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Sample records for professional road cyclists

  1. Overuse injuries in professional road cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Clarsen, Ben; Krosshaug, Tron; Bahr, Roald

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little epidemiological information exists on overuse injuries in elite road cyclists. Anecdotal reports indicate anterior knee pain and lower back pain may be common problems. Purpose: This study was conducted to register overuse injuries among professional road cyclists with special focus on anterior knee and lower back pain. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: We attended training camps of 7 professional teams and interviewed 109 of 116 cyclists (9...

  2. Overuse injuries in professional road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarsen, Benjamin; Krosshaug, Tron; Bahr, Roald

    2010-12-01

    Little epidemiological information exists on overuse injuries in elite road cyclists. Anecdotal reports indicate anterior knee pain and lower back pain may be common problems. This study was conducted to register overuse injuries among professional road cyclists with special focus on anterior knee and lower back pain. Descriptive epidemiology study. We attended training camps of 7 professional teams and interviewed 109 of 116 cyclists (94%) on overuse injuries they had experienced in the previous 12 months. Injuries that required attention from medical personnel or involved time loss from cycling were registered. Additional information on anterior knee pain and lower back pain was collected using specific questionnaires. A total of 94 injuries were registered; 45% were in the lower back and 23% in the knee. Twenty-three time-loss injuries were registered-57% in the knee, 22% in the lower back, and 13% in the lower leg. Fifty-eight percent of all cyclists had experienced lower back pain in the previous 12 months, and 41% of all cyclists had sought medical attention for it. Thirty-six percent had experienced anterior knee pain and 19% had sought medical attention for it. Few cyclists had missed competitions because of pain in the lower back (6%) or anterior knee (9%). Lower back pain and anterior knee pain were the most prevalent overuse injuries, with knee injuries most likely to cause time loss and lower back pain causing the highest rates of functional impairment and medical attention. Future efforts to prevent overuse injuries in competitive cyclists should focus on lower back pain and anterior knee pain.

  3. Superior Inhibitory Control and Resistance to Mental Fatigue in Professional Road Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kristy; Staiano, Walter; Menaspà, Paolo; Hennessey, Tom; Marcora, Samuele; Keegan, Richard; Thompson, Kevin G; Martin, David; Halson, Shona; Rattray, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Given the important role of the brain in regulating endurance performance, this comparative study sought to determine whether professional road cyclists have superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue compared to recreational road cyclists. After preliminary testing and familiarization, eleven professional and nine recreational road cyclists visited the lab on two occasions to complete a modified incongruent colour-word Stroop task (a cognitive task requiring inhibitory control) for 30 min (mental exertion condition), or an easy cognitive task for 10 min (control condition) in a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over order. After each cognitive task, participants completed a 20-min time trial on a cycle ergometer. During the time trial, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. The professional cyclists completed more correct responses during the Stroop task than the recreational cyclists (705±68 vs 576±74, p = 0.001). During the time trial, the recreational cyclists produced a lower mean power output in the mental exertion condition compared to the control condition (216±33 vs 226±25 W, p = 0.014). There was no difference between conditions for the professional cyclists (323±42 vs 326±35 W, p = 0.502). Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and RPE were not significantly different between the mental exertion and control conditions in both groups. The professional cyclists exhibited superior performance during the Stroop task which is indicative of stronger inhibitory control than the recreational cyclists. The professional cyclists also displayed a greater resistance to the negative effects of mental fatigue as demonstrated by no significant differences in perception of effort and time trial performance between the mental exertion and control conditions. These findings suggest that inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue may contribute to successful road cycling performance

  4. Superior Inhibitory Control and Resistance to Mental Fatigue in Professional Road Cyclists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Martin

    Full Text Available Given the important role of the brain in regulating endurance performance, this comparative study sought to determine whether professional road cyclists have superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue compared to recreational road cyclists.After preliminary testing and familiarization, eleven professional and nine recreational road cyclists visited the lab on two occasions to complete a modified incongruent colour-word Stroop task (a cognitive task requiring inhibitory control for 30 min (mental exertion condition, or an easy cognitive task for 10 min (control condition in a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over order. After each cognitive task, participants completed a 20-min time trial on a cycle ergometer. During the time trial, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded.The professional cyclists completed more correct responses during the Stroop task than the recreational cyclists (705±68 vs 576±74, p = 0.001. During the time trial, the recreational cyclists produced a lower mean power output in the mental exertion condition compared to the control condition (216±33 vs 226±25 W, p = 0.014. There was no difference between conditions for the professional cyclists (323±42 vs 326±35 W, p = 0.502. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and RPE were not significantly different between the mental exertion and control conditions in both groups.The professional cyclists exhibited superior performance during the Stroop task which is indicative of stronger inhibitory control than the recreational cyclists. The professional cyclists also displayed a greater resistance to the negative effects of mental fatigue as demonstrated by no significant differences in perception of effort and time trial performance between the mental exertion and control conditions. These findings suggest that inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue may contribute to successful road cycling

  5. Within-Season Distribution of External Training and Racing Workload in Professional Male Road Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Alan J; Menaspà, Paolo; Villerius, Vincent; Quod, Marc; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Govus, Andrew D; Abbiss, Chris R

    2017-04-01

    To describe the within-season external workloads of professional male road cyclists for optimal training prescription. Training and racing of 4 international competitive professional male cyclists (age 24 ± 2 y, body mass 77.6 ± 1.5 kg) were monitored for 12 mo before the world team-time-trial championships. Three within-season phases leading up to the team-time-trial world championships on September 20, 2015, were defined as phase 1 (Oct-Jan), phase 2 (Feb-May), and phase 3 (June-Sept). Distance and time were compared between training and racing days and over each of the various phases. Times spent in absolute (500 W) and relative (0-1.9, 2.0-4.9, 5.0-7.9, >8 W/kg) power zones were also compared for the whole season and between phases 1-3. Total distance (3859 ± 959 vs 10911 ± 620 km) and time (240.5 ± 37.5 vs 337.5 ± 26 h) were lower (P distance decreased (P < .01) from phase 2 to phase 3 (10911 ± 620 vs 8411 ± 1399 km, respectively). Mean absolute (236 ± 12.1 vs 197 ± 3 W) and relative (3.1 ± 0 vs 2.5 ± 0 W/kg) power output were higher (P < .05) during racing than training, respectively. Volume and intensity differed between training and racing over each of 3 distinct within-season phases.

  6. Bone status in professional cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, F; Nevill, A M; Karlsson, M K; Lounana, J; Shabani, M; Fardellone, P; Medelli, J

    2010-07-01

    Professional cycling combines extensive endurance training with non weight-bearing exercise, two factors often associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD). Therefore BMD was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 30 professional road cyclists (mean (SD) age: 29.1 (3.4) years; height: 178.5 (6.7) cm; weight: 71.3 (6.1) kg; %fat mass: 9.7 (3.2)%; VO (2)max: 70.5 (5.5) ml.kg (-1).min (-1)) and in 30 young healthy males used as reference (28.6 (4.5) years; 176.5 (6.3) cm; 73.4 (7.3) kg; 20.7 (5.8)%). Adjusting for differences in age, height, fat mass, lean body mass, and calcium intake by ANCOVA, professional cyclists had similar head BMD (p=0.383) but lower total body (1.135 (0.071) vs. 1.248 (0.104) g.cm (-2); pProfessional cycling appears to negatively affect BMD in young healthy and highly active males, the femoral neck being the most affected site (-18%) in spite of the elevated muscle contractions inherent to the activity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  7. Cyclist safety: an investigation of how cyclists and drivers interact on the roads

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Cyclists are vulnerable road users and the most severe injury outcomes for on-road cyclists are from collisions involving a motor vehicle. Research undertaken in this thesis aimed to identify contributing factors in unsafe cyclist-driver events to inform efforts to reduce the incidence of cyclist-driver crashes and cyclist injury severity outcomes. The research was conducted in three stages, primarily in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia and is presented as a thesis by publication. The Safe ...

  8. Cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    In 2016, there were 189 road deaths among cyclists in the Netherlands. This is approximately 30% of the total number of road deaths. The number of seriously injured cyclists is not exactly known. Their number in 2015 was estimated to be more than 60% of the total number of serious road injuries,

  9. Changes in sports injuries incidence over time in world-class road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, C; Bernardo, N D; Vera, P; Laíz, C; Hadala, M

    2015-03-01

    This is a descriptive epidemiologic survey on all traumatic and overuse injuries which occurred in 2 groups of male elite road cyclists based on retrospective clinical interviews and physical examinations. The historical group consisted of 65 professional road cyclists surveyed from 1983 to 1995. The contemporary group included 65 elite racers still active and reporting injuries from 2003 to 2009. Injury/cyclist ratio was 1.32 in the historical group and 2.13 in those still active. Traumatic injuries increased from 39.5% (historical) to 53.9% (contemporary) (pcyclist, and 0.003 per 1 000 km of training and competition. These figures increased to 0.287 and 0.009 respectively in the contemporary group. In summary, contemporary professional road cyclists are exposed to double the risk of traumatic injuries than those competing in the 80s and early 90s. However, these lesions have less severity. Overuse injuries had a completely different clinical pattern, with the currently active cyclist exhibiting more muscle injuries and less tendinous lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The club-level road cyclist: injury, pain, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Miriah; Leisz, Marie-Christine; Finkelstein, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) examine riding habits of injured cyclists, (2) identify factors related to seeking medical treatment, (3) investigate performance of recreational road cyclists compared with established norms regarding strength and flexibility measures, and (4) propose cycling-specific injury risk factors. Observational and prospective study. Cycling store and bicycle distribution company. Sixty-three experienced road cyclists. Initial data collection included a questionnaire. A 2-week training diary and 8 weekly follow-up injury questionnaires were also collected. Training habits and injury history, bike fit, flexibility, and isometric, dynamic, and plyometric strength measures. Participants were likely to have an injury at baseline, and chronic pain was common. Cyclists trained for an equal quantity of time irrespective of experiencing pain. Injury severity in terms of pain level and participant age were factors in seeking medical care. Our participants performed poorly on our testing protocol compared with available norms. Flexibility, strength, and bike fit measures did not predict injury. Previous injury predicted prospective injury. The knee and lumbar region were most frequently injured. Cycling is a sport in which injury risk and prevention need to be further studied. Cyclists are frequently injured but continue to participate in cycling at volumes equal to their healthy peers. This study outlines a clinically reproducible cyclist assessment and discusses behaviors common to the cycling patient.

  11. Pelvic fractures in professional cyclists: a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerynik, Douglas L; Roshon, Michael; Abzug, Joshua M; Harding, Susan P; Tom, James A

    2009-05-01

    Professional riders demonstrate increased risk factors for such injuries including both extensive time on the bike in addition to a possible underlying osteopenia secondary to the nonimpact nature of the sport. Nonoperative management of stable, nondisplaced pelvic fractures in professional cyclists offers excellent results. Case series. Three cases of professional cyclists with pelvic fractures were reviewed. All 3 cyclists were able to return to professional competition and remain symptom free. Accurate early diagnosis of pelvic fractures, with the aid of computed tomography, is crucial. Early nonweightbearing with a progression to weightbearing as tolerated and early return to stationary training are appropriate. Accurate diagnosis and careful nonoperative management of stable, nondisplaced pelvic fractures in professional cyclists offers excellent results. Accurate diagnosis of pelvic fractures in high-demand athletes with few complaints and no obvious findings on plain film radiographs. Control of weightbearing and competitive status to prevent injury progression. Gauged return to competition at professional level.

  12. Cyclists and drivers in road interactions: A comparison of perceived crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurand, Nadine; Delhomme, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Today's increase in the number of cyclists has triggered a change in the interactions to be handled by road users. However, few studies have investigated crash risk perceived by cyclists interacting with other users, and few have compared cyclists' and drivers' perceptions of crash risk in bike-car interactions, the most dangerous situation for cyclists. Our aims here are to study perceived crash risk (no matter the seriousness of the crash) in six common road situations during which cyclist crashes are frequent and also to study cyclists' and drivers' perceived risk in bike-car interactions, in comparison to other interaction types (cyclist vs. cyclist and driver vs. driver). We predicted that perceived risk of being involved in a crash during a particular interaction would be greater when in interaction with a car than with a bike, and that drivers would perceive more risk than cyclists would. We also predicted that perceived risk would decrease with drivers' and cyclists' experience of their transportation mode and their perceived control over the interaction situation. We ran an online survey on two samples, experienced cyclists (N=336) and non-cyclist car drivers (N=92). Participants evaluated their personal risk - as cyclists or as drivers - of being involved in a road crash if they were in an interaction with a bike or a car for each of six risky road situations. Experience was measured in terms of years of vehicle driving and driven km; perceived control was measured in terms of perceived skill and responsibility for the risky behavior. The results validated our hypotheses: perceived risk was higher for car drivers than for cyclists and for interacting with a car than with a bike. The implications of these results for interventions to improve road safety for both cyclists and car drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validity of a velodrome test for competitive road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, S; Mujika, I; Cuesta, G; Polo, J M; Chatard, J C

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a velodrome field test consisting of repeated rides of 2,280 m, with an initial speed of 28 km.h-1 and increments of 1.5 km.h-1 interspersed with 1-min recovery periods until exhaustion. A group of 12 male competitive road cyclists performed maximal cycling tests under velodrome and laboratory conditions. Velodrome oxygen uptake (VO2) and power output were estimated using equations previously published. Physiological responses to the two tests were compared. Relationships between performance in the velodrome and physiological parameters measured in the laboratory were studied. Maximal power output, heart rate and VO2 were similar in the velodrome and the laboratory [372 (SD 50) vs 365 (SD 36) W, 195 (SD 8) vs 196 (SD 9) beats.min-1 and 4.49 (SD 0.56) vs 4.49 (SD 0.46) l.min-1, respectively], while maximal velodrome blood lactate concentration was significantly higher [13.5 (SD 2.1) vs 11.8 (SD 3.1) mmol.l-1]. Velodrome heart rate was higher at submaximal exercise intensities representing 40%, 50% and 60% of maximal aerobic power, and velodrome blood lactate concentration was also higher at 60%, 70% and 80% of maximal aerobic power. The laboratory parameter that showed the highest correlation with the maximal cycling speed in the velodrome was maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) expressed per unit of body mass (r = 0.93). In addition, the accuracy of different methods of estimation of the metabolic cost of cycling, rolling resistance, air resistance coefficients and VO2max were compared. Significant differences were found. In conclusion, the present results indicated the validity of a velodrome test used to estimate maximal aerobic parameters of competitive road cyclists, as long as the estimation is made using established equations. When road cyclists are tested in the laboratory, physiological values should be expressed per unit of body surface area or body mass, to predict more accurately the cyclist's performance

  14. Predicting High-Power Performance in Professional Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dajo; Heijboer, Mathieu; Akubat, Ibrahim; Meijer, Kenneth; Hesselink, Matthijs K

    2017-03-01

    To assess if short-duration (5 to ~300 s) high-power performance can accurately be predicted using the anaerobic power reserve (APR) model in professional cyclists. Data from 4 professional cyclists from a World Tour cycling team were used. Using the maximal aerobic power, sprint peak power output, and an exponential constant describing the decrement in power over time, a power-duration relationship was established for each participant. To test the predictive accuracy of the model, several all-out field trials of different durations were performed by each cyclist. The power output achieved during the all-out trials was compared with the predicted power output by the APR model. The power output predicted by the model showed very large to nearly perfect correlations to the actual power output obtained during the all-out trials for each cyclist (r = .88 ± .21, .92 ± .17, .95 ± .13, and .97 ± .09). Power output during the all-out trials remained within an average of 6.6% (53 W) of the predicted power output by the model. This preliminary pilot study presents 4 case studies on the applicability of the APR model in professional cyclists using a field-based approach. The decrement in all-out performance during high-intensity exercise seems to conform to a general relationship with a single exponential-decay model describing the decrement in power vs increasing duration. These results are in line with previous studies using the APR model to predict performance during brief all-out trials. Future research should evaluate the APR model with a larger sample size of elite cyclists.

  15. A safer road environment for cyclists. Proefschrift Technische Universiteit Delft TUD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the question of how the road environment (road design and network characteristics) affects road safety for cyclists through effects on risk and exposure to risk. In this thesis, the term ‘road design’ is used to denote the location level (e.g. intersection design) while the

  16. Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance in Professional Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill J. Leckey

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pre- “race” ingestion of a 1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester on blood ketone concentration, substrate metabolism and performance of a cycling time trial (TT in professional cyclists. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 elite male cyclists completed a ~31 km laboratory-based TT on a cycling ergometer programmed to simulate the 2017 World Road Cycling Championships course. Cyclists consumed a standardized meal [2 g/kg body mass (BM carbohydrate (CHO] the evening prior to a trial day and a CHO breakfast (2 g/kg BM CHO with 200 mg caffeine on the morning of a trial day. Cyclists were randomized to consume either the ketone diester (2 × 250 mg/kg or a placebo drink, followed immediately by 200 mL diet cola, given ~ 30 min before and immediately prior to commencing a 20 min incremental warm-up. Blood samples were collected prior to and during the warm-up, pre- and post- TT and at regular intervals after the TT. Urine samples were collected pre- and post- warm-up, immediately post TT and 60 min post TT. Pre-exercise ingestion of the diester resulted in a 2 ± 1% impairment in TT performance that was associated with gut discomfort and higher perception of effort. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, serum acetoacetate, and urine ketone concentrations increased from rest following ketone ingestion and were higher than placebo throughout the trial. Ketone ingestion induces hyperketonemia in elite professional cyclists when in a carbohydrate fed state, and impairs performance of a cycling TT lasting ~50 min.

  17. Recreation cyclists, drivers, and challenges to sharing the road: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to combine an analysis of 550 on-line responses with a review of the literature to gain insight about issues important for cyclists, motorists, and recreation practitioners. The comments, when analyzed provided a range of popular arguments about whether cyclists should have the right to the ...

  18. Overuse injuries in professional road cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Clarsen, Ben; Krosshaug, Tron; Bahr, Roald

    2010-01-01

    I Brage finner du siste tekst-versjon av artikkelen, og den kan inneholde ubetydelige forskjeller fra forlagets pdf-versjon. Forlagets pdf-versjon finner du på ajs.sagepub.com: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546510376816 / In Brage you'll find the final text version of the article, and it may contain insignificant differences from the journal's pdf version. The original publication is available at ajs.sagepub.com: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546510376816 Background: Little epidemiological...

  19. "Them or Us": Perceptions, cognitions, emotions, and overt behavior associated with cyclists and motorists sharing the road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    In emerging cycling regions, cyclists and motorists share the road due to cycling infrastructure scarcity. This study investigates the chain of stimuli, cognition, emotion, and behavior associated with the road-sharing experience through the thematic analysis of talk-backs posted in response...... to news items related to cyclist-motorist crashes. Results show: (a) cycling infrastructure scarcity and perceived road use rights trigger emotional stress; (b) motorists and cyclists perceive the road-sharing experience as life-threatening and experience anxiety, anger, and fear; (c) drivers' coping...

  20. Can disordered eating behaviors reduce maximum oxygen consumption in road cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max between road cyclists with and without risk for eating disorders. he sample was composed of 43 cyclists aged 18-25 years, participants of the road cycling championship of the State of Pernambuco. VO2max was measured by a computerized metabolic analyzer during an incremental test in cycleergometer. he initial test load was 50 W, with increments of 25 W every minute until volitional exhaustion or inability to maintain the current load. To evaluate disordered eating behaviors (DEB, the Eating Attitudes Test was used (EAT-26. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare the VO2max between cyclists with (EAT-26 ≥ 21 and without (EAT-26 < 21 risk for eating disorders. he indings showed statistically signiicant VO2max diference between cyclists with and without risk to eating disorders (F(2, 41=28.44; p=0.01, indicating moderate effect size (d = 0.6. It was concluded that DEB was related to cyclists with lower VO2max.

  1. Injuries to pedal cyclists on New Zealand roads, 1988-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of injury is one of the major barriers to engaging in cycling. We investigated exposure-based rates and profiles of traffic injuries sustained by pedal cyclists that resulted in death or hospital inpatient treatment in New Zealand, one of the most car dependent countries. Methods Pedal cyclist traffic injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Dataset. Total time spent cycling was used as the measure of exposure and computed from National Household Travel Surveys. Analyses were undertaken for the periods 1988-91, 1996-99 and 2003-07 in relation to other major road users and by age, gender and body region affected. A modified Barell matrix was used to characterise the profiles of pedal cyclist injuries by body region affected and nature of injury. Results Cyclists had the second highest rate of traffic injuries compared to other major road user categories and the rate increased from 1996-99 to 2003-07. During 2003-07, 31 injuries occurred per million hours spent cycling. Non-collision crashes (40%) and collisions with a car, pick-up truck or van (26%) accounted for two thirds of the cycling injuries. Children and adolescents aged under 15 years were at the highest risk, particularly of non-collision crashes. The rate of traumatic brain injuries fell from 1988-91 to 1996-99; however, injuries to other body parts increased steadily. Traumatic brain injuries were most common in collision cases whereas upper extremity fractures were most common in other crashes. Conclusions The burden of fatal and hospitalised injuries among pedal cyclists is considerable and has been increasing over the last decade. This underscores the development of road safety and injury prevention programmes for cyclists alongside the cycling promotion strategies. PMID:21034490

  2. Injuries to pedal cyclists on New Zealand roads, 1988-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameratunga Shanthi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of injury is one of the major barriers to engaging in cycling. We investigated exposure-based rates and profiles of traffic injuries sustained by pedal cyclists that resulted in death or hospital inpatient treatment in New Zealand, one of the most car dependent countries. Methods Pedal cyclist traffic injuries were identified from the Mortality Collection and the National Minimum Dataset. Total time spent cycling was used as the measure of exposure and computed from National Household Travel Surveys. Analyses were undertaken for the periods 1988-91, 1996-99 and 2003-07 in relation to other major road users and by age, gender and body region affected. A modified Barell matrix was used to characterise the profiles of pedal cyclist injuries by body region affected and nature of injury. Results Cyclists had the second highest rate of traffic injuries compared to other major road user categories and the rate increased from 1996-99 to 2003-07. During 2003-07, 31 injuries occurred per million hours spent cycling. Non-collision crashes (40% and collisions with a car, pick-up truck or van (26% accounted for two thirds of the cycling injuries. Children and adolescents aged under 15 years were at the highest risk, particularly of non-collision crashes. The rate of traumatic brain injuries fell from 1988-91 to 1996-99; however, injuries to other body parts increased steadily. Traumatic brain injuries were most common in collision cases whereas upper extremity fractures were most common in other crashes. Conclusions The burden of fatal and hospitalised injuries among pedal cyclists is considerable and has been increasing over the last decade. This underscores the development of road safety and injury prevention programmes for cyclists alongside the cycling promotion strategies.

  3. Blood antioxidant status in road cyclists during progressive (VO2max) and constant cyclist intensity test (MLSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, M; Poprzęcki, S; Czuba, M; Zydek, G; Jagsz, S; Sadowska-Krępa, E; Zając, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two different cycling intensities on the blood antioxidant status in seven road cyclists male (M) (age 25.6±4.9 years; height 1.8±0.0 m; body mass 72.4±3.4 kg, and VO2max 66.8±8.9 mL*kg-1*min-1) and six road cyclists females (F) (age 26.5±2.5 years; height 1.67 ±0.01 m; body mass 56.5±5.3 kg; and VO2max 57.2±4.1 mL*kg-1*min-1). The experiment was carried out with two tests: a progressive test (VO2max) (TP), and a 30-minute submaximal steady state test (TMLSS). The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and creatine kinase, and the concentration of uric acid, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), blood lactate as well as total antioxidant potential, were assayed. Exercise significantly differentiated the activity and level of antioxidants. In both tests, after exercise a significant increase of CAT (P≤0.05) and CK (P≤0.05) activity was observed, as well as MDA (P≤0.05) level. It was demonstrated that neither the type of test (TP, TMLSS) nor the sex of the subjects exerted significant influence upon the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the level of low molecular weight antioxidants. Due to the workload in road cycling, where an average race or stage lasts a few hours, the 30-minute test was probably too weak a stimulus for the organism to disturb the pro- and antioxidative homeostasis.

  4. Effects of endurance training on the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation phases in professional cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, J L; Hoyos, J; Lucía, A

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the changes produced in both the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation (HHV) phases of professional cyclists (n = 11) in response to endurance training, and to compare the results with those of amateur cyclists (n = 11). Each professional cyclist performed three laboratory exercise tests to exhaustion during the active rest (autumn: November), precompetition (winter: January), and competition (spring: May) periods of the sports season. Amateur cyclists only performed one exercise test during the competition period. The isocapnic buffering and HHV ranges were calculated during each test and defined as Vo2 and power output (W). No significant differences were found in the isocapnic buffering range in each of the periods of the sports season in professional cyclists. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in the HHV range (expressed in W) during both the competition (pcyclists than in professional cyclists (whether this was expressed in terms of Vo2 or W). No change is observed in the isocapnic buffering range of professional cyclists throughout a sports season despite a considerable increase in training loads and a significant reduction in HHV range expressed in terms of power output.

  5. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists...

  6. Condemning and condoning: Elite amateur cyclists' perspectives on drug use and professional cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob

    2015-07-01

    Sports doping is condemned by sports authorities and by society at large. Cycling has a particularly infamous relationship with sports doping, especially at professional level. Using interviews with elite amateur cyclists, this paper examines how cyclists close to, but not within, the ranks of professional cycling perceive the relationship between cycling and doping. Eleven elite amateur cyclists from Melbourne were interviewed with regards to their experiences as cyclists, use of training technologies, supplements and other substances, and their attitudes to doping in sport, especially cycling. Interviewees described how their training schedule is extremely demanding and frequently necessitates the use of substances such as caffeine, anti-inflammatory medications, and energy boosters. Some distanced themselves and their use of supplements and substances from doping and condemned such practices as unethical and objectionable. Others appeared to empathise with professional cyclists' use of doping substances given that they rely on cycling for their income and made comparisons between doping and their own licit (not WADA-prohibited) substance use. The perception of professional cycling as a sport intimately tied to drug taking places those nearest to professional cycling into a practical and moral predicament. Our interviews suggest that while elite amateur cyclists do not appear supportive of drug deregulation in sport they are not necessarily fully supportive of current anti-doping policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The injury epidemiology of cyclists based on a road trauma registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Bicycle use has increased in some of France's major cities, mainly as a means of transport. Bicycle crashes need to be studied, preferably by type of cycling. Here we conduct a descriptive analysis. Method A road trauma registry has been in use in France since 1996, in a large county around Lyon (the Rhône, population 1.6 million). It covers outpatients, inpatients and fatalities. All injuries are coded using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Proxies were used to identify three types of cycling: learning = children (0-10 years old); sports cycling = teenagers and adults injured outside towns; cycling as means of transport = teenagers and adults injured in towns. The study is based on 13,684 cyclist casualties (1996-2008). Results The percentage of cyclists injured in a collision with a motor vehicle was 8% among children, 17% among teenagers and adults injured outside towns, and 31% among those injured in towns. The percentage of serious casualties (MAIS 3+) was 4.5% among children, 10.9% among adults injured outside towns and 7.2% among those injured in towns. Collisions with motor-vehicles lead to more internal injuries than bicycle-only crashes. Conclusion The description indicates that cyclist type is associated with different crash and injury patterns. In particular, cyclists injured in towns (where cycling is increasing) are generally less severely injured than those injured outside towns for both types of crash (bicycle-only crashes and collisions with a motor vehicle). This is probably due to lower speeds in towns, for both cyclists and motor vehicles. PMID:21849071

  8. Bone density comparisons in male competitive road cyclists and untrained controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smathers, Aaron M; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-02-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been documented in endurance-trained runners; however, the bone status of cyclists is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare total body, lumbar spine, and dual proximal femur BMD in male competitive road cyclists (n = 32) and in age- and body mass-matched controls (n = 30). The cyclists had an average of 9.4 yr of racing experience and trained 7-22 h wk(-1). BMD was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy, v. 6.70.021). Calcium intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Resting serum total and free testosterone levels were measured by RIA (Diagnostic Systems Laboratory). There were no significant differences (P > 0.050) between the cyclists (CYC) and the controls (CON) for age, height, body mass, or testosterone levels. CYC had significantly (P < 0.050) lower percent body fat and higher bone-free lean body mass than the CON. Calcium intake for CYC was significantly higher (P < 0.050) than for the CON group (1557 +/- 132 vs 1098 +/- 69 mg d(-1)). Anterior-posterior spine (L2-L4) and lateral spine (LS) BMD (g cm(-2)) were significantly lower (P < 0.050) for CYC (L2-L4 = 1.165 +/- 0.023 g cm(-2); LS = 0.781 +/- 0.025 g cm(-2)) than for CON (L2-L4 = 1.246 +/- 0.028 g cm(-2); LS = 0.911 +/- 0.027 g cm(-2)). Based on t-scores (SD from the young adult reference population mean), 9% of CYC and 3% of CON were classified as osteoporotic, whereas 25% and 10% of CYC and CON, respectively, were osteopenic. Our findings indicated that male cyclists had lower spine BMD than controls, which was not associated with group differences in testosterone. Future studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms for low bone mass in cyclists.

  9. Relationships amongst psychological determinants, risk behaviour, and road crashes of young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : implications for road safety education programmes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Commandeur, J.J.F. Vlakveld, W.P. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety education (RSE) assumes that psychological determinants predict risk behaviour, and subsequently that risky road behaviour predicts crash involvement. This study examined the validity of this assumption, by analysing these relationships in two age groups of teen cyclists and pedestrians:

  10. Relationships among psychological determinants, risk behaviour, and road crashes of young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists: Implications for road safety education programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M; Commandeur, J.J.F.; Vlakveld, W.P.; Shope, J.T.; Kok, G.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety education (RSE) assumes that psychological determinants predict risk behaviour, and subsequently that risky road behaviour predicts crash involvement. This study examined the validity of this assumption, by analysing these relationships in two age groups of teen cyclists and pedestrians:

  11. Total Hemoglobin Mass, Aerobic Capacity, and HBB Gene in Polish Road Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga; Orysiak, Joanna; Majorczyk, Edyta; Zdanowicz, Ryszard; Szczepańska, Beata; Starczewski, Michal; Kaczmarski, Jacek; Dybek, Tomasz; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Sitkowski, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    Malczewska-Lenczowska, J, Orysiak, J, Majorczyk, E, Zdanowicz, R, Szczepańska, B, Starczewski, M, Kaczmarski, J, Dybek, T, Pokrywka, A, Ahmetov, II, and Sitkowski, D. Total hemoglobin mass, aerobic capacity, and the HBB gene in polish road cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3512-3519, 2016-The relationship between genes, amount of hemoglobin, and physical performance are still not clearly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the association between-551C/T and intron 2, +16 C/G polymorphisms in the beta hemoglobin (HBB) gene and total hemoglobin mass (tHbmass) and aerobic capacity in endurance athletes. Total hemoglobin mass and aerobic capacity indices, i.e.,V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT), maximal power output (Pmax), and power at anaerobic threshold (PAT) were determined in 89 young road cyclists, female (n = 39) and male (n = 50), who were genotyped for 2 polymorphisms in the HBB gene. The relative values of aerobic capacity indices differed significantly among intron 2, +16 C/G polymorphisms of the HBB gene only in female cyclists; athletes with GG genotype had significantly higher values of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (p = 0.003), V[Combining Dot Above]O2AT (p = 0.007), PAT (p = 0.015), and Pmax (p = 0.004) than C carriers. No relationships were found between the C-carrier model (CC + CG vs. GG in the case of intron 2, +16 C/G and CC + CT vs. TT for -551 C/T polymorphisms of the HBB gene) and relative values of tHbmass. Our results demonstrated that the HBB gene could be related to aerobic capacity, but it seems that it does not result from an increase in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood.

  12. Effects of Combined Strength and Sprint Training on Lean Mass, Strength, Power and Sprint Performance in Masters Road Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Luke; Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Macgregor, Campbell; Meerkin, Jarrod; Villegas, Jerome; Korhonen, Marko T

    2017-05-25

    Strength and sprint training exercises are integral part of training in many younger endurance cyclists to improve cycling efficiency and sprinting ability. This study was undertaken to examine whether muscle and performance characteristics could be improved in endurance-trained masters cyclist by adding strength and sprint training stimuli into their training regimen. Twenty five masters road cyclists were assigned to a combined strength and sprint training group (CT; n=9, 53.5 ± 9.3 years), a sprint training group (ST, n=7, 49.4 ± 4.8 years) or a control group (CG, n=9, 56.9 ± 8.6 years). Before and after the 12 week intervention, whole body lean mass (WBLM), total lower limb lean mass (LLLM), countermovement jump height (CMJ), peak isometric torque of quadriceps (QPT) and hamstring (HPT) muscles were examined. For evaluation of sport-specific performance, 10 second sprint cycling peak power (PP10), total 30 second work (TW), peak power output (PPO) and flying 200 meter time trial performance (TT) were assessed. No pre-training differences were observed between CT, ST and CG groups for any of the dependant variables. After training, a significant (ptraining can increase lower limb lean mass and sprint performance in endurance trained masters road cyclists. Further research is warranted to find out an ideal pattern of training to maintain aerobic capabilities along with sprint performance in aging road cyclists.

  13. Reliability and Seasonal Changes of Submaximal Variables to Evaluate Professional Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; Pernía, Raúl; Villa, José G; Foster, Carl

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of several submaximal variables that can be easily obtained by monitoring cyclists' performances. Eighteen professional cyclists participated in this study. In a first part (n = 15) the test-retest reliability of heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during a progressive maximal test was measured. Derived submaximal variables based on HR, RPE, and power output (PO) responses were analyzed. In a second part (n = 7) the pattern of the submaximal variables according to cyclists' training status was analyzed. Cyclists were assessed 3 times during the season: at the beginning of the season, before the Vuelta a España, and the day after this Grand Tour. Part 1: No significant differences in maximal and submaximal variables between test-retest were found. Excellent ICCs (0.81-0.98) were obtained in all variables. Part 2: The HR and RPE showed a rightward shift from early to peak season. In addition, RPE showed a left shift after the Vuelta a España. Submaximal variables based on RPE had the best relationship with both performance and changes in performance. The present study showed the reliability of different maximal and submaximal variables used to assess cyclists' performances. Submaximal variables based on RPE seem to be the best to monitor changes in training status over a season.

  14. EFFECTS OF SODIUM PHOSPHATE LOADING ON AEROBIC POWER AND CAPACITY IN OFF ROAD CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Woska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S and control group (C. Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg-1 FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05 in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake

  15. An immersive virtual peer for studying social influences on child cyclists' road-crossing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sabarish V; Grechkin, Timofey Y; Chihak, Benjamin; Ziemer, Christine; Kearney, Joseph K; Cremer, James F; Plumert, Jodie M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  16. Risk factors for causing road crashes involving cyclists: An application of a quasi-induced exposure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios

    2013-03-01

    A quasi-induced exposure approach was applied to the Spanish Register of Traffic Crashes to identify driver- and vehicle-related factors associated with the risk of causing a road crash involving a cyclist in Spain from 1993 to 2009. We analyzed 19,007 collisions between a bicycle and another vehicle in which only one of the drivers committed an infraction, and 13,540 records that included the group of non-infractor cyclists in the above collisions plus cyclists involved in single-bicycle crashes. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated for being responsible for each type of crash for each factor considered. Age from 10 to 19 years, male sex, alcohol or drug consumption and non-helmet use were cyclist-related variables associated with a higher risk of crash, whereas cycling more than 1h increased only the risk of single crashes. Bicycles with brake defects and ridden by two occupants were also at higher risk of involvement in a crash, whereas light defects were associated only with collisions with another vehicle. For drivers of the other vehicle, age more than 60 years, alcohol, not using safety devices and nonprofessional drivers were at higher risk. The risk of colliding with a bicycle was higher for mopeds than for passenger cars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Prevention of road accidents involving non-motorized traffic participants (pedestrians and cyclists) in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Ernstberger, A; Groschupf, V; Günther, K P; Haase, M; Haasper, C; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Juhra, C; Leser, H; Lob, G; Maier, R; Seeck, A; Winkler, R; Otte, D

    2012-06-01

    During a 1-day workshop organized by the German Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology (DGOU) 15 German accident researchers used different approaches to improve the effectiveness of accident prevention for pedestrians and bicyclists on German roads. The main results of this analysis show: Fatal injuries of pedestrians have been significantly reduced by 82% between 1970 (n=6.056) and 2007 (n=695). Similarly, fatalities of bicyclists have been reduced during the same time period from 1,835 to 425 which amount to almost 80%. However, the total number of injured cyclists increased almost twice, i.e. from 40,531 (in 1979) to 78,579 (in 2007) a fact that needs to be analyzed in more detail. Although scientifically proven to provide protection against severe head injuries, helmets are worn less frequently by adolescents and women as compared to younger children and men. Fatalities of bicyclists might be reduced by using Dobli mirrors which allow the truck driver to see the bicyclist when turning right. Recently developed sensors are able to detect pedestrians walking closely (systems in cars like ESP (electronic stability program), BAS (brake assist system), special light systems for curves, and night vision utilities are most effective to prevent collision with pedestrians and bicyclists. TV spots for bicyclists could help to point out dangerous situations and the proven benefits of wearing a helmet in the same way as previous campaigns, e.g."The 7th Sense" for car drivers.

  18. Effect of different recovery modalities on anaerobic power in off-road cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Bielik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite massage being widely used by athletes, opinions its effects on performance recovery differ. The aim of the study was reveal the effects of passive recovery (PR, sport massage (SM and active recovery (AR after series of Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT on peak power (PP and mean power (MP. Eleven junior off-road cyclists performed warm up on the cycle ergometer followed by 3 bouts of WAnT interspersed with 4 min rest. After 20 min of PR, SM or AR subjects performed fourth WAnT in random order one week apart. There was no significant difference in PP between PR and SM (875.5 ± 56.2 vs. 921.6 ± 50.8 W but significant difference between PR and AR (875.5 ± 56.2 vs. 970.2 ± 68.9 W; p<0.05. Significant differences were also found for MP between PR and AR (678.4 ± 45.2 vs. 746.1 ± 47.0 W; p<0.05 but not for PR and SM (678.4 ± 45.2 vs. 714.6 ± 32.8 W. Blood lactate concentration after intervention was significantly different only between trials with PR and AR (13.3 ± 2.9 vs. 7.4 ± 3.9 mmol•L-1; p<0.01 and between SM and AR (14.6 ± 3.0 vs. 7.4 ± 3.9 mmol•L-1; p<0.01. A one–way ANOVA with repeated measure indicated that AR presents better modality in reducing blood lactate or renewal PP and MP than PR and SM.

  19. Kinematic analysis and bilateral differences in pedaling technique of professional cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Yanci Irigoyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe the maximal angulations of knee and ankle in the flexions and extensions in pedaling performed by professional cyclists and to compare the differences in these angulations between the right and left leg. Thirteen cyclists, who all belonged to a professional team which regularly competed in the “Vuelta Ciclista a España”, took part in this study. Measurements were taken of the length of the crank arms, height and saddle height of the cyclists’ bicycles. A 2D kinematic analysis was also performed of their pedaling to study the angulations of knee and ankle. No significant differences were found between the right and the left leg with regard to the angulations of flexion or extension of the knees or the flexion of the ankles. However, contrary to other studies, differences were found in the ankle angulation of extension (p < 0.05, difference between means = 14.53%, d = 0.37, moderate between the two legs. In future research it would be interesting to complement the kinematic analysis with a kinetic study to observe if the differences in the angulations are accompanied by differences in the force applied by each leg.

  20. Echocardiographic findings in former professional cyclists after long-term deconditioning of more than 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Pia; Zuber, Michel; Ritter, Manfred; Oechslin, Erwin N; Jenni, Rolf; Seifert, Burkhardt; Baldesberger, Sylvette; Attenhofer Jost, Christine H

    2008-03-01

    In professional cyclists, typical changes include reversible dilatation of atria and left ventricle (LV), LV hypertrophy but normal diastolic function. Data on long-term outcome are limited. Of all 134 former Swiss professional cyclists (PC) participating >or=1x in the professional bicycle race Tour de Suisse from 1955 to 1975, 62 (42%) were recruited for a prospective case control study. The PC and a control group of 62 golfers (matched for age, gender, hypertension, present physical activity) were screened [clinical examination, history, echocardiography, measurement of proBNP (normal 4 h of endurance training per week was identical (P = 0.72). Total kilometers (km) on the bicycle were higher in PCs with 311,000 (60,000-975,000) than in controls (2500 [0-120,000]; P < 0.0001). PC had larger atrial volume indices (P = 0.002) and tended to have higher LV muscle mass indices (P = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis identified the total number of bicycle km as an independent factor for LV muscle mass. For left atrial size, heart rate at rest, age, years since the last bicycle race and the current hours of endurance training were identified as independent predictors. Long axis function of both ventricles (systolic velocities of mitral and tricuspid annulus) was decreased in PC (P

  1. The use of velodrome tests to evaluate aerodynamic drag in professional cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, J; Ogueta-Alday, A; Larrazabal, J; Rodríguez-Marroyo, J A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity, reliability and sensitivity of velodrome tests to detect small changes in aerodynamic drag in cycling. 12 professional cyclists were assessed to obtain the drag area (SCx) during wind tunnel and velodrome tests. Incremental and steady-state protocols were performed in the velodrome with a portable power meter, and 6 bicycle positions were analysed and compared that involved lowering the handlebars and advancing the pads between 2-5 cm. A significant relationship (r=0.88, paerodynamic position affected the SCx (paerodynamic drag in cycling were demonstrated. Although SCx values were not interchangeable between different studies, the velodrome tests presented advantages with respect to the wind tunnel tests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. On the Road to Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, David H

    2017-05-01

    Many observers have concluded that we have a crisis of professionalism in the practice of medicine. In this essay, the author identifies and discusses personal attributes and commitments important in the development and maintenance of physician professionalism: humility, servant leadership, self-awareness, kindness, altruism, attention to personal well-being, responsibility and concern for patient safety, lifelong learning, self-regulation, and honesty and integrity. Professionalism requires character, but character alone is not enough. We need others to help and encourage us. And in turn, as physician leaders, we help shape the culture of professionalism in our practice environment. Professionalism is not something we learn once, and no physician is perfectly professional at all times, in all circumstances. Professionalism is both a commitment and a skill-a competency-that we practice over a lifetime.

  3. Determining optimal cadence for an individual road cyclist from field data

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, RJ; Scarf, PA; Jobson, SA; Passfield, L

    2016-01-01

    The cadence that maximises power output developed at the crank by an individual cyclist is conventionally determined using a\\ud laboratory test. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (i) to show that such a cadence, which we call the optimal cadence, can\\ud be determined using power output, heart-rate, and cadence measured in the field and (ii) to describe methodology to do so.\\ud For an individual cyclist’s sessions, power output is related to cadence and the elicited heart-rate using a no...

  4. Determining optimal cadence for an individual road cyclist from field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert; Scarf, Philip; Jobson, Simon Adrian; Passfield, Louis

    2016-11-01

    The cadence that maximises power output developed at the crank by an individual cyclist is conventionally determined using a laboratory test. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (i) to show that such a cadence, which we call the optimal cadence, can be determined using power output, heart-rate, and cadence measured in the field and (ii) to describe methodology to do so. For an individual cyclist's sessions, power output is related to cadence and the elicited heart-rate using a non-linear regression model. Optimal cadences are found for two riders (83 and 70 revolutions per minute, respectively); these cadences are similar to the riders' preferred cadences (82-92 rpm and 65-75 rpm). Power output reduces by approximately 6% for cadences 20 rpm above or below optimum. Our methodology can be used by a rider to determine an optimal cadence without laboratory testing intervention: the rider will need to collect power output, heart-rate, and cadence measurements from training and racing sessions over an extended period (>6 months); ride at a range of cadences within those sessions; and calculate his/her optimal cadence using the methodology described or a software tool that implements it.

  5. Methods of Monitoring Training Load and Their Relationships to Changes in Fitness and Performance in Competitive Road Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dajo; Abt, Grant; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Myers, Tony; Akubat, Ibrahim

    2017-05-01

    To assess the dose-response relationships between different training-load methods and aerobic fitness and performance in competitive road cyclists. Training data from 15 well-trained competitive cyclists were collected during a 10-wk (December-March) preseason training period. Before and after the training period, participants underwent a laboratory incremental exercise test with gas-exchange and lactate measures and a performance assessment using an 8-min time trial (8MT). Internal training load was calculated using Banister TRIMP, Edwards TRIMP, individualized TRIMP (iTRIMP), Lucia TRIMP (luTRIMP), and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). External load was measured using Training Stress Score (TSS). Large to very large relationships (r = .54-.81) between training load and changes in submaximal fitness variables (power at 2 and 4 mmol/L) were observed for all training-load calculation methods. The strongest relationships with changes in aerobic fitness variables were observed for iTRIMP (r = .81 [95% CI .51-.93, r = .77 [95% CI .43-.92]) and TSS (r = .75 [95% CI .31-.93], r = .79 [95% CI .40-.94]). The strongest dose-response relationships with changes in the 8MT test were observed for iTRIMP (r = .63 [95% CI .17-.86]) and luTRIMP (r = .70 [95% CI .29-.89). Training-load quantification methods that integrate individual physiological characteristics have the strongest dose-response relationships, suggesting this to be an essential factor in the quantification of training load in cycling.

  6. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zajac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate

  7. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-27

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  8. The Gran Fondo and Sportive Experience: an Exploratory Look at Cyclists' Experiences and Professional Event Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Berridge, GC

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been a significant upsurge in popularity in cycling with not only increased participation evident but also new participants taking up cycling, especially in the UK, parts of Europe, US, and Australia. The branch of cycling that has witnessed the largest growth, in both numbers of events and participants, is the “gran fondo” or “sportive” cycle event. However, very little is known about either the organization of these events or the cultural experiences of cyclists participa...

  9. Pedestrians, two-wheelers and road safety : a statistical comparison of pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider road-traffic fatalities in The Netherlands from 1968 to 1972.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the

  10. Bone and energy metabolism parameters in professional cyclists during the Giro d'Italia 3-weeks stage race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cycling is a not weight-bearing activity and is known to induce bone resorption. Stage races are really strenuous endurance performances affecting the energy homeostasis. The recently highlighted link, in the co-regulation of bone and energy metabolism, demonstrates a central role for the equilibrium between carboxylated and undercarboxylated forms of osteocalcin. Aim of this study was to understand the acute physiological responses to a cycling stage race in terms of bone turnover and energy metabolism and the possible co-regulative mechanisms underlying their relationship. We studied nine professional cyclists engaged in 2011 Giro d'Italia stage race. Pre-analytical and analytical phases tightly followed academic and anti-doping authority's recommendations. Bone and energy metabolism markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, leptin and adiponectin and related hormones (cortisol and testosterone were measured, by Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassays, at days -1 (pre-race, 12 and 22 during the race. The power output and the energy expenditure (mean and accumulated were derived and correlated with the biochemical indexes. During the race, bone metabolism showed that an unbalance in behalf of resorption, which is enhanced, occurred along with a relative increase in the concentration of the undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin that was indirectly related to the enhanced energy expenditure, through adipokines modifications, with leptin decrease (high energy consumption and adiponectin increase (optimization of energy expenditure. The exertion due to heavy effort induced a decrease of cortisol, while testosterone levels resulted unchanged. In conclusion, during a 3-weeks stage race, bone metabolism is pushed towards resorption. A possible relationship between the bone and the energy metabolisms is suggested by the relative correlations among absolute and relative concentrations

  11. Bone and energy metabolism parameters in professional cyclists during the Giro d'Italia 3-weeks stage race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Graziani, Rosa; Colombini, Alessandra; Banfi, Giuseppe; Corsetti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Cycling is a not weight-bearing activity and is known to induce bone resorption. Stage races are really strenuous endurance performances affecting the energy homeostasis. The recently highlighted link, in the co-regulation of bone and energy metabolism, demonstrates a central role for the equilibrium between carboxylated and undercarboxylated forms of osteocalcin. Aim of this study was to understand the acute physiological responses to a cycling stage race in terms of bone turnover and energy metabolism and the possible co-regulative mechanisms underlying their relationship. We studied nine professional cyclists engaged in 2011 Giro d'Italia stage race. Pre-analytical and analytical phases tightly followed academic and anti-doping authority's recommendations. Bone and energy metabolism markers (bone alkaline phosphatase, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin, leptin and adiponectin) and related hormones (cortisol and testosterone) were measured, by Sandwich Enzyme Immunoassays, at days -1 (pre-race), 12 and 22 during the race. The power output and the energy expenditure (mean and accumulated) were derived and correlated with the biochemical indexes. During the race, bone metabolism showed that an unbalance in behalf of resorption, which is enhanced, occurred along with a relative increase in the concentration of the undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin that was indirectly related to the enhanced energy expenditure, through adipokines modifications, with leptin decrease (high energy consumption) and adiponectin increase (optimization of energy expenditure). The exertion due to heavy effort induced a decrease of cortisol, while testosterone levels resulted unchanged. In conclusion, during a 3-weeks stage race, bone metabolism is pushed towards resorption. A possible relationship between the bone and the energy metabolisms is suggested by the relative correlations among absolute and relative concentrations trends of

  12. Maximum Oxygen Uptake and Post-Exercise Recovery in Professional Road Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowski Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim was to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness as ascribed by maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max and post-exercise recovery after incremental exercise to volitional exhaustion.

  13. The road from professionalism to interprofessionality

    OpenAIRE

    Cilia, Saviour

    2007-01-01

    The world is changing rapidly, and today's societal pressures and changes are bound to alter the traditional understanding of professionalism. With Malta's accession to the European Union and with pressing need to reform the Maltese health care system, the health care professions are constrained to adapt to new regulations and standards of health care.

  14. Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : a multi-programme evaluation in a field setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Vlakveld, W.P. Commandeur, J.J.F. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2014-01-01

    A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after

  15. Five road safety education programmes for young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : A multi-programme evaluation in a field setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Divera A.M.; Vlakveld, Willem P.; Commandeur, Jacques J.F.; Shope, Jean T.; Kok, Gerjo

    A practical approach was developed to assess and compare the effects of five short road safety education (RSE) programmes for young adolescents that does not rely on injury or crash data but uses self reported behaviour. Questionnaires were administered just before and about one month after

  16. Car driver attitudes, perceptions of social norms and aggressive driving behaviour towards cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhen, Laura S; Flin, Rhona

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of car drivers and cyclists is one of the main causes of cycle incidents. The role of attitudes and social norms in shaping car drivers' aggressive behaviour towards cyclists, is not well understood and merits investigation. A sample of 276 drivers completed an online questionnaire concerning their attitudes towards cyclists, attitudes towards risky driving, perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, and the frequency with which they engage in such aggressive driving behaviours. The results showed that attitudes towards cyclists, as well as social norm perceptions concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists, were associated with aggressive driving towards cyclists. Negative attitudes towards cyclists were more pronounced in non-cyclists than cyclists and their association with aggressive driving behaviour was stronger in cyclists than non-cyclists. The perception of social norms concerning aggressive driving towards cyclists had a stronger association with aggressive driving in non-cyclists than cyclists. Attitudes towards risk taking did not affect aggressive driving towards cyclists. These findings can inform campaigns that aim to improve cyclist and car driver interaction on the roads, making them safer to use for cyclists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclists and traffic sounds : the results of an internet survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, G.P. van

    2014-01-01

    Many cyclists, especially youngsters, listen to music and talk on their mobile phones while cycling. As a result, auditory traffic information that can be used by cyclists to make safe decisions is less available. Also the growing number of quiet (electric) vehicles on the road makes use of auditory

  18. The relationship between vertical leg stiffness and gross mechanical efficiency in cyclists [Abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Jonathan; Pitchers, G; How, Stephen C; Cole, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: Professional cyclists have been shown to have a mechanical efficiency that is 11% higher compared to amateur cyclists (Coyle et al. 1991: Med Sci Sports Exerc, 23 (1), 93-107). The variations in power between professional and amateur cyclists are associated with a greater torque development at the first phase of the pedal revolution (Coyle et al. 1991). It has also been shown in cyclists that a relationship exists between vertical leg stiffness and the peak power output (PPO) (r =...

  19. Infrastructural and Human Factors Affecting Safety Outcomes of Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Useche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviours and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.

  20. Aggravating andmitigating factors associated with cyclist injury severity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Vavatsoulas,, Konstantinos; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    severity on Danish roads by examining a comprehensive set of accidents involving a cyclist and a collision partner between 2007 and 2011. Method: This study estimates a generalized ordered logit model of the severity of cyclist injuries because of its ability to accommodate the ordered-response nature......Denmark is one of the leading cycling nations, where cycling trips constitute a large share of the total trips, and cycling safety assumes a top priority position in the agenda of policy makers. The current study sheds light on the aggravating and mitigating factors associated with cyclist injury......–80 km/h, slippery road surface, and location of the crash on road sections are aggravating infrastructure factors, while the availability of cycling paths and dense urban development are mitigating factors. Heavy vehicle involvement and conflicts between cyclists going straight or turning left and other...

  1. Non-traumatic injury profile of amateur cyclists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Non-traumatic bicycle injuries are common. However, research available on non-traumatic injuries in amateur cyclists is more than a decade old, and most of the research on this topic has been done in Europe and America on professional cyclists in multi-day cycling events. An understanding of the common ...

  2. Recovery kinetics throughout successive bouts of various exercises in elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, François; Grélot, Laurent; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David

    2006-12-01

    In the present study we investigated whether a high volume of cycling training would influence the metabolic changes associated with a succession of three exhaustive cycling exercises. Seven professional road cyclists (VO2max: 74.3 +/- 3.7 mL.min.kg; maximal power tolerated: 475 +/- 18 W; training: 22 +/- 3 h.wk) and seven sport sciences students (VO2max: 54.2 +/- 5.3 mL.min.kg; maximal power tolerated: 341 +/- 26 W; training: 6 +/- 2 h.wk) performed three different exhaustive cycling exercise bouts (progressive, constant load, and sprint) on an electrically braked cycloergometer positioned near the magnetic resonance scanner. Less than 45 s after the completion of each exercise bout, recovery kinetics of high-energy phosphorylated compounds and pH were measured using P-MR spectroscopy. Resting values for phosphomonoesters (PME) and phosphodiesters (PDE) were significantly elevated in the cyclist group (PME/ATP: 0.82 +/- 0.11 vs 0.58 +/- 0.19; PDE/ATP: 0.27 +/- 0.03 vs 0.21 +/- 0.05). Phosphocreatine (PCr) consumption and inorganic phosphate (Pi) accumulation measured at end of exercise bouts 1 (PCr: 6.5 +/- 3.2 vs 10.4 +/- 1.6 mM; Pi: 1.6 +/- 0.7 vs 6.8 +/- 3.4 mM) and 3 (PCr: 5.6 +/- 2.4 vs 9.3 +/- 3.9 mM; Pi: 1.5 +/- 0.5 vs 7.7 +/- 3.3 mM) were reduced in cyclists compared with controls. During the recovery period after each exercise bout, the pH-recovery rate was larger in professional road cyclists, whereas the PCr-recovery kinetics were significantly faster for cyclists only for bout 3. Whereas the PDE and PME elevation at rest in professional cyclists may indicate fiber-type changes and an imbalance between glycogenolytic and glycolytic activity, the lower PCr consumption during exercise and the faster pH-recovery kinetic clearly suggest an improved mitochondrial function.

  3. Safety in numbers? Investigating Australian driver behaviour, knowledge and attitudes towards cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marilyn; Oxley, Jennie; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith

    2014-09-01

    A key tenet of the safety in numbers theory is that as the number of people cycling increases, more drivers will also be cyclists and therefore will give greater consideration to cyclists when driving. We tested this theory in relation to self-reported behaviour, attitudes and knowledge in relation to cycling. An online survey was conducted of Australian drivers (n=1984) who were also cyclists (cyclist-drivers) and drivers who did not cycle (drivers). Cyclist-drivers were 1.5 times more likely than drivers to report safe driving behaviours related to sharing the roads with cyclists (95% CI: 1.1-1.9, pbike lanes was low for both groups. Drivers were more likely than cyclist-drivers to have negative attitudes (e.g. cyclists are unpredictable and repeatedly overtaking cyclists is frustrating). Findings from this study highlight the need for increased education and awareness in relation to safe driving behaviour, road rules and attitudes towards cyclists. Specific recommendations are made for approaches to improve safety for cyclists. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Impact of e-safety applications on cyclists' safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Antonino; Persia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In years to come, urban areas face the challenge of making transport sustainable in terms of environment and competitiveness. Cycling is a perfect transport means in urban areas. Cyclists have a high casualty rate and should be given special attention in road safety policy. Actions to promote cycling in cities should go together with improving road safety. ICT can be used to develop intelligent applications assisting cyclists to avoid, prevent or mitigate accidents. This paper presents the results of activities focused on the assessment of impacts of ICT on the safety of cyclists, realised in the framework of the EU project SAFECYCLE ( www.safecycle.eu ). E-safety applications were identified that can enhance the safety of cyclists in Europe. Eleven applications were analysed in term of benefits and costs. The results highlighted important differences between European countries in term of awareness about cycling, knowledge about ICT applications and also impacts of these applications.

  5. READINESS PROFILE OF JUNIOR CYCLISTS DETERMINED BY LEIPZIG TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Zlatković

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to define the readiness profile of junior cyclists determined by the Leipzig test. The second aim was to find out if there were differences in functional performance among cyclists in different disciplines, such as: road cyclists, mountain bikers and sprinters. All cyclists (n=18 were tested with Leipzig test protocol on a bicycle ergometer by increasing the load by 40W per minute, pedalling cadence 90- 100rev/min. The hearth rate was measured at the beginning and at the end of the test, together with the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max. The results have shown that the maximal oxygen uptake among national junior cyclists in all disciplines was VO2max 56.42±5.82 ml•min-1kg-1, among mountain biking cyclist VO2max was 61.43±4.94, sprinters VO2max 56.78±3.33 and for cross-country cyclists VO2max 53.37±7.82. The statistical analysis of the functional performance results has snown that between subsamples of cyclists there were no significant differences on general level. However, the partial analysis has snown that there is a statistically significant difference between the groups in the hart rate values on an anaerobic threshold (F value 4.547, p=0.032. In conclusion, the tested cyclists were prepared using general training methods even if they had competitions in different disciplines. Therefore, the level of readiness shows that the training process for young cyclists which is used in Serbia is not specific for the competition level and discipline.

  6. Editorial for special issue : ‘Improving cyclist safety through scientific research'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de & Otte, D.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide the popularity of cycling is booming due to its many positive impacts on health, environment and accessibility. Unfortunately, in most traffic systems cyclists are exposed to high levels of road risks. In 2014, more than 2000 cyclist deaths were recorded in the EU alone. Many more were

  7. Desempenho da potência anaeróbia em atletas de elite do mountain bike submetidos à suplementação aguda com creatina Anaerobic power output of elite off-road cyclists with acute oral creatine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Eckhardt Molina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos da suplementação aguda com creatina no desempenho da potência anaeróbia de atletas de elite do mountain bike, 20 atletas em período básico do macrociclo de treinamento foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (duplo-cego em dois grupos: placebo (PLA, n = 10 e creatina (CRE, n = 10. Foram avaliados quanto à composição corporal (pesagem hidrostática e potência anaeróbia (teste de Wingate - TW antes (PRÉ e depois (PÓS de sete dias de suplementação. A creatina ou maltodextrina foi usada em três doses diárias de 0,3g/kg de massa corporal diluídos em meio líquido adoçado. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis morfológicas após sete dias de suplementação (PRÉ x PÓS, e os grupos não diferiram apesar da variação percentual (Δ% contrária (positiva para o grupo CRE e negativa para o PLA. A potência anaeróbia pico (PP e o instante da potência pico (IPP aumentaram e o índice de fadiga diminuiu do PRÉ para o PÓS-testes no grupo CRE, enquanto que o grupo PLA não apresentou diferenças significantes. A PP apresentou forte tendência em ser maior e o IPP foi maior no grupo CRE comparado com o PLA. Conclui-se que existem evidências de que a suplementação com creatina (0,3g/kg em curto prazo (sete dias pode retardar o IPP (CRE 3,0 ± 0,5/3,6 ± 0,8 Δ%= 20% no teste de Wingate em atletas de elite do mountain bike, sugerindo que a suplementação com creatina pode melhorar o desempenho físico quanto à potência anaeróbia durante o trabalho de alta intensidade e curta duração.In order to investigate the effect of a high dose, acute oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic power of male off-road cyclists, twenty elite athletes training at the basic period were randomly (double-blind assigned into 2 groups: placebo (PLA n=10 and creatine (CRE n=10. They were submitted to a body composition evaluation (underwater weighting and Wingate Anaerobic Test (TW before

  8. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006 | Atem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding motorised or non-motorised cycles This study seeks to characterise the cyclists (including helmet wearing) and to use the findings to make recommendations to the concerned authorities. The study found that most of ...

  9. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    Abstract. Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding motorised or non-motorised cycles This study seeks to characterise the cyclists (including helmet wearing) and to use the findings to make recommendations to the concerned authorities. The study found that ...

  10. Single unprotected road user crashes : Europe we have a problem !

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R. Eenink, R.G. Cardoso, J. Machata, K. & Malasek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Unprotected Road Users (URU) are a subset of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) who are not protected in their vehicles: pedestrians, cyclists and powered two-wheelers. EU statistics for 2014 show that their share in road traffic fatalities was 22% for pedestrians, 8% for cyclists and 18% for Powered

  11. [Risk factors for provoking collisions between cyclists and pedestrians in Spain, 1993-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo Requena, Rocío; Pulido Manzanero, José; Lardelli Claret, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    To identify and quantify the factors depending on pedestrians, cyclists and the environment associated with the risk of causing a collision between a cyclist and a pedestrian in Spain from 1993 to 2011. retrospective case series. 1228 pedestrian-cyclist pairs involved in the same number of collisions in an urban area, only one of whom committed an infraction. Register of Traffic Accidents with Victims, supported by the Spanish Traffic General Directorate. committing an infraction (yes/no), age, sex, helmet use (cyclist), hour, type of day, year, existence of sidewalks, place of the accident, and priority regulated. logistic regression model to estimate the strength of the association between the pedestrian's responsibility and independent variables. The association with the cyclist's responsibility was assessed by reversing the value of the odds ratios obtained. In both groups of users, the risk of causing a collision was higher in extreme ages. Female cyclists had a slightly higher risk than male cyclists, while the use of a helmet had a protective effect. The risk of the pedestrian causing an accident was higher in the absence of sidewalks. Cyclists more frequently provoked accidents in crosswalks. We recommend the implementation of safety campaigns aimed at pedestrians and cyclists, with special attention paid to the youngest and older people. Interventions for correct road use would also be advisable. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Non-traumatic injury profile of amateur cyclists | van der Walt | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Non-traumatic bicycle injuries are common. However, research available on non-traumatic injuries in amateur cyclists is more than a decade old, and most of the research on this topic has been done in Europe and America on professional cyclists in multi-day cycling events. An understanding of the common ...

  13. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Vos, M. J.; Commandeur, J. J.F.; Twisk, D. A.M.

    2017-01-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects

  14. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Vos, M.J. Commandeur, J.J.F. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects

  15. Evaluation of the bone status in high-level cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Gérard; Chappard, Daniel; Audran, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bone status in highly trained professional cyclists subjected to regular training and tough competitions. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at different regions of interest by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and main biological parameters related to bone metabolism were obtained in 29 cyclists. Lumbar BMD was 0.94 ± 0.01g/cm(2) (Z-score=-1.28 ± 0.07), and 1 cyclist out of 4 had an abnormally low value (Z-score cyclists (15%) had Z-scores cyclists had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Blood testosterone and thyroid stimulating hormone were in the normal range. Insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were in the normal range; however, a significant inverse correlation was found with lumbar BMD (r=0.495; p=0.003). We confirm that cycling has no positive effect on BMD, BMD being often lower than in normal controls at the lumbar site; femoral BMD is less concerned. The absence of beneficial changes at the spine can be explained by biomechanical conditions related to the cyclists' position, reducing loading strains. It is necessary to pay greater attention to the bone status of high-level athletes to prevent an increased risk of fractures. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Can power and anaerobic capacity reduce according to disordered eating behaviors in cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to compare the power, anaerobic capacity (AC and performance in a road bicycle race among cyclists with and without risk of disordered eating behaviors (DEB. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic way, totaling 69 male road cyclists aged between 19 and 30 years. The Wingate test was used to evaluate peak power (PP and mean power. Time in minutes was adopted to determine performance in a 120-km road cycling race (competitive event. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was completed to assess DEBs. The results did not indicate a difference in PP among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=3.92; p=0.13. Findings showed a difference in mean power among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=36.43; p=0.01. The results revealed a difference in performance in 120-km cycling races among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=46.03; p=0.01. It could be concluded that DEBs were associated with a lower mean power and performance in a competitive event among male road cyclists, although the same was not true for PP.

  17. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  18. Can cyclist safety be improved with intelligent transport systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silla, Anne; Leden, Lars; Rämä, Pirkko; Scholliers, Johan; Van Noort, Martijn; Bell, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) have assisted in the decrease of road traffic fatalities, particularly amongst passenger car occupants. Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) such as pedestrians, cyclists, moped riders and motorcyclists, however, have not been that much in focus when developing ITS. Therefore, there is a clear need for ITS which specifically address VRUs as an integrated element of the traffic system. This paper presents the results of a quantitative safety impact assessment of five systems that were estimated to have high potential to improve the safety of cyclists, namely: Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Bicycle to Vehicle communication (B2V), Intersection safety (INS), Pedestrian and Cyclist Detection System+Emergency Braking (PCDS+EBR) and VRU Beacon System (VBS). An ex-ante assessment method proposed by Kulmala (2010) targeted to assess the effects of ITS for cars was applied and further developed in this study to assess the safety impacts of ITS specifically designed for VRUs. The main results of the assessment showed that all investigated systems affect cyclist safety in a positive way by preventing fatalities and injuries. The estimates considering 2012 accident data and full penetration showed that the highest effects could be obtained by the implementation of PCDS+EBR and B2V, whereas VBS had the lowest effect. The estimated yearly reduction in cyclist fatalities in the EU-28 varied between 77 and 286 per system. A forecast for 2030, taking into accounts the estimated accident trends and penetration rates, showed the highest effects for PCDS+EBR and BSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the impact of bike network indicators on cyclist safety using macro-level collision prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osama, Ahmed; Sayed, Tarek

    2016-12-01

    Many cities worldwide are recognizing the important role that cycling plays in creating green and livable communities. However, vulnerable road users such as cyclists are usually subjected to an elevated level of injury risk which discourages many road users to cycle. This paper studies cyclist-vehicle collisions at 134 traffic analysis zones in the city of Vancouver to assess the impact of bike network structure on cyclist safety. Several network indicators were developed using Graph theory and their effect on cyclist safety was investigated. The indicators included measures of connectivity, directness, and topography of the bike network. The study developed several macro-level (zonal) collision prediction models that explicitly incorporated bike network indicators as explanatory variables. As well, the models incorporated the actual cyclist exposure (bike kilometers travelled) as opposed to relying on proxies such as population or bike network length. The macro-level collision prediction models were developed using generalized linear regression and full Bayesian techniques, with and without spatial effects. The models showed that cyclist collisions were positively associated with bike and vehicle exposure. The exponents of the exposure variables were less than one which supports the "safety in numbers" hypothesis. Moreover, the models showed positive associations between cyclist collisions and the bike network connectivity and linearity indicators. In contrast, negative associations were found between cyclist collisions and the bike network continuity and topography indicators. The spatial effects were statistically significant in all of the developed models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Deaths of cyclists in london: trends from 1992 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee William E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is an increasingly important mode of transport for environmental and health reasons. Cycling fatalities in London were previously investigated in 1994 using routinely collected data. Since then, there have been shifts in the modes of transport used, and in transport policies. We sought to replicate the previous work using data on cyclist deaths in London between 1992 and 2006, specifically investigating whether heavy goods vehicles continued to pose a threat. Methods Observational study based on analysis of time series of police road casualties data, 1992 to 2006, in London, UK. The main outcome measures were cyclists killed in road traffic collisions. Poisson regression and chi-squared test for homogeneity were used to assess time effects. Travel flow data was then used to estimate annual fatality rates per 100,000 cyclists per kilometre. Results From 1992 to 2006 there was a mean of 16 cycling fatalities per year (range 8-21. 146 deaths (60% were in inner London and 96 in outer London. There was no evidence for a decline over time (p = 0.7 other than a pronounced dip in 2004 when there were 8 fatalities. Freight vehicles were involved in 103 of 242 (43% of all incidents and the vehicle was making a left turn in over half of these (53%. The fatality rate ranged from 20.5 deaths in 1992 to 11.1 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 estimated cyclists per kilometre (rate ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 1.03. Conclusions There is little evidence fatality rates have fallen. Freight vehicles over 3.5 tonnes continue to present a disproportionate threat; they should be removed from urban roads and more appropriate means of delivery of essential goods found.

  1. Cyclists as part of the city's organism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2015-01-01

    This article examines Copenhagen cyclists' emotional and “rational” stories about cycling in the city. Copenhagen is branded as a city of cyclists; nevertheless, the car still plays a dominant role in both policy and planning and thus everyday life. This shapes cyclists' stories as well as their ...

  2. Road Cycling and Mountain Biking Produces Adaptations on the Spine and Hamstring Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, J M; Zabala, M

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to analyse the influence of training in road cycling or cross-country mountain biking on sagittal spinal curvatures, pelvic tilt and trunk inclination in cyclists of both cycling modalities; 2) to evaluate the specific spinal posture and pelvic tilt adopted on the road bicycle and cross-country mountain bike; and 3) to compare the spinal sagittal capacity of flexion and pelvic tilt mobility as well as hamstring muscle extensibility among road cyclists, cross-country mountain bikers and non-cyclists. Thirty matched road cyclists, 30 mountain bikers and 30 non-cyclists participated in this study. The road cyclists showed significantly greater thoracic kyphosis and trunk inclination than did the mountain bikers and non-cyclists in a standing posture. On the bicycle, the road bicycling posture was characterised by greater lumbar flexion and more significant anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination compared with the mountain biking posture. The thoracic spine was more flexed in mountain biking than in road cycling. Road cyclists had significantly greater hamstring muscle extensibility in the active knee extension test, and showed greater anterior pelvic tilt and trunk inclination capacity in the sit-and-reach test, compared with mountain bikers and non-cyclists. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Three-dimensional kinematics of competitive and recreational cyclists across different workloads during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Dagnese, Frederico; Rocha, Emmanuel; Silveira, Mateus C; Carpes, Felipe P; Mota, Carlos B

    2016-08-01

    Although the link between sagittal plane motion and exercise intensity has been highlighted, no study assessed if different workloads lead to changes in three-dimensional cycling kinematics. This study compared three-dimensional joint and segment kinematics between competitive and recreational road cyclists across different workloads. Twenty-four road male cyclists (12 competitive and 12 recreational) underwent an incremental workload test to determine aerobic peak power output. In a following session, cyclists performed four trials at sub-maximal workloads (65, 75, 85 and 95% of their aerobic peak power output) at 90 rpm of pedalling cadence. Mean hip adduction, thigh rotation, shank rotation, pelvis inclination (latero-lateral and anterior-posterior), spine inclination and rotation were computed at the power section of the crank cycle (12 o'clock to 6 o'clock crank positions) using three-dimensional kinematics. Greater lateral spine inclination (p < .01, 5-16%, effect sizes = 0.09-0.25) and larger spine rotation (p < .01, 16-29%, effect sizes = 0.31-0.70) were observed for recreational cyclists than competitive cyclists across workload trials. No differences in segment and joint angles were observed from changes in workload with significant individual effects on spine inclination (p < .01). No workload effects were found in segment angles but differences, although small, existed when comparing competitive road to recreational cyclists. When conducting assessment of joint and segment motions, workload between 65 and 95% of individual cyclists' peak power output could be used.

  4. Cycling infrastructure for reducing cycling injuries in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Caroline A; Smith, Sherie; Watson, Michael C; Parkin, John; Coupland, Carol; Miller, Philip; Kendrick, Denise; McClintock, Hugh

    2015-12-10

    Cycling is an attractive form of transport. It is beneficial to the individual as a form of physical activity that may fit more readily into an individual's daily routine, such as for cycling to work and to the shops, than other physical activities such as visiting a gym. Cycling is also beneficial to the wider community and the environment as a result of fewer motorised journeys. Cyclists are seen as vulnerable road users who are frequently in close proximity to larger and faster motorised vehicles. Cycling infrastructure aims to make cycling both more convenient and safer for cyclists. This review is needed to guide transport planning. To:1. evaluate the effects of different types of cycling infrastructure on reducing cycling injuries in cyclists, by type of infrastructure;2. evaluate the effects of cycling infrastructure on reducing the severity of cycling injuries in cyclists;3. evaluate the effects of cycling infrastructure on reducing cycling injuries in cyclists with respect to age, sex and social group. We ran the most recent search on 2nd March 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase Classic + Embase(OvidSP), PubMed and 10 other databases. We searched websites, handsearched conference proceedings, screened reference lists of included studies and previously published reviews and contacted relevant organisations. We included randomised controlled trials, cluster randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series studies which evaluated the effect of cycling infrastructure (such as cycle lanes, tracks or paths, speed management, roundabout design) on cyclist injury or collision rates. Studies had to include a comparator, that is, either no infrastructure or a different type of infrastructure. We excluded studies that assessed collisions that occurred as a result of competitive cycling. Two review authors examined the titles and

  5. Incidence and aetiology of acute injuries during competitive road cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decock, Mathieu; De Wilde, Lieven; Vanden Bossche, Luc; Steyaert, Adelheid; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Despite the ever-increasing popularity of bicycle racing, the high perceived risk of acute injuries and the recent media attention, studies of acute injuries in road cyclists are rather scarce. The goal of this study is to evaluate the incidence, aetiology and patterns of acute injuries in non-professional competitive road cyclists during cycling races in Flanders. All acute injuries that occurred during competition in Flanders in 2002 and 2012, collected in the injury registry, were analysed. The incidence, injury rate, diagnosis, circumstances and level of performance were evaluated. A total of 777 documented reports of accidents (1230 injuries) were retrieved for the years 2002 and 2012. There was no significant difference between incidence and injury rate between 2002 and 2012. There was a strong significant difference in the incidence between the different levels of performance in both seasons. Severe injuries were seen in 29.5% in 2002 and in 30.1% in 2012. The most common location of a severe injury was the hand. Collision with another rider was the most common cause of injury. Almost 1 out of 6 non-professional competitive road cyclists had an accident during cycling races in 2002 and 2012 in Flanders and collision with other riders was the most important cause of a crash. The most common lesion was abrasion, but almost one out of three riders had a severe injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Identifying factors of bicycle comfort: An online survey with enthusiast cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayachi, F S; Dorey, J; Guastavino, C

    2015-01-01

    Racing bicycles have evolved significantly over the past decades as technology and cyclists' comfort have become a critical design issue. Although ample research has been conducted on comfort for other means of transportation, cyclists' perception of dynamic comfort has received scant attention in the scientific literature. The present study investigates how enthusiast cyclists conceptualize comfort using an online survey with 244 respondents. The purpose is to determine which factors contribute to comfort when riding a bicycle, to identify situations in which comfort is relevant and to determine the extent to which vibrations play a role in comfort evaluations. We found that comfort is influenced by factors related to bicycle components (specifically the frame, saddle and handlebar), as well as environmental factors (type or road, weather conditions) and factors related to the cyclist (position, adjustments, body parts). Respondents indicated that comfort is a concern when riding a bicycle in most situations and they believed that comfort is compatible with performance. The PCA analysis shows that for the perception "human factor-body parts" are put in evidence, and the "cyclist's comfort" evaluation is mainly based on certain qualities related to the bicycle components, then the road and external conditions (e.g. weather, temperature). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatal and serious collisions involving pedal cyclists and trucks in London between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Rachel; Reed, Steve; Christie, Nicola; Barnes, Jo; Thomas, Pete

    2017-08-18

    Increased numbers of people riding pedal cycles have led to a greater focus on pedal cycle safety. The aim of this article is to explore factors that are associated with fatal and a small number of serious-injury pedal cyclist crashes involving trucks that occurred in London between 2007 and 2011. Data were collected from police collision files for 53 crashes, 27 of which involved a truck (≥3.5 tonnes) and a pedal cycle. A systematic case review approach was used to identify the infrastructure, vehicle road user, and management factors that contributed to these crashes and injuries and how these factors interacted. Trucks turning left conflicting with pedal cyclists traveling straight ahead was a common crash scenario. Key contributory factors identified included the pedal cyclists not being visible to the truck drivers, road narrowing, and inappropriate positioning of pedal cyclists. Crashes involving trucks and pedal cyclists are complex events that are caused by multiple interacting factors; therefore, multiple measures are required to prevent them from occurring.

  8. Allometric scaling and predicting cycling performance in (well-) trained female cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, R P; Davidowitz, K J

    2014-03-01

    As female cycling attains greater professionalism, a larger emphasis is placed on the ability to predict and monitor changes in their cycling performance. The main aim of this study was to determine if peak power output (PPO) adjusted for body mass (W · kg-0.32) accurately predicts flat 40-km time trial performance (40 km TT) in female cyclists as found in men. 20 (well-) trained female cyclists completed a PPO test including maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and a flat 40 km TT test. Relationships between cycling performance parameters were also compared to the cycling performance of 45 male cyclists. Allometrically scaled PPW (W · kg(-0.32)) most accurately predicted 40 km TT performance in the female cyclists (r = -0.87, pequations should be used when predicting relative cycling performance parameters. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Research the professional diseases of cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko V.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The pre-pathological and pathological states are exposed at employments by bicycle sport on a highway. In research took part bicyclists from 25 cities of Ukraine (65 sportsmen. Unfavorable influence of loadings of power character is well-proven at a low ambient temperature. The factors of the use of alcohol which can substantially influence on the general picture of morbidity among bicyclists are exposed. The diseases of the cardiovascular system, knee-joint, exchange of matters and digestive system are selected in a separate group (liver and stomach.

  10. Sport cycling crashes on public roads, the influence of bunch riding and experience.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Gent, P. van & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Cycling is a popular but unsafe mode of transport in the Netherlands and the number of seriously injured bicyclists has increased significantly since 2006. A special subgroup is the population of sport cyclists who perform their sport on public roads. The number of road crashes with sport cyclists

  11. Knee problems and its associated factors among active cyclists in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althunyan, Abdullatif K; Darwish, Magdy A; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M

    2017-01-01

    Bicycling is one of the most enjoyable aerobic exercises recommended for the promotion of an individual's health. The Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has seen a huge increase in the number of people who cycle. People have different goals for bicycling, but the injuries they sustain are common. Most of them relate to overuse, particularly of lower body joints. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of knee problems and factors associated with knee pain in cyclists. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015, using an online self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on pertinent literature, was piloted, and validated. A web link was sent to 513 cyclists (professional and amateur) using E-mail, WhatsApp application, or SMS. Three hundred and eleven responses were received, 283 of which were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of knee pain was 25.8%; 27.6% for amateur cyclists and 15.9% for professional cyclists. Only 17.2% knee pain was attributed to cycling, whereas in 32.8% it happened spontaneously and in 25% of cases it occurred while running. Majority of the cyclists reported pain as mild (61.6%) or moderate (28.7%); anterior knee pain accounted for 58.1% knee pain. Different goals of cycling and different bicycle types had statistically significant difference on the rate of knee pain. Of underweight cyclists, 62.2% reported knee pain. Cyclists who run more or participated in football had a higher rate of pain. Knee injuries are common with cyclists. Factors such as the type of the bicycle, the goal of bicycling, club type, body mass index, and participation in other sports play a significant role in the rate of knee pain.

  12. Cycling infrastructure for reducing cycling injuries in cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvaney, C.; Smith, S.; Watson, M; Parkin, J.; Coupland, C; Miller, P; Kendrick, D.; McClintock, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Cycling is an attractive form of transport. It is beneficial to the individual as a form of physical activity that may fit more readily into an individual’s daily routine, such as for cycling to work and to the shops, than other physical activities such as visiting a gym. Cycling is also beneficial to the wider community and the environment as a result of fewer motorised journeys. Cyclists are seen as vulnerable road users who are frequently in close proximity to larger and fast...

  13. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Bulíček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to make planning user oriented one has to know which criteria are important for cyclists` route choice. Until now not many studies were conducted on this topic in Czech Republic. Theoretical background used states 5 basic requirements for cycle routes. These are: 1. Coherence (the cycling infrastructure forms a coherent unit and links with all departure points and destinations of cyclist, 2. Directness (the cycling infrastructure continually offers the cyclists as direct a route as possible, so detours are kept to a minimum, 3. attractiveness (the cycling infrastructure is designed and fitted to the surroundings in such a way that cycling is attractive, 4. safety (the cycling infrastructure guarantees the road safety of cyclists and other road users, 5. comfort (the cycling infrastructure enables a quick and comfortable flow of bicycle traffic.. Planners need a clear understanding of what influences bicycling behavior to develop effective strategies to increase use of those modes. Transportation practitioners have largely focused on infrastructure and the built environment, although researchers have found that attitudes are also very important. Theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985 - intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in

  14. In-vehicle and site-based observations of vehicles and cyclists : a small-scale ND study in The Netherlands. PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe PROLOGUE, Deliverable D3.4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoph, M. Nes, N. van Pauwelussen, J. Mansvelders, R. Horst, A.R.A. van der & Hoedemaeker, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project PROLOGUE (PROmoting real Life Observations for Gaining Understanding of road user behaviour in Europe) is to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a large-scale European naturalistic driving observation study. The work described in this deliverable focused on

  15. SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, R.; Baten, C.; Buurke, J. H.; Rietman, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied

  16. More screen operation than calling: the results of observing cyclists' behaviour while using mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Dick; Westerhuis, Frank; Lewis-Evans, Ben

    2015-03-01

    Operating a mobile telephone while riding a bicycle is fairly common practice in the Netherlands, yet it is unknown if this use is stable or increasing. As such, whether the prevalence of mobile phone use while cycling has changed over the past five years was studied via on-road observation. In addition the impact of mobile phone use on lateral position, i.e. distance from the front wheel to the curb, was also examined to see if it compared to the results seen in previous experimental studies. Bicyclists were observed at six different locations and their behaviour was scored. It was found that compared to five years ago the use of mobile phones while cycling has changed, not in frequency, but in how cyclists were operating their phones. As found in 2008, three percent of the bicyclists were observed to be operating a phone, but a shift from calling (0.7% of cyclists observed) to operating (typing, texting, 2.3% of cyclists) was found. In 2008 nearly the complete opposite usage was observed: 2.2% of the cyclists were calling and 0.6% was texting. Another finding was that effects on lateral position were similar to those seen in experimental studies in that cyclists using a phone maintained a cycling position which was further away from the curb. It was also found that when at an intersection, cyclist's operating their phone made less head movements to the right than cyclists who were just cycling. This shift from calling to screen operation, when combined with the finding related to reduced head movements at intersections, is worrying and potentially dangerous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boele-Vos, M J; Commandeur, J J F; Twisk, D A M

    2017-08-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in a field experiment. Two instrumented bicycles, a conventional bicycle and a pedelec, were used. Mental workload of cyclists in two age groups - 30-45 years and 65 years and over - was measured by means of a secondary cognitive task requiring the detection and reaction to visual stimuli on a cycle route that varied in physical effort and task complexity. We expected physical effort to impair performance on the secondary task in complex traffic sections and not in simple sections, and that this impairment would be greater for older cyclists because of age related reduced muscle strength than for younger cyclists. We expected this impairment to be smaller if a pedelec was used. If such would be the case, this would indicate pedelecs to be beneficial for this older age group, because of a lower mental workload. Our study confirmed that increased physical effort in complex traffic sections deteriorated the detection of relevant stimuli in both age groups. Overall, older cyclists had longer reaction times and lower hit rates than younger cyclists. Mental workloads of cyclists are basically the same when cycling on a conventional bicycle or on a pedelec. In theory, pedelecs may be beneficial to reduce physical effort in cycling in order to maintain enough mental capacity to handle complex traffic situations. However, this study did not demonstrate these benefits. As pedelecs are often used for longer trips, by elderly with low muscle strength, future studies should also explore the effect of higher physical effort over longer periods of time, and also specifically in elderly with low muscle strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakveld, Willem P; Twisk, Divera; Christoph, Michiel; Boele, Marjolein; Sikkema, Rommert; Remy, Roos; Schwab, Arend L

    2015-01-01

    To study the speed choice and mental workload of elderly cyclists on electrical assisted bicycles (e-bikes) in simple and complex traffic situations compared to these on conventional bicycles, a field experiment was conducted using two instrumented bicycles. These bicycles were identical except for the electric pedal support system. Two groups were compared: elderly cyclists (65 years of age and older) and a reference group of cyclists in middle adulthood (between 30 and 45 years of age). Participants rode a fixed route with a length of approximately 3.5 km on both bicycles in counterbalanced order. The route consisted of secluded bicycle paths and roads in a residential area where cyclist have to share the road with motorized traffic. The straight sections on secluded bicycle paths were classified as simple traffic situations and the intersections in the residential area where participants had to turn left, as complex traffic situations. Speed and mental workload were measured. For the assessment of mental workload the peripheral detection task (PDT) was applied. In simple traffic situations the elderly cyclists rode an average 3.6 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. However, in complex traffic situations they rode an average only 1.7 km/h faster on the e-bike than on the conventional bicycle. Except for the fact that the cyclists in middle adulthood rode an average approximately 2.6 km/h faster on both bicycle types and in both traffic conditions, their speed patterns were very similar. The speed of the elderly cyclists on an e-bike was approximately the speed of the cyclists in middle adulthood on a conventional bicycle. For the elderly cyclist and the cyclists in middle adulthood, mental workload did not differ between bicycle type. For both groups, the mental workload was higher in complex traffic situations than in simple traffic situations. Mental workload of the elderly cyclists was somewhat higher than the mental workload of the

  19. Road traffic injuries at Kigali University Central Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Injury and deaths due to road traffic crashes are a major public health problem in developing countries. More than 3000 people die on the world's roads every day. Tens of millions of people are injured or disabled every year. Children, pedestrians, cyclists and the elderly are among the most vulnerable of road ...

  20. Case report on PWC of a competitive cyclist before and after heart transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jeremy A; Pitetti, Kenneth H; Young, Kaelin C; Goodman, William F; Farhoud, Hussam

    2007-09-01

    It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTR), posttransplantation physical work capacity (PWC) normally does not exceed 60% of the value for healthy age-matched controls. Few, if any, studies have undertaken posttransplantation PWC measurements of well-conditioned individuals (i.e., PWC>300 W). A 37-yr-old professionally trained male cyclist suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) immediately after a road race and received a heart transplant (HT) 4 months after the AMI. The participant resumed training 1 month after surgery and underwent a maximal exercise test 6 months after surgery. Peak PWC (33.8 mL.kg(-1).min(-1), 250 W) was 92% of the age-predicted maximum, and peak heart rate (165 bpm) was 96% of his known maximum. These results were similar to the participants in a study who had been training regularly for 36+/-24 months before testing, and PWC evaluations occurred 43+/-12 months after HT. Results suggest that 1) lifestyle before HT may positively affect posttransplantation PWC, 2) exercise capacity was not limited by chronotropic incompetence, and 3) a more aggressive approach to HT recovery could be applied to HTR with similar activity histories.

  1. Autoantibodies against oxidized LDL and serum total antioxidant status in active cyclists and ex-cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Unzueta, M T; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, J B; de Mier, I; Amado, J A; Berrazueta, J R

    2003-09-01

    There is an apparent paradox between the benefits of aerobic exercise and the potentially deleterious effects of increased free radicals and decreased circulating antioxidants generated during exercise. To assess the oxidative/antioxidative status in competitive cyclists and ex-cyclists, we measured two markers not well studied in these situations, serum total antioxidant status (TAS) and antibodies against oxidized LDL (AuAb-ox-LDL) in 18 competitive male cyclists, 10 ex-competitive cyclists and 14 healthy males. AuAb-ox-LDL was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay, and serum TAS concentration was analyzed by spectrophotometry. Ex-cyclists had serum TAS levels statistically higher than the control group and cyclists group (p = 0.001 and p cyclists to have lower AuAb-ox-LDL than the corresponding control group. AuAb-ox-LDL levels were not statistically different between the groups of active and previously active sporting men. There was a positive correlation between TAS and LDL-cholesterol in active cyclists under heavy training. In the ex-cyclist group, there was a negative correlation between serum TAS and the time elapsed since they had ended the competition. Competitive cycling decreases AuAb-ox-LDL levels, suggesting that it may decrease ox-LDL levels. After ending physical training, antioxidative status remains increased for at least one year, but the effect on AuAb-ox-LDL levels is lost.

  2. The effects of cyclists present at rural intersections on speed behavior and workload of car drivers : A driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.; Hogema, J.; Hagenzieker, M.; Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Methods: An experiment was conducted in a moving-base driving simulator. Thirty participants completed 3 runs each in 3 conditions: a baseline, a plateau, and a chicane condition. Participants drove an 80 km/h rural distributor road with 8 intersections. Eight cyclist scenarios were developed

  3. Overview of main accident parameters in car-to-cyclist accidents for use in AEB-system test protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    The number of fatalities in road traffic accidents in Europe is decreasing. Unfortunately, the number of fatalities among cyclists does not follow this trend with the same rate [1]. The au-tomotive industry is making a significant effort in the development and implementation of safety systems in

  4. Cyclist's nodule: no smooth ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Adam; Thway, Khin; Messiou, Christina; Smith, Myles

    2016-03-10

    A fit and active amateur cyclist was referred by his general practitioner to a surgical oncology outpatient clinic with a slowly-growing perineal mass. Following clinical examination, the patient underwent imaging and biopsy at a tertiary soft tissue tumour centre, which diagnosed perineal nodular induration: a rare, benign tumour caused by repetitive trauma associated with 'saddle sports' such as cycling or horse riding. It is important to consider soft tissue tumours in patients who present with 'lumps and bumps'; they can occur anywhere in the body including the groin or perineum, where it is sometimes referred to as a 'third' or 'accessory' testicle in men. Although unusual, the case emphasises the importance of rapid specialist referral from primary care, and consideration of a patient's occupation and hobbies when formulating diagnoses. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Helmet use among competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, C W; Earp, J A; Reese, R P

    1991-01-01

    The United States Cycling Federation (USCF) decision in 1986 to mandate helmet use in all sponsored races marked a major initiative in cycling safety. Confirming earlier reports about the effectiveness of helmets in preventing injuries, this study also examines the attitudes of 554 USCF members toward the policy and about helmet use in both racing and nonracing situations. Although 64% of the racers reported some hardshell helmet use in training before the policy, 80% used helmets in training after the ruling. Most cyclists favored the USCF policy, although only 19% favored requiring helmet use in all cycling situations. Attitudes about helmet policy and actual use by racers were inconsistent; large percentages of those opposing mandatory helmet use in racing (51%) and in training (76%) used helmets themselves. We suggest possibilities for incremental expansion of helmet use requirements for all riders.

  6. Bicycles’ Role in Road Accidents a Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levulytė Loreta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 1.3 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day. In 2013 in the European Union more than 6 % of all who died in road traffic crashes were cyclists. The number of cyclist killed on roads in the EU has decreased by only 9 %, compared to the total fatality decrease of 18 % from 2010 to 2013. The majority of cyclist fatalities are males (78 %. For the larger countries, Belgium and The Netherlands had the highest proportion of female cyclist fatalities (> 30 %. In general, 55 % of the bicycle fatalities in the EU countries were killed inside urban areas but there are large differences between the countries. In the last couple of years there has been an enormous effort on reduction in cycling fatality numbers across almost all ages in the EU. As a result of this effort, the number of accidents started to slightly decrease.

  7. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists.

  8. Cyclist target and test setup for the evaluation of cyclist-autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van; Uittenbogaard, J.; Welten, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    From 2018, AEB systems dedicated to avoid or mitigate passenger car-to-cyclist collisions will be considered in the safety assessment by Euro NCAP. To test such systems, appropriate equipment has been developed in the project CATS “Cyclist-AEB Testing System.” Moreover, the project dealt with

  9. Specification of a cyclist target and test setup for the evaluation of Cyclist-AEB systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, S. van; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Fritz, M.; Wimmer, T.

    2015-01-01

    From 2018, AEB systems dedicated to avoid or mitigate car-to-cyclist collisions will be included in the safety assessment by Euro NCAP [1] & [2]. To test such systems, appropriate equipment and a test procedure are being developed in the project CATS (Cyclist-AES Testing System). Accidentology was

  10. Hazard perception in young cyclists and adult cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuwts, Linus H R H; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2017-08-01

    Child bicyclists are at greater risk to get involved in a traffic accident. Although hazard perception tests between inexperienced and experienced car drivers revealed significant differences in perceptual-cognitive skills, a similar test for bicyclists is not yet existent. Therefore this study aimed to compare visual search patterns and reaction times of child bicyclists and adult bicyclists utilizing a hazard perception test for cyclists. Seventy-five children and forty-one adults were presented with eleven video clips filmed from the perspective of the bicyclist. The participants were required to press a response button whenever they detected a hazardous situation. Children were found to have significantly delayed reaction times and time until the first fixation on the latent covert hazards compared to adults. The inefficient visual search patterns in children may be attributed to an immature visual system. However, the finding that children fixated later on the hazards and only responded to the covert latent hazards when they became salient indicate difficulties with identifying possible hazards. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that children's situation awareness is dependent upon experience too, and not just maturation. Therefore, implications for training young bicyclists will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SOFIE, a bicycle that supports older cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, R; Baten, C; Buurke, J H; Rietman, J S

    2017-08-01

    Older cyclists remain at high risk of sustaining an injury after a fall with their bicycle. A growing awareness for the need and possibilities to support safety of older cyclists has been leading to bicycle design ideas. However, the effectiveness and acceptance of such designs has not been studied yet. This study aims to analyse the effect of 3 support systems: an automatic adjustable saddle height, optimised frame and wheel geometry and drive-off assistance. The support systems are integrated on the SOFIE bicycle, a prototype bicycle designed to support older cyclists during (dis-)mounting and at lower cycling speeds. Nine older cyclists (65-80 years) were asked to cycle on a 'normal' and on the 'SOFIE' bicycle. They cycled on a parking lot to avoid interaction with traffic. The following tasks were analysed: cycling at comfortable and low speed avoiding an obstacle and (dis-)mounting the bicycle. Bicycle and cyclist motions were recorded with 10 Inertial Measurement Units and by 2 video cameras. FUSION software (LABVIEW) was used to assess kinematic parameters. First, a subjective analysis of the different cycling tasks was made, supported by video analysis. Second, differences in cyclist and bicycle kinematic parameters between the normal and SOFIE bicycle were studied for the various cycling tasks. The SOFIE bicycle was experienced as a 'supportive' and comfortable bicycle and objectively performed 'safer' on various cycling tasks. For example: The optimised frame geometry with low step-in enabled a faster (dis-)mounting time and less sternum roll angle and angular acceleration. The adjustable saddle height enabled the participants to keep both feet on the ground till they started cycling with the 'drive-off' support. The latter reduces steering activity: maximum steer angle and angular acceleration. During sudden obstacle avoidance, less upper body and thigh accelerations are recorded. In conclusion, the SOFIE bicycle was able to support older cyclists during

  12. Cyclist deceleration rate as surrogate safety measure in Montreal using smartphone GPS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jillian; Zangenehpour, Sohail; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Saunier, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Urban areas in North American cities with positive trends in bicycle usage also witness a high number of cyclist injuries every year. Previous cyclist safety studies based on the traditional approach, which relies on historical crash data, are known to have some limitations such as the fact that crashes need to happen (a reactive approach). This paper explores the use of GPS deceleration events as a surrogate-proactive measure and investigates the relationship between reported cyclist road injuries and deceleration events. The surrogate safety measure is defined based on deceleration values representing hard breaking situations. This work uses a large sample of GPS cyclist trip data from a smartphone application to extract deceleration rates at intersections and along segments and to explore its relationship with the number of observed injuries and validate deceleration rate (DR) as a surrogate safety measure. Using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, we compared the ranking of sites based on the expected number of injuries and based on DR. The ranks of expected injuries and dangerous decelerations were found to have a correlation of 0.60 at signalized intersections, 0.53 at non-signalized intersections and 0.57 at segments. Despite the promising results of this study, more granular data and validation work needs to be done to improve the reliability of the measures. The technological limitations and future work are discussed at the end of the paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Navigating Academia: Developing a Road Map for a Professional Journey for Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Ravizza, Dean M.; Muller, Susan M.; Satern, Miriam N.

    2017-01-01

    Physical education teacher education programs provide teacher candidates with the knowledge, skills and dispositions required to impact student learning. Over the course of a long and successful career, however, quality physical education teachers must continue to adapt to the changing demands of their profession. The professional growth that…

  14. Sun, heat, and cold injuries in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helzer-Julin, M

    1994-01-01

    Cyclists are vulnerable to weather and commonly experience problems as they relate to extremes in both heat and cold. Educating cyclists on prevention of sunburn, dehydration, heat illness, hypothermia, and frostbite is the key. Limited sun exposure and proper use of sunscreens are the mainstay of treatment for prevention of sunburn. Adequate fluid and electrolyte replacement is necessary to avoid problems with dehydration and heat illness. Wind- and water-resistant clothing is recommended to protect against hypothermia and frostbite. Adequate training and acclimatization are, of course, recommended to all recreational and competitive riders for safe cycling.

  15. E-learning on the road: online learning and social media for continuing professional competency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Batt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The impact of social media and online learning in health professions education has previously shown generally positive results in medical, nursing and pharmacy students. To date there has not been any extensive research into social media and online learning use by prehospital health care professionals such as paramedics. Aim & Methods We sought to identify the extent to which Irish pre-hospital practitioners make use of online learning and social media for continuous professional competency (CPC, and the means by which they do so. A cross-sectional online survey of practitioners was conducted to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The release of the survey was in a controlled manner to PHECC registrants via various channels. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Results A total of 248 respondents completed the survey in full by closing date of 31 March 2015, representing 5.4% of all registrants (n=4,555. 77% of respondents were male, and the majority were registered as Emergency Medical Technicians (49%, followed by Advanced Paramedics (26%. Over 78% of respondents used a mobile device in the course of their clinical duties; the majority used an iOS device. Social media and online learning were considered learning tools by over 75% of respondents, and over 74% agreed they should be further incorporated into prehospital education. The most popular platforms for CPC activities were YouTube and Facebook. The majority of respondents (88% viewed self-directed activities to constitute continuous professional development activity, but 64% felt that an activity that resulted in the awarding of a certificate was better value. Over 90% of respondents had previous experience with online learning, but only 42% indicated they had previously purchased or paid for online learning. Conclusion Prehospital practitioners in Ireland in the population studied consider online learning and social media acceptable for CPC purposes. The main

  16. The Oncology Nursing Society Leadership Competency project: developing a road map to professional excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Donald D; Hand, Mikel W; Jones, Ann R; Harrington, Nancy Kay; Best, Robyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B

    2014-08-01

    Combining the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's report on the future of nursing, an Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) leadership think tank, and current evidence, the ONS Leadership Competencies were developed to provide all nurses with a pathway to advance their leadership skills and abilities. Generated through a systematic approach of literature review, data synthesis, and peer and expert review, the ONS Leadership Competencies are divided into five domains: vision, knowledge, interpersonal effectiveness, systems thinking, and personal mastery. Each of the competencies can be measured at the individual, group, and governance levels. They serve as a means of self-assessment, growth, future planning, and professional development. This article describes the process used to develop the ONS Leadership Competencies and offers examples of how they may be used in practice.

  17. How do Mountain Bikers and Road Cyclists differ? | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited research has focused on different types of cycling events and how these participants differ in terms of their socio-economic and behavioural profiles. This research attempts to fill the gap in the literature regarding the travel motives of participants in cycling events. A sample from the participants at two different cycling ...

  18. Safety concepts for the design of transport and traffic facilities for pedestrians, cyclists, children and disabled in urban areas. Contribution to the 5th National Congress on Traffic Safety, Barcelona, Spain, November 24-26, 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1982-01-01

    The "vulnerable" road users, pedestrians, cyclists, children and disabled in urban -areas mainly are victims of motorised traffic. The intensity and speed of this motorized traffic are the main agents for the unsafety of the "vulnerable" road users. Safety concepts for urban areas should be directed

  19. CYCLISTS TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ON ROUNDABOUT (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena BELIKOVA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth of motorization level leads to the necessity of crossroads modernization and this is reflected in the other movement participants. This article discusses and compares the methods of cyclists traffic management on roundabout in terms of security, efficiency of implementation, simplicity of organization and cost.

  20. Changes in blood values in elite cyclist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkeberg, J S; Belhage, B; Damsgaard, R

    2009-01-01

    samples were obtained from 28 elite, male cyclists. Blood was analyzed for hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and % reticulocytes. Seventy-six percent of all samples were collected out-of-competition (OOC). From December 2006 to September 2007, the average Hct and [Hb] decreased by 4...

  1. Aerodynamics of cyclist posture, bicycle and helmet characteristics in time trial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.

  2. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch

  3. Is the pedestrian an endangered group of road users? A descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Pedestrians are vulnerable to injury in road traffic crashes and are bearing the brunt of these injuries. There is need to educate pedestrians on essentials of safety on the roads. Motorists and cyclists should also be sensitised on respect for other road users. There is a need for pedestrian walkways to reduce ...

  4. A Spatial Analysis of Land Use and Network Effects on Frequency and Severity of Cyclist-Motorist Crashes in the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    paths where the number of conflicts and the stress for sharing the road are highly reduced and how thinking about road design should extend to the general level and include a discourse about safer intersections. Last, attention should be given to the road design in the city center and to traffic...... in cycling market shares. The current study proposes the first joint model of frequency and severity of cyclist-motorist collisions with the aim of unraveling the factors contributing to both the probability of being involved in a crash and, conditional on the crash occurrence, experiencing a severe injury...... outcome.Method: A multivariate Poisson-lognormal model with correlated autoregressive priors was estimated on a sample of 5,349 cyclist-motorist crashes that occurred in the Copenhagen region between 2009 and 2013. The model considered the links of the road network in the region as the unit of observation...

  5. Victims of road rage: a qualitative study of the experiences of motorists and vulnerable road users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavacuiti, Christopher; Ala-Leppilampi, Kari Juhani; Mann, Robert E; Govoni, Richard; Stoduto, Gina; Smart, Reginald; Locke, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of road rage incidents from the victims' perspectives. The data consisted of 30- to 60-min in-depth semistructured phone interviews with 29 self-identified victims of road rage. Twenty of the participants were in a motor vehicle, whereas 9 were pedestrians/cyclists. A qualitative Grounded Theory approach was used to inductively code and analyze the transcripts. Victims reported a correlation between their vulnerability and the perceived intensity/severity of the road rage incidents. The most vulnerable victims (pedestrians and cyclists) were the least likely to view road rage incidents as a random event and the most likely to feel that they were specifically targeted. Road rage incidents tended to evolve more rapidly when there was a greater real or perceived power imbalance between the victims and perpetrators. The most vulnerable victims were the most likely to have long-term physical and mental health consequences from the incident, and to significantly modify their behavior after the incident. Our analysis suggests that issues of victim vulnerability play a major role in determining the intensity, severity, and psychological consequences of road rage incidents. This seems particularly true for the most vulnerable of road users, such as pedestrians and cyclists.

  6. Characteristics of cyclist crashes in Italy using latent class analysis and association rule mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Prati

    Full Text Available The factors associated with severity of the bicycle crashes may differ across different bicycle crash patterns. Therefore, it is important to identify distinct bicycle crash patterns with homogeneous attributes. The current study aimed at identifying subgroups of bicycle crashes in Italy and analyzing separately the different bicycle crash types. The present study focused on bicycle crashes that occurred in Italy during the period between 2011 and 2013. We analyzed categorical indicators corresponding to the characteristics of infrastructure (road type, road signage, and location type, road user (i.e., opponent vehicle and cyclist's maneuver, type of collision, age and gender of the cyclist, vehicle (type of opponent vehicle, and the environmental and time period variables (time of the day, day of the week, season, pavement condition, and weather. To identify homogenous subgroups of bicycle crashes, we used latent class analysis. Using latent class analysis, the bicycle crash data set was segmented into 19 classes, which represents 19 different bicycle crash types. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between class membership and severity of the bicycle crashes. Finally, association rules were conducted for each of the latent classes to uncover the factors associated with an increased likelihood of severity. Association rules highlighted different crash characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of severity for each of the 19 bicycle crash types.

  7. Relationship between %HRmax, %HR reserve, %VO2max, and %VO2 reserve in elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounana, Joseph; Campion, Frederic; Noakes, Timothy D; Medelli, Jean

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the relations between %HRmax, %HRR, %VO2max, and %VO2R in elite cyclists and to check whether the intensity scale recommended by ACSM in its 1998 position stand is also applicable to this specific population. Twenty-six male elite road cyclists (25.1 +/- 0.7 yr, 71.0 +/- 1.2 kg, 70.9 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), 433.9 +/- 9.8 W) performed an incremental maximal exercise test (50 W x 3 min(-1)). Individual linear regressions based on HR and VO2 values measured at rest, end of each stage, and maximum, were used to calculate slopes and intercepts, and to predict %HRmax, %HRR, %VO2max, or %VO2R for a given exercise intensity. Below 85% VO2max or VO2R, predicted %HRmax values were significantly higher (P VO2max, and 48, 61, 74% vs 35, 55, and 70% HRmax at 20, 40, and 60% VO2R). The %HRR versus %VO2max regression mean slope (1.069 +/- 0.01) and intercept (-5.747 +/- 0.80) were significantly different (P VO2max was equivalent to %HRR at and above 75%HRR, and it was significantly higher at (P VO2max. Thus, elite cyclists should use %HRR in relation to %VO2R rather than in relation to %VO2max.

  8. Model of cyclist accident characteristics in the city of Malang and Blitar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, M. Z.; Agustin, I. W.

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of bicycles as an environmentally friendly mode of transportation is reconcerned as the development of sustainable transportation programs. The use of bicycles in some developed countries such as the Netherlands is 27 per cent of total travel, while for developing countries such as Indonesia, cyclists are less than 1% of total travel with low educated characteristics (65 per cent) and low income (48 per cent). Cyclist reduces dependencies on petroleum and environmental pollution as well as lessen the occurrence of congestion and traffic accidents involving motor vehicles. It was necessary to know the behavior and interaction of bicycle riders with other vehicle users in a heterogeneous traffic flow. The main purpose of the research is to create a model of bicycle accidents to increase the road traffic safety in Malang city and Blitar city. The research used analyses of frequency, the road’s level of service, and multiple linear regression. The results showed that there was a need for a development basis of a special lane for bicycle. It aims to reduce the level and number of cyclist accidents and to achieve transportation safety as well as to raise public awareness in traffic safety.

  9. Pulse oximeter for cyclists in smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L.; Gaidos, O.; dos Santos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of cyclists during physical activity is an important factor to improve their performance. We discuss a new approaches based on smartphone for monitoring physiological signal wirelessly for cyclists, using a pulse oximeter sensor attached to the rider's forehead. This paper presents a wireless pulse Oximeter that was developed with a Nellcor's module, which uses the Standard Host Interface Protocol (SHIP) for communication with the Bluetooth module and sends data for a Smartphone with Android O.S. Then these data are shown in the screen: the heartbeat and saturation percentage. The application was created with App Inventor and the data are sent to Google Maps via Twitter. The results demonstrate the possibility of developing a successful prototype.

  10. SAVECAP: cyclist and pedestrian protection, from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Verweij, R.; Mathevon, V.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands, annually 185 cyclists and 70 pedestrians are killed in traffic accidents, half of which due to an accident with a passenger car. The project SaveCAP runs a Sensor Field Test on vehicle safety systems designed to protect cyclists and pedestrians, either by avoiding an accident or

  11. A case of cyclist's nodule in a female patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ere are few reported cases of cyclist's nodule in females. e condition has thus lent itself to synonyms such as third, supernumerary or accessory testicle. We report the imaging ndings of a perineal nodule in a 29-year-old female patient who is a known cyclist, and discuss the differential diagnosis. S Afr J SM 2014 ...

  12. New functional pavements for pedestrians and cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallqvist, V; Kjell, G; Cupina, E; Kraft, L; Deck, C; Willinger, R

    2017-08-01

    When many fields of pedestrian and cyclist safety have been extensively studied, the surfacing has long been left unquestioned, despite being developed for another mode of transport and being one of the main causes for falls and fall injuries. In this project new surfacing materials for pedestrian and cyclist safety have been produced. Focusing on augmenting previously largely disregarded parameters as impact absorption, comfort and visibility at the same time as avoiding deteriorating of crucial parameters as friction and wear resistance. Rubber content, binder type, and pigment addition have been varied and evaluated. The results demonstrate that by increasing rubber content of the mixtures the head injury criterion (HIC) value and injury risk can be decreased while maintaining frictional properties according to existing criteria. Assembly of test-lanes demonstrate that some developed materials experience lower flow and component separation than standard materials due to rubber addition, calling for further optimisation of construction procedure linked to content development. Initial trials on the test-lanes indicate that a polyurethane (PU) based material has high cycling comfort, visibility and can be modified with phosphorescence properties. For standard asphalt, impact absorption might be inflicted by modification of bitumen alone but is mostly augmented by rubber addition. The results also indicate that rubber content can decrease ice formation on the materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of a simulated grand tour on sleep, mood, and well-being of competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastella, M; Roach, G D; Halson, S L; Martin, D T; West, N P; Sargent, C

    2015-12-01

    Professional cycling is considered one of the most demanding of all endurance sports. The three major professional cycling stages races (i.e. Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and Vuelta a España) require cyclists to compete daily covering between ~150-200 km for three consecutive weeks. Anecdotal evidence indicates that such an event has a significant effect on the sleep, mood, and general well-being of cyclists, particularly during the latter stages of the event. The primary aim of this study was to simulate a grand tour and determine the impact a grand tour has on the sleep, mood, and general well-being of competitive cyclists. Twenty-one male cyclists (M±SD, age 22.2±2.7 years) were examined for 39 days across three phases (i.e. baseline, simulated grand tour, and recovery). Sleep was assessed using sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mood and general well-being were assessed using the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). The amount and quality of sleep as assessed by the wrist activity monitors declined during the simulated grand tour. In contrast, self-reported sleep quality improved throughout the study. Cyclists' mood and general well-being as indicated by vigour, motivation, physical and mental state declined during the simulated tour. Future investigations should examine sleep, mood and well-being during an actual grand tour. Such data could prove instrumental toward understanding the sleep and psychological changes that occur during a grand tour.

  14. Safety aspects of the bicycle traffic and the needs of cyclists in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were: to determine the possibility of forecasting for the preferences of cycling on the basis of all relevant factors Zagreb cycling (1 and to determine the differences between the participants in all the relevant factors in Zagreb cycling, by gender, in relation to membership in the Association "Trad Union of bicyclists", type of cycling and part of the city where cyclists live (2. Over 3000 members of the Association and cyclists who are not members of the Association ("average" cyclist are tested, using conveniently assembled questionnaire. It turned out that latent dimensions of the sub-questionnaires well represented themes: barriers to cycling, the role of the City in bicycle traffic, the purpose of using bicycle accident during bicycle traffic. People who are more inclined to participate in city traffic riding, often believe that the City should significantly improve conditions for cycling, tend to safer driving and more negative estimate lack of road cycling conditions in Zagreb. Women and members of the Union of cyclists often feel that the City should improve conditions for cycling and negatively evaluate the existing conditions of cycling, more often use the bike for different purposes and had frequent accidents bicycle. In the northern part of the city, Samobor, Zaprešić and Sesvete, Dugo Selo and Ivanja Reka participants were assessed to have the most adverse road conditions for cycling, while the wider center of Zagreb currently has the most favorable conditions for cycling. The results provide the guidance for improving the safety of the cycling in Zagreb and its surrounding, for taking constructive social actions at the state level and on the local-community level, as well as in the broader context of sustainable development.

  15. An epidemiological analysis of overuse injuries among recreational cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, C A; Holland, G J; Madison, R E; Loy, S F

    1995-04-01

    Two-hundred and ninety-four male and 224 female randomly selected recreational cyclists responded to a mail questionnaire. Significant differences were observed between male and female cyclists' training characteristics. Overall, 85% of the cyclists reported one or more overuse injury, with 36% requiring medical treatment. The most common anatomical sites for overuse injury/complaints reported by the male and female cyclists combined were the neck (48.8%), followed by the knees (41.7%), groin/buttocks (36.1%), hands (31.1%), and back (30.3%). For the male cyclists, effect upon back and groin/buttocks overuse injuries/complaints were miles/week, lower number of gears, and less years of cycling. For female cyclists, training characteristics which had the most significant effect upon groin/buttocks overuse injury/complaints were more non-competitive events/year and less stretching before cycling. The odds of female cyclists developing neck and shoulder overuse injury/complaints were 1.5 and 2.0 times more, respectively than their male counterparts.

  16. Integration of vulnerable road users in cooperative ITS systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J.; Sambeek, M. van; Moerman, K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper describes the development of an architecture for the integration of Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs), i.e. pedestrians, cyclists and powered two-wheelers (PTWs) in Cooperative ITS (C-ITS) systems, and the requirements for VRU devices. Methods: This paper starts with a literature

  17. Urban Traffic Congestion and Its Attendant Health Effects on Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two sets of questionnaires weredesigned for this research. One set for members of the National Union ofRoad Transport Workers (NURTW) within the study area, (100). Another setof questionnaires were randomly administered on other categories of roadusers (pedestrians, motor cyclist and passengers) within the study ...

  18. Exploring characteristics and motives of long distance commuter cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2014-01-01

    , commuter cyclists (>5 km from home to work) have more mobility options, higher incomes, and a longer education than other commuter cyclists. The main motive for longer distance cycling is physical exercise, followed by reduced costs and time used for traveling. The long distance commuter cyclists surveyed...... are very positive about their commute - pointing to positive experiences, better mood, and stress relief as experiences related to their cycle trip to work. Policy support should devote attention to unlocking the potential that may be embedded in individuals combining their exercise and travel time...

  19. The Incidence of Sports Injuries amang Competitive High School Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    武田, 美紀; 中川, 武夫; Miki, TAKEDA; Takeo, Nakagawa; 中京大学

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to obtain information the occurrence of cycling injuries in high school cyclists. Questionnaires were mailed out to 28 teams, a total of 271 competitive cyclists (257 male and 14 female). The response rate was 85.0%. The main results were as follows : 1) The injury rate among all cyclists was 73.8%, with such injuries as abrasion (60.5%), bruises (38.4%), cutting (20.5%), sprain (11.4%) and fracture (10.3%). The most common injured parts of the body were the elbo...

  20. Road safety: take it seriously

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it!   Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...

  1. Nutrient intake of an ultraendurance cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, A K

    1991-03-01

    Meeting the energy demands of ultraendurance cycling requires careful planning and monitoring of food and fluid intake. This case study presents the nutrient intake of a cyclist while training for and competing in the Race Across AMerica (RAAM). Carbohydrate accounted for 65% of the calories consumed during training (4,743 kcal), 75% during 24-hr races (10,343 kcal), and 78% during RAAM (8,429 kcal). Gastrointestinal complaints during RAAM included nausea, feeling of fullness, and abdominal distension. Although probably exacerbated by sleep deprivation, these problems were all diet related. Based on this experience, it appears that by controlling the carbohydrate concentration of beverages, limiting dietary fiber, and relying on carbohydrate as the primary energy source, one could both control gastrointestinal symptoms and promote optimal performance in training and in ultramarathon cycling.

  2. Increasing child pedestrian and cyclist visibility: cluster randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C A Mulvaney; D Kendrick; M C Watson; C A C Coupland

    2006-01-01

    Study objective: Visibility aids have the potential to reduce child pedestrian and cyclist injury but scarce data exist relating to their use or to interventions for increasing visibility aid use among children...

  3. The Surveillance of Racing Cyclists in Training: A Bourdieusian Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anthony Rees; Tom Gibbons; Kevin Dixon

    2013-01-01

    ... surveillance' which pervades the subculture of racing cyclists in training. Extracts from field notes and photographs from group training rides are used to reveal how social order is governed via this type of surveillance...

  4. Pedestrians and cyclists interaction in urban settings of Pardubice city

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Bulíček; Pavlína Brožová; Ivo Hruban; Matúš Šucha

    2014-01-01

    Presented paper is focused on questions of cyclist transport in urban settings, specifically in the city of Pardubice. Emphasis is put on analysis of potentially conflict places, especially in interaction with pedestrians. Direct terrain observation and consequent evaluation of conflict potential are used as method for data collecting. When cycling routes are designed, the requirements of the cyclists should be taken into account in order to ensure that the routes are accepted. In order to ma...

  5. Evaluation of body position of competitive and recreational cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Pivetta Carpes; Julio Francisco Kleinpaul; Frederico Dagnese; Elisandro de Assis Martins; Carlos Bolli Mota

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the body position when cycling of cyclists of different levels. The subjects were classifi ed as athletes (competitive) or non-athletes (recreational). A total of 36 recreational (n=17) competitive (n=19) cyclists were evaluated in their own bicycles. The body position assessment was carried out using a protocol that is well-recognized in the literature. The results demonstrated misalignment in the body positioning of 82% of the recreat...

  6. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  7. Effect of concurrent resistance and sprint training on body composition and cardiometabolic health indicators in masters cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, Luke; Reaburn, Peter; Trapp, Gail; Korhonen, Marko T

    2016-10-01

    In older previously sedentary individuals endurance training imposes a more effective stimulus to enhance cardiometabolic health compared with resistance or sprint training. We examined the effect of replacing a portion of endurance training with combined resistance and/or sprint training and how this influences cardiometabolic health indicators in masters endurance cyclists. Twenty-seven well-trained male road cyclists (53.7±8.2 years) were allocated to a resistance and track sprint-cycling training group (RTC, n=10), an endurance and track sprint-cycling group (ETC, n=7) or a control endurance group (CTRL, n=10). Both the RTC and ETC groups completed a 12-week intervention of specific training while the CTRL group maintained their endurance training load. Lower limb lean mass (LLM), trunk fat mass (TFM), fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured before and after the intervention period. TFM decreased for all groups (Ptraining with 12 weeks of ETC or RTC training favourably affects body composition by lowering TFM and increasing LLM without negatively affecting cardiometabolic health indicators in well-trained masters endurance cyclists.

  8. Injured professional drivers in Poland - an analysis of the causes and effects in relation to the time of the road accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzewicz, Krystyna; Konarska, Maria; Łuczak, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to present the results of an analysis of road accidents in professional drivers in Poland, from the point of view of their age, tenure, accident causes and effects in relation to the time of the accidents they were involved in. Data were obtained from a database of the Central Statistical Office. Accidents recorded in statistical accident cards from 6 consecutive years were analysed. The overall number of injured professional drivers generally decreased over the 6 years, except for the last year of the period when the tendency to fatal and severe accidents between 23:00 and 6:59 increased. The highest percentage of fatal and severe accidents was found between 23:00 and 6:59 and was caused by medical emergencies and unsafe behaviour. The tenure of 70.89% of the injured drivers was under 10 years. Drivers who had worked for over 20 years had fewest injuries between 23:00 and 6:59. The results of the analysis may be used in changing work schedules to reduce the accident risk of the occupational groups at greatest risk.

  9. Exercise-induced acute renal failure in a trainee cyclist without hypouricemia: Successful athletic career post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoko; Takaori, Koji; Maeda, Sayako

    2017-12-01

    Acute renal failure with severe loin pain and patchy renal ischemia after anaerobic exercise (ALPE) is exercise-induced acute renal failure that occurs without myoglobinuria. We describe a typical case involving an 18-year-old man. Generally, patients with ALPE are advised to avoid anaerobic exercise due to risk of recurrence, but our patient continued and went on to become a professional cyclist without relapse. About 51% of ALPE cases involve patients with renal hypouricemia. His serum uric acid levels were rather high, at 6.4 mg/dL. He is the first patient with ALPE to succeed as a professional athlete in an anaerobic sport.

  10. Evaluation of body position of competitive and recreational cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pivetta Carpes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate and to compare the body position when cycling of cyclists of different levels. The subjects were classifi ed as athletes (competitive or non-athletes (recreational. A total of 36 recreational (n=17 competitive (n=19 cyclists were evaluated in their own bicycles. The body position assessment was carried out using a protocol that is well-recognized in the literature. The results demonstrated misalignment in the body positioning of 82% of the recreational cyclists evaluated, and 74% of the competitive cyclists evaluated. Saddle maladjustments were found to be the most common misalignments, related to both horizontal and vertical positioning of the saddle (observed in 82% of recreational cyclists and 79% of the competitive cyclists. Handlebar height was the second most common misaligned bicycle adjustment observed (observed in 12% of the recreational cyclists and 5% of the competitive cyclists. Based on the results obtained from the assessment of cyclists’ positioning, it was observed that the recreational cyclists are more susceptible to misalignments in body position during cycling; a situation that could indicate injuries in the future. These results can be explained by the different amount of time spent in the addle by the two groups due to their different objectives. RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar e comparar o posicionamento na bicicleta adotado por ciclistas de diferentes níveis. Os ciclistas avaliados foram classifi cados como competitivos (atletas e recreacionais (não-atletas. Um total de 36 ciclistas entre recreacionais (n=17 e competitivos (n=19 foram avaliados, cada qual na sua própria bicicleta. Para as avaliações foi utilizado um protocolo proposto pela literatura. Os dados foram submetidos à estatística descritiva, indicando ocorrência de desajustes no posicionamento em 82% dos ciclistas recreacionais e em 74% dos ciclistas competitivos avaliados. Para os ajustes no selim

  11. Nonconsecutive- versus consecutive-day high-intensity interval training in cyclists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gross, Micah; Swensen, Thomas; King, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    ...), and 5-km time trial (TT5k) performance in trained cyclists. Fifteen trained cyclists completed a TT5k and an incremental test to exhaustion for VO2peak and PPOa determination before and after training...

  12. Fluid balance of cyclists during a 387-km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine Elizabeth; Skidmore, Paula; Brown, Rachel Claire

    2014-01-01

    Current hydration guidelines are designed to address the fine balance between minimising dehydration while reducing the risk of hyponatremia. During prolonged cycling events small discrepancies between drinking behaviour and fluid requirements may be detrimental to health and performance. The present study aimed to investigate the hydration practices of competitors in a 387 km cycle race in order to evaluate the effect on fluid balance and monitor the prevalence of dysnatremia. Eighteen participants provided blood and urine samples pre- and post-race to measure sodium and fluid balance. Sweat samples were collected via patches for analysis of sodium concentration. Body weight was measured at the start and end of the race. On average participants consumed 0.58 L h(-1) of fluid. Upon completion of the race 7 of the 18 (39%) cyclists had blood sodium concentrations of 135 mmol L(-1) or lower with one cyclist recording a value of 132 mmol L(-1). Only two cyclists appeared to be moderately dehydrated. A post-race questionnaire indicated cyclists were most concerned with preventing dehydration. It appears that cyclists taking part in prolonged endurance events are at more risk of hyponatremia than dehydration and do not readily change their drinking behaviour to match their sweat losses.

  13. Helmet use among cyclists in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Zagnit, Emily A; Rajan, Sonali; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Charles E

    2014-10-01

    Lack of helmet use while bicycling can have deleterious effects on health. Despite evidence that helmets can greatly reduce the risk of head injury, the prevalence of helmet use among riders, including those in urban bicycle-share programs, has been shown to be very low. Building upon the authors' previous work, this study's aim was to assess prevalence of helmet use among cyclists riding on widely used New York City (NYC) bike lanes. Across a 2-month period, cyclists were filmed in five NYC locations with bike lanes. Filming took place at two separate time periods (recreation and commute) at each location. Helmet use was coded for each cyclist. A total of 1,921 riders were observed across 10 h. Overall, half (50.0 %) of all riders were observed wearing a helmet. Rates of using a helmet were consistent across all five locations. In addition, only 21.7 % of Citi Bike users and 15.3 % of other bicycle rentals were observed wearing helmets while cycling. The prevalence of helmet use was significantly higher among males than females (z = 4.48, p < .001). Cyclists observed during the recreational time period were also less likely than those observed during the commuting time period to be wearing a helmet (z = 7.17, p < .001). The results of this study contribute to the growing literature about cyclist helmet use in urban areas.

  14. Classification for Safety-Critical Car-Cyclist Scenarios Using Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cara, I.; Gelder, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    The number of fatal car-cyclist accidents is increasing. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can improve the safety of cyclists, but they need to be tested with realistic safety-critical car-cyclist scenarios. In order to store only relevant scenarios, an online classification algorithm is

  15. The effect of crash characteristics on cyclist injuries: An analysis of Virginia automobile-bicycle crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robartes, Erin; Chen, T Donna

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines bicyclist, automobile driver, vehicle, environmental, and roadway characteristics that influence cyclist injury severity in order to determine which factors should be addressed to mitigate the worst bicyclist injuries. An ordered probit model is used to examine single bicycle-single vehicle crashes from Virginia police crash report data from 2010 to 2014. Five injury severity levels are considered: fatalities, severe injuries, minor or possible injuries, no apparent injuries, and no injury. The results of this study most notably found automobile driver intoxication to increase the probability of a cyclist fatality six fold and double the risk of a severe injury, while bicyclist intoxication increases the probability of a fatality by 36.7% and doubles the probability of severe injury. Additionally, bicycle and automobile speeds, obscured automobile driver vision, specific vehicle body types (SUV, truck, and van), vertical roadway grades and horizontal curves elevate the probability of more severe bicyclist injuries. Model results encourage consideration of methods to reduce the impact of biking and driving while intoxicated such as analysis of bicycling under the influence laws, education of drunk driving impacts on bicyclists, and separation of vehicles and bicycles on the road. Additionally, the results encourage consideration of methods to improve visibility of bicyclists and expectation of their presence on the road. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket on cyclist accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles.......Highlights •A randomised controlled trial with 6793 cyclists shows a reduced accident risk due to a yellow bicycle jacket. •The test group had 47% fewer multiparty accidents with personal injury. •The test group had 55% fewer multiparty accidents against motorised vehicles....

  17. An Unusual Case of Leg Pain in a Competitive Cyclist

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Dror; Agar, Gabriel; Domb, Benjamin Gilbert; Beer, Yiftah; Shub, Idit; Mann, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Cycling has become a popular recreational and competitive sport. The number of people participating in the sport is gradually increasing. Despite being a noncontact, low-impact sport, as many as 85% of athletes engaged in the sport will suffer from an overuse injury, with the lower limbs comprising the majority of these injuries. Up to 20% of all lower extremity overuse injuries in competitive cyclists are of a vascular source. A 39-year-old competitive cyclist had a 5-year history of thigh p...

  18. Endurance Cyclist Fluid Intake, Hydration Status, Thirst, and Thermal Sensations: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Williamson, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    This field investigation assessed differences (e.g., drinking behavior, hydration status, perceptual ratings) between female and male endurance cyclists who completed a 164-km event in a hot environment (35 °C mean dry bulb) to inform rehydration recommendations for athletes. Three years of data were pooled to create 2 groups of cyclists: women (n = 15) and men (n = 88). Women were significantly smaller (p hydration status, but were similar to men in age (43 ± 7 years vs. 44 ± 9 years) and exercise time (7.77 ± 1.24 hr vs. 7.23 ± 1.75 hr). During the 164-km ride, women lost less body mass (-0.7 ± 1.0 vs. -1.7 ± 1.5 kg; -1.1 ± 1.6% vs. -1.9 ± 1.8% of body weight; p hydration indices suggest that professional sports medicine organizations should consider gender and individualized drinking plans when formulating pronouncements regarding rehydration during exercise.

  19. Effects of erythropoietin on cycling performance of well trained cyclists: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Jules A A C; Rotmans, Joris I; Gal, Pim; Stuurman, Frederik E; van 't Westende, Juliëtte; Post, Titiaan E; Daniels, Johannes M A; Moerland, Matthijs; van Veldhoven, Peter L J; de Kam, Marieke L; Ram, Herman; de Hon, Olivier; Posthuma, Jelle J; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Cohen, Adam F

    2017-08-01

    Substances that potentially enhance performance (eg, recombinant human erythropoietin [rHuEPO]) are considered doping and are therefore forbidden in sports; however, the scientific evidence behind doping is frequently weak. We aimed to determine the effects of rHuEPO treatment in well trained cyclists on maximal, submaximal, and race performance and on safety, and to present a model clinical study for doping research on other substances. We did this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at the Centre for Human Drug Research in Leiden (Netherlands). We enrolled healthy, well trained but non-professional male cyclists aged 18-50 years and randomly allocated (1:1) them to receive abdominal subcutaneous injections of rHuEPO (epoetin β; mean dose 6000 IU per week) or placebo (0·9% NaCl) for 8 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by age groups (18-34 years and 35-50 years), with a code generated by a statistician who was not masked to the study. The primary outcome was exercise performance, measured as maximal power output (Pmax), maximal oxygen consumption VO2 max, and gross efficiency in maximal exercise tests with 25 W increments per 5 min, as lactate threshold and ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1) and 2 (VT2) at submaximal levels during the maximal exercise test, and as mean power, VO2, and heart rate in the submaximal exercise tests at the highest mean power output for 45 min in a laboratory setting and in a race to the Mont Ventoux (France) summit, using intention-to-treat analyses. The trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (Nederlands Trial Register), number NTR5643. Between March 7, 2016, and April 13, 2016, we randomly assigned 48 participants to the rHuEPO group (n=24) or the placebo group (n=24). Mean haemoglobin concentration (9·6 mmol/L vs 9·0 mmol/L [estimated difference 0·6, 95% CI 0·4 to 0·8]) and maximal power output (351·55 W vs 341·23 W [10·32, 3·47 to 17·17]), and VO2 max (60·121 mL/min per kg vs 57·415 mL/min per kg

  20. EMG spectral analysis of incremental exercise in cyclists and non-cyclists using Fourier and Wavelet transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vitor da Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p660 The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic indices of fatigue (slope of median frequency calculated with the fast Fourier transform (FFT and wavelet transform (WT in trained and untrained individuals during cycle exercise. A second objective was to compare the variance of the spectral parameters (median frequency - MF obtained by the FFT and WT during exercise. Twelve cyclists and non-cyclists performed a maximal incremental test to determine the peak power (Wp and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis (VL, rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, semitendinous (ST and tibialis anterior (TA. Mean values of median frequency, determined by the FFT and WT, were used for the spectral analysis of the electromyographic signals of the studied muscles. The analyzed parameters were obtained for each time period corresponding to 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of total duration of the maximal incremental test. No statistically significant differences were found in the values of MF and electromyographic indices of fatigue between the two techniques (FT and WT both in the cyclists and non-cyclists group (P>0.05. Regarding the MF variance, statistically significant differences were found in all analyzed muscles, as well as in different time periods, both in the cyclists and non-cyclists groups when comparing the FFT and WT techniques (P<0.05. The WT seems to be more adequate to dynamic tasks, since it does not require the signal to be quasi-stationary, unlike the limitation imposed upon the use of the FFT.

  1. The effects of cyclists present at rural intersections on speed behaviour and workload of car drivers : a driving simulator study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, C.W.A.E. Hogema, J.H. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to gain insight in how the number of cyclists, the cyclist's approach direction and the cyclist's action affect speed and mental workload of drivers approaching rural intersections. Also, the effects of a speed-reducing measure on the interaction between cyclists and motorised

  2. Parental beliefs about supervising children when crossing roads and cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, David W; Lennon, Alexia; Haworth, Narelle

    2011-03-01

    Pedestrian and cyclist injuries are significant public health issues, together accounting for 11-30% of road deaths in highly motorised countries. Children are particularly at risk. In Australia in 2009 11.4% of pedestrian deaths and 6.4% of cyclist deaths comprised children aged 0-16 years. Parental attitudes and level of supervision are important to children's road safety. Results from a telephone survey with parents of children 5-9 years (N = 147) are reported. Questions addressed beliefs about preventability of injury, appropriate ages for children to cross the road or cycle independently and the frequency of holding 5-9 year old children's hands while crossing the road. Results suggest that parents believe most injuries are preventable and that they personally can act to improve their own safety in the home, on the road, at work, as well as in or on the water. Most parents (68%) indicated children should be 10 years or older before crossing the road or cycling independently. Parents were more likely to report holding younger children's hands (5-6 years) when crossing the road and less likely to do so for 7- to 9-year olds. There was a small effect of child gender, with parents more likely to hold a boy's hand than that of a girl.

  3. Cyclist's iliac syndrome: temporary relief by balloon angioplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Wijesinghe, L.; Coughlin, P; Robertson, I; Kessel, D; Kent, P.; Kester, R

    2001-01-01

    External iliac stenosis due to endofibrosis is a rare condition that predominantly affects top level cyclists. Short term symptomatic relief is reported in an Olympian after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, which was performed to allow the patient to return to training without delay.

  4. Cardiac responses to progressive upright exercise in adult male cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, T W; Roti, M W

    2004-06-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that maximal stroke volume is the primary factor which differentiates physiological aerobic fitness (VO2max) in endurance athletes from nonathletes. Understanding the pattern of stroke volume response to progressive exercise may provide insights into the mechanisms which are responsible for this difference. Doppler echocardiography was used to estimate stroke volume changes with maximal upright cycle exercise in 8 highly trained adult cyclists (mean age 30.5+/-1.6 years) and 16 age-matched nontrained males. Ventricular dimensions were measured during exercise using 2-dimensional echocardiography (parastemal long axis view). Findings were compared to a group of untrained adult male subjects. Mean maximal oxygen uptake was 73.7+/-7.0 and 47.4+/-7.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) in the 2 groups, respectively. Stroke volume rose in both the cyclists and nontrained subjects at the onset of exercise but then plateaued without significant change to exhaustion. Values for stroke index were significantly greater at rest and all levels of exercise in the cyclists (maximal 85+/-13 versus 61+/-13 ml x m(-2)). Two dimensional echocardiograms during exercise in the cyclists revealed a small initial rise in left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and then a small decline, while systolic dimension decreased progressively, resulting in a rise in shortening fraction. These findings are consistent with the concept that determinants of stroke volume at rest are most influential in defining differences in maximal stroke volume between athletes and nonathletes.

  5. A Real-Life Based Evaluation Method of Deployable Vulnerable Road User Protection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredriksson, R.; Dahlgren, M.; Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Montfort, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a real-life-based evaluation method, incorporating vulnerable road user (VRU) full-body loading to a vehicle with a deployable protection system in relevant test setups, and use this method to evaluate a prototype pedestrian and cyclist protection

  6. Numerical modeling of ADA system for vulnerable road users protection based on radar and vision sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garate, V.R.; Bours, R.C.H.; Kietlinski, K.

    2012-01-01

    The protection of vulnerable road users (VRU) remains one of the most challenging problems for our society and several governmental and consumer organization has set targets to reduce the VRU fatality and injury rates. The automotive industry is, therefore, developing pedestrian and cyclist

  7. Cyclists' clothing and reduced risk of injury in crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Boufous, Soufiane; Georgeson, Thomas; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca

    2014-12-01

    A majority of cyclists' hospital presentations involve relatively minor soft tissue injuries. This study investigated the role of clothing in reducing the risk of cyclists' injuries in crashes. Adult cyclists were recruited and interviewed through hospital emergency departments in the Australian Capital Territory. This paper focuses on 202 who had crashed in transport related areas. Eligible participants were interviewed and their self-reported injuries corroborated with medical records. The association between clothing worn and injury was examined using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders of injury. A high proportion of participants were wearing helmets (89%) and full cover footwear (93%). Fewer wore long sleeved tops (43%), long pants (33%), full cover gloves (14%) or conspicuity aids (34%). The primary cause of injury for the majority of participants (76%) was impact with the ground. Increased likelihood of arm injuries (Adj. OR=2.06, 95%CI: 1.02-4.18, p=0.05) and leg injuries (Adj. OR=3.37, 95%CI: 1.42-7.96, p=0.01) were associated with wearing short rather than long sleeves and pants. Open footwear was associated with increased risk of foot or ankle injuries (Adj. OR=6.21, 95%CI: 1.58-23.56, p=0.01) compared to enclosed shoes. Bare hands were associated with increased likelihood of cuts, lacerations or abrasion injuries (Adj. OR=4.62, 95%CI: 1.23-17.43, p=0.02) compared to wearing full cover gloves. There were no significant differences by fabric types such as Lycra/synthetic, natural fiber or leather. Clothing that fully covers a cyclist's body substantially reduced the risk of injuries in a crash. Coverage of skin was more important than fabric type. Further work is necessary to determine if targeted campaigns can improve cyclists' clothing choices and whether impact protection can further reduce injury risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phone use by cyclists and pedestrians. [Previously known as: Use of media devices by cyclists and pedestrians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Phone use by cyclists and pedestrians like making calls, texting, surfing the internet, or listening to music,1 carries an increased risk. Operating a touchscreen while cycling is the most dangerous of these activities. At present there is no ban on handheld use of the phone while cycling and the

  9. Ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class cyclists: A three-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Terrados, Nicolás; Burtscher, Martin; Santalla, Alfredo; Naranjo Orellana, José

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this three-year observational study was to analyze the ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class professional cyclists. Twelve athletes (22.61±3.8years; 177.38±5.5cm; 68.96±5.5kg and VO2max 75.51±3.3mLkg(-1)min(-1)) were analyzed retrospectively. For each subject, respiratory and performance variables were recorded during incremental spiroergometry: oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (fR), driving (Vt/Ti), timing (Ti/Ttot), peak power output (PPO) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) was calculated from the beginning of exercise testing to the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). The VE/VCO2 slope was unaffected during the study period (24.63±3.07; 23.61±2:79; 24:89±2:61) with a low effect size (ES=0.04). The PPO improved significantly in the third year (365±33.74; 386.36±32.33; 415.00±24.15) (p<0.05). The breathing pattern variables, Vt/Ti and Ti/Ttot, did not change significantly over the three year period (ES=0.00; ES=0.03 respectively). These findings suggest that changes in cycling performance in world-class professional cyclists do not modify breathing variables related to the control of ventilatory efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Road user behaviour analyses based on video detections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tønning, Charlotte; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann

    2017-01-01

    has been developed. It works as a watchdog – if a passing road user affects defined part(s) of the video frame, RUBA records the time of the activity. It operates with three type of detectors (defined parts of the video frame): 1) if a road user passes the detector independent of the direction, 2......) if a road user passes the area in one pre-adjusted specific direction and 3) if a road user is standing still in the detector area. Also, RUBA can be adjusted so it registers massive entities (e.g. cars) while less massive ones (e.g. cyclists) are not registered. The software has been used for various...... analyses of traffic behaviour: traffic counts with and without removal of different modes of transportation, traffic conflicts, traffic behaviour for specific traffic flows and modes and comparisons of speeds in rebuilt road areas. While there is still space for improvement regarding data treatment speed...

  11. Cross-comparison of three surrogate safety methods to diagnose cyclist safety problems at intersections in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureshyn, Aliaksei; Goede, Maartje de; Saunier, Nicolas; Fyhri, Aslak

    2017-08-01

    Relying on accident records as the main data source for studying cyclists' safety has many drawbacks, such as high degree of under-reporting, the lack of accident details and particularly of information about the interaction processes that led to the accident. It is also an ethical problem as one has to wait for accidents to happen in order to make a statement about cyclists' (un-)safety. In this perspective, the use of surrogate safety measures based on actual observations in traffic is very promising. In this study we used video data from three intersections in Norway that were all independently analysed using three methods: the Swedish traffic conflict technique (Swedish TCT), the Dutch conflict technique (DOCTOR) and the probabilistic surrogate measures of safety (PSMS) technique developed in Canada. The first two methods are based on manual detection and counting of critical events in traffic (traffic conflicts), while the third considers probabilities of multiple trajectories for each interaction and delivers a density map of potential collision points per site. Due to extensive use of microscopic data, PSMS technique relies heavily on automated tracking of the road users in video. Across the three sites, the methods show similarities or are at least "compatible" with the accident records. The two conflict techniques agree quite well for the number, type and location of conflicts, but some differences with no obvious explanation are also found. PSMS reports many more safety-relevant interactions including less severe events. The location of the potential collision points is compatible with what the conflict techniques suggest, but the possibly significant share of false alarms due to inaccurate trajectories extracted from video complicates the comparison. The tested techniques still require enhancement, with respect to better adjustment to analysis of the situations involving cyclists (and vulnerable road users in general) and further validation. However, we

  12. Effects of music tempo on performance, psychological, and physiological variables during 20 km cycling in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of music on trained athletes during high intensity endurance tasks. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different music tempi on performance, psychological, and physiological responses of well-trained cyclists to time trial cycling. 10 male road cyclists (M age = 35 yr., SD = 7), with a minimum of three years racing experience, performed four 20-km time trials on a Computrainer Pro 3D indoor cycle trainer over a period of four weeks. The time-trials were spaced one week apart. The music conditions for each trial were randomised between fast-tempo (140 bpm), medium-tempo (120 bpm), slow-tempo (100 bpm), and no music. Performance (completion time, power output, average speed and cadence), physiological (heart rate, oxygen consumption, breathing frequency and respiratory exchange ratio), psychophysical (RPE), and psychological (mood states) data were collected for each trial. Results indicated no significant changes in performance, physiological, or psychophysical variables. Total mood disturbance and tension increased significantly in the fast-tempo trial when compared with medium and no-music conditions.

  13. Adaptative displays of body constitution in gravity cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Siriški, Damjan; Novotný, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate somatotype, body constitution and motor skills of elite cyclists of technical gravity disciplines (freestyle MTB, biketrial) and downhill gravity disciplines (fourcross, downhill) and to characterize the impact of specific training process on body constitution and level of motor skills. Test group consisted of 30 riders (15 technical gravity disciplines, 15 downhill gravity disciplines). We used Heath-Carter method to define somatotype and Matiegk...

  14. Adaptive displays of body constitution in gravity cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Siriški Damjan; Novotný Jan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate somatotype, body constitution and motor skills of elite cyclists of technical gravity disciplines (freestyle MTB, biketrial) and downhill gravity disciplines (fourcross, downhill) and to characterize the impact of specific training process on body constitution and level of motor skills. Test group consisted of 30 riders (15 technical gravity disciplines, 15 downhill gravity disciplines). We used Heath-Carter method to define somatotype and Matiegk...

  15. Sex Differences in Risk Taking Behavior among Dutch Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly D. Cobey; Freek Laan; Gert Stulp; Abraham P. Buunk; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclists. Through three observational studies we test sex differences in risk taking in situations of financial risk (fines for failing to use bike lights, Study 1), theft risk (bike locking behavior, Stu...

  16. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  17. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general......To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  18. Road factors and bicycle-motor vehicle crashes at unsignalized priority intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J P; Kroeze, P A; Sweers, W; Wüst, J C

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the safety of cyclists at unsignalized priority intersections within built-up areas is investigated. The study focuses on the link between the characteristics of priority intersection design and bicycle-motor vehicle (BMV) crashes. Across 540 intersections that are involved in the study, the police recorded 339 failure-to-yield crashes with cyclists in four years. These BMV crashes are classified into two types based on the movements of the involved motorists and cyclists: • type I: through bicycle related collisions where the cyclist has right of way (i.e. bicycle on the priority road); • type II: through motor vehicle related collisions where the motorist has right of way (i.e. motorist on the priority road). The probability of each crash type was related to its relative flows and to independent variables using negative binomial regression. The results show that more type I crashes occur at intersections with two-way bicycle tracks, well marked, and reddish coloured bicycle crossings. Type I crashes are negatively related to the presence of raised bicycle crossings (e.g. on a speed hump) and other speed reducing measures. The accident probability is also decreased at intersections where the cycle track approaches are deflected between 2 and 5m away from the main carriageway. No significant relationships are found between type II crashes and road factors such as the presence of a raised median. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of lower extremity postures on kinematics and injuries of cyclists in vehicle side collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Daisuke; Han, Yong; Hitosugi, Masahito

    2016-08-17

    A cyclist assumes various cyclic postures of the lower extremities while pushing the pedals in a rotary motion while pedaling. In order to protect cyclists in collisions, it is necessary to understand what influence these postures have on the global kinematics and injuries of the cyclist. Finite element (FE) analyses using models of a cyclist, bicycle, and car were conducted. In the simulations, the Total Human Model of Safety (THUMS) occupant model was employed as a cyclist, and the simulation was set up such that the cyclist was hit from its side by a car. Three representative postures of the lower extremities of the cyclist were examined, and the kinematics and injury risk of the cyclist were compared to those obtained by a pedestrian FE model. The risk of a lower extremity injury was assessed based on the knee shear displacement and the tibia bending moment. When the knee position of the cyclist was higher than the hood leading edge, the hood leading edge contacted the leg of the cyclist, and the pelvis slid over the hood top and the wrap-around distance (WAD) of the cyclist's head was large. The knee was shear loaded by the hood leading edge, and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptured. The tibia bending moment was less than the injury threshold. When the cyclist's knee position was lower than the hood leading edge, the hood leading edge contacted the thigh of the cyclist, and the cyclist rotated with the femur as the pivot point about the hood leading edge. In this case, the head impact location of the cyclist against the car was comparable to that of the pedestrian collision. The knee shear displacement and the tibia bending moment were less than the injury thresholds. The knee height of the cyclist relative to the hood leading edge affected the global kinematics and the head impact location against the car. The loading mode of the lower extremities was also dependent on the initial positions of the lower extremities relative to the car structures. In

  20. Social Influence and Different Types of Red-Light Behaviors among Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraboni, Federico; Marín Puchades, Víctor; De Angelis, Marco; Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Accident analysis and studies on traffic revealed that cyclists' violation of red-light regulation is one typical infringement committed by cyclists. Furthermore, an association between cyclists' crash involvement and red-light violations has been found across different countries. The literature on cyclists' psychosocial determinants of red-light violation is still scarce. The present study, based on the classification of cyclists' red-light behavior in risk-taking (ignoring the red-light and traveling through the junction without stopping), opportunistic (waiting at red-lights but being too impatient to wait for green signal and subsequently crossing the junction), and law-obeying (stopping to obey the red-light), adopted an eye-observational methodology to investigate differences in cyclists' crossing behavior at intersections, in relation to traffic light violations and the presence of other cyclists. Based on the social influence explanatory framework, which states that people tend to behave differently in a given situation taking into consideration similar people's behaviors, and that the effect of social influence is related to the group size, we hypothesized that the number of cyclists at the intersection will have an influence on the cyclists' behavior. Furthermore, cyclists will be more likely to violate in an opportunistic way when other cyclists are already committing a violation. Two researchers at a time registered unobtrusively at four different intersections during morning and late afternoon peak hour traffic, 1381 cyclists approaching the traffic light during the red phase. The 62.9% violated the traffic control. Results showed that a higher number of cyclists waiting at the intersection is associated with fewer risk-taking violations. Nevertheless, the percentage of opportunistic violation remained high. For the condition of no cyclist present, risk-taking behaviors were significantly higher, whereas, they were significantly lower for conditions of

  1. Relationship between physiological indices and aerobic performance tests in short and medium term of elite cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bernardo Sangali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies allow usto verify which physiological responses are associated with performance in anational elite cycling group. Therefore, this study aimed to determine and correlate various physiological and aerobic indices with performance in 4 and 20 km time trials in high-level cyclists. The sample consisted of 14 male professional cyclists of the national elite group (28.5 ± 4.7 years old, 73.47 ± 8.29 kg, 176 ± 6.76cm, who performed a progressive test in laboratory to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 62.23 ± 8.28 ml•kg-1•min-1, intensity relative to VO2max(iVO2max: 500.83 ± 58.65w, movement economy (EM: 0.1166 ± 0.0362 ml•kg•min•w-1, and the first and second ventilatory threshold (LV1: 348.21 ±43.26 w; LV2: 417.86 ± 60.79 w, respectively. They also performed two time trial performance tests of 4 and 20km. For the correlation between physiological indices and trial performance, Pearson correlation coefficient(p< 0.05 was used. No correlation was found between the physiological indices (VO2max absolute and relative, iVO2max, EM, LV1 and LV2 andperformance in 4 km (r= 0.38; 0.16; -0.33; 0.20; -0.50; -0.20, respectivelyand 20 km (r= 0.24; 0.01; -0.13; -0.12; -0.48; -0.19, respectively time trialin high level athletes. These results suggest that these variables are not able to explain the performance in time trials in the respective lengths, probably due to the subjects’ homogeneity.

  2. Road safety: serious injuries remain a major unsolved problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ben; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark C; Judson, Rodney T; Teague, Warwick; Lyons, Ronan A; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2017-09-18

    To investigate temporal trends in the incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and costs of health loss caused by serious road traffic injury. A retrospective review of data from the population-based Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coronial Information System on road traffic-related deaths (pre- and in-hospital) and major trauma (Injury Severity Score > 12) during 2007-2015.Main outcomes and measures: Temporal trends in the incidence of road traffic-related major trauma, mortality, DALYs, and costs of health loss, by road user type. There were 8066 hospitalised road traffic major trauma cases and 2588 road traffic fatalities in Victoria over the 9-year study period. There was no change in the incidence of hospitalised major trauma for motor vehicle occupants (incidence rate ratio [IRR] per year, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.01; P = 0.70), motorcyclists (IRR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P = 0.45) or pedestrians (IRR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.02; P = 0.73), but the incidence for pedal cyclists increased 8% per year (IRR, 1.08; 95% CI; 1.05-1.10; P injuries exceeded $14 billion during 2007-2015, although the cost per patient declined for all road user groups. As serious injury rates have not declined, current road safety targets will be difficult to meet. Greater attention to preventing serious injury is needed, as is further investment in road safety, particularly for pedal cyclists.

  3. Traffic injury mortality trends in children and adolescents in Lithuania among road users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strukcinskiene, Birute; Uğur-Baysal, Serpil; Raistenskis, Juozas

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes traffic mortality trends among road users from 1998 to 2012 in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Lithuania. National mortality data of pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and car occupants were used to compare trend lines. The study revealed that 56% of the deceased in road traffic crashes were car occupants, while 24% were pedestrians. The incidence of death from traffic injury was 2.5 times higher in boys than girls. Traffic injury mortality and pedestrian mortality rates declined significantly in the total group. There was also a significant decline in mortality among cyclists for the total group and female subgroup. Trends in mortality rates among motorcyclists and car occupants showed no significant changes. A long-term decline is more likely to be affected by efforts in the promotion of sustainable and permanent road safety. The reduced risk exposure may also have been influenced by the economic recession.

  4. Design and development of a new right arm prosthetic kit for a racing cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Louis-Philippe; Adam-Côté, Jérôme; Daviault, Stéphane; Salois, Christophe; Laplante-Laberge, Julien; Plante, Jean-Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    This case report describes a newly developed prosthetic arm for a world class trans-humeral amputee cyclist. The proposed solution consists of a new prosthetic kit that was designed to meet requirements of weight, freedom of movement and precise positioning for the disciplines of time-trial, pursuit, road and team sprint. The kit is made of different attachments that can be changed depending on the event the athlete is competing in. The prosthesis is composed of an extended socket made of composite materials, an arm made of aluminum tubes, a universal joint for the junction with the handlebars and different attachments for each bicycle. The system's weight is kept to a minimum using finite element analysis and careful material selection. The universal joint provides the angular degrees of freedom required to allow the athlete to stand up while pedaling, a freedom of movement lost since amputation. In this case report, the athlete's needs are presented and followed by the design of the product using Finite Element modeling. Results are then presented and discussed. This prosthetic kit was used by the athlete for the 2008 Paralympics games in Beijing.

  5. Perceived traffic risk for cyclists: the impact of near miss and collision experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Rebecca L

    2015-02-01

    Though the percentage of people bicycling for transportation rose during the last decade, with an average increase in bicycle commuting of 47% (Flusche, 2012), still only 1% of all U.S. trips are made by bike (Flusche, 2010). Research suggests that people's concern regarding the risk of bicycling near traffic-namely the risk of being hit by a car-remain a significant barrier to widespread cycling. However, research has not disaggregated traffic risk to expose its many aspects and how they may affect bicyclists with differing skill levels, experiences, and behaviors. This study begins to address this gap in our understanding. Elaborating on results from an internet survey, this study examined various aspects of traffic risk among 406 potential and current bicyclists in the San Francisco Bay Area. The data indicate that perceived traffic risk negatively influences the decision to bicycle for potential and occasional bicyclists, although the influence decreases with cycling frequency. Additionally, cycling frequency seems to heighten awareness of traffic risk, particularly for cyclists who have experienced "near misses" or collisions. In particular, near misses were found to be (a) much more common than collisions and (b) more strongly associated than collisions with perceived traffic risk. The findings suggest that efforts targeting road user behaviors and roadway designs associated with these near misses could mitigate perceived and actual traffic risk for bicyclists, and thereby eventually help achieve higher cycling ridership. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Unusual Case of Leg Pain in a Competitive Cyclist: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindner, Dror; Agar, Gabriel; Domb, Benjamin Gilbert; Beer, Yiftah; Shub, Idit; Mann, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    ...% of all lower extremity overuse injuries in competitive cyclists are of a vascular source. A 39-year-old competitive cyclist had a 5-year history of thigh pain during cycling, preventing him from competing...

  7. Walking, cycling and transport safety: an analysis of child road deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, Beth; Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Green, Judith

    2006-08-01

    To examine trends in road death rates for child pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants. Analysis of road traffic injury death rates per 100 000 children and death rates per 10 million passenger miles travelled. England and Wales between 1985 and 2003. Children aged 0-14 years. None. Death rates per 100,000 children and per 10 million child passenger miles for pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants. Death rates per head of population have declined for child pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants but pedestrian death rates remain higher (0.55 deaths/100,000 children; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42 to 0.72 deaths) than those for car occupants (0.34 deaths; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.48 deaths) and cyclists (0.16 deaths; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.27 deaths). Since 1985, the average distance children travelled as a car occupant has increased by 70%; the average distance walked has declined by 19%; and the average distance cycled has declined by 58%. Taking into account distance travelled, there are about 50 times more child cyclist deaths (0.55 deaths/10 million passenger miles; 0.32 to 0.89) and nearly 30 times more child pedestrian deaths (0.27 deaths; 0.20 to 0.35) than there are deaths to child car occupants (0.01 deaths; 0.007 to 0.014). In 2003, children from families without access to a vehicle walked twice the distance walked by children in families with access to two or more vehicles. More needs to be done to reduce the traffic injury death rates for child pedestrians and cyclists. This might encourage more walking and cycling and also has the potential to reduce social class gradients in injury mortality.

  8. Validation of a bicycle simulator for road safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hern, Steve; Oxley, Jennie; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The study's aim was to assess the behavioural validity of participants using of a newly developed bicycle simulator with respect to a range of cycling performance measures collected both using the cycling simulator and on-road. The validation study consisted of a within-subjects study design comparing participants riding on-road with riding in the simulator. The study recruited 26 participants ranging in age from 18 to 35 years (M=25.0, SD=4.8). Absolute validity was established for measures of spatial positioning including average lane position, deviation in lane position and average passing distance from kerbside parked cars. Relative validity was established for the average speed of cyclists and their speed reduction on approach to intersections and a degree of validity was established for aspects of the participants head movements on approach to intersections. The study found evidence to suggest that aspects of cyclist behaviour can be investigated using the bicycle simulator, however further validation research may be required in order to more comprehensively validate looking behaviours, more complex performance measures and for a wider age range of cyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radfahrersicherheit: was Europa von den Niederlanden lernen kann = Cyclist safety: what Europe can learn from the Dutch

    OpenAIRE

    Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Versmissen, A.C.M.; Corbeij, R.M.; Broek, T.H.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    In many EU countries, and especially in major cities like Berlin, Paris, London and Barcelona, the number of cyclists in daily traffic is strongly increasing. The related strong increase in the number of serious injuries and fatalities amongst cyclists is only now starting to gain the attention it deserves. In the Netherlands, where biking is a widely accepted way of transport, cyclist and pedestrian safety is addressed by training, infrastructural solutions and increasing cyclist visibility....

  10. Semen profiles of young men involved as bicycle taxi cyclists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the semen profiles of bicycle taxi cyclists and healthy controls in Mangochi district, Malawi. Methods Semen samples were collected from young bicycle taxi cyclists after two to three days of sexual abstinence. A control group, comprising young men who were not bicycle taxi ...

  11. A case of cyclist's nodule in a female patient | Makhanya | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ere are few reported cases of cyclist's nodule in females. e condition has thus lent itself to synonyms such as third, supernumerary or accessory testicle. We report the imaging ndings of a perineal nodule in a 29-year-old female patient who is a known cyclist, and discuss the di erential diagnosis.

  12. Needs and wishes of older cyclists regarding a feed-forward system to support cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbers, C.; Dubbeldam, R.; Hair-Buijssen, S.H.H.M. de; Goede, M. de; Zeegers, T.H.; Buurke, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Cycling supports the independence and health of the aging population. However, elderly cyclists have an increased injury risk due to a fall with their bicycle. A large proportion of the number of injured cyclists is victim of a single-sided accident [1].The aim of this project is to come up with

  13. Off-road cycling injuries. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, R P; Kronisch, R L

    1995-05-01

    Off-road bicycles, commonly called 'mountain bikes', have become increasingly popular worldwide since their introduction in the western US in the late 1970s. This popularity is partly because these vehicles can be ridden on a wide variety of terrain which is not accessible to other types of bicycle. Although early versions were rather crude, off-road bicycles today typically include high strength, lightweight frames with a wide array of available suspension and braking systems. Virtually all aspects of the technology continue to evolve, including components and protective equipment. As the popularity of off-road cycling has increased, so too has the interest and level of participation in the competitive aspects of the sport. Currently, 2 organisations--the National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) and the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)--sponsor the major events within the US and around the world. To date, the majority of studies have been descriptive in nature, with data collected via self-report, questionnaire formats. Only 1 prospective study has been reported thus far, which surveyed a major international competition held in the US in 1994. Injury rates calculated on the basis of injuries per ride or event in competitive venues have been reported, ranging from 0.2 to 0.39% compared with 0.30% for recreational participants. Retrospective data collected from recreational and competitive riders indicate that from 20 to 88% of those surveyed reported having sustained an injury during the previous year of participation. The majority of injuries appear to be acute, traumatic episodes involving the extremities, with contusions and abrasions being the most common. In general, the incidence of more severe injuries such as dislocations, fractures and concussions is low. Comparisons between road and off-road cycling events indicate that off-road cyclists sustain more fractures, dislocations and concussions than their road-event counterparts. Future research should

  14. Road accident fatality risks for "vulnerable" versus "protected" road users in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-10-03

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a serious epidemic that claims more than a million lives across the globe each year. The burden of RTIs is particularly pronounced in Africa and other low- and middle-income countries. The unfavorable disparity of the burden of road trauma in the world is largely attributable to unsafe vehicles, lack of appropriate road infrastructure, and the predominance of vulnerable road users (VRUs) in developing countries. However, little research exists in northern Ghana to highlight the scale and risk of death among road users. The objective of this research was to establish the relative risk of death among road users in northern Ghana. Crash data from police reports between 2007 and 2011 were analyzed for the Upper Regions of Ghana. Conditional probabilities and multivariable logistic regression techniques were used to report proportions and adjusted odds ratios (AORs), respectively. Generally, crashes in northern Ghana were extremely severe; that is, 35% of all injury related collisions were fatal. The proportion of fatal casualties ranged between 21% among victims of sideswipe collisions and 41% among pedestrians and victims of rear-end collisions. Though males were 6 times more likely to die than females overall, females were more likely to die as pedestrians (90% of all female casualty deaths) and males were more likely to die as riders/drivers (78% of all male casualty deaths). Pedestrians were 3 times more likely to die (odds ratio [OR] = 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4 to 4.1) compared with drivers/riders. Compared with drivers, the odds of death among cyclists was about 4 times higher (AOR = 3.6; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.6) and about 2 times higher among motorcyclists (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2). Compared with casualties aged between 30 and 59 years, children under 10 years and those aged 60 years and above were independently 2 times more likely to die in traffic collisions. Provision of requisite road infrastructure is vital

  15. [Biker's nodule"--perineal nodular induration of the cyclist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P; Utermann, S; Kahle, B; Hartschuh, W

    2000-10-01

    The "biker's nodule" is a rarely appearing perineal nodular induration of the cyclist. Repeated microtrauma to the subcutaneous fatty tissue or collageneous tissue, caused by pressure or vibration which the bicycle's saddle exerts on the perineal region, leads to collagenous degeneration, myxoid alteration and pseudocyst formation. Because of the painful subcutaneous nodules the patient is often forced to reduce or even give up his training. Therapy of the "biker's nodule" consists in avoiding the pathogenetic factors, i.e. giving up training for a temporary period of time and reducing pressure on the perineal region. Intralesional injection of either hyaluronidase or corticosteroids may also be helpful.

  16. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  17. An empirical tool to evaluate the safety of cyclists: Community based, macro-level collision prediction models using negative binomial regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Lovegrove, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Today, North American governments are more willing to consider compact neighborhoods with increased use of sustainable transportation modes. Bicycling, one of the most effective modes for short trips with distances less than 5km is being encouraged. However, as vulnerable road users (VRUs), cyclists are more likely to be injured when involved in collisions. In order to create a safe road environment for them, evaluating cyclists' road safety at a macro level in a proactive way is necessary. In this paper, different generalized linear regression methods for collision prediction model (CPM) development are reviewed and previous studies on micro-level and macro-level bicycle-related CPMs are summarized. On the basis of insights gained in the exploration stage, this paper also reports on efforts to develop negative binomial models for bicycle-auto collisions at a community-based, macro-level. Data came from the Central Okanagan Regional District (CORD), of British Columbia, Canada. The model results revealed two types of statistical associations between collisions and each explanatory variable: (1) An increase in bicycle-auto collisions is associated with an increase in total lane kilometers (TLKM), bicycle lane kilometers (BLKM), bus stops (BS), traffic signals (SIG), intersection density (INTD), and arterial-local intersection percentage (IALP). (2) A decrease in bicycle collisions was found to be associated with an increase in the number of drive commuters (DRIVE), and in the percentage of drive commuters (DRP). These results support our hypothesis that in North America, with its current low levels of bicycle use (safety improvement. To test this hypothesis and to further explore the statistical relationships between bicycle mode split and overall road safety, future research needs to pursue further development and application of community-based, macro-level CPMs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Improving human resource capacity for road network preservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nxumalo, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that a significant factor contributing to the poor condition of much of Africa's rural road network is inadequate human resource capacity. This shortage of professional skills in road engineering inhibits proper...

  19. Trends in local newspaper reporting of London cyclist fatalities 1992-2012: the role of the media in shaping the systems dynamics of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alex; Roberts, Alex; Woodcock, James; Aldred, Rachel; Goodman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Successfully increasing cycling across a broad range of the population would confer important health benefits, but many potential cyclists are deterred by fears about traffic danger. Media coverage of road traffic crashes may reinforce this perception. As part of a wider effort to model the system dynamics of urban cycling, in this paper we examined how media coverage of cyclist fatalities in London changed across a period when the prevalence of cycling doubled. We compared this with changes in the coverage of motorcyclist fatalities as a control group. Police records of traffic crashes (STATS19) were used to identify all cyclist and motorcyclist fatalities in London between 1992 and 2012. We searched electronic archives of London's largest local newspaper to identify relevant articles (January 1992-April 2014), and sought to identify which police-reported fatalities received any media coverage. We repeated this in three smaller English cities. Across the period when cycling trips doubled in London, the proportion of fatalities covered in the local media increased from 6% in 1992-1994 to 75% in 2010-2012. By contrast, the coverage of motorcyclist fatalities remained low (4% in 1992-1994 versus 5% in 2010-2012; p=0.007 for interaction between mode and time period). Comparisons with other English cities suggested that the changes observed in London might not occur in smaller cities with lower absolute numbers of crashes, as in these settings fatalities are almost always covered regardless of mode share (79-100% coverage for both cyclist and motorcyclist fatalities). In large cities, an increase in the popularity (and therefore 'newsworthiness') of cycling may increase the propensity of the media to cover cyclist fatalities. This has the potential to give the public the impression that cycling has become more dangerous, and thereby initiate a negative feedback loop that dampens down further increases in cycling. Understanding these complex roles of the media in

  20. Understanding and Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health and Transportation Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Pollack, Keshia M; Berrigan, David; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Christopher, Ed J

    2017-08-01

    Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development. The aims of public health and transportation partially overlap; efforts to improve arterials can meet goals of both professions. Two trends in arterial design show promise. First, transportation professionals increasingly define the performance of arterials via metrics accounting for pedestrians, cyclists, transit riders, and nearby residents in addition to motor vehicle users. Second, applying traffic engineering and design can generate safety, air quality, and livability benefits, but we need evidence to support these interventions. We describe the importance of arterials (including exposures, health behaviors, effects on equity, and resulting health outcomes) and make the case for public health collaborations with the transportation sector.

  1. Road Damage Externalities and Road User Charges.

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, David M

    1988-01-01

    Vehicles damage roads and, thus, increase road repair costs and create a road damage externality by raising the operating costs of subsequent vehicles. The main result is that if periodic road maintenance is condition responsive and if all road damage is attributable to traffic, then, in steady state with zero traffic growth, the average road damage externality is zero a nd the appropriate road damage charge is the average maintenance cost. Where weather accounts for some road damage, the roa...

  2. Mathematical model for studying cyclist kinematics in vehicle-bicycle frontal collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrea, OA; Chiru, A.; Chiriac, RL; Vlase, S.

    2017-10-01

    For the development of effective vehicle related safety solutions to improve cyclist protection, kinematic predictions are essential. The objective of the paper was the elaboration of a simple mathematical model for predicting cyclist kinematics, with the advantage of yielding simple results for relatively complicated impact situations. Thus, the use of elaborated math software is not required and the calculation time is shortened. The paper presents a modelling framework to determine cyclist kinematic behaviour for the situations in which a M1 category vehicle frontally hits the rear part of a bicycle. After the primary impact between the vehicle front bumper and the bicycle, the cyclist hits the vehicle’s bonnet, the windscreen or both the vehicle’s bonnet and the windscreen in short succession. The head-windshield impact is often the most severe impact, causing serious and potentially lethal injuries. The cyclist is represented by a rigid segment and the equations of motion for the cyclist after the primary impact are obtained by applying Newton’s second law of motion. The impact time for the contact between the vehicle and the cyclist is yielded afterwards by formulating and intersecting the trajectories for two points positioned on the cyclist’s head/body and the vehicle’s windscreen/bonnet while assuming that the cyclist’s equations of motion after the primary impact remain the same. Postimpact kinematics for the secondary impact are yielded by applying linear and angular momentum conservation laws.

  3. Cyclist safety on bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This study compares the safety of bicyclists riding on bicycle boulevards to those riding on parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California. Literature on the impact of motor vehicle traffic characteristics on cyclist safety shows that high motor vehicle speeds and volumes and the presence of heavy vehicles are all detrimental to cyclist safety. This suggests that cyclists may be safer on side streets than on busy arterials. Bicycle boulevards-traffic-calmed side streets signed and improved for cyclist use-purport to offer cyclists a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Police-reported bicycle collision data and manually collected cyclist count data from bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California from 2003 to 2010 are used to test the hypothesis that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards have lower cyclist collision rates and a lower proportion of bicycle collisions resulting in severe injury. While no significant difference is found in the proportion of collisions that are severe, results show that collision rates on Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are two to eight times lower than those on parallel, adjacent arterial routes. The difference in collision rate is highly statistically significant, unlikely to be caused by any bias in the collision and count data, and cannot be easily explained away by self-selection or safety in numbers. Though the used dataset is limited and the study design is correlational, this study provides some evidence that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are safer for cyclists than its parallel arterial routes. The results may be suggestive that, more generally, properly implemented bicycle boulevards can provide cyclists with a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SPINAL POSTURE OF THORACIC AND LUMBAR SPINE AND PELVIC TILT IN HIGHLY TRAINED CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Muyor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate sagittal thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in elite and master cyclists when standing on the floor, and sitting on a bicycle at three different handlebar-hand positions. A total of 60 elite male cyclists (mean age: 22.95 ± 3.38 years and 60 master male cyclists (mean age: 34.27 ± 3.05 years were evaluated. The Spinal Mouse system was used to measure sagittal thoracic and lumbar curvature in standing on the floor and sitting positions on the bicycle at three different handlebar-hand positions (high, medium, and low. The mean values for thoracic and lumbar curvatures and pelvic tilt in the standing position on the floor were 48.17 ± 8.05º, -27.32 ± 7.23º, and 13.65 ± 5.54º, respectively, for elite cyclists and 47.02 ± 9.24º, -25.30 ± 6.29º, and 11.25 ± 5.17º for master cyclists. A high frequency of thoracic hyperkyphosis in the standing position was observed (58.3% in elite cyclists and 53.3% in master cyclists, whereas predominately neutral values were found in the lumbar spine (88.3% and 76.7% in elite and master cyclists, respectively. When sitting on the bicycle, the thoracic curve was at a lower angle in the three handlebar-hand positions with respect to the standing position on the floor in both groups (p < 0.01. The lumbar curve adopted a kyphotic posture. In conclusion, cyclists present a high percentage of thoracic hyperkyphotic postures in standing positions on the floor. However, thoracic hyperkyphosis is not directly related to positions adopted on the bicycle

  5. The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amy L; Rice, Anthony J; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Wallett, Alice M; Lundy, Bronwen; Rogers, Margot A; Welvaert, Marijke; Halson, Shona; McKune, Andrew; Thompson, Kevin G

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a "Baseline" week (100% of regular training load), a "Build" week (~120% of Baseline load), two "Loading" weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two "Recovery" weeks (~80% of Baseline load). Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV), cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach. The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36) = 12.0947, p = training periods elicit greater energy demands in trained cyclists, which, if not sufficiently compensated with increased dietary intake, appears to provoke a cascade of metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in an attempt to restore homeostasis and conserve energy. The proactive monitoring of energy intake, power output, mood state, body mass and HRV during intensified training periods may alleviate fatigue and attenuate the observed decrease in RMR, providing more optimal conditions for a positive training adaptation.

  6. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome – a case study exercise testing in master cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandAbstract: The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery, a 40%–50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery. The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect

  7. Risk compensation: a male phenomenon? Results from a controlled intervention trial promoting helmet use among cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Constant, Aymery; Contrand, Benjamin; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-05-01

    Prevention tools are challenged by risky behaviors that follow their adoption. Speed increase following helmet use adoption was analyzed among bicyclists enrolled in a controlled intervention trial. Speed and helmet use were assessed by video (2621 recordings, 587 participants). Speeds were similar among helmeted and nonhelmeted female cyclists (16.5 km/h and 16.1 km/h, respectively) but not among male cyclists (helmeted: 19.2 km/h, nonhelmeted: 16.8 km/h). Risk compensation, observed only among male cyclists, was moderate, thus unlikely to offset helmet preventive efficacy.

  8. Spinal posture of thoracic and lumbar spine and pelvic tilt in highly trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Alacid, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sagittal thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in elite and master cyclists when standing on the floor, and sitting on a bicycle at three different handlebar-hand positions. A total of 60 elite male cyclists (mean age: 22.95 ± 3.38 years) and 60 master male cyclists (mean age: 34.27 ± 3.05 years) were evaluated. The Spinal Mouse system was used to measure sagittal thoracic and lumbar curvature in standing on the floor and sitting positions on the bicycle at three different handlebar-hand positions (high, medium, and low). The mean values for thoracic and lumbar curvatures and pelvic tilt in the standing position on the floor were 48.17 ± 8.05°, -27.32 ± 7.23°, and 13.65 ± 5.54°, respectively, for elite cyclists and 47.02 ± 9.24°, -25.30 ± 6.29°, and 11.25 ± 5.17° for master cyclists. A high frequency of thoracic hyperkyphosis in the standing position was observed (58.3% in elite cyclists and 53.3% in master cyclists), whereas predominately neutral values were found in the lumbar spine (88.3% and 76.7% in elite and master cyclists, respectively). When sitting on the bicycle, the thoracic curve was at a lower angle in the three handlebar-hand positions with respect to the standing position on the floor in both groups (p hyperkyphosis is not directly related to positions adopted on the bicycle. Key pointsThis study evaluated thoracic and lumbar spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in elite and master cyclists while standing and sitting on the bicycle.Elite and master cyclists showed a high frequency of thoracic hyperkyphosis and neutral lumbar lordosis in standing.Cyclists adopted a significantly lower thoracic kyphosis on the bicycle at the three handlebar positions analysed (upper, middle and lower handlebars) than in standing posture. The lumbar spine showed a kyphotic posture.The high percentage of standing thoracic hyperkyphosis in both groups of cyclists may be related to factors other than the

  9. Hip and groin pain in a cyclist resolved after performing a pelvic floor fascial mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot, Sivan; Kalichman, Leonid

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic floor muscle assessment in situations of hip/groin pain in both male and female patients can be a key element in treatment success. We present herein, a 32 year old male professional cyclist, exhibiting right hip and groin pain during cycling and prolonged sitting. The pain commenced after the patient suffered a right hip severe contusion in 2013 causing a tear in the tensor fascia lata and gluteus medius muscle. The patient did not complain of pelvic floor dysfunctions. After receiving several series of conventional physical therapy for the hip/groin pain, the patient experienced partial pain relief and slight improvement of hip range of motion. His pelvic floor muscles and fascial involvement were subsequently assessed. Two sessions of Pelvic Floor Fascial Mobilization (PFFM) were performed and the patient fully recovered. The authors suggest that PFFM, a novel fascial-oriented manual therapy of the pelvic floor approach, can be used for both hip/groin and pelvic floor pain or dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  11. Some Empirical Notes on the Epo Epidemic in Professional Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijkx, Hein F. M.; Brouwer, Bram

    2011-01-01

    The 1990-2010 period in professional cycling is labeled by some as the epo epidemic. Surprisingly, performance enhancement by epo and blood doping is not that clear-cut for endurance athletes, leading to the question whether doping indeed strongly influenced cyclists' performances from the 1990s onwards. We examined the records (1947-2008) of the…

  12. Sex differences in risk taking behavior among Dutch cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobey, Kelly D; Stulp, Gert; Laan, Freek; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V

    2013-05-14

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclists. Through three observational studies we test sex differences in risk taking in situations of financial risk (fines for failing to use bike lights, Study 1), theft risk (bike locking behavior, Study 2) as well as physical risk (risky maneuvers, Study 3). Results corroborate previous findings by showing that across these domains men are more inclined to take risks than women. We discuss how these findings might be used in an applied context.

  13. Development of High Fidelity Mobility Simulation of an Autonomous Vehicle in an Off-Road Scenario Using Integrated Sensor, Controller, and Multi-Body Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    rather than for training or other real-time applications. TARDEC is interested in using this capability as a design tool that can efficiently improve...traffic scenarios using a database of road sections, infrastructure components (trees, buildings, traffic signs) and road users (cars, trucks, cyclists ...fidelity simulation, running in real time, may be used for additional testing and training of operators. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors of this paper

  14. Erythrocyte free radical scavenger enzymes in bicycle professional racers. Adaptation to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, P; Maynar, M; Gutierrez, J M; Maynar, J; Timon, J; Campillo, J E

    1991-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of endurance training on the activities of the scavenger enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) measured in erythrocytes from sedentary subjects, amateur bicycle racers and in professional bicycle racers who were cycling in two real cyclist contests including the top-class race Vuelta a España (VCE). Under resting conditions the SOD activity was higher (p less than 0.01) in cyclists than in controls. The activities of CAT and GSH-Px were higher (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01, respectively) under resting conditions in professional cyclists versus measured both in sedentary subjects and amateur cyclists. The enzyme activities were not modified significantly in professional cyclists after a bout of exercise of 22 km in 5 hrs, but the SOD activity was increased (p less than 0.05) and CAT activity reduced (p less than 0.05) after 2800 km in 20 days (VCE). The present results shown that aerobic endurance training, when at a professional level, produces an increase in the erythrocyte activities of the main free radicals scavenger enzymes.

  15. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the status of road safety in Asia and present accident and injury prevention strategies based on global road safety improvement experiences and discuss the way forward by indicating opportunities and countermeasures that could be implemented to achieve a new level of safety in Asia. This study provides a review and analyses of data in the literature, including from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, and a review of lessons learned from best practices in high-income countries. In addition, an estimation of costs due to road transport injuries in Asia and review of future trends in road transport is provided. Data on the global and Asian road safety problem and status of prevention strategies in Asia as well as recommendations for future actions are discussed. The total number of deaths due to road accidents in the 24 Asian countries, encompassing 56% of the total world population, is 750,000 per year (statistics 2010). The total number of injuries is more than 50 million, of which 12% are hospital admissions. The loss to the economy in the 24 Asian countries is estimated to around US$800 billion or 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP). This article clearly shows that road safety is causing large problems and high costs in Asia, with an enormous impact on the well-being of people, economy, and productivity. In many Asian low- and middle-income countries, the yearly number of fatalities and injuries is increasing. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists combined) are particularly at risk. Road safety in Asia should be given rightful attention, including taking powerful, effective actions. This review stresses the need for reliable accident data, because there is considerable underreporting in the official statistics. Reliable accident data are imperative to determine evidence-based intervention strategies and monitor the success of these interventions and analyses. On the other

  16. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  17. [Detraining and retraining after injury in a high-level cyclist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauty, M; Louvet, S; Potiron-Josse, M; Dubois, C

    2005-03-01

    To define retraining after injury in a high-level cyclist by taking into account the consequences of detraining. From three clinical cases and from the analysis of the consequences of detraining, three principles of retraining were determined. 1. The high-level cyclist is not protected and loses cycling capacity after four weeks of inactivity. The delay in recovery is longer the higher the adaptations. 2. Recovery of cycling capacity is based on bicycle exercises that are greater in intensity than quantity, taking into account delays in injury consolidation. 3. Retraining requires appreciating the individual physiological level by evaluating force and endurance before envisaging the resumption of training and competition. The injury of a high-level cyclist is at the origin of detraining, which has been evaluated so that sports rehabilitation may enable the cyclist to find a previous state without relapse, complication or overtraining.

  18. Predictive Dynamic Simulation of Seated Start-Up Cycling Using Olympic Cyclist and Bicycle Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Jansen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Predictive dynamic simulation is a useful tool for analyzing human movement and optimizing performance. Here it is applied to Olympic-level track cycling. A seven degree-of-freedom, two-legged cyclist and bicycle model was developed using MapleSim. GPOPS-II, a direct collocation optimal control software, was used to solve the optimal control problem for the predictive simulation. The model was validated against ergometer pedaling performed by seven Olympic-level track cyclists from the Canadian team. The simulations produce joint angles and cadence/torque/power similar to experimental results. The results indicate optimal control can be used for predictive simulation with a combined cyclist and bicycle model. Future work needed to more accurately model an Olympic cyclist and a standing start is discussed.

  19. Knee problems and its associated factors among active cyclists in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullatif K Althunyan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Knee injuries are common with cyclists. Factors such as the type of the bicycle, the goal of bicycling, club type, body mass index, and participation in other sports play a significant role in the rate of knee pain.

  20. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  1. Social Influence and Different Types of Red-Light Behaviors among Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fraboni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accident analysis and studies on traffic revealed that cyclists’ violation of red-light regulation is one typical infringement committed by cyclists. Furthermore, an association between cyclists’ crash involvement and red-light violations has been found across different countries. The literature on cyclists’ psychosocial determinants of red-light violation is still scarce. The present study, based on the classification of cyclists’ red-light behavior in risk-taking (ignoring the red-light and traveling through the junction without stopping, opportunistic (waiting at red-lights but being too impatient to wait for green signal and subsequently crossing the junction and law-obeying (stopping to obey the red-light, adopted an eye-observational methodology to investigate differences in cyclists' crossing behavior at intersections, in relation to traffic light violations and the presence of other cyclists. Based on the social influence explanatory framework, which states that people tend to behave differently in a given situation taking into consideration similar people’s behaviors, and that the effect of social influence is related to the group size, we hypothesized that the number of cyclists at the intersection will have an influence on the cyclists’ behavior. Furthermore, cyclists will be more likely to violate in an opportunistic way when other cyclists are already committing a violation. Two researchers at a time registered unobtrusively at four different intersections during morning and late afternoon peak hour traffic, 1381 cyclists approaching the traffic light during the red phase. The 62.9% violated the traffic control. Results showed that a higher number of cyclists waiting at the intersection is associated with fewer risk-taking violations. Nevertheless, the percentage of opportunistic violation remained high. For the condition of no cyclist present, risk-taking behaviors were significantly higher, whereas, they were

  2. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  3. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    K Chamari; W Briki; A Farooq; T Patrick; T Belfekih; CP Herrera

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO 2 max: 57.7±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1) and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Reaction Time index (RTI) and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) tests) and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG) were assessed: before Ramadan (BR),...

  4. Exercise addiction risk and health in male and female amateur endurance cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Sim?n-Grima, Javier; Pe?arrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Mungu?a-Izquierdo, Diego; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims To determine the relationship between the risk of exercise addiction (REA) and health status in amateur endurance cyclists. Methods In 859 (751 men and 108 women) cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined the REA (Exercise Addiction Inventory), training status (volume, frequency, experience, and performance), socioeconomic status, quality of life (QoL) (SF-12), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety and depression (Hospital...

  5. It is a long way to become an expert and a smart cyclist.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittink, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is about the role that education might play to promote both safe cycling and bicycle use in the Netherlands. The conclusions are as follows: (1) An intensive training programme of cycling skills is needed; (2) Training of defensive behaviour must enable the cyclist to keep control of traffic situations; (3) Education programmes to promote safe traffic behaviour must be directed both at cyclists themselves and other vehicle drivers; (4) Regulations must be known and understood to co...

  6. Effects of Training Load on Some Hormonal, Hematological and Biochemical Profile of Male Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Pralay Majumdar; Srividhya Sivaprakasam

    2014-01-01

    Hematological profiles of cyclists fluctuates are based on the volume/frequency/intensity of training. The present study examined the effects of training load on the cyclist’s biochemical profile which may be associated with over training. Twelve male cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. The participants completed a systematic training program which was divided into four phases i.e. phase I (560 km, continuous aerobic training), II (680 km, continuous aerobic training), III (720...

  7. Using the event analysis of systemic teamwork (EAST) to explore conflicts between different road user groups when making right hand turns at urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenne, Michael G; Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2014-01-01

    Collisions between different types of road users at intersections form a substantial component of the road toll. This paper presents an analysis of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour at intersections that involved the application of an integrated suite of ergonomics methods, the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) framework, to on-road study data. EAST was used to analyse behaviour at three intersections using data derived from an on-road study of driver, cyclist, motorcyclist and pedestrian behaviour. The analysis shows the differences in behaviour and cognition across the different road user groups and pinpoints instances where this may be creating conflicts between different road users. The role of intersection design in creating these differences in behaviour and resulting conflicts is discussed. It is concluded that currently intersections are not designed in a way that supports behaviour across the four forms of road user studied. Interventions designed to improve intersection safety are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Intersection safety currently represents a key road safety issue worldwide. This paper presents a novel application of a framework of ergonomics methods for studying differences in road user behaviour at intersections. The findings support development of interventions that consider all road users as opposed to one group in isolation.

  8. Joint road safety operations in tunnels and open roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.

  9. Eating and nutrition habits in young competitive athletes: a comparison between soccer players and cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Giorgio; Stefani, Laura; Scacciati, Irene; Mascherini, Gabriele; Buti, Gabriella; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the dietary habits in two groups of young athletes, practicing two different sports: soccer players and cycling. The dietary habits of 47 athletes were investigated by questionnaire. Body Mass Index, Fat Mass, Free Fat Mass, Total Body, Intracellular, Extracellular Water and Phase Angle were measured by bioimpedance. The t-Student test for unpaired data was used. Significance was set at P soccer player group (soccer players: 63.8±1.96%; cyclists : 59.8 ± 8.7%; and soccer players 43.9±3.1%, cyclists 43.8 ±2.1%, respectively). Fatty mass of the soccer player group (14.5±2.9%) was significantly lower than that of the cyclist group (19.5±3.6%). Daily food intake was similar between the two groups (2844 kCal/die for soccer players /2630 kcal/die for cyclists), and lower than recommended. There was a low intake of Calcium (soccer players 1120±128.9 mg/die, cyclists 718±309 mg/die) for both groups, and a low intake of Potassium for soccer player (2576 mg/die ± 52.4) The caloric intake of adolescent athletes is lower than recommended. Body composition is significantly different between soccer players and cyclists.

  10. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  11. Randomized trials and self-reported accidents as a method to study safety-enhancing measures for cyclists-two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2017-08-01

    A large number of studies show that high visibility in traffic is important in the struggle of getting the attention from other road users and thus an important safety factor. Cyclists have a much higher risk of being killed or injured in a traffic accident than car drivers so for them high visibility is particularly important. A number of studies have examined the effect of high visibility, such as reflective clothing, but most studies have been primitive, the data limited and the results very uncertain. In this paper we describe the safety impact of increased visibility of cyclists through two randomised controlled trials: permanent running lights on bicycles and a yellow bicycle jacket, respectively. The effect of running lights was studied through a trial where the lights were mounted to 1,845 bicycles and 2,000 others comprised a control group. The bicycle accidents were recorded every two month in a year through self-reporting on the Internet. Participants were asked to report all cycling accidents independently of severity to avoid differences between participants as regards to which accidents were reported. They reported a total of 255 accidents i.e. 7 accidents per 100 cyclists. The results showed that the incidence rate for multiparty bicycle accidents with personal injury was 47% lower for cyclists with permanent running light. The difference is statistically significant at the 5% level. The effect of a yellow bicycle jacket was examined through a trial with 6,800 volunteer cyclists. The half of the group received a bicycle jacket and the other half comprised a control group. Both groups reported every month all their bicycle accidents independently of severity on the Internet. They reported a total of 694 accidents i.e. 10 accidents per 100 cyclists. The treatment group was asked each month if they carried the jacket on their last cycling trip. The results showed that on a random day the treatment group carried the jacket or other fluorescent cycling

  12. [A 26-year-old cyclist with intermittent claudication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerder, M J; Schütte, P R; Schnater, J M

    2006-07-08

    A 26-year-old male amateur cyclist, with no risk factors for vascular disease or previous trauma, presented with left-calf claudication. Physical and additional examination revealed an occlusion of the external iliac artery. During the operation, the cause was found to be an endofibrotic lesion of the external iliac artery, probably due to mechanical trauma as a result of the non-physiological aerodynamic position held on the bicycle during many hours of training. An endarterectomy was performed and the tendon of the psoas-minor muscle was cut because of its strong impression on the psoas-major muscle, which resulted in kinking of the external iliac artery. There followed two episodes of re-occlusion which were treated with a venous interposition graft and a dacron interposition graft, respectively. Thereafter the patient was able to train without pain. Intermittent claudication of the legs in young athletes should not be underestimated; occlusive vascular disease caused by arterial endofibrosis should be considered.

  13. Heart rate monitoring during training and competition in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A; VanDiemen, A

    1998-01-01

    To obtain optimal training effects and avoid overtraining, it is necessary to monitor the intensity of training. In cycling, speed is not an accurate indicator of exercise intensity, and therefore alternatives have to be found to monitor exercise intensity during training and competition. Power output may be the most direct indicator, but heart rate is easier to monitor and measure. There are, however, limitations that have to be taken into account when using a heart rate monitor. For example, the position on the bicycle may change heart rate at a given exercise intensity. More important, however, is the increase in heart rate over time, a phenomenon described as 'cardiac drift'. Cardiac drift can change the heart rate-power output relationship drastically, especially in hot environments or at altitude. It is important to determine whether one is interested in monitoring exercise intensity per se or measuring whole-body stress. Power output may be a better indicator of the former and heart rate may, under many conditions, be a better indicator of the latter. Heart rate can be used to evaluate a cyclist after training or competition, or to determine the exercise intensity during training. Heart rate monitoring is very useful in the detection of early overtraining, especially in combination with lactate curves and questionnaires. During overtraining, maximal heart rates as well as submaximal heart rates may be decreased, while resting and, in particular, sleeping - heart rates may be increased.

  14. Vascular disorder in a competitive cyclist: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifft, Judy K; Coleman, F Ann; Malone, Casey B

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this case report was to alert the physical therapist (PT) to the possibility of vascular disorders in endurance athletes with apparent musculoskeletal symptoms. A 33-year-old female injured her knee in a fall and described a history of progressive unilateral lower extremity (LE) pain and weakness, especially with running and cycling. She received LE stretching and strengthening but her symptoms persisted, so she stopped all activity. When she became symptomatic with minimal exertion, she went to a neurologist, but electromyographic (EMG)/nerve conduction velocity (NCV) studies were normal. Eventually, she was referred for vascular studies, which confirmed a diagnosis of external iliac artery endofibrosis. The patient underwent a right common iliac to common femoral artery bypass graft approximately 3 years after onset of initial symptoms. She ran a 5K race 3 weeks after surgery and returned to cycling after 4 weeks. Endofibrosis of the external iliac artery is an uncommon disorder but is most frequently diagnosed in high-performance athletes, especially cyclists. Physical therapists who practice in orthopedic settings should be aware of vascular conditions that mimic musculoskeletal disorders in endurance athletes. Vascular consult or referral may be necessary if PT interventions are ineffective in treating athletes with exercise-induced LE pain and weakness.

  15. Increased lean mass with reduced fat mass in an elite female cyclist returning to competition: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakonssen, Eric C; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G

    2013-11-01

    Body composition in a female road cyclist was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (5 occasions) and anthropometry (10 occasions) at the start of the season (Dec to Mar), during a period of chronic fatigue associated with poor weight management (Jun to Aug), and in the following months of recovery and retraining (Aug to Nov). Dietary manipulation involved a modest reduction in energy availability to 30-40 kcal · kg fat-free mass(-1) · d(-1) and an increased intake of high-quality protein, particularly after training (20 g). Through the retraining period, total body mass decreased (-2.82 kg), lean mass increased (+0.88 kg), and fat mass decreased (-3.47 kg). Hemoglobin mass increased by 58.7 g (8.4%). Maximal aerobic- and anaerobic-power outputs were returned to within 2% of preseason values. The presented case shows that through a subtle energy restriction associated with increased protein intake and sufficient energy intake during training, fat mass can be reduced with simultaneous increases in lean mass, performance gains, and improved health.

  16. Exercise addiction risk and health in male and female amateur endurance cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Simón-Grima, Javier; Peñarrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims To determine the relationship between the risk of exercise addiction (REA) and health status in amateur endurance cyclists. Methods In 859 (751 men and 108 women) cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined the REA (Exercise Addiction Inventory), training status (volume, frequency, experience, and performance), socioeconomic status, quality of life (QoL) (SF-12), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), physical condition (International Fitness Scale), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener), alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results In total, 17% of the cyclists showed evidence of REA and 83% showed low REA. REA occurred independent of age, sex, training, and socioeconomic status (all ps > .05). Regardless of REA, the cyclists displayed a better physical QoL and a lower cardiometabolic risk than the inactive subjects (all ps quality of sleep, and anxiety than cyclists with low REA (all ps quality of sleep than the inactive subjects. The differences in mental QoL between the REA and low REA groups were significantly greater in women (p = .013). There was no Addiction × Sex interaction in the other analyzed variables. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increased prevalence of REA limits the benefits that amateur endurance cycling has on mental health and quality of sleep.

  17. Comparison of body composition and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Luis Moro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare anthropometric characteristics and aerobic and anaerobic fitness between competitive cyclists and triathletes. The sample consisted of 11cyclists and 12 triathletes with experience in competitions. The tests were performed on two different days, with an interval of 48 h between sessions. On the first day,the athletes were submitted to anthropometric assessment (body mass, height,and skinfold thickness and a maximal incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, maximum power, maximum heart rate, maximum lactate, and the first (LL1 and second lactate threshold (LL2. The Wingate test was conducted on the second day to determine peak power, average power, and fatigue index. There were significant difference (p < 0.05, with medium effect size (0.80- 1.5, in mid-thigh skinfold thickness (15.2 ± 6.3 and 10.5 ± 4.8 mm, power at LL1 (195.0 ± 30.9 and 162.7 ± 28.3 W, power at LL2 (247.6 ± 25.0 and 219.7± 37.9 W, and fatigue index (47.2 ± 13.0 and 60.1 ± 16.4% between cyclists and triathletes, respectively. The other variables did not differ between groups. Anthropometric characteristics are similar in triathletes and cyclists. However, cyclists present higher power outputs at the lactate thresholds (LL1 and LL2 and lower fatigue indexes.

  18. Radfahrersicherheit: was Europa von den Niederlanden lernen kann = Cyclist safety: what Europe can learn from the Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-de Nooij, M. van; Versmissen, A.C.M.; Corbeij, R.M.; Broek, T.H.A. van den

    2009-01-01

    In many EU countries, and especially in major cities like Berlin, Paris, London and Barcelona, the number of cyclists in daily traffic is strongly increasing. The related strong increase in the number of serious injuries and fatalities amongst cyclists is only now starting to gain the attention it

  19. Heat acclimatization does not improve VO2max or cycling performance in a cool climate in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Racinais, S; Jensen, M V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if well-trained cyclists improve V ˙ O 2 m a x and performance in cool conditions following heat acclimatization through natural outdoor training in hot conditions. Eighteen trained male cyclists were tested for physiological adaptations, V ˙ O 2 m a x , peak aerobic power...

  20. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety : Speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M.; Boele, M.J.; Vlakveld, W.P.; Christoph, M.; Sikkema, R.; Remij, R.; Schwab, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  1. Pneumatic Compression Fails to Improve Performance Recovery in Trained Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmayer, Ryan G; Driller, Matthew W

    2017-09-05

    To examine the efficacy of Intermittent Sequential Pneumatic Compression (ISPC) on exercise recovery and subsequent performance, when implemented between a 20-min cycling bout (simulated scratch race) and a 4-min cycling test (simulated individual pursuit), as experienced during an Omnium track cycling competition. Twenty-one (13 male, 8 female, mean ± SD; age: 36 ± 14 years) trained cyclists completed a familiarisation trial followed by two experimental trials in a counterbalanced, crossover design. Participants performed a fixed-intensity 20-min cycling bout on a Wattbike cycle ergometer, followed by a 30-min recovery period where ISPC recovery boots or passive recovery (CON) was implemented. At the conclusion of the recovery period, participants performed a 4-min maximal cycling bout (4-minTT). Average power (Watts) for the 4-minTT, blood lactate concentration (BLa) and perceived total quality recovery (TQR) during the recovery period were used to examine the influence of ISPC. There were no significant differences between trials for the 4-minTT (p = 0.08), with the effect deemed to be trivial (d = -0.08). There was an unclear effect (d ±90%CI = 0.26 ±0.78, p = 0.57) for ISPC vs CON in the clearance of BLa during the recovery period. There was a small but not significant difference for TQR in favour of ISPC (d ±90%CI = 0.27 ±0.27, p = 0.07). There was little additional benefit associated with the use of ISPC to enhance recovery and subsequent performance when used during the recovery period between two events in a simulated Omnium track cycling competition.

  2. Plasma protein carbonyl responses to anaerobic exercise in female cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E Afzalpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single bouts of aerobic exercise may leads to oxidative stress due to the use of oxygen for metabolism and the generation of reactive oxygen. In athletes, oxidative stress can lead to several deleterious performance effects, such as muscular oxidative damage, muscle soreness, loss of skeletal muscle force production and/or inflammation. However, little is known regarding the severity and duration of oxidative stress arising from intensive anaerobic modes of exercise in aerobically-trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single bout of intensive anaerobic exercise on plasma protein carbonyl (PC in aerobically-trained women. Aerobically-trained, provincial female cyclists [n = 18, age: 24.2±2.7 years; stature: 163.6±4.6 cm; body mass: 53.4±4.2 kg] were randomly assigned into either a non-exercising control (CON; n = 9 or experimental (EXP; n = 9 group that underwent a 30-second anaerobic (Wingate cycle ergometer exercise session. Blood sampling took place before exercise, immediately after the exercise (IE, and 24 hours following the exercise (24HR bout. In the EXP, results indicated significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences in PC levels between the pre-test and IE (0.010±0.0124 to 0.0149±0.0420 mmol/milt; P = 0.010, and IE and 24HR (0.0149±0.0420 to 0.0111±0.0183 mmol/milt; P = 0.013. No significant differences were observed between pre-test and 24HR (0.010±0.0124 to 0.0111±0.0183 mmol/milt; P = 0.371. These results indicate that oxidative protein damage, as indicated by PC levels, rises immediately with the onset of anaerobic exercise, but returns to resting levels within 24 hours following exercise in aerobically-trained women.

  3. Effects of a Mindfulness Intervention on Sports-Anxiety, Pessimism, and Flow in Competitive Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Hamilton, John; Schutte, Nicola S; Brown, Rhonda F

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated whether mindfulness training increases athletes' mindfulness and flow experience and decreases sport-specific anxiety and sport-specific pessimism. Cyclists were assigned to an eight-week mindfulness intervention, which incorporated a mindful spin-bike training component, or a wait-list control condition. Participants completed baseline and post-test measures of mindfulness, flow, sport-anxiety, and sport-related pessimistic attributions. Analyses of covariance showed significant positive effects on mindfulness, flow, and pessimism for the 27 cyclists in the mindfulness intervention condition compared with the 20 cyclists in the control condition. Changes in mindfulness experienced by the intervention participants were positively associated with changes in flow. Results suggest that mindfulness-based interventions tailored to specific athletic pursuits can be effective in facilitating flow experiences. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Analysis of factors associated with traffic accidents of cyclists attended in Brazilian state capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de; Bahia, Camila Alves; Constantino, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios. Odds ratios showed greater likelihood of cyclists' accidents in males, people with less schooling and living in urban and periurban areas. People who were not using the bike to go to work were more likely to suffer an accident. The profile found in this study corroborates findings of other studies. They claim that the coexistence of cyclists and other means of transportation in the same urban space increases the likelihood of accidents. The construction of bicycle-exclusive spaces and educational campaigns are required.

  5. Effect of training mode and calcium intake on bone mineral density in female master cyclist, runners, and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshgetoor, D; Nichols, J F; Rego, I

    2000-09-01

    The focus of this prospective, observational study was to determine the effect of sport-specific training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) in female master cyclists, runners and non-athletes. Thirty women (12 cyclists, 9 runners, 9 controls), mean age of 49.6 +/- 7.9 years, were assessed at baseline and 18 months for calcium intake (4-day records), current exercise activity (recall questionnaire), and BMD of the lumbar spine and hip (DXA). A three (cyclists, runners, controls) by two (0 and 18 months) repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated a significant interaction effect of sport and time at the femoral neck (p cyclists and runners but declined in controls (p cyclists (p <.007) and in controls (p <.03), while trochanteric BMD declined in all groups (p <.01). No significant interaction effect of sport and dietary calcium intake was noted for BMD at any site.

  6. The effects of intensified training on resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition and performance in trained cyclists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Woods

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR, body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms.Thirteen (n = 13 trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a "Baseline" week (100% of regular training load, a "Build" week (~120% of Baseline load, two "Loading" weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively and two "Recovery" weeks (~80% of Baseline load. Training comprised of a combination of laboratory based interval sessions and on-road cycling. RMR, body composition, energy intake, appetite, heart rate variability (HRV, cycling performance, biochemical markers and mood responses were assessed at multiple time points throughout the six-week period. Data were analysed using a linear mixed modeling approach.The intensified training period elicited significant decreases in RMR (F(5,123.36 = 12.0947, p = <0.001, body mass (F(2,19.242 = 4.3362, p = 0.03, fat mass (F(2,20.35 = 56.2494, p = <0.001 and HRV (F(2,22.608 = 6.5212, p = 0.005; all of which improved following a period of recovery. A state of overreaching was induced, as identified by a reduction in anaerobic performance (F(5,121.87 = 8.2622, p = <0.001, aerobic performance (F(5,118.26 = 2.766, p = 0.02 and increase in total mood disturbance (F(5, 110.61 = 8.1159, p = <0.001.Intensified training periods elicit greater energy demands in trained cyclists, which, if not sufficiently compensated with increased dietary intake, appears to provoke a cascade of metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in an attempt to restore homeostasis and conserve energy. The proactive monitoring of energy

  7. Exercise addiction risk and health in male and female amateur endurance cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Simón-Grima, Javier; Peñarrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims To determine the relationship between the risk of exercise addiction (REA) and health status in amateur endurance cyclists. Methods In 859 (751 men and 108 women) cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined the REA (Exercise Addiction Inventory), training status (volume, frequency, experience, and performance), socioeconomic status, quality of life (QoL) (SF-12), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), physical condition (International Fitness Scale), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener), alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results In total, 17% of the cyclists showed evidence of REA and 83% showed low REA. REA occurred independent of age, sex, training, and socioeconomic status (all ps > .05). Regardless of REA, the cyclists displayed a better physical QoL and a lower cardiometabolic risk than the inactive subjects (all ps cyclists with REA displayed worse values of mental QoL, quality of sleep, and anxiety than cyclists with low REA (all ps < .05). The REA group had better values of mental QoL and anxiety and similar values of quality of sleep than the inactive subjects. The differences in mental QoL between the REA and low REA groups were significantly greater in women (p = .013). There was no Addiction × Sex interaction in the other analyzed variables. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increased prevalence of REA limits the benefits that amateur endurance cycling has on mental health and quality of sleep. PMID:28358644

  8. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  9. Anger expression among Danish cyclists and drivers: A comparison based on mode specific anger expression inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Based on the short form of the driving anger expression inventory (DAX-short, 15-item), the present study developed an adapted version of the DAX for cyclists (CAX, 14 items). The data basis was an online survey of 2000 inhabitants of Denmark. A principle component analysis on the translated DAX......, gender, self-reported aggressive behaviours and traffic fines: Women scored for instance lower in physical expression, while older people scored higher in constructive expression. The effect of age and gender on anger expression among drivers and cyclists remained significant when controlling...

  10. Arousability and Dispositional optimism in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Nosková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses at aspects of resistance to psychical stress in cyclists with a disability in the context of substance abuse stimulant effect. The first part includes knowledge about cycling of handicapped and the effect of stimulants at the sports achievement. The article also describes selected constructs of resistance to the psychical stress, like dispositional optimism. The empirical part includes descriptive data from respondents from sports environment. The data on the level of arousability and dispositional optimism are interpreted in the context of substance use by respondents to effect sports achievement. The data are compared with the data of cyclists without handicap.

  11. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  12. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel ..... and extended family systems and profits from other enterprises but also loans from banks, ... Ilodibe, A.E. (2001). Road transport management in Nigeria.

  13. Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users' exposure to black carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dons, Evi, E-mail: evi.dons@vito.be [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Temmerman, Philip [IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Poppel, Martine [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert [IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Int Panis, Luc [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2013-03-01

    Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7 μg/m{sup 3}) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6 μg/m{sup 3}), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1 μg/m{sup 3}). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds (< 30 km/h) and at speeds above 80 km/h, in accordance to vehicle emission functions. Driving on roads with low traffic intensities resulted in lower exposures than driving on roads with higher traffic intensities (from 5.6 μg/m{sup 3} for roads with less than 500 veh/h, up to 12 μg/m{sup 3} for roads with over 2500 veh/h). Traffic intensity proved to be the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure, together with timing of the trip and urbanization. For cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only. - Highlights: ► Aethalometers, an electronic diary and GPS were used to measure exposure in transport ► More

  14. Eating Attitudes, Perfectionism and Body-esteem of Elite Male Judoists and Cyclists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Filaire, Edith; Rouveix, Matthieu; Pannafieux, Christelle; Ferrand, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that male athletes who feel pressured to maintain a specific body weight present an elevated risk of subclinical eating disorders. Twelve judoists (19.5 ± 0.5 yr), fifteen cyclists (21.2 ± 2.8 yr...

  15. CATS Deliverable 2.2 : CATS car-to-cyclist accident parameters and test scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 2 "Test scenario definition" of the CATS project. It describes relevant accident parameters for the 5 most dominant accidents scenarios defined in WP1. The objective of this WP2 is to construct car-to-cyclist accident test scenarios

  16. CATS Deliverable 1.2 : CATS car-to-cyclist accident scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Rodarius, C.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 1 "accident analysis" of the CATS project. It describes the collection of data, the analyses as well as the final accident scenarios. The objective of this WP was to analyse car-to-cyclist accident scenarios in the EU, mainly

  17. It is a long way to become an expert and a smart cyclist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is about the role that education might play to promote both safe cycling and bicycle use in the Netherlands. The conclusions are as follows: (1) An intensive training programme of cycling skills is needed; (2) Training of defensive behaviour must enable the cyclist to keep control of

  18. Evaluation of elite British cyclists: the role of the squad medical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M J; Jarvis, C

    1996-12-01

    To describe and report results from the procedures and protocols used by the British Cycling Federation during the squad medicals of its elite cyclists. Screening of over 500 elite riders has been done by doctors, dentists, physiotherapists, opticians, and dietitians since 1990. A questionnaire provided additional information on musculoskeletal problems. 523 riders have been examined and 92 (17.5%) have been referred for further assessment or treatment. Most of these riders were sent either to their own general practitioner or to the British Olympic Medical Centre. The questionnaire was completed by 81% of riders. Low back pain was the most common problem that riders encountered (60%), and knee pain the second most common (33%). Four riders failed the eye examination, and a further 11 were classed as borderline. Twenty one per cent of riders undergoing dental examination needed further dental treatment. The squad medical is an important and useful strategy for evaluating elite British cyclists. It shows that a structured system can help early diagnosis and treatment to provide injury-free cyclists at the start of a competitive season. The results from the questionnaire confirm previously unsubstantiated opinions about the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in cyclists.

  19. [A spatially explicit analysis of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and cyclists in Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Tobia

    2017-12-01

    In many German cities and counties, sustainable mobility concepts that strengthen pedestrian and cyclist traffic are promoted. From the perspectives of urban development, traffic planning and public healthcare, a spatially differentiated analysis of traffic accident data is decisive. 1) The identification of spatial and temporal patterns of the distribution of accidents involving cyclists and pedestrians, 2) the identification of hotspots and exploration of possible underlying causes and 3) the critical discussion of benefits and challenges of the results and the derivation of conclusions. Spatio-temporal distributions of data from accident statistics in Berlin involving pedestrians and cyclists from 2011 to 2015 were analysed with geographic information systems (GIS). While the total number of accidents remains relatively stable for pedestrian and cyclist accidents, the spatial distribution analysis shows, however, that there are significant spatial clusters (hotspots) of traffic accidents with a strong concentration in the inner city area. In a critical discussion, the benefits of geographic concepts are identified, such as spatially explicit health data (in this case traffic accident data), the importance of the integration of other data sources for the evaluation of the health impact of areas (traffic accident statistics of the police), and the possibilities and limitations of spatial-temporal data analysis (spatial point-density analyses) for the derivation of decision-supported recommendations and for the evaluation of policy measures of health prevention and of health-relevant urban development.

  20. Effects of Adolescent Sport Practice on Health Outcomes of Adult Amateur Endurance Cyclists: Adulthood Is Not Too Late to Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Peñarrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Paris-Garcia, Federico; Bueno-Antequera, Javier; Oviedo-Caro, Miguel Angel; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of adolescent sport practice on the training, performance, and health outcomes of adult amateur endurance cyclists and compared health outcomes of 3 adult groups: amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence, amateur endurance cyclists who did not practice sports during adolescence, and inactive individuals. In 859 (751 men and 108 women) adult cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined adolescent sport practice, current training status, quality of life, quality of sleep, anxiety and depression, and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity, physical fitness, adherence to Mediterranean diet, and alcohol and tobacco consumption. Independent of gender, no significant differences in training, performance, or health outcomes were observed between amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence and those who did not. Independent of gender, cyclists reported significantly better health outcomes than inactive individuals in all variables, except depression. Training, performance, and health outcomes did not differ between adult amateur endurance cyclists who practiced sports during adolescence and those who did not, but their health outcomes were significantly improved compared with inactive individuals, except for depression.

  1. Road design, human behaviour and road accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    On this basis of recent decades' research this paper presents the problems a road designer meets when he, among other goals, tries to optimise safety. The author argues that road design is only one of the factors affecting accident risk and that road users' possibilities and limitations must play a

  2. Near miss experiences of transport and recreational cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. Findings from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, R G; Hatfield, J; Rissel, C; Flack, L K; Shaw, L; Grzebieta, R; McIntosh, A S

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates events in which cyclists perceive a cycling crash is narrowly avoided (henceforth, a near miss). A cohort of 2038 adult transport and recreational cyclists from New South Wales (Australia) provided self-reported prospectively collected data from cycling diaries to allow the calculation of an exposure-based rate of near misses and investigation of near miss circumstances. During 25,971days of cycling, 3437 near misses were reported. For a given time cycling, cyclists who rode mainly for transport (compared with those who rode mainly for recreation), and cyclists with less experience (compared to those with more experience) were more likely to report a near miss; older cyclists (60+ years) were less likely to report a near miss than younger cyclists (25-59 years). Where type of near miss was recorded, 72.0% involved motor vehicles, 10.9% involved pedestrians and 6.9% involved other cyclists. Results indicate some similarities between near misses and crashes reported by this cohort during the same reporting period. A bias toward reporting near misses with motor vehicles was suggested, which likely reflects cyclists' perceptions that crashes involving motor vehicles are particularly serious, and highlights their impact on perceived safety. Given the relative rarity of crashes, and the limited breadth and depth of administrative data, collection of near miss data may contribute to our understanding of cycling safety by increasing the volume and detail of information available for analysis. Addressing the causes of near misses may offer an opportunity to improve both perceived and actual safety for cyclists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating helmet promotion for cyclists: results from a randomised study with observation of behaviour, using a semi-automatic video system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymery Constant

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. METHODS: We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18-75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of "helmet only", "helmet and information" or "information only", and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. RESULTS: Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the "helmet only" group (OR = 7.73 [2.09-28.5] and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. CONCLUSION: Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure.

  4. Investigating helmet promotion for cyclists: results from a randomised study with observation of behaviour, using a semi-automatic video system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Aymery; Messiah, Antoine; Felonneau, Marie-Line; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Half of fatal injuries among bicyclists are head injuries. While helmet use is likely to provide protection, their use often remains rare. We assessed the influence of strategies for promotion of helmet use with direct observation of behaviour by a semi-automatic video system. We performed a single-centre randomised controlled study, with 4 balanced randomisation groups. Participants were non-helmet users, aged 18-75 years, recruited at a loan facility in the city of Bordeaux, France. After completing a questionnaire investigating their attitudes towards road safety and helmet use, participants were randomly assigned to three groups with the provision of "helmet only", "helmet and information" or "information only", and to a fourth control group. Bikes were labelled with a colour code designed to enable observation of helmet use by participants while cycling, using a 7-spot semi-automatic video system located in the city. A total of 1557 participants were included in the study. Between October 15th 2009 and September 28th 2010, 2621 cyclists' movements, made by 587 participants, were captured by the video system. Participants seen at least once with a helmet amounted to 6.6% of all observed participants, with higher rates in the two groups that received a helmet at baseline. The likelihood of observed helmet use was significantly increased among participants of the "helmet only" group (OR = 7.73 [2.09-28.5]) and this impact faded within six months following the intervention. No effect of information delivery was found. Providing a helmet may be of value, but will not be sufficient to achieve high rates of helmet wearing among adult cyclists. Integrated and repeated prevention programmes will be needed, including free provision of helmets, but also information on the protective effect of helmets and strategies to increase peer and parental pressure.

  5. Health burden of serious road injuries in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, W; Bos, N; Stipdonk, H

    2016-11-16

    The consequences of injuries in terms of disabilities and health burden are relevant for policy making. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge on this topic and discusses the health burden of serious road injuries in The Netherlands. The overview of current knowledge on disabilities following a road crash is based on a literature review. The health burden of serious road injuries is quantified in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), by combining incidence data from the Dutch hospital discharge register with information about temporary and lifelong disability. Literature shows that road traffic injuries can have a major impact on victims' physical and psychological well-being and functioning. Reported proportions of people with disability vary between 11 and 80% depending on the type of casualties, time elapsed since the crash, and the health impacts considered. Together, all casualties involving serious injuries in The Netherlands in 2009 account for about 38,000 YLD, compared to 25,000 years of life lost (YLL) of fatalities. Ninety percent of the burden of injury is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 20% of all those seriously injured in road accidents. Lower leg injuries and head injuries represent a high share in the total burden of injury as have cyclists that are injured in a crash without a motorized vehicle. Pedestrians and powered 2-wheeler users show the highest burden of injury per casualty. Given their major impacts and contribution to health burden, road policy making should also be aimed at reducing the number of serious road injuries and limiting the resulting health impacts.

  6. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebisz, Rafal; Borkowski, Jacek; Zatoń, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E) and those inexperienced (IE) in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+) and lactate ion (LA-) concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively). Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid–base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists. PMID:28149346

  7. Does hydrotherapy help or hinder adaptation to training in competitive cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L; Bartram, Jason; West, Nicholas; Stephens, Jessica; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W; Sargent, Charli; Lastella, Michele; Hopkins, Will G; Martin, David T

    2014-08-01

    Cold water immersion (CWI) may be beneficial for acute recovery from exercise, but it may impair long-term performance by attenuating the stimuli responsible for adaptation to training. We compared effects of CWI and passive rest on cycling performance during a simulated cycling grand tour. Thirty-four male endurance-trained competitive cyclists were randomized to CWI for four times per week for 15 min at 15°C or control (passive recovery) groups for 7 d of baseline training, 21 d of intensified training, and an 11-d taper. Criteria for completion of training and testing were satisfied by 10 cyclists in the CWI group (maximal aerobic power, 5.13 ± 0.21 W·kg; mean ± SD) and 11 in the control group (5.01 ± 0.41 W·kg). Each week, cyclists completed a high-intensity interval cycling test and two 4-min bouts separated by 30 min. CWI was performed four times per week for 15 min at 15°C. Between baseline and taper, cyclists in the CWI group had an unclear change in overall 4-min power relative to control (2.7% ± 5.7%), although mean power in the second effort relative to the first was likely higher for the CWI group relative to control (3.0% ± 3.8%). The change in 1-s maximum mean sprint power in the CWI group was likely beneficial compared with control (4.4% ± 4.2%). Differences between groups for the 10-min time trial were unclear (-0.4% ± 4.3%). Although some effects of CWI on performance were unclear, data from this study do not support recent speculation that CWI is detrimental to performance after increased training load in competitive cyclists.

  8. The bar sinister: does handlebar level damage the pelvic floor in female cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Sarah N; Connell, Kathleen A; Schrader, Steven; LaCombe, Julie; Lowe, Brian; Sweeney, Anne; Reutman, Susan; Wang, Andrea; Toennis, Christine; Melman, Arnold; Mikhail, Madgy; Guess, Marsha K

    2012-05-01

    Cycling is associated with genital neuropathies and erectile dysfunction in males. Women riders also have decreased genital sensation; however, sparse information exists addressing the effects of modifiable risks on neurological injuries in females. This study assesses the effects of bicycle setup and cyclists' attributes on GS and saddle pressures among female cyclists. Previously, we compared genital sensation in competitive female cyclists (N = 48) to that of female runners (N = 22). The current study is a subanalysis of the 48 cyclists from the original study group. Nonpregnant, premenopausal women who rode at least 10 miles per week, 4 weeks per month were eligible for participation. Genital sensation was measured in microns using biosthesiometry measures of vibratory thresholds (VTs). Perineal and total saddle pressures were determined using a specialized pressure map and recorded in kilopascals (kPA). Handlebars positioned lower than the saddle correlated with increased perineum saddle pressures and decreased anterior vaginal and left labial genital sensation (P < 0.05, P < 0.02, P < 0.03, respectively). Low handlebars were not associated with total saddle pressures or altered genital sensation in other areas. After adjusting for age and saddle type, low handlebars were associated with a 3.47-kPA increase in mean perineum saddle pressures (P < 0.04) and a 0.86-micron increase in anterior vagina VT (P < 0.01). Handlebars positioned lower than the saddle were significantly associated with increased perineum saddle pressures and decreased genital sensation in female cyclists. Modifying bicycle setup may help alleviate neuropathies in females. Additional research is warranted to further assess the extent of the associations. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Prevalence of alcohol among nonfatally injured road accident casualties in two level III trauma centers in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark

    2017-08-22

    Alcohol use is pervasive among motorists on the road in Ghana; however, we do not know the extent to which this behavior is implicated in road accidents in this country. The main objective of this research was to establish the prevalence of alcohol in the blood of nonfatally injured casualties in the emergency departments (EDs) in northern Ghana. Participants were injured road traffic crash victims, namely, pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers seeking treatment at an ED. The study sites were 2 level III trauma centers located in Wa and Bolgatanga. Participants were screened for alcohol followed by breath tests for positive participants using breathalyzers. Two hundred and sixty-two accident victims visited EDs, 58% of whom were in Wa. Among the victims, 41% were hospitalized and 57% experienced slight injuries. The vast majority (76%) of the casualties were motorcyclists, 13% were pedestrians, 8% were cyclists, and 2% were drivers. Casualties who had detectable alcohol in their blood were predominantly vulnerable road users. In all, 34% of participants had detectable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and the mean BAC for all casualties who tested positive and could give definitive BACs was 0.2265 (226 mg/dl). The prevalence of alcohol use was 53% among cyclists, 34% among motorcyclists, 21% among pedestrians, and 17% among drivers. Male casualties were more likely to test positive for alcohol than females. In addition, the prevalence of alcohol was significantly higher among injured casualties in Bolgatanga compared to Wa. There was a high prevalence of alcohol use among nonfatally injured casualties in northern Ghana and injury severity increased with BAC. AUDIT screening in the hospital, alcohol consumption guideline, road safety education with an emphasis on minimizing or eliminating alcohol consumption, and enhanced enforcement of the BAC limit among motorists are recommended.

  10. Safe road shoulders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, almost one fifth of all serious crashes that are registered are run-off-road crashes; on rural roads the proportion even is one third. In more than 70% of those crashes a passenger car is involved. By far most of the serious run-off-road crashes occur on 80 km/h roads. The causes

  11. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How bicycle level of traffic stress correlate with reported cyclist accidents injury severities: A geospatial and mixed logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Anderson, Jason C; Wang, Haizhong; Wang, Yinhai; Vogt, Rachel; Hernandez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    Transportation agencies need efficient methods to determine how to reduce bicycle accidents while promoting cycling activities and prioritizing safety improvement investments. Many studies have used standalone methods, such as level of traffic stress (LTS) and bicycle level of service (BLOS), to better understand bicycle mode share and network connectivity for a region. However, in most cases, other studies rely on crash severity models to explain what variables contribute to the severity of bicycle related crashes. This research uniquely correlates bicycle LTS with reported bicycle crash locations for four cities in New Hampshire through geospatial mapping. LTS measurements and crash locations are compared visually using a GIS framework. Next, a bicycle injury severity model, that incorporates LTS measurements, is created through a mixed logit modeling framework. Results of the visual analysis show some geospatial correlation between higher LTS roads and "Injury" type bicycle crashes. It was determined, statistically, that LTS has an effect on the severity level of bicycle crashes and high LTS can have varying effects on severity outcome. However, it is recommended that further analyses be conducted to better understand the statistical significance and effect of LTS on injury severity. As such, this research will validate the use of LTS as a proxy for safety risk regardless of the recorded bicycle crash history. This research will help identify the clustering patterns of bicycle crashes on high-risk corridors and, therefore, assist with bicycle route planning and policy making. This paper also suggests low-cost countermeasures or treatments that can be implemented to address high-risk areas. Specifically, with the goal of providing safer routes for cyclists, such countermeasures or treatments have the potential to substantially reduce the number of fatalities and severe injuries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome - a case study exercise testing in master cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery), a 40%-50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery). The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect relevant stenosis in coronary arteries.

  14. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  15. Requests for medical assistance during an amateur road cycling race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roi, Giulio Sergio; Tinti, Riccardo

    2014-12-01

    Requests for medical assistance during an amateur road cycling race, which included 56,700 cyclists over 6 consecutive races between 2006 and 2011, were analysed with the aim of improving injury prevention and medical coverage. Medical assistance was requested by a small percentage of participants (1.7 ± 1.0%), but the actual number seeking assistance was quite high due to the large total number of participants (162 ± 51). 0.17% of all participants did not finish the race for medical reasons. No fatal injuries were recorded. The incidence rate of requests for medical assistance was 0.108/1,000 km, and the incidence of withdrawal was 0.011/1,000 km of the race. Of all medical requests, those due to direct trauma caused by falls accounted for 63%, requests for overload injuries accounted for 4% and requests for non-traumatic complaints accounted for 22% of the total; 11% of requests were not classified. Weather conditions may affect the type and the incidence of requests: requests for traumatic injuries increase if raining; requests for heat-related illnesses if hot. Prevention techniques are aimed at guaranteeing and promoting health and safety and should be implemented by both the race organisers and the cyclists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Positive Pacing Strategies Are Utilized by Elite Male and Female Para-cyclists in Short Time Trials in the Velodrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rachel L

    2015-01-01

    In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilize an "all-out" strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT) and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001 s) were obtained from the C1-C3 men's 1-km TT (n = 28) and women's 500-m TT (n = 9) from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men's 1-km TT (n = 19) and women's 500-m TT (n = 12) from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists) and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men's 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women's 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall's Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars. Split times

  17. Positive pacing strategies are utilised by elite male and female para-cyclists in short time trials in the velodrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lindsey Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In para-cycling, competitors are classed based on functional impairment resulting in cyclists with neurological and locomotor impairments competing against each other. In Paralympic competition, classes are combined by using a factoring adjustment to race times to produce the overall medallists. Pacing in short-duration track cycling events is proposed to utilise an all-out strategy in able-bodied competition. However, pacing in para-cycling may vary depending on the level of impairment. Analysis of the pacing strategies employed by different classification groups may offer scope for optimal performance; therefore, this study investigated the pacing strategy adopted during the 1-km time trial (TT and 500-m TT in elite C1 to C3 para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists. Total times and intermediate split times (125-m intervals; measured to 0.001s were obtained from the C1-C3 men’s 1-km TT (n=28 and women’s 500-m TT (n=9 from the 2012 Paralympic Games and the men’s 1-km TT (n=19 and women’s 500-m TT (n=12 from the 2013 UCI World Track Championships from publically available video. Split times were expressed as actual time, factored time (for the para-cyclists and as a percentage of total time. A two-way analysis of variance was used to investigate differences in split times between the different classifications and the able-bodied cyclists in the men’s 1-km TT and between the para-cyclists and able-bodied cyclists in the women’s 500-m TT. The importance of position at the first split was investigated with Kendall’s Tau-b correlation. The first 125-m split time was the slowest for all cyclists, representing the acceleration phase from a standing start. C2 cyclists were slowest at this 125-m split, probably due to a combination of remaining seated in this acceleration phase and a high proportion of cyclists in this group being trans-femoral amputees. Not all cyclists used aero-bars, preferring to use drop, flat or bullhorn handlebars

  18. Gender stereotypes and superior conformity of the self in a sample of cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félonneau, Marie-Line; Causse, Elsa; Constant, Aymery; Contrand, Benjamin; Messiah, Antoine; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    In the field of driving, people tend to think they are more competent and more cautious than others. This is the superior conformity of the self (SCS). Our main hypothesis was that, among cyclists, women would show a higher SCS on cautiousness, though men would show a higher SCS concerning competence. 1799 cyclists provided a self-assessment of their own cautiousness and of other people's cautiousness. The same procedure was used for competence. Consistent with the hypothesis, the SCS was gender-specific: it was more prominent for women concerning cautiousness and more prominent for men concerning competence. These results could explain why people tend to ignore the safety campaigns. They also indicate the importance of adapting messages concerning safety measures to gender. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adding strength to endurance training does not enhance aerobic capacity in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psilander, N; Frank, P; Flockhart, M; Sahlin, K

    2015-08-01

    The molecular signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis is enhanced when resistance exercise is added to a bout of endurance exercise. The purpose of the present study was to examine if this mode of concurrent training translates into increased mitochondrial content and improved endurance performance. Moderately trained cyclists performed 8 weeks (two sessions per week) of endurance training only (E, n = 10; 60-min cycling) or endurance training followed by strength training (ES, n = 9; 60-min cycling + leg press). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and analyzed for enzyme activities and protein content. Only the ES group increased in leg strength (+19%, P endurance (+9%, P endurance performance (+4%, P training. Contrary to our hypothesis, the results demonstrate that concurrent training does not enhance muscle aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Monetary Reward Alters Pacing but Not Performance in Competitive Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Skorski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Money has frequently been used as an extrinsic motivator since it is assumed that humans are willing to invest more effort for financial reward. However, the influence of a monetary reward on pacing and performance in trained athletes is not well-understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a monetary reward in well-trained cyclists on their pacing and performance during short and long cycling time trials (TT. Twentythree cyclists (6 ♀, 17 ♂ completed 4 self-paced time trials (TTs, 2 short: 4 km and 6 min; 2 long: 20 km and 30 min; in a randomized order. Participants were separated into parallel, non-randomized “rewarded” and “non-rewarded” groups. Cyclists in the rewarded group received a monetary reward based on highest mean power output across all TTs. Cyclists in the non-rewarded group did not receive a monetary reward. Overall performance was not significantly different between groups in short or long TTs (p > 0.48. Power output showed moderatly lower effect sizes at comencement of the short TTs (Pmeandiff = 36.6 W; d > 0.44 and the 20 km TT (Pmeandiff = 22.6 W; d = 0.44 in the rewarded group. No difference was observed in pacing during the 30 min TT (p = 0.95. An external reward seems to have influenced pacing at the commencement of time trials. Participants in the non-rewarded group adopted a typical parabolic shaped pattern, whereas participants in the rewarded group started trials more conservatively. Results raise the possibility that using money as an extrinsic reward may interfere with regulatory processes required for effective pacing.

  1. Effects of high intensity training by heart rate or power in recreational cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Plasschaert, Jeff; Kisaalita, Nkaku R

    2011-01-01

    Technological advances in interval training for cyclists have led to the development of both heart rate (HR) monitors and powermeters (PM). Despite the growing popularity of PM use, the superiority of PM-based training has not been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of HR-based versus PM-based interval training on 20 km time trial (20km TT), lactate threshold (LT) power, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2max) in recreational cyclists. Participants (n =20; M age=33.9, SD =13) completed a baseline 20km TT to establish their VO2max and LT and were then randomly assigned to either HR-determined or PM-determined training sessions. Over a period of up to 5 weeks participants completed 7.2 (± 1.1) interval training sessions at their specific LT for their respective interval training method. Repeated measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs) showed that both HR-based and PM-based training groups significantly improved their LT power (F(1,16) = 28., p training for endurance athletes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that there is no empirical evidence for the superiority of any single type of device in the implementation of interval training. This study indicates that there are no noticeable advantages to using PM to increase performance in the average recreational cyclist, suggesting that low cost HR monitor are equally capable as training devices. Key pointsInterval training improves performance for recreational cyclists as measure by changes in lactate threshold watts and 20km time trial timeNo evidence of superiority of either heart monitor training and power meter trainingLow cost heart rate monitors are equally capable as training devices.

  2. Evaluation of elite British cyclists: the role of the squad medical.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, M J; Jarvis, C.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and report results from the procedures and protocols used by the British Cycling Federation during the squad medicals of its elite cyclists. METHODS: Screening of over 500 elite riders has been done by doctors, dentists, physiotherapists, opticians, and dietitians since 1990. A questionnaire provided additional information on musculoskeletal problems. RESULTS: 523 riders have been examined and 92 (17.5%) have been referred for further assessment or treatment. Most of th...

  3. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  4. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkaku R. Kisaalita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p 0.05. Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors.

  5. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Catherine L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exercise capacity declines with advancing age. These changes often result in loss of physical fitness and more rapid senescence. Nitric oxide (NO has been implicated in improvement of exercise capacity through vascular smooth muscle relaxation in both coronary and skeletal muscle arteries, as well as via independent mechanisms. Antioxidants may prevent nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an L-arginine and antioxidant supplement on exercise performance in elderly male cyclists. Methods This was a two-arm prospectively randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen male cyclists were randomized to receive either a proprietary supplement (Niteworks®, Herbalife International Inc., Century City, CA or a placebo powder. Exercise parameters were assessed by maximal incremental exercise testing performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline, week one and week three. Results There was no difference between baseline exercise parameters. In the supplemented group, anaerobic threshold increased by 16.7% (2.38 ± 0.18 L/min, p 2 max between control and intervention groups at either week 1 or week 3 by comparison to baseline. Conclusion An arginine and antioxidant-containing supplement increased the anaerobic threshold at both week one and week three in elderly cyclists. No effect on VO2 max was observed. This study indicated a potential role of L-arginine and antioxidant supplementation in improving exercise performance in elderly.

  6. Block periodization of high-intensity aerobic intervals provides superior training effects in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Ellefsen, S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists. One group of cyclists performed block periodization, wherein the first week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one weekly HIT session and focus on low-intensity training (LIT) (BP; n = 10, VO2max  = 62 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Another group of cyclists performed a more traditional organization, with 4 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions interspersed with LIT (TRAD; n = 9, VO2max  = 63 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Similar volumes of both HIT and LIT was performed in the two groups. While BP increased VO2max , peak power output (Wmax) and power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] by 4.6 ± 3.7%, 2.1 ± 2.8%, and 10 ± 12%, respectively (P training compared with TRAD training (ES = 1.34, ES = 0.85, and ES = 0.71, respectively). The present study suggests that block periodization of training provides superior adaptations to traditional organization during a 4-week endurance training period, despite similar training volume and intensity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of eight-week supplementation of Ashwagandha on cardiorespiratory endurance in elite Indian cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shweta; Chaskar, Udesh; Sandhu, Jaspal S; Paadhi, Madan Mohan

    2012-10-01

    Cycling is an endurance sport relying mainly on aerobic capacity to provide fuel during long-duration cycling events. Athletes are constantly searching for new methods to improve this capacity through various nutritional and ergogenic aids.s The aim of the study was to find out the effect of Ashwagandha on the cardiorespiratory endurance capacity, that is, aerobic capacity of elite Indian cyclists. Forty elite (elite here refers to the participation of the athlete in at least state-level events) Indian cyclists were chosen randomly and were equally divided into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 500 mg capsules of aqueous roots of Ashwagandha twice daily for eight weeks, whereas the placebo group received starch capsules. The baseline treadmill test for the cyclists were performed to measure their aerobic capacity in terms of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2) max), metabolic equivalent, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and total time for the athlete to reach his exhaustion stage. After eight weeks of supplementation, the treadmill test was again performed and results were obtained. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, whereas the placebo group did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, namely, VO(2) max (t = 5.356; P Ashwagandha improved the cardiorespiratory endurance of the elite athletes.

  8. The Relationship between Cortisol and Bone Mineral Density in Competitive Male Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L. Mathis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip.

  9. Pelvic floor symptoms in female cyclists and possible remedies: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofaier, Marie-Louise; Schneidinger, Cora; Marschalek, Julian; Hanzal, Engelbert; Umek, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Cycling has become a popular athletic activity worldwide and can lead to genital and pelvic floor dysfunction. This review summarizes the current body of evidence about the epidemiology of genital and pelvic floor symptoms in female cyclists, the therapy, and preventive interventions. Two electronic meta-databases, OvidSP™ and Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information (DIMDI), comprising 40 individual databases, were searched for studies that described genital and pelvic floor symptoms in association with cycling and studies that tested possible therapies and prophylactic measures. For the literature search we explored the search terms "female", "bicycling", "pelvic floor", "lower urinary tract symptoms", and "vulvar diseases". The search retrieved 1,219 articles, leaving 763 articles after removal of duplicates, and finally 12 articles eligible for review. We assessed 10 observational and 2 experimental studies. Genital and pelvic floor symptoms related to bicycling were pain, tenderness, neuropathy, urological dysfunction and skin lesions. Broader and conventionally shaped saddles were associated with fewer symptoms compared with cut-out saddle designs. The quality of existing studies is generally low, but there is evidence that female cyclists suffer from similar problems to male cyclists, ranging from minor skin lesions to severe sequelae such as pain and neurological deficiencies.

  10. SWOV – Institute for Road Safety Research in the Netherlands : introducing the organization of transport studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.

    2015-01-01

    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research was founded in 1962. SWOV's main objective is to contribute to road safety by means of scientific research and dissemination of results and knowledge to professionals and policy makers. SWOV is the national institute for road safety research in the

  11. Road traffic accidents in children: the 'what', 'how' and 'why'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yue Yen; Fang, Eric; Weng, Yanyi; Ganapathy, Sashikumar

    2017-12-07

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) in Singapore involving children were evaluated, with particular focus on the epidemiology, surrounding circumstances and outcomes of these accidents. Key factors associated with worse prognosis were identified. We proposed some measures that may be implemented to reduce the frequency and severity of such accidents. This was a retrospective study of RTAs involving children aged 0-16 years who presented to the Children's Emergency at KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, from January 2011 to June 2014. Data was obtained from the National Trauma Registry and analysed in tiers based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS). 1,243 accidents were reviewed. RTA victims included motor vehicle passengers (60.4%), pedestrians (28.5%), cyclists (9.9%) and motorbike pillion riders (1.2%). Disposition of emergency department (ED) patients was consistent with RTA severity. For serious RTAs, pedestrians accounted for 63.6% and 57.7% of tier 1 (ISS > 15) and tier 2 (ISS 9-15) presentations, respectively. Overall use of restraints was worryingly low (36.7%). Not restraining increased the risk of serious RTAs by 8.4 times. Young age, high ISS and low Glasgow Coma Scale score predicted a longer duration of intensive care unit stay. The importance of restraints for motor vehicle passengers or helmets for motorcyclist pillion riders and cyclists in reducing morbidity cannot be emphasised enough. Suggestions for future prevention and intervention include road safety education, regulation of protective restraints, use of speed enforcement devices and creation of transport policies that minimise kerbside parking.

  12. Progress in reducing road-related deaths and injuries in Irish children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study road-related injuries and fatalities in under 15 year olds in two time periods (1996-2000 and 2004-2008 inclusive) to assess whether progress has been made via cross-sectoral efforts to reduce this injury toll in Ireland. For pedestrian and car-related accidents, police assistance is required and at the time a detailed CT 68 form is completed by the attending officer and sent to the Road Safety Authority for analysis. Details re the severity of injury, light and road conditions and safety measures such as seat belt or car restraint use, seat position and helmet use if a cyclist were recorded. Injuries were sub-classified as fatalities, serious (detained in hospital, fractures, severe head injury, severe internal injuries or shock requiring treatment) or minor. All data for the two time periods was entered onto an SPSS database. A concerted national campaign re road safety media campaign allied to random breath testing, penalty points for driving offences, on the spot fines for speeding and far greater police enforcement took place between the two time frames and continues to this day. When looked at as most likely estimates of death ratios the results were found to be statistically significant with an overall p value of < 0.0001 CI [0.39, 0.69]. When broken down into specific age ranges all were significant apart from the 0-3 age range with a p value of 0.69 CI [0.26, 1.1]. The most significant changes were found in the 7-9 years, 10-12 and 13-15 year age ranges with p values of < 0.0001, 0.0002 and 0.0007 respectively. When results were compared between the two cohorts, car occupant fatalities between both groups dropped by 36%. Pedestrian injuries dropped from 1719 to 1232, pedestrian fatalities decreased by almost 50% as did serious pedestrian injuries from 261 down to 129. Cyclist fatalities saw the most significant fall (76%) with a dramatic reduction in cyclist injuries from 25 down to 6 (63%). The 13-15 year old age group had the highest

  13. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Abstract. Between 1990 and 1924, the British colonial administration embarked upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion of road development was accompanied by the introduction of motor vehicles. Motor transport industry was dominated by expatriates in the 1920s. From the ...

  14. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  15. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  16. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  17. Roads (Johnson City)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the location of existing NPS roads including access roads for which the park has an easement at Lyndon B. Johnson National...

  18. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  19. Road safety rhetoric versus road safety politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køltzow, K

    1993-12-01

    In-depth interviews with top level decision makers in the road sector in Norway were conducted over a four-year period: Three principal impediments to safety interventions were identified: (i) Mobility is considered of primary importance; the "freedom of the car" is difficult to restrict, (ii) as a consequence there is much more lobbying for mobility than for safety, and (iii) road safety commitment and policies are weak, even among some of those responsible. For these reasons, efficient road safety work is often side-tracked at the top level, and substituted by nonbinding demands for road users' "change of attitude". In addition, road safety is often used as a proxy argument for measures that mainly promote mobility.

  20. Incivility on the road: this may also affect you!

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    We all have to act in a more respectful and careful manner towards each other, and this also applies on the road. We therefore have to pay particular attention to the most vulnerable people (cyclists, pedestrians, etc.).   A couple of articles were published on the issue to raise awareness among drivers on the importance of road safety rules (see the CERN Bulletin on 10 September and 22 October 2012). Incivilities such as vehicles parked in a hazardous way, right of way violations, etc. can cause serious accidents with physical and/or material consequences. In compliance with the 2013 road safety goal, presented earlier this year by CERN’s Director-General, incivilities reported in the A2 Form will, from now on, be systemically followed up, as stated in the procedure set up by the HSE Unit in collaboration with the GS Department. The follow-up process puts special emphasis on prevention, as it is mainly a reminder of CERN traffic regulations...

  1. « I respect other road users. Do you? »

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This is the first slogan in a road safety campaign aimed at making CERN's roads safer and more pleasant to drive on.   Getting nudged off your bike while riding along minding your own business, having to walk around a car parked on the pavement, or having an endless wait at a pedestrian crossing because drivers can't be bothered to stop... all this is highly unpleasant, and can even be dangerous. The fact that it happens all too often at your own workplace, CERN, only makes matters worse. Discourteous driving is on the rise at CERN. It tarnishes the friendly atmosphere of our Laboratory and compromises the safety of us all. It's even more regrettable when you think that we're all colleagues together. With so many pedestrians and cyclists using the roads across the CERN site, anyone who drives at 80 km/h in a 50 km/h limit is placing his own colleagues in danger. Every day, more than 15 000 vehicle journeys are made on the Meyrin site alone. Each and every one of these drivers, or in other words, e...

  2. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... creation and to some extent road transport buyers in terms of more informed market knowledge....

  3. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  4. Vascular volumes and hematology in male and female runners and cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H J; Carter, S; Grant, S; Tupling, R; Coates, G; Ali, M

    1999-02-01

    To examine the hypothesis that foot-strike hemolysis alters vascular volumes and selected hematological properties is trained athletes, we have measured total blood volume (TBV), red cell volume (RCV) and plasma volume (PV) in cyclists (n = 21) and runners (n = 17) and compared them to those of untrained controls (n = 20). TBV (ml x kg(-1)) was calculated as the sum of RCV (ml x kg(-1)) and PV (ml x kg(-1)) obtained using 51Cr and 125I-labelled albumin, respectively. Hematological assessment was carried out using a Coulter counter. Peak aerobic power (VO2peak) was measured during progressive exercise to fatigue using both cycle and treadmill ergometry. RCV was 15% higher (P runners [35.3 (0.98); n = 9] compared to the controls [30.7 (0.92); n = 12]. Similar differences existed between the female cyclists [28.2 (2.1); n = 9] and runners [28.4 (1.0); n = 8] compared to the untrained controls [24.9 (1.4); n = 8]. For the male athletes, PV was between 19% (cyclists) and 28% (runners) higher (P untrained controls. The differences in PV between the female groups were not significant. Although the males had a higher (P runners were found for either gender. Mean cell volume was not different between the athletic groups. VO2peak (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was higher (P runners when compared to the untrained males [47.1 (1.0)] and females [40.5 (2.1)]. Although differences existed between the genders in VO2peak for both cyclists and runners, no differences were found between the athletic groups within a gender. Since the vascular volumes were not different between cyclists and runners for either the males or females, foot-strike hemolysis would not appear to have an effect on that parameter. The significant correlations (P < 0.05) found between VO2peak and RCV (r = 0.64 and 0.64) and TBV (r = 0.82 and 0.63) for the males and females, respectively, suggests a role for the vascular system in realizing a high aerobic power.

  5. Progress in reducing road-related deaths and injuries in Irish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J; Bimpeh, Y; Trace, F; Waters, A; Nicholson, A J

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study road-related injuries and fatalities in under 15 year olds in two time periods (1996-2000 and 2004-2008 inclusive) to assess whether progress has been made via cross-sectoral efforts to reduce this injury toll in Ireland. For pedestrian and car-related accidents, police assistance is required and at the time a detailed CT 68 form is completed by the attending officer and sent to the Road Safety Authority for analysis. Details re the severity of injury, light and road conditions and safety measures such as seat belt or car restraint use, seat position and helmet use if a cyclist were recorded. Injuries were sub-classified as fatalities, serious (detained in hospital, fractures, severe head injury, severe internal injuries or shock requiring treatment) or minor. All data for the two time periods was entered onto an SPSS database. A concerted national campaign re road safety media campaign allied to random breath testing, penalty points for driving offences, on the spot fines for speeding and far greater police enforcement took place between the two time frames and continues to this day. When looked at as most likely estimates of death ratios the results were found to be statistically significant with an overall p value of road safety campaign, greater police enforcement and a cultural change has seen road-related injuries in children drop very significantly (by 50%) over the two time periods and this campaign should continue.

  6. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF ROAD-USER CHARGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil THORPE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon public attitudes to and public acceptance of road-user charging as an effective means of managing travel demand, with the overall aim of identifying the characteristics of key interest groups, the kinds of attitudes they hold and their preferences for the distribution of the benefits of generated net revenues and released roadspace. It is argued that this knowledge can play a pivotal role in the design of road-user charging systems that satisfy two important criteria – namely, that they are capable of achieving their stated objectives and are generally acceptable to the public. A case-study of three toll-rings used for revenue generation by the Norwegian cities of Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim is selected, where a team of Norwegian interviewers administered a computer-based survey to a total of 756 respondents. Results of the analyses of the attitudinal data collected raise concerns about the approach of introducing initially low levels of road-use charge, designed to have negligible impacts on travel behaviour but to raise revenues to fund necessary improvements to public transport, both to familiarise private car-users with the principles of a pay-as-you-go system of charging and hopefully to reduce levels of public opposition prior to the introduction of the longer term objective of higher charges for traffic restraint. The timescale over which charges are increased may be crucial in terms of balancing a resistance to change in the longer term against the credibility of a system whose objectives are modified in the relatively short-term. The key conclusion from the first Stated Preference exercise is that there is a high degree of consensus among individuals on the importance of investing significant amounts of net revenues in new road infrastructure as well as improved public transport. The second Stated Preference exercise highlights respondents' concerns that the benefits in improved network performance achieved by a

  7. Relationship Between Body Positioning, Muscle Activity, and Spinal Kinematics in Cyclists With and Without Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streisfeld, Gabriel M; Bartoszek, Caitlin; Creran, Emily; Inge, Brianna; McShane, Marc D; Johnston, Therese

    2016-10-26

    Low back pain is reported by more than half of cyclists. The pathomechanics and association of risk factors of lumbar spine overuse injuries in cycling are not clearly understood. To determine whether relationships exist between body positioning, spinal kinematics, and muscle activity in active cyclists with nontraumatic low back pain. In August of 2015 and April of 2016, a comprehensive search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, and Scopus databases was performed independently by 5 reviewers. Included articles consisted of biomechanical studies examining factors relating to low back pain in cyclists as agreed upon by group consensus. Systematic review. Level 4. Five reviewers appraised by consensus each article using the Downs and Black checklist. Eight studies met criteria for this review. There is evidence that cyclists with lower handlebar heights displayed increased lumbosacral flexion angles during cycling. Core muscle activation imbalances, back extensor endurance deficits, and increased lumbar flexion while cycling were found to be present in cyclists with low back pain. Spinal and core muscle activation imbalances in a prolonged flexed posture associated with cycling may lead to maladaptive spinal kinematics and increased spinal stresses contributing to overuse low back pain. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. An exemplum and its road safety morals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Ezra

    2016-09-01

    With the design of an existing bike-lane in mind I discuss several general issues: accident causation and its linkage to the formulation of prevention strategies; the myopia afflicting major studies of causation and their misleading 'the-driver-did-it' message; the question of who is responsible for what in the management of road safety; and the difficult position in which the professionals find themselves when the 'State' does not embrace its responsibility to road safety. I think that were the public aware of this state of affairs in North America it might insist on change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EMG spectral analysis of incremental exercise in cyclists and non-cyclists using Fourier and Wavelet transforms. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n6p660

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vitor da Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the electromyographic indices of fatigue (slope of median frequency calculated with the fast Fourier transform (FFT and wavelet transform (WT in trained and untrained individuals during cycle exercise. A second objective was to compare the variance of the spectral parameters (median frequency - MF obtained by the FFT and WT during exercise. Twelve cyclists and non-cyclists performed a maximal incremental test to determine the peak power (Wp and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis (VL, rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, semitendinous (ST and tibialis anterior (TA. Mean values of median frequency, determined by the FFT and WT, were used for the spectral analysis of the electromyographic signals of the studied muscles. The analyzed parameters were obtained for each time period corresponding to 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of total duration of the maximal incremental test. No statistically significant differences were found in the values of MF and electromyographic indices of fatigue between the two techniques (FT and WT both in the cyclists and non-cyclists group (P>0.05. Regarding the MF variance, statistically significant differences were found in all analyzed muscles, as well as in different time periods, both in the cyclists and non-cyclists groups when comparing the FFT and WT techniques (P<0.05. The WT seems to be more adequate to dynamic tasks, since it does not require the signal to be quasi-stationary, unlike the limitation imposed upon the use of the FFT.

  10. The prevalence and reliability of visibility aid and other risk factor data for uninjured cyclists and pedestrians in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Brent E; Lamy, Andrea; Rizkallah, Jacques W; Belton, Kathy L; Jhangri, Gian S; Cherry, Nicola; Rowe, Brian H

    2007-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and reliability of risk factors collected on uninjured cyclists-pedestrians in Edmonton, Alberta, and what characteristics predict cyclist-pedestrian visibility. At randomly selected locations from July 2004 to August 2004, two independent observers recorded cyclist-pedestrian characteristics such as age, sex, clothing color, use of reflectors, flags, helmets, and a subjective impression of visibility. Data were collected on 836 individuals; most were either walking/jogging (approximately 63%) or cycling (approximately 33%). For non-cyclists, the prevalence of bright colored clothing on the trunk ranged from 12.7 to 14.7%. Few people used any kind of reflective strips. Inter-observer agreement (Kappa) ranged from 0.37 (visibility assessment) to 0.99 (sex). For cyclists, 17-19% of headgear was brightly colored, and 13-14% was white. Approximately one-fourth had a front light; half had a rear reflector. Few cyclists used a flag and just over half used spoke reflectors. Kappa ranged from 0.35 (observer assessed speed) to 0.95 (head gear and sex). A major trunk color of orange, red, yellow or white resulted in a higher visibility rating for both cyclists and pedestrians. The results indicate a low prevalence of visibility aid use among cyclists and pedestrians, but there appears to be acceptable inter-observer reliability for most data collected. Further work is required before an overall visibility rating can be used in place of component scores.

  11. Randomized Trials and Self-Reported Accident as a Method to Study Safety-Enhancing Measures for Cyclists - two case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the safety impact of increased visibility of cyclists through two randomised controlled trials: permanent running lights on bicycles and a yellow bike jacket, respectively.......In this paper we describe the safety impact of increased visibility of cyclists through two randomised controlled trials: permanent running lights on bicycles and a yellow bike jacket, respectively....

  12. Preliminary results from a field experiment on e-bike safety : speed choice and mental workload for middle-aged and elderly cyclists. Paper presented at the International Cycling Safety Conference 2013, Helmond, The Netherland, 20-21 November 2013.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Boele, M.J. Vlakveld, W.P. Christoph, M. Sikkema, R. Remij, R. & Schwab, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    To study the safety of e-bikes for the elderly, an experimental field study was conducted, using instrumented bicycles and comparing two age groups: older cyclists, n= 29, mean age = 70, SD = 4.2 and middle-aged cyclists, n = 29, mean age = 38, SD = 4.3. All were regular cyclists. They rode a fixed

  13. Comparison of transportation related injury mechanisms and outcome of young road users and adult road users, a retrospective analysis on 24,373 patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockamp, Thomas; Schmucker, Uli; Lefering, Rolf; Mutschler, Manuel; Driessen, Arne; Probst, Christian; Bouillon, Bertil; Koenen, Paola

    2017-06-14

    Most young people killed in road crashes are known as vulnerable road users. A combination of physical and developmental immaturity as well as inexperience increases the risk of road traffic accidents with a high injury severity rate. Understanding injury mechanism and pattern in a group of young road users may reduce morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes injury patterns and outcomes of young road users compared to adult road users. The comparison takes into account different transportation related injury mechanisms. A retrospective analysis using data collected between 2002 and 2012 from the TraumaRegister DGU® was performed. Only patients with a transportation related injury mechanism (motor vehicle collision (MVC), motorbike, cyclist, and pedestrian) and an ISS ≥ 9 were included in our analysis. Four different groups of young road users were compared to adult trauma data depending on the transportation related injury mechanism. Twenty four thousand three hundred seventy three, datasets were retrieved to compare all subgroups. The mean ISS was 23.3 ± 13.1. The overall mortality rate was 8.61%. In the MVC, the motorbike and the cyclist group, we found young road users having more complex injury patterns with a higher AIS pelvis, AIS head, AIS abdomen and AIS of the extremities and also a lower GCS. Whereas in these three sub-groups the adult trauma group only had a higher AIS thorax. Only in the group of the adult pedestrians we found a higher AIS pelvis, AIS abdomen, AIS thorax, a higher AIS of the extremities and a lower GCS. This study reports on the most common injuries and injury patterns in young trauma patients in comparison to an adult trauma sample. Our analysis show that in contrast to more experienced road users our young collective refers to be a vulnerable trauma group with an increased risk of a high injury severity and high mortality rate. We indicate a striking difference in terms of the region of injury and the mechanism of

  14. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamari, K; Briki, W; Farooq, A; Patrick, T; Belfekih, T; Herrera, C P

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO2max: 57.7±5.6 ml kg(-1)·min(-1)) and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Reaction Time index (RTI) and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) tests) and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG) were assessed: before Ramadan (BR), in the 1st week (RA1) and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4), and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR). Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL) by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and wellness (Hooper index) were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4), together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index) reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East.

  15. Riding position and lumbar spine angle in recreational cyclists: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHULZ, SAMANTHA J.; GORDON, SUSAN J.

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the reliability of an inclinometer to assess lumbar spine angle in three different cycling positions, and explored the relationship between lumbar spine angle and riding position, anthropometry, bike measures and low back pain (LBP). Cyclists were recruited from two cycle clubs. Anthropometric variables and bike setup were measured before participants’ bikes were secured in a wind trainer. Cyclists then adopted three positions for riding, upright on the handlebars, on the brake levers and on the drops, according to a random allocation. The angle of the lumbar spine was measured; using an inclinometer, at zero minutes and after cyclists had completed 10 minutes of cycling. Intra-measurer reliability for inclinometer use to measure lumbar spine angle in each position was excellent (ICC=0.97). The angle of the lumbar spine changed significantly over 10 minutes in the brake position (p=0.004). Lumbar spine angle at 10 minutes was significantly different between the brake and drop positions (p=0.018, p<0.05), and between upright and drop positions (p=0.012, p<0.05). Lumbar spine angle was not related to anthropometric measures. The change in lumbar spine angle varied from one degree of extension to 12 degrees of flexion, with increased flexion occurring in 95% of trials. An inclinometer has excellent intra-measurer reliability to measure lumbar spine angle in cycling positions. Future research with a sample of 72 or more participants is required to determine if there is a significant relationship between LBP and lumbar spine angle in different cycling positions. PMID:27182345

  16. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chamari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO 2 max: 57.7±5.6 ml • kg-1 • min-1 and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB, Reaction Time index (RTI and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP tests and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG were assessed: before Ramadan (BR, in the 1st week (RA1 and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4, and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR. Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE method and wellness (Hooper index were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4, together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East.

  17. A Case of Endofibrosis Presenting with Embolic Symptoms in a 43-Year-Old Cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Charles S; Spangler, Emily L; Stableford, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    Endofibrosis is a rare clinical entity that usually manifests as claudication in cyclists and other endurance athletes. We report a case of a 43-year-old cyclist presenting with pain and cyanosis of his toes due to an embolism to his left anterior tibial artery. The source of the embolus was found to be an ulcerated, endofibrotic plaque in his left common femoral artery. We performed an extensive literature search using the PubMed database and identified 60 results on endofibrosis. Eight articles described thrombosis relating to endofibrosis. None of the articles described an embolic phenomenon relating to endofibrosis. The following search terms were used: endofibrosis, embolic, emboli, embolism, "distal occlusion," cyanosis, thrombosis, and thrombus. The patient is a 43-year-old male cyclist who presented with pain and cyanosis of his second and third toes on his left foot for 1 week. The affected toes had a dark-purple discoloration involving the tissue overlying the distal phalanges. Computed tomography angiography showed an abrupt occlusion of the left anterior tibial artery in the mid-calf with a non-calcified plaque in the left common femoral artery. There were no other signs of arterial disease. He underwent left common femoral endofibrosectomy with patch angioplasty that revealed an ulcerated endofibrotic plaque with mural thrombus. This case demonstrates an unusual presentation of a rare clinical entity. While there have been previous reports of thrombosis associated with endofibrosis, to our knowledge this is the first reported case of endofibrosis presenting with embolic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briki, W; Farooq, A; Patrick, T; Belfekih, T; Herrera, CP

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed selected measures of cognitive function in trained cyclists who observed daylight fasting during Ramadan. Eleven cyclists volunteered to participate (age: 21.6±4.8 years, VO2max: 57.7±5.6 ml kg−1·min−1) and were followed for 2 months. Cognitive function (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), Reaction Time index (RTI) and Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) tests) and sleep architecture (ambulatory EEG) were assessed: before Ramadan (BR), in the 1st week (RA1) and 4th week of Ramadan (RA4), and 2 weeks post-Ramadan (PR). Both cognitive tests were performed twice per day: before and after Ramadan at 8-10 a.m. and 4-6 p.m., and during Ramadan at 4-6 p.m. and 0-2 a.m., respectively. Training load (TL) by the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method and wellness (Hooper index) were measured daily. If the TL increased over the study period, this variable was stable during Ramadan. The perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) increased at RA4. Sleep patterns and architecture showed clear disturbances, with significant increases in the number of awakenings and light sleep durations during Ramadan (RA1 and RA4), together with decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages at PR. RTI (simple and multiple reaction index) reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. The RVP test showed reduced false alarms during Ramadan, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Overall accuracy significantly increased at RA1, RA4 and PR compared to baseline. At RA4, the accuracy was higher at 0-2 a.m. compared to 4-6 p.m. Despite the observed disturbances in sleep architecture, Ramadan fasting did not negatively impact the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East. PMID:26985134

  19. Effects of eight-week supplementation of Ashwagandha on cardiorespiratory endurance in elite Indian cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Shenoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cycling is an endurance sport relying mainly on aerobic capacity to provide fuel during long-duration cycling events. Athletes are constantly searching for new methods to improve this capacity through various nutritional and ergogenic aids. Purpose: The aim of the study was to find out the effect of Ashwagandha on the cardiorespiratory endurance capacity, that is, aerobic capacity of elite Indian cyclists. Materials and Methods: Forty elite (elite here refers to the participation of the athlete in at least state-level events Indian cyclists were chosen randomly and were equally divided into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 500 mg capsules of aqueous roots of Ashwagandha twice daily for eight weeks, whereas the placebo group received starch capsules. Outcome Measures: The baseline treadmill test for the cyclists were performed to measure their aerobic capacity in terms of maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2 max, metabolic equivalent, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, and total time for the athlete to reach his exhaustion stage. After eight weeks of supplementation, the treadmill test was again performed and results were obtained. Results: There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, whereas the placebo group did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. There was significant improvement in the experimental group in all parameters, namely, VO 2 max (t = 5.356; P < 0.001, METS (t = 4.483; P < 0.001, and time for exhaustion on treadmill (t = 4.813; P < 0.001 in comparison to the placebo group which did not show any change with respect to their baseline parameters. Conclusion: Ashwagandha improved the cardiorespiratory endurance of the elite athletes.

  20. The Effect of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Physiology and Performance in Trained Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Joseph A; Dulson, Deborah K; Laursen, Paul B; Kilding, Andrew E

    2017-05-01

    To determine the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on physiology and performance in well-trained cyclists after 6-8 d of NO3- supplementation. Eight competitive male cyclists (mean ± SD age 26 ± 8 y, body mass 76.7 ± 6.9 kg, VO2peak 63 ± 4 mL · kg-1 · min-1) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study in which participants ingested 70 mL of beetroot juice containing ~4 mmol NO3- (NIT) or a NO3--depleted placebo (PLA), each for 8 d. Replicating pretreatment measures, participants undertook an incremental ramp assessment to determine VO2peak and first (VT1) and second (VT2) ventilatory thresholds on d 6 (NIT6 and PLA6), moderate-intensity cycling economy on d 7 (NIT7 and PLA7), and a 4-km time trial (TT) on d 8 (NIT8 and PLA8). Relative to PLA, 6 d of NIT supplementation produced unclear effects for VO2peak (mean ± 95% confidence limit: 1.8% ± 5.5%) and VT1 (3.7% ± 12.3%) and trivial effects for both VT2 (-1.0% ± 3.0%) and exercise economy on d 7 (-1.0% ± 1.6%). However, effects for TT performance time (-0.7% ± 0.9%) and power (2.4% ± 2.5%) on d 8 were likely beneficial. Despite mostly unclear outcomes for standard physiological determinants of performance, 8 d of NO3- supplementation resulted in likely beneficial improvements to 4-km TT performance in well-trained male endurance cyclists.

  1. The effects of sunshields on red light running behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Changxu

    2013-03-01

    Bicycles held an important position in transportation of China and other developing countries. As accidents rate involving electronic and regular bicycles is increasing, the severity of the bicycle safety problem should be paid more attention to. The current research explored the effect of sunshields (a kind of affordable traffic facility built on stop line of non-motor vehicle lanes (According to National Standard in China, e-bikes share the non-motor vehicle lane with regular bikes.) which was undertaken to avoid riders suffering from sunlight and high temperature) on diminishing red light running behavior of cyclists and e-bike riders. An observational study of 2477 riders was conducted to record and analyze their crossing behaviors at two sites across the city of Hangzhou, China. Results from logistic regression and analysis of variance indicated a significant effect of sunshield on reducing red light infringement rate both on sunny and cloudy days, while this effect of sunshield was larger on sunny days than on cloudy days based on further analysis. The effect of intersection type in logistic regression showed that riders were 1.376 times more likely to run through a red light upon approaching the intersection without sunshields compared to with sunshields in general. The results of MANCOVA further confirmed that rates of running behaviors against red lights were significantly lower at the intersections with a sunshield than at intersections without sunshields when other factors including traffic flow were statistically controlled. To sum up, it is concluded that sunshields installed at intersections can reduce the likelihood of red light infringement of cyclists and e-bike riders on both sunny and cloudy days. For those areas or countries with a torrid climate, sunshield might be a recommended facility which offers an affordable way to improve the safety of cyclists and e-bike riders at intersections. Limitations of the current sunshield design and current

  2. Using cognitive work analysis and the strategies analysis diagram to understand variability in road user behaviour at intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Miranda; Salmon, Paul M; McClure, Roderick; Stanton, Neville A

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an application of cognitive work analysis (CWA), using the strategies analysis diagram (SAD) method, to model performance variability in road transport, is presented. Specifically, the method was used to describe performance variability across four road user groups (drivers, cyclists, motorcyclists and pedestrians) when turning right at an urban signalised intersection. The analysis demonstrated that the method was able to identify a comprehensive range of strategies that road users can potentially use while turning right at an intersection, thereby describing a range of performance variability within intersection systems. Furthermore, the method identified constraints, disturbances, changes in circumstances and other influences on road user performance variability. It is concluded that the CWA/SAD approach was able to describe both the different ways in which activities can be executed and disturbances, situations and constraints that create performance variability. The implications of these findings for road design and intersection safety are discussed along with the benefits and drawbacks of the methodology used. Recently, the strategies analysis diagram was proposed as a method to support the cognitive work analysis framework in modelling performance variability. This article evaluated this method within a complex sociotechnical system, namely road transport. The application provided insight into performance variability across road user groups when turning right at intersections.

  3. Typologie des configurations d'accidents cyclistes: enjeux de prévention primaire et secondaire.

    OpenAIRE

    BILLOT-GRASSET, Alice; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Hours, Martine

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXTE - La pratique de la bicyclette est encouragée par des politiques publiques pour ses avantages vis-à-vis du développement durable et de la santé publique. Toutefois, l'on estime que les cyclistes ont 8 fois plus de chances d'être blessé qu'un automobiliste par heure passée sur la route. La plupart des travaux utilisent des données policières, fortement biaisées, notamment sur le type d'accident avec ou sans tiers : on y compte 90% de collisions contre 30% dans le Registre des accident...

  4. Women’s bike seats: a pressing matter for competitive female cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Marsha K.; Partin, Sarah N.; Schrader, Steven; Lowe, Brian; LaCombe, Julie; Reutman, Susan; Wang, Andrea; Toennis, Christine; Melman, Arnold; Mikhail, Madgy; Connell, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There are numerous genital complaints in women cyclists, including pain, numbness and edema of pelvic floor structures. Debate ensues about the best saddle design for protection of the pelvic floor. Aim To investigate the relationships between saddle design, seat pressures and genital nerve function in female, competitive cyclists. Methods We previously compared genital sensation in healthy, premenopausal, competitive women bicyclists and runners. The 48 cyclists from our original study comprise the study group in this sub-analysis. Main Outcome Measures (1) Genital vibratory thresholds (VT) were determined using the Medoc Vibratory Sensation Analyzer 3000. (2) Saddle pressures as determined using a specially designed map sensor. Results More than half of the participants (54.8%) used traditional saddles and the remainder (45.2%), rode with cut-out saddles. On bivariate analysis, use of traditional saddles was associated with lower mean perineal saddle pressures (MPSP) than riding on cut-out saddles. Peak perineal saddle pressures (PPSP) were also lower; however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Saddle design did not affect mean or peak total saddle pressures (MTSP, PTSP). Saddle width was significantly associated with PPSP, MTSP and PTSP, but not with MPSP. Women riding cut-out saddles had, on average, a 4 and 11 kPa increase in MPSP and PPSP, respectively, compared to women using traditional saddles (p= 0.008 and p= 0.010), after adjustment for other variables. Use of wider saddles was associated with lower PPSP and MTSP after adjustment. Although an inverse correlation was seen between saddle pressures and VTs on bivariate analysis, these differences were not significant after adjusting for age. Conclusion Cut-out and narrower saddles negatively affect saddle pressures in female cyclists. Effects of saddle design on pudendal nerve sensory function were not apparent in this cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal studies

  5. Comparison of Training, Anthropometric, Physiological and Psychological Variables of Ultra-Endurance Cyclists and Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Chlíbková, Daniela; Alena, Žákovská; Ivana, Tomášková

    2012-01-01

    We compared training, anthropometric, physiological and psychological characteristics between 14 cyclists, participants in a 24-hour mountain bike race and 12 runners, participants in a 7-day running ultra-marathon. Porovnali jsme tréninkové, antropometrické, fyziologické a psychologické charakteristiky mezi 14 cyklisty, účastníky 24-hodinovéhho závodu na horských kolech a 12 běžci, účastníky v 7-denním ultra-marathonu.

  6. An Analysis of Technology-Related Distracted Biking Behaviors and Helmet Use Among Cyclists in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Johnson, Glen D; Hammond, Rodney; Chow, Ching Man; Varsos, Victoria

    2016-02-01

    Bicycling is becoming an increasingly utilized mode of transportation in New York City. Technology-related distracted bicycling and helmet use are behaviors that can impact bike safety. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine rates and types of technology-related distracted behaviors among bicyclists in the borough of Manhattan in New York City; and (2) to assess the rate of bicycle helmet use among these cyclists. Bicyclists in five popular riding areas in Manhattan were observed for a total of 50 h using a digital video camera during summer months in 2014. Videos were coded and enumerated for the total number and gender of cyclists, type of bicycle, number wearing headphones/earbuds and/or using a mobile phone, and whether the cyclist was wearing a helmet. Almost 25,000 cyclists were observed across the five selected locations (n = 24,861). Riders were almost four times more likely not to wear a helmet on rental bikes as compared with non-rentals (Citi Bike(®) OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.5, 5.9: other rental OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.0, 4.9). Significantly increased odds of not wearing a helmet were observed for females relative to males (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) across varied times and locations. Overall, rates of technology-related distraction were low, with headphone use being most prevalent. Males were more likely to wear headphones/earbuds (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.9), as were cyclists on Citi Bikes relative to other rental bikes (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.6). Findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on distracted biking and helmet use among bike share program riders and other cyclists and can inform policymakers and program planners aiming to improve bicycle safety in urban settings.

  7. A study of fatality risk and head dynamic response of cyclist and pedestrian based on passenger car accident data analysis and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jin; Li, Guibing; Yang, Jikuang

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to compare the fatality risk of pedestrians and cyclists in urban traffic through an analysis of real-world accident data in China. First, 438 cases, including 371 pedestrian cases and 67 cyclist cases, were selected as a sample from the accidents collected through an in-depth investigation of vehicle accidents in China. A statistical measurement of the fatality risk with respect to impact velocity was carried out using a logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, 21 pedestrian and 24 cyclist accidents were selected for reconstruction with the MADYMO program. A comparative analysis was conducted based on the results from accident analysis and simulations for the fatality risk and head dynamic response of pedestrians and cyclists. The results indicate that the vehicle impact velocity has a significant relationship with the fatality risk of both pedestrians and cyclists. The fatality risks at 50 km/h are more than twice as high as the risk at 40 km/h and about 5 times as high as that at 30 km/h for both pedestrians and cyclists. Moreover, cyclists suffered slightly lower fatality risk compared to pedestrians. The corresponding vehicle impact velocity is 65.4 km/h for pedestrian with a fatality risk of 50 percent, whereas for cyclists it is 67.6 km/h. In addition, the head impact conditions between pedestrians and cyclists are different. These findings offer potential contributions for establishing a more reasonable speed limit for urban traffic in China and generating strategies for cyclists' and pedestrians' head protection.

  8. 2nd Road Vehicle Automation Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume covers all relevant aspects of road vehicle automation including societal impacts, legal matters, and technology innovation from the perspectives of a multitude of public and private actors. It is based on an expert workshop organized by the Transportation Research Board at Stanford University in July 2013. The target audience primarily comprises academic researchers, but the book may also be of interest to practitioners and professionals. Higher levels of road vehicle automation are considered beneficial for road safety, energy efficiency, productivity, convenience, and social inclusion. The necessary key technologies in the fields of object-recognition systems, data processing, and infrastructure communication have been consistently developed over the recent years and are mostly available on the market today. However, there is still a need for substantial research and development, e.g. with interactive maps, data processing, functional safety, and the fusion of different data sources...

  9. Roads In and Surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains those transportation routes from the Dixie's d2_travel_rte coverage that were calculated road = 'Road'. The Dixie National Forest Road...

  10. Pocket facts 2008 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Pocket Facts offers an overall picture of the road : transport system. Here you will find a selection of : brief facts about roads, road transports, vehicles and : people in traffic. In addition, it presents the functions : and organisation at the SR...

  11. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  12. Whole-body efficiency is negatively correlated with minimum torque per duty cycle in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsay M; Jobson, Simon A; George, Simon R; Day, Stephen H; Nevill, Alan M

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a causal relationship between pedalling "circularity" and cycling efficiency. Eleven trained cyclists were studied during submaximal cycling. Variables recorded included gross and delta efficiency and the ratio of minimum to peak torque during a duty cycle. Participants also completed a questionnaire about their training history. The most notable results were as follows: gross efficiency (r = -0.72, P ratio of minimum to peak torque, particularly at higher work rates. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta efficiency and average minimum torque at 200 W (r = -0.76, P efficiency and gross efficiency, although experience and the ratio of minimum to peak torque were not related. These results show that variations in pedalling technique may account for a large proportion of the variation in efficiency in trained cyclists. However, it is also possible that some underlying physiological factor influences both. Finally, it appears that experience positively influences efficiency, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear.

  13. Maximal lactate steady state and the upper boundary of heavy intensity domain in trained cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Coelho Greco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the validity of maximum lactate steady state (MLSS for the identification of the upper limit of the heavy-intensity domain in well-trained cyclists. Fourteen male cyclists (25.5 ± 4.4 years, 69.5 ± 7.8 kg, 175.8 ± 7.5 cm underwent the following tests on different days: incremental exercise test until exhaustion to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, and 2 to 4 constant submaximal load tests to determine MLSS. VO2 obtained in the 30th min was significantly higher than that obtained in the 3rd min of exercise performed at 100% MLSS (3379.3 ± 250.1 vs. 3496.7 ± 280.2 ml/min, p0.05. These results suggest that during heavy exercise (MLSS VO2 does not present stability when values obtained around the 3rd minute of exercise are used as reference. MLSS does not seem to be the upper limit of the heavy-intensity domain in trained subjects since VO2peak is not reached by the end of 30 min of exercise when exercise is performed above this intensity (~ 5%.

  14. Comparison of power output during ergometer and track cycling in adolescent cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmerichter, Alfred; Williams, Craig A

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the level of agreement between test performance of young elite cyclists in a laboratory and a track field-based trial. Fourteen adolescent cyclists (age: 14.8 ± 1.1 years; (Equation is included in full-text article.): 63.5 ± 5.6 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed 3 tests of 10 seconds, 1 minute, and 3 minutes on an air-braked ergometer (Wattbike) and on a 250-m track using their own bikes mounted with mobile power meters (SRM). The agreement between the maximum and mean power output (Pmax and Pmean) measured on the Wattbike and SRM was assessed with the 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Power output was strongly correlated between Wattbike and SRM for all tests (r = 0.94-0.96; p track cycling during all tests. The bias and 95% LoA were 76 ± 78 W (8.8 ± 9.5%; p = 0.003, d = 0.38) for Pmax10s and 82 ± 55 W (10.9 ± 7.9%; p track field-based test using a mobile ergometer. These results might be attributed to the technical ability of the riders and their experience to optimize gearing and cadence to maximize performance. Prediction of field-based testing on the track from laboratory tests should be used with caution.

  15. Role of alpha-tocopherol in cardiopulmonary fitness in endurance athletes, cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sumangala M; Chaudhuri, Dipayan; Dhanakshirur, Gopal B

    2009-01-01

    Exercise increases oxygen consumption and causes a disturbance of intracellular pro-oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Athletes are exposed to acute and chronic stress that may lead to increased generation of oxidative species. Hence oxidative stress increases in athletes. Administration of antioxidant like alpha-tocopherol as supplementation may reduce the cell damage caused due to oxidative stress. In the present study, our aim was to study the effects of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on the cardiopulmonary fitness in endurance athletes (cyclists) and non-athletes. Our study included 40 cyclists who were trained under District Youth Service & Sports Office. 40 controls were randomly selected from student group of B.L.D.E.A's Medical College. Alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E) 200 mg/day for 21 days wasgiven to study group and placebo was given to placebo group. Various physiological parameters like heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate were recorded, for assessing cardiopulmonary fitness: Physical Fitness Index (PFI) and VO2 max ml/min/kg were recorded before and after supplementation of vitamin E in athletes, and were compared with placebo group before and after supplementation of placebo and also with non-athletes. The results obtained from present study indicate that antioxidant like alpha-tocopherol supplementation did not contribute significantly to improve the cardiopulmonary fitness of endurance athletes.

  16. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    to HI20 (7.85±0.82 L; P=0.008) and MOD6 (7.90±0.74 L; P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Warm-up exercise including race-pace and sprint intervals combined with short recovery can reduce subsequent performance in a 4-min maximal test in highly trained cyclists. Thus, a reduced time at high exercise intensity......PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables and the VO2 response. METHODS: Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2-max: 72.4±8.0·mL/min/kg, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO): 432±31 W......; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...

  17. The midpoint between ventilatory thresholds approaches maximal lactate steady state intensity in amateur cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, A B; Filho, Dm Pessôa; Díaz, V; Benito, P J; Álvarez-Sánchez, M; Zapico, A G; Calderón, F J

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to determine whether the midpoint between ventilatory thresholds (MPVT) corresponds to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Twelve amateur cyclists (21.0 ± 2.6 years old; 72.2 ± 9.0 kg; 179.8 ± 7.5 cm) performed an incremental test (25 W·min-1) until exhaustion and several constant load tests of 30 minutes to determine MLSS, on different occasions. Using MLSS determination as the reference method, the agreement with five other parameters (MPVT; first and second ventilatory thresholds: VT1 and VT2; respiratory exchange ratio equal to 1: RER = 1.00; and Maximum) was analysed by the Bland-Altman method. The difference between workload at MLSS and VT1, VT2, RER=1.00 and Maximum was 31.1 ± 20.0, -86.0 ± 18.3, -63.6 ± 26.3 and -192.3 ± 48.6 W, respectively. MLSS was underestimated from VT1 and overestimated from VT2, RER = 1.00 and Maximum. The smallest difference (-27.5 ± 15.1 W) between workload at MLSS and MPVT was in better agreement than other analysed parameters of intensity in cycling. The main finding is that MPVT approached the workload at MLSS in amateur cyclists, and can be used to estimate maximal steady state.

  18. Game-based situation awareness training for child and adult cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Esko; Airaksinen, Jasmiina; Kanerva, Kaisa; Rissanen, Anna; Ränninranta, Riikka; Åberg, Veera

    2017-03-01

    Safe cycling requires situation awareness (SA), which is the basis for recognizing and anticipating hazards. Children have poorer SA than adults, which may put them at risk. This study investigates whether cyclists' SA can be trained with a video-based learning game. The effect of executive working memory on SA was also studied. Thirty-six children (9-10 years) and 22 adults (21-48 years) played the game. The game had 30 video clips filmed from a cyclist's perspective. Each clip was suddenly masked and two or three locations were presented. The player's task was to choose locations with a potential hazard and feedback was given for their answers. Working memory capacity (WMC) was tested with a counting span task. Children's and adults' performance improved while playing the game, which suggests that playing the game trains SA. Adults performed better than children, and they also glanced at hazards more while the video was playing. Children expectedly had a lower WMC than adults, but WMC did not predict performance within the groups. This indicates that SA does not depend on WMC when passively viewing videos.

  19. INSTRUMENTATION AND MOTIVATIONS FOR ORGANISED CYCLING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CYCLIST MOTIVATION INSTRUMENT (CMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D. Brown

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Serious leisure' cycling has developed as a reinterpretation of the traditional form of the sport. This short term, informal, unstructured and unconventional conceptualisation represents a challenge to participant numbers in the mainstream sport. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i to ascertain the cultural, subcultural and ecological factors of participation in this new conceptualised form enabling clubs, associations and governments to a deeper understanding about participants practices and (ii as an ongoing validation to previous qualitative work (see O'Connor and Brown, 2005. This study reports on the development and psychometric properties (principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis of the Cyclists' Motivation Instrument. Four hundred and twenty two cyclists (371 males, 51 females who were registered members of the state competitive cycling body completed a fifty-one item instrument. Five factors were identified: social, embodiment, self-presentation, exploring environments and physical health outcomes and these accounted for 47.2% of the variance. Factor alpha coefficients ranged from .63 to .88, overall scale reliability was .92, suggesting moderate to high reliability for each of the factors and the overall scale.

  20. Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Int Panis, Luc; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Willems, Hanny; Degraeuwe, Bart; Bleux, Nico; Mishra, Vinit; Thomas, Isabelle; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short episodes of high exposure to air pollution occur while commuting. These events can result in potentially adverse health effects. We present a quantification of the exposure of car passengers and cyclists to particulate matter (PM). We have simultaneously measured concentrations (PNC, PM2.5 and PM10) and ventilatory parameters (minute ventilation (VE), breathing frequency and tidal volume) in three Belgian locations (Brussels, Louvain-la-Neuve and Mol) for 55 persons (38 male and 17 female). Subjects were first driven by car and then cycled along identical routes in a pairwise design. Concentrations and lung deposition of PNC and PM mass were compared between biking trips and car trips. Mean bicycle/car ratios for PNC and PM are close to 1 and rarely significant. The size and magnitude of the differences in concentrations depend on the location which confirms similar inconsistencies reported in literature. On the other hand, the results from this study demonstrate that bicycle/car differences for inhaled quantities and lung deposited dose are large and consistent across locations. These differences are caused by increased VE in cyclists which significantly increases their exposure to traffic exhaust. The VE while riding a bicycle is 4.3 times higher compared to car passengers. This aspect has been ignored or severely underestimated in previous studies. Integrated health risk evaluations of transport modes or cycling policies should therefore use exposure estimates rather than concentrations.

  1. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-01

    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits.

  2. The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike World Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbiss, Chris R; Ross, Megan L R; Garvican, Laura A; Ross, Neil; Pottgiesser, Torben; Gregory, John; Martin, David T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of pace self-selected by cyclists of varying ability, biological age and sex performing in a mountain bike World Championship event. Data were collected on cyclists performing in the Elite Male (ELITEmale; n = 75), Elite Female (ELITEfemale; n = 50), Under 23 Male (U23male; n = 62), Under 23 Female (U23female; n = 34), Junior Male (JNRmale; n = 71) and Junior Female (JNRfemale; n = 30) categories of the 2009 UCI Cross-Country Mountain Bike World Championships. Split times were recorded for the top, middle and bottom 20% of all finishers of each category. Timing splits were positioned to separate the course into technical and non-technical, uphill, downhill and rolling/flat sections. Compared with bottom performers, top performers in all male categories (ELITEmale, U23male, JNRmale) maintained a more even pace over the event as evidenced by a significantly lower standard deviation and range in average lap speed. Top performers, males, and ELITEmale athletes spent a lower percentage of overall race time on technical uphill sections of the course, compared with middle and bottom placed finishers, females, and JNRmale athletes, respectively. Better male performers adopt a more even distribution of pace throughout cross-country mountain events. Performance of lower placed finishers, females and JNRmale athletes may be improved by enhancing technical uphill cycling ability.

  3. Serum Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Adolescents Undergoing Professional Endurance Sports Training

    OpenAIRE

    Tom K. Tong; Hua Lin; Giuseppe Lippi; Jinlei Nie; Ye Tian

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. ...

  4. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  5. Vehicular road influence areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  6. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  7. Future Road Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  8. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  9. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    battery capacity required for electric vehicles if they are not installed. The electric road and battery electric vehicle scenarios are more efficient and produce less carbon dioxide emissions than their corresponding oil scenarios for two key reasons: 1) the vehicles are more efficient and 2) electric......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys....... In this paper, an electric road scenario is compared to both an oil and battery electric vehicle scenario using the 2010 Danish energy system, but for two sets of costs: one set based on historical costs from the year 2010 and one based on projected costs for the year 2050. The results indicate that electric...

  10. Road Infrastructure Financing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Horvat

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Already in its early phase, starting with initial general needsof people to survive and find food, traffic and traffic se1viceturned into a modern system which increased the complexityand interdependence within the traffic system, and then withthe environment as well. The financing problem is especially expressedduring the creation of new roads and road networksand achieving of better transport service. High investmentmeans required for the road construction require also systemicforecasting of financial sources. Financing of road infrastructureconstruction opens up the basic dilemma: whether totransfer the costs directly to the state budget and the cun·entgeneration or to transfer this burden to the future generations.These considerations require also a certain organizational approach.High investments in road infrastructure require a rationalselection before the decision itself on the selection of thetraffic system. Such selection has to be done based on adequatetraffic plans, which assumes classification of all the needs regardingtheir level so that every investment would be rationallyallocated.

  11. Performance through transformation of identity in road cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Olesen, Jesper

    In this paper I investigate the relationship between skills and identity of an elite cyclist, who during his career managed to become a big star in the professional peleton. This is Jesper Skibby. The paper is based on a reading of his autobiography "Forstå mig ret." In the book he reproduces his...... career chronologically progressing through a series of identities from an amateur rider, to a team rider and a captain. On the surface and in his own self-understanding these identities and the corresponding competencies belong to the individual. But on closer reading based on actor-network theory......, it turns out that the conception of the self-reliant, performing individual does not hold. In this paper I will argue that the rider achieve his skills through the deletion of personal boundaries and re-assembly with an ever-wider range of actors in the surrounding world. To develop as a rider...

  12. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.

  13. An experiment on rider stability while mounting : comparing middle-aged and elderly cyclists on pedelecs and conventional bicycles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Platteel, S. & Lovegrove, G.R.

    2017-01-01

    Pedelecs, popular among elderly cyclists, are associated with a higher injury risk than conventional bicycles. About 17% of these injuries are due to falls while (dis)mounting. Using instrumented bicycles, this study aimed to identify factors contributing to the stability of self-chosen mounting

  14. The acceptance of a prototype rear-view assistant for older cyclists : Two modalities of warnings compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbers, C.; Dubbeldam, R.; Buurke, J. H.; Schaake, L.; Rietman, J. S.; de Waard, D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on behaviour, mental effort and acceptance of a simple prototype of an electronic rear-view assistance system designed for older cyclists that are at risk of falls. The prototype was incorporated into a simple cycling simulator and provided

  15. Sports massage with ozonised oil or non-ozonised oil: Comparative effects on recovery parameters after maximal effort in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Bianco, Antonino; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bellafiore, Marianna; Grainer, Alessandro; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Cardoso, Claudia C; Dall'aglio, Roberto; Palma, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To study the effects of passive rest (PR) and sports massage with (SMOZO) and without (SM) ozonised oil on sports performance psycho-physiological indices in competitive amateur cyclists after 3 pre-fatiguing Wingate cycle and post-recovery ramp tests. An intra-subjects experimental design with repeated measures. Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padua. Fifteen male competitive cyclists (age: 27 ± 3.5 years, body weight: 77.6 ± 8.3 kg, height: 178 ± 7.7 cm) were studied. Subjects' power output (P), heart rate (HR), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and blood lactate (BL) clearance in response to PR, SMOZO and SM recoveries were compared. There were no significant differences in cyclists' heart rate patterns in the three experimental conditions (p > 0.05). After SMOZO recovery, athletes showed a higher Pmax (p sports massage increases blood lactate removal, improves performance and reduces the perception of fatigue in cyclists from 3 Wingate tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than any other Igbo sub-group; the Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel economic enterprise with huge success. Some of these pioneer transport capitalists were J.C. Ulasi, L.P. Ojukwu, and A.E. Ilodibe. These indigenous entrepreneurs commercialized the revolution in ...

  17. THE EFFECT OF TAPERING PERIOD ON PLASMA PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE LEVELS AND PERFORMANCE IN ELITE MALE CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Tiidus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two different tapering period lengths on the concentration of plasma interleukin- 6 (IL-6, interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-α and performance in elite male cyclists. To this end, after completing 8 weeks progressive endurance exercise, twenty four high-level endurance cyclists were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a control group of cyclists (n = 12 continued performing progressive weekly training volume for 3 weeks while a taper group of cyclists (n = 12 proceeded with a 50% reduction in weekly training volume relative to the control group. A simulated 40 min time trial (40TT performance ride was used as the criterion index of performance before and after the tapering period to evaluate the physiological and performance effects of each protocol. Blood samples were collected immediately post-40TT from all participants at the beginning of week 1, and the end of weeks 4, 8, 9 and 11. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα were assayed using a standard commercial ELISA kits (Quantikine; R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN. The mean time to complete the 40TT in the taper group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 after both 1 and 3 weeks with reduced training volume relative to the control group. There were significant reductions in (p < 0.001 IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα concentrations in the taper group relative to the control group at the end of the 3 week tapering period, but not at the end of the 1 week tapering period. These results demonstrate that both a 1 and a 3 week taper period will result in improved physical performance in trained cyclists but only a 3 week taper period will result in attenuation of post-exercise pro- inflammatory cytokines when compared to those continuing a more intense training regimen

  18. Predictability by recognizable road design. [previously called: Recognizable road design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    One of the Sustainable Safety principles is that a road should have a recognizable design and a predictable alignment. If this is the case, road users know how they are expected to behave and what they can expect from other road users, so that crashes may be prevented. For roads to be recognizable,

  19. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING BY HEART RATE OR POWER IN RECREATIONAL CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Robinson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in interval training for cyclists have led to the development of both heart rate (HR monitors and powermeters (PM. Despite the growing popularity of PM use, the superiority of PM-based training has not been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of HR-based versus PM-based interval training on 20 km time trial (20km TT, lactate threshold (LT power, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2max in recreational cyclists. Participants (n =20; M age=33.9, SD =13 completed a baseline 20km TT to establish their VO2max and LT and were then randomly assigned to either HR-determined or PM-determined training sessions. Over a period of up to 5 weeks participants completed 7.2 (± 1.1 interval training sessions at their specific LT for their respective interval training method. Repeated measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs showed that both HR-based and PM-based training groups significantly improved their LT power (F(1,16 = 28., p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.63 and 20km TT time (F(1,16 = 4.92, p = 0.04, eta2 = 0.24 at posttest, showing a 17 watt increase (9.8% and a near 3-and-a-half minute improvement (7.8% in 20km TT completion time. There were no significant group (HR vs. PM x time (baseline vs. posttest interactions for 20km TT completion time, LT power, or VO2max ratings. Our results coincide with the literature supporting the effectiveness of interval training for endurance athletes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that there is no empirical evidence for the superiority of any single type of device in the implementation of interval training. This study indicates that there are no noticeable advantages to using PM to increase performance in the average recreational cyclist, suggesting that low cost HR monitor are equally capable as training devices

  20. Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Steve; Kim, Woosong; Henning, Susanne M; Carpenter, Catherine L; Li, Zhaoping

    2010-03-23

    Human exercise capacity declines with advancing age. These changes often result in loss of physical fitness and more rapid senescence. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in improvement of exercise capacity through vascular smooth muscle relaxation in both coronary and skeletal muscle arteries, as well as via independent mechanisms. Antioxidants may prevent nitric oxide inactivation by oxygen free radicals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an L-arginine and antioxidant supplement on exercise performance in elderly male cyclists. This was a two-arm prospectively randomized double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial. Sixteen male cyclists were randomized to receive either a proprietary supplement (Niteworks(R), Herbalife International Inc., Century City, CA) or a placebo powder. Exercise parameters were assessed by maximal incremental exercise testing performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline, week one and week three. There was no difference between baseline exercise parameters. In the supplemented group, anaerobic threshold increased by 16.7% (2.38 +/- 0.18 L/min, p < 0.01) at week 1, and the effect was sustained by week 3 with a 14.2% (2.33 +/- 0.44 L/min, p < 0.01). In the control group, there was no change in anaerobic threshold at weeks 1 and 3 compared to baseline (1.88 +/- 0.20 L/min at week 1, and 1.86 +/- 0.21 L/min at week 3). The anaerobic threshold for the supplement groups was significantly higher than that of placebo group at week 1 and week 3. There were no significant changes noted in VO2 max between control and intervention groups at either week 1 or week 3 by comparison to baseline. An arginine and antioxidant-containing supplement increased the anaerobic threshold at both week one and week three in elderly cyclists. No effect on VO2 max was observed. This study indicated a potential role of L-arginine and antioxidant supplementation in improving exercise performance in

  1. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke J J Klinkenberg

    Full Text Available Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists.Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg(-1·min(-1, Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg(-1; mean ± SD were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day, or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (≈ 120 min.The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0-4.2 to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7-6.7, immediately post-exercise (p<0.001. Four weeks of astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased mean basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from non-detectable values to 175±86 µg·kg(-1. However, daily astaxanthin supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p = 0.24, as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde. Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation.Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations

  2. Senior cyclists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The use of the bicycle has increased these last few years, especially among seniors. The number of seniors annually sustaining serious injuries as a result of a cycling crash is substantial (4,280) and has been increasing these last few years. Moreover, circa 120 seniors (55+) die in a cycling crash

  3. Contribution of respiratory muscle blood flow to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min...... normoxia and hypoxia, diaphragmatic fatigue is greater in hypoxia as intercostal muscle blood flow is not increased (compared with normoxia) to compensate for the reduction in PaO2, thus further compromising O(2) supply to the respiratory muscles....... exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 and 1.00 in balanced order. Work rates were selected to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2 (63 +/- 1, 78 +/- 1 and 87 +/- 1% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively). Intercostals...

  4. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  5. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  6. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  7. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  8. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  9. Road rage and collision involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  10. Concentrically trained cyclists are not more susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than are stretch-shortening exercise-trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieckus, Audrius; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2013-03-01

    Here, we test the hypothesis that continuous concentric exercise training renders skeletal muscles more susceptible to damage in response to eccentric exercise. Elite road cyclists (CYC; n = 10, training experience 8.1 ± 2.0 years, age 22.9 ± 3.7 years), long-distance runners (LDR; n = 10, 9.9 ± 2.3 years, 24.4 ± 2.5 years), and healthy untrained (UT) men (n = 10; 22.4 ± 1.7 years) performed 100 submaximal eccentric contractions at constant angular velocity of 60° s(-1). Concentric isokinetic peak torque, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and electrically induced knee extension torque were measured at baseline and immediately and 48 h after an eccentric exercise bout. Muscle soreness was assessed and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured at baseline and 48 h after exercise. Voluntary and electrically stimulated knee extension torque reduction were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in UT than in LDR and CYC. Immediately and 48 h after exercise, MVC decreased by 32 % and 20 % in UT, 20 % and 5 % in LDR, and 25 % and 6 % in CYC. Electrically induced 20 Hz torque decreased at the same times by 61 and 29 % in UT, 40 and 17 % in LDR, and 26 and 14 % in CYC. Muscle soreness and plasma CK activity 48 h after exercise did not differ significantly between athletes and UT subjects. In conclusion, even though elite endurance athletes are more resistant to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than are UT people, stretch-shortening exercise-trained LDR have no advantage over concentrically trained CYC.

  11. Accuracy of W' Recovery Kinetics in High Performance Cyclists - Modelling Intermittent Work Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Jason C; Thewlis, Dominic; Martin, David T; Norton, Kevin I

    2017-10-16

    With knowledge of an individual's critical power (CP) and W' the SKIBA 2 model provides a framework with which to track W' balance during intermittent high intensity work bouts. There are fears the time constant controlling the recovery rate of W' (τW') may require refinement to enable effective use in an elite population. Four elite endurance cyclists completed an array of intermittent exercise protocols to volitional exhaustion. Each protocol lasted approximately 3.5-6 minutes and featured a range of recovery intensities, set in relation to athlete's CPs (DCP). Using the framework of the SKIBA 2 model, the τW' values were modified for each protocol to achieve an accurate W' at volitional exhaustion. Modified τW' values were compared to equivalent SKIBA 2 τW' values to assess the difference in recovery rates for this population. Plotting modified τW' values against DCP showed the adjusted relationship between work-rate and recovery-rate. Comparing modified τW' values against the SKIBA 2 τW' values showed a negative bias of 112±46s (mean±95%CL), suggesting athlete's recovered W' faster than predicted by SKIBA 2 (p=0.0001). The modified τW' to DCP relationship was best described by a power function: τW'=2287.2∗DCP(-0.688)(R(2) = 0.433). The current SKIBA 2 model is not appropriate for use in elite cyclists as it under predicts the recovery rate of W'. The modified τW' equation presented will require validation, but appears more appropriate for high performance athletes. Individual τW' relationships may be necessary in order to maximise the model's validity.

  12. Seasonal changes in power of competitive cyclists: implications for monitoring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, C D; Hopkins, W G

    2005-12-01

    Sport scientists should consider seasonal trends and individual variability in performance when using tests to track performance changes resulting from training or other medium-term interventions with individuals or in research studies. We report here the seasonal changes and variability in power of 12 male competitive cyclists, who performed laboratory tests of incremental peak and 4-km mean power measured with three ergometers simultaneously in each of five sessions during three phases (base, pre-comp, comp) of a season. Repeated-measures analysis of log-transformed power provided mean percent changes in performance between phases and within-cyclist variability in performance expressed as coefficients of variation between sessions < or = 2 wk apart within a phase and between sessions 8 wk-12 wk apart in different phases. Peak power increased from the base phase to the pre-comp phase on average by 5.3%, and by a further 1.8% from pre-comp to comp phase; corresponding increases in 4-km mean power were 6.1% and 2.2% (90% likely limits all approximately +/-2.6%). The variabilities for peak and 4-km mean powers were 1.2%-1.8% for sessions separated by < or = 2 wk and 2.0%-2.3% for sessions in pre-comp and comp phases, but increased to 3.4%-3.8% for sessions between the base and other phases (likely limits approximately (x/)/(1.6). Individual differences in the improvement in performance after the base phase evidently produced the greater variability between the base and the other phases. Interventions that might produce small but worthwhile changes in performance over a period of weeks-months need to be researched in pre-comp and comp phases, when the variability is small.

  13. A Scientific Approach to Improve Physiological Capacity of an Elite Cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Joar

    2017-06-28

    Previous studies in endurance athletes has indicated that block periodization (BP) can be a good alternative to the more traditional organization of training despite the total volume and intensity of the training being similar. However, these studies usually last only 4-12 weeks. The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the consequences of 58 weeks with systematic BP of low intensity training (LIT), moderate intensity training (MIT) and high intensity interval training (HIT) including incorporation of heavy strength training. Importantly, a maintenance stimulus on the non-prioritized training modalities was added in the different training blocks. Performance related variables were tested regularly during the intervention. The present cyclist started with a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 73.8 mL·kg-1·min-1, peak aerobic power (Wmax) of 6.14 W·kg-1, and a power output at 3 mmol·L-1 blood lactate concentration (Power3la-) of 3.6 W·kg-1. Total training volume during the 58 weeks intervention was 678 hrs, of which 452 hrs was LIT (67%), 124 hrs was MIT (18%), 69 hrs was HIT (10%) and 34 hrs was heavy strength training (5%). The weekly training volume had a large range depending on the focus of the training block. After the intervention the cyclist's VO2max was 87 mL·kg-1·min-1, Wmax was 7.35 W·kg-1 and Power3la- was 4.9 W·kg-1. Our single case indicates that the present training program can be a good alternative to the more traditional organization of the long-term training of endurance athletes. However, a general recommendation cannot be given based on this single-case study.

  14. FLUID INGESTION STRATEGIES OF COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS DURING 40 KM TIME TRIAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Backx

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor-in- ChiefLoss of fluid during prolonged exercise has been purported to be a cause of fatigue (Below et al., 1995; Walsh et al., 1994, for example. A plethora of information regarding 'optimal' fluid replacement strategies exists; perhaps the most prominent of these in the public domain is the position stand on exercise and fluid replacement published by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM. It recommends that one should ingest fluid early and continually at regular intervals in an attempt to replace the volume of fluid lost through sweating or consume as much as can be tolerated (Covertino et al., 1996. Drinking practices associated with different types of endurance activity are not well documented and it may be possible that the guidelines based on empirical data derived from laboratory conditions lack the necessary ecological validity for performance in the field. To our knowledge, there are no data on fluid intake or body mass losses during high-intensity cycling time trials (TT outside of laboratory conditions; although a pilot study questionnaire used by El-Sayed et al., 1997 revealed that the volume ingested in pre-race preparation over a similar TT race distance (46 km ranged between 0.125-0.5 L. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to elucidate the fluid ingestion strategies of competitive cyclists during pre-race preparation and 40 km TT competition and the resultant body mass loss.Seventy-two competitive male cyclists ranging from Elite Category to Category 4 cyclists (according to British Cycling classification volunteered to participated in this investigation from two separate 40 km TT (n = 21 and n = 51, respectively. Mean (±SD body mass, height and age for all participants were 73.4 ± 7.5 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, and 47 ± 13 years. All procedures were approved by the University's Research Ethics Committee and subjects completed informed consent prior to the start of the investigation.Both events were held

  15. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  16. Automatic 3D high-fidelity traffic interchange modeling using 2D road GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-03-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations. However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially for those existing in the real world. Real road network contains various elements such as road segments, road intersections and traffic interchanges. Among them, traffic interchanges present the most challenges to model due to their complexity and the lack of height information (vertical position) of traffic interchanges in existing road GIS data. This paper proposes a novel approach that can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models, including traffic interchange models, from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road centerline information. The proposed method consists of several steps. The raw road GIS data are first preprocessed to extract road network topology, merge redundant links, and classify road types. Then overlapped points in the interchanges are detected and their elevations are determined based on a set of level estimation rules. Parametric representations of the road centerlines are then generated through link segmentation and fitting, and they have the advantages of arbitrary levels of detail with reduced memory usage. Finally a set of civil engineering rules for road design (e.g., cross slope, superelevation) are selected and used to generate realistic road surfaces. In addition to traffic interchange modeling, the proposed method also applies to other more general road elements. Preliminary results show that the proposed method is highly effective and useful in many applications.

  17. Professional Enterprise NET

    CERN Document Server

    Arking, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage to help experienced .NET developers create flexible, extensible enterprise application code If you're an experienced Microsoft .NET developer, you'll find in this book a road map to the latest enterprise development methodologies. It covers the tools you will use in addition to Visual Studio, including Spring.NET and nUnit, and applies to development with ASP.NET, C#, VB, Office (VBA), and database. You will find comprehensive coverage of the tools and practices that professional .NET developers need to master in order to build enterprise more flexible, testable, and ext

  18. Maximal oxygen uptake is proportional to muscle fiber oxidative capacity - from chronic heart failure patients to professional cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaard, S.; de Ruiter, C.J.; Noordhof, D.A.; Sterrenburg, R.; Bloemers, F.W.; de Koning, J.J.; Jaspers, R.T.; van der Laarse, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    V? O2 max during whole body exercise is presumably constrained by oxygen delivery to mitochondria rather than by mitochondria's ability to consume oxygen. Humans and animals have been reported to exploit only 60-80% of their mitochondrial oxidative capacity at maximal oxygen uptake (V? O2 max).

  19. Safety on our roads

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    It’s almost the end of August, and many of us are returning to CERN after a well-earned rest.   For those with children, it’s time to prepare them for school – and those of us who drive often see signs to remind us that the schools are re-opening and that we should take care. Of course, we should all take care while driving at any time, and this is just as true at CERN as anywhere else. You may already have noticed that new “traffic-calming” measures have been set up near Restaurant 2, to encourage drivers to slow down to safe speeds. I wish we did not need to do this, but it has been necessary as there have been many reports of unpleasant and dangerous, even life-threatening, behaviour by drivers.  I’d like to take this opportunity to remind us all to drive with consideration and respect for everyone who uses the CERN site and shares the same thoroughfares – pedestrians, cyclists and motorists alike. The CERN Co...

  20. An unusual case of leg pain in a competitive cyclist: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Dror; Agar, Gabriel; Domb, Benjamin Gilbert; Beer, Yiftah; Shub, Idit; Mann, Gideon

    2014-11-01

    Cycling has become a popular recreational and competitive sport. The number of people participating in the sport is gradually increasing. Despite being a noncontact, low-impact sport, as many as 85% of athletes engaged in the sport will suffer from an overuse injury, with the lower limbs comprising the majority of these injuries. Up to 20% of all lower extremity overuse injuries in competitive cyclists are of a vascular source. A 39-year-old competitive cyclist had a 5-year history of thigh pain during cycling, preventing him from competing. The patient was eventually diagnosed with external iliac artery endofibrosis. After conservative treatment failed, the patient underwent corrective vascular surgery with complete resolution of his symptoms and return to competitive cycling by 1 year. Since its first description in 1985, there have been more than 60 articles addressing external iliac artery endofibrosis pathology.

  1. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested immediately after each training session in both groups. These findings suggest......BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during...... sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous...

  2. Effects of a Seven Day Overload-Period of High-Intensity Training on Performance and Physiology of Competitive Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bradley; Costa, Vitor P.; O'Brien, Brendan J.; Guglielmo, Luiz G.; Paton, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT) on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists. Design The study was a matched groups, controlled trial. Methods Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min−1) were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ∼120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short) or 15, 30 and 45 second (long) maximal intensity efforts. Results Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p0.05) increases (mean ± SD) in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%), lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3%) and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9%) with only small differences between HIT regimes. Conclusions Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists. PMID:25521824

  3. Effects of a seven day overload-period of high-intensity training on performance and physiology of competitive cyclists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Clark

    Full Text Available Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists.The study was a matched groups, controlled trial.Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min-1 were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ∼120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short or 15, 30 and 45 second (long maximal intensity efforts.Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p0.05 increases (mean ± SD in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%, lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3% and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9% with only small differences between HIT regimes.Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists.

  4. The art of regression modeling in road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauer, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    This unique book explains how to fashion useful regression models from commonly available data to erect models essential for evidence-based road safety management and research. Composed from techniques and best practices presented over many years of lectures and workshops, The Art of Regression Modeling in Road Safety illustrates that fruitful modeling cannot be done without substantive knowledge about the modeled phenomenon. Class-tested in courses and workshops across North America, the book is ideal for professionals, researchers, university professors, and graduate students with an interest in, or responsibilities related to, road safety. This book also: · Presents for the first time a powerful analytical tool for road safety researchers and practitioners · Includes problems and solutions in each chapter as well as data and spreadsheets for running models and PowerPoint presentation slides · Features pedagogy well-suited for graduate courses and workshops including problems, solutions, and PowerPoint p...

  5. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  6. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  7. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  8. Road and Street Centerlines - MDC_MajorRoads

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — An arc Feature Class (FC) of Miami-Dade County Major Streets. It contains 4 classes of roads: limited access highways, divided highways/major roads, federal/state...

  9. A hazard-based duration model for analyzing crossing behavior of cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobao; Huan, Mei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Peng, Yichuan; Gao, Ziyou

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hazard-based duration approach to investigate riders' waiting times, violation hazards, associated risk factors, and their differences between cyclists and electric bike riders at signalized intersections. A total of 2322 two-wheeled riders approaching the intersections during red light periods were observed in Beijing, China. The data were classified into censored and uncensored data to distinguish between safe crossing and red-light running behavior. The results indicated that the red-light crossing behavior of most riders was dependent on waiting time. They were inclined to terminate waiting behavior and run against the traffic light with the increase of waiting duration. Over half of the observed riders cannot endure 49s or longer. 25% of the riders can endure 97s or longer. Rider type, gender, waiting position, conformity tendency and crossing traffic volume were identified to have significant effects on riders' waiting times and violation hazards. Electric bike riders were found to be more sensitive to the external risk factors such as other riders' crossing behavior and crossing traffic volume than cyclists. Moreover, unobserved heterogeneity was examined in the proposed models. The finding of this paper can explain when and why cyclists and electric bike riders run against the red light at intersections. The results of this paper are useful for traffic design and management agencies to implement strategies to enhance the safety of riders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  11. The effect of acute taurine ingestion on endurance performance and metabolism in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Jane A; Spriet, Lawrence L; Stellingwerff, Trent

    2010-08-01

    This study examined whether acute taurine (T) ingestion before prolonged cycling would improve time-trial (TT) performance and alter whole-body fuel utilization compared with a control (CON) trial and a placebo (PL) trial in which participants were told they received taurine but did not. Eleven endurance-trained male cyclists (27.2 ± 1.5 yr, 74.3 ± 2.3 kg, 59.9 ± 2.3 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹; M ± SEM) completed 3 trials in a randomized, crossover, blinded design in which they consumed a noncaloric sweetened beverage with either 1.66 g of T or nothing added (CON, PL) 1 hr before exercise. Participants then cycled at 66.5% ± 1.9% VO(2max) for 90 min followed immediately by a TT (doing 5 kJ of work/kg body mass as fast as possible). Data on fluid administration, expired gas, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were collected at 15-min intervals during the 90-min cycling ride, but there were no differences recorded between trials. There was no difference in TT performance between any of the 3 trials (1,500 ± 87 s). Average carbohydrate (T 2.73 ± 0.21, CON 2.88 ± 0.19, PL 2.89 ± 0.20 g/min) and fat (T 0.45 ± 0.05, CON 0.39 ± 0.04, PL 0.39 ± 0.05 g/min) oxidation rates were unaffected by T supplementation. T ingestion resulted in a 16% increase (5 g, ~84 kJ; p < .05) in total fat oxidation over the 90-min exercise period compared with CON and PL. The acute ingestion of 1.66 g of T before exercise did not enhance TT performance but did result in a small but significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal cycling in endurance-trained cyclists.

  12. The Effects of Intermittent Hypoxic Training on Aerobic Capacity and Endurance Performance in Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Milosz; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Roczniok, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) with 95 % of lactate threshold workload (WRLT) on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty male elite cyclists, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=10; age 22 ± 2.7years; VO2max 67.8 ± 2.5 ml·kg-1·min-1; body height (BH) 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass (BM) 66.7 ± 5.4kg; fat free mass (FFM) 59.3 ± 5.1kg; fat content (FAT%) 11.3 ± 2.1%), and a control (C) group (n = 10; age 23.5 ± 3. 5years; VO2max 67.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg-1·min-1; BH 1.79 ± 3.2 m; BM 69.2 ± 5.5 kg; FFM 63.6 ± 4.8 kg; FAT% 7.9 ± 1.94 %) took part in the research project. The training program used during the experiment was the same for the both groups. For three weeks, the subjects in H group performed 3 training sessions per week in normobaric hypoxia environment (IHT - O2 = 15. 2%). During the elemental core of the IHT session, the intensity was set at 95% WRLT for 30-min in 1st microcycle, 35-min in 2nd microcycle and 40-min in 3rd microcycle. The same training procedure was provided in C group, yet the intensity of the main sessions were set at 100% WRLT in the normoxia environment. The results indicate a significant (p training (IHT) applied in this research did not significantly affect the hematological variables considered: number of erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and haematocrit value (HCT). Significant blood value increases (p training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30-40min) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity and endurance performance at sea level. Key points The efficacy of the intermittent hypoxic training is mostly dependent on volume and intensity of exercise in the hypoxic environment. The observed results suggests that intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30-40min) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity and

  13. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bescós Raúl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012. Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed. Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite

  14. Low and moderate doses of caffeine late in exercise improve performance in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanian, Jason L; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if low and moderate doses of caffeine delivered in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) late in exercise improved time-trial (TT) performance. Fifteen (11 male, 4 female) cyclists (age, 22.5 ± 0.9 years; body mass, 69.3 ± 2.6 kg; peak oxygen consumption, 64.6 ± 1.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) completed 4 double-blinded randomized trials. Subjects completed 120 min of cycling at ∼60% peak oxygen consumption with 5 interspersed 120-s intervals at ∼82% peak oxygen consumption, immediately followed by 40-s intervals at 50 W. Following 80 min of cycling, subjects either ingested a 6% CES (PL), a CES with 100 mg (low dose, 1.5 ± 0.1 mg·kg body mass(-1)) of caffeine (CAF1), or a CES with 200 mg (moderate dose, 2.9 ± 0.1 mg·kg body mass(-1)) of caffeine (CAF2). Following the 120-min cycling challenge, cyclists completed a 6-kJ·kg body mass(-1) TT. There was no difference between respiratory, heart rate, glucose, free fatty acid, body mass, hematocrit, or urine specific gravity measurements between treatments. The CAF2 (26:36 ± 0:22 min:s) TT was completed faster than CAF1 (27:36 ± 0:32 min:s, p < 0.05) and both CAF1 and CAF2 TTs were completed faster than PL (28:41 ± 0:38 min:s, p < 0.05). Blood lactate was similar between trials and rose to a greater extent during the TT (p < 0.05). In summary, both doses of caffeine delivered late in exercise improved TT performance over the PL trial and the moderate dose (CAF2) improved performance to a greater extent than the low dose (CAF1).

  15. The effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Milosz; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Roczniok, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) with 95 % of lactate threshold workload (WRLT) on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty male elite cyclists, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=10; age 22 ± 2.7years; VO2max 67.8 ± 2.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); body height (BH) 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass (BM) 66.7 ± 5.4kg; fat free mass (FFM) 59.3 ± 5.1kg; fat content (FAT%) 11.3 ± 2.1%), and a control (C) group (n = 10; age 23.5 ± 3. 5years; VO2max 67.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); BH 1.79 ± 3.2 m; BM 69.2 ± 5.5 kg; FFM 63.6 ± 4.8 kg; FAT% 7.9 ± 1.94 %) took part in the research project. The training program used during the experiment was the same for the both groups. For three weeks, the subjects in H group performed 3 training sessions per week in normobaric hypoxia environment (IHT - O2 = 15. 2%). During the elemental core of the IHT session, the intensity was set at 95% WRLT for 30-min in 1(st) microcycle, 35-min in 2(nd) microcycle and 40-min in 3(rd) microcycle. The same training procedure was provided in C group, yet the intensity of the main sessions were set at 100% WRLT in the normoxia environment. The results indicate a significant (p intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) applied in this research did not significantly affect the hematological variables considered: number of erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and haematocrit value (HCT). Significant blood value increases (p intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30-40min) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity and endurance performance at sea level. Key pointsThe efficacy of the intermittent hypoxic training is mostly dependent on volume and intensity of exercise in the hypoxic environment.The observed results suggests that intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30-40min) is an effective

  16. THE EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIC TRAINING ON AEROBIC CAPACITY AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosz Czuba

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT with 95 % of lactate threshold workload (WRLT on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty male elite cyclists, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H group (n=10; age 22 ± 2.7years; VO2max 67.8 ± 2.5 ml·kg-1·min-1; body height (BH 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass (BM 66.7 ± 5.4kg; fat free mass (FFM 59.3 ± 5.1kg; fat content (FAT% 11.3 ± 2.1%, and a control (C group (n = 10; age 23.5 ± 3. 5years; VO2max 67.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg-1·min-1; BH 1.79 ± 3.2 m; BM 69.2 ± 5.5 kg; FFM 63.6 ± 4.8 kg; FAT% 7.9 ± 1.94 % took part in the research project. The training program used during the experiment was the same for the both groups. For three weeks, the subjects in H group performed 3 training sessions per week in normobaric hypoxia environment (IHT - O2 = 15. 2%. During the elemental core of the IHT session, the intensity was set at 95% WRLT for 30-min in 1st microcycle, 35-min in 2nd microcycle and 40-min in 3rd microcycle. The same training procedure was provided in C group, yet the intensity of the main sessions were set at 100% WRLT in the normoxia environment. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VO2max,VO2LT, WRmax, WRLT and change in lactate concentration (∆LA during incremental test in H group. Also a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in time of the time trial was seen, associated with a significant increase (p < 0.05 in average generated power (Pavg and average speed (Vavg during the time trial. The intermittent hypoxic training (IHT applied in this research did not significantly affect the hematological variables considered: number of erythrocytes (RBC, hemoglobin concentration (HGB and haematocrit value (HCT. Significant blood value increases (p < 0.05 were only observed in MCV in H group. This data suggests that intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30

  17. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  18. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  19. Sierra County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  20. VT E911 Road Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) EmergencyE911_RDS was originally derived from RDSnn (now called TransRoad_RDS). "Zero-length ranges" in the ROADS layer pertain to grand-fathered...

  1. Standard road plans [English version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed : to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved : materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary : road construction in th...

  2. Stay Healthy on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and travel > Stay healthy on the road Stay healthy on the road ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips to keep ... use sunscreen Use repellent Tips to keep you healthy when traveling Whether at home or on the ...

  3. Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malwina, Kamelska Anna; Krzysztof, Mazurek; Piotr, Zmijewski

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13) and sub-elite (n=13) visually impaired (VI) (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years) and properly sighted (PS) (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years) tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax) was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively) and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg) did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003) and Pmax (p=0.009) among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3%) and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7%) cyclists, however, no time × visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364). After training, VO2max (p=0.03), but not Pmax (p=0.13), was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists. PMID:26834877

  4. PROFESSIONALISM IN THE ARMED FORCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Introduction Rudolph Höss was the Commandant at Auschwitz and he considered himself a military professional.1 He demonstrated many attributes typically...obedience and failures to uphold the laws of armed conflict. Nancy Sherman’s Stoic Warriors: The Ancient Philosophy behind the Military Mind describes...the relationship between stoic philosophy and valued aspects of military character. David Brooks’ The Road to Character studies the link between

  5. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  6. On the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  7. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set,

  8. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  9. The Road Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  10. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  11. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negative...

  12. GIS Data Based Automatic High-Fidelity 3D Road Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    3D road models are widely used in many computer applications such as racing games and driving simulations_ However, almost all high-fidelity 3D road models were generated manually by professional artists at the expense of intensive labor. There are very few existing methods for automatically generating 3D high-fidelity road networks, especially those existing in the real world. This paper presents a novel approach thai can automatically produce 3D high-fidelity road network models from real 2D road GIS data that mainly contain road. centerline in formation. The proposed method first builds parametric representations of the road centerlines through segmentation and fitting . A basic set of civil engineering rules (e.g., cross slope, superelevation, grade) for road design are then selected in order to generate realistic road surfaces in compliance with these rules. While the proposed method applies to any types of roads, this paper mainly addresses automatic generation of complex traffic interchanges and intersections which are the most sophisticated elements in the road networks

  13. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  14. Finite element analysis of the effectiveness of bicycle helmets in head impacts against roads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    OIKAWA, Shoko; NAKADATE, Hiromichi; ZHANG, Yuelin; UENO, Takahiro; AOMURA, Shigeru; MATSUI, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    ...% of cyclist fatalities in 2015 (ITARDA, 2016). The purpose of this study is to estimate head injuries for cyclists and quantify the effectiveness of a bicycle helmet by performing finite element (FE...

  15. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  16. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of top-level youth cross-country cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, Alessandro; Savoldelli, Aldo; Modena, Roberto; Boccia, Gennaro; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico

    2017-07-03

    In the literature there is a lack of data about the development of top level athletes in cross-country mountain biking (XCO). The purpose of this study was to analyze anthropometric and physiological characteristics of some of the best XCO bikers aged between 13 and 16. The study involved 45 bikers (26 males and 19 females) belonging to a youth national team. The evaluations, consisting of anthropometric measures, incremental cycling tests (VO2max, PPO, P@RCP), and 30 s Wingate Tests (PMax, PMean), were conducted over a lapse of 4 years. Our findings showed in bikers, already at young age, a specific athletic profile advantageous for XCO performance. At the age of 16, just before entering the junior category and competing at international level, male and female bikers showed physiological values normalized to the body mass comparable to those reported in literature for high level athletes (VO2max>70 and >60 ml/kg/min, PPO >6.5 and >5.5 W/kg, respectively in males and females). The production of high power-to-weight ratios and high peaks of anaerobic power attests the presence of highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems in young XCO cyclists reflecting the high physiological demand of this sport.

  17. Relations between haemoglobin mass, cardiac dimensions and aerobic capacity in endurance trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgrim, C; Pottgiesser, T; Kron, J; Duerr, H; Baumstark, M; Schumacher, Y O

    2009-12-01

    Chronic endurance exercise triggers increased cardiac dimensions, blood volumes and haemoglobin mass (Hb mass). Cardiac output and Hb mass are considered as independent contributors to aerobic performance. Therefore, increased Hb mass could counterbalance for a relative deficiency in cardiac adaptation. The purpose of the present study is to investigate relations between Hb mass and cardiac dimensions in a group of endurance athletes with respect to aerobic capacity. Two groups of highly trained cyclists featuring high (HHB group, N.=13) and low (LHB group, N.=13) Hb mass (measured by a CO-rebreathing method) were compared for measures of aerobic performance, cardiac wall thickness, cavity size and left ventricular mass (determined by 2-D-echocardiography). Lean body mass (LBM) was chosen as anthropometrical reference for Hb mass. HHB featured higher cardiac wall thickness than LHB, but no difference appeared in cardiac cavity size, left ventricular mass and the performance parameters. Normalising Hb mass for body weight instead of LBM improved correlations between Hb mass and performance parameters. Our data provides new evidence for a connection between cardiac wall thickness and Hb mass in endurance athletes but no further evidence for a counterbalance between Hb mass and cardiac adaptation was found. Moreover, we postulate that Hb mass loses predictive value for aerobic performance when normalised for LBM.

  18. Heart rate variability and surface electromyography of trained cyclists at different cadences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saraiva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The heart rate variability (HRV and surface electromyography (sEMG are important tools in the evaluation of cardiac autonomic system and neuromuscular parameters, respectively. The aim of the study was to evaluate the behavior of HRV and sEMG of the vastus lateralis in two exercise protocols on a cycle ergometer at 60 and 80 rpm. Eight healthy men cyclists who have trained for at least two years were evaluated. Reduction was observed followed by stabilization of RMSSD and SDNN indices of HRV (p<0.05 along with increases in the amplitude of the sEMG signal (p<0.05 in both protocols. Significant correlations were observed between the responses of HRV and sEMG in the cadence of 60 rpm (RMSSD and sEMG: r = -0.42, p=0.03; SDNN and sEMG: r = -0.45, p=0.01 and 80 rpm (RMSSD and sEMG: r = -0.47, p=0.02; SDNN and sEMG: r = -0.49, p=0.01, yet no difference was observed for these variables between the two protocols. We concluded that the parasympathetic cardiac responses and sEMG are independent of cadences applied at the same power output.

  19. EXERCISE LIMITATIONS IN A COMPETITIVE CYCLIST TWELVE MONTHS POST HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas G. Walton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite male cyclist who suffered an acute myocardial infarction after a cycling race and received a heart transplant (HT four months later. Six weeks prior to his AMI fitness testing was completed and a predicted VO2max of 58 mL·kg-1·min-1 and HRmax of 171 bpm was achieved. The participant underwent maximal exercise testing 6 and 12 months post transplant to determine exercise limitations. His results 6 and 12 months post transplant were a VO2max of 33.8 and 44.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 respectively, and a HR max that was 97% and 96% of HRmax measured. The participant showed an increase in both HRmax and VO2max 12 months post HT compared to previous testing. Results suggest that the limiting factors to exercise following HT are likely due to peripheral function, which became diminished as a result accumulated from 4 months of congestive heart failure, the strain of HT, and immunosuppressive therapy leading up to the exercise testing. Lifestyle before HT and a more aggressive approach to HT recovery should be considered necessary in the improvement of peripheral functioning following HT

  20. Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Bugeja, Lyndal; Smith, Daisy; Lamb, Ashne; Dwyer, Jeremy; Fitzharris, Michael; Newstead, Stuart; D'Elia, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2018-02-17

    This study used medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user (ORU, aged 65 years and older) crash circumstances and risk factors relating to 4 key components of the Safe System approach (e.g., roads and roadsides, vehicles, road users, and speeds) to identify areas of priority for targeted prevention activity. The Coroners' Court of Victoria's (CCOV) Surveillance Database was searched to identify and describe the frequency and rate per 100,000 population of fatal ORU crashes in the Australian state of Victoria for 2013-2014. Information relating to the deceased ORU, crash characteristics and circumstances, and risk factors was extracted and analyzed. One hundred and thirty-eight unintentional fatal ORU crashes were identified in the CCOV Surveillance Database. Of these fatal ORU crashes, most involved older drivers (44%), followed by older pedestrians (32%), older passengers (17%), older pedal cyclists (4%), older motorcyclists (1%), and older mobility scooter users (1%). The average annual rate of fatal ORU crashes per 100,000 population was 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0-10.2). In terms of the crash characteristics and circumstances, most fatal ORU crashes involved a counterpart (98%), of which the majority were passenger cars (50%) or fixed/stationary objects (25%), including trees (46%) or embankments (23%). In addition, most fatal ORU crashes occurred close to home (73%), on-road (87%), on roads that were paved (94%), on roads with light traffic volume (37%), and during low-risk conditions: between 12 p.m. and 6 p.m. (44%), on weekdays (80%), during daylight (75%), and under dry/clear conditions (81%). Road user (RU) error was identified by the police and/or the coroner for the majority of fatal crashes (55%), with a significant proportion of deceased ORUs deemed to have failed to yield (54%) or misjudged (41%). RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes, which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the

  1. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  2. Can we prevent road rage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  3. Comparing lower lumbar kinematics in cyclists with low back pain (flexion pattern) versus asymptomatic controls--field study using a wireless posture monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Volkaerts, Koen; O'Sullivan, Kieran; Verschueren, Sabine; Dankaerts, Wim

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine lower lumbar kinematics in cyclists with and without non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP) during a cross-sectional cycling field study. Although LBP is a common problem among cyclists, studies investigating the causes of LBP during cycling are scarce and are mainly focussed on geometric bike-related variables. Until now no cycling field studies have investigated the relationship between maladaptive lumbar kinematics and LBP during cycling. Eight cyclists with NS-CLBP classified as having a 'Flexion Pattern' (FP) disorder and nine age- and gender-matched asymptomatic cyclists were tested. Subjects performed a 2 h outdoor cycling task on their personal race bike. Lower lumbar kinematics was measured with the BodyGuard™ monitoring system. Pain intensity during and after cycling was measured using a numerical pain rating scale. The NS-CLBP (FP) subjects were significantly more flexed at the lower lumbar spine during cycling compared to healthy controls (p = 0.018), and reported a significant increase in pain over the 2 h of cycling (p posture between groups did not change over time. These findings suggest that a subgroup of cyclists with NS-CLBP (FP) demonstrate an underlying maladaptive motor control pattern resulting in greater lower lumbar flexion during cycling which is related to a significant increase in pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drinking to Thirst Versus Drinking Ad Libitum During Road Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Johnson, Evan C.; Kunces, Laura J.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Judelson, Daniel A.; Kupchak, Brian R.; Vingren, Jakob L.; Munoz, Colleen X.; Huggins, Robert A.; Hydren, Jay R.; Moyen, Nicole E.; Williamson, Keith H.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The sensation of thirst is different from the complex behavior of drinking ad libitum. Rehydration recommendations to athletes differ, depending on the source, yet no previous researchers have systematically compared drinking to thirst (DTT) versus ad libitum drinking behavior (DAL). Objective: To compare 2 groups of trained cyclists (DTT and DAL) who had similar physical characteristics and training programs (P > .05). The DTT group (n = 12, age = 47 ± 7 years) drank only when thirsty, whereas the DAL group (n = 12, age = 44 ± 7 years) consumed fluid ad libitum (ie, whenever and in whatever volume desired). Design: Cohort study. Setting: Road cycling (164 km) in the heat (36.1°C ± 6.5°C). Patients or Other Participants: Ultraendurance cyclists (4 women, 20 men). Intervention(s): We recorded measurements 1 day before the event, on event day before the start, at 3 roadside aid stations, at the finish line, and 1 day after the event. Main Outcome Measure(s): Body mass, urinary hydration indices, and food and fluids consumed. Results: No between-groups differences were seen on event day for total exercise time (DTT = 6.69 ± 0.89 hours, DAL = 6.66 ± 0.77 hours), urinary indices (specific gravity, color), body mass change (DTT = −2.22% ± 1.73%, DAL = −2.29% ± 1.62%), fluid intake (DTT = 5.63 ± 2.59 L/6.7 h, DAL = 6.04 ± 2.37 L/6.7 h), dietary energy intake, macronutrient intake, ratings of thirst (DTT start = 2 ± 1, DTT finish = 6 ± 1, DAL start = 2 ± 1, DAL finish = 6 ± 1), pain, perceived exertion, or thermal sensation. Total fluid intake on recovery day +1 was the primary significant difference (DAL = 5.13 ± 1.87 L/24 h, DTT = 3.13 ± 1.53 L/24 h, t18 = 2.59, P = .02). Conclusions: Observations on event day indicated that drinking to thirst and drinking ad libitum resulted in similar physiologic and perceptual outcomes. This suggests that specific instructions to “drink to thirst” were unnecessary. Indeed, if athletes drink ad libitum

  5. Tweets on the road

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation b...

  6. Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  7. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  8. Amphibian and reptile road-kills on tertiary roads in relation to landscape structure: using a citizen science approach with open-access land cover data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heigl, Florian; Horvath, Kathrin; Laaha, Gregor; Zaller, Johann G

    2017-06-26

    Amphibians and reptiles are among the most endangered vertebrate species worldwide. However, little is known how they are affected by road-kills on tertiary roads and whether the surrounding landscape structure can explain road-kill patterns. The aim of our study was to examine the applicability of open-access remote sensing data for a large-scale citizen science approach to describe spatial patterns of road-killed amphibians and reptiles on tertiary roads. Using a citizen science app we monitored road-kills of amphibians and reptiles along 97.5 km of tertiary roads covering agricultural, municipal and interurban roads as well as cycling paths in eastern Austria over two seasons. Surrounding landscape was assessed using open access land cover classes for the region (Coordination of Information on the Environment, CORINE). Hotspot analysis was performed using kernel density estimation (KDE+). Relations between land cover classes and amphibian and reptile road-kills were analysed with conditional probabilities and general linear models (GLM). We also estimated the potential cost-efficiency of a large scale citizen science monitoring project. We recorded 180 amphibian and 72 reptile road-kills comprising eight species mainly occurring on agricultural roads. KDE+ analyses revealed a significant clustering of road-killed amphibians and reptiles, which is an important information for authorities aiming to mitigate road-kills. Overall, hotspots of amphibian and reptile road-kills were next to the land cover classes arable land, suburban areas and vineyards. Conditional probabilities and GLMs identified road-kills especially next to preferred habitats of green toad, common toad and grass snake, the most often found road-killed species. A citizen science approach appeared to be more cost-efficient than monitoring by professional researchers only when more than 400 km of road are monitored. Our findings showed that freely available remote sensing data in combination with a

  9. Road pricing with complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Van Dender, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The rationale for congestion charges is that by internalising the marginal external congestion cost, they restore efficiency in the transport market. In the canonical model underlying this view, congestion is a static phenomenon, users are taken to be homogenous, there is no travel time risk...... charges for such interactions. Therefore the simple Pigouvian rule remains a good first approximation for the design of road charging systems....

  10. Operation Alaskan Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    highly susceptible to what became commonly referred to as “the Ketchikan crud ,” an affliction characterized by upper respiratory and/or gastrointestinal...dramatically improved worker morale in the cold and rain. Utilities. All electricity had to be generated on-site. Base Camp Wy Wuh consisted of...Alaskan natives for generations to come. When asked what they would do with the road, the tribal elders replied, “We don’t know yet, but our children

  11. Roads and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Ajay; Galasso, Alberto; Oettl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the interplay between transportation infrastructure, knowledge flows, and innovation. Exploiting historical data on planned portions of the interstate highway system, railroads, and exploration routes as sources of exogenous variation, we estimate the effect of U.S. interstate highways on regional innovation. We find that a 10% increase in a region's stock of highways causes a 1.7% increase in regional patenting over a five-year period. We show that roads facilitate the flow of local...

  12. Weather and road capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces s...

  13. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  14. More screen operation than calling: The results of observing cyclists' behaviour while using mobile phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Westerhuis, Frank; Lewis-Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Operating a mobile telephone while riding a bicycle is fairly common practice in the Netherlands, yet it is unknown if this use is stable or increasing. As such, whether the prevalence of mobile phone use while cycling has changed over the past five years was studied via on-road observation. In

  15. Preferences and behaviour of pedestrians and cyclists by age and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Carstensen, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    significantly more than the younger respondents do. To a larger extent they feel that it is dangerous to cross the road where these facilities are missing. The older pedestrians also find the presence of a pavement very important on their route whereas the younger pedestrians more often focus on a fast passage...

  16. The implications of low quality bicycle paths on the gaze behaviour of young learner cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Zeuwts, Linus; van Maarseveen, Mariëtte; Cardon, Greet; Savelsbergh, Geert; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    In a recent study, Vansteenkiste et al. (2014) described how low quality bicycle paths cause an apparent shift of visual attention from distant environmental regions to more proximate road properties. Surprisingly, this shift of visual attention was not accompanied by an adaptation in cycling speed.

  17. Lung density is not altered following intense normobaric hypoxic interval training in competitive female cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Jordan A; Sporer, Benjamin C; Macnutt, Meaghan J; Coxson, Harvey O; Sheel, A William; Mayo, John R; McKenzie, Donald C

    2007-09-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used to assess pulmonary edema following exercise but results remain equivocal. Most studies examining this phenomenon have used male subjects while the female response has received little attention. Some suggest that women, by virtue of their smaller lungs, airways, and diffusion surface areas may be more susceptible to pulmonary limitations during exercise. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine if intense normobaric hypoxic exercise could induce pulmonary edema in women. Baseline lung density was obtained in eight highly trained female cyclists (mean +/- SD: age = 26 +/- 7 yr; height = 172.2 +/- 6.7 cm; mass = 64.1 +/- 6.7 kg; Vo(2max) = 52.2 +/- 2.2 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) using computed tomography (CT). CT scans were obtained at the level of the aortic arch, the tracheal carina, and the superior end plate of the tenth thoracic vertebra. While breathing 15% O(2), subjects then performed five 2.5-km cycling intervals [mean power = 212 +/- 31 W; heart rate (HR) = 94.5 +/- 2.2%HRmax] separated by 5 min of recovery. Throughout the intervals, subjects desaturated to 82 +/- 4%, which was 13 +/- 2% below resting hypoxic levels. Scans were repeated 44 +/- 8 min following exercise. Mean lung density did not change from pre (0.138 +/- 0.014 g/ml)- to postexercise (0.137 +/- 0.011 g/ml). These findings suggest that pulmonary edema does not occur in highly trained females following intense normobaric hypoxic exercise.

  18. Effects of high vs. low cadence training on cyclists' brain cortical activity during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2016-04-01

    As brain cortical activity depends on cadence, exercise at different pedaling frequencies could provide efficient stimuli for functional adaptations of the brain. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cadence-specific training on brain cortical activity as well as endurance performance. Randomized, controlled experimental trial in a repeated measure design. Male (n=24) and female (n=12) cyclists were randomly assigned to either a high cadence group (HCT), a low cadence group (LCT) or a control group (CON) for a 4 week intervention period. All groups performed 4h of basic endurance training per week. Additionally, HCT and LCT completed four cadence-specific 60min sessions weekly. At baseline and after 4 weeks subjects performed an incremental test with spirometry as well as an interval session (constant load; varying cadences) with continuous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. In contrast to CON, HCT and LCT elicited similar improvements of maximal oxygen uptake and power at the individual anaerobic threshold. Additionally, there was a reduction of alpha-, beta- and overall-power spectral density in HCT, which was more pronounced at high cadences. Improvements of endurance performance were correlated with reductions of EEG spectral power at 90 and 120rpm. Whereas high and low cadence training elicit similar improvements in endurance performance, brain cortical activity is especially sensitive to high cadence training. Its reduction can be interpreted in the sense of the neural efficiency hypothesis and might as well influence the sensation of central fatigue positively. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EATING ATTITUDES, PERFECTIONISM AND BODY-ESTEEM OF ELITE MALE JUDOISTS AND CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Filaire

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that male athletes who feel pressured to maintain a specific body weight present an elevated risk of subclinical eating disorders. Twelve judoists (19.5 ± 0.5 yr, fifteen cyclists (21.2 ± 2.8 yr and seventeen non- competitive students matched for BMI and used as controls (21.8 ± 1.8 yr were studied using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Body Esteem Scale and the Profile of Mood States were also used to evaluate the relationships between eating disorders and psychological characteristics. Athletes completed the tests during their competitive period and controls completed the same scales at the same time. Scores obtained on EAT-26 differed significantly from the control group on EAT (p < 0.01, Dieting (p < 0.01, and Bulimia scores (p < 0.05. Sixty percent of the athletes used weight loss methods. Self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives and diet pills were reported by 4%, 10%, and 8.5% of them, respectively. Increasing exercise was the primary method used by controls to lose body weight. Athletes reported greater negative feelings about their physical appearance and their Body Weight Satisfaction than controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively. Our results also showed that depression mood accounted for 73% of the variance in Bulimia scores and for 64% of the variance in Global EAT scores in athletes. Body-esteem Appearance and depression accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in Dieting scores. There was no difference in perfectionism and mood between athletes and controls. This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors

  20. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  1. Influence of a new bicycle crank design on aerobic parameters of non-cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, S; Canino, B; Dagnese, F; Carpes, F P; Calandrino, V; Buscemi, C; Mattina, A; Verga, S

    2012-02-01

    A well known problem in conventional cycling crank systems is the pedalling dead spot when the crank arms are in vertical position. The pedalling dead spot mitigates the power output during the propulsion phase of pedalling. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of a new design of crank system on aerobic parameters of performance in healthy non-cyclists. The mechanical concept of the new system is based on the theory that crank arms should never be perpendicularly aligned to the ground at dead spot. The maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max) and different parameters of cycling efficiency were measured in 14 (mean±SD of age: 26±5) non-obese (body mass index: 26.0±3.0 kg/m2) healthy men in two different occasions at intervals of 2 days using alternately and in randomized order both the traditional crank system and the system without dead spot respectively. The workload performed was significantly higher with the new crank system as suggested by the higher exercise duration (12.89 ±2.36 vs. 13.33±2.30 min; P=0.032). The favourable results obtained in this study using the new chainring may be in consequence of a more efficient biomechanics of pedalling that does not reflect changes in O2 consumption and CO2 produced. However, it is not possible to exclude that involuntary motivational factors may have induced the difference in the time test since it was not possible to blind subjects about the two crank systems. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the results of this exploratory study and give a more exhaustive explanation about the mechanisms that allow the possible better performance with this new chainring system.

  2. Effects of a novel bicycle saddle on symptoms and comfort in cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keytel, L R; Noakes, T D

    2002-04-01

    While the bicycle frame and other parts of the bicycle have undergone many improvements, the bicycle saddle has remained relatively unchanged since it was first designed more than 100 years ago. Given the number and range of cycling injuries believed to result from the saddle, this is surprising. This study investigated the effects of a novel bicycle saddle on saddle-related comfort and symptoms during cycling. Eleven competitive or recreational cyclists, 6 females and 5 males, performed three 2-hour stationary cycle rides in the laboratory, using their personal bicycles. Ride 1 was performed using the standard bicycle saddle and rides 2 and 3 using the novel bicycle saddle. Subjects reported saddle comfort rating scores (SC) while using the different saddles. Subjects also completed a questionnaire evaluating saddle symptoms (SS) when using either the conventional or the novel bicycle saddle during daily cycling. The most common saddle-related medical complaint with chronic use of the conventional saddle was painful pubic bones, with or without chaffing. Others were severe chaffing, saddle sores, chaffing and back pain, and painful pubic bones associated with a loss of feeling in the pelvic area. The mean SS rating score during the 2-hour laboratory ride was significantly less for the novel saddle (11.6 +/- 1.2 versus 19.1 +/- 3.2 arbitrary units, P cycling compared with the conventionally designed cycling saddle; (ii) significantly improved saddle comfort during 2-hour cycles in the laboratory, such that (iii) when given the option the majority (82%) of the subjects chose to use this saddle 3 months later. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of the novel saddle were apparent during its first use, suggesting that the novel saddle is effective because the design is anatomically correct.

  3. Case Studies in Physiology: Maximal oxygen consumption and performance in a centenarian cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billat, Véronique; Dhonneur, Gilles; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Le Moyec, Laurence; Momken, Iman; Launay, Thierry; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Besse, Sophie

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological characteristics of an elite centenarian cyclist who, at 101 yr old, established the 1-h cycling record for individuals ≥100 yr old (24.25 km) and to determine the physiological factors associated with his performance improvement 2 yr later at 103 yr old (26.92 km; +11%). Before each record, he performed an incremental test on a cycling ergometer. For 2 yr, he trained 5,000 km/yr with a polarized training that involved cycling 80% of mileage at "light" rate of perceived exertion (RPE) ≤12 and 20% at "hard" RPE ≥15 at a cadence between 50 and 70 rpm. His body weight and lean body mass did not change, while his maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max) increased (31-35 ml·kg-1·min-1; +13%). Peak power output increased from 90 to 125 W (+39%), mainly because of increasing the maximal pedaling frequency (69-90 rpm; +30%). Maximal heart rate did not change (134-137 beats/min) in contrast to the maximal ventilation (57-70 l/min, +23%), increasing with both the respiratory frequency (38-41 cycles/min; +8%) and the tidal volume (1.5-1.7 liters; +13%). Respiratory exchange ratio increased (1.03-1.14) to the same extent as tolerance to V̇co2 In conclusion, it is possible to increase performance and V̇o2max with polarized training focusing on a high pedaling cadence even after turning 100 yr old.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows, for the first time, that maximal oxygen consumption (+13%) and performance (+11%) can still be increased between 101 and 103 yr old with 2 yr of training and that a centenarian is able, at 103 yr old, to cover 26.9 km/h in 1 h. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of Seat Tube Angle and Exercise Intensity on Muscle Activity Patterns in Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUGGAN, WILL; DONNE, BERNARD; FLEMING, NEIL

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported improved efficiency at steeper seat tube angle (STA) during ergometer cycling; however, neuromuscular mechanisms have yet to be fully determined. The current study investigated effects of STA on lower limb EMG activity at varying exercise intensities. Cyclists (n=11) were tested at 2 workloads; 160W and an individualised workload (IWL) equivalent to lactate threshold (TLac) minus 10%δ (derived from maximal incremental data), using 3 STA (70, 75 and 80°). Electromyographic data from Vastus Medialis (VM), Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Lateralis (VL) and Biceps Femoris (BF) were assessed. The timing and magnitude of activation were quantified and analysed using a two-way ANOVA. STA had significant (P < 0.05) effects on timing of onset and offset of VM, timing of offset of VL, and angle at peak for RF, all occurring later at 80 vs. 70° STA at IWL. In RF, increased activity occurred during the first 108° of the crank cycle at 80 vs. 70° at IWL (P < 0.01). As most of the power in the pedal stroke is generated during the mid-section of the down-stroke, movement of the activation range of knee extensors into the predominantly power phase of the pedal stroke would potentially account for increased efficiency and decreased cardio-respiratory costs. Greater activity of bi-articular RF, in the first 108º of the crank cycle at IWL (80 vs. 70º) may more closely resemble the pelvic stabilising activity of RF in running biomechanics; and potentially explain the more effective transition from cycling to running reported in triathletes using steeper STA.

  5. Effect of gear ratio on peak power and time to peak power in BMX cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if gear ratio selection would have an effect on peak power and time to peak power production in elite Bicycle Motocross (BMX) cyclists. Eight male elite BMX riders volunteered for the study. Each rider performed three, 10-s maximal sprints on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The riders' bicycles were fitted with a portable SRM power meter. Each rider performed the three sprints using gear ratios of 41/16, 43/16 and 45/16 tooth. The results from the 41/16 and 45/16 gear ratios were compared to the current standard 43/16 gear ratio. Statistically, significant differences were found between the gear ratios for peak power (F(2,14) = 6.448; p = .010) and peak torque (F(2,14) = 4.777; p = .026), but no significant difference was found for time to peak power (F(2,14) = 0.200; p = .821). When comparing gear ratios, the results showed a 45/16 gear ratio elicited the highest peak power,1658 ± 221 W, compared to 1436 ± 129 W and 1380 ± 56 W, for the 43/16 and 41/16 ratios, respectively. The time to peak power showed a 41/16 tooth gear ratio attained peak power in -0.01 s and a 45/16 in 0.22 s compared to the 43/16. The findings of this study suggest that gear ratio choice has a significant effect on peak power production, though time to peak power output is not significantly affected. Therefore, selecting a higher gear ratio results in riders attaining higher power outputs without reducing their start time.

  6. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  7. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  8. An observational study of road safety around selected primary schools in Ibadan municipality, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangowawa, Adesola O; Adebiyi, Akindele O; Faseru, Babalola; Popoola, Olusola J

    2012-01-01

    Child pedestrians have been identified as vulnerable road users. Although walking as a means of transport has health and other benefits, it exposes children to the risk of road traffic injuries. This study was conducted to assess the availability of road safety features around government-owned primary schools in Ibadan municipality. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the school environment around the selected schools for road safety features such as location of schools, presence of "school", "child crossing" and "speed limit" road signs, and presence of traffic calming devices (road bumps or zebra crossing). Five (14%) of the schools were located on major roads and eight (23%) had road signs indicating that a school was nearby. Seven (20%) had road bumps close to the school, 15 (43%) had a warden who assisted children to cross, and none had a zebra crossing. Five (14%) schools had pedestrian sidewalks. The study revealed that the environment around a number of the observed schools in the municipality compromised the pupils' road safety. The local government, school authorities, parents, and road safety professionals need to institute definite measures to enhance the road safety environment around schools in the municipality.

  9. Information technology road map 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  10. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before.......Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  11. The epidemiology of road traffic injury hotspots in Kigali, Rwanda from police data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjni Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are the eighth-leading cause of death worldwide, with low- and middle-income countries sharing a disproportionate number of fatalities. African countries, like Rwanda, carry a higher burden of these fatalities and with increased economic growth, these numbers are expected to rise. We aim to describe the epidemiology of RTIs in Kigali Province, Rwanda and create a hotspot map of crashes from police data. Methods Road traffic crash (RTC report data from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 was collected from Kigali Traffic Police. In addition to analysis of descriptive data, locations of RTCs were mapped and analyzed through exploratory spatial data analysis to determine hotspots. Results A total of 2589 of RTCs were reported with 4689 total victims. The majority of victims were male (94.7 % with an average age of 35.9 years. Cars were the most frequent vehicle involved (43.8 %, followed by motorcycles (14.5 %. Motorcycles had an increased risk of involvement in grievous crashes and pedestrians and cyclists were more likely to have grievous injuries. The hotspots identified were primarily located along the major roads crossing Kigali and the two busiest downtown areas. Conclusions Despite significant headway by the government in RTC prevention, there continue to be high rates of RTIs in Rwanda, specifically with young males and a vulnerable road user population, such as pedestrians and motorcycle users. Improvements in police data and reporting by laypersons could prove valuable for further geographic information system analysis and efforts towards crash prevention and targeting education to motorcycle taxis could help reduce RTIs in a severely affected population.

  12. The epidemiology of road traffic injury hotspots in Kigali, Rwanda from police data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anjni; Krebs, Elizabeth; Andrade, Luciano; Rulisa, Stephen; Vissoci, João Ricardo N; Staton, Catherine A

    2016-08-02

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the eighth-leading cause of death worldwide, with low- and middle-income countries sharing a disproportionate number of fatalities. African countries, like Rwanda, carry a higher burden of these fatalities and with increased economic growth, these numbers are expected to rise. We aim to describe the epidemiology of RTIs in Kigali Province, Rwanda and create a hotspot map of crashes from police data. Road traffic crash (RTC) report data from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 was collected from Kigali Traffic Police. In addition to analysis of descriptive data, locations of RTCs were mapped and analyzed through exploratory spatial data analysis to determine hotspots. A total of 2589 of RTCs were reported with 4689 total victims. The majority of victims were male (94.7 %) with an average age of 35.9 years. Cars were the most frequent vehicle involved (43.8 %), followed by motorcycles (14.5 %). Motorcycles had an increased risk of involvement in grievous crashes and pedestrians and cyclists were more likely to have grievous injuries. The hotspots identified were primarily located along the major roads crossing Kigali and the two busiest downtown areas. Despite significant headway by the government in RTC prevention, there continue to be high rates of RTIs in Rwanda, specifically with young males and a vulnerable road user population, such as pedestrians and motorcycle users. Improvements in police data and reporting by laypersons could prove valuable for further geographic information system analysis and efforts towards crash prevention and targeting education to motorcycle taxis could help reduce RTIs in a severely affected population.

  13. Subclinical responses in healthy cyclists briefly exposed to traffic-related air pollution: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Alfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated adverse health effects of a sedentary life style, on the one hand, and of acute and chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution, on the other. Because physical exercise augments the amount of inhaled pollutants, it is not clear whether cycling to work in a polluted urban environment should be encouraged or not. To address this conundrum we investigated if a bicycle journey along a busy commuting road would induce changes in biomarkers of pulmonary and systematic inflammation in a group of healthy subjects. Methods 38 volunteers (mean age: 43 ± 8.6 years, 26% women cycled for about 20 minutes in real traffic near a major bypass road (road test; mean UFP exposure: 28,867 particles per cm3 in Antwerp and in a laboratory with filtered air (clean room; mean UFP exposure: 496 particles per cm3. The exercise intensity (heart rate and duration of cycling were similar for each volunteer in both experiments. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6, platelet function, Clara cell protein in serum and blood cell counts were measured before and 30 minutes after exercise. Results Percentage of blood neutrophils increased significantly more (p = 0.004 after exercise in the road test (3.9%; 95% CI: 1.5 to 6.2%; p = 0.003 than after exercise in the clean room (0.2%; 95% CI: -1.8 to 2.2%, p = 0.83. The pre/post-cycling changes in exhaled NO, plasma IL-6, platelet function, serum levels of Clara cell protein and number of total blood leukocytes did not differ significantly between the two scenarios. Conclusions Traffic-related exposure to particles during exercise caused a small increase in the distribution of inflammatory blood cells in healthy subjects. The health significance of this isolated change is unclear.

  14. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various initiatives, strategies and programmes have been taken by the Government of Malaysia to resolve issues pertaining to road traffic deaths. Nevertheless, the implementation of the programmes outlined in Malaysian Road Safety Plan 2006 needs to be enhanced in order to achieve the set targets. In this regard, it is ...

  15. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessmen...

  16. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  17. Effects of 12 weeks of block periodization on performance and performance indices in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Ellefsen, S; Nygaard, H; Zacharoff, E E; Vikmoen, O; Hansen, J; Hallén, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists during a 12-week preparation period. One group of cyclists performed block periodization (BP; n = 8), wherein every fourth week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization (TRAD; n = 7), with 12 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. BP achieved a larger relative improvement in VO2max than TRAD (8.8 ± 5.9% vs 3.7 ± 2.9%, respectively, training (ES range was 0.62-1.12). The present study suggests that BP of endurance training has superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with TRAD. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of cyclist aerodynamics: performance of different turbulence-modelling and boundary-layer modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defraeye, Thijs; Blocken, Bert; Koninckx, Erwin; Hespel, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2010-08-26

    This study aims at assessing the accuracy of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for applications in sports aerodynamics, for example for drag predictions of swimmers, cyclists or skiers, by evaluating the applied numerical modelling techniques by means of detailed validation experiments. In this study, a wind-tunnel experiment on a scale model of a cyclist (scale 1:2) is presented. Apart from three-component forces and moments, also high-resolution surface pressure measurements on the scale model's surface, i.e. at 115 locations, are performed to provide detailed information on the flow field. These data are used to compare the performance of different turbulence-modelling techniques, such as steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), with several k-epsilon and k-omega turbulence models, and unsteady large-eddy simulation (LES), and also boundary-layer modelling techniques, namely wall functions and low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM). The commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3 is used for the simulations. The RANS shear-stress transport (SST) k-omega model shows the best overall performance, followed by the more computationally expensive LES. Furthermore, LRNM is clearly preferred over wall functions to model the boundary layer. This study showed that there are more accurate alternatives for evaluating flow around bluff bodies with CFD than the standard k-epsilon model combined with wall functions, which is often used in CFD studies in sports. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dose–response associations between cycling activity and risk of hypertension in regular cyclists: The UK Cycling for Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, M; Harper, A; Hamer, M

    2015-01-01

    Most population studies on physical activity and health have involved largely inactive men and women, thus making it difficult to infer if health benefits occur at exercise levels above the current minimum guidelines. The aim was to examine associations between cycling volume and classical cardiovascular risk markers, including hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, in a population sample of habitual cyclists. A nationwide sample comprising 6949 men and women (aged 47.6 years on average) completed questions about their cycling levels, demographics and health. Nearly the entire sample (96.3%) achieved the current minimum physical activity recommendation through cycling alone. There was a dose–response association between cycling volume and risk of diagnosed hypertension (P-trend =0.001), with odds ratios of 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80–1.21), 0.86 (0.70, 1.06), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.53–0.83) across categories of 23–40, 40–61 and >61 metabolic equivalent hours/week (MET-h/week) compared with cycling volume and other risk factors including BMI and hypercholesterolemia. In summary, results from a population sample of cyclists suggest that additional cardiovascular health benefits can be achieved beyond the current minimum physical activity recommendation. PMID:25273856

  20. Driver fatigue and road safety on Poland's national roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Kazimierz; Smolarek, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of factors causing driver fatigue as described in the literature. Next, a traffic crash database for 2003-2007 is used to identify the causes, circumstances and consequences of accidents caused by driver fatigue on Poland's national roads. The results of the study were used to build a model showing the relationship between the concentration of road accidents and casualties, and the time of day. Finally, the level of relative accident risk at night-time versus daytime is defined. A map shows the risk of death and severe injury on the network of Poland's national roads. The paper suggests to road authorities steps to reduce fatigue-related road accidents in Poland.

  1. Effects of saddle height on economy and anaerobic power in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Green, James M

    2011-03-01

    In cycling, saddle height adjustment is critical for optimal performance and injury prevention. A 25-35° knee angle is recommended for injury prevention, whereas 109% of inseam, measured from floor to ischium, is recommended for optimal performance. Previous research has demonstrated that these 2 methods produce significantly different saddle heights and may influence cycling performance. This study compared performance between these 2 methods for determining saddle height. Subjects consisted of 11 well-trained (VO2max = 61.55 ± 4.72 ml·kg·min) male cyclists. Subjects completed a total of 8 performance trials consisting of a graded maximal protocol, three 15-minute economy trials, and 4 anaerobic power trials. Dependent measures for economy (VO2, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion) and anaerobic power (peak power and mean power) were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05). VO2 was significantly lower (reflecting greater economy) at a 25° knee angle (44.77 ± 6.40 ml·kg·min) in comparison to a 35° knee angle (45.22 ± 6.79 ml·kg·min) and 109% of inseam (45.98 ± 5.33 ml·kg·min). Peak power at a 25° knee angle (1,041.55 ± 168.72 W) was significantly higher in relation to 109% of inseam (1,002.05 ± 147.65 W). Mean power at a 25° knee angle (672.37 ± 90.21 W) was significantly higher in relation to a 35° knee angle (654.71 ± 80.67 W). Mean power was significantly higher at 109% of inseam (662.86 ± 79.72 W) in relation to a 35° knee angle (654.71 ± 80.67 W). Use of 109% of inseam fell outside the recommended 25-35° range 73% of the time. Use of 25° knee angle appears to provide optimal performance while keeping knee angle within the recommended range for injury prevention.

  2. Effects of High-Intensity Training on Physiological and Hormonal Adaptions in Well-Trained Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylta, Øystein; Tønnessen, Espen; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Hammarström, Daniel; Danielsen, Jørgen; Skovereng, Knut; Rønnestad, Bent R; Seiler, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Investigate development of specific performance adaptions and hormonal responses every fourth week during a 12-wk high-intensity training (HIT) period in groups with different interval-training prescriptions. Sixty-three well-trained cyclists performing a 12-wk intervention consisting of two to three HIT sessions per week in addition to ad libitum low-intensity training. Groups were matched for total training load, but increasing HIT (INC) group (n = 23) performed interval-sessions as 4 × 16 min in weeks 1-4, 4 × 8 min in weeks 5-8, and 4 × 4 min in weeks 9-12. Decreasing HIT (DEC) group (n = 20) performed interval sessions in the opposite order as INC, and mixed HIT (MIX) group (n = 20) performed all interval-sessions in a mixed distribution during 12 wk. Cycling-tests and measures of resting blood hormones were conducted pre, weeks 4, 8, and 12. INC and MIX achieved >70% of total change in workload eliciting 4 mmol·L [la] (Power4mM) and V˙O2peak during weeks 1-4, versus only 34%-38% in DEC. INC induced larger improvement versus DEC during weeks 1-4 in Power4mM (effect size, 0.7) and V˙O2peak (effect size, 0.8). All groups increased similarly in peak power output during weeks 1-4 (64%-89% of total change). All groups' pooled, total and free testosterone and free testosterone/cortisol ratio decreased by 22% ± 15%, 13% ± 23%, and 14% ± 31% (all P MIX, and accompanied by changes in resting blood hormones consistent with increased but compensable stress load. In these well-trained subjects, accumulating 2-3 h·wk performing 4 × 16 min work bouts at best effort induces greater adaptions in Power4mM and V˙O2peak than accumulating ~1 h·wk performing best effort intervals as 4 × 4 min.

  3. Improving road safety : Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  4. EDITORIAL ROAD SAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, road safety trends in Kenya are worsening. The mean annual fatality rate from all road traffic accidents in Kenya is estimated at 50 deaths per 10 000 registered vehicles (1,2). The numbers of reported accidents have been showing an increasing trend from 10,300 in 1990 to 16,800 in 2000 and. 17,400 in ...

  5. All Road Density (18km)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Density (km / km^2) of all roads in the western United States. Dataset was developed to generalize the 2000 US Census TIGER/Line Roads layer to a density within 18km...

  6. Professional Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    True professionals develop and create together a better future by their human endeavors in synergy. They must operate comfortably in two cultures--the industrial culture which is disappearing, and the superindustrial or cyberculture which is emerging. (CT)

  7. PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process which Romanian commercial law underwent has affected both the term of ‘trader’, by redefining it, and the classification of professional categories. Currently, the term of ‘professional’ is conveyed by a descriptive listing of the categories of persons it comprises: traders, entrepreneurs, business operators, as well as any other person authorized to carry out economic or professional activities.

  8. 'Surfing the Silk Road': a study of users' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2013-11-01

    The online drug marketplace called 'Silk Road' has operated anonymously on the 'Deep Web' since 2011. It is accessible through computer encrypting software (Tor) and is supported by online transactions using peer to peer anonymous and untraceable crypto-currency (Bit Coins). The study aimed to describe user motives and realities of accessing, navigating and purchasing on the 'Silk Road' marketplace. Systematic online observations, monitoring of discussion threads on the site during four months of fieldwork and analysis of anonymous online interviews (n=20) with a convenience sample of adult 'Silk Road' users was conducted. The majority of participants were male, in professional employment or in tertiary education. Drug trajectories ranged from 18 months to 25 years, with favourite drugs including MDMA, 2C-B, mephedrone, nitrous oxide, ketamine, cannabis and cocaine. Few reported prior experience of online drug sourcing. Reasons for utilizing 'Silk Road' included curiosity, concerns for street drug quality and personal safety, variety of products, anonymous transactioning, and ease of product delivery. Vendor selection appeared to be based on trust, speed of transaction, stealth modes and quality of product. Forums on the site provided user advice, trip reports, product and transaction reviews. Some users reported solitary drug use for psychonautic and introspective purposes. A minority reported customs seizures, and in general a displacement away from traditional drug sourcing (street and closed markets) was described. Several reported intentions to commence vending on the site. The study provides an insight into 'Silk Road' purchasing motives and processes, the interplay between traditional and 'Silk Road' drug markets, the 'Silk Road' online community and its communication networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  10. Scale invariance in road networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2< or = alpha < or =2.4, and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  11. High dietary protein restores overreaching induced impairments in leukocyte trafficking and reduces the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection in elite cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackmann, S.R.; Kies, A.K.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Bosch, J.A.; Tipton, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether a high protein diet prevents the impaired leukocyte redistribution in response to acute exercise caused by a large volume of high-intensity exercise training. Eight cyclists (VO2max: 64.2 ± 6.5 mL kg−1 min−1) undertook two separate weeks of high-intensity training

  12. Improved VO2max and time trial performance with more high aerobic intensity interval training and reduced training volume: a case study on an elite national cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Haave, Marius; Helgerud, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The present study investigated to what extent more high aerobic intensity interval training (HAIT) and reduced training volume would influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and time trial (TT) performance in an elite national cyclist in the preseason period. The cyclist was tested for VO2max, cycling economy (C(c)), and TT performance on an ergometer cycle during 1 year. Training was continuously logged using heart rate monitor during the entire period. Total monthly training volume was reduced in the 2011 preseason compared with the 2010 preseason, and 2 HAIT blocks (14 sessions in 9 days and 15 sessions in 10 days) were performed as running. Between the HAIT blocks, 3 HAIT sessions per week were performed as cycling. From November 2010 to February 2011, the cyclist reduced total average monthly training volume by 18% and cycling training volume by 60%. The amount of training at 90-95% HRpeak increased by 41%. VO2max increased by 10.3% on ergometer cycle. TT performance improved by 14.9%. C(c) did not change. In conclusion, preseason reduced total training volume but increased amount of HAIT improved VO2max and TT performance without any changes in C(c). These improvements on cycling appeared despite that the HAIT blocks were performed as running. Reduced training time, and training transfer from running into improved cycling form, may be beneficial for cyclists living in cold climate areas.

  13. Attenuated gastric distress but no benefit to performance with adaptation to octanoate-rich esterified oils in well-trained male cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorburn, M.S.; Vistisen, Bodil; Thorp, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of modifying a normal dietary fatty acid composition and ingestion of high-fat exercise supplements on gastrointestinal distress, substrate oxidation. and endurance cycling performance. Nine well-trained male cyclists completed a randomized triple-crossover comprising...

  14. The Road Less Traveled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffins, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate sports, and athletic scholarships in particular, have served as portals to higher education for generations of African-Americans who may not have otherwise attended college. That's not the case for Latinos. Despite their growing presence in professional sports, Hispanics remain underrepresented in collegiate athletics. Scholars and…

  15. Actually existing silk roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Marsden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relevance of the concept of Silk Road for understanding the patterns of trade and exchange between China, Eurasia and the Middle East. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of Yiwu, in China's Zhejiang Province. Yiwu is a node in the global distribution of Chinese ‘small commodities’ and home to merchants and traders from across Asia and beyond. The article explores the role played by traders from Afghanistan in connecting the city of Yiwu to markets and trading posts in the world beyond. It seeks to bring attention to the diverse types of networks involved in such forms of trade, as well as their emergence and development over the past thirty years.

  16. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  17. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  18. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  19. VO2max and ventilatory threshold of trained cyclists are not affected by 28-day L-arginine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Kyle L; Greer, Felicia; Morales, Jacobo

    2011-03-01

    The ergogenic effect of L-arginine on an endurance-trained population is not well studied. The few studies that have investigated L-arginine on this population have not been conducted in a laboratory setting or measured aerobic variables. The purpose of the current study is to determine if 28 days of L-arginine supplementation in trained male cyclists affects VO2max and ventilatory threshold (VT). Eighteen (18) endurance-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD, age: 36.3 ± 7.9 years; height: 182.4 ± 4.6 cm; and body mass: 79.5 ± 4.7 kg) performed a graded exercise test (GXT; 50 W + 25 W·min) before and after 28 days of supplementation with L-arginine (ARG; 2 × 6 g·d) or placebo (PLA; cornstarch). The GXT was conducted on the subject's own bicycle using the RacerMate CompuTrainer (Seattle, WA, USA). VO2 was continuously recorded using the ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 metabolic cart (Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and VT was established by plotting the ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE/VO2) and the ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2) and identifying the point at which VE/VO2 increases with no substantial changes in VE/VCO2. L-arginine supplementation had no effect from initial VO2max (PL, 58.7 ± 7.1 ml·kg·min; ARG, 63.5 ± 7.3 ml·kg·min) to postsupplement VO2max (PL, 58.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min; ARG, 63.2 ± 7.2 ml·kg·min). Also, no effect was seen from initial VT (PL, 75.7 ± 4.6% VO2max; ARG, 76.0 ± 5.3% VO2max) to postsupplement VT (PL, 74.3 ± 8.1% VO2max; ARG, 74.2 ± 6.4% VO2max). These results indicate that L-arginine does not impact VO2max or VT in trained male cyclists.

  20. Low cadence interval training at moderate intensity does not improve cycling performance in highly trained veteran cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Morten; Gundersen, Hilde; Leirdal, Stig; Iversen, Vegard V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence, and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists [age: 47 ± 6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 57.9 ± 3.7 ml · kg−1 · min−1] were randomized into two groups, a low cadence training group and a freely chose cadence training group. Respiratory variables, power output, cadence and leg strength were tested before and after a 12 weeks training intervention period. The low cadence training group performed 12 weeks of moderate [73–82% of maximal heart rate (HRmax)] interval training (5 × 6 min) with a cadence of 40 revolutions per min (rpm) two times a week, in addition to their usual training. The freely chosen cadence group added 90 min of training at freely chosen cadence at moderate intensity. Results: No significant effects of the low cadence training on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, power output, cadence, gross efficiency, or leg strength was found. The freely chosen cadence group significantly improved both VO2max (58.9 ± 2.4 vs. 62.2 ± 3.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1), VO2 consumption at lactate threshold (49.4 ± 3.8 vs. 51.8 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1) and during the 30 min performance test (52.8 ± 3.0 vs. 54.7 ± 3.5 ml · kg−1 · min−1), and power output at lactate threshold (284 ± 47 vs. 294 ± 48 W) and during the 30 min performance test (284 ± 42 vs. 297 ± 50 W). Moreover, a significant difference was seen when comparing the change in freely chosen cadence from pre- to post between the groups during the 30 min performance test (2.4 ± 5.0 vs. −2.7 ± 6.2). Conclusion: Twelve weeks of low cadence (40 rpm) interval training at moderate intensity (73–82% of HRmax) twice a week does not improve aerobic capacity, cycling performance or leg strength in highly trained veteran cyclists

  1. Fiber Type-Specific Satellite Cell Content in Cyclists Following Heavy Training With Carbohydrate and Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec I McKenzie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO. In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n=8 performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto ‘control’ condition and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT – 120% increase in average training duration followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT – reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs. normal training. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after ICT and again following RVT. Immunofluorescent microscopy was used to quantify SCs (Pax7+, myonuclei (DAPI+, and myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I. Data are expressed as percent change ± 90% confidence limits. The 10-day block of ICTCHO increased MyHC I SC content (35 ± 28% and myonuclear density (16 ± 6%, which remained elevated following RVTCHO (SC = 69 ± 50% vs. PRE; Nuclei = 17 ± 15% vs. PRE. MyHC II SC and myonuclei were not different following ICTCHO, but were higher following RVTCHO (SC = +33 ± 31% vs. PRE; Nuclei = 15 ± 14% vs. PRE, indicating a delayed response compared to MyHC I fibers. The MyHC I SC pool increased following ICTPRO (37 ± 37%, but without a concomitant increase in myonuclei. There were no changes in MyHC II SC or myonuclei following ICTPRO. Collectively, these trained endurance cyclists possessed a relatively large pool of SCs that facilitated rapid (MyHC I and delayed (MyHC II satellite cell proliferation and myonuclear accretion with CHO. The current findings strengthen the growing body of evidence demonstrating alterations in SC number without hypertrophy. SC pool expansion is typically viewed as an advantageous response to exercise. However, when coupled with our previous

  2. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent road traffic injuries in low- and middle-income countries: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banstola, Amrit; Mytton, Julie

    2017-05-19

    The objective of this study was to identify, critically appraise, summarize, and synthesize evidence from cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of interventions aimed at preventing road traffic injuries (RTIs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) by age group and road users targeted. A search strategy was applied to 12 electronic databases for studies published between May 2002 and August 2015 that met prespecified inclusion criteria. Additional studies were identified by contacting authors and searching bibliographies. Included studies were critically appraised against published criteria and a narrative synthesis was conducted including a use of the strength of evidence criteria. Five studies were included in the final review that reported 9 interventions. Only 2 out of 9 interventions (drink-drive legislation with enforcement via breath testing campaign and combined interventions for reducing RTIs) showed moderate evidence of being cost-effective, whereas the evidence of cost-effectiveness of other interventions was weak. Only 2 interventions (bicycle and motorcycle helmet use legislation and enforcement) were explicitly targeted to children, young people and vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and cyclists. The cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent RTIs in LMICs ranged from US$4.14 per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted for building speed bumps at the most dangerous junctions that caused 10% of junction deaths in the area studied to US$3,403 per DALYs averted for legislation and enforcement of helmet use by motorcyclists in the World Health Organization (WHO) sub-Saharan Africa region. Evidence of cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent RTIs in LMICs is limited, particularly for children, young people, and vulnerable road users. Evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a larger number of possible road safety interventions in a variety of LMIC settings is warranted to generate the evidence base for effective

  3. Swelling soils in the road structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruška, Jan; Šedivý, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    There are frequent problems with the soil swelling in the road construction in the past time. This phenomenon is known for decades. This situation is notably given by insufficient knowledge of this problem and difficulties with input parameters describing the swelling process. The paper in the first part proposed regression relations to predict swelling pressure, time of swelling and swelling strain for different initial water contents for soils and improvement soils. The relations were developed by using artificial neural network and QCExpert Professional software (on the data from site investigations by GeoTec-GS, a.s. and experimental data from CTU in Prague). The advantage of the relations is based on using the results of the basic soil tests (plasticity index, consistency index and colloidal activity) as input parameters. The authors inform the technical public with their current knowledge of the problems with the soil swelling on the motorway in the second part of the paper.

  4. Road traffic congestion a concise guide

    CERN Document Server

    Falcocchio, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book on road traffic congestion in cities and suburbs describes congestion problems and shows how they can be relieved. The first part (Chapters 1 - 3) shows how congestion reflects transportation technologies and settlement patterns. The second part (Chapters 4 - 13) describes the causes, characteristics, and consequences of congestion. The third part (Chapters 14 - 23) presents various relief strategies - including supply adaptation and demand mitigation - for nonrecurring and recurring congestion. The last part (Chapter 24) gives general guidelines for congestion relief and provides a general outlook for the future. The book will be useful for a wide audience - including students, practitioners and researchers in a variety of professional endeavors: traffic engineers, transportation planners, public transport specialists, city planners, public administrators, and private enterprises that depend on transportation for their activities.  

  5. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  6. Road and Street Centerlines - Five Year Road Program (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Adopted 5-year road improvement program. An additional 5-years of planning information is also included; this information is not officially Adopted....

  7. Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to creatine, glycerol and alpha lipoic acid in trained cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyviou Thelma P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that supplementation with creatine (Cr and glycerol (Gly, when combined with glucose (Glu necessary for the enhancement of Cr uptake by skeletal muscle, induces significant improvements in thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses during exercise in the heat. Purpose To determine whether Cr/Gly-induced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses are maintained when the majority (~75% of the Glu in the Cr/Gly supplement is replaced with the insulintropic agent alpha lipoic acid (Ala. Methods 22 healthy endurance trained cyclists were randomly assigned to receive either 20 g/day (4 × 5 g/day of Cr, 2 g .kg-1 BM per day (4 × 0.5 g .kg-1 BM per day of Gly and 150 g/day (4 × 37.5 g/day of Glu or 20 g/day (4 × 5 g/day of Cr monohydrate, 2 g .kg-1 BM per day (4 × 0.5 g .kg-1 BM per day of Gly (100 g/day (4 × 25 g/day of Glu and 1000 mg/day (4 × 250 mg/day of Ala for 7 days for 7 days. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation and involved 40 min of constant-load cycling exercise at 70% O2 max by a self-paced 16.1 km time trial at 30°C and 70% relative humidity. Results Median and range values of TBW increased significantly by 2.1 (1.3-3.3 L and 1.8 (0.2-4.6 L in Cr/Gly/Glu and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala groups respectively (P = 0.03 and of BM not significantly by 1.8 (0.2-3.0 kg and 1.2 (0.5-2.1 kg in Cr/Gly/Glu and in Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala, respectively (P = 0.75. During constant load exercise, heart rate (HR and core temperature (Tcore were significantly lower post-supplementation: HR was reduced on average by 3.3 ± 2.1 beats/min and by 4.8 ± 3.3 beats/min (mean ± SD and Tcore by 0.2 ± 0.1 (mean ± SD in the Cr/Gly/Glu and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala, respectively The reduction in HR and Tcore was not significantly different between the supplementation groups. Conclusions In comparison to the established hyper hydrating Cr

  8. 0BOccupational Risk Factors in Iranian Professional Drivers and their Impacts on Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI JAHANGIRI; ALI KARIMI; SAMIRA SLAMIZAD; MOHAMMAD OLYAEI; SEKHAVAT MOOSAVI; FATEMEH AMIRI

    2015-01-01

      In many countries road crashes are the main cause of fatal accidents related to job. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of Iranian professional drivers with regard to history of drivers’ road crash incidents and some occupational factors. Using Swedish version of the Nordic Questionnaire information about musculoskeletal pain prevalence in last 12 months, demographic features, smoking habits, age, job experience, road crash, job consent, self-perceived job stress, working...

  9. Safe interaction between cyclists, pedestrians and automated vehicles : what do we know and what do we need to know?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, L. Kint, S. van der Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Automated vehicles are gradually entering our roadway system. Before our roads will be solely used by fully automated vehicles, a long transition period is to be expected in which fully automated vehicles, partly automated vehicles and manually-driven vehicles have to share our roads. The current

  10. Changing mobility patterns and road mortality among pre-license teens in a late licensing country: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twisk, Divera; Bos, Niels; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo

    2013-04-11

    Whereas the safety of teens in early licensing countries has been extensively studied, little is known about the safety of pre-license teens in late licensing countries, where these teens also may be at risk. This risk exists because of the combination of a) increasing use of travel modes with a high injury risk, such as bicycles and mopeds, b) inexperience, and c) teens' developmental stage, known to be associated with risk taking and novelty seeking, especially among males. To explore the magnitude and nature of pre-license road risk, this study analysed epidemiological data from the Netherlands, and hypothesized that in this late licensing country, 'independent travel' and the use of riskier modes of transport increase among pre-license teens 10 to 17 years of age, resulting in higher fatality rates, with 'experience' and 'gender' as risk modifying factors. National travel and fatality data of pre-license adolescents in the Netherlands were analysed by traffic role (cyclist, pedestrian, car passenger and moped rider), and compared to a younger age group (0-9 years) and an older age group (18+ years). The study of travel data showed that teens migrate from being car occupants to being users of riskier modes of transport, specifically bicycles and mopeds. This migration resulted in a strong rise in road fatalities, illustrating the importance of mobility patterns for understanding changes in road fatalities in this age group. The data further suggested a protective role of early cycle experience for young adolescent cyclists, particularly for young males. But further study into the underlying mechanism is needed to confirm this relationship. Moped risk was extremely high, especially among young males, and even higher than that of young male car drivers. The study confirmed the importance of changes in mobility patterns for understanding the rising road mortality when youngsters enter into their teens. The focus on fatalities has led to an underestimation of the

  11. Effect of intensified training on muscle ion kinetics, fatigue development and repeated short term performance in endurance trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller; Thomassen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of intensified training in combination with a reduced training volume on muscle ion kinetics, transporters and work capacity were examined. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (12x30-s sprints) 2-3 times per wk and aerobic high......-intensity training (4-5x3-4min at 90-100% of maximal heart rate) 1-2 times per wk for 7 wks, and reduced training volume by 70% (intervention period; IP). The duration of an intense exhaustive cycling bout (EX2; 356±6 W), performed 2.5min after a 2-min intense cycle bout (EX1), was longer (p...

  12. Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long-term low carbohydrate high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Christopher C; Noakes, Timothy D; Chacko, Shaji K; Swart, Jeroen; Kohn, Tertius A; Smith, James A H

    2016-08-01

    Blood glucose is an important fuel for endurance exercise. It can be derived from ingested carbohydrate, stored liver glycogen and newly synthesized glucose (gluconeogenesis). We hypothesized that athletes habitually following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet would have higher rates of gluconeogenesis during exercise compared to those who follow a mixed macronutrient diet. We used stable isotope tracers to study glucose production kinetics during a 2 h ride in cyclists habituated to either a LCHF or mixed macronutrient diet. The LCHF cyclists had lower rates of total glucose production and hepatic glycogenolysis but similar rates of gluconeogenesis compared to those on the mixed diet. The LCHF cyclists did not compensate for reduced dietary carbohydrate availability by increasing glucose synthesis during exercise but rather adapted by altering whole body substrate utilization. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) occurs via hepatic glycogenolysis (GLY) and gluconeogenesis (GNG) and plays an important role in maintaining euglycaemia. Rates of GLY and GNG increase during exercise in athletes following a mixed macronutrient diet; however, these processes have not been investigated in athletes following a low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet. Therefore, we studied seven well-trained male cyclists that were habituated to either a LCHF (7% carbohydrate, 72% fat, 21% protein) or a mixed diet (51% carbohydrate, 33% fat, 16% protein) for longer than 8 months. After an overnight fast, participants performed a 2 h laboratory ride at 72% of maximal oxygen consumption. Glucose kinetics were measured at rest and during the final 30 min of exercise by infusion of [6,6-(2) H2 ]-glucose and the ingestion of (2) H2 O tracers. Rates of EGP and GLY both at rest and during exercise were significantly lower in the LCHF group than the mixed diet group (Exercise EGP: LCHF, 6.0 ± 0.9 mg kg(-1)  min(-1) , Mixed, 7.8 ± 1.1 mg kg(-1)  min(-1) , P < 0.01; Exercise GLY

  13. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC Along Federal Road F0023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric designs consistency where the drivers make mistakes errors due to the road geometric features causes the accident kept rising in Malaysia. Hence, models are based on operating speed to calculate design consistency of road. The profiles were obtained by continuous speed profile using GPS data. The continuous operating speed profile models were plotted based on operating speed model (85th percentile. The study was conduct at F0023 from km 16 until km 20. The purpose of design consistency is to know the relationship between the operating speed and elements of geometric design on the road. As a result, the integrated design consistency motorcycle and cars along a segment at F0023, the threshold shows poor design quality for motorcycles and cars.

  14. 踏车而飞:自行车与中国骑车人(1868-1949 年)[A History of the Bicycle and Chinese Cyclists, 1868-1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Of the many “exotic” commodities from the West that have changed the lifestyle of the Chinese people over the course of the past two centuries, the bicycle stands out as a prominent example. It has so thoroughly transformed the Chinese mode of transportation that China in the late twentieth century was known as “the kingdom of bicycles.” This essay examines the history of that transformation. The first recorded importation of bicycles to Shanghai took place in 1868. Initially rejected by prospective customers for their incompatibility with Chinese cultural and social conventions, bicycles eventually gained visibility on the streets of many cities and suburbs. The bicycle meant many different things to different sectors of the population, and the social meaning of the bike also changed over time.The first section of this article offers an overview of modern Chinese cyclists. The author argues that early adopters were Manchu aristocrats and wealthy individuals who sported their bicycles on bumpy roads for the sheer enjoyment of the bike’s exotic quality. The second section of the article examines the story of Pu Yi, the last Qing ruler, and bikers in the Forbidden City. The third section examines women bike riders in China. The author presents evidence to show that cycling carried no liberating connotations for modern Chinese women. By the 1930s, bicycles had lost their exotic quality. They also came to be associated with the comings and goings of urban working people, when cars became the vehicles of the social and economic elite. The outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-45 created a petroleum shortage that grounded all private cars. Bicycles then emerged as the common mode of transportation for the rich as well as the poor, men as well as women. It was the war that laid the foundation for China’s modern transformation into a nation of bicycles.Note: Article is in Chinese.

  15. Road, Paved, Unpaved, Socio-economic, Development.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    From this study, it was revealed that the study area has a total length of 6288km of roads. A total of 1272.6km (20%) constituted paved or tarred roads while about 5015.4km (80%) constituted unpaved or untarred roads. Information on road transport infrastructure variables was collected using field survey, questionnaire and ...

  16. Measuring (un)safety of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.

  17. Recognizablility of rural roads in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. & Davidse, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Sustainable Safety vision is an important guide in improving road safety. It is considered that the road environment shouldconform to the expectations of road users in order to prevent errors thatcould lead to road crashes. These expectations are based on the characteristics

  18. The Rauischholzhausen agenda for road ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roedenbeck, I.A.; Fahrig, L.; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, J.E.; Jaeger, J.A.G.; Klar, N.; Kramer-Schadt, S.; Grift, van der E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the documented negative effects of roads on wildlife, ecological research on road effects has had comparatively little influence on road planning decisions. We argue that road research would have a larger impact if researchers carefully considered the relevance of the research questions

  19. Influence of inhaled nitric oxide on gas exchange during normoxic and hypoxic exercise in highly trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, A W; Edwards, M R; Hunte, G S; McKenzie, D C

    2001-03-01

    This study tested the effects of inhaled nitric oxide [NO; 20 parts per million (ppm)] during normoxic and hypoxic (fraction of inspired O(2) = 14%) exercise on gas exchange in athletes with exercise-induced hypoxemia. Trained male cyclists (n = 7) performed two cycle tests to exhaustion to determine maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (Sa(O(2)), Ohmeda Biox ear oximeter) under normoxic (VO(2 max) = 4.88 +/- 0.43 l/min and Sa(O(2)) = 90.2 +/- 0.9, means +/- SD) and hypoxic (VO(2 max) = 4.24 +/- 0.49 l/min and Sa(O(2)) = 75.5 +/- 4.5) conditions. On a third occasion, subjects performed four 5-min cycle tests, each separated by 1 h at their respective VO(2 max), under randomly assigned conditions: normoxia (N), normoxia + NO (N/NO), hypoxia (H), and hypoxia + NO (H/NO). Gas exchange, heart rate, and metabolic parameters were determined during each condition. Arterial blood was drawn at rest and at each minute of the 5-min test. Arterial PO(2) (Pa(O(2))), arterial PCO(2), and Sa(O(2)) were determined, and the alveolar-arterial difference for PO(2) (A-aDO(2)) was calculated. Measurements of Pa(O(2)) and Sa(O(2)) were significantly lower and A-aDO(2) was widened during exercise compared with rest for all conditions (P 0.05). We conclude that inhalation of 20 ppm NO during normoxic and hypoxic exercise has no effect on gas exchange in highly trained cyclists.

  20. Fatigue is Specific to Working Muscles: No Cross-over with Single-leg Cycling in Trained Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J.; Amann, Markus; McDaniel, John; Martin, David T.; Martin, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue induced via a maximal isometric contraction of a single-limb muscle group can evoke a “cross-over” of fatigue that reduces voluntary muscle activation and maximum isometric force in the rested contralateral homologous muscle group. We asked whether a cross-over of fatigue also occurs when fatigue is induced via high-intensity endurance exercise involving a substantial muscle mass. Specifically, we used high-intensity single-leg cycling to induce fatigue and evaluated associated effects on maximum cycling power (Pmax) in the fatigued ipsilateral leg (FATleg) as well as the rested contralateral leg (RESTleg). On separate days, 12 trained cyclists performed right leg Pmax trials before and again 30s, 3, 5, and 10min after a cycling time trial (TT, 10min) performed either with their right or left leg. Fatigue was estimated by comparing exercise-induced changes in Pmax and maximum handgrip isometric force (Fmax). Mean power produced during the right and left leg TT’s did not differ (203±8 vs. 199±8W). Compared to pre-TT, FATleg Pmax was reduced by 22±3% at 30s post-TT and remained reduced by 9±2% at 5min post-TT (both P<0.05). Despite considerable power loss in the FATleg, post-TT RESTleg Pmax (596–603W) did not differ from pre-TT values (596±35W). There were no alterations in handgrip Fmax (529–547N). Our data suggest that any potential cross-over of fatigue, if present at all, was not sufficient to measurably compromise RESTleg Pmax in trained cyclists. These results along with the lack of changes in handgrip Fmax indicate that impairments in maximal voluntary neuromuscular function were specific to working muscles. PMID:22806085