found in the current literature about the description or core competencies that such a professional should possess as well as the ways to implement this role. The objective of this study was to explore how healthcare professionals (HCPs) involved in a specialized teleoncology program perceive a new clinical telehealth coordinator (CTC) role within a university integrated healthcare network (UIHN) in a metropolitan area in Québec, Canada. A descriptive qualitative design was used and a purposive sample of nine HCPs, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists who were members of a UIHN teleoncology committee, was recruited. The HCPs identified that the CTC was a multifaceted role. The core competencies identified by the HCPs included knowledge, expertise, and experience. Participants identified three key factors in the implementation of this role, namely, the structural support, having a common language, and making the implementation of this role relevant. The results suggest that this CTC role may be more complex than originally expected and that the diverse competencies suggest an expanded nature to this role. This has important implications for administrative strategies when addressing the key factors in the implementation of this role.

  2. EFFECTS OF A PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON BEHAVIORAL ENGAGEMENT OF STUDENTS IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREGORY, ANNE; ALLEN, JOSEPH P.; MIKAMI, AMORI Y.; HAFEN, CHRISTOPHER A.; PIANTA, ROBERT C.

    2017-01-01

    Student behavioral engagement is a key condition supporting academic achievement, yet student disengagement in middle and high schools is all too common. The current study used a randomized controlled design to test the efficacy of the My Teaching Partner-Secondary program to increase behavioral engagement. The program offers teachers personalized coaching and systematic feedback on teachers’ interactions with students, based on systematic observation of videorecordings of teacher-student interactions in the classroom. The study found that intervention teachers had significantly higher increases, albeit to a modest degree, in student behavioral engagement in their classrooms after 1 year of involvement with the program compared to the teachers in the control group (explaining 4% of variance). In exploratory analyses, two dimensions of teachers’ interactions with students—their focus on analysis and problem solving during instruction and their use of diverse instructional learning formats—acted as mediators of increased student engagement. The findings offer implications for new directions in teacher professional development and for understanding the classroom as a setting for adolescent development. PMID:28232767

  3. The role of sustained professional development in science teacher renewal and retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Janice Dawn

    The Texas Regional Collaboratives for Excellence in Science Teaching (TRC) is a sustained professional development program serving over 700 teachers in Texas. The teacher participants receive over 105 contact hours of professional development each year. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TRC professional development program in science teacher renewal and retention. Sixty current and former members of the TRC were intentionally selected and surveyed to determine the impact of the program on science teacher renewal. One-on-one interviews were also conducted with selected participants to verify and describe their respective TRC experiences. Study participants averaged 13.4 years of teaching experience and 3.3 years participating in the TRC program. Findings revealed teachers joined the TRC program to enhance the learning of their students, remained in the program for the classroom lessons and materials and left the program due to family reasons. Findings also revealed six factors impacting science teacher renewal: Building confidence in teaching ability; creating professional environments; providing classroom materials; providing current information on statewide issues; providing leadership opportunities; and providing networking opportunities. These factors impacting renewal are supported in literature on science teacher retention and renewal and are all important for science teacher renewal to occur.

  4. The role of fencing in the formation of professional competence of future teachers in the sphere of physical culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriventsova I.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Here the notion of professional competence of future teachers in the sphere of physical culture is defined. It is proved that in a training of a teacher of any specialty a big part is assigned to knowledge, skills, facilities and experience in the sphere of physical culture. The ways of forming professional competence in the sphere of physical culture among future teachers are shown. The role and facilities of fencing in the forming professional competence are disclosed.

  5. Body mass index, nutritional knowledge, and eating behaviors in elite student and professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Hutchings, Kate M; Wells, Abigail; Nevill, Alan M

    2014-09-01

    It is recognized that there is a high esthetic demand in ballet, and this has implications on dancers' body mass index (BMI) and eating behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine the association between BMI, eating attitudes, and nutritional knowledge of elite student and professional ballet dancers. Observational design. Institutional. One hundred eighty-nine participants from an elite full-time dance school (M = 53, F = 86) and from an elite ballet company (M = 16, F = 25) volunteered for the study. There were no exclusion criteria. Anthropometric data (height and mass), General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), and the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) were collected from each participant. Univariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences in gender and group for BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Regression analyses were applied to examine interactions between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Professional dancers had significantly greater BMI than student dancers (P Student dancers had a significant interaction between year group and gender because of significantly higher EAT-26 scores for females in years 10 and 12. Regression analysis of the subcategories (gender and group) reported a number of significant relationships between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. The findings suggest that dancers with disordered eating also display lower levels of nutritional knowledge, and this may have an impact on BMI. Female students' eating attitudes and BMI should especially be monitored during periods of adolescent development.

  6. The roles of policy and professionalism in the protection of processed clinical data: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Theadom, Alice; Dhoul, Neil

    2007-04-01

    Routinely collected clinical data is increasingly used for health service management, audit, and research. Even apparently anonymised data are subject to data protection. The relevant principles were set out in a treaty of the Council of Europe and subsequent policy has been based on these. However, little has been written about implementing policy and the role of health informaticians in this process. To define the elements of an effective implementation policy; the role of the health informatician in protecting processed clinical data. We performed a literature review of bibliographic databases, a manual search of the major medical informatics associations' websites, relevant working groups and an affiliated journal. Fifty-four papers relevant to implementation were identified. The effective implementation of policy requires consideration of technical, organisational, personnel and professional issues. However, there is no clearly defined formula for successful implementation of data protection policy. Patients and professionals need a system they can trust, and processes that can be easily incorporated into everyday practice. The lack of a core generalisable theory or strong professional code in health informatics limits the ability of the health informaticians to implement policy.

  7. The role of trait emotional intelligence in predicting networking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Torres-Coronas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The purpose of this paper is to obtain evidence of the relation between entrepreneur proactive networking behavior and trait emotional intelligence to support transition towards entrepreneurial careers. Design/methodology/approach – The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short form (TEIQue-SF, developed by Cooper and Petrides (2010, was used to test hypotheses on the factors that define a proactive use of a professional network and their relationship with the individual level of trait emotional intelligence and its four components (well-being, self-control, emotionality and sociability. A questionnaire was sent to local entrepreneurs to verify whether trait emotional intelligence act as a predictor of proactive networking behavior. Theoretical foundation – We will be using Petrides and Furnham’s (2001 trait EI definition and EI will be studied within a personality framework (Petrides, 2001, Petrides & Furnham, 2001, 2006, 2014. Findings – Final findings partially confirms research hypothesis, with some components of EI (well-being and self-control factors showing a significant positive correlation with proactive networking behavior. This indicates that entrepreneurs’ ability to regulate emotions influences their networking behavior helping them to succeed in their business relationships. Practical implications – The present study provides a clear direction for further research by focusing on how trait emotional intelligence affects social networking behavior amongst entrepreneurs, thus demonstrating the utility of using trait EI to evaluate high potential entrepreneurs.

  8. The Association between Television-Viewing Behaviors and Adolescent Dating Role Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Lebo, Melanie J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations.…

  9. Against professionalizing leadership: the roles of self-formation and practical wisdom in leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Svane, Marita Susanna

    2018-01-01

    misconceives the role of leadership education to be only a question of acquiring epistemic (rational and universal) knowledge and skills while it fails to acknowledge technê as craft and art and local and situated awareness and sensitivity. Practical wisdom involves all dimensions. Leadership education......Based on the concepts self-formation and phronesis (practical wisdom), this chapter argues against professionalizing leadership. Professionalization implies rules, guidelines, procedures, and accreditation standards in relation to contents, curricula and the pedagogy of education. It thus...... is important because of its potential to nurture a creative, critical and responsible relation to the world. Leadership thus requires a practice-based educational program and a “free space” for experimentation, reflection and self-formation, which is inconsistent with turning leadership into a profession....

  10. Integrating information literacy into the education of public health professionals: roles for librarians and the library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobus, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews the core competencies for public health professionals presented in the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century; describes improving information literacy (IL) as a mechanism for integrating the core competencies in public health education; and showcases IL as an opportunity for solidifying partnerships between academic librarians and public health educators. The IOM competencies, along with explicit examples of library support from a literature review of current IL trends in the health sciences, are analyzed. Librarians can play a fundamental role in implementing the IOM's core competencies in shaping public health education for the twenty-first century. A partnership between public health educators and librarians through a transdisciplinary approach is recommended. IL skills and competencies integrated into public health curricula through a collaborative partnership between public health educators and librarians can help integrate the IOM's core competencies and improve public health education.

  11. Supporting transition to law school and student well-being: The role of professional legal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Field

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The empirically established decline in law student well-being during the first year of law school is a red-flagged imprimatur for first year curriculum change. This article suggests that by engaging law students with the concept of a positive professional identity, student engagement and intrinsic motivation will increase because they are working towards a career goal that has meaning and purpose. Law school is a time of professional transformation and the legal academy can take steps to ensure that this transformation is inculcated with positive messages. Literature from the fields of law and psychology is analysed in this article, to explain how a positive conception of the legal profession (and a student’s future role within it can increase a student’s psychological well-being – at law school and beyond.

  12. The Emergence of Hybrid Professional Roles: GPs and secondary school teachers in a context of public sector reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, Wiljan; van Gestel, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    Responding to recent calls for more context and history in studying (semi-)professionals in the public sector, this article examines the emergence of hybrid professional roles along with large scale reforms of Dutch healthcare and education since 1965. Using a theoretical framework based on public

  13. The Role of Elective Courses in Students′ Professional Development: Foreign Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movchan Larysa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of elective courses in professional development of students of economics. Modern European education is developing on the principles of democratization and humanization, where democratization implies the involvement of all agents/participants of the education process into forming its content and solving numerous related problems. Moreover, in order to be competitive in global labour market, modern specialists must develop such features as mobility, cultural, language and religious empathy, professionalism, commitment to the human virtues, etc. The content of education expressed in the curriculum is now not a rigid unity. Offering elective courses, university curricula can be easily modified to the students′ needs and aspirations. The analysis of the curricula of the economic faculties at some leading European universities has showed a great amount of elective courses mainly in general subjects such as Psychology, Pedagogy, Philosophy, History, Politology, Social Science, etc. These courses make up approximately 10 % of the total study load and are meant to realize interdisciplinary links, deepen students′ understanding of economic phenomena and develop analytical and strategic thinking. On the one hand, by choosing elective courses students are more agitated in learning, more interested and motivated. On the other hand, universities think harder over the supply of subjects and their content. At the same time, it increases lecturers′ motivation to consider new approaches, update information, and on the whole do their best to make their subjects appealing to students. The research has proved that elective courses realize an important role in students′ professional and personal development by integrating knowledge of many subjects, through their participation in tailoring the curricula and enriching their professional portfolio.

  14. Job crafting among health care professionals: The role of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-10-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of job crafting on the quality of the work environment of health care professionals. Job crafting refers to proactive behavior aimed at optimizing the fit between person and job. Using job demands-resources theory, we hypothesized that job crafting would be positively related to job resources and person-organisation fit, and negatively to hindrance demands. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these relationships would be qualified by work engagement. A total of 5,272 health care professionals from one of 35 different organisations filled out an electronic questionnaire (response is 55%). Regression analyses were used to test hypotheses. Consistent with hypotheses, job crafting in the form of increasing job resources was positively related to opportunities for development, performance feedback and P-O fit; and negatively related to hindrance job demands - particularly when work engagement was high. The combination of job crafting and work engagement is important for the realization of a resourceful work environment and fit between person and organisation. Interventions aimed at fostering job crafting should be tailored to the motivation of health care professionals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Roles and Performance of Professional Driving Instructors in Novice Driver Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulhaidi M. Jawi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This review article aimed to analyse existing literature regarding the roles and performance of professional driving instructors (PDIs in novice driver education (DE. A systematic classification scheme was adopted to analyse identified articles to determine the study context of PDIs in novice DE, the competency level of PDIs in relation to experienced and learner drivers and the contributions of PDIs to the novice driver learning process. A total of 14 original research articles were identified, with no systematic reviews or meta-analyses available. Overall, all of the articles were found to be inadequate in providing an in-depth understanding of the roles and performance of PDIs in novice DE. There is an urgent need to improve current understanding of the roles of PDIs in novice DE and to work towards an internationally recognised PDI management approach.

  16. The role of attribution and self-perception in behavior change: implications for behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopel, S; Arkowitz, H

    1975-11-01

    In this report extrapolations were made to behavior therapy from two related lines of social-psychological research: attribution and self-perception. A review of the relevant research literature on attribution suggested that (a) the perception and causal attribution of physiological arousal is an important determinant of emotional behavior and (b) self-attribution of behavior change increases the likelihood of maintenance of that change. A review of research concerned with Bem's self-perception theory indicated that inferences arising from self-observation of one's own overt behaviors may affect subsequent behavior, attitudes, and beliefs. These two lines of research converge in suggesting that an individual's perception of himself (in terms of overt behavior, situational circumstances, and physiological states) may have a marked influence on behavior change and the maintenance of that change. In the major body of this paper the implications of this research are discussed, particularly in terms of new procedures and specific modifications for existing procedures in behavior therapy. The major areas of behavior therapy discussed include: (a) behavioral assessment; (b) role playing (behavior rehearsal); (c) operant procedures; and (d) self-control strategies. Emphasis was placed upon treating the specific implications delineated as hypotheses requiring empirical investigation in the clinical arena. Strategies for such research were outlined.

  17. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  18. Temperament and Peer Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterry, Terry W.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Gartstein, Maria A.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether children's social behavior mediated the associations between specific dimensions of temperament and peer acceptance, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. We also explored the role of child's age on the associations between temperament and social functioning. Primary caregiver reports of temperament…

  19. Role of health care professionals in multidisciplinary pain treatment facilities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Philip; Stinson, Jennifer N; Choiniere, Manon; Dion, Dominique; Intrater, Howard; LeFort, Sandra; Lynch, Mary; Ong, May; Rashiq, Saifee; Tkachuk, Gregg; Veillette, Yves

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the role of health care professionals in multidisciplinary pain treatment facilities (MPTF) for the treatment of chronic pain across Canada. METHODS: MPTF were defined as clinics that advertised specialized multidisciplinary services for the diagnosis and management of chronic pain, and had staff from a minimum of three different health care disciplines (including at least one medical specialty) available and integrated within the facility. Administrative leaders at eligible MPTF were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire on their infrastructure as well as clinical, research, teaching and administrative activities. RESULTS: A total of 102 MPTF returned the questionnaires. General practitioners, anesthesiologists and physiatrists were the most common types of physicians integrated in the MPTF (56%, 51% and 32%, respectively). Physiotherapists, psychologists and nurses were the most common nonphysician professionals working within these MPTF (75%, 68% and 57%, respectively), but 33% to 56% of them were part-time staff. Only 77% of the MPTF held regular interdisciplinary meetings to discuss patient management, and 32% were staffed with either a psychologist or psychiatrist. The three most frequent services provided by physiotherapists were patient assessment, individual physiotherapy or exercise, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The three most common services provided by psychologists were individual counselling, cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic therapy. The major roles of nurses were patient assessment, assisting in interventional procedures and patient education. CONCLUSION: Different health care professionals play a variety of important roles in MPTF in Canada. However, few of them are involved on a full-time basis and the extent to which pain is assessed and treated in a truly multidisciplinary manner is questionable. PMID:19225605

  20. The sustainability of improvements from continuing professional development in pharmacy practice and learning behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Karen J; Delate, Thomas; Newlon, Carey L

    2015-04-25

    To assess the long-term sustainability of continuing professional development (CPD) training in pharmacy practice and learning behaviors. This was a 3-year posttrial survey of pharmacists who had participated in an unblinded randomized controlled trial of CPD. The online survey assessed participants' perceptions of pharmacy practice, learning behaviors, and sustainability of CPD. Differences between groups on the posttrial survey responses and changes from the trial's follow-up survey to the posttrial survey responses within the intervention group were compared. Of the 91 pharmacists who completed the original trial, 72 (79%) participated in the sustainability survey. Compared to control participants, a higher percentage of intervention participants reported in the sustainability survey that they had utilized the CPD concept (45.7% vs 8.1%) and identified personal learning objectives (68.6% vs 43.2%) during the previous year. Compared to their follow-up survey responses, lower percentages of intervention participants reported identifying personal learning objectives (94.3% vs 68.6%), documenting their learning plan (82.9% vs 22.9%) and participating in learning by doing (42.9% vs 14.3%) in the sustainability survey. In the intervention group, many of the improvements to pharmacy practice items were sustained over the 3-year period but were not significantly different from the control group. Sustainability of a CPD intervention over a 3-year varied. While CPD-trained pharmacists reported utilizing CPD concepts at a higher rate than control pharmacists, their CPD learning behaviors diminished over time.

  1. Understanding Extra-Role Behavior in Schools: The Relationships between Job Satisfaction, Sense of Efficacy, and Teachers' Extra-Role Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2000-01-01

    Explored the construct of extra-role behavior in schools, examining relationships between extra-role behavior and job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and collective efficacy. Surveys of elementary teachers highlighted three facets of extra-role behavior corresponding to three levels of the school system (student, team, and organization). There were…

  2. The Crucial Role of Amateur-Professional Networks in the Golden Age of Large Surveys (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. E.

    2017-06-01

    (Abstract only) With ongoing projects such as HATNet, SuperWASP, KELT, MEarth, and the CoRoT and Kepler/K2 mission, we are in a golden era of large photometric surveys. In addition, LSST and TESS will be coming online in the next three to five years. The combination of all these projects will increased the number of photometrically monitored stars by orders of magnitude. It is expected that these surveys will enhance our knowledge of circumstellar architecture and the early stages of stellar and planetary formation, while providing a better understanding of exoplanet demographics. However, the success of these surveys will be dependent on simultaneous and continued follow up by large networks. With federal scientific funding reduced over the past few years, the availability of astronomical observations has been directly affected. Fortunately, ground based amateur-professional networks like the AAVSO and the KELT Follow-up Network (KELT-FUN) are already providing access to an international, independent resource for professional grade astronomical observations. These networks have both multi-band photometric and spectroscopic capabilities. I provide an overview of the ongoing and future surveys, highlight past and current contributions by amateur-professional networks to scientific discovery, and discuss the role of these networks in upcoming projects.

  3. PUBLICATION ACTIVITY AND ITS ROLE IN ASSESSMENT OF PROFESSIONAL ENGAGEMENT OF HEI ACADEMIC STAFF (RUSSIAN PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Ardashkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze and summarize the Russian best practices of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the professional activity of the academic staff; to identify the role of motivational factors as a method to manage and control the publication activity of the academic staff.Methods. The authors address the methodology of comprehensive research based on the method of document analysis, comparative analysis, and method of secondary use of sociological and psychological data.Results and scientific novelty concludes in presenting Russian and international best practices generalized on using the publication activity to assess the engagement of HEI (Higher Educational Institution academic staff; the most appropriate formats of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the research component of the academic staff engagement are defined. Degree of reliability of this criterion is shown – its strengths and shortcomings. The conclusion is drawn on need of the essential changes in management of publication activity affecting both professional and motivational spheres of scientific and pedagogical staff. The most acceptable options of measurement of staff work efficiency of this category are formulated.Practical significance. The research outcomes can be the corpus for designing the assessment method for the professional engagement of the academic staff.

  4. Pharmacist professionals in the prevention of drug abuse: updating roles, and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arantes Wagner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to prepare and provide resources to pharmacists and other healthcare professionals, enabling them to carry out a critical analysis on drug abuse, acquiring knowledge in several areas that effectively contribute to their personal development in this professional field. Professionals play a crucial role in the reduction and prevention of substances abuse, since they are able to advise patient about illicit drugs, psychotropic medicines and alcohol abuse. There is an urgent need to specialize pharmacists to act in the national public health service and contribute to actions aimed at the surrounding community.Esse artigo tem o intuito de preparar e fornecer subsídios a farmacêuticos e outros profissionais de saúde a realizarem uma análise crítica sobre o abuso de drogas adquirindo conhecimento em diversas áreas que contribuam para o seu próprio desenvolvimento nesse campo de atuação. O profissional é fundamental na redução e prevenção ao abuso de substâncias, pois é capaz de aconselhar pacientes sobre o abuso de drogas ilícitas, medicamentos psicotrópicos e álcool. Há urgência na especialização de farmacêuticos para atuarem na saúde pública nacional contribuindo nas ações dirigidas à comunidade.

  5. Burnout and health among critical care professionals: The mediational role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Oscar; Aparicio-Zaldivar, Eva

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the mediational role of resilience in relationships between burnout and health in critical care professionals; to determine relationships among resilience level, three burnout dimensions, and physical/mental health; and to establish demographic differences in psychological variables evaluated. Cross-sectional study. A total of 52 critical care professionals, mainly nurses, were recruited from an intensive care unit of Madrid (Spain). All participants were assessed with the questionnaires 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Short Form-12 Health Survey. No demographic differences were found. Three burnout dimensions were negatively associated with mental health and resilience. Mediational analyses revealed resilience mediated 1) the relationships between emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation with mental health (partial mediations) and 2) the relationship between personal accomplishment and mental health (total mediation). Resilience minimises and buffers the impact of negative outcomes of workplace stress on mental health of critical care professionals. As a result, resilience prevents the occurrence of burnout syndrome. Resilience improves not only their mental health, but also their ability to practice effectively. It is therefore imperative to develop resilience programs for critical care nurses in nursing schools, universities and health centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of EPO Professionals in Communicating and Teaching the Science of NASA and NSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, D.; Swilley, S.; Andrews, J.

    2008-06-01

    NSF and NASA have similar Education and Public Outreach (EPO) requirements and each endorses an important community of outreach professionals to facilitate broader impact goals. EPO professionals hold a critical role in the national quest for a scientifically and technologically literate population, and are often key connectors between investigators conducting cutting-edge research at NASA and NSF centers, pre-college educators and the public. Each owns unique perspectives on how to translate science and engineering research into effective research-based programs. NASA and NSF center EPO professionals could share lessons learned and best practices to promote efficient and effective education program development and implementation that includes leading scientists and engineers. Both groups could explore collaboration opportunities between the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the National Science Foundation Research Center Educators Network to build on specific strengths and similarities. Through collaboration, each group can better promote recognition of this emerging field and profession. Working together, collaborators will enhance existing expertise, improve job performance, promote standards for this emerging profession, and achieve well-deserved recognition. Collaboration will improve individual ability to meet the higher standards of accountability to which each group is held and improve efforts in this new, flat world.

  7. Oncology patients' and professional nurses' perceptions of important nurse caring behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Azimzadeh, Roghaieh; Rahmani, Azad; Valizadeh, Leila

    2010-06-15

    Caring is the essence of nursing. Caring to be meaningful needs to be based on mutual agreement between nurses and patients as to what constitutes nurse caring behaviors. As a result, healthcare professional can enhance patients' satisfaction of care by providing appropriate caring behavior. However, previous research that combined multiple types of patients, nurses and institutions demonstrated disagreement in prioritizing important behaviors. This paper reports a study that aimed at determining the caring behaviors which oncology patients and oncology nurses perceive to be the most important. This study is a comparative descriptive design that was conducted in an Iranian oncology centre. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 200 patients and 40 nurses to take part in the study. Data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2009 using the Caring Assessment Questionnaire, developed by Larson. Caring behaviors (n = 57) were ranked on a 5-point Likert-type scale and ordered in six subscales: "Being accessible", "Explains and facilitates", "Comforts", "Anticipates", "Trusting relationship", "Monitors and follows through". The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0. The overall mean was calculated for each subscale to determine the rank distribution of the subscales. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test analysis of variables was used to compare patients' and nurses' scores on subscales. The results demonstrate that both groups considered the same order of importance of caring, the high ranking of "Monitors and Follows through and "Being Accessible" and the low ranking of "Comforts" and "Trusting Relationships". Also, Patients only ranked "Being accessible" (p = 0.04) and "Explains and facilitates" (p = 0.03) higher than nurses. The oncology patients and nurses perceived highly physical aspects of caring and the results provide for nurses to be aware of the need, during their interactions with patients, to validate the effect their intended caring

  8. Oncology patients' and professional nurses' perceptions of important nurse caring behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmani Azad

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caring is the essence of nursing. Caring to be meaningful needs to be based on mutual agreement between nurses and patients as to what constitutes nurse caring behaviors. As a result, healthcare professional can enhance patients' satisfaction of care by providing appropriate caring behavior. However, previous research that combined multiple types of patients, nurses and institutions demonstrated disagreement in prioritizing important behaviors. This paper reports a study that aimed at determining the caring behaviors which oncology patients and oncology nurses perceive to be the most important. Methods This study is a comparative descriptive design that was conducted in an Iranian oncology centre. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 200 patients and 40 nurses to take part in the study. Data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2009 using the Caring Assessment Questionnaire, developed by Larson. Caring behaviors (n = 57 were ranked on a 5-point Likert-type scale and ordered in six subscales: "Being accessible", "Explains and facilitates", "Comforts", "Anticipates", "Trusting relationship", "Monitors and follows through". The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0. The overall mean was calculated for each subscale to determine the rank distribution of the subscales. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test analysis of variables was used to compare patients' and nurses' scores on subscales. Results The results demonstrate that both groups considered the same order of importance of caring, the high ranking of "Monitors and Follows through and "Being Accessible" and the low ranking of "Comforts" and "Trusting Relationships". Also, Patients only ranked "Being accessible" (p = 0.04 and "Explains and facilitates" (p = 0.03 higher than nurses. Conclusions The oncology patients and nurses perceived highly physical aspects of caring and the results provide for nurses to be aware of the need, during their

  9. The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in cognition and behavior.

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    Jonker, Frank A; Jonker, Cees; Scheltens, Philip; Scherder, Erik J A

    2015-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a crucial role in behavior and is a common site for damage due to different types of injuries, e.g., closed head injuries, cerebrovascular accidents, tumors, neurosurgical interventions. Despite the (severe) behavioral changes following OFC lesions, persons with damage to the OFC appear to be cognitively intact, i.e., at least when assessed by means of standard neuropsychological tests. Meanwhile, neuropsychological tests addressing reversal learning, gambling, and social cognition show a decline in these patients. The goal of the present review is to link the performance of these latter neuropsychological tests to behavior. The results suggest that in patients with orbitofrontal lesions, reversal learning is more associated with behavioral disinhibition and that impairment in recognition of expressed emotion is more associated with social inappropriate behavior. The faux pas test (theory of mind) appears not to be sensitive to orbitofrontal lesions. Future studies should involve a larger numbers of patients with well-defined locations in the OFC and should integrate specific neuropsychological tests and quantitative behavioral measures to better understand the contribution of the OFC to cognition and behavior.

  10. The mediating role of spirituality on professional values and self-efficacy: a study of senior nursing students.

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    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the significance of spirituality in enhancing self-efficacy related to professional values in senior nursing students. Self-efficacy can predict job satisfaction and performance as professional nurses in clinical settings. Senior nursing students should have the level of self-efficacy that enables them to perform professional roles based on professional values, because they will enter clinical settings immediately after graduation. Spirituality may help senior nursing students during the transition to professional life to reflect on their skills, knowledge and situations to enhance self-efficacy based on professional values. An exploratory, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 194 senior nursing students in South Korea were recruited in 2014. They completed self-reported questionnaires consisting of demographic questions, Spiritual Assessment Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale and Nursing Professional Values inventory. A Sobel test was done to determine the mediating effect of spirituality on the relationship between nursing professional values and self-efficacy. The findings showed a positive correlation between professional values, spirituality and self-efficacy in nursing students. According to the Sobel test, spirituality had a mediating effect on the relationship between professional values and self-efficacy in senior nursing students. Spirituality can be a foundation that provides senior nursing students with higher self-efficacy so that they are able to perform their professional roles based on their professional values. The findings can guide nursing educators to include spiritual development of nursing students to enhance the self-efficacy of senior nursing students, the future of the nursing profession. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Helping Peers Seek Professional Treatment for Depression among Young South Koreans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hae; Choi, Jung Ah; Park, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to understand factors that influence whether young South Koreans help peers with depression to seek professional counseling services. The structural equation modeling on the survey data collected from 191 South Korean students suggests that subjective norms and behavioral…

  12. From judgment to understanding mental health nurses' perceptions of changed professional behaviors following positively changed attitudes toward self-harm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, P.; Kool, N.; Gamel, C.; van Meijel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Nurses experience feelings of frustration, anger and fear when caring for patients who self-harm. Training programmes were developed that aimed to positively influence nurses' knowledge, attitudes and skills. The aim of this study was to investigate professional behavior of mental health nurses with

  13. Impact of Trauma-Informed Care Professional Development on School Personnel Perceptions of Knowledge, Dispositions, and Behaviors toward Traumatized Students

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    Goodwin-Glick, Kelly L.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood trauma is prevalent and has a profound impact on student learning, behaviors, social-emotional well-being (Perfect et al., 2016), physical health, relationships (Tishelman et al., 2010), and brain architecture (Perry, 2001). Trauma-informed care professional development (PD) within the school setting is a relatively new notion for school…

  14. Intention to voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among health professionals in Jimma zone, Ethiopia: the theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective.

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    Abamecha, Fira; Godesso, Ameyu; Girma, Eshetu

    2013-02-15

    Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT) forms one of the cornerstones of HIV prevention strategies. It is imperative to understand HIV testing correlates and their theoretical underpinnings in order to promote VCT uptake. The aim of this study was to predict the intention to VCT and associated factors among health professionals in Jimma zone, Ethiopia using the theory of planned behavior. An institution based cross-sectional quantitative study among a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted in 2012. The constructs and principles of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) were measured. Data were collected using structured questionnaire on self administered basis. A multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of independent variables/TPB constructs on the intention to use VCT using SPSS version 16.0. The components of TPB independently explained the variance in intention to VCT by 30.3%. Both components of TPB and socio-demographic characteristic in the final model explained 32.7% of variance in the intention to use VCT services. Significant proportions (33.0%) of the respondents have never been tested for HIV. The respective indirect components of the TPB predicted the direct components. The strongest predictors of intention to VCT were subjective norm (β=0.39, p<0.001) and attitude (β= 0.19, p<0.001) whereas, none of the socio-demographic variables were significantly predicted the intention to use VCT. Past VCT experience did not have significant statistical association with VCT use intention. Behavioral intention to use VCT was a function of attitude and perceived social pressure. Demographic related social determinants were not barriers for VCT use intention. Most health workers test their blood by themselves. Strategies to empower health professionals on social pressure resistance and programs targeted at changing negative attitude on VCT use can enhance intention of health

  15. Intention to voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among health professionals in Jimma zone, Ethiopia: the theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT) forms one of the cornerstones of HIV prevention strategies. It is imperative to understand HIV testing correlates and their theoretical underpinnings in order to promote VCT uptake. The aim of this study was to predict the intention to VCT and associated factors among health professionals in Jimma zone, Ethiopia using the theory of planned behavior. Methods An institution based cross-sectional quantitative study among a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, Ethiopia was conducted in 2012. The constructs and principles of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) were measured. Data were collected using structured questionnaire on self administered basis. A multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of independent variables/TPB constructs on the intention to use VCT using SPSS version 16.0. Results The components of TPB independently explained the variance in intention to VCT by 30.3%. Both components of TPB and socio-demographic characteristic in the final model explained 32.7% of variance in the intention to use VCT services. Significant proportions (33.0%) of the respondents have never been tested for HIV. The respective indirect components of the TPB predicted the direct components. The strongest predictors of intention to VCT were subjective norm (β=0.39, pintention to use VCT. Past VCT experience did not have significant statistical association with VCT use intention. Conclusions Behavioral intention to use VCT was a function of attitude and perceived social pressure. Demographic related social determinants were not barriers for VCT use intention. Most health workers test their blood by themselves. Strategies to empower health professionals on social pressure resistance and programs targeted at changing negative attitude on VCT use can enhance intention of health professionals to use VCT. PMID:23414398

  16. Reconfiguring health workforce: a case-based comparative study explaining the increasingly diverse professional roles in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette de Bont

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade the healthcare workforce has diversified in several directions with formalised roles for health care assistants, specialised roles for nurses and technicians, advanced roles for physician associates and nurse practitioners and new professions for new services, such as case managers. Hence the composition of health care teams has become increasingly diverse. The exact extent of this diversity is unknown across the different countries of Europe, as are the drivers of this change. The research questions guiding this study were: What extended professional roles are emerging on health care teams? How are extended professional roles created? What main drivers explain the observed differences, if any, in extended roles in and between countries? Methods We performed a case-based comparison of the extended roles in care pathways for breast cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. We conducted 16 case studies in eight European countries, including in total 160 interviews with physicians, nurses and other health care professionals in new roles and 600+ hours of observation in health care clinics. Results The results show a relatively diverse composition of roles in the three care pathways. We identified specialised roles for physicians, extended roles for nurses and technicians, and independent roles for advanced nurse practitioners and physician associates. The development of extended roles depends upon the willingness of physicians to delegate tasks, developments in medical technology and service (redesign. Academic training and setting a formal scope of practice for new roles have less impact upon the development of new roles. While specialised roles focus particularly on a well-specified technical or clinical domain, the generic roles concentrate on organising and integrating care and cure. Conclusion There are considerable differences in the number and kind of extended roles between both countries and care

  17. The role of mental health professionals in gender reassignment surgeries: unjust discrimination or responsible care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Giordano, Simona

    2014-12-01

    Recent literature has raised an important ethical concern relating to the way in which surgeons approach people with gender dysphoria (GD): it has been suggested that referring transsexual patients to mental assessment can constitute a form of unjust discrimination. The aim of this paper is to examine some of the ethical issues concerning the role of the mental health professional in gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). The role of the mental health professional in GRS is analyzed by presenting the Standards of Care by the World Professional Association of Transgender Health, and discussing the principles of autonomy and non-discrimination. Purposes of psychotherapy are exploring gender identity; addressing the negative impact of GD on mental health; alleviating internalized transphobia; enhancing social and peer support; improving body image; promoting resilience; and assisting the surgeons with the preparation prior to the surgery and the patient's follow-up. Offering or requesting psychological assistance is in no way a form of negative discrimination or an attack to the patient's autonomy. Contrarily, it might improve transsexual patients' care, and thus at the most may represent a form of positive discrimination. To treat people as equal does not mean that they should be treated in the same way, but with the same concern and respect, so that their unique needs and goals can be achieved. Offering or requesting psychological assistance to individuals with GD is a form of responsible care, and not unjust discrimination. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  18. The Role of Professional Societies in the Professional Formation of Specialists in Computer Sciences: Experience of Japan

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    Pododimenko, Inna

    2014-01-01

    The most urgent problem of training competitive specialists in higher educational establishments in the conditions of socio-economical dynamics of transformation of Ukraine and its entry into the world society has been considered. On the basis of professional requirements' analysis the row of contradictions and disparities among the specialists in…

  19. A coordinated comprehensive professional development training's effect on summer day camp staff healthy eating and physical activity promoting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Saunders, Ruth P; Beighle, Aaron

    2014-08-01

    The YMCA of USA recently adopted Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Standards for their summer-day- camps (SDCs). Standards call for staff to exhibit HEPA promoting behaviors while eliminating HEPA discouraging behaviors. No studies have evaluated training programs to influence policy specified staff behaviors and related changes in child activity in SDCs. Four YMCA SDCs serving approximately 800 children/week participated in this no control group pre/post pilot study. Professional development training founded in the 5 Ms (Mission, Model, Manage, Monitor, Maximize) and LET US Play principles (lines; elimination; team size; uninvolved staff/kids; and space, equipment, and rules) was delivered to staff. Outcomes were staff promotion behaviors and child activity assessed via systematic observation instruments. Twelve of 17 HEPA staff behaviors changed in the appropriate direction from baseline to postassessment with 5 behaviors reaching statistically significant changes. The percentage of girls and boys observed in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity increased from 15.3% to 18.3% (P > .05) and 17.9% to 21.2%, whereas sedentary behavior decreased from 66.8% to 59.8% and 62.3% to 53.6%, respectively. Evidence suggests that the professional development training designed to assist SDCs to meet the HEPA Standards can lead to important changes in staff behaviors and children's physical activity.

  20. Predicting intention to use voluntary HIV counseling and testing services among health professionals in Jimma, Ethiopia, using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abamecha, Fira; Godesso, Ameyu; Girma, Eshetu

    2013-01-01

    To endorse involvement in voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), it is essential to recognize factors that influence people in deciding whether to access VCT services and their underlying route factors. Theory of planned behavior (TPB) constitutes a proficient framework for predicting behaviors and intentions. The aim of the study reported here was to assess the predicting ability of TPB in determining the intended use of VCT services among health professionals in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. This was an institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study of a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, southwest Ethiopia between February 5 to March 28, 2012. Data were collected using structured questionnaire self-administered by the study participants. A hierarchal multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of TPB constructs that can influence the intention to use VCT services. The constructs of TPB explained the variability in intention to use VCT by 27% (R (2) adjusted = 0.27). The standardized regression coefficients showed that the strongest predictor of intention to use VCT was subjective norms (β = 0.32, P TPB, with perceived social pressure being the leading predictor. In light of this, health intervention programs should be designed to develop health professionals' ability to resist norms that oppose the use of VCT and to change community-held norms against VCT use, provided they help individuals develop a positive attitude toward the services.

  1. Medical students and professionalism - Do the hidden curriculum and current role models fail our future doctors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Gavin Matthew; Wong, Wai-Tat; Ling, Lowell; Lee, Anna

    2017-12-21

    Formal medical curricula aim to promote professionalism through learning from lectures, interactive tutorials and simulations. We report an exploratory voting exercise, conducted within a new integrated professional teaching module, examining the likely influence on students' knowledge and perceptions of truth telling. Responses were collected from cohorts of final year students over a six-year period. Students were asked to pick between two responses to a standardized clinical vignette, firstly the response that they personally thought was the more desirable action, and subsequently the response they believed would most likely result in the context of everyday real-life clinical practice. The difference (proportional change) in voting for "avoid full disclosure" from vote 1 (more desirable action) to vote 2 (likely real-life response) was 50% (95% CI: 36-64%, p curriculum, and the perception generated by the hidden curriculum. Medical Schools should develop strategies to manage the hidden curriculum, prepare clinical teachers to be good role models, and prepare students to be discerning about the hidden curriculum and when choosing role models.

  2. The Differential Role of Smell and Taste For Eating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; de Graaf, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior by focusing on appetite, choice, intake, and satiation. The sense of smell mainly plays a priming role in eating behavior. It has been demonstrated that (orthonasal) odor exposure induces appetite specifically for the cued food. However, the influence of odors on food choice and intake is less clear, and may also depend on awareness or intensity of the odors, or personality traits of the participants. Taste on the other hand, has a clear role as a (macro)nutrient sensing system, during consumption. Together with texture, taste is responsible for eating rate, and thus in determining the oral exposure duration of food in the mouth, thereby contributing to satiation. Results from these experimental studies should be taken to real-life situations, to assess longer-term effects on energy intake. With this knowledge, it will be possible to steer people's eating behavior, as well as food product development, toward a less obesogenic society.

  3. The Influence of Ethical Ideologies on Promotive Extra Role Behaviors and Positive Work Behavior of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Mendeş Pekdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the previous studies on ‘extra-role behavior’, this study focuses especially on ‘promotive extra-role behavior’ as well as ‘positive work behavior’, and explores of ethical ideologies on them. On that framework, this paper aims to achieve the effect of ‘ethical ideologies’ (idealism and relativism on promotive extra-role behaviors (helping and voice and positive work behavior. Moreover, we examine the impact of being high and low idealist personality as well as high and low relativist personality on level of ‘helping extra-role behavior’, ‘voice behavior’, ‘extra-role behavior’, and ‘positive work behaviors’ that individuals exhibit. This paper also aims to explore the influence of demographic variables on helping, voice, and positive work behavior. In order to achieve the goals mentioned, we collected data from 356 MBA students, and used the ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that idealism significantly correlates to helping, voice, and positive work behavior.

  4. The role of relationships in the professional formation of physicians: case report and illustration of an elicitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Hatem, David S; Fecile, Mary Lynn; Stein, Howard F; Haley, Heather-Lyn A; Kimmel, Barbara; Mossbarger, David L; Inui, Thomas S

    2008-09-01

    Studies of physicians' professional development highlight the important effect that the learning environment has in shaping student attitudes, behaviors, and values. The objective of this study was to better understand the interplay among relationships and experiences in mediating the effects of the learning environment. We randomly recruited 2nd- and 4th-year students from among volunteers at each of five medical schools. One interviewer at each school conducted a face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interview with each student. The interviewers used a method called 'life-circle diagramming' to direct the student to draw a picture of all of the relationships in his/her life that had an influence on the sort of doctor that each student saw him/herself becoming. Interviews lasted between 60 and 120 min. Using a narrative framework that focuses on elements of students' stories (e.g., setting, characters, plot), we analyzed transcripts through an iterative process of individual reading and group discussion to derive themes and relationships among themes. Twenty students completed interviews. These students are embedded in complex webs of relationships with colleagues, friends, family, role models, patients, and others. Most students entered medical school with formed notions of what they wanted to 'be like' as physicians. While students generally gravitated toward relationships with like-minded people, their experiences varied, and some students could sense themselves changing as they moved through school. Such changes were often related to important events or issues. The relationships that students found themselves in during the context of these events had an important effect on students' beliefs about what kinds of behaviors and attitudes were possible and desirable in their future practice. Students proceed through medical school embedded in complex webs of relationships that exert a powerful influence (both positive and negative) on their formation as

  5. Structuring Roles and Gender Identities Within Families Explaining Suicidal Behavior in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasrado, Reena A; Chantler, Khatidja; Jasani, Rubina; Young, Alys

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the social structures, culture, gendered roles, and their implications for suicidal behavior in South India. Exploring the cultural process within the structures of family and society to understand suicide and attempted suicide from the perspectives of survivors, mental health professionals, and traditional healers has not been achieved in the existing suicide-related research studies conducted in India to date. This study aimed to explore the cultural implications of attempted suicide by examining the survivors' life stories, their perceptions, and service providers' interpretations of problem situation. A qualitative design was used drawing on constant comparison method and thematic analysis. The analysis was underpinned by the theoretical concepts of Bourdieu's work. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 survivors of attempted suicide, eight mental health professionals, and eight traditional healers from Southern India. The study found interactions among visible and invisible fields such as faith, power, control, culture, family, religion, and social systems to have strengthened the disparities in gender and role structures within families and societies and to have impacted survivors' dispositions to situations. The role of culture in causing suicide and attempted suicide is explained by unraveling the negative impact of interacting cultural and structural mechanisms.

  6. Entitlement and organizational behaviors: the moderating role of narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szalkowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological entitlement (active, passive, and revenge, narcissism and two types of organizational behaviors in employees. Interactions between narcissism and psychological entitlement as predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB were explored. Predictors were analyzed in an effort to determine whether psychological entitlement plays a more destructive role among narcissistic employees than among non-narcissistic ones and whether the effects of narcissism on OCB and CWB are mediated by entitlement. Participants and procedure Data were obtained from 100 employees (34% men aged 22 to 59 years (M = 37.00, SD = 9.30 from public and private companies. Participants were asked to complete the Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale (OCBS, the Counterproductive Organizational Behaviors Scale (COBS, the Entitlement Questionnaire, and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI. Results Positive aspects of entitlement were positively associated with OCB only among narcissistic employees, and active entitlement mediated the effects of narcissism on CWB. Active entitlement was negatively related to CWB. Negative aspects of entitlement were negatively related to OCB and unrelated to CWB. Conclusions This study provides evidence for positive (healthy aspects of entitlement for organizations. The unexpected interaction between narcissism and entitlement in predicting higher levels of OCB suggests that among narcissistic employees, healthy aspects of entitlement are desirable and profitable for an organization. Psychological entitlement was observed to be an important predictor of organizational behaviors beyond narcissism itself.

  7. Unawareness of memory impairment and behavioral abnormalities in patients with Alzheimer's disease: relation to professional health care burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aloucy, M J; Cotteret, R; Thomas, P; Volteau, M; Benmaou, I; Dalla Barba, G

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates the impact of unawareness of deficit (anosognosia) in patients with Alzheimer's disease upon professional health care burden. Cross-sectional study with a consecutive clinical sample from an Alzheimer day-care hospital in France. 65 patients with probable AD, aged from 75 to 94 years old, consecutively admitted at the Alzheimer Day Hospital to complete a program of cognitive stimulation and psychosocial rehabilitation. Each patient was submitted to a standardized evaluation including clinical investigation, cerebral imagery, and neuropsychological assessment. Anosognosia of memory deficit and anosognosia of behavioral disturbances were measured as the "discrepancy scores" between patients' self-reports and family member ratings of patient memory performance and behavioral disturbances. Professional health care burden was assessed with the Professional Health Care Dementia Burden Index (PCDBI; maximal score: 12), designed for this study. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the correlations between the PCDBI and the severity of anosognosia. The findings showed a significant positive correlation between the PCDBI and both anosognosia of memory impairment and behavioral abnormalities (both p at least less than 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between the severity of the burden and the severity of cognitive decline or functional impairment (both p at least>0.05). Anosognosia in Alzheimer disease patients has a negative impact upon the professional caregivers' burden over and above the cognitive deficit and the functional impairments.

  8. Leading Learning: The Role of School Leaders in Supporting Continuous Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John G.; O'Sullivan, Kerry-Ann; Howe, Cathie

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary school settings, leaders seeking to support professional development are faced with many challenges. These challenges call for educators who can undertake professional learning that is continuous and adaptive to change. As a term, continuous professional development (CPD) reflects many different forms of professional development in…

  9. Role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing

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    Mohammad Reza Dehghani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Organizational citizenship behavior has been linked to overall organizational effectiveness, thus these types of employee behaviors have important consequences in the workplace. One of the important consequences of these types of behaviors is knowledge sharing. Thus, the current study examined the role of organizational citizenship behavior in promoting knowledge sharing. Method: A descriptive correlation design was employed in this study. We collected the data from Kharazmi University employees in city of Tehran in 2014. The statistical population consisted of 484 Kharazmi University employees from which 210 persons were selected randomly (using simple random sampling by the Krejcie and Morgan (1978 sample size determination table. Data werecollected through organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire and knowledge sharing questionnaire. To examine the reliability of the questionnaires, Cronbach alpha coefficient was used. These coefficients were 0.80 for attitude toward knowledge sharing and 0.77 for intention to share knowledge. Also, for organizational citizenship behavior it ranged from 0.71 (courtesy to 0.82 (altruism. To determine the validity, content validity method was applied. All descriptive statistics, t-test, Pearson correlation and multiple regression were performed using SPSS 19. Results: The results of t-test indicated that the means of organizational citizenship behavior (mean=2.50 and all its dimensions (altruism: 2.60, conscientiousness: 2.52, sportsmanship: 2.41, courtesy: 2.49, civic virtue: 2.45 among employees were at the moderate level. The results showed that the correlation between organizational citizenship behavior and knowledge sharing was significant (r=0.50, P<0.001. Other results showed that the correlations between knowledge sharing and organizational citizenship behavior dimensions - Altruism (r=0.35, Conscientiousness (r=0.19, Sportsmanship (r=0.46, Courtesy (r=0.39, Civic virtue (r=0

  10. Validation of the behavior and concept based assessment of professionalism competence in postgraduate first-year residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Lee, Wen-Shin; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Huo, Teh-Ia; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Huang, Chia-Chang; Huang, Chin-Chou

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of professional behaviors and concepts of postgraduate first-year (PGY1) residents has been identified as an area for development. This study examined the efficiency of the professionalism-assessing objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), 360° evaluation, and mini-Clinical Examination Exercise scores (mini-CEX; p-OSCE, p-360° evaluation, and p-mini-CEX scores). Between January 2009 and January 2012, 189 PGY1 residents were evaluated for behavior- and concept-based professionalism competence based on the above three methods using two checklists unique to each case. Data were analyzed for reliability, inter-rater agreement, interval changes, and gender-related difference for each method. The test reliabilities of p-OSCE, p-360° evaluation, and p-mini-CEX were acceptable. Further, the reliability of concept and combined p-OSCE was higher than that of behavior p-OSCE. In addition, the concept OSCE p-scores and behavior 360° evaluation p-scores were significantly improved after 6 months of training. The inter-rater agreements were relatively good in p-OSCE and p-360° evaluation. Interestingly, male PGY1 residents had higher behavior 360° evaluation p-scores from nurses than those of females, whereas female PGY1 residents had higher behavior 360° evaluation p-scores from patients than those of males. Behavior and concept OSCE p-scores were positively correlated with behavior 360° evaluation p-scores. In comparison with p-360° evaluation, the combination of p-360° evaluation + OSCE + mini-CEX significantly increases their reliabilities. The current study suggests that the p-OSCE, p-360° evaluation, and p-mini-CEX are feasible methods for evaluating professionalism in clinical training of PGY1 residents. Combination of the above three evaluations, participation, and support from multiple constituencies and multiple representatives provides good reliability and adds credibility in the assessment of professionalism competence. Copyright

  11. The Role of Empathy in Developing Professional Identity of would-be Economists in the home Reading Classroom

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    Maria V. Grineva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the growing professional orientation of all the aspects of foreign language teaching is widely recognized as one of the major trends in the process of enhancing foreign languages curriculum at higher education institutions which specialize in training non-linguistic students majoring in various fields of international relations. Professionally oriented foreign language teaching implies using the foreign language classroom as a source of forming a wide range of professionally meaningful competences (both linguistic and non-linguistic of would-be specialists along with developing their sense of professional identity. Despite the fact that professional identity - usually interpreted as individuals' perception of themselves as members of a certain profession - is the culmination of a long process of professional development, its cultivation with future specialists should be seen as a priority as early as at a higher education level - a college or university. Referring to psychological research, the author states that emotional factors play a decisive role in shaping professional identity at early stages of a person's professional development. It reveals the importance of analyzing the potential of literary texts in a foreign language in terms of their ability to contribute to developing prospective specialists' professional identity, as such texts represent a valuable text material which provokes readers' powerful emotional response and thus triggers empathy. The novel "The Firm" byJ. Grisham and "The Headhunter" byj. Mead were selected by the author for the home reading classroom with would-be economists, as coupled with a competence-based learning aid they allow teachers to create a unique discourse, which facilitates the process of developing students' professional competences and their professional identity. Along with their clear professional content, they appeal to students, as the problems raised in them are relevant to those of

  12. [Health and safety professional roles and competencies to promote company-level integration of preventive actions. A Delphy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual Llorens, Clara; Velarde Collado, José María; Portell Vidal, Mariona; Boix Ferrando, Pere

    2014-01-01

    To describe the view of faculty who train health and safety professionals on the roles and competencies needed to promote the integration of preventive actions at the company level. We used a Delphi method, in three rounds, on an intentional sample of experts, and asked them to rate the appropriateness, relevance and acceptability of 8 professional roles, on a scale of 1 to 9 points. We also asked them to formulate and rank order the corresponding competencies, in order of importance. Participant responses (n=76, 58% of the initially identified faculty) show a broad consensus when assessing professional roles (over 85% of participants rated two of these roles highly, with scores between 7 and 9) and general agreement on the three most important competencies in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes to promote the integration of preventive actions. The experts participating in this study agreed that the main roles to be performed by health and safety professionals to promote prevention integration are as advisors and trainers. The competencies considered most important are knowledge about the company activity, its risks and the problems linked to the activity (to know), ability to work in multidisciplinary teams (to know how), and to perform professional duties ethically, with independence and impartiality (to know how to be). Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  13. Preparing for New and Changing Roles in Research Libraries – the Need for Continuing Professional Development

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    Gitte Larsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that library staff are qualified to offer high quality services to users visiting the physical library. Likewise, it is expected that they have substantial knowledge and skills needed for developing and maintaining electronic services and for dissemination of relevant services and facilities requested by the web-user. Serving remote library users calls for additional competencies, such as marketing, branding and communications skills in the electronic environment as well as knowledge of measuring and evaluation of the use of electronic services. It is a challenge to the staff to match particular needs and demands from different user groups, but also to library management staff to ensure that the competencies and skills are available in the organisation to match the needs of the user – wherever s/he might be located. Competencies are, in this context, defined as the combination of knowledge and experience that make the individual able to take the right actions in the daily working environment. What education and training needs emerge from the changing roles and new tasks? How might we identify the needs for continuing professional development? And how can we maintain and update skills and competencies acquired maybe 25 years ago? These are key questions – not only to be addressed to library managers, but also to be considered carefully by those institutions responsible for continuing education and professional development of library staff.

  14. The roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals to achieve ONE HEALTH

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    Mahendra Pal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.

  15. Integrating information literacy into the education of public health professionals: roles for librarians and the library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobus, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The paper reviews the core competencies for public health professionals presented in the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy: Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century; describes improving information literacy (IL) as a mechanism for integrating the core competencies in public health education; and showcases IL as an opportunity for solidifying partnerships between academic librarians and public health educators. Methods: The IOM competencies, along with explicit examples of library support from a literature review of current IL trends in the health sciences, are analyzed. Results: Librarians can play a fundamental role in implementing the IOM's core competencies in shaping public health education for the twenty-first century. A partnership between public health educators and librarians through a transdisciplinary approach is recommended. Conclusions: IL skills and competencies integrated into public health curricula through a collaborative partnership between public health educators and librarians can help integrate the IOM's core competencies and improve public health education. PMID:18219378

  16. Workplace spirituality and organisational commitment: Role of emotional intelligence among Indian banking professionals

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    Rabindra Kumar Pradhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present times the concept of “workplace spirituality” has been acknowledged as an important discipline so called a “transient advantage” in corporate world for supplementing a meaningful atmosphere to one’s workplace. The domains like behavioral science and human resource has embraced the topic as a promising research area with an assumption to offer fresh and significant insights to the business world. However, it is presumed that the present state of academic research in the field of workplace spirituality is in many ways reminiscent of where theories of leadership and other similar developmental intervention in Hr domain were there some fifty years ago. Today’s organizations’ are seeking for a committed workforce as organizational commitment and emotional involvement in one’s respective job profile is viewed as a business necessity. This is apparently possible when the professionals in a work set-up are able to derive meaning and significance in their work profile. Therefore, this present study has attempted through a field survey to document the findings from selected executives of public and private sector banking industries of Indian sub-continent on the relationships between workplace spirituality, organizational commitment and emotional intelligence. Regression analysis has revealed that emotional intelligence stood as a potential moderator between workplace spirituality and organizational commitment. The paper has brought out the potential benefits of bringing spirituality into the workplace; providing suggestions for Hr and behavioral practitioners to incorporate spirituality in organizations.

  17. THE ROLE OF EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS FOR THE STANDARD OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENTAL EDUCATION PROFESSIONAL HIGH EDUCATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION OF STUDENTS FOR THE PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL FIELD

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    Svetlana Petrovna Akutina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal: the educational research of educational effectiveness FGOS PVO for the professional preparation.The research method and the methodological approach: to enlighten the goals of the Federal Governmental Education Standard (FGOS of the high professional education (VPO of the psycho-pedagogical field within the education system reforming; to create new didactical materials, programs, plans, training courses; to model the educational effectiveness of a high education institution according to the competence approach.The clue of the educational effectiveness is in the developing an individual educational path for students in the comprehensive phase, and as a result the role of an educator, and a tutor increases; the changes in social cultural sphere of an educational institution, the importance of students self-management are to remodel the formulating personal needs paradigm in professional, private, intellectual, cultural and modal advancing.The research results are to open valuable possibilities of educational effectiveness in FGOS VPO influencing the professional preparation, that is filled with innovative forms, me-thods, technological approaches in cooperation between students and educators; to organize socially oriented process within the educational and extra educational context, to construct an individual educational path to obtain a qualification, to guaranty the realization of a new educational system for educators’ cooperation, for tutors and social partners; all these permit to act in different cultural spheres acquiring positive experience of professional training.The application field: the research results are applied in the pedagogical activity to prepare professional figures in the psycho pedagogical area, in educational projects with students, in cooperating with various social partners.

  18. Extra-role performance behavior of teachers: the role of identification with the team, of experience and of the school as an educational organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Aleksandrovich Klimov

    2015-01-01

    decrease in work performance and provokes various unproductive compensatory strategies: burnout; slowdown of professional development. Because newcomers and experienced teachers manifest this behavior to a different extent, the effect for beginners will be delayed. It is necessary to consider the influence of the environment, because extra-role performance behavior depends on where and with whom an individual works

  19. Potential role of dopamine transporter in behavioral flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska-Klosowicz, Anita; Dabrowska, Julia; Niedzielec, Sebastian; Zakrzewska, Renata; Rozycka, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is subserved by the prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia. Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) form a functional frontocorticostriatal circuit crucial for the mediation of flexibility during reversal learning via dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The regulatory control in maintaining DA homeostasis and function is provided by the dopamine transporter (DAT), which therefore likely plays a significant role in controlling the influence of DA on cognitive processes. Here we used a gene knockout mouse model to investigate the role of DAT in the performance on the Attentional Set-Shifting Task (ASST) stages dependent upon the OFC and the DMS. Additionally, behavior of mice after repeated administration of selective DAT inhibitor, GBR 12909, was examined. The animals were treated with the inhibitor to elicit a compensatory DAT up-regulation following withdrawal. Learning was slower and the number of errors during reversal learning and intra-dimensional shift stages was higher in DAT+/- mutant mice than in WT mice. GBR 12909-treated mice had deficits in reversal stages of the ASST. Neuronal activation in the OFC and DMS during the ASST was examined with early growth response proteins 1 and 2 (egr-1, egr-2) immunohistochemistry. Density of egr-2 labeled cells in the OFC was lower in mutant mice than in wild-types during reversal learning and the expression of the egr-1 was lower in mutant mice in the OFC and DMS during reversal and intra-dimensional shift stages. Mice with decreased DAT levels displayed behavioral difficulties that were accompanied by a lower task-induced activation of neurons in brain regions involved in the reversal learning. Altogether, these data indicate the role of the DAT in the behavioral flexibility.

  20. Personal Genomic Information Management and Personalized Medicine: Challenges, Current Solutions, and Roles of HIM Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Amal; Zhou, Leming; Watzlaf, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the term personalized medicine has received more and more attention in the field of healthcare. The increasing use of this term is closely related to the astonishing advancement in DNA sequencing technologies and other high-throughput biotechnologies. A large amount of personal genomic data can be generated by these technologies in a short time. Consequently, the needs for managing, analyzing, and interpreting these personal genomic data to facilitate personalized care are escalated. In this article, we discuss the challenges for implementing genomics-based personalized medicine in healthcare, current solutions to these challenges, and the roles of health information management (HIM) professionals in genomics-based personalized medicine. PMID:24808804

  1. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  2. Beyond Climate Focus and Disciplinary Myopia. The Roles and Responsibilities of Hospitals and Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Ulhøi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper calls for the need to address climate change within the concept of sustainable development, in recognition of the interrelationships between environmental, economic and social systems. So far, health- providing organizations such as hospitals have paid surprisingly little attention to the relationships between environmental change (e.g. climate change and human health, or between hospitals (as professional organizations and their impact on sustainable development. Although it is usually such industries as the chemical, extractive and metal industries, etc., that are associated with environmentally harmful activities, there is also an urgent need to emphasize the roles and responsibilities of hospitals and their embeddedness in a wider ecological, economic and social context. The key objective here is to discuss the relevance of sustainability and environmental management issues in a sector that until now has conveniently ignored its roles and responsibilities in relation to sustainability issues. The paper concludes that arguments based on systems theory, environment, medicine, economics and innovation strongly urge hospitals to reconsider their present roles and environmental responsibilities.

  3. Professionalism, scientific freedom and dissent: individual and institutional roles and responsibilities in geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2015-04-01

    geoscientists have a responsibility to behave ethically in such contested areas of science - both with regards to their own work and its dissemination, and in examining the claims of others. But learned and professional scientific bodies also have an important role to play. Increasingly, they are expected to establish and police the ethical 'rules of engagement' of scientific practice and discourse, whether through codes of conduct or developing non-mandatory guidelines and cultures of best practice. This presentation will examine how professional standards can be developed and promulgated, so as to foster a diversity of scientific views and permit dissenting voices to be heard, while also allowing scientifically and professionally illegitimate behaviours to be identified and addressed.

  4. Modelling the effect of perceived interdependence among mental healthcare professionals on their work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals). We wanted to examine the effect of perceived interdependence among MHCPs on their work role performance in the context of mental healthcare. For this purpose, we developed and tested a model coherent with the Input-Mediator-Outcome-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness. Data from questionnaires administered to 315 MHCPs from four local health service networks in Quebec, Canada were analysed through structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data and explained 51% of the variance of work role performance. Perceived collaboration, confidence in the advantages of interprofessional collaboration, involvement in the decision process, knowledge sharing, and satisfaction with the nature of the work partially mediated the effect of perceived interdependence among team members on work role performance. Therefore, perceived interdependence among team members had a positive impact on the work role performance of MHCPs mostly through its effect on favourable team functioning features. This implies, in practice, that increased interdependence of MHCPs would be more likely to truly enhance work role performance if team-based interventions to promote collaborative work and interprofessional teaching and training programs to support work within interprofessional teams were jointly implemented. Participation in the decision process and knowledge sharing should

  5. Behavior analysis in consumer affairs: encouraging dental professionals to provide consumers with shielding from unnecessary X-ray exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, B F; Neistat, M D

    1983-01-01

    An unobtrusive observation system was developed to determine the extent to which dental professionals in two communities provided lead shielding to patients during X-ray exams. A lengthy baseline revealed low and irregular provision of shielding among half of these professionals. Subsequently, a program was undertaken by a consumer's group in which these professionals were requested to provide shielding and were given confidential feedback regarding its use during the baseline period. The provision of shielding dramatically increased at all offices and was maintained throughout a follow-up period extending to more than 9 months after the program's implementation. Little or no generalized effect was observed in the occurrence of three collateral behaviors that were also assessed throughout the study. PMID:6833165

  6. The Role of Community Trust and Altruism in Knowledge Sharing: An Investigation of a Virtual Community of Teacher Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Fan, Hsueh-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge sharing process within a virtual community of teacher professionals is viewed as a social exchange process in that the knowledge sharing intention and behavior of individuals are influenced by the exchange relationship among members. However, relatively little research has focused on this approach to exploring the factors that…

  7. Impact of Interprofessional Education on Collaboration Attitudes, Skills, and Behavior among Primary Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, Sarah; Perry, Marieke; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Leontien; van Achterberg, Theo; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; Schers, Henk; Heinen, Maud; Melis, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Care for the frail elderly is often provided by several professionals. Collaboration between them is essential, but remains difficult to achieve. Interprofessional education (IPE) can improve this collaboration. We developed a 9-hour IPE program for primary care professionals from 7 disciplines caring for the frail elderly, and aimed…

  8. Examining the Relationships between Primary School Principals' Power Styles and Teachers' Professional Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, Serkan; Kilinç, Ali Çagatay; Er, Emre; Ögdem, Zeki; Savas, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between primary school principals' power styles and teacher professionalism. A total of 264 teachers employed in 10 primary schools in Kastamonu, Turkey, participated in this study. Kosar's (2008) "Power Styles Scale,"and the "Teacher Professionalism Scale"--originally…

  9. An Evaluation of Professional Development to Improve Teachers' Perspectives and Behaviors: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford-Young, Paulette Vivienne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to conduct a professional development activity to provide content-area teachers with academic vocabulary strategies to be implemented during instruction on a daily basis. Professional development is essential for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills in order to hone their craft to improve student…

  10. Impact of interprofessional education on collaboration attitudes, skills, and behavior among primary care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, S.; Perry, M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, L. van; Achterberg, T. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Schers, H.; Heinen, M.; Melis, R.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Care for the frail elderly is often provided by several professionals. Collaboration between them is essential, but remains difficult to achieve. Interprofessional education (IPE) can improve this collaboration. We developed a 9-hour IPE program for primary care professionals from 7

  11. Search behavior of media professionals at an audiovisual archive: A transaction log analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurnink, B.; Hollink, L.; van den Heuvel, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Finding audiovisual material for reuse in new programs is an important activity for news producers, documentary makers, and other media professionals. Such professionals are typically served by an audiovisual broadcast archive. We report on a study of the transaction logs of one such archive. The

  12. The effect of preceptor role effectiveness on newly licensed registered nurses' perceived psychological empowerment and professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Chanell; Hart, Patricia L; Mareno, Nicole

    2016-03-01

    The first year turnover rate for newly licensed registered nurses is roughly 30% and increases to about 57% in the second year (Twibell et al., 2012). An effective preceptorship has been shown to better facilitate the first year transition (Hodges et al., 2008) and increase retention rates (Pine and Tart, 2007). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between newly licensed registered nurses' perceived preceptor role effectiveness, psychological empowerment and professional autonomy. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive research design was used. Sixty-nine newly licensed registered nurses were recruited and surveyed. Newly licensed registered nurses were found to have moderately high levels of perceived preceptor role effectiveness, psychological empowerment, and professional autonomy. Preceptor role effectiveness had significant, moderately, positive relationships with professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. There was also a significant relationship found between professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. Results show that preceptor role effectiveness is linked to increased professional autonomy and psychological empowerment. Therefore, effective preceptorships are necessary in easing the newly licensed registered nurse's transition to practice. Strategies to ensure effective preceptorships and enhance the NRLN's transition to practice are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factor analysis as a tool for survey analysis using a professional role orientation inventory as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Laura L; Beckstead, Jason W; Bebeau, Muriel J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how confirmatory factor analysis can be used to extend and clarify a researcher's insight into a survey instrument beyond that afforded through the typical exploratory factor analytic approach. The authors use as an example a survey instrument developed to measure individual differences in professional role orientation among physical therapists, the Professional Role Orientation Inventory for Physical Therapists (PROI-PT). Five hundred three physical therapists responded to a mail survey instrument that was sent to a random sample of 2,000 American Physical Therapy Association members. An adapted version of the Professional Role Orientation Inventory, a 40-item Likert-scale instrument developed to assess professional role orientation on 4 dimensions (authority, responsibility, agency, and autonomy), was used. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the factorial validity of the PROI-PT. Exploratory factor analysis served as a starting point for examining the factor structure of the instrument. Confirmatory factor analysis then was used to test the hypothesized factor structure and to suggest refinements to the PROI-PT that would improve a psychometric property (internal consistency). Although further refinement of the PROI-PT is needed, an instrument that yields valid and reliable measurements of individual differences in professionalism among physical therapists could further our understanding of the psychosocial aspects of physical therapist practice. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses can be used by researchers who study various psychosocial constructs in physical therapy.

  14. The Role of Social Media Advertising in Consumer Buying Behavior

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    Adnan Veysel Ertemel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available P Consumer buying behavior is known also as consumer decision making is the process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and services to satisfy require needs. This study has been designed to answer main question about the role of social media advertising on consumer buying behavior in very active field which is fashion retail industry, then determine the differences if existed in this relation regarding to the name of the brands and consumer demographics factors. By electronic questionnaires conducted for consumers live in Istanbul-Turkey, findings showed weak relation between social media advertising and consumer need recognition, no relation at all with search for information, strong relation with evaluate the alternatives, and moderate relation for both buying decision and post-purchase behavior, as those steps represent the five steps need recognition model in consumer buying behavior. Moreover, findings showed no changes in this relation regarding to consumer’s age, and education level. However, there were changes between Females and males in the relation with consumer need recognition, and search for information. In addition, another changes regarding to income between social media advertising and evaluate the alternatives especially for consumers earn more than 5.000TL among other income groups.

  15. Oppositional Identities: Dissimilarities in How Women and Men Experience Parent versus Professional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    As stereotypes of social groups undergo change, group members gain access to previously denied social and cultural roles. Although such access is desirable, to the extent that the behavior, traits, and attitudes required to succeed in a new role are in opposition to those required to do well in a still-valued old role, conflict in the self-concept may ensue. Specifically, the individual must necessarily fall short in social comparisons of the self to the ideal group member in one or both roles, threatening self-integrity. Examining the specific case of oppositional identities between career and mom roles, we argue that women respond to this conflict by shifting back and forth between activation of whichever identity is relevant in a given situational context in a way that men do not. This shifting of self-associations is hypothesized to deplete scarce cognitive resources, interfering with performance on a task that requires executive function capacity. In addition, to the extent the identities are viewed as trading off against one another, failure in one domain may be responded to by activating the alternate identity in an effort to restore self-integrity, again in a way that is not true for men. These hypotheses are explored across four studies, utilizing both college students in the midst of formulating – and working parents in the midst of negotiating – these PMID:23713699

  16. "Failure Is a Major Component of Learning Anything": The Role of Failure in the Development of STEM Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Amber; Maltese, Adam

    2017-04-01

    The term failure typically evokes negative connotations in educational settings and is likely to be accompanied by negative emotional states, low sense of confidence, and lack of persistence. These negative emotional and behavioral states may factor into an individual not pursuing a degree or career in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). This is of particular concern considering the low number of women and underrepresented minorities pursing and working in a STEM field. Utilizing interview data with professionals across STEM, we sought to understand the role failure played in the persistence of individuals who enter and pursue paths toward STEM-related careers. Findings highlighted how participants' experiences with failure (1) shaped their outlooks or views of failure, (2) shaped their trajectories within STEM, and (3) provided them with additional skills or qualities. A few differences based on participants' sex, field, and highest degree also manifested in our analysis. We expect the results from this study to add research-based results to the current conversation around whether experiences with failure should be part of formal and informal educational settings and standards-based practices.

  17. Clinical Skills Performed By Iranian Emergency Nurses: Perceived Competency Levels and Attitudes Toward Expanding Professional Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Hadi; Hasanzadeh, Firooz; Powers, Kelly A; Dadash Zadeh, Abbas; Rajaie, Rouzbeh

    2017-07-26

    Emergency nurses play an important role in the care of critically ill and injured patients, and their competency to perform clinical skills is vital to safe and effective patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of clinical skills performed and perceived competency levels among Iranian emergency nurses. In addition, attitudes toward expanding the professional roles of Iranian emergency nurses were also assessed. In this descriptive correlational study, 319 emergency nurses from 30 hospitals in northwest Iran participated. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to present the findings. Overall competency of the emergency nurses was 73.31 ± 14.2, indicating a good level of perceived competence. The clinical skills most frequently performed were in the domains of organizational and workload competencies (3.43 ± 0.76), diagnostic function (3.25 ± 0.82), and the helping role (3.17 ± 0.83). A higher level of perceived competence was found for skills within these domains. Less frequently, participants performed skills within the domains of effective management of rapidly changing situations (2.70 ± 0.94) and administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions (2.60 ± 0.97); a lower perceived level of competence was noted for these clinical skills. There was a significant correlation between frequency of performing clinical skills and perceived competency level (r = 0.651, P nurse managers and educators who may consider offering more frequent experiential and educational opportunities to emergency nurses. Expansion of nurses' roles could also result in increased experience in clinical skills and higher levels of competency. Research is needed to investigate nurses' clinical competence using direct and observed measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions of agricultural professionals toward genetically modified (GM) foods: a case study in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Sedigheh; Karami, Ezatollah; Azadi, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    While there has been a number of consumers' studies looking at factors that influence individuals' attitudes and behavior toward GM foods, few studies have considered agricultural professionals' intentions in this regard. This study illuminates agricultural professionals' insights toward GM foods in Southwest Iran. A random sample of 262 respondents was studied. The results indicated that the majority of the respondents had little knowledge about GM foods. They perceived few benefits or risks of GM foods. Their perceived benefits and trust in individuals and institutions had positive impacts on the behavioral intentions of the agricultural professionals. The results also revealed that the low knowledge level of the respondents had a negative impact on the behavioral intentions toward GM foods. This state of affairs is problematic, either GM foods have serious problems or the knowledge conveyed to the Iranian agricultural experts is inappropriate. We recommend a well defined communication strategy to provide information in such a way that allows individuals to feel adequately informed about GM foods. Furthermore, the development of trust and knowledge regarding GM foods can be greater when risk analysis frameworks are transparent, risk assessment methodologies are objective, all stakeholders are engaged in the risk management process, and risk communication focuses on consumers.

  19. The Hidden Curriculum in Medical and Law Schools: A Role for Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Linda A.; Phye, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses responsibilities for student affairs professionals in law and medical schools. It poses that student affairs staff are particularly suited to teach the hidden curriculum of the professional schools, described as inculcating professional values. The chapter ends with four strategies for such instruction.

  20. The Role of Professional Development in Bridging Research and Practice in Adult Literacy and Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cristine

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, Cristine Smith discusses the development and use of professional development activities at the national, state and local program level. Professional development systems and funding exist in every state, and the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) has prioritized high-quality professional development for…

  1. The Role of Fitness Professionals in Public Health: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lyon, Alexander T. C.; Neville, Ross D.; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Kinesiology researchers have long had an interest in physical activity, fitness, and health issues and in the professional education and work practices of teachers and coaches. The professional development needs and practices of "fitness professionals," however, have not been a major concern for researchers in the field. The purpose of…

  2. The Roles of School Psychology Associations in Promoting the Profession, Professionals, and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R.

    2014-01-01

    Professions are strong only to the extent they are represented by active and effective professional associations. Professional associations are strong only to the extent that they are composed of active and effective professionals. This article highlights the belief that the contributions of capable, creative, and committed colleagues who provide…

  3. Effects of Leadership Practices on Professional Learning Communities: The Mediating Role of Trust in Colleagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Yin, Hongbiao; Liu, Yuan; Ke, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The building of professional learning communities has been widely recognized as an effective strategy for schools wanting to improve student performance and enhance teachers' professional capacity. This study explored the relationship between leadership practices and professional learning communities, with a particular focus on the mediating role…

  4. Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice.

  5. Information-searching behaviors of main and allied health professionals: a nationwide survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Ken N; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lo, Heng-Lien; Shih, Ya-Hui; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2013-10-01

    There are a variety of resources to obtain health information, but few studies have examined if main and allied health professionals prefer different methods. The current study was to investigate their information-searching behaviours. A constructed questionnaire survey was conducted from January through April 2011 in nationwide regional hospitals of Taiwan. Questionnaires were mailed to main professionals (physicians and nurses) and allied professionals (pharmacists, physical therapists, technicians and others), with 6160 valid returns collected. Among all professional groups, the most commonly used resource for seeking health information was a Web portal, followed by colleague consultations and continuing education. Physicians more often accessed Internet-based professional resources (online databases, electronic journals and electronic books) than the other groups (P < 0.05). In contrast, physical therapists more often accessed printed resources (printed journals and textbooks) than the other specialists (P < 0.05). And nurses, physical therapists and technicians more often asked colleagues and used continuing education than the other groups (P < 0.01). The most commonly used online database was Micromedex for pharmacists and MEDLINE for physicians, technicians and physical therapists. Nurses more often accessed Chinese-language databases rather than English-language databases (P < 0.001). This national survey depicts the information-searching pattern of various health professionals. There were significant differences between and within main and allied health professionals in their information searching. The data provide clinical implications for strategies to promote the accessing of evidence-based information. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,

  7. Prime movers: Advanced practice professionals in the role of stroke coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Nicholas A; Damush, Teresa M; Luckhurst, Cherie; Bauer-Martinez, Catherine J; Homoya, Barbara J; Miech, Edward J

    2017-07-01

    Following a stroke quality improvement clustered randomized trial and a national acute ischemic stroke (AIS) directive in the Veterans Health Administration in 2011, this comparative case study examined the role of advanced practice professionals (APPs) in quality improvement activities among stroke teams. Semistructured interviews were conducted at 11 Veterans Affairs medical centers annually over a 3-year period. A multidisciplinary team analyzed interviews from clinical providers through a mixed-methods, data matrix approach linking APPs (nurse practitioners and physician assistants) with Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research constructs and a group organization measure. Five of 11 facilities independently chose to staff stroke coordinator positions with APPs. Analysis indicated that APPs emerged as boundary spanners across services and disciplines who played an important role in coordinating evidence-based, facility-level approaches to AIS care. The presence of APPs was related to engaging in group-based evaluation of performance data, implementing stroke protocols, monitoring care through data audit, convening interprofessional meetings involving planning activities, and providing direct care. The presence of APPs appears to be an influential feature of local context crucial in developing an advanced, facility-wide approach to stroke care because of their boundary spanning capabilities. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Fluid role boundaries: exploring the contribution of the advanced nurse practitioner to multi-professional palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona; Brooks Young, Patricia; Nicol, Jacqueline; Campbell, Karen; Gray Brunton, Carol

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the introduction of Advanced Nurse Practitioners in a specialist, multi-professional palliative care context. The objective is to explore the core domains and competencies of the advanced nurse practitioner role in a multi-professional palliative care context. New models of health care and service delivery are emerging alongside expanded levels of autonomy, skills and decision-making for nurses and midwives. This has resulted in some confusion in the health service community internationally about the professional role and scope of the advanced nurse practitioner. A qualitative evaluation study (n = 21). Three phases of data collection were conducted over 10 months. Twenty-one participants took part from a specialist palliative care unit in one health board in a U.K. region spanning ANPs (n = 2) multi-professional staff (n = 14) and patients/carers (n = 5). Data collection methods included individual and focus group interviews with key stakeholders and observation of the advanced nurse practitioners at work and their reflexive diaries. The findings of this evaluation demonstrate that if the advanced nurse practitioner role can flourish it has the potential to shape 'new identities', re-construct the boundaries of nursing roles and emphasise the relationship based elements of excellent nursing work. The advanced nurse practitioner has the potential to enhance specialist palliative care service delivery through fluid role boundaries. The context in which advanced nurse practitioner roles are developed is important as acceptance of the role is linked to the co-construction of a different nursing identity. Our findings support the need to define, defend and name the work of advanced nursing roles. The advanced nurse practitioner roles were regarded as providing a unique contribution to service delivery and were characterised by fluid role boundaries which crossed the traditional disciplinary boundaries between nursing and medicine. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  9. A Path Analysis of the Effects of Principal Professional Orientation towards Leadership, Professional Teacher Behavior, and School Academic Optimism on School Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne M. Mitchell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of the principal’s professional orientation towards leadership/enabling school structure (ESS on two mediating variables, school academic optimism (SAO and professional teacher behavior (PTB, on the outcome variable school reading achievement (RA. Data were drawn from a sample of 54 schools (including 45 elementary schools and nine middle schools; the school was the unit of analysis. Data analysis supported a path to RA in which a structural variable, ESS was the immediate antecedent of SAO and PTB. Two control variables, school level and SES, were included in the model. SES had a significant effect on SAO but not on PTB. School level had a negative effect on both PTB and SAO suggesting that both variables were higher in elementary school and declined in middle school. SES paired with SAO in predicting RA. As expected, SAO had a greater effect on RA than SES. The significance of the findings lies in the confirmation of SAO as an important influence on RA and in demonstrating the importance of ESS in establishing a context in which AO and PTB can flourish.

  10. SOCIO-EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE AND ITS ROLE IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF FUTURE OFFICERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HĂHĂIANU FLORENTINA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term competence has become a priority for public policies. In the field of education and professional training competences lie at the basis of curricula, of specializations in universities, of qualifications or professional standards. It is obvious that in any sector of human resources - be it economy, public services or policies, in any kind of activi - be it individual or at the level of organization, firm or collectivity, competences have become the key factor and the main reference. Thus, its popularity went hand in hand with its unlimited spread in the detriment of its conceptual clarity. Today we meet the term competence everywhere and at any time, but there is no minimal consensus with respect to terminology. We speak of competences and "skills" (a term difficult to translate in Romanian, key and basic competences, capabilities and abilities etc. With this article we will try to bring a better understanding of the concept. Moreover, since it plays an importnat role in an officer's activity or in their environment, we will tackle on the affective dimension in their competence profile: relations with others, decision-making process, work motivation and satisfaction, team work, self-control, etc. In order to become experts in a certain socio-emotional competence, such as team work or analyzing a conflictual situation, we need to develop an inner ability from the socio-emotional fundaments. Why? Because i nany activity the rational dimension doesn't suffice, there has to be an affective side, as well. Emotion depends on the way a person evaluates and assesses a situation. Affective and cognitive processes, though different in their nature, are inseparable and in tight connection in the activity of an intelligence officer, for instance.

  11. THE ROLE OF THE ACCOUNTANCY PROFESSIONAL BODIES IN DEVELOPING SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girbina Madalina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In March 2010, the European Commission renewed its strategy to promote Corporate Social Responsibility in order to ensure long term employee and consumer trust. Corporate Social Responsibility is considered more relevant in the context of the economic crisis because it can help to build (and rebuild trust in business and to identify new forms of value creation based on addressing societal challenges, which may represent a way out of the crisis. A priority area is repesented by companies transparency on environmental and social issues. This research aims to assess the involvement of the professional accountancy bodies in the development of social and environmental reporting. After a review of research studies on corporate social and environmental disclosure and the role of the accounting profession in this context, the research identifies the strategies, policies and actions taken by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC and of the Federation of European Expert Accountants (FEE based on content analysis of public documents issued by the two bodies. The cases were selected having the influence exerted by the two organisms on other professional bodies and their ability to trace the strategic lines of the accounting profession at the international and European level. The basis upon which the accounting profession was founded and continues to exist is public trust, which is the degree to which the public has confidence in the services provided by the accounting profession. Society is currently expressing high demands on the discipline of accounting and therefore the profession is under pressure to expand its horizons to better reflect these demands. The research revealed that both accounting bodies had an intense activity and initiated political actions in the corporate social and environmental reporting field including sustainability in their strategic objectives. The following areas of involvement have been identified: issuance of

  12. Predicting intention to use voluntary HIV counseling and testing services among health professionals in Jimma, Ethiopia, using the theory of planned behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abamecha F

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fira Abamecha,1 Ameyu Godesso,2 Eshetu Girma3 1Department of Nursing, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan, 2Department of Sociology, Jimma University, Jimma, 3Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: To endorse involvement in voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT, it is essential to recognize factors that influence people in deciding whether to access VCT services and their underlying route factors. Theory of planned behavior (TPB constitutes a proficient framework for predicting behaviors and intentions. Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the predicting ability of TPB in determining the intended use of VCT services among health professionals in Jimma, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: This was an institution-based cross-sectional quantitative study of a sample of 336 health professionals in 12 selected districts of Jimma, southwest Ethiopia between February 5 to March 28, 2012. Data were collected using structured questionnaire self-administered by the study participants. A hierarchal multivariable linear regression model was used to predict the role of TPB constructs that can influence the intention to use VCT services. Results: The constructs of TPB explained the variability in intention to use VCT by 27% (R2 adjusted = 0.27. The standardized regression coefficients showed that the strongest predictor of intention to use VCT was subjective norms (β = 0.32, P < 0.0005 followed by attitude (β = 0.21, P < 0.002. Perceived behavioral control was not a significant predictor of intention to use VCT among the study group (P = 0.12. Conclusion: The study revealed the possibility of describing the intention to use VCT among health professionals using TPB, with perceived social pressure being the leading predictor. In light of this, health intervention programs should be designed to develop health professionals’ ability to resist norms that oppose the use of VCT and to

  13. Lifetime risk of suicidal behaviors and communication to a health professional about suicidal ideation. Results from a large survey of the French adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Gilbert, Fabien; Galéra, Cédric; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Mishara, Brian; Messiah, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    There is presently a lack of information on the role of healthcare in suicidal ideation in adults. To assess the frequencies, patterns, and factors associated with the communication of suicidal ideation toward a health professional. Participants stem from a French cross-sectional survey of 22,133 randomly selected adults. Lifetime suicidal behaviors and 12-month mental disorder patterns were assessed using the short form of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Participants with suicidal ideation were asked whether they had talked about it and, if they had, to whom. Around 20% of people with suicidal ideation had talked about this distress to a health professional. It was more frequent for people with more severe suicidal behaviors (plan or a prior attempt), among women, those aged 30 or more, those suffering from major depressive episode, panic disorder, or drug use disorder. Above all, it was more frequent among those who had also talked to friends or relatives. Prevention strategies that encourage suicidal persons to seek help for their distress, whoever that is, may be the more important strategies to develop.

  14. A literature review of the Dutch debate on the nurse practitioner role: efficiency vs. professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Maten-Speksnijder, A; Grypdonck, M; Pool, A; Meurs, P; van Staa, A L

    2014-03-01

    To explore the debate on the development of the nurse practitioner profession in the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, the positives and negatives of nurse practitioners working in the medical domain have been debated since the role was introduced in 1997. The outcome of the debate is crucial for nurse practitioners' professional development and society's justification of their tasks. Review of 14 policy documents, 35 opinion papers from nurses, 363 opinion articles from physicians and 24 Dutch research papers concerning nurse practitioners from 1995 to 2012. Two discourses were revealed: one related to efficiency and one to the development of the profession. In both, the nurse practitioner role was presented as a solution for healthcare and workforce problems, while arguments differed. The efficiency discourse seemed most influential. Opinions of nurse practitioners were underrepresented; taking up new responsibilities was driven by the wish to improve patient care. While most physicians were willing to delegate tasks to nurse practitioners, they wished to retain final responsibility for medical care. All available publications were extensively studied, which could not include unpublished policy documents from the government or influential parties. This may have led to some selectivity. The case of the Netherlands shows that nurses in developing their advanced role are facing barriers, similar to those in other countries. The dominance of efficiency arguments combined with protection of medical autonomy undermines the development towards nursing care that really benefits patients. Nurse practitioners should strive to obtain positions in which they are allowed to make their own decisions and wise use of healthcare resources for the good of patients and society. Nurse practitioners should aim to become members of influential healthcare Boards in their countries, in which they can raise their voices and be involved in policy making. © 2013 International Council of

  15. Consumer Behavior and Sustainable Development in China: The Role of Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dias Simões

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s astonishing economic development over the last decades has produced a momentous impact on the country’s environmental equilibrium. Chinese officials are now confronted with the need to tackle environmental problems without disrupting the country’s development. The Chinese government seems keen on striking a balance between these two apparently contradictory goals by promoting the concept of “ecological civilization”, a notion that emphasizes the importance of individual behavior. Over the last few years, environmental policymaking worldwide has been giving a lower profile to the role of the State and placing increasing responsibility for many environmental issues on citizens/consumers. Individuals are increasingly perceived as agents for environmental change and their behaviors are subject to tighter scrutiny. Due to the emergence of a consumer society in China, individual behaviors are increasingly a source of environmental problems and a key component of efficient and long-lasting solutions. Accordingly, Chinese policymakers should recognize the environmental significance of individual behaviors and look beyond traditional policy tools. This article argues that Behavioral Sciences can offer important lessons and help in designing new strategies that can speak directly to the Chinese people as a source of environmental harm, thus reducing their impact on the environment.

  16. Perception, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change: a survey among CDC health professionals in Shanxi province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junni; Hansen, Alana; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hong; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Bi, Peng

    2014-10-01

    A better understanding of public perceptions, attitude and behavior in relation to climate change will provide an important foundation for government׳s policy-making, service provider׳s guideline development and the engagement of local communities. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception towards climate change, behavior change, mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the central government among the health professionals in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China. In 2013, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey was undertaken among 314 CDC health professionals in various levels of CDC in Shanxi Province, China. Descriptive analyses were performed. More than two thirds of the respondents believed that climate change has happened at both global and local levels, and climate change would lead to adverse impacts to human beings. Most respondents (74.8%) indicated the emission of greenhouse gases was the cause of climate change, however there was a lack of knowledge about greenhouse gases and their sources. Media was the main source from which respondents obtained the information about climate change. A majority of respondents showed that they were willing to change behavior, but their actions were limited. In terms of mitigation and adaptation measures issued by the Chinese Government, respondents׳ perception showed inconsistency between strategies and relevant actions. Moreover, although the majority of respondents believed some strategies and measures were extremely important to address climate change, they were still concerned about economic development, energy security, and local environmental protection. There are gaps between perceptions and actions towards climate change among these health professionals. Further efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of climate change among health professionals, and to promote relevant actions to address climate change in the context of the proposed policies with local

  17. Behavior of personality type toward stress and job performance: a study of healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjhua, Yasmin; Chandrakanta

    2012-07-01

    The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI), Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals' response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.

  18. To Study and Compare Perception of Health Care Professionals Regarding the Role of Pharmacist in Health Care System in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashfeen Akhtar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthcare team is mainly a triad of Physicians, Pharmacist & Nurses. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to help healthcare professionals understand more clearly the role of pharmacists within a health care team, especially inter-professional communication, pharmacists' responsibilities, and availability issues. A total of 200 samples were selected from 4 hospitals which include 100 samples of doctors and 100 of the nurses. Each sample is basically a questionnaire comprising of 23 questions. A total of two hundred questionnaires were distributed and one hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were returned resulting in the response rate of 88%. Pharmacists are being one of the major healthcare professional groups in the world after physicians and nurses are playing a very significant role in health care system. This understanding is a requirement for better communication and collaboration among the professions and for accomplishing the combined goal of better health care system.

  19. An intrepreneurial innovative role: integration of the clinical nurse specialist and infection prevention professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Paula A

    2013-01-01

    Hospital quality and financial sustainability rely on reducing healthcare-associated events/infections, length of stay, and readmissions. This project focused on designing an integrated role for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and the infection prevention professional (IPP) to proactively manage the delivery of evidence-based practice to high-risk surgical patients. The healthcare industry is in the midst of a paradigm shift driven by changing health policy focusing on quality indicators, patient satisfaction, and lowering costs. Coupled with these indicators is the expectation and responsibility to provide evidence-based practice at all levels of the healthcare continuum. This paradigm shift places healthcare facilities in a very competitive atmosphere as they rally for the revenue of a fixed payer mix. A literature search using CINHAL, PubMed, and the CNS national listserve databases was completed to identify if there was any previously written information available on an integrated role of the CNS/IPP. An online business plan template was used to communicate the significance, implications, and return on organizational investment to practice with establishing this role. Chronic health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms can place patients at an increased risk for developing a surgical site infection or complications. The CNS/IPP will proactively manage these risk factors, including the patient and family in a preventive care model to manage the acute inpatient high-risk surgical patient. Care management will include coordinated, collaborative, and consultative follow-up by the CNS/IPP in the acute care, long-term care facilities, and home settings. The infection prevention skill set brings a level of clinical expertise that makes a unique CNS. The IPP is immersed in using epidemiological principles that examine the impact of comorbidities and the added risk that can

  20. Women in STEM Majors and Professional Outcome Expectations: The Role of Living-Learning Programs and Other College Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelényi, Katalin; Denson, Nida; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2004-2007 National Study of Living Learning Programs, the only national dataset offering longitudinal information on outcomes associated with living-learning (L/L) program participation, this study investigated the role of L/L programs and other college environments in the professional outcome expectations of women in science,…

  1. Learnt and perceived professional roles of a new type of nurse specialized in Gerontology and Geriatrics, a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizenga, Petra; Finnema, Evelyn; Roodbol, Petrie

    Aim. To gain insight into a new type of nurse specialized in gerontology and geriatrics, how they find meaning in the care of older persons and how this relates to the seven professional roles derived from the CanMEDS theoretical framework. Background. To promote the quality of care for older

  2. The role of personal resources in explaining well-being and performance : A study among young veterinary professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, N. J. J. M.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; van Beukelen, P.; Demerouti, E.; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of three personal resources (i.e., proactive behaviour, reflective behaviour, and self-efficacy) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in order to predict self and other ratings of performance. The sample consisted of 860 Dutch veterinary professionals and 170

  3. The role of personal resources in explaining well-being and performance: A study among young veterinary professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, N. J. J. M.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; van Beukelen, P.; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of three personal resources (i.e., proactive behaviour, reflective behaviour, and self-efficacy) in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in order to predict self and other ratings of performance. The sample consisted of 860 Dutch veterinary professionals and 170

  4. Community College Vice Presidents for Institutional Advancement: Role Expectations, Fundraising Responsibilities, Professional Relationships, and Commitment to the Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Donna Lynn

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the role expectations, responsibilities toward fundraising, and professional relationships by the vice president of institutional advancement influenced commitment to the institution. A qualitative analysis was conducted across the mid-Atlantic region by interviewing community college vice presidents of institutional…

  5. The Role of Mental Health Professionals in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. The User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Marilyn Strachan; Urquiza, Anthony J.

    This manual is intended to provide mental health professionals with the information needed in the evaluation and treatment of maltreated children and their families. An introductory chapter briefly considers the roles of the various mental health disciplines in child abuse intervention, including psychiatry, psychology, clinical social work,…

  6. "We All Share a Common Vision and Passion": Early Years Professionals Reflect upon Their Leadership of Practice Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Early Years Professionals are graduate leaders working with children below 5 years of age, their families and practitioners in early years settings in the private, voluntary and independent sectors and children's centres in England. Their leadership of practice role is central to raising the quality of early years provision and practice. In this…

  7. Effect of financial relationships on the behaviors of health care professionals: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Christopher; Rose, Susannah; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the empirical evidence regarding the impact financial relationships on the behavior of health care providers, specifically, physicians. We identify and synthesize peer-reviewed data addressing whether financial incentives are causally related to patient outcomes and health care costs. We cover three main areas where financial conflicts of interest arise and may have an observable relationship to health care practices: (1) physicians' roles as self-referrers, (2) insurance reimbursement schemes that create incentives for certain clinical choices over others, and (3) financial relationships between physicians and the drug and device industries. We found a well-developed scientific literature consisting of dozens of empirical studies, some that allow stronger causal inferences than others, but which altogether show that such financial conflicts of interests can, and sometimes do, impact physicians' clinical decisions. Further research is warranted to document the causal relationship of such changes on health outcomes and the cost of care, but the current base of evidence is sufficiently robust to motivate policy reform. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Amateur or Professional: Assessing the Expertise of Major Contributors in OpenStreetMap Based on Contributing Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anran Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI projects, such as OpenStreetMap (OSM, provide an alternative way to produce geographic data. Research has proven that the resulting data in some areas are of decent quality, which guarantees their usability in various applications. Though these achievements are normally attributed to the huge heterogeneous community mainly consisting of amateurs, it is in fact a small percentage of major contributors who make nearly all contributions. In this paper, we investigate the contributing behaviors of these contributors to deduce whether they are actually professionals. Various indicators are used to depict the behaviors on three themes: practice, skill and motivation, aiming to identify solid evidence for expertise. Our case studies show that most major contributors in Germany, France and the United Kingdom are hardly amateurs, but are professionals instead. These contributors have rich experiences on geographical data editing, have a decent grasp of professional software and work on the project with enthusiasm and concentration. It is less unexpected that they can create geographic data of high quality.

  9. The American Medical Association Older Driver Curriculum for Health Professionals: Changes in Trainee Confidence, Attitudes & Practice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuser, Thomas M.; Carr, David B.; Irmiter, Cheryl; Schwartzberg, Joanne G.; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F.

    2010-01-01

    Few gerontology and geriatrics professionals receive training in driver fitness evaluation, state reporting of unfit drivers, or transportation mobility planning, yet are often asked to address these concerns in the provision of care to older adults. The American Medical Association (AMA) developed an evidence-based, multi-media Curriculum to promote basic competences. This study evaluated reported changes in practice behaviors three months post-training in 693 professionals trained via the AMA approach. Eight Teaching Teams, designated and trained by AMA staff, offered 22 training sessions across the U.S. in 2006–7. Trainees (67% female; mean age 46) completed a pre-test questionnaire and a post-test administered by mail. Physicians were the largest professional group (32%). While many trainees acknowledged having conversations with patients about driving at pre-test, few endorsed utilizing specific techniques recommended by the AMA prior to this training. The post-test response rate was 34% (n = 235). Significant improvements in reported attitudes, confidence, and practices were found across measured items. In particular, post-test data indicated new adoption of in-office screening techniques, chart documentation of driver safety concerns, and transportation alternative planning strategies. Findings suggest that a well-designed, one-time continuing education intervention can enhance health professional confidence and clinical practice concerning driver fitness evaluation and mobility planning. Targeted dissemination of this Curriculum (in-person and on-line) will allow more to benefit in the future. PMID:21108097

  10. Specialist nurse key worker in children's cancer care: Professionals' perspectives on the core characteristics of the role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Aldiss, Susie; Gibson, Faith

    2016-10-01

    To describe the development and implementation of the specialist nurse key worker role across 18 children's cancer centres in the United Kingdom, and draw out significant factors for success to inform future development of the role across a range of specialities. Data were obtained through 42 semi-structured interviews and a focus group with 12 key workers. Framework analysis revealed two main themes: models of care and key workers' perspectives of the role. Four models of care were identified and described, roles were organised along a continuum of in reach and outreach with either the presence or absence of home visits and direct delivery of clinical care. Key workers' perspectives of the advantages of the role included: coordination of care (being the main point of contact for families/professionals), experience and expertise (communication/information) and the relationship with families. The main challenges identified were: time, caseload size, geographical area covered, staffing numbers and resources available in the hospital and community. The label 'key worker' was disliked by many participants, as the loss of 'specialist nurse' in the title failed to reflect professional group. Leaving aside terminology, key workers shared core role elements within a continuum of in reach and outreach work and their involvement in direct clinical care varied throughout the pathway. Irrespective of the model they worked in, the key worker provided clinical, emotional, educational, and practical support to families, through the coordination of care, experience and expertise and relationship with families and professionals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The Role of Fear-Related Behaviors in the 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M.; Cooper, Janice L.; Baingana, Florence; Oquendo, Maria A.; Espinel, Zelde; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Towers, Sherry; Espinola, Maria; McCoy, Clyde B.; Mazurik, Laurie; Wainberg, Milton L.; Neria, Yuval; Rechkemmer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The 2013–2016 West Africa Ebola virus disease pandemic was the largest, longest, deadliest, and most geographically expansive outbreak in the 40-year interval since Ebola was first identified. Fear-related behaviors played an important role in shaping the outbreak. Fear-related behaviors are defined as “individual or collective behaviors and actions initiated in response to fear reactions that are triggered by a perceived threat or actual exposure to a potentially traumatizing event. FRBs modify the future risk of harm.” This review examines how fear-related behaviors were implicated in (1) accelerating the spread of Ebola, (2) impeding the utilization of life-saving Ebola treatment, (3) curtailing the availability of medical services for treatable conditions, (4) increasing the risks for new-onset psychological distress and psychiatric disorders, and (5) amplifying the downstream cascades of social problems. Fear-related behaviors are identified for each of these outcomes. Particularly notable are behaviors such as treating Ebola patients in home or private clinic settings, the “laying of hands” on Ebola-infected individuals to perform faith-based healing, observing hands-on funeral and burial customs, foregoing available life-saving treatment, and stigmatizing Ebola survivors and health professionals. Future directions include modeling the onset, operation, and perpetuation of fear-related behaviors and devising strategies to redirect behavioral responses to mass threats in a manner that reduces risks and promotes resilience. PMID:27739026

  12. Personal experience in professional narratives: the role of helpers' families in their work with terror victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamai, Michal

    2005-06-01

    This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.

  13. Profiles of mental health care professionals based on work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-12-01

    The worldwide burden of mental disorders is considerable, and on the rise, putting pressure on health care systems. Current reforms aim to improve the efficiency of mental health care systems by increasing service integration in communities and strengthening primary mental health care. In this context, mental health care professionals (MHPs) are increasingly required to work on interdisciplinary teams in a variety of settings. Little is known, however, about the profiles of MHPs in relation to their perceived work role performance. MHPs in Quebec (N = 315) from four local service networks completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on individual and team characteristics, as well as team processes and states. Profiles of MHPs were created using a two-step cluster analysis. Five profiles were generated. MHPs belonging to profiles labelled senior medical outpatient specialized care MHPs and senior psychosocial outpatient specialized care MHPs perceived themselves as more performing than MHPs in other profiles. The profile labelled low-collaborators was significantly less performing than all other groups. Two other profiles were identified, positioned between the aforementioned groups in terms of the perceived performance of MHPs: the junior primary care MHPs and the diversified specialized care MHPs. Seniority within the team, delivering specialized type of care, and positive team processes were all features associated with profiles where perceived work performance was high. Overall, this study supports the case for initiatives aimed at improving stability and interdisciplinary collaboration in health teams, especially in primary care.

  14. Midwives' experiences of working conditions, perceptions of professional role and attitudes towards mothers in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphson, Katja; Axemo, Pia; Högberg, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    low- and middle-income countries still have a long way to go to reach the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. Mozambique has accomplished a reduction of maternal mortality since the 1990s, but still has among the highest in the world. A key strategy in reducing maternal mortality is to invest in midwifery. the objective was to explore midwives' perspectives of their working conditions, their professional role, and perceptions of attitudes towards mothers in a low-resource setting. midwives in urban, suburban, village and remote areas; working in central, general and rural hospitals as well as health centres and health posts were interviewed in Maputo City, Maputo Province and Gaza Province in Mozambique. the study had a qualitative research design. Nine semi-structured interviews and one follow-up interview were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. two main themes were found; commitment/devotion and lack of resources. All informants described empathic care-giving, with deep engagement with the mothers and highly valued working in teams. Lack of resources prevented the midwives from providing care and created frustration and feelings of insufficiency. the midwives perceptions were that they tried to provide empathic, responsive care on their own within a weak health system which created many difficulties. The great potential the midwives possess of providing quality care must be valued and nurtured for their competency to be used more effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Teacher Training for Secondary Schools in Italy: Professional Role and Reflective Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Macinai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this contribution the main guidelines that have characterised the training of secondary teachers in Italy in the last 15 years will be drawn. They will highlight the legislative and regulatory issues for the completion of university education in order to gain access to the paths of employment in secondary schools. In particular, we will emphasise the organisational and political conditions that have given form and content to the paths of specialisation/ teaching qualification and, on the basis of a widely established literature in the current debate, we will reflect on how much and how these settings correspond to precise cultural views that feed a certain idea of school, of teacher and ultimately of society. In the second part, starting from direct experience of initial training for secondary school teachers, we will resume the steps of a reflective practice on the political and cultural role for the teacher, whose valorisation must be explicitly invoked in the context of training and refresher courses, to complete the process of professional preparation adequate for the challenges of our time.

  16. The evaluator’s profile in certifying professional competences: a new educational role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadia Martín Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accreditation, Evaluation and Recognition Systems are intended at certifying professional competences associated to a specific professional profile acquired through any kind of learning (formal, non-formal and informal. The key element in this system is the process of evaluation which leads to verify such competences. In this paper we focus on the professional profile of the evaluator in the accreditation, evaluation and recognition systems, highlighting the development of a new line of professional development for teachers and trainers in formal and non-formal education.

  17. The impact of staff training on special educational needs professionals' attitudes toward and understanding of applied behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Sinéad; Reading, Benjamin E; McDowell, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Research-based evidence points to the efficacy and value of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in meeting the needs of individuals with learning disabilities and autism. Nonetheless, public, government, and professional perception of ABA can be negative. The current study was designed to measure the impact of a short intervention on professionals' attitudes toward, and knowledge of, ABA. Teachers and classroom assistants from two separate schools for children with severe learning difficulties completed a self-report survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward ABA. They were then presented with a 90-min training module designed to increase their knowledge of the history of ABA and their functional assessment skills. Following training, the self-report was readministered. The mean scores for each group increased only after the training had been delivered. Further research is needed to address the impact of training on classroom practice.

  18. Psychological maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents: The mediating role of resilience and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Oral Health Care Professionals in Providing Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Michael; Greenberg, Barbara L

    2017-08-01

    Integration of oral health care professionals (OHCPs) into medical care could advance efforts to control increasingly prevalent conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and hepatitis C infection, each of which is associated with significant morbidity and health care costs. Prevention and early intervention are effective for reducing the incidence and severity of these diseases, while increasing cost of health care may drive the need for nontraditional models of health education and delivery. Studies have suggested that a dental office is a suitable setting for the purpose of screening and referrals for these conditions and may result in medical expenditure savings. Such innovations would challenge the current dental educational model and the education and training of faculty. Implementing this change would require recognizing opportunities and challenges for the profession and the need for new competencies in dental curricula. Challenges and opportunities are described, including reimbursement models and integration of OHCPs into emerging health care delivery models. Ideas for curricular change are presented, including the need for added emphasis on biological sciences and the introduction of new courses to address systems thinking and forces driving preventive behavior. To embrace the evolving health care arena and be a part of the future interprofessional health care delivery dynamic, dental curricula should also include substantive interprofessional education opportunities. Such opportunities would provide the basic skills and training to recognize and appreciate patients' oral health issues in the broader context of their overall health and well-being. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  20. The functional role of ascending nociceptive control in defensive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambeli, Claudia Herrera; Fischer, Luana; Monaliza, Simone Lamana; Menescal-de-Oliveira, Leda; Parada, Carlos Amílcar

    2012-06-29

    Ascending nociceptive control is a novel spino-striato-rostral ventral medulla pain modulation pathway that mediates heterosegmental pain-induced analgesia, i.e., noxious stimulus-induced antinociception. In this study, we used the dorsal immobility response in rats as a model of the defensive responses. We demonstrated that the activation of ascending nociceptive control by peripheral noxious stimulation and spinal AMPA and mGluR1 receptor blockade significantly potentiated the duration of the dorsal immobility response in rats via an opioid-dependent mechanism in the nucleus accumbens. These results demonstrated the functional role of ascending nociceptive control in the modulation of defensive responses and spinal glutamatergic receptors in the dorsal immobility response. The immobility response is an antipredator behavior that reflects the underlying state of fear, and ascending nociceptive control may modulate fear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comprehensive professional development training's effect on afterschool program staff behaviors to promote healthy eating and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Saunders, Ruth P; Beighle, Aaron; Webster, Collin

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate a comprehensive intervention designed to support staff and program leaders in the implementation of the YMCA of USA healthy eating and physical activity (HEPA) standards for their afterschool programs (3-6 pm). Pre- (fall 2011) and postassessment (spring 2012) no-control group. Four large-scale YMCA afterschool programs serving approximately 500 children. Professional development training founded on the 5Ms (ie, Mission, Model, Manage, Monitor, and Maximize) and LET US Play principles (ie, Lines, Elimination, Team size, Uninvolved staff/kids, and Space, equipment, and rules), on-site booster training sessions, workshops, and ongoing technical support for staff and program leaders from January to May 2012. System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition. Multilevel mixed-effects linear (ie, staff behaviors expressed as a percentage of the number of scans observed) and logistic regression. A total of 5328 System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition scans were completed over the 2 measurement periods. Of the 20 staff behaviors identified in HEPA standards and measured in this study, 17 increased or decreased in the appropriate direction. For example, the proportion staff engaged in physical activity with children increased from 26.6% to 37% and the proportion of staff eating unhealthy foods decreased from 42.1% to 4.5%. Comprehensive professional development training, founded on the 5Ms and LET US Play principles, and ongoing technical assistance can have a sizable impact on key staff behaviors identified by HEPA standards for afterschool programs.

  2. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Botswana: The Role of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangope, Boitumelo; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The continuing professional development of teachers is crucial for implementation of inclusive education and improving the quality of educational service delivery of all learners. The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore teachers' beliefs about professional development for inclusive education in two primary and two secondary schools in…

  3. Role of Professional Development Associations in the Future of Our Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jim I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the interconnectedness of three professional development associations, the impact of various factors on collaboration and fragmentation, and suggestions for future directions. The three adult education professional associations being discussed in this article are the American Association of Adult and…

  4. Professional Development with Video Modeling: Effects on Behavior Specific Praise in General Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Federal mandates require teachers to implement evidence-based strategies in their classrooms; however, due to gaps between research and practice, these evidence-based practices are inconsistently implemented across educational settings. Although intended to address this, teacher professional developments are most commonly delivered in a…

  5. A Role of Referring Website on Online Shopping Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HoEun Chung; JungKun Park

    2009-01-01

      Despite several attempts have been made to understand online consumer behavior across from different situational settings, little is known of referring website's functionality on purchasing behavior...

  6. Role of Creative Activity in the Formation of Professional and Personal Experience of the Future Music Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Popovych

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated and substantiated the role of creative activity in the formation of professional and personal experience of the future music teacher. It was determined that the creative activity as a complex personality formation acts as a prerequisite and the result of musical and educational activities, provides an unusual approach and creative solution of professional problems. It is proved that the high level of creative activity is determined by positive motivation, strong interest and focus on music and teaching activities, expression of emotions and significant willpower, self-reliance, initiative, imagination, the ability to perform the academic tasks in a non-standard way, and the availability of adequate self-assessment of one’s own musical abilities and professional activities.

  7. Forms of psycho-pedagogical work to overcome the negative factors in professional self-determination of teenagers with deviant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitskaya E. A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problem of professional orientation of students of adolescence with deviant behavior in secondary school. The author emphasizes the importance of understanding that without psycho-pedagogical assistance to professional orientation component development of "difficult" teenagers is very difficult and often even impossible. These difficulties caused by both objective reasons – the complexity of the process of professional selection in the current socio-economic situation and subjective age and personality characteristics of adolescents with deviant behavior. In this regard, the article describes the main factors affecting the formation of deviant adolescents the ability to professional self-determination, and proposes to the understanding and application of some form of psycho-pedagogical work on overcoming difficulties in professional self-determination of this category of students. The forms were tested in real teaching practice.

  8. Open access behaviours and perceptions of health sciences faculty and roles of information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwoga, Edda T; Questier, Frederik

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to investigate the faculty's awareness, attitudes and use of open access, and the role of information professionals in supporting open access (OA) scholarly communication in Tanzanian health sciences universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 librarians, while questionnaires were physically distributed to 415 faculty members in all eight Tanzanian health sciences universities, with a response rate of 71.1%. The study found that most faculty members were aware about OA issues. However, the high level of OA awareness among faculty members did not translate into actual dissemination of faculty's research outputs through OA web avenues. A small proportion of faculty's research materials was made available as OA. Faculty were more engaged with OA journal publishing than with self-archiving practices. Senior faculty with proficient technical skills were more likely to use open access than junior faculty. Major barriers to OA usage were related to ICT infrastructure, awareness, skills, author-pay model, and copyright and plagiarism concerns. Interviews with librarians revealed that there was a strong support for promoting OA issues on campus; however, this positive support with various open access-related tasks did not translate into actual action. It is thus important for librarians and OA administrators to consider all these factors for effective implementation of OA projects in research and academic institutions. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study focusing on the health sciences faculty's and librarians' behaviours and perceptions of open access initiatives in Tanzania and reveals findings that are useful for planning and implementing open access initiatives in other institutions with similar conditions. © 2015 Health Libraries Journal.

  9. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  10. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  11. Lending a helping hand : Provision of helping behaviors beyond professional career responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, I.J. Hetty van; Jawahar, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate if gender and altruism evidence similar relationships with the different types of helping behaviors (e.g. organizational citizenship behaviors, OCBs; volunteering, vol; and helping kin, HK). Design/methodology/approach – Data from

  12. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching professionalism in graduate medical education: What is the role of simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Eisha; Pinto, Jayant M; Cappaert, Melissa; Lambrix, Marcie; Blood, Angela D; Blair, Elizabeth A; Small, Stephen D

    2016-09-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature concerning simulation-based teaching and assessment of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education professionalism competencies to elucidate best practices and facilitate further research. A systematic review of English literature for "professionalism" and "simulation(s)" yielded 697 abstracts. Two independent raters chose abstracts that (1) focused on graduate medical education, (2) described the simulation method, and (3) used simulation to train or assess professionalism. Fifty abstracts met the criteria, and seven were excluded for lack of relevant information. The raters, 6 professionals with medical education, simulation, and clinical experience, discussed 5 of these articles as a group; they calibrated coding and applied further refinements, resulting in a final, iteratively developed evaluation form. The raters then divided into 2 teams to read and assess the remaining articles. Overall, 15 articles were eliminated, and 28 articles underwent final analysis. Papers addressed a heterogeneous range of professionalism content via multiple methods. Common specialties represented were surgery (46.4%), pediatrics (17.9%), and emergency medicine (14.3%). Sixteen articles (57%) referenced a professionalism framework; 14 (50%) incorporated an assessment tool; and 17 (60.7%) reported debriefing participants, though in limited detail. Twenty-three (82.1%) articles evaluated programs, mostly using subjective trainee reports. Despite early innovation, reporting of simulation-based professionalism training and assessment is nonstandardized in methods and terminology and lacks the details required for replication. We offer minimum standards for reporting of future professionalism-focused simulation training and assessment as well as a basic framework for better mapping proper simulation methods to the targeted domain of professionalism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of workforce redesign policies on role boundaries in 'generalist' podiatry practice: expert views within the professional body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressing, Samantha J; Borthwick, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    Demographic changes and a predicted rise in the prevalence of chronic illness have led to a range of health policies in the UK (and elsewhere) focused on workforce flexibility and extended roles for the allied health professions. Whilst much academic attention has been paid to extended specialised roles for allied health professionals such as podiatrists, little work has addressed the likely impact of these policy changes on non-specialist, 'generalist' podiatry practice. This study aimed to explore expert professional views on the impact of role flexibility on generalist podiatry practice. Expert podiatry practitioners drawn from within the professional body, the Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists/College of Podiatry were recruited to 3 focus groups and 4 individual semi structured interviews and the data subject to a thematic analysis. Three key themes emerged, reflecting concerns about the future of generalist podiatry practice in the NHS, a perceived likelihood that generalist care will move inexorably towards private sector provision, and a growth in support worker grades undermining the position of generalist practice in the mainstream health division of labour. Up skilling generalist practitioners was viewed as the strongest defence against marginalisation. An emphasis on enhanced and specialised roles in podiatry by NHS commissioners and profession alike may threaten the sustainability of generalist podiatry provision in the state funded NHS. Non-specialist general podiatry may increasingly become the province of the private sector.

  15. The role of time perspective in professional self-determination of students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egorenko T.A; Rodina E.M

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the peculiarities of time perspective in university students at one of the stages of their professional self-identification and presents the results of studies by foreign authors...

  16. End-of-Life Caregiver Social Support Activation: The Roles of Hospice Clinicians and Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Caregivers of those with life-limiting illness face many complicated tasks, including providing direct patient care, communicating with professionals, and managing the logistical demands of daily activities. To assist with caregiving responsibilities, caregivers require social support from social network members at all points in the illness process. This study analyzes themes from interviews with 61 caregivers of patients enrolled in hospice services to identify the types of support caregivers mobilize from new social network members for social support during the end-of-life care process. Themes indicate that caregivers receive accessible, immediate, caregiver-centered emotional support from hospice health care professionals, and situationally tailored, understandable informational support from other types of professionals. In addition, caregivers received overlapping emotional and informational support from hospice health care professionals. Findings enhance the understanding of how caregivers receive tailored emotional and informational support.

  17. Multiculturalism and innovative work behavior: The mediating role of cultural intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Bücker, J.J.L.E.; Beerlage, S.

    2017-01-01

    Innovative work behavior is a key organizational competence. Informed by a framework for describing the role of cultural competences as an antecedent for international business performance this study seeks to explicate the connection between individual multiculturalism and innovative work behaviors,

  18. Professional Women’s Well-Being: The Role of Discrimination and Occupational Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Torsheika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived discrimination, workplace racial composition, and three outcomes--psychological distress, life dissatisfaction, and job dissatisfaction--among a sample of professional Black (n=72) and White (n=74) women. As a comparison, these relationships were analyzed to determine if they varied from those observed in more traditionally studied populations: Whites and non-professional Blacks, using data from a population of working women in the 1995 De...

  19. Investigation of the role of aesthetics in differentiating between photographs taken by amateur and professional photographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shao-Fu; Lin, Qian; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lee, Seungyon; Pizlo, Zygmunt; Allebach, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Automatically quantifying the aesthetic appeal of images is an interesting problem in computer science and image processing. In this paper, we incorporate aesthetic properties and convert them into computable image features for classifying photographs taken by amateur and professional photographers. In particular, color histograms, spatial edge distribution, and repetition identification are used as features. Results of experiments on professional and amateur photograph data sets confirm the discriminative power of these features.

  20. Professional women's well-being: the role of discrimination and occupational characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Torsheika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived discrimination, workplace racial composition, and three outcomes-psychological distress, life dissatisfaction, and job dissatisfaction-among a sample of Black (n = 72) and White (n = 74) professional women. As a comparison, these relationships were analyzed to determine if they varied from those observed in more traditionally studied populations: Whites and non-professional Blacks, using data from a population of working women in the 1995 Detroit Area Study (N = 533). Perceived discrimination was associated with differences in psychological distress and job dissatisfaction but not with life dissatisfaction. The correlation between perceived discrimination and psychological distress was larger for White professional women than for Black professional women (White women odds ratio [OR]: 1.99; Black women OR: 0.80). A larger correlation between race and job dissatisfaction was observed for Black professional women than for Black non-professional women. The racial composition of the workplace was unrelated to any of the outcomes. Study results emphasized the importance of decreasing the frequency of discrimination for positive mental health and underscored the need for more systematic research on discrimination and health among Black women of higher socioeconomic status, a growing sub-population in the United States.

  1. EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT: THE ROLE OF EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONALS AMONG EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cristina Gianini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With several opportunities in the labor market, hence the professional secretary has the opportunity to perform in various industries. This is because of his knowledge and training multifunctional pluralistic in many areas of knowledge and the ability to organize, plan, execute and optimize tasks yet. He is currently responsible for valuable information, assume positions of leadership, executive and consultant in many situations a manager. This article aims to address information concerning the action of Professional Secretary in educational organizations and open space for discussion that this professional training for its comprehensive, is able to act in academic environments and not only in traditional enterprise settings. This work grounded in bibliographic study raises questions regarding the professional practice of executive secretary, interweaving their activities with those of the educational manager. The study results show that the professional executive secretary is able to perform their professional activities also in academic environment, given its pluralistic training, ensuring effective performance of functions corresponding to this segment.

  2. Ethical Behavior and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior Applied to the Decision to Obtain Professional Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    present a five-step process for making an ethical decision ( Velasquez , Moberg, Meyer, Shanks, McLean, DeCosse, Andre, and Hanson, 2009). This...reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Business Ethics , 17, 1825. Civil engineering body of knowledge for the 21st century...philosophies. Journal of Business Ethics , 11(5), 461. Forsyth, D. R. (2014a). Ethics position questionnaire. Retrieved from https

  3. School nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of role as opinion leader, and professional practice regarding human papillomavirus vaccine for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L

    2015-02-01

    Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine. We used a cross-sectional design by recruiting members from the National Association of School Nurses. All participants (N = 505) were e-mailed a survey designed for this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested direct and indirect effects. Overall, school nurses had knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and positive attitudes toward the vaccine. They had less-than-enthusiastic perceptions of their role as opinion leaders regarding the vaccine and implemented few activities related to providing vaccine information. The model revealed a good fit (χ(2)=20.238 [df=8, popinion leaders. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  4. The role of warning behaviors in threat assessment: an exploration and suggested typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Meloy, J; Hoffmann, Jens; Guldimann, Angela; James, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of warning behaviors offers an additional perspective in threat assessment. Warning behaviors are acts which constitute evidence of increasing or accelerating risk. They are acute, dynamic, and particularly toxic changes in patterns of behavior which may aid in structuring a professional's judgment that an individual of concern now poses a threat - whether the actual target has been identified or not. They require an operational response. A typology of eight warning behaviors for assessing the threat of intended violence is proposed: pathway, fixation, identification, novel aggression, energy burst, leakage, directly communicated threat, and last resort warning behaviors. Previous research on risk factors associated with such warning behaviors is reviewed, and examples of each warning behavior from various intended violence cases are presented, including public figure assassination, adolescent and adult mass murder, corporate celebrity stalking, and both domestic and foreign acts of terrorism. Practical applications and future research into warning behaviors are suggested. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Chinese Preservice Teachers’ Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T.; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model. PMID:27199810

  6. Chinese Preservice Teachers' Professional Identity Links with Education Program Performance: The Roles of Task Value Belief and Learning Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hawk, Skyler T; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Professional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers' career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education) and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA) of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses) was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first 3 years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1) variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2) professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM); (3) task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4) higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic) learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5) task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  7. Chinese preservice teachers’ professional identity links with education program performance: The roles of task value belief and learning motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eZhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProfessional identity is a key issue spanning the entirety of teachers’ career development. Despite the abundance of existing research examining professional identity, its link with occupation-related behavior at the primary career stage (i.e., GPA in preservice education and the potential process that underlies this association is still not fully understood. This study explored the professional identity of Chinese preservice teachers, and its links with task value belief, intrinsic learning motivation, extrinsic learning motivation, and performance in the education program. Grade-point average (GPA of courses (both subject and pedagogy courses was examined as an indicator of performance, and questionnaires were used to measure the remaining variables. Data from 606 preservice teachers in the first three years of a teacher-training program indicated that: (1 variables in this research were all significantly correlated with each other, except the correlation between intrinsic learning motivation and program performance; (2 professional identity was positively linked to task value belief, intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivations, and program performance in a structural equation model (SEM; (3 task value belief was positively linked to intrinsic and extrinsic learning motivation; (4 higher extrinsic (but not intrinsic learning motivation was associated with increased program performance; and (5 task value belief and extrinsic learning motivation were significant mediators in the model.

  8. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGERS: PROFESSIONAL PROFILE AND THE ROLE IN THE CROSS-FUNCTIONAL INTEGRATION OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia de Abreu; Rosane Lúcia Chicarelli Alcântara

    2015-01-01

    Supply Chain Management can be seen as a way to achieve integration of all corporate functions. In practice, Supply Chain Management is complex and characterized by numerous activities spread over multiple functions and organizations, which pose challenges to reach effective implementation. Based on literature review, the objective of this paper is to present the theoretical indications regarding professional profile recommended for the Supply Chain Management and discuss the role of these pr...

  9. Study on the role of microtubules related to the nuclear behaviors during conjugation of paramecium caudatum

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Yuka

    2002-01-01

    Title,Contents,Abbreviations -- Abstract -- General Introduction -- Part 1 Role of the cytoplasmic microtubules on the behavior of meiotic products during conjugation in Paramecium caudatum -- Part 2 Role of the cytoplasmic and the intranuclear microtubules on the behavior of pronuclei during conjugation in Paramecium caudatum -- Part 3 Role of γ -tubulin on the behavior of germinal nuclei during conjugation in Paramecium caudatum -- Conclusions -- Acknowledgements -- References -- Tables -- ...

  10. Professional self-efficacy as a predictor of burnout and engagement: the role of challenge and hindrance demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Mercedes; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to analyze the role of professional self-efficacy as a predictor of psychosocial well-being (i.e., burnout and engagement) following the Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura (1997). Structural Equation Modeling was performed in a sample of secondary school teachers (n = 460) and users of Information and Communication Technology (n = 596). Results show empirical support for the predicting role that professional self-efficacy plays in the perception of challenge (i.e., mental overload) and hindrance demands (i.e., role conflict, lack of control, and lack of social support), which are in turn related to burnout (i.e., erosion process) and engagement (i.e., motivational process). Specifically, employees with more professional self-efficacy will perceive more challenge demands and fewer hindrance demands, and this will in turn relate to more engagement and less burnout. A multi-group analysis showed that the research model was invariant across both samples. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  11. The role of gender identity in adolescents' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Trillo, Vanesa; Mirón Redondo, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the relevance of the variables sex and gender to explain delinquency is a topic of growing interest in Criminology. This study tests a model of juvenile delinquency that integrates gender identity, the association with deviant peers, and a lack of attachment to conventional contexts. We used a sample of 970 adolescents of both sexes, representative of the urban population, between 12 and 18 years, attending public schools in Galicia (Spain). The results of path analysis confirm that: a) weak attachment to conventional contexts, and belonging to a deviant groups are precedents for deviation of adolescents of both sexes; b) these contexts also contribute to the development of gender identity; and c) gender identity affects the likelihood of deviation: femininity tends to reduce this behavior, and masculinity (in particular, negatively valued masculinity) contributes to increase it. These findings support the adequacy of including gender identity in the explanatory models of delinquency. They also suggest the need to reconsider the role of conventional settings in the socialization of masculinity and, therefore, in the genesis of adolescent delinquency of both sexes.

  12. Developing the role of big data and analytics in health professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Pusic, Martin V; Galbraith, Robert M; Cameron, Terri

    2014-03-01

    As we capture more and more data about learners, their learning, and the organization of their learning, our ability to identify emerging patterns and to extract meaning grows exponentially. The insights gained from the analyses of these large amounts of data are only helpful to the extent that they can be the basis for positive action such as knowledge discovery, improved capacity for prediction, and anomaly detection. Big Data involves the aggregation and melding of large and heterogeneous datasets while education analytics involves looking for patterns in educational practice or performance in single or aggregate datasets. Although it seems likely that the use of education analytics and Big Data techniques will have a transformative impact on health professional education, there is much yet to be done before they can become part of mainstream health professional education practice. If health professional education is to be accountable for its programs run and are developed, then health professional educators will need to be ready to deal with the complex and compelling dynamics of analytics and Big Data. This article provides an overview of these emerging techniques in the context of health professional education.

  13. The role of behavioral health services in accountable care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathol, Roger G; Patel, Kavita; Sacks, Lee; Sargent, Susan; Melek, Stephen P

    2015-02-01

    Nationally, care delivery organizations are developing accountable care organizations (ACOs), but few have an appreciation of the importance of behavioral health services or knowledge about how to include them in an ACO since their funding and delivery are currently segregated from other medical services. This commentary reviews data on the impact of patients with concurrent medical and behavioral health conditions. They indicate that three-fourths of patients with behavioral health disorders are seen in the medical setting, but are largely untreated because few medical patients choose to access the behavioral health sector, which is where behavioral health providers are paid to work. Untreated behavioral health conditions in medical patients are associated with persistent medical illness and significantly increased total medical healthcare service use and cost, especially in those with chronic medical conditions. At a national level, those with behavioral health conditions use one-third of total healthcare resources. This will not change unless at-risk ACOs can effectively correct the mismatch between behavioral health patients and behavioral healthcare delivery. The authors suggest that ACO subcontracting for traditional segregated behavioral health services, whether from local provider groups or external vendors, will not achieve ACO-mandated access, treatment, and cost reduction goals. Rather, behavioral health specialists will need to become core ACO member providers. This will allow them to be deployed along with other member providers using value-added delivery approaches in the medical setting to integrate medical and behavioral health service delivery, and to achieve synergistic health and cost improvement.

  14. Caregiver Commitment to Foster Children: The Role of Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Dozier, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between child behavior problems and caregiver commitment to their child in a group of young foster children. Method: The sample consisted of 102 caregiver-child dyads from the greater Baltimore area. Child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL; Achenbach, T. M. (1991).…

  15. OS TIPOS COMPORTAMENTAIS DOS EXECUTIVOS E A POSTURA DO PROFISSIONAL DE SECRETARIADO EXECUTIVES' BEHAVIOR TYPES AND PROFESSIONAL OF SECRETARIAT'S ATTITUDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Fontanella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Depois da revolução tecnológica e da globalização, muitas profissões tiveram um up e, como consequência, foram obrigadas a adaptar-se à nova realidade. Dentro desta nova realidade, o perfil do profissional de secretariado evoluiu e se desenvolveu numa trajetória de lutas e conquistas, mudando significativamente. Com a mudança também cresceram as responsabilidades e os desafios. Desempenhando funções meramente operacionais, o profissional de secretariado passou a pensar e atuar estrategicamente junto com seu(s executivo(s, conhecendo objetivos, envolvendo-se em projetos e metas. Este trabalho mostra como o profissional de secretariado consegue executar e administrar a sua função ao assessorar executivos com tipos comportamentais tão diferentes. Sinaliza a postura que o profissional de secretariado precisa adotar frente a esses tipos comportamentais e como a utilização de elementos da Inteligência Emocional e da Inteligência Social pode ajudar a criar um ambiente amistoso onde todos possam conviver em harmonia.

    After the technological revolution and globalization, many professions have had an up and, consequently, they were forced to adapt to the new reality. Within this new reality, the profile of the secretarial professional evolved and developed a path of struggles and victories, changing significantly. With the change it also increased the responsibilities and challenges. Playing purely operational functions, the professional of secretarial began to think and act strategically with their executives, engaging in projects and goals and also meeting these goals. This paper shows how professionals can perform secretarial duties and manage its function to assist executives with very different behavioral types. It indicates the position that secretarial professionals need to adopt towards these types of behavior and the use of elements of Emotional Intelligence and Social Intelligence can

  16. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  17. The Relationship between Preschool Teachers' Professional Ethical Behavior Perceptions, Moral Judgment Levels and Attitudes to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Ayla; Ramazan, Oya; Sakin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Morality is the stance and attitude that makes a social human being; the display of behaviors such as praise, criticism, tolerance and intolerance, confirmation and rejection; the taking of sides by stating what one finds good or bad, right or wrong, instead of staying indifferent to what other people say and do (Pieper, 1999). Moral development…

  18. Providing care for underserved patients: endodontic residents', faculty members', and endodontists' educational experiences and professional attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglehart, Marita R; Schneider, Brady K; Bauer, Patricia A; Dharia, Maneet M; McDonald, Neville J

    2014-05-01

    In the United States, access to dental care is often challenging for patients from socioeconomically disadvantaged and/or minority populations and for patients with special health care needs (SHCN). The objectives of this study were to a) explore endodontic residents', endodontic faculty members', and private practice endodontists' perceptions of their education about treating underserved patients, along with their related attitudes and behavior, and b) to determine how their educational experiences were related to their attitudes and behavior concerning these patients. It was hypothesized that the quality of educational experiences related to these issues would correlate with the providers' professional attitudes and behavior. Survey data were collected from seventy-eight endodontic residents, forty-eight endodontic faculty members, and seventy-five endodontists in private practice. The residents reported themselves being better prepared to treat these patients than did the endodontists in private practice. The residents and faculty members had more positive attitudes towards patients with SHCN, developmental disabilities, and pro bono cases and were more confident when treating patients with developmental disabilities than private practitioners. However, the three groups did not differ in educational experiences and attitudes concerning patients from different ethnic/racial groups. The better the respondents' graduate education about certain patient groups had been, the more positive were their attitudes and behavior. Improving endodontic residents' education about treating underserved patients is likely to improve their attitudes and behavior related to providing much-needed care for these patients. These findings are a call-to-action for dental educators to ensure quality education is being provided about these issues in order to decrease access to care problems for underserved patients.

  19. The role of impulsive behavior in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2008-09-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has recently been recognized as a factor contributing to enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present review, we focus on two facets of impulsivity (and tasks that measure them): (1) impulsive choice (delay discounting task) and (2) inhibitory failure (go/no-go, stop signal reaction time, and five-choice serial reaction time tasks). We also describe how performance on each of these tasks is associated with drug-related behavior during phases of drug abuse that capture the essential features of addiction (acquisition, escalation, and reinstatement of drug-seeking after drug access has terminated). Three hypotheses (H) regarding the relationship between impulsivity and drug abuse are discussed: (1) increased levels of impulsivity lead to drug abuse (H1), (2) drugs of abuse increase impulsivity (H2), and (3) impulsivity and drug abuse are associated through a common third factor (H3). Impulsivity expressed as impulsive choice or inhibitory failure plays a role in several key transition phases of drug abuse. There is evidence to support all three nonexclusive hypotheses. Increased levels of impulsivity lead to acquisition of drug abuse (H1) and subsequent escalation or dysregulation of drug intake. Drugs of abuse may increase impulsivity (H2), which is an additional contributor to escalation/dysregulation. Abstinence, relapse, and treatment may be influenced by both H1 and H2. In addition, there is a relationship between impulsivity and other drug abuse vulnerability factors, such as sex, hormonal status, reactivity to nondrug rewards, and early environmental experiences that may impact drug intake during all phases of addiction (H3). Relating drug abuse and impulsivity in phases of addiction via these three hypotheses provides a heuristic model from which future experimental questions can be addressed.

  20. The Changing Role of Health Care Professionals in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Literature Review of a Decade of Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend R. van Stenis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of health care professionals is known to have changed over the last years, few formal efforts have been made to examine this change through means of a scientific review. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the changing role of health care professionals in nursing homes, as well as the conditions that make this change possible. A systematic review of health care literature published in the last decade (2007–2017 was utilized to address these goals. Our findings suggest that although health care in nursing homes is shifting from task-oriented care to relation-oriented care (e.g., through an increased focus on patient dignity, various obstacles (e.g., negative self-image, work pressure, and a lack of developmental opportunities, needs (e.g., shared values, personal development, personal empowerment, team development, and demonstrating expertise, and competences (e.g., communication skills, attentiveness, negotiation skills, flexibility, teamwork, expertise, and coaching and leadership skills still need to be addressed in order to successfully facilitate this change. As such, this paper provides various implications for health care research, health care institutions, practitioners, HR professionals and managers, and occupational health research.

  1. The Changing Role of Health Care Professionals in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Literature Review of a Decade of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stenis, Arend R; van Wingerden, Jessica; Kolkhuis Tanke, Isolde

    2017-01-01

    Although the role of health care professionals is known to have changed over the last years, few formal efforts have been made to examine this change through means of a scientific review. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the changing role of health care professionals in nursing homes, as well as the conditions that make this change possible. A systematic review of health care literature published in the last decade (2007-2017) was utilized to address these goals. Our findings suggest that although health care in nursing homes is shifting from task-oriented care to relation-oriented care (e.g., through an increased focus on patient dignity), various obstacles (e.g., negative self-image, work pressure, and a lack of developmental opportunities), needs (e.g., shared values, personal development, personal empowerment, team development, and demonstrating expertise), and competences (e.g., communication skills, attentiveness, negotiation skills, flexibility, teamwork, expertise, and coaching and leadership skills) still need to be addressed in order to successfully facilitate this change. As such, this paper provides various implications for health care research, health care institutions, practitioners, HR professionals and managers, and occupational health research.

  2. The Influence of Teacher Education on Mentor Teachers' Role Perception in Professional Development Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Aviva; Oster-Levinz, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Apprenticeship and professional development schools (PDSs) are two models for teacher education. The mentors that are the focus for this research completed their initial teacher training through one of these models and now mentor in PDSs. The paper reports on how the way in which they were trained as student teachers influenced their role…

  3. White Voice in Multiculturalism: Belonging, Professional Respect, and Role as Cultural Broker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Lynn K.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Wilder retraces the steps of a personal journey as a White faculty member researching, publishing, and presenting at conferences in the field of multiculturalism. She shares insight into her experiences--while advocating for diversity--of overcoming the challenge to belong in collegial circles, to give and receive professional respect, and to…

  4. Employee Participation in Non-Mandatory Professional Development--The Role of Core Proactive Motivation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Kim S.; Machin, M. Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With a focus on the self-initiated efforts of employees, this study examined a model of core proactive motivation processes for participation in non-mandatory professional development (PD) within a proactive motivation framework using the Self-Determination Theory perspective. A multi-group SEM analysis conducted across 439 academic and general…

  5. Academic Professionalism in the Era of Change: Role Subidentities and Transformation of Time Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Roman Nikolaevich; Gruzdev, Ivan Andreevich; Terentyev, Evgeny Andreevich

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a case study conducted within the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) that examined the identity fragmentation of academic professionals in the context of current educational and academic reforms in Russia. Seven hundred and five professors were surveyed for the study, which focused on…

  6. On the Role of ExperienceLab in Professional Domain Ambient Intelligence Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, E.J.; Van de Sluis, B.M.; De Ruyter, B.; Aarts, E.H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Concept development for professional domain AmI solutions involvesdifferent stakeholders than those for consumer products, and puts different requirements on experience test methods and facilities. Philips ExperienceLab facility for experience research is described, aswell as trends and lessons

  7. Supporting Evidence Use in Networked Professional Learning: The Role of the Middle Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe-McEwan, Danielle; DeLuca, Christopher; Klinger, Don A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Canada, contemporary collaborative professional learning models for educators utilise multiple forms of evidence to inform practice. Commonly, two forms of evidence are prioritised: (a) research-based evidence and (b) classroom-based evidence of student learning. In Ontario, the integration of these two forms of evidence within…

  8. Preparing School Counselors to Support LGBT Youth: The Roles of Graduate Education and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, Ryan M.; Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether school counselors' LGBT-related graduate education and professional development predicted more frequent efforts to support LGBT students, and whether their LGBT-related self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their training experiences and supportive efforts. Results from ordinary least squares (OLS) regression…

  9. In Search of a Professional Identity: Higher Education in Macau and the Academic Role of Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Higher education in Macau, China, is characterized by vocationalization of institutions, lack of faculty professionalization, and little or no shared governance. Using general statistics of higher education in Macau and a case study of one university, this paper illustrates not only the status of the profession but also the structural, cultural,…

  10. New practices in science communication: Roles of professionals in science and technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrmann, Caroline; Dijkstra, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Science Communication (SC) professionals who are working in the context of science and technology development, have various jobs at universities, government agencies, NGOs and industry. Their positions have changed in recent years, due to developments in science and technology and to

  11. The role of time perspective in professional self-determination of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorenko T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the peculiarities of time perspective in university students at one of the stages of their professional self-identification and presents the results of studies by foreign authors on the subject of future time perspective, commitment to future, balanced time perspective and the way they relate to students’ motivation, academic achievements, intrapersonal characteristics

  12. Professional School Counselors' Role in Partnering with Military Families during the Stages of Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebekah F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to help each student to be successful in school, as outlined in the ASCA National Model, professional school counselors are called to partner with military families in order to work for their children's social, emotional, and academic success during deployments. Possible school-family partnerships that may occur before, during, and after…

  13. An Occupation's Responsibility: The Role of Social Foundations in the Cultivation of Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhauser, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, the author argues that inquiry and engagement in the social foundations of education is fundamental to cultivating professionalism in education. As many commentators on the subject have noted, teaching does not meet many of the criteria of a profession derived from the sociological study of fields of work. As Joseph Newman observes,…

  14. Leveraging Experiential Learning to Encourage Role Transition from "Student" to "Professional": Insights from Identity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Douglas R.; Ewing, Randall L.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on identity theory, this conceptual inquiry posits a need to redefine the standard that individuals use to judge themselves as a "business student." Learners will be more likely to succeed in a corporate context if they experience daily interactions throughout a curriculum that approximate a professional environment. These social…

  15. Measuring Theoretical Orientations of Counselor Trainees in Turkey: The Role of Personal and Professional Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ilkay; Gazioglu, Esra Ismen

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised, and the second aim was to understand the relative influence of personal and professional variables on the choice of a guiding theoretical orientation among Turkish counselor trainees. Results showed…

  16. Teacher Professional Development through a School-University Partnership. What Role Does Teacher Identity Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the continuing professional development of one group of secondary school English language teachers who participated in a school-university partnership in Hong Kong. Grounded in a framework of teacher identity and using in-depth interviews conducted over the entire 12 month period of the partnership, the study explores the…

  17. The Role of International Accreditation in Promoting Academic and Professional Preparation in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Peter; McFarland, Max; Gonzalez, Ruth; Hass, Michael; Stiles, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of rigorous and universally respected quality assurance procedures that monitor and recognize the delivery of effective and ethically responsible public services has become increasingly evident in many countries. However, within professional psychology, these developments generally are located in individual countries. With a few…

  18. The Professional Learning Community in Special Education Schools: The Principal's Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Chen; Feldman, Niv

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a professional learning community is characterized by the networks of learning processes which exist among its members, where teachers continuously deliberate with one another on how to solve problems that relate to teaching and learning. Interestingly, whereas a growing number of studies have focused on how to promote collective…

  19. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  20. Globalization, Information Technology and Higher Education in Nigeria: The Roles of Library Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwhekadom, Ejimaji Emmanuel; Olawolu, Oladunni Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The influence of globalization and information technology on higher education in Nigeria was investigated through a descriptive survey design. Forty-five professional librarians from University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni Port Harcourt, Federal College of Education (Technical) Omoku Rivers…

  1. A comprehensive SWOT audit of the role of the biomedical physicist in the education of healthcare professionals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, C J; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M; Aurengo, A; Dendy, P P; Karenauskaite, V; Malisan, M R; Meijer, J H; Mihov, D; Mornstein, V; Rokita, E; Vano, E; Weckstrom, M; Wucherer, M

    2010-04-01

    Although biomedical physicists provide educational services to the healthcare professions in the majority of universities in Europe, their precise role with respect to the education of the healthcare professions has not been studied systematically. To address this issue we are conducting a research project to produce a strategic development model for the role using the well-established SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) methodology. SWOT based strategic planning is a two-step process: one first carries out a SWOT position audit and then uses the identified SWOT themes to construct the strategic development model. This paper reports the results of a SWOT audit for the role of the biomedical physicist in the education of the healthcare professions in Europe. Internal Strengths and Weaknesses of the role were identified through a qualitative survey of biomedical physics departments and biomedical physics curricula delivered to healthcare professionals across Europe. External environmental Opportunities and Threats were identified through a systematic survey of the healthcare, healthcare professional education and higher education literature and categorized under standard PEST (Political, Economic, Social-Psychological, Technological-Scientific) categories. The paper includes an appendix of terminology. Defined terms are marked with an asterisk in the text. Copyright 2009 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  3. Rethinking medical professionalism: the role of information technology and practice innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, David

    2008-06-01

    Physician leaders and the public have become increasingly concerned about the erosion of medical professionalism. Changes in the organization, economics, and technology of medical care have made it difficult to maintain competence, meet patients' expectations, escape serious conflicts of interest, and distribute finite resources fairly. Information technology (IT), electronic health records (EHRs), improved models of disease management, and new ways of relating to and sharing responsibility for patients' care can contribute to both professionalism and quality of care. The potential of IT, EHRs, and other practice facilitators for professionalism is assessed through diverse but relevant literatures, examination of relevant websites, and experience in working with medical leaders on renewing professionalism. IT and EHRs are the basis of needed efforts to reinforce medical competence, improve relationships with patients, implement disease management programs, and, by increasing transparency and accountability, help reduce some conflicts of interest. Barriers include the misalignment of goals with payment incentives and time pressures in meeting patients' expectations and practice demands. Implementing IT and EHRs in small, dispersed medical practices is particularly challenging because of short-term financial costs, disruptions in practice caused by learning and adaptation, and the lack of confidence in needed support services. Large organized systems like the VA, Kaiser Permanente, and general practice in the United Kingdom have successfully overcome such challenges. IT and the other tools examined in this article are important adjuncts to professional capacities and aspirations. They have potential to help reverse the decline of primary care and make physicians' practices more effective and rewarding. The cooperation, collaboration, and shared responsibility of government, insurers, medical organizations, and physicians, as well as financial and technical support

  4. When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2012-01-01

    Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior

  5. Risk perceptions and behavioral context: U.S. Forest Service fire management professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Carpenter, Edwin H.; Cortner, Hanna J.; Cleaves, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Fire managers from the U.S. Forest Service were surveyed to determine which decision factors most strongly influenced their fire‐risk decisions. Safety, the resources at risk, public opinion, and the reliability of information were important influences on these decisions. This research allowed direct comparison between fire managers’ perceptions of factor importance and how their fire‐risk decisions changed in response to those factors. These risk decisions were highly responsive to changes in context (an escaped wildfire decision versus a prescribed burning decision) as well as to changing factors. The results demonstrate the utility of using scenarios in risk research and the vital importance of context in studying risk‐taking behavior. Research which attempts to remove risk decisions from their real‐world context may well distort the nature of risk‐taking behavior.

  6. Sedentary behavior among adults: The role of community belonging

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Scott; Currie, Cheryl L.; Copeland, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is a modifiable determinant of health. Little is known about the ways in which contextual factors may influence this behavior. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the association between community belonging and adult sedentary behavior during leisure; (2) determine if this association was explained by perceived health. Data were derived from the 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (N?=?11,494 adults). Multinomial regression models and 99% confidence interval...

  7. Orthodontic care for underserved patients: professional attitudes and behavior of orthodontic residents and orthodontists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brett R; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2011-11-01

    To explore whether orthodontic residents and orthodontists differ in their attitudes and behavior concerning the treatment of underserved patients and to investigate how background factors such as the providers' gender, ethnicity/race, and age affect these attitudes and behavior. Survey data were collected from 135 residents in US and Canadian graduate orthodontic programs and from 568 active members of the American Association of Orthodontists. Attitudes toward various aspects of treating underserved patients were rated on a five-point scale, with 1 indicating the most negative attitude and 5 indicating the most positive. Orthodontic residents had more positive attitudes about treating poor patients (3.02 vs 1.99; P orthodontists. However, compared to orthodontists, lower percentages of residents intended to treat pro bono cases (73.5% vs 83%; P = .009) and patients with craniofacial anomalies (63.6% vs 82.9%; P orthodontists. However, their behavioral intentions did not indicate an increased willingness to provide care for these patients.

  8. RELATIONSHIP OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY EFFECTS AND HOMEWORK IN AN INDICATED PREVENTION OF DEPRESSION INTERVENTION FOR NON-PROFESSIONAL CAREGIVERS (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L; Hermida, Elisabet; Díaz, Olga; Torres, Ángela

    2015-06-01

    Activities designed to be performed outside of the intervention are considered an essential aspect of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, these have received little attention in interventions aimed at individuals with subclinical depressive symptoms who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria for depression (indicated prevention). In this study, the completion of tasks given as homework and their relationship with post-treatment depressive symptoms was with relation to an indicated prevention of depression intervention. Eighty-nine female non-professional caregivers recruited from an official registry completed an intervention involving 11 homework tasks. Tasks performed were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among caregivers, 80.9% completed 9-11 tasks. The number of tasks performed was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms, with 9 being optimal for clinically significant improvement. These findings highlight the relationship between homework and post-treatment depressive symptoms.

  9. Alteration in scaling behavior of short-term heartbeat time series for professional shooting athletes from rest to exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jian Jun; Ning, Xin Bao; He, Ai Jun; Zou, Ming; Sun, Biao; Wu, Xu Hui

    2008-11-01

    Scaling analysis of heartbeat time series has emerged as a useful tool for assessing the autonomic cardiac control under various physiologic and pathologic conditions. We study the heartbeat activity and scaling behavior of heartbeat fluctuations regulated by autonomic nervous system for professional shooting athletes under two states: rest and exercise, by applying the detrended fluctuation analysis method. We focus on alteration in correlation properties of heartbeat intervals for the shooters from rest to exercise, which may have a potential value in monitoring the quality of training and evaluating the sports capacity of the athletes. The result shows that scaling exponents of short-term heart rate variability signals from the shooters get significantly larger during exercise compared with those obtained at rest. It demonstrates that during exercise stronger correlations appear in the heartbeat series of shooting athletes in order to satisfy the specific requirements for high concentration and better control on their heart beats.

  10. How Do Allied Health Professionals Construe the Role of the Remote Workforce? New Insight into Their Recruitment and Retention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle Campbell

    Full Text Available Allied health workforce recruitment and retention in remote areas is a global problem. Using case studies from the Australian allied health workforce, this paper adds new information by combining personality trait information with a detailed understanding of how the cases construe the demands of remote work, which may be useful in addressing this problem.Four cases (two urban, two remote are presented from a mixed methods study (n = 562, which used (1 the Temperament and Character Inventory to investigate personality traits of allied health professionals; and (2 repertory grid interviews to reveal quantitatively and qualitatively how the cases construed their Ideal work role compared with their Current and a Remote role. Cases also self-assessed their fit ('suited' or 'not suited' with remote.Differences in the way cases construed their fit with remote work was related to prior experience. However all were satisfied with their work, perceiving their Current role as similar to their Ideal. All saw remote work as requiring generalist expertise and a reliance on relationships. Personality traits, especially Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance, fit with how allied health professionals perceived their role.The combination of two distinct lines of investigation, illustrates what more can be revealed about allied health professional's career choices by taking into account the fit or lack of fit between their personality tendencies, their construing of remote work and their life circumstances. Understanding the combined influence of perceptions and traits on an individual toward or away from remote work may enhance recruitment and retention internationally.

  11. Trying on the professional self: nursing students' perceptions of learning about roles, identity and teamwork in an interprofessional clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Kerry; Cant, Robyn; Leech, Michelle; Baulch, Julie; Gilbee, Alana

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to describe how senior nursing students viewed the clinical learning environment and matured their professional identity through interprofessional learning in a student-led hospital 'ward'. Undergraduate nursing and medical student teams participated in a trial of ward-based interprofessional clinical learning, managing patients over 2 weeks in a rehabilitation ward. Qualitative and quantitative program evaluation was conducted using exit student focus groups and a satisfaction survey. Twenty-three nursing and medical students in three placement rounds provided positive feedback. Five main themes emerged describing their engagement in 'trying on' a professional role: 'experiencing independence and autonomy'; 'seeing clearly what nursing's all about'; 'altered images of other professions'; 'ways of communicating and collaborating' and 'becoming a functioning team'. Ward-based interprofessional clinical placements offer senior students authentic ideal clinical experiences. We consider this essential learning for future interprofessional collaboration which should be included in senior nursing students' education. © 2014.

  12. The educational needs and professional roles of Canadian physicians and nurses regarding genetic testing and adult onset hereditary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Blaine, Sean; Carroll, June C; Esplen, Mary Jane; Evans, Jane; Nicolson Klimek, Mary Lou; Meschino, Wendy; Ritvo, Paul

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, professional involvement and confidence of Canadian nurses and physicians in providing genetic services for adult onset hereditary disease. 1,425 physicians and 1,425 nurses received a mailed questionnaire with reminders. The response rates were 50% (n = 543) and 79% (n = 975), respectively. Forty-eight percent of physicians and 31% of nurses lacked formal education in genetics. Respondents reported being involved in caring for people at risk for adult onset hereditary disease. Their levels of confidence that they could perform tasks, such as counselling about predictive genetic tests, however, were lower than their levels of expectation that it would be important for them to provide these services. The expected roles and educational needs of Canadian nurses and physicians have broad areas of overlap suggesting the possibility of combined professional education programs and multiple ways of organizing teams to provide genetic services to people at risk for adult onset hereditary disease. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. All change within the academy: dissonance and role conflict, or the potential for new forms of professionalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dillon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions (HEIs in Britain face ever increasing challenges in the twenty first century as they continue to adapt to public sector management systems originally introduced under the Thatcher government administration, rapid technological advancements, globalisation and policy directives to widen participation. This paper initially foregrounds the changing organisational context of HEIs in Britain by drawing upon relevant literature and case study examples from a post-1992 University. The paper goes on to illustrate some of the micro-consequences of manageralism and marketisation through widening participation and briefly assesses their impact vis-à-vis gender, the pedagogical relationship and workload intensification. The author argues that recent trends and associated organisational changes within HEIs in Britain have led to dissonance and role conflict and the erosion of academic professionalism, but that new forms of professionalism are possible

  14. The Role of the Caudate in Nonmotor Behaviors in Huntington’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Jacobs

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychologic data suggest an important role for the caudate nucleus (CN in behavioral impairments in Huntington's disease (HD. These include abnormalities in executive function, egocentric visuospatial representations, communication, and retrieval of declarative memories, changes in personality, and psychiatric disturbances. Animal paradigms of CN lesions support a role for the CN in some of these behaviors. Current theories of basal ganglia function add explanatory value to the role of the CN in these behaviors. A disconnection of the caudate from limbic structures, including the amygdala may account for many nonmotor behaviors observed in HD.

  15. Family Involvement for Children with Disruptive Behaviors: The Role of Parenting Stress and Motivational Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semke, Carrie A.; Garbacz, S. Andrew; Kwon, Kyongboon; Sheridan, Susan M.; Woods, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Children with disruptive behaviors are at risk for adverse outcomes. Family involvement is a significant predictor of positive child behavior outcomes; however, little research has investigated parent psychological variables that influence family involvement for children with disruptive behaviors. This study investigated the role of parental…

  16. Maladaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Emotion Experience and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Lee, Ihno A.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive behavior is common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the factors that give rise to maladaptive behavior in this context are not well understood. The present study examined the role of emotion experience and emotion regulation in maladaptive behavior in individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) participants.…

  17. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  18. The Promotion of Democratic Behavior and the Role of Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Khan, Irfanullah; Khan, Ahmad Ali; Jan, Farooq; Ahmad, Riaz; Rauf, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    This study is conducted to measure the influence of social media over the democratic behavior of the students. Social media is the main component of political participation in democratic societies and the study of democratic behavior is a highly specialized sub-field in political and social science. The study was concerned with the reasons that to…

  19. Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, S.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually

  20. The Role of Atomic Repertoires in Complex Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Evolution and reinforcement shape adaptive forms and adaptive behavior through many cycles of blind variation and selection, and therein lie their parsimony and power. Human behavior is distinctive in that this shaping process is commonly "short circuited": Critical variations are induced in a single trial. The processes by which this economy is…

  1. On sexual behavior and sex-role reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    Sex is not about reproduction; sex is about (re-) combination of DNA. Sex, not reproduction, always involves physical contact between two individuals; to achieve this, strategies of sexual behavior evolved. Sexual behavior, therefore, did not evolve as part of a reproductive strategy, but evolved to

  2. When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, Deanne N; Belschak, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior (personal initiative in Study 1 and prosocial proactive behavior in Study 2). As expected, a 3-way interaction qualifies these main effects: In situations of high autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals high (but not low) on self-efficacy. Vice versa, in situations low on job autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals low (but not high) on self-efficacy. This pattern is found both for self-ratings and peer-ratings of employees' proactive behavior in Study 1 and for supervisor ratings of such behavior in Study 2.

  3. "Towards Professional Multilingualism?" Reconceptualising the School Coordinator Role in Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, John; Mutton, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the school coordinator role in initial teacher training (ITT) in England. Recognising that mentoring is fully embedded and highly researched in ITT, it argues the role of the coordinator, while integral to partnerships, is far less researched. This paper investigates tensions in the role, between managing programme-wide…

  4. The role of a practice model in professional education: The case of nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievert, Anne; Chaiklin, Seth

    of the professional practice for which students are being prepared. Without such a model, how will teachers be able to show the connections between specific topics and the practice in general, and how will students be able to relate specific topics? In our case, we focus on nursing as the professional practice...... for understanding nursing practice, and give a tool for both teachers and nursing students to relate specific topics in the nursing education to the practice of nursing. We conclude with some illustrations of how this model can be used in teaching specific topics within the nursing education....... attempt to formulate such a general model for nursing practice. As part of his work on developing a general approach for subject-matter teaching for schoolchildren, Vasili Davydov elaborated the importance of using models as a way of developing theoretical thinking (i.e., understanding the general...

  5. Graduate Professional Education from a Community of Practice Perspective: The Role of Social and Technical Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Linda G.

    This chapter describes academic life at the intersection of three related topics: community of practice (CoP), a pedagogical model; digital culture, as embodied in the current and future student population; and post-secondary education, in particular graduate professional education. The aim is to illustrate ways in which social computing applications enable the use of a CoP model in graduate professional education. The illustrations are drawn from two hybrid, or blended, degree programs (a mix of face-to-face and online interactions) at the graduate school of education and psychology at Pepperdine University. These fully accredited programs have each been in operation for more than a decade. One is the MA degree in educational technology, begun in 1998; the other is the EdD degree in educational technology leadership, begun in 1995.

  6. Parents with intellectual disabilities seeking professional parenting support: the role of working alliance, stress and informal support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelder, Marieke; Hodes, Marja; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Delaying or refraining from seeking advice and support in difficult parenting situations is identified as an important risk factor for child abuse and neglect. This study tested whether the extent of delays in support seeking is associated with working alliance for parents with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and whether the importance of working alliance may depend on parenting stress and availability of informal support. Delays in support seeking were measured as parental latency (time waited) to approach the support worker. This latency was assessed in the intended response to hypothetical situations (vignettes) and in the reported behavioral response to real life difficult parenting situations from the preceding weeks. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for testing main and interaction effects of predictors on latency for support seeking. Better quality of the working alliance was associated with shorter intended latency to seek support for parents with MID, if parents had little access to informal support. Higher parenting stress predicted a shorter latency for intended support seeking. Parental support seeking intentions were positively associated with support seeking behavior. A good quality of the working alliance might be important to connect needs of parents with MID to resources that professional support can offer, in particular for the most vulnerable parents. Parental reluctance to seek professional support may be the result of a combination of risk and protective factors and is not always a sign of poor working alliance. Implications for risk assessment and support practice are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the Role of Information Professionals in Improving Research Reproducibility:A Case Study in Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, A.; West, J.

    2016-12-01

    The validity of Geosciences research is of great significance to general public and policy-makers. In an earlier study, we surveyed 136 faculty and graduate students in geosciences. The result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing, suggesting a general lack of research reproducibility in geosciences. Although there is much enthusiasm for creation of technologies such as workflow system, literate programming, and cloud-based system to facilitate reproducibility, much less emphasis has been placed on the information services essential for meaningful use of these tools. Library and Information Science (LIS) has a rich tradition of providing customized service for research communities. LIS professionals such as academic librarians have made strong contribution to resources locating, software recommending, data curation, metadata guidance, project management, submission review and author training. In particular, university libraries have been actively developing tools and offering guidelines, consultations, and trainings on Data Management Plan (DMP) required by National Science Foundation (NSF). And effective data management is a significant first step towards reproducible research. Hereby we argue that LIS professionals may be well-positioned to assist researchers to make their research reproducible. In this study, we aim to answer the question: how can LIS professionals assist geoscience researchers in making their research capable of being reproduced? We first synthesize different definitions of "reproducibility" and provide a conceptual framework of "reproducibility" in geosciences to resolve some of the misunderstandings around related terminology. Using a case study approach, we then examine 1) university librarians' technical skills, domain knowledge, professional activities, together with their awareness of, readiness for, and attitudes towards research reproducibility and

  8. The role of the circuit inspector in the professional development of principals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ed. (Educational Management) The present crisis in Black education in South Africa centres largely around the problem of educating and re-educating principals. Major deficiencies in the teaching of Mathematics and Physical Science exacerbate the acute shortage of adequately qualified teachers. During the past two decades there have been even greater uncertainties, fears and instabilities in the field of professional development. The problem of upgrading Black principals also seems to hav...

  9. Role of professional motivation in the system of education of students in physical culture high schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanchenko N.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main approaches to the professional motivation formation in the system of education in the physical culture шт. high educational institutions have been determined in the article. Content of programs, textbooks and training manuals of professionally orientated disciplines aiming to determine their topic orientation on the sport pedagogue profession have been analyzed. It has been shown that didactical provision of the "Theory and Methods of the Chosen Type of Sports" and psychological-pedagogical disciplines, generally, does reflect a setting towards forming of theoretical competence in students. The main conditions of the students motivation development have been noted, such as renewing of the content and technology of the educational activity in the high educational institutions with including such components like didactical provision (of content, methods of realization, means of cooperation in the system "lecturer-student", which is based on the integration of pedagogical and sport components of context approach based training; professionally oriented tasks, which are actualizing students life experience in connection with the specialty; taking part in the pedagogical activity; psychological-pedagogical interaction in motivation development.

  10. A Framework for Understanding Lapses in Professionalism Among Medical Students: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Fitness to Practice Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vikram; Brockbank, Susannah; Roberts, Trudie

    2016-06-28

    Fitness to practice decisions are often based on a student's digression from the regulations, with limited exploration of the reasoning behind the student's behavior. However, behavior is underpinned by complex, "hidden" variables, including an individual's attitudes and social norms. Examining hidden determinants of professionalism, such as context, interpersonal relationships, social norms, and local cultures, then allows medical educators to develop a richer understanding of unprofessional behavior.In this article, the authors propose the use of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework to help evaluate unprofessional behavior in students. The TPB is a deliberative processing model that explains how an individual's behavior is underpinned by his or her cognitions, with behavior being primarily dependent on the intention to perform the behavior (behavioral intention). Intention, in turn, is determined by three variables: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control.To understand the practical use of the TPB, the authors present four complex, anonymized case studies in which they employed the TPB to help deal with serious professionalism lapses among medical students. The outcomes of these cases as well as the student and program director perspectives, all explained via the TPB variables, are presented. The strengths and limitations of the TPB are discussed.

  11. Investigation of gender role behaviors in boys with hypospadias: comparative study with unaffected boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Role of Generic Competencies in the Entrustment of Professional Activities: A Nationwide Competency-Based Curriculum Assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Karsten A; Teunissen, Pim W; Driessen, Erik W; Scheele, Fedde

    2016-10-01

    Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) seek to translate essential physician competencies into clinical practice. Until now, it is not known whether EPA-based curricula offer enhanced assessment and feedback to trainees. This study examined program directors' and senior residents' justifications for entrustment decisions and what role generic, cross-specialty competencies (such as communication skills, collaboration, and understanding health care systems) play in these decisions. Entrustment decisions for all Dutch obstetrics and gynecology residents between January 2010 and April 2014 were retrieved from their electronic portfolios. Justifications for entrustment were divided into 4 categories: the resident's experience, his or her technical performance, the presence of a generic competency, and training. Template analysis was used to analyze in depth the types of justifications, which play a role in entrustment decisions. A total of 5139 entrustment decisions for 375 unique residents were extracted and analyzed. In 59% of all entrustment decisions, entrusting a professional task to a resident was justified by the experience of the resident. Generic competencies were mentioned in 0.5% of all entrustment decisions. Template analysis revealed that the amount of exposure and technical skills are leading factors, while the quality of the performance was not reported to be of any influence. Entrustment decisions only rarely are based on generic competencies, despite the introduction of competency frameworks and EPAs. For program directors, a leading factor in entrustment decisions is a resident's exposure to an activity, and the quality of a resident's performance appears to play only a minor role.

  13. The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age  = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.

  14. The efforts of direct support professionals to facilitate inclusion: the role of psychological determinants and work setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, E; Otten, S; Vlaskamp, C

    2015-10-01

    Various studies have found that direct support professionals (DSPs) play an important role in determining the degree to which people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are included in society. However, less research has been conducted on the psychological processes that may influence the behavioural intentions of DSPs to actually engage with and invest effort in supporting their clients' inclusion. Five possible psychological variables are identified in the literature: attitudes, social norms, experienced competencies, identity and meta-evaluation. In our research, we tested whether these processes influence the (intended) efforts DSPs make to facilitate their clients' inclusion. A structured questionnaire was sent to 927 DSPs working in one of three different locations (an ordinary non-segregated setting, a reversed non-segregated setting and a residential facility). Of these, 336 DSPs completed the questionnaire. Several variables revealed differences between the three locations, specifically in efforts to facilitate inclusion, attitudes, social norms, experienced competencies and professional identity. Looking at the overall means, we found (relatively) high scores for the experienced competencies, role identity and meta-evaluation. In contrast, the means were relatively negative regarding the DSPs' attitudes to inclusion and their assumed social norms. Direct support professionals' efforts to facilitate inclusion depend on their attitude towards inclusion, the experienced competencies, their role identity, the DSPs' meta-evaluation and, indirectly through attitudes, also on the assumed social norms of the relevant stakeholders. Organizations responsible for supporting people with ID and which may want their DSPs to make greater efforts to facilitate inclusion should pay attention to these psychological variables. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sometimes you can't make it on your own: the impact of a professionalism curriculum on the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of an academic plastic surgery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Charles Scott; Halvorson, Eric G; Kaye, Donna; Helgans, Richard; Meyers, Michael O; Rowland, Pamela A; Meyer, Anthony A

    2013-03-01

    Professionalism is now recognized as a core competency for graduate medical education and maintenance of certification. However, few models exist in plastic surgery that define, teach, and assess professionalism as a competency. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a professionalism curriculum in an academic plastic surgery practice. We created and conducted a 6-wk, 12-h course for health care professionals in plastic surgery (faculty, residents, nurses, medical students). Teaching methods included didactic lectures, journal club, small group discussions, and book review. Topics included: (1) Professionalism in Our Culture, (2) Leadership Styles, (3) Modeling Professional Behavior, (4) Leading Your Team, (5) Managing Oneself, and (6) Leading While You Work. Using Kirkpatrick methodology to assess perception of the course (level 1 data), learning of the material (level 2 data), effect on behavior (level 3 data), and impact on the organization (level 4 data), we compiled participant questionnaires, scores from pre- and post-tests, and such metrics as incidence of sentinel events (defined as infractions requiring involvement by senior administrators), number of patient complaints reported to Patient Relations, and patient satisfaction (Press Ganey surveys), for the 6 mo before and after the course. Thirty health care professionals participated in a 6-wk course, designed to improve professionalism in plastic surgery. Level 1 data: Although only 56.5% of respondents felt that the course was a "good use of my time," 73.9% agreed that the course "will help me become a better professional" and 82.6% "would recommend the course to others." Level 2 data: Post-test scores increased from 48% to 70% (P < 0.05), and the ability to recall all six competencies increased from 22% to 73% (P < 0.01). Level 3 data: The number of sentinel events in our division decreased from 13 to three. After the course, one resident was placed on probation and resigned

  16. INTERDISCIPLINARY TUTORING FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL-SIMULATION ROLE-PLAYS/TUTORIZACIÓN INTERDISCIPLINAR PARA EL DESARROLLO DE JUEGOS DE SIMULACIÓN PROFESIONAL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cristina Castillo Rodríguez; Deborah García Magna; Sonia Ríos Moyano; Carmen Cristófol Rodríguez; Rosa Rodríguez Mérida; María-Jesús Carrasco Santos

    2012-01-01

    ... premise, we have performed an interdisciplinary role-play so as to allow our students to acquire those professional competences. However, to carry out this performance a well-organised tutorial plan, divided into several tutoring sessions, was required to succeed in the use of this active methodology. KEY WORDS Interdisciplinarity - Active methodology - Role-play - Professional-simulation - tutoring RESUMEN La sociedad actual se caracteriza por la creciente tendencia de los profesionales de distinto...

  17. Position Paper by Canadian Dental Sleep Medicine Professionals Regarding the Role of Different Health Care Professionals in Managing Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Gauthier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  18. Position paper by Canadian dental sleep medicine professionals on the role of different health care professionals in managing obstructive sleep apnea and snoring with oral appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Luc; Almeida, Fernanda; Arcache, Jean-Patrick; Ashton-McGregor, Catherine; Coté, David; Driver, Helen S; Ferguson, Kathleen A; Lavigne, Gilles J; Martin, Philippe; Masse, Jean-François; Morisson, Florence; Pancer, Jeffrey; Samuels, Charles Harry; Schachter, Maurice; Sériès, Frédéric; Sullivan, Glendon Edward

    2012-01-01

    The present Canadian position paper contains recommendations for the management by dentists of sleep-disordered breathing in adults with the use of oral appliances (OAs) as a treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The recommendations are based on literature reviews and expert panel consensus. OAs offer an effective, first-line treatment option for patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer an OA to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, or for severe OSA patients who cannot tolerate CPAP, are inappropriate candidates for CPAP or who have failed CPAP treatment attempts. The purpose of the present position paper is to guide interdisciplinary teamwork (sleep physicians and sleep dentists) and to clarify the role of each professional in the management of OA therapy. The diagnosis of OSA should always be made by a physician, and OAs should be fitted by a qualified dentist who is trained and experienced in dental sleep medicine. Follow-up assessment by the referring physician and polysomnography or sleep studies are required to verify treatment efficacy. The present article emphasizes the need for a team approach to OA therapy and provides treatment guidelines for dentists trained in dental sleep medicine. Many of the dentists and sleep physicians who contributed to the preparation of the present article are members of the Canadian Sleep Society and the authors reached a consensus based on the current literature.

  19. Role Breadth Self-Efficacy and Foci of Proactive Behavior: Moderating Role of Collective, Relational, and Individual Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.

  20. Innovative Work Behavior: The Roles of Employee Expectations and Effects on Job Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Doerner Nadin

    2012-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the question of how innovative work behavior of employees affects their task performance and how managers can influence innovative work behavior. Two research models approach the question: research model I addresses how employee expectations influence innovative work behavior and how innovative work behavior relates to task performance. Research model II deals with the factors that influence the formation of expectations. Research model I investigates the roles ...

  1. Erosion of Digital Professionalism During Medical Students' Core Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghimi, Arash; Olszewski, Aleksandra E; Bell, Sigall K; Roberts, David H; Crotty, Bradley H

    2017-05-03

    The increased use of social media, cloud computing, and mobile devices has led to the emergence of guidelines and novel teaching efforts to guide students toward the appropriate use of technology. Despite this, violations of professional conduct are common. We sought to explore professional behaviors specific to appropriate use of technology by looking at changes in third-year medical students' attitudes and behaviors at the beginning and conclusion of their clinical clerkships. After formal teaching about digital professionalism, we administered a survey to medical students that described 35 technology-related behaviors and queried students about professionalism of the behavior (on a 5-point Likert scale), observation of others engaging in the behavior (yes or no), as well as personal participation in the behavior (yes or no). Students were resurveyed at the end of the academic year. Over the year, perceptions of what is considered acceptable behavior regarding privacy, data security, communications, and social media boundaries changed, despite formal teaching sessions to reinforce professional behavior. Furthermore, medical students who observed unprofessional behaviors were more likely to participate in such behaviors. Although technology is a useful tool to enhance teaching and learning, our results reflect an erosion of professionalism related to information security that occurred despite medical school and hospital-based teaching sessions to promote digital professionalism. True alteration of trainee behavior will require a cultural shift that includes continual education, better role models, and frequent reminders for faculty, house staff, students, and staff.

  2. Research productivity of members of IADR Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group: relationship to professional and personal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern.

  3. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention. Methods Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey. Analysis Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important), and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention. Results Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88), geriatrician (4.87), police officer (4.87), GEM (geriatric emergency management) nurse (4.80), GEM social worker (4.78), community health worker (4.76), social worker/counsellor (4.74), family physician in community (4.71), paramedic (4.65), financial worker (4.59), lawyer (4.59), pharmacist (4.59), emergency physician (4.57), geriatric psychiatrist (4.33), occupational therapist (4.29), family physician in hospital (4.28), Crown prosecutor (4.24), neuropsychologist (4.24), bioethicist (4.18), caregiver advocate (4.18), victim support worker (4

  4. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  5. Relation Between Emotional Labor and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: An Investigation Among Chinese Teaching Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis Y L; Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between emotional labor and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and the mediation of work engagement in this relationship. A total of 264 teachers in Mainland China were recruited for this study. Bivariate correlation showed that both deep acting and the expression of naturally felt emotion were positively related to the two dimensions of OCB, namely, OCB toward the individual (OCBI) and OCB toward the organization (OCBO), whereas surface acting was not related to the OCB dimensions. Work engagement was also positively associated with both OCB dimensions. Regression results showed that work engagement partially mediated the relation between deep acting and OCBO, and that between the expression of naturally felt emotion and OCBI. Work engagement also fully mediated the association between deep acting and OCBI, and that between the expression of naturally felt emotion and OCBO. In light of these findings, strategies that encourage employees to display emotions consistent with their inner experience were discussed.

  6. Consumer Behavior in Shopping Streets: The Importance of the Salesperson's Professional Personal Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Natalia; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Sierra-Murillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2010s, the emergence of a new consumer has begun. In this context, consumer behavior represents one of the greatest interests of marketing scholars and business managers due to their need to adapt their companies' strategies to the new frontier. In order to advance understanding of this new consumer, this article focuses on analyzing consumer behavior in shopping streets. Thus, the aim of this research is to know what customers value in terms of salesperson-customer interaction quality nowadays. To achieve this, the authors conducted two studies. The results of the first study show that customers cite personal attention as the primary factor motivating their preference for small retailers in shopping streets. However, this motivation is not as relevant one for those who prefer malls. This result provides a point on which to research service quality incorporating personal attention in a second study. Using the SERVQUAL-P scale, the authors elaborate three lenses through which the quality of service from the customer's point of view can be analyzed: normative expectations, predictive expectations, and the importance of each attribute. The most striking result is that the dimensions of expectations (normative and predictive) are the same; these results demonstrate that customers are coherent in making assessments of their expectations, evaluating service quality and satisfaction with similar criteria. However, these dimensions are different from the dimensions of importance. Our main contribution lies in the finding that personal attention, when assessed using the scale of attribute importance, is split into two dimensions: (1) courteous attention and (2) personal relationship. Courteous attention is always welcome, but personal relationships are less valued and are often even rejected. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for marketing practices and research.

  7. Consumer behavior in shopping streets: The importance of the salesperson’s professional personal attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eMedrano Sáez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 2010s, the emergence of a new consumer has begun. In this context, consumer behavior represents one of the greatest interests of marketing scholars and business managers due to their need to adapt their companies’ strategies to the new frontier. In order to advance understanding of this new consumer, this article focuses on analyzing consumer behavior in shopping streets. Thus, the aim of this research is to know what customers value in terms of salesperson–customer interaction quality nowadays. To achieve this, the authors conducted two studies. The results of the first study show that customers cite personal attention as the primary factor motivating their preference for small retailers in shopping streets. However, this motivation is not as relevant one for those who prefer malls. This result provides a point on which to research service quality incorporating personal attention in a second study. Using the SERVQUAL-P scale, the authors elaborate three lenses through which the quality of service from the customer’s point of view can be analyzed: normative expectations, predictive expectations, and the importance of each attribute. The most striking result is that the dimensions of expectations (normative and predictive are the same; these results demonstrate that customers are coherent in making assessments of their expectations, evaluating service quality and satisfaction with similar criteria. However, these dimensions are different from the dimensions of importance. Our main contribution lies in the finding that personal attention, when assessed using the scale of attribute importance, is split into two dimensions: (1 courteous attention and (2 personal relationship. Courteous attention is always welcome, but personal relationships are less valued and are often even rejected. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for marketing practices and research.

  8. A Role of Referring Website on Online Shopping Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HoEun Chung; JungKun Park

    2009-01-01

    .... The purpose of the present study is two-folds. Firstly, the study defines different behavior patterns when consumers visit an online store through a referring website versus when consumers directly enter to an online store sans a referring website...

  9. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  10. The Role of Social Media Advertising in Consumer Buying Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adnan Veysel Ertemel; Ahmad Ammoura

    2017-01-01

    P Consumer buying behavior is known also as consumer decision making is the process by which individuals search for, select, purchase, use, and dispose of goods and services to satisfy require needs...

  11. Markdown or Everyday Low Price? The Role of Behavioral Motives

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Özalp; Zheng, Yanchong

    2013-01-01

    We study a seller’s optimal pricing and inventory strategies when behavioral (nonpecuniary) motives affect consumers’ purchase decisions. In particular, the seller chooses between two pricing strategies, markdown or everyday low price, and determines the optimal prices and inventory level. Two salient behavioral motives that impact consumers’ purchase decisions and the seller’s optimal strategies are anticipated regret and misperception of product availability. Regret arises when a consumer i...

  12. On career longevity distributions in professional sports and a stochastic mechanism underlying their empirical power-law behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2008-01-01

    We provide a simple and intuitive stochastic process that accounts for the observed probability density functions governing career longevity in several professional sports leagues in various countries. Our mechanism characterizes the probability density functions governing career longevity with two parameters, \\alpha and \\tau . The exponent \\alpha < 1 characterizes the scaling in the power-law regime, which is followed by an exponential cutoff after a critical value \\tau, representing the mean lifetime in each sport. In addition, we also show that the probability density functions of career statistical metrics within each sport follow directly from the density functions of career longevity. Thus, our process is a universal mechanism describing longevity in a competitive environment, with the exponent \\alpha representing the role of experience and reputation in career development. Because net career tallies of in-game success ultimately serve as a metric for classifying careers, our findings provide a robus...

  13. Human Connections and Their Roles in the Occupational Well-being of Healthcare Professionals: A Study on Loneliness and Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soler-Gonzalez

    2017-08-01

    associated with collateral effects (r = 0.22; p < 0.001. Neither family burden, nor work dedication to clinics or management activities were associated with the three collateral effects measured. These findings support an important role for empathy in the prevention of work stress in healthcare professionals. They also confirm that loneliness, as a multidimensional and domain specific experience, is detrimental to occupational well-being.

  14. MEDIATION ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE PERCEPTION OF ADMINISTRATORS' POLITICAL AND PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION BEHAVIORS

    OpenAIRE

    Mukadder Boydak Özan; Tuncay Yavuz Özdemir; Zübeyde Yaraş

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediation role of organizational justice perception of administrators’ political and paternalistic leadership behaviors on conflict resolution behaviors. The study was conducted with 330 high school teachers working in the central district area in Elazığ. Percentage, frequency, arithmetical mean, correlation analysis and hierarchal regression analysis was used in analyzing the data. According to the correlation analysis results, there are positive ...

  15. The contemporary healthcare crisis in China and the role of medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Edwin C

    2010-08-01

    The healthcare crisis that has developed in the last two decades during China's economic reform has caused healthcare and hospital financing reforms to be largely experienced by patients as a crisis in the patient-healthcare professional relationship (PPR) at the bedside. The nature and magnitude of this crisis were epitomized by the "Harbin Scandal"-an incident that took place in August 2005 in a Harbin teaching hospital in which the family of an elderly patient hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 66 days paid over RMB yen6 million. The news was publicized globally and ended in the firing of six top hospital administrators including the hospital president and the ICU director. This paper seeks to show that the Chinese healthcare crisis is ultimately linked to a conflict of interests between patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), which is inherent in the reformed healthcare system of China. Hence the crisis is, at its core, a crisis of fidelity and confidence that must be restored to the PPR. At the "macro" level, it is simplistic to blame the crisis on the failure of the market system, and at the "micro" level, it is naïve to expect that a contractual understanding of the PPR will effectively restore the confidence of patients. This paper will show that the fiduciary relationship and medical professionalism share similar attributes, with fidelity being the core value of both. It concludes that the loss of medical fidelity implies the dissolution of the PPR and the demise of the medical profession and challenges Chinese HCPs to keep their fidelity as a means to both protect their patients' interests and to preserve their profession's survival.

  16. Ethics and the professional practice of psychologists: the role of virtues and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A E; Meara, N M

    1990-04-01

    We evaluate the potential relevance of virtue ethics to the training and practice of professional psychologists, and we contrast them with principle ethics. Typically, principles are used to facilitate the selection of socially and historically acceptable answers to the question "What shall I do?" when confronted by ethical dilemmas. Virtue ethics, however, generally focus on the question "Who shall I be?" Strengths and weaknesses of each approach are presented. The impact of each is discussed with respect to informed consent and the therapeutic construct "genuineness." We conclude that virtue ethics are an essential component of responsible ethical training and practice.

  17. Role-Taking Ability and Social Behavior in Deaf School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, David S.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    1990-01-01

    Performance by 23 deaf children (ages 7-14) on a role-taking task correlated positively with camp staff members' ratings of emotional adjustment, self-image, communicative effectiveness, and role-taking skill. Role-taking performance, however, was not reliably related to measures of aspects of social behavior such as altruism and helping.…

  18. Predicting violent behavior: The role of violence exposure and future educational aspirations during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Heinze, Justin E; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Few researchers have explored future educational aspirations as a promotive factor against exposure to community violence in relation to adolescents' violent behavior over time. The present study examined the direct and indirect effect of exposure to community violence prior to 9th grade on attitudes about violence and violent behavior in 12th grade, and violent behavior at age 22 via 9th grade future educational aspirations in a sample of urban African American youth (n = 681; 49% male). Multi-group SEM was used to test the moderating effect of gender. Exposure to violence was associated with lower future educational aspirations. For boys, attitudes about violence directly predicted violent behavior at age 22. For boys, future educational aspirations indirectly predicted less violent behavior at age 22. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Relationship of Secondary Special Education Teachers' Roles and Factors that Lead to Professional Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embich, Jeanne L.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 300 learning disability teachers in middle and high schools found teachers were experiencing high levels of emotional exhaustion, specifically those who team teach with a general educator. Role conflict, role ambiguity, perceived workload, and lack of principal support contributed to the teachers' feelings of emotional exhaustion.…

  20. Role of Clinical Education Experiences on Athletic Training Students' Development of Professional Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Dodge, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Context: Limited evidence exists on the role clinical education can play in the development of athletic training student commitment for the profession. Objective: Investigating the role clinical education experiences play on the development of passion for athletic training. Design: Exploratory qualitative study. Setting: Athletic training…

  1. The Role of Competition in the Europeanization of the Professional Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    This contribution develops a theoretical framework in the vein of accounts of sociology of professions which highlight the role of professions in advancing social integration and the role of competition in this context. Against this theoretical backdrop, I will develops a critical account of the ...

  2. The differential role of smell and taste for eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, Sanne; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Food choice and food intake are guided by both sensory and metabolic processes. The senses of taste and smell play a key role in the sensory effects on choice and intake. This article provides a comprehensive overview of, and will argue for, the differential role of smell and taste for eating

  3. U.S. and Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors toward dietary supplements: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.

  4. Do child healthcare professionals and parents recognize social-emotional and behavioral problems in 1-year-old infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakortes, Jaana; Kovaniemi, Susanna; Carter, Alice S; Bloigu, Risto; Moilanen, Irma K; Ebeling, Hanna E

    2017-04-01

    Growing evidence supports the existence of clinically significant social-emotional/behavioral (SEB) problems among as young as 1-year-old infants. However, a substantial proportion of early SEB problems remain unidentified during contacts with child healthcare professionals. In this study, child healthcare nurse (CHCN; N = 1008) and parental (N = 518) reports about SEB worries were gathered, along with the maternal and paternal Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) ratings, for 12-month-old infants randomly recruited through Finnish child health centers. Only 1.4-1.8 % of CHCNs, 3.9 % of mothers, and 3.2 % of fathers reported of being worried about the assessed child's SEB development. When the CHCNs' and parental reports were combined, 7.7 % (33/428) of the infants assessed each by all three adults had one (7.0 %), two (0.7 %) or three (0 %) worry reports. Even the combination of the CHCN's and parental worry reports identified only 7.0-13.8 % of the infants with the maternal and/or paternal BITSEA Problem or Competence rating in the of-concern range. Identified associations across the three informants' worry reports, parental BITSEA ratings and sociodemographic factors are discussed in the paper. Routine and frequent use of developmentally appropriate screening measures, such as the BITSEA, might enhance identification and intervening of early SEB problems in preventive child healthcare by guiding both professionals and parents to pay more attention to substantial aspects of young children's SEB development and encouraging them to discuss possible problems and worries.

  5. A concept mapping exploration of social workers' and mental health nurses' understanding of the role of the Approved Mental Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel T; Wells, Harvey; Graham, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    This study uses concept mapping and participant interviews to explore how differing professional viewpoints and levels of knowledge held by social workers and mental health nurses affect perceptions of the Approved Mental Health Professional (AMHP) role during an interprofessional training programme. The results suggest that social workers entering the programme had a greater understanding of the role in comparison to mental health nurses; however, on completion of the programme, both professional groups demonstrated similar levels of learning. The study challenges assumptions that nurses may be inherently disadvantaged by their professional background in terms of learning about a role that is traditionally associated with social work practice. Study participants valued the concept mapping process and felt that the approach may be a valuable tool for clinical supervision. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of a Combined Cognitive-Affective Intervention on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Anticipated Professional Behaviors regarding Homosexuality and Gay and Lesbian Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Angela D.; Rosenthal, Amy R.; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive-affective intervention the attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues of pre-service teachers in the United States. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned either to a control group (n=34) or an…

  7. Assessing the Impact of a Short-Term Service-Learning Clinical Experience on the Development of Professional Behaviors of Student Physical Therapists: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeannette R.; Taylor, Leslie F.; Gahimer, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    As with most health care provider education programs, physical therapy programs seek ways to develop professional behaviors of students. This study describes the integration of a one-week service-learning experience into an existing clinical internship. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed between groups of students who participated in…

  8. How Do Allied Health Professionals Construe the Role of the Remote Workforce? New Insight into Their Recruitment and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Narelle; Eley, Diann S.; McAllister, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Allied health workforce recruitment and retention in remote areas is a global problem. Using case studies from the Australian allied health workforce, this paper adds new information by combining personality trait information with a detailed understanding of how the cases construe the demands of remote work, which may be useful in addressing this problem. Methods Four cases (two urban, two remote) are presented from a mixed methods study (n = 562), which used (1) the Temperament and Character Inventory to investigate personality traits of allied health professionals; and (2) repertory grid interviews to reveal quantitatively and qualitatively how the cases construed their Ideal work role compared with their Current and a Remote role. Cases also self-assessed their fit (‘suited’ or ‘not suited’) with remote. Findings Differences in the way cases construed their fit with remote work was related to prior experience. However all were satisfied with their work, perceiving their Current role as similar to their Ideal. All saw remote work as requiring generalist expertise and a reliance on relationships. Personality traits, especially Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance, fit with how allied health professionals perceived their role. Conclusions The combination of two distinct lines of investigation, illustrates what more can be revealed about allied health professional’s career choices by taking into account the fit or lack of fit between their personality tendencies, their construing of remote work and their life circumstances. Understanding the combined influence of perceptions and traits on an individual toward or away from remote work may enhance recruitment and retention internationally. PMID:27907073

  9. Developing a Physician׳s Professional Identity Through Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Kenneth E; Abercrombie, Caroline L

    2017-02-01

    Professionalism represents a fundamental characteristic of physicians. Professional organizations have developed professionalism competencies for physicians and medical students. The aim of teaching medical professionalism is to ensure the development of a professional identity in medical students. Professional identity formation is a process developed through teaching principles and appropriate behavioral responses to the stresses of being a physician. Addressing lapses and critical reflection is an important part of the educational process. The "hidden curriculum" within an institution plays an important role in professional identity formation. Assessment of professionalism involves multiple mechanisms. Steps in remediating professionalism lapses include (1) initial assessment, (2) diagnosis of problems and development of an individualized learning plan, (3) instruction encompassing practice, feedback and reflection and (4) reassessment and certification of competence. No reliable outcomes data exist regarding the effectiveness of different remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of behavioral economics and behavioral decision making in Americans' retirement savings decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Melissa A Z

    2010-01-01

    Traditional economic theory posits that people make decisions by maximizing a utility function in which all of the relevant constraints and preferences are included and weighed appropriately. Behavioral economists and decision-making researchers, however, are interested in how people make decisions in the face of incomplete information, limited cognitive resources, and decision biases. Empirical findings in the areas of behavioral economics and judgment and decision making (JDM) demonstrate departures from the notion that man is economically rational, illustrating instead that people often act in ways that are economically suboptimal. This article outlines findings from the JDM and behavioral-economics literatures that highlight the many behavioral impediments to saving that individuals may encounter on their way to financial security. I discuss how behavioral and psychological issues, such as self-control, emotions, and choice architecture can help policymakers understand what factors, aside from purely economic ones, may affect individuals' savings behavior.

  11. The role of behavioral economics and behavioral decision making in Americans' retirement savings decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knoll, Melissa A Z

    2010-01-01

    .... Behavioral economists and decision-making researchers, however, are interested in how people make decisions in the face of incomplete information, limited cognitive resources, and decision biases...

  12. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help for an Eating Disorder: The Role of Stigma and Anticipated Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, Ashley H.; Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-stigma, anticipated risks and benefits associated with seeking counseling, and attitudes toward seeking counseling among college students with disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that self-stigma and the anticipated risks and…

  13. A Coordinated Comprehensive Professional Development Training’s Effect on Summer Day Camp Staff Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Promoting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Beighle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background The YMCA of USA recently adopted Healthy Eating and Physical Activity (HEPA) Standards for their summer-day-camps (SDCs). Standards call for staff to exhibit HEPA promoting behaviors while eliminating HEPA discouraging behaviors. No studies have evaluated training programs to influence policy specified staff behaviors and related changes in child activity in SDCs. Method Four YMCA summer-day-camps serving approximately 800 children per week participated in this no control group pre/post pilot study. Professional development training founded in the 5Ms (Mission, Model, Manage, Monitor, Maximize) and LET US Play principles (lines, elimination, team size, uninvolved staff/kids, and space, equipment and rules) was delivered to staff. Outcomes were staff promotion behaviors and child activity assessed via systematic observation instruments. Results Twelve of 17 HEPA staff behaviors changed in the appropriate direction from baseline to post-assessment with five behaviors reaching statistically significant changes. The percentage of girls and boys observed in moderate-to-vigorous-physical-activity increased from 15.3% to 18.3% (p > .05) and 17.9% to 21.2% whereas sedentary behavior decreased from 66.8% to 59.8% and 62.3% to 53.6%, respectively. Conclusion Evidence suggests that the professional development training designed to assist SDCs to meet the HEPA Standards can lead to important changes in staff behaviors and children’s physical activity. PMID:25368946

  14. Family Caregivers in Cancer: Roles and Challenges (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the challenges faced by family caregivers of cancer patients. This summary focuses on typical caregiver roles and concerns, and helpful interventions for caregivers.

  15. The Psychosocial Implications of Managing Work and Family Caregiving Roles: Gender Differences Among Information Technology Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, Nicole; Polenick, Courtney A; Davis, Kelly D; Moen, Phyllis; Hammer, Leslie B; Almeida, David M

    2017-08-01

    An increasing number of adults, both men and women, are simultaneously managing work and family caregiving roles. Guided by the stress process model, we investigate whether 823 employees occupying diverse family caregiving roles (child caregiving only, elder caregiving only, and both child caregiving and elder caregiving, or "sandwiched" caregiving) and their noncaregiving counterparts in the information technology division of a white-collar organization differ on several indicators of psychosocial stress along with gender differences in stress exposure. Compared with noncaregivers, child caregivers reported more perceived stress and partner strain whereas elder caregivers reported greater perceived stress and psychological distress. With the exception of work-to-family conflict, sandwiched caregivers reported poorer overall psychosocial functioning. Additionally, sandwiched women reported more family-to-work conflict and less partner support than their male counterparts. Further research on the implications of combining a white-collar employment role with different family caregiving roles is warranted.

  16. Questioning the role of abuse in behavioral spells and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koby, Danielle G; Zirakzadeh, Ali; Staab, Jeffrey P; Seime, Richard; Cha, Steven S; Nelson, Cindy L; Sengem, Susan; Berge, Randy; Marshall, Eric A; Varner, Jean E; Vickers, Kristin S; Trenerry, Max R; Worrell, Gregory A

    2010-12-01

    Past sexual trauma is frequently linked to the development of behavioral spells, present among 30% of patients admitted for video/EEG monitoring. Current attempts to verify and explore mechanisms in this reported association revealed that patients with epilepsy (n=58) and those with behavioral spells (n=38) did not differ in their self-report of past sexual trauma (among approximately 38% in each group). Ninety percent (90%) of men with behavioral spells endorsed past physical abuse, however, compared with 45% of men with epilepsy, and 40% of men with spells likely met current criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Among all patients, the presence of past physical, but not sexual, abuse positively predicted the diagnosis of spells rather than epilepsy. Current findings do not support a preponderance of sexual trauma in behavioral spells, yet within the subset of men with spells, greater exposure to physical abuse and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder may be important etiological and sustaining factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of oxytocin in male and female reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, J.G.; Jong, T.R. de; Waldinger, M.D.; Korte, S.M.; Olivier, B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide with an impressive variety of physiological functions. Among them, the 'prosocial' effects have been discussed in several recent reviews, but the direct effects on male and female sexual behavior did receive much less attention so far. As our contribution to honor the

  18. The Role of Locus of Control in Leader Influence Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Avis L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated whether leader's (N=89) locus of control moderated the relationship between perceived leader influence behaviors and certain subordinate (N=245) outcome variables. The results showed that locus of control did significantly moderate the effect of supervisor influence on productivity and subordinate satisfaction with supervision. (JAC)

  19. The Role of Family, Religiosity, and Behavior in Adolescent Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, David M.; Williams, Robert J.; Mossiere, Annik M.; Schopflocher, Donald P.; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Smith, Garry J.; Wood, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent gambling behavior were examined in a sample of 436 males and females (ages 13-16). A biopsychosocial model was used to identify key variables that differentiate between non-gambling and gambling adolescents. Logistic regression found that, as compared to adolescent male non-gamblers, adolescent male gamblers were older,…

  20. The role of parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in the risk of suicidal behavior repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Rosanna; Power, Kevin; Kane, Scott; Stewart, Alex Mitchell; Murray, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of perceived parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in suicidal behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived parental bonding; schemas; risk of repeating suicidal behavior; anxiety; and depression following their presentation at Accident and Emergency with suicidal behavior. A suicidal behavior group (n = 60) differed from a comparison clinical (n = 46) and non-clinical (n = 48) group on measures of early maladaptive schemas, anxiety, and depression. No significant difference was noted between the suicidal behavior group and the comparison clinical group on a measure of parental bonding. Within the suicidal behavior group, significant associations were indicated between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior; and early maladaptive schemas and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior. Early maladaptive schemas were found to mediate the relationship between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior, with schemas of Social Alienation and Defectiveness/Shame offering mediator roles. The findings of the current study emphasize the complexities of suicidal behavior and factors that are associated with suicidal behavior. Although causality cannot be assumed, the findings highlight the importance and inter-relationships of not only perceived early experiences, but of underlying schemas in relation to suicidal behavior.

  1. The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y Weng

    Full Text Available Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants (1 witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and (2 had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically (a help the victim or (b punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.

  2. The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Hessenthaler, Heather C; Stodola, Diane E; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants (1) witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and (2) had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically (a) help the victim or (b) punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion) was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends' Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-10-01

    To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends' aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child's and friend's aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents' understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one's own and others' well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior.

  4. Developmental Trajectories of Peer-Reported Aggressive Behavior: The Role of Friendship Understanding, Friendship Quality, and Friends’ Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; McDonald, Kristina; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate developmental trajectories in peer-reported aggressive behavior across the transition from elementary-to-middle school, and whether aggressive behavior trajectories were associated with friendship quality, friends’ aggressive behavior, and the ways in which children think about their friendships. Method Participants included a community sample of 230 5th grade children who were assessed when they made a transition from elementary-to-middle school (6th grade). Peer nominations were used to assess the target child’s and friend’s aggressive behavior. Self- and friend reports were used to measure friendship quality; friendship understanding was assessed via a structured interview. Results General Growth Mixture Modeling (GGMM) revealed three distinct trajectories of peer-reported aggressive behavior across the school transition: low-stable, decreasing, and increasing. Adolescents’ understanding of friendship formation differentiated the decreasing from the low-stable aggressive behavior trajectories, and the understanding of friendship trust differentiated the increasing from the low-stable aggressive and decreasing aggressive behavior trajectories. Conclusions The findings indicated that a sophisticated understanding of friendship may serve as a protective factor for initially aggressive adolescents as they transition into middle school. Promoting a deepened understanding of friendship relations and their role in one’s own and others’ well-being may serve as an important prevention and intervention strategy to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26688775

  5. Social policy and the role of the behavior analyst in the prevention of delinquent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, J D

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to encourage behavior analysts to expand their domain of interest and application to include the "social/political" contingencies that are developed and implemented by policymakers and lawmakers. Using the Vermont juvenile justice system as a prototype, examples are provided that focus on the tertiary, secondary, and primary prevention of delinquent behavior.

  6. Examining the Role of Perceived Leader Behavior on Temporary Employees' Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djibo, Idriss J. A.; Desiderio, Katie P.; Price, Noriece M.

    2010-01-01

    The attention given to the contingent segment of the workforce has significantly increased over the past decade. Investigative topics include the correlates of temporary employee work attitudes and behaviors. This study used a correlational design to examine leader behaviors outlined by the path-goal theory of leadership, as perceived by temporary…

  7. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  8. The Antecedents of Extra - Role Organizational Behaviors: A Qualitative Research on Soldier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Alparslan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the antecedents of extra-role behaviors carried out by the soldiers, who serve in the army without having any financial expectation and have to stay in the barracks due to their compulsory military service. For this purpose, an exploratory research was conducted, in which the detailed interview method was applied on 14 soldiers, who had a certificate of appreciation from their commanders and said to exhibit extra-role behaviors by their commanders. The findings have indicated that exhibited extra-role behaviors were highly related with friendship. Other behaviors are tasks in company, training other soldiers, learning new things, and using the knowledge and skills from civil life in army. When the reasons of these behaviors are examined in detail, it can be seen that the most important factor is friendship, followed by personality, being liked and esteemed by commanders, reciprocity, institute’s success and patriotism

  9. A review of parenting and adolescent sexual behavior: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J; Sterrett, Emma; McKee, Laura

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of parenting and adolescent sexual behavior: The moderating role of gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Sterrett, Emma; McKee, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior. PMID:22366393

  11. Physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health of entering graduate health professional students: Evidence to support screening and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette; Slevin, Caitlin; Militello, Lisa; Hoying, Jacqueline; Teall, Alice; McGovern, Colleen

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health among first-year health professional graduate students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe these attributes as well as to explore the relationships among them. A descriptive correlational study was conducted on the baseline data from a wellness onboarding intervention study with 93 health sciences students from seven different colleges within a large public land grant university in the Midwest United States. Nearly 40% of the sample was overweight/obese, and 19% of students had elevated total cholesterol levels. Only 44% met the recommended 30 min of exercise 5 days per week. Forty-one percent reported elevated depressive symptoms and 28% had elevated anxiety. Four students reported suicidal ideation. Inverse relationships existed among depression/anxiety and healthy lifestyle beliefs/behaviors. Students entering health professional schools are at high risk for depression, anxiety, and unhealthy behaviors, which could be averted through screening and early evidence-based interventions. Assessing the physical health, lifestyle behaviors, and mental health of first-year health sciences professional students is important to identify health problems and modifiable at-risk behaviors so that early interventions can be implemented to improve outcomes. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. To Share or Not to Share: Malaysian Healthcare Professionals' Views on Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment Decision Making Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew Kong; Lee, Ping Yein; Cheong, Ai Theng; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Ong, Teng Aik; Razack, Azad Hassan Abdul

    2015-01-01

    To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs) on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically. The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4), government urologists (n = 6), urology trainees (n = 6), government policy maker (n = 1) and oncologists (n = 3). HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family) included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture. A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.

  13. To Share or Not to Share: Malaysian Healthcare Professionals' Views on Localized Prostate Cancer Treatment Decision Making Roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Kong Lee

    Full Text Available To explore the views of Malaysian healthcare professionals (HCPs on stakeholders' decision making roles in localized prostate cancer (PCa treatment.Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted with HCPs treating PCa. Data was analysed using a thematic approach. Four in-depth interviews and three focus group discussions were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013 using a topic guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically.The participants comprised private urologists (n = 4, government urologists (n = 6, urology trainees (n = 6, government policy maker (n = 1 and oncologists (n = 3. HCP perceptions of the roles of the three parties involved (HCPs, patients, family included: HCP as the main decision maker, HCP as a guide to patients' decision making, HCP as a facilitator to family involvement, patients as main decision maker and patient prefers HCP to decide. HCPs preferred to share the decision with patients due to equipoise between prostate treatment options. Family culture was important as family members often decided on the patient's treatment due to Malaysia's close-knit family culture.A range of decision making roles were reported by HCPs. It is thus important that stakeholder roles are clarified during PCa treatment decisions. HCPs need to cultivate an awareness of sociocultural norms and family dynamics when supporting non-Western patients in making decisions about PCa.

  14. The Antecedents of Extra - Role Organizational Behaviors: A Qualitative Research on Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Murat Alparslan; Ali Can

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the antecedents of extra-role behaviors carried out by the soldiers, who serve in the army without having any financial expectation and have to stay in the barracks...

  15. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention. Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey. Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important), and an interquartile rangepublic guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88), geriatrician (4.87), police officer (4.87), GEM (geriatric emergency management) nurse (4.80), GEM social worker (4.78), community health worker (4.76), social worker/counsellor (4.74), family physician in community (4.71), paramedic (4.65), financial worker (4.59), lawyer (4.59), pharmacist (4.59), emergency physician (4.57), geriatric psychiatrist (4.33), occupational therapist (4.29), family physician in hospital (4.28), Crown prosecutor (4.24), neuropsychologist (4.24), bioethicist (4.18), caregiver advocate (4.18), victim support worker (4.18), and respite care worker (4.12). A large and diverse group of multidisciplinary, intersectoral collaborators was deemed necessary to address the complex needs of abused older adults, each having important roles and responsibilities to fulfill within a model comprehensive elder abuse intervention.

  16. The role of consciousness-raising through critical reflection in teachers’ professional development: A sociocultural perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Ebadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, framed within Vygotskyan sociocultural approaches to teacher education, aimed at reconceptualizing the thinking and subsequent recontextualizing of the classroom practice of a participating teacher. An Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL teacher with pseudonym -Sara- was the participant of the study. Sara’s conceptions of teaching and classroom behavior were changed through awareness-raising of and critical reflection on her teaching behavior. This was done through replacing her everyday concepts by conducting three workshops and reflection on her follow-up classroom behavior videotaped by Sara herself. The results of the study showed that the participating teacher, over a process of struggle with her past experiences, gradually replaced her old classroom practice. The findings can be illuminating for policy-makers and material developers who are striving for finding a solution to classroom complex dilemmas. It can also be rewarding for teacher educators and teachers trying to change the classroom practice of in-service teachers.

  17. The Role Of Social Media on consumer Behavior in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sherif, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Social media has evolved our lives in many ways, it has made the world seem like a smaller place. This is in particular applicable when doing business. In Qatar, there are many business retailers who are not necessarily physically existent that operate, sell and communicate through social media platforms. Because there is no legal protection and regulations on this market, confidence is definitely an issue. This research paper aims to identify how consumer behavior in Qatar has changed by usi...

  18. THE PARENTING COORDINATOR: A NEW PROFESSIONAL ROLE FOR THE FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGIST

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    Carles Rodríguez-Domínguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of the parenting coordinator in the United States was born in the 90s, to help families to resolve conflicts when the couple’s separation means that everyday disputes have not been able to be resolved, producing a high level of conflict and a large number of interventions with social workers, as well as health and/or legal interventions. The aim of this study is to present the role of the parenting coordinator, a highly specialized person that intervenes effectively in these families to minimize interparental conflict, to the benefit of the children and also the parents. The experience of the role of the parenting coordinator in other countries has been a useful model in the reduction and resolution of conflicts in the family courts.

  19. Professionalism in plastic surgery: attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in medical students compared to surgeons in training and practice--one, but not the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Charles Scott; Wagner, Ida Janelle

    2015-06-01

    Professionalism is now recognized as a core competency of surgical education and is required for certification and licensure. However, best teaching methods remain elusive, because (1) ethical standards are not absolute, and (2) learning and teaching styles vary considerably-both of which are influenced by cultural and generational forces. We sought to compare attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in fourth year medical students, compared to surgeons in training and practice, focusing on issues related to professionalism in plastic surgery. Fourth year medical students participating in a capstone course (n = 160), surgical residents (n = 219), and attending surgeons (n = 99) at a single institution were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding surgical professionalism. Participants (1) identified components of professionalism, (2) cited examples of unprofessional behavior, (3) ranked the egregiousness of 30 scenarios, and (4) indicated best educational practices. Cohorts were compared using t test and χ, with statistical significance assigned to P values less than 0.05. Compared to surgeons in training or practice, medical students were younger (27.8 vs 38.0 years, P continues to be observed, indicates the need to improve our efforts in promoting professionalism in plastic surgery.

  20. Knowledge and Attitudes of Allied Health Professional Students regarding the Stroke Rehabilitation Team and the Role of the Speech and Language Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Aine; Pettigrew, Catharine M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: One of the major barriers to effective team working among healthcare professionals is a lack of knowledge of each other's roles. The importance of understanding Irish healthcare students' attitudes towards team working and each other's roles led to the development of this study. Aims: The aims were to investigate allied health…