Sample records for professional research knowledge

  1. Understanding physicians' professional knowledge and practice in research on skilled migration. (United States)

    Weiß, Anja


    Research on the integration of migrant professionals into high-skilled labor markets either focuses on differences between nation states which may be exacerbated by national closure or it celebrates the global versatility of professional knowledge, especially in the natural and health sciences. Building on a pragmatist approach to professional knowledge, the article argues that professional knowledge should not be seen as either universal or local, but both the institutionalized and the incorporated aspects of cultural capital are characterized by 'local universality'. Professionals recreate professional knowledge in specific 'local' situations by relating to universal standards and to internalized 'libraries' of situated expert experience. While the more common notion of knowledge as a socially contested resource continues to be relevant for research on skilled migration, professional knowledge should also be seen as emerging in situations in response to socio-material problems. These problems can be structured by the nation-state, but they can also be transnational in nature.

  2. The educator professional knowledge: research trends and field of action in teacher training

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    Lila Adriana Castañeda Mosquera


    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring diverse stages in the research on the educator, passing through three specific moments: in the first one, the research focuses on the teacher’s skills; in the second, on the education philosophy, and finally, the knowledge of the educator is analyzed in the third one.  The professional knowledge of teaching diverges from the exercise of a specific discipline; thus, for example, to be a teacher of music is not the same thing as being a musician. From this perspective, two different research approaches on the professional knowledge of the teacher are herein presented: the first one is that of the Research and School Renewal Group (IRES from the University of Seville, while the other comes from the research group Through the Classrooms of Colombia (INVAUCOL, from the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional of Colombia.  After analyzing the panorama about the teacher’s professional knowledge, the article closes by asking some questions and advancing some proposals on the formation of music educators.

  3. Sharing power and knowledge: professional and mental health consumer/survivor researchers working together in a participatory action research project. (United States)

    Ochocka, Joanna; Janzen, Rich; Nelson, Geoffrey


    In this article we document and reflect on the process and outcomes of consumer/survivor researchers' involvement in a community mental health research project. The study used a participatory action research approach that challenges traditional assumptions of how to conduct research. Research roles and relationships were reexamined by both professional and consumer/survivor researchers. Four values were central to the research process: consumer/survivor empowerment, supportive relationships, learning as an ongoing process, and social justice. The benefits of this value-driven approach were seen in terms of positive impacts on the lives of individual researchers and also in the quality of the research itself. Our reflections on the research process have led us to see the importance of building relationships as a means to share power and knowledge among professional and consumer/survivor researchers.

  4. Professional Knowledge and Everyday Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing their pro......Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing......, that are not traditionally valued, nor by “users” or the professionals themselves, into account. With inspiration from a Danish researcher of everyday life and her concept of ‘the unnoticed/unrecognized’ (det upåagtede) (Bech-Jørgensen 1994), this paper will discuss how understandings of professional identity...

  5. Career Aspirations of Malaysian Research and Development Professionals in the Knowledge Economy (United States)

    Ismail, Maimunah; Ramly, Efizah Sofiah


    Purpose: This paper seeks to compare the influence of self-efficacy, organizational socialization and continuous improvement (CI) practices on the career aspirations of research and development (R&D) professionals in government research institutes (GRIs) and multinational corporations (MNCs) in Malaysia. R&D professionals in this study…

  6. Mapping Research in Landscape Architecture: Balancing Supply of Academic Knowledge and Demand of Professional Practice (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Miller, Patrick A.; Clements, Terry L.; Kim, Mintai


    With increasing academic research in the past few decades, the knowledge scope of landscape architecture has expanded from traditional focus on aesthetics to a broad range of ecological, cultural and psychological issues. In order to understand how academic research and knowledge expansion may have redefined the practice, two surveys were…

  7. Research, Design, and Implementation of an Internship Course in Dance: Turning Student Knowledge into Professional Know-How (United States)

    Risner, Doug


    A successful internship experience can provide invaluable learning experiences connecting students' classroom knowledge to professional "know-how" in the field. Over the past three decades, post-secondary internship programs have flourished, generating considerable research literature from a variety of disciplinary perspectives; however,…

  8. Subjective perceptions of ESP (English for Specific Purposes university teachers’ professional beginnings: Quantitative research into pedagogical content knowledge

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    Jašková Jana


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methodology and results of a quantitative phase within a research into English for Specific Purposes university teachers and their subjectively perceived changes in pedagogical content knowledge from a retrospective view of their professional beginnings. The introduction describes the investigated issues and explains key concepts. The first chapter refers to the theoretical background of teacher professional development. Since the quantitative research phase is a part of a mixed research design, the second chapter deals with the whole research including the research objective and questions. The third chapter is devoted to the quantitative research phase during which an anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to the whole population of Czech university teachers of English for Specific Purposes and processed statistically as well as descriptively. The fourth chapter presents the obtained quantitative data discussed within the individual components of pedagogical content knowledge - conceptions of purposes for teaching subject matter, curricular knowledge, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of students’ understanding. The conclusion summarises all the information and proposes some recommendations for pedagogical practice.

  9. LIS Professionals as Knowledge Engineers. (United States)

    Poulter, Alan; And Others


    Considers the role of library and information science professionals as knowledge engineers. Highlights include knowledge acquisition, including personal experience, interviews, protocol analysis, observation, multidimensional sorting, printed sources, and machine learning; knowledge representation, including production rules and semantic nets;…

  10. Professional knowledge and interprofessional practice

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    Milburn, Peter C. [Canterbury Christ Church University, Undergraduate Interprofessional Studies, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Colyer, Hazel [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)


    Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners.

  11. Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs

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    Douglas M. Seavey


    programs (91.2% of the total 336 professional programs. Anatomy (91.59%, physiology (88.35% and exercise physiology (92.56% were most frequently required basic science courses. However, only 4.85% (n=15 of programs have human gross anatomy dissection or prosection in their curricula and just 2.59% (n=8 of athletic training programs require a course in neuroscience/neuroanatomy. Conclusions: Our data demonstrates a gap exists in athletic training education in the area of neuroanatomy/neuroscience content. The BRAIN ( Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Initiative is new federal research and healthcare task-force aimed at revolutionizing the understanding of the human brain. The Sports and Health Research Program is a partnership between the National Institutes of Health and the National Football League to fund sport concussion research. With the future professional degree change eminent, professional and post-professional athletic training education must seriously consider the inclusion of neuroanatomy content. We present several wet-brain specimen and active learning laboratory options that educators may adopt to provide added depth toneuroscience/neuroanatomy knowledge base.

  12. Supervision of professionals: Interdependency between embodied experiences and professional knowledge

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    Aud Marie Øien


    Full Text Available Social work counsellors, exposed to hardships of clients’ lives, might, over time, experience strain as bodily reactions of muscle tension and pain. Within the framework of improving professional practice, the aim was to explore meanings attached to moving and breathing by studying the influence of supervision, encompassing experiences and reflections on bodily exercises, and reflection on challenging professional experiences. Action research of interdisciplinary supervision for seven counsellors, based on observations, field notes, reflection notes, and a focus group interview, was carried out. Data were analysed across participants within sessions and over time to compare meaning variations. The counsellors’ change of experiences were identified as phases: What is in it for me, not knowing what to perceive, attention as basis for knowing how to move, experiencing and creating connections, and knowing oneself better. Adjusted to change of experiences, supervisors encouraged counsellors to give attention to, become aware of, and relieve and explore muscle tension and breathing restrictions to contexts of meaning. Supervision based on movement opened access to personal learning. Supervision as approaches of movements and reflections contributed to increased self-knowledge in professional social work practices. Based on ability to perceive and relieve muscle tension and flow of breathing, the approach might be a potential for professionals to handle challenging situations. The findings, related to the lived body, encompass appearances of new meanings and new uses to experiences of muscular tension and flow of breathing.

  13. Networking for knowledge capacity building of procurement professionals in Ghana

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    Kissi Ernest


    Full Text Available The role of public procurement professionals in achieving value for money in public procurement activities is widely acknowledged around the globe. This has inspired the organisation of training programmes and workshops for procurement professionals, particularly those in developing countries in order to hone their knowledge and skills for proper management of government projects. This paper sought to explore the opportunities in networking for knowledge capacity building of procurement professionals in Ghana. The study adopted quantitative research methods for both data collection and analysis. The paper revealed that professional networking can offer procurement professionals the opportunity to acquire new knowledge from external professionals, know global trends about procurement practice, and obtain new information from other institutions about procurement. It is recommended that a platform that can support a network of procurement professionals in Ghana should be developed in order to ensure effective interaction and communication among procurement professionals for their capacity building.

  14. Migrating Professional Knowledge: Progressions, Regressions, and Dislocations (United States)

    Slade, Bonnie L.


    Drawing on practice-based learning theory, this chapter examines issues pertaining to the deskilling of immigrant professionals in Canada. It argues that adult educators need to have an awareness of transnational migration dynamics and work in meaningful ways to keep immigrant professionals connected to professional knowledge practices.

  15. Health professionals' knowledge about relative prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health professionals' knowledge about relative prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Delta State of Nigeria. Angus Nnamdi Oli, Kelechi Christian Okoli, Nonye Treasure Ujam, Dave Ufuoma Adje, Ifeanyi Ezeobi ...

  16. Unnoticed professional competence and knowledge in day care work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    ), communities of practice (Wenger) have been influencing the discussion on professional development. Across the different notions there is a shared view that important parts of professional competence is part of daily practices and embedded in routines, experiences, shared repertoire, etc. NPM and neoliberalism......In research on professions in the public care and health sector the issue of professional competence and knowledge is central. Discussions on tacit knowledge (Polanyi), modus 1 and 2 knowledge (Gibbons), intuitive expertise (Dreyfus), reflective practice (Schön), practical knowledge (Bourdieu...... has had an important impact on care and health work imposing demands for documentation, standardization and evaluation. These increasing demands seem to be in contrast with the tacit and embodied parts of professional competence that not easily can be documented, standardized and evaluated. It can...

  17. Theorising about Mathematics Teachers' Professional Knowledge: The Content, Form, Nature, and Course of Teachers' Knowledge (United States)

    Scheiner, Thorsten


    The guiding philosophy of this theoretical work lays in the argument that mathematics teachers' professional knowledge is the integration of various knowledge facets derived from different sources including teaching experience and research. This paper goes beyond past trends identifying what the teachers' knowledge is about (content) by providing…

  18. Knowledge of Pharmacogenetics among Healthcare Professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pharmacogenetics has a potential for optimizing drug response and identifying risk of toxicity for patients. Pharmacogenetics knowledge of healthcare professionals and the unmet need for pharmacogenetics education in health training institutions are some of the challenges of integrating pharmacogenetics ...

  19. Exploring the Malaysian Rural School Teachers' Professional Local Knowledge in Enhancing Students' Thinking Skills (United States)

    Jamil, Hazri; Arbaa, Rohani; Ahmad, Mohamad Zohir


    This paper discussed a qualitative research findings on the case of Malaysian teachers employed their professional local knowledge for enhancing students' thinking skills in classroom practices. In this paper, a teacher's professional local knowledge is viewed as a teacher's professional knowledge and skills developed through the combination of…

  20. Professional development for primary science teaching in Thailand: Knowledge, orientations, and practices of professional developers and professional development participants (United States)

    Musikul, Kusalin

    The purpose of this study was to examine an entire PD project as a case to understand the dynamic nature of science PD in a holistic manner. I used a pedagogical content knowledge model by Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) as my theoretical framework in examining the professional developers' and teacher participants' knowledge, orientation, and practice for professional development and elementary science teaching. The case study is my research tradition; I used grounded theory for data analysis. The primary data sources were interview, card sort activity, and observation field notes collected during the PD and subsequently in teacher participants' classrooms. Secondary data sources were documents and artifacts that I collected from the professional developers and teachers. An analysis of the data led me to interpret the following findings: (a) the professional developers displayed multiple orientations. These orientations included activity-driven, didactic, discovery, and pedagogy-driven orientations. The orientations that were found among the professional developers deviated from the reformed Thai Science Education Standards; (b) the professional developers had limited PCK for PD, which were knowledge of teachers' learning, knowledge of PD strategies, knowledge of PD curriculum, and knowledge of assessment.; (c) the professional developers' knowledge and orientations influenced their decisions in selecting PD activities and teaching approaches; (d) their orientations and PCK as well as the time factor influenced the design and implementation of the professional development; (e) the elementary teachers displayed didactic, activity-driven, and academic rigor orientations. The orientations that the teachers displayed deviated from the reformed Thai Science Education Standards; and (f) the elementary teachers exhibited limited PCK. It is evident that the limitation of one type of knowledge resulted in an ineffective use of other components of PCK. This study

  1. Knowledge, Practice, and the Shaping of Early Childhood Professionalism (United States)

    Hordern, Jim


    This article argues for an early childhood professionalism based upon notions of professional community and professional knowledge. Professionalism is conceived here as shaped by the relation between the social and the epistemic, with certain types of professional knowledge given precedence in accordance with the involvement of different…

  2. In Search of Museum Professional Knowledge Base: Mapping the Professional Knowledge Debate onto Museum Work (United States)

    Tlili, Anwar


    Museum professionalism remains an unexplored area in museum studies, particularly with regard to what is arguably the core generic question of a "sui generis" professional knowledge base, and its necessary and sufficient conditions. The need to examine this question becomes all the more important with the increasing expansion of the…

  3. Knowledge and Policy: Research and Knowledge Transfer (United States)

    Ozga, Jenny


    Knowledge transfer (KT) is the emergent "third sector" of higher education activity--alongside research and teaching. Its commercialization origins are evidenced in its concerns to extract maximum value from research, and in the policy push to make research-based knowledge trapped in disciplinary silos more responsive to the growing…

  4. Dynamic Strategic Planning in a Professional Knowledge-Based Organization (United States)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrom; Reventlow, Susanne; Quelle, Dan Grevelund; Tulinius, Charlotte


    Professional, knowledge-based institutions have a particular form of organization and culture that makes special demands on the strategic planning supervised by research administrators and managers. A model for dynamic strategic planning based on a pragmatic utilization of the multitude of strategy models was used in a small university-affiliated…

  5. Transformative Professional Development: Negotiating Knowledge with an Inquiry Stance (United States)

    Donelly, Amy; Morgan, Denise N.; Deford, Diane E.; Files, Janet; Long, Susi; Mills, Heidi; Stephens, Diane; Styslinger, Mary


    South Carolina Reading Initiative (SCRI), a long-term professional development initiative designed to help teachers investigate research-based literacy practices and helps to build a knowledge base from which to inform instructional decisions. A model that shares stories about literacy coaches as learners and highlight engagements that believe to…

  6. From Research Assistant to Professional Research Assistance: Research Consulting as a Form of Research Practice

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    Dawn E. Pollon


    Full Text Available Research assistantships have long been viewed as an extension of the formal education process, a form of apprenticeship, and a pathway into the professional practice of research in institutional settings. However, there are other contexts in which researchers practice research. This self-study documents the formative role research assistantships played in the authors’ development as professional research consultants. Four professional research consultants who held research assistant positions during their master’s and doctoral studies describe the contributions of their research assistantship experiences to the advancement of their knowledge, skills, and passion for research and subsequently to their career decisions. Professional research consulting is identified as a natural extension of research assistant roles and a potential career path. The article enhances current understandings about the ways research assistantships contribute to the development of researchers, and specifically to the development of professional research consultants. The analysis will be of interest to students contemplating entering into research assistantships, current research assistants, current research assistant supervisors, academic staff looking to improve their research productivity, and department chairs.

  7. The Impact of the 5E Teaching Model on Changes in Neuroscience, Drug Addiction, and Research Methods Knowledge of Science Teachers Attending California's ARISE Professional Development Workshops (United States)

    Manzo, Rosa D.; Whent, Linda; Liets, Lauren; de la Torre, Adela; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa


    This study examined how science teachers' knowledge of research methods, neuroscience and drug addiction changed through their participation in a 5-day summer science institute. The data for this study evolved from a four-year NIH funded science education project called Addiction Research and Investigation for Science Educators (ARISE). Findings…

  8. Systematic Knowledge Research. Rethinking Epistemology

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    Guenther Abel


    Full Text Available Systematic Knowledge Research is the approach used to (i describe the specific characteristics of various forms of knowledge (such as e.g. conceptual and non-conceptual knowledge; explicit and implicit knowledge; knowing-how and knowing-that. It (ii investigates the overlapping points among the various kinds of knowledge forms, and it (iii elucidates the mechanisms of interpenetration among them. Systematic Knowledge Research (iv grasps the dynamic of various forms of knowledge and their interplay, and (v describes the practices and the manifestations of knowledge. Systematic Knowledge Research provides analyses and suggestions for modeling each of the five fields as well as their interconnections. Because of these objectives Systematic Knowledge Research is different from both the traditional theory of knowledge and the varieties of science studies and meets the current desideratum to systematically broaden and revise the territory of epistemology.

  9. Classroom Research and Professional Development

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    Omaira Vergara Luján


    Full Text Available This article intends to share the experience of a group of teachers in the Classroom Research Seminar of the Teacher Development Program in English carried out at Universidad del Valle, Cali, from January to June, 2007. The seminar was part of a high-level in-service program for teachers of English of a network of private educational institutions. We would like to share the highlights and difficulties of the experience. We will start with the general framework of the program and the concept of professional development that underlies it. Next we will focus on the classroom research seminar, its objectives, methodology and results. Finally we share the voices of some of the participants, who talk about the influence this seminar had on their professional development and daily work.

  10. Professional development workshops for physics education research (United States)

    Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.; Kustusch, Mary Bridget


    Physics education research holds the promise of satisfying expectations of both scholarship, which is increasing at teaching-centric institutions, and teaching effectiveness, a concern at all institutions. Additionally, junior physics education researchers seek more diverse training in research methods and theories. Emerging education researchers need support as they develop their research programs and expand their theoretical and methodological expertise, and they benefit from the guidance of knowledgable peers and near-peers. Our two-part professional development model combines intensive in-person workshops with long-term remote activities. During a two-week in-person workshop, emerging and established education researchers work closely together to develop research questions, learn appropriate analytic techniques, and collect a corpus of data appropriate to their research questions. Afterwards, they meet biweekly in a distributed, mentored research group to share analyses and develop their ideas into publishable papers. In this talk, we discuss this model for professional development and show results from one three-year implementation in the IMPRESS program at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Partially funded by the PERTG of the AAPT.

  11. Teachers' Professional Knowledge for Teaching English as a Foreign Language: Assessing the Outcomes of Teacher Education (United States)

    König, Johannes; Lammerding, Sandra; Nold, Günter; Rohde, Andreas; Strauß, Sarah; Tachtsoglou, Sarantis


    Despite an increasing research interest in subject-specific teacher knowledge, the scientific understanding regarding teachers' professional knowledge for teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) is very limited. This study therefore applies standardized tests to directly assess content knowledge (CK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and…

  12. Partnerships for Knowledge Translation and Exchange in the Context of Continuing Professional Development (United States)

    Legare, France; Borduas, Francine; MacLeod, Tanya; Sketris, Ingrid; Campbell, Barbara; Jacques, Andre


    Continuing professional development (CPD) is an important vehicle for knowledge translation (KT); however, selecting CPD strategies that will impact health professionals' behavior and improve patient outcomes is complex. In response, we, KT researchers and CPD knowledge users, have recently formed a partnership known as the National Network for…

  13. A professional spiritual care knowledge base: boon or bane? (United States)

    Gleason, John J


    An Ideal Intervention Paper was initiated in 2005 to consolidate the learnings of clinical pastoral education students. As papers from students, practitioners, and educators were collected over a period of seven years, it became evident that a knowledge base comprised of this work would expedite the professionalization of clinical chaplaincy via provision of second opinions in difficult cases, education of administrators and the public about the nature of chaplaincy work, and baseline data for effectiveness research-to include replication of effective interventions toward designation of evidence based spiritual care best practices. An online 395-sample knowledge base hosted by the Association for Clinical Pastoral Education Research Network was amassed, nearly 40 percent of which is the work of experienced practitioners and educators. A pilot effectiveness study of samples failed to produce meaningful results. As an interim measure a content analysis has provided tentative effectiveness ratings until further research can be done.

  14. Developing practical knowledge content of emergency nursing professionals. (United States)

    Chu, Wen; Hsu, Li-Ling


    There is a paucity of published research on clinical or practical nursing knowledge. The ways that nurses acquire, develop, and maintain emergency room (ER) nursing care skills is a research area, in particular, that deserves further investigation. This study examined clinical setting learning processes to better understand the practical knowledge content of ER nurses. This study used a phenomenological approach and in-depth interviews of 10 nurses. Each participant had at least 3 years of ER experience. Researchers used Moustakas' method to analyze interview data. Findings were checked for credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. The authors identified four major practical knowledge themes for ER professionals. These were (a) basic emergency treatment procedure routines and symptom management; (b) disease mechanisms, pharmacodynamics, and treatment responses; (c) newly identified diseases, updated emergency treatments and techniques, and medical treatment discussions; and (d) identifying nursing values including nursing attitudes and continuing patient care. Participants in this study had experience with the first three themes and successfully combined various types of nursing knowledge in their nursing care duties. Only few participants indicated experience with the fourth theme. Findings clarify that clinical or practical knowledge in ER nurses evolves first from declarative knowledge (e.g., basic emergency treatment routines and operating procedures) to procedural knowledge (e.g., instructions from supervisors, actual practice, and drills) to conditional knowledge (e.g., observation and treatment involving direct interactions with patients). Nurses should combine and apply the various knowledge types in their nursing practice to assess comprehensively each patient's condition and administer effective treatment and service.

  15. Investigating Rural Teachers' Professional Development, Instructional Knowledge, and Classroom Practice (United States)

    Glover, Todd A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Chumney, Frances L.; Ihlo, Tanya; Shapiro, Edward S.; Guard, Kirra; Koziol, Natalie; Bovaird, Jim


    Teachers Speak was a national survey study designed to investigate the characteristics of rural elementary school teachers' existing professional development; differences in professional development practices between rural and non-rural settings; and the potential influence of professional development characteristics on rural teachers' knowledge,…

  16. Ontology-Based Empirical Knowledge Verification for Professional Virtual Community (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Jen


    A professional virtual community provides an interactive platform for enterprise experts to create and share their empirical knowledge cooperatively, and the platform contains a tremendous amount of hidden empirical knowledge that knowledge experts have preserved in the discussion process. Therefore, enterprise knowledge management highly…

  17. Professional impact of clinical research

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    Nelhans, G.


    In this study, professional impact is defined as the academic literature that is cited in the literature that is used by professions in order to pursue skilled activities that are specific to their expertise. Specifically, we are focusing on the clinical guidelines that are used in the many health and medical professions that are issued by government bodies at national and international levels to ensure a certain quality level and to make results comparable at the national level. To date, more than 50.000 references have been identified in about 500 Swedish clinical guidelines issued by the above mentioned governmental bodies in Sweden. Of these, 73 % of the references have been matched to a PubMed id. The goal of this project is to develop a conceptual and theoretical contribution to the development of indicators for measuring the impact of research outside of the specifically academic literature. (Author)

  18. Health Professionals' Knowledge of Women's Health Care. (United States)

    Beatty, Rebecca M.


    Survey responses from 71 health professionals, benchmarking data from 8 hospitals, continuing education program evaluations, and focus groups with nursing, allied health, and primary care providers indicated a need for professional continuing education on women's health issues. Primary topic needs were identified. The data formed the basis for…

  19. Amplify Your Professional Knowledge through RSS (United States)

    Stephens, Wendy


    In the championship playoffs of professional learning tools, this author contends that there is a clear-cut victor. Customizable, platform-agnostic, able to circumvent filters--both browser and network-imposed--RSS is the best professional learning tool. Reading sites via RSS has appeal for those who want the raw information. With a well-honed…

  20. Synthesizing Knowledge in Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle A.


    The chapter discusses knowledge synthesis in design research, bringing together the perspectives of experimental design research, or Research in Design Context that is treated extensively elsewhere in this book, and Design Inclusive Research as well as Practice-based Design Research. Specific...... attention is paid to the question of how practice-based or problem-driven design research processes can be rigorous and yield contributions to knowledge. The main argument in this chapter is that a key to knowledge synthesis and scientific contribution is setting explicit design propositions...... that are instantiated within design artefacts, and evaluated rigorously. The chapter starts with a discussion of knowledge creation and synthesis within design research.Following this, the chapter moves on to focus on setting a methodological framework for deriving design propositions. Lastly the chapter elaborates...

  1. Placement Mentors Making Sense of Research-Based Knowledge (United States)

    Raaen, Finn Daniel


    Placement mentors' role increasingly implies demonstrating to student teachers how research-based knowledge in combination with experience-based knowledge may be relevant in teachers' professional work. This is a challenge. Placement mentors are often unsure how to make sense of research-based knowledge. Frequently there is a mismatch between what…

  2. Governing Knowledge: Research Steering and Research Quality (United States)

    Ozga, Jenny


    This article argues that the "quality" debate in education research is not so much about quality as about creating the conditions in which research and knowledge production in the field of education can be managed and steered. The criticisms of research in education have destabilised the field and promoted its closer dependence on and…

  3. [Knowledge and attitudes of health professionals towards advance directives]. (United States)

    Aguilar-Sánchez, Juan Miguel; Cabañero-Martínez, María José; Puerta Fernández, Francisca; Ladios-Martín, Mireia; Fernández-de-Maya, José; Cabrero-García, Julio


    To evaluate the degree of knowledge and attitudes of medical and nursing professionals in two health departments to advance directives, as well as to examine their association with the sociodemographic and occupational variables of the professionals. A cross-sectional survey on 329 health professionals was carried out through the internet and a standardised procedure. The knowledge and attitudes of the professionals about advance directives were examined using two validated questionnaires of 17 and 12 items, respectively. Sociodemographic and professional data were also collected from the participants. 45% of the professionals were physicians, with X¯=13,1 (SD: 8.3) years of professional experience. Sixty-seven point five percent were women and the mean age was 38.9 (SD: 9.2) years. Professionals had very positive attitudes towards the advance directives document (X¯=75.37;SD: 11.97;R=0-90), although their level of knowledge about them was medium-low (X¯=9.31;SD: 2.73;R=0-18). Both the level of knowledge and self-perception were associated with previous training in palliative care, experience with document management, reading, or the demand for information. Completing the document related to self-perception of knowledge. Attitudes towards the document related to experience in its use and a positive attitude toward training. The professionals showed positive attitudes towards the advance directive document although low knowledge about it. Experience with the document was the only variable associated with both the knowledge and the attitudes of the professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge and professionalism in music teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik; Holst, Finn


    Discussion of ways in which different kinds of pedagogical knowledge are present and develop in music education practices of preeschool, primary school and musicschool.......Discussion of ways in which different kinds of pedagogical knowledge are present and develop in music education practices of preeschool, primary school and musicschool....

  5. Subject knowledge for teaching and continuing professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short discussion article outlines a range of theoretical issues underpinning the formation of subject knowledge for teaching. It suggests a number of practical needs that secondary school teachers of English may be seeking to address in the way of subject knowledge development and how this may relate to the ...

  6. Contributions to Types of Professional Knowledge by Higher Education Journals (United States)

    Kramer, Jenna W.; Braxton, John M.


    The scholarship of practice consists of three levels. This chapter describes progress toward the attainment of these levels using the types of professional knowledge published in the core journals of higher education.

  7. Knowledge and Attitude of HealthCare Professionals towards the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and Attitude of HealthCare Professionals towards the Health-Related ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Information was obtained through the use of self-administrated semi-structured ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Professionally Social Using social media for professional research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Klarstrup


    Full Text Available In this short article, I will discuss what I consider the important characteristics, opportunities and challenges offered by social media when used for professional communication purposes. The insights – or perhaps rather points of discussion - put forth here are based on my own experiences as practicing social media communicator and Danish research blogger, as well as on my general research into the use of social media for professional communication purposes, by for instance Danish politicians (see Klastrup and Svejgaard Pedersen 2005, Klastrup 2007.

  9. Professionally Social Using social media for professional research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Klarstrup


    Full Text Available In this short article, I will discuss what I consider the important characteristics, opportunities and challenges offered by social media when used for professional communication purposes. The insights – or perhaps rather points of discussion - put forth here are based on my own experiences as practicing social media communicator and Danish research blogger, as well as on my general research into the use of social media for professional communication purposes, by for instance Danish politicians (see Klastrup and Svejgaard Pedersen 2005, Klastrup 2007.

  10. Teachers' Professional Learning: The Role of Knowledge Management Practices (United States)

    Niehoff, Karissa


    This qualitative study explored the degree to which knowledge management strategies addressed teacher professional learning at the high school level. In the setting of a Connecticut public high school, interviews were conducted which explored teacher perceptions of knowledge sharing practices in the school and how those practices influenced their…

  11. Online Knowledge Communities: Meeting places for continuing professional development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sjoerd A.; van Weert, Tom J.; Munro, Robert K.


    This paper describes the concept of Online Knowledge Communities (okc) as meeting places for continuing professional development (cpd). An okc is defined as a social network of members, who are online and are organized by making use of an online knowledge center. The okc has a particular group

  12. Professional Competence in Psychosociology Research


    Maria Constantinescu; Cornel Constantinescu


    Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it's efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances' evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced ...

  13. Professional Competence in Psychosociology Research


    Maria Constantinescu; Cornel Constantinescu


    Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it’s efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances’ evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced ...

  14. Professional knowledge and the epistemology of reflective practice. (United States)

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne


    Reflective practice is one of the most popular theories of professional knowledge in the last 20 years and has been widely adopted by nursing, health, and social care professions. The term was coined by Donald Schön in his influential books The Reflective Practitioner, and Educating the Reflective Practitioner, and has garnered the unprecedented attention of theorists and practitioners of professional education and practice. Reflective practice has been integrated into professional preparatory programmes, continuing education programmes, and by the regulatory bodies of a wide range of health and social care professions. Yet, despite its popularity and widespread adoption, a problem frequently raised in the literature concerns the lack of conceptual clarity surrounding the term reflective practice. This paper seeks to respond to this problem by offering an analysis of the epistemology of reflective practice as revealed through a critical examination of philosophical influences within the theory. The aim is to discern philosophical underpinnings of reflective practice in order to advance increasingly coherent interpretations, and to consider the implications for conceptions of professional knowledge in professional life. The paper briefly examines major philosophical underpinnings in reflective practice to explicate central themes that inform the epistemological assumptions of the theory. The study draws on the work of Donald Schön, and on texts from four philosophers: John Dewey, Nelson Goodman, Michael Polanyi, and Gilbert Ryle. Five central epistemological themes in reflective practice are illuminated: (1) a broad critique of technical rationality; (2) professional practice knowledge as artistry; (3) constructivist assumptions in the theory; (4) the significance of tacit knowledge for professional practice knowledge; and (5) overcoming mind body dualism to recognize the knowledge revealed in intelligent action. The paper reveals that the theory of reflective

  15. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals (United States)

    Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar


    Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors. PMID:21897886

  16. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals. (United States)

    Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar


    Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.

  17. Negotiation skills for clinical research professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Hake


    Full Text Available Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.

  18. Exploring English Teachers' Perceptions about Peer-Coaching as a Professional Development Activity of Knowledge Construction (United States)

    Castañeda-Londoño, Adriana


    Teachers' knowledge and how they construct it is an area that deserves attention when it comes to producing fruitful professional development practices. This small-scale action research aims at identifying the perceptions of three teachers in a private language center about peer-coaching and their actual construction of knowledge in a…

  19. Collaborative Professional Development in Higher Education: Developing Knowledge of Technology Enhanced Teaching (United States)

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini; Figg, Candace; Gallagher, Tiffany; Scott, Ruth McQuirter; Ciampa, Katia


    This paper describes a professional development initiative for teacher educators, called the "Digital Pedagogies Collaboration," in which the goal was to build faculty knowledge about technology enhanced teaching (TPACK knowledge), develop a collaborative learning and research community of faculty members around technology enhanced…

  20. Knowledge-Sharing Intention among Information Professionals in Nigeria: A Statistical Analysis (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka


    In this study, the researcher administered a survey and developed and tested a statistical model to examine the factors that determine the intention of information professionals in Nigeria to share knowledge with their colleagues. The result revealed correlations between the overall score for intending to share knowledge and other…

  1. Educating Knowledge Professionals in Library and Information Science Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Ling Lai


    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM is a multidisciplinary subject which involves efforts from professionals with diverse backgrounds. This paper aims to investigate the needed educational background and skills for knowledge management professionals. In particular,the focus of the paper is to examine whether a master’s degree in library and information science (LIS is a preferred educational background listed in KM-related job postings. In addition, the preferred skills and knowledge required by KM employers are analyzed to reveal the association with graduate courses in library and information science. Job postings were collected from various sources during a specific timeframe. Content analysis was used to discover the kinds of backgrounds, skills, and knowledge that are expected from the employers. By examining both KM literature and the job postings, it is agreed that a certain set of skills can be taught and essential knowledge can be obtained through the LIS curriculum.

  2. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba. (United States)


    ... professional meetings in Cuba. 515.564 Section 515.564 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... research and professional meetings in Cuba. (a) General license—(1) Professional research. The travel... to professional research by full-time professionals who travel to Cuba to conduct professional...

  3. Knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals


    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.


    Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comp...

  4. [Oral infections and pregnancy: knowledge of health professionals]. (United States)

    Egea, L; Le Borgne, H; Samson, M; Boutigny, H; Philippe, H-J; Soueidan, A


    The abundance of recent studies on the relationship between oral diseases and complications of pregnancy leads to questions on knowledge of health professionals. This study aims to establish an inventory of knowledge and practice of health professionals in France on this issue. A questionnaire on knowledge of the relationship between oral diseases and complications of pregnancy was referred to gynaecologists and obstetricians, midwives and dentists. This study was conducted at the University Hospital of Nantes and Le Mans General Hospital. Eighty-seven professionals of pregnancy and 259 dentists responded to the survey. Bleeding gums and pregnancy gingivitis are the oral manifestations most cited by all practitioners. There is however a difference concerning the epulis and caries risk. The most cited Pregnancy complications are risk of premature delivery and chorioamniotitis. Only dentists had received initial training on pregnancy complications. Finally, all health professionals point to the lack of continued education on this topic. There is a good knowledge of the pregnancy complications associated with oral disease despite the lack of training of pregnancy, but the attitudes of care are not still in adequacy. It appears necessary to strengthen the training of all practitioners in this field. The design and implementation of a specific questionnaire on oral health status could allow better identification of the patients at risk by the professionals of pregnancy, and optimize so the care of pregnant women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. An Introduction to Qualitative Research for Food and Nutrition Professionals


    Jeffrey E. Harris; Philip M. Gleason; Patricia M. Sheean; Carol Boushey; Judith A. Beto; Barbara Bruemmer


    This article defines qualitative research as applied in the field of dietetics to increase knowledge and competency in evaluating this type of research. The authors explain the design of qualitative studies, explore congruence with quantitative research, and provide examples of applications in dietetics, stressing the importance of ensuring validity and reliability of qualitative measures. The article aims to help food and nutrition professionals add to the body of peer-reviewed, dietetics-re...

  6. Learning To Use Scientific Knowledge in Education and Practice Settings: An Evaluation of the Contribution of the Biological Behavioural and Social Sciences to Pre-Registration Nursing and Midwifery Programmes. Researching Professional Education. Research Reports Series Number 3. (United States)

    Eraut, Michael; And Others

    A research project evaluated the contribution of biological, behavioral, and social sciences to nursing and midwifery education programs in Britain. The study of scientific knowledge relevant to recently qualified nurses and midwives was confined to six topics: fluids, electrolytes, and renal systems; nutrition; acute pain; shock; stress; and…

  7. Professional Competence in Psychosociology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu


    Full Text Available Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it’s efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances’ evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced not only by factors depending on the person (the specific skills, the motivation, the degree of implication in decisional process, but olso by factors independent of person. Through the present study we have verified the interpretative-thoretical pattern suggessted for profesional competence (mental skills of cognitional kind and socio-emotional skills, the consciousness of profesional competence of a group of subjects that carried on in army. In this study the used method is secondary analysis, analysis and interpretation in a different manner of collected information with different reasons.

  8. Professional Competence in Psychosociology Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Constantinescu


    Full Text Available Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it's efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances' evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced not only by factors depending on the person (the specific skills, the motivation, the degree of implication in decisional process, but olso by factors independent of person. Through the present study we have verified the interpretative-thoretical pattern suggessted for profesional competence (mental skills of cognitional kind and socio-emotional skills, the consciousness of profesional competence of a group of subjects that carried on in army. In this study the used method is secondary analysis, analysis and interpretation in a different manner of collected information with different reasons.

  9. [Health care professional view on biomedical research]. (United States)

    Giménez, N; Jodar, E; Torres, M; Dalmau, D


    Biomedical research is a necessary subject and enjoys social prestige. To ascertain the views and expectations of health care professionals on research, analysing the influence of their academic training and professional level. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to physicians and qualified nurses working in a, tertiary hospital, seven primary care centres and two nursing homes (health care centres for the elderly). Cronbach's coefficient alpha=0.817. Response rate: 64% (432 out of 682 questionnaires distributed). Women: 71%. Mean age: 37 years. Mean years involved in health care: 14 years. 79% of people considered research as a part of their job, although in practice only 43% were doing it. Overall participation in activities was: Conferences (71%), education (42%), publications (34%) and ongoing projects (17%). Physicians dedicated more off duty time (37%) to research than qualified nurses (CI95%: 28 to 46%). The majority of physicians having their doctoral thesis would like to carry out research activities, and 84% did so in their free time and 74% had active research projects in progress. They identified physician workload as the main factor that impedes performing research. Proposals to increase research activities were focused on improving resources. The majority of health care professionals expressed a great motivation. The perception of research varies depending upon professional qualification. Physicians having their doctoral thesis were more involved and had a different perception of research, being more critical about available resources. Overall research perception was more positive among those with less academic training, as well as among those centres with less research activities.

  10. Knowledge of exercise prescription guidelines among certified exercise professionals. (United States)

    Zenko, Zachary; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon


    This survey assessed the knowledge of the "Guidance for prescribing exercise" issued by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) in 2011 among certified exercise professionals. A sample of 1,808 certified exercise professionals (66.70% women, mean (± SD) age = 38.28 ± 12.56 years) responded to electronic invitations. The 11-question online questionnaire assessed knowledge of the recommended frequency, duration, and intensity ranges in terms of heart rate, metabolic equivalents, and ratings of perceived exertion. Respondents had 7.45 ± 8.07 years of work experience and represented all 50 U.S. states. On average, participants answered 42.87 ± 1.69% of the questions correctly. Gender, age, and years of professional experience were not associated with overall knowledge of the guidelines. Likewise, having 1, 2, or 3+ certifications made no difference in overall knowledge. However, there were significant differences between levels of education (F = 7.12, p guidelines as 7.01 ± 1.69 of 10 but rated the level of knowledge necessary to practice safely and effectively as 8.32 ± 1.64 (t = 28.60, p guidelines among certified exercise professionals, showed that there is room for improvement, considering that the average score was below 50%.

  11. Ten steps to conducting health professional education research. (United States)

    Scott, Karen; Caldwell, Patrina; Schuwirth, Lambert


    The approaches used to educate future clinicians must be continually improved through evidence-based methods. Clinicians interested in conducting education research need to understand the terminology and conventions of health professional education, in the same way that health professional educators from education backgrounds need to be aware of clinical practices and scientific mores and jargon. This article provides clinicians with 10 steps to conducting health professional education research, and encourages collaboration between clinicians interested in education and health professional educators. The basic steps in conducting education research are introduced, beginning with literature searches, using appropriate terminology and writing conventions, and finding research collaborators. We encourage researchers to ask themselves, 'So what?' about their research idea to ensure it is interesting and relevant to a journal's readers. The nuts and bolts of educational research are then presented, including research questions and methodologies, outcome measures, theoretical frameworks and epistemologies. The final two steps aim to foster internationally relevant and well-designed research studies. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians, who struggle with what is required. Yet clinicians who teach are ideally placed to identify the knowledge gaps about how we can more effectively educate future clinicians. These 10 steps provide clinicians with guidance on how to conduct education research so relevant research findings can inform the education of future clinicians. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 50: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the role of language and written communications in the reacculturation of aerospace engineering students (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.; Hecht, Laura F.


    When students graduate and enter the world of work, they must make the transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community. Kenneth Bruffee's model of the social construction of knowledge suggests that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables successful movement from one knowledge community to another. We present the results of a national (mail) survey that examined the technical communications abilities, skills, and competencies of 1,673 aerospace engineering students, who represent an academic knowledge community. These results are examined within the context of the technical communications behaviors and practices reported by 2,355 aerospace engineers and scientists employed in government and industry, who represent a professional knowledge community that the students expect to join. Bruffee's claim of the importance of language and written communication in the successful transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community is supported by the responses from the two communities we surveyed. Implications are offered for facilitating the reacculturation process of students to entry-level engineering professionals.

  13. Pedagogical-Research Designs to Capture the Symbiotic Nature of Professional Knowledge and Learning about e-Learning in Initial Teacher Education in the UK (United States)

    Turvey, Keith


    This paper argues that if new communications technologies and online spaces are to yield "new relationship[s] with learners" then research that is tuned to recognize, capture and explain the pedagogical processes at the center of such interactions is vital. This has implications for the design of pedagogical activities within Initial…

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in public health institutions on emergency contraception in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province, ... Although emergency contraception (EC) is widely available, its use is surrounded by many controversies. ... Only 39.6% knew that EC pills prevent ovulation.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Dental Professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the data. One way ANOVA and Chi-square tests were performed to assess whether the knowledge and attitude varies according to socio-demographic characteristics or to each other and to .... Disagree N (%). I think teledentistry can violate the patient's privacy. .... In Rwanda there is a big number of dental professionals.

  16. Fitness professionals' knowledge and perceptions on hydration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive study examined the extent of hydration knowledge and fluid intake pattern in people who work within fitness industry. Fourty fitness professionals were asked to complete a questionnaire about their perspectives on hydration, thirst and fluid intake pattern. Water was the most preferred drink before (75.0%), ...

  17. Knowledge, experiences and training needs of health professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Over the past decade, the magnitude and intensity of disasters have been vividly rising globally due to the forces of nature or man. This study aimed at assessing the perceived knowledge, experiences and training needs of health professionals regarding disasters, their prevention and management in Jimma ...

  18. Knowledge and skills of professional nurses regarding integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of service delivery for IMCI needs to be improved through further training of all the professional nurses. This will serve to improve their knowledge and skills in the management of childhood conditions. It is recommended that to meet the 4th Millennium Development Goal; more effort is required regarding quality ...

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Health Care Professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Health Care Professionals towards Voluntary Counseling and Testing for HIV/AIDS in a Nigeria Tertiary Hospital. ... (49.2%) of Esan extraction; marital status and occupation of the participants significantly influenced their attitude towards voluntary counseling and testing for HIV/AID.

  20. The Knowledge of Rehabilitation Professionals Concerning Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. (United States)

    Birch, Stephanie M; Carpenter, Heidi A; Marsh, Anna M; McClung, Kimberly A; Doll, Joy D


    The purpose of this study was to explore rehabilitation professionals' knowledge regarding signs and symptoms, prevention, and intervention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Participants were 111 rehabilitation practitioners (e.g., occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology practitioners) recruited through email using a quantitative online survey design with purposive, snowball sampling. Results showed the majority of participants' demonstrated accurate knowledge of the signs and symptoms of FASD. Since professionals who received formal education on FASD reported significantly higher feelings of preparedness to identify children with FASD and manage/coordinate intervention plans, this study suggests rehabilitation professionals may be better prepared to treat individuals with FASD if they participate in formal training.

  1. Electronic cigarette use, knowledge, and perceptions among health professional students. (United States)

    Franks, Amy M; Hawes, William A; McCain, Keith R; Payakachat, Nalin


    Our study evaluated the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, knowledge, and perceptions of health professional students enrolled in one of five colleges at a single academic health center. A 56-item survey was conducted to examine the use, knowledge, and perceptions of e-cigarettes among health professional students. An e-cigarette knowledge score was calculated according to correct responses to eight true-false survey items, with possible scores ranging from zero to eight points. Regressions were used to determine associations between students' enrolled college/discipline and e-cigarette knowledge scores and to identify associations between three perception domains (smoking cessation, harm reduction, and enhanced regulation) and e-cigarette use. Of the 853 students responding, 24.2% reported e-cigarette ever-use. Of e-cigarette ever users, 85.5% had used within the past year, and 23.1% used e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Participants from the colleges of public health, pharmacy, and nursing had significantly higher knowledge scores, compared to those in allied health. Knowledge scores from college of medicine participants did not differ significantly compared to scores from allied health. Perceptions of using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, reduced harm compared to tobacco, and reduced e-cigarette regulation were significantly associated with using e-cigarettes. Self-reported ever-use of e-cigarettes among health professional students in this sample was 3.5-6 times higher than previously reported among medical and nursing students. Substantial gaps in e-cigarette knowledge exist. Enhancing health professionals' preparedness to effectively advise patients about the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes is crucial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Research and professional development of teacher educators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunenberg, Mieke; Willemse, Martijn


    Over the last decade teacher educators have started to systematically study the processes involved in their efforts to improve their teacher education practices. This research by teacher educators (self-study research) has made an enormous contribution to the professional development of the teacher

  3. Professional Knowledge and Skills Required for Accounting Majors Who Intend to Become Auditors: Perceptions of External Auditors


    Ali Uyar; Ali Haydar Gungormus


    This research aims to ascertain the professional knowledge and the skills/attributes that are considered important by external auditors for a graduate who intends to be an auditor. For this purpose, we conducted a survey on external auditors in Turkey. The research has two dimensions: skills dimension (twenty one items) and professional knowledge dimension (twenty four items). The results indicated that all skills except “knowledge of accounting software” are perceived to be important or very...

  4. The role of professional knowledge in case-based reasoning in practical ethics. (United States)

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Gloeckner, Claire; Fortunato, Angela


    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one's professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: (1) Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. (2) Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. (3) The non-research group--students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student's level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills.

  5. Transformation of Topic-Specific Professional Knowledge into Personal Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Lesson Planning (United States)

    Stender, Anita; Brückmann, Maja; Neumann, Knut


    This study investigates the relationship between two different types of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): the topic-specific professional knowledge (TSPK) and practical routines, so-called teaching scripts. Based on the Transformation Model of Lesson Planning, we assume that teaching scripts originate from a transformation of TSPK during lesson…

  6. Reconceptualizing the understanding of professional knowledge in day care work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    Re conceptualizing the understanding of professional knowledge in day care work As development of children’s competences increasingly sets the agenda for what counts as professional practice in day care, there is a risk that the majority of everyday practices become invisible, unnoticed and regar...... of departure in participative research conducted in day care institutions for 0-6 year olds, focusing on reconceptualizing pedagogical knowledge and paying attention to interrelations in every day practices.......Re conceptualizing the understanding of professional knowledge in day care work As development of children’s competences increasingly sets the agenda for what counts as professional practice in day care, there is a risk that the majority of everyday practices become invisible, unnoticed...... and regarded as unimportant in professional knowledge. Hence we lose sight of unique learning arenas for developing professional knowledge in day care work, and the everyday practices and routines are not considered to be in need for reflection and attention. The proposed presentation takes its’ point...

  7. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude and practices towards pharmacovigilance in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaian S


    Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.

  8. Role of Information Professionals in Knowledge Management Programs: Empirical Evidence from Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Ajiferuke


    Full Text Available The implementation of a knowledge management program in an organization has the potential of im-proving customer services, quickly bringing new products to market, and reducing cost of business operations. Information technologies are often used in knowledge management programs in informing clients and employees of latest innovation/development in the business sector as well as sharing knowledge among the employees. The key professionals involved in knowledge management programs are information technologists and human resource managers but the information professionals also have a role to play as they are traditionally known as good managers of explicit knowledge. Hence, the aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence of the role of information professionals in knowledge management programs. 386 information professionals working in Canadian organizations were selected from the Special Libraries Association's Who's Who in Special Libraries 2001/2002, and a questionnaire with a stamped self-addressed envelope for its return was sent to each one of them. 63 questionnaires were completed and returned, and 8 in-depth interviews conducted. About 59% of the information professionals surveyed are working in organizations that have knowledge management programs with about 86% of these professionals being involved in the programs. Factors such as gender, age, and educational background (i.e. highest educational qualifications and discipline did not seem to have any relationship with involvement in knowledge management programs. Many of those involved in the programs are playing key roles, such as the design of the information architecture, development of taxonomy, or con-tent management of the organization's intranet. Others play lesser roles, such as providing information for the intranet, gathering competitive intelligence, or providing research services as requested by the knowledge management team.

  9. Eating disorder professionals' perceptions of oral health knowledge. (United States)

    Johnson, L B; Boyd, L D; Rainchuso, L; Rothman, A; Mayer, B


    The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders, and identify to what extent their education, and training addresses oral health care delivery, and recommendations for individuals with eating disorders. Participants for this study were licensed behavioural and medical providers specializing in eating disorder treatment (n = 107), and recruited through professional eating disorder organizations. Participants completed an anonymous, online questionnaire (33 items) assessing level of oral health-related education, knowledge and treatment recommendations within the participant's respective eating disorder discipline. The majority of respondents (85%) were formally trained in eating disorders, and of those trained, 64.4% were not satisfied with the level of oral health education during formal education, and 19.5% report no oral health education. Respondents consider their knowledge of risk of oral disease for their clients/patients as average or above (84%), and ranked tooth erosion as the greatest reason for oral care (63%) while dry mouth led in the rankings for least significant reason for oral care (33%). Referral for oral care was found to be more common after reports of complication (55%). According to these findings, eating disorder professionals regard oral health care for their clients as significant, and may be unaware of associated oral risk factors, current oral care standards and long-term oral effects of disordered eating apart from enamel erosion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Information Technology Security Professionals' Knowledge and Use Intention Based on UTAUT Model (United States)

    Kassa, Woldeloul


    Information technology (IT) security threats and vulnerabilities have become a major concern for organizations in the United States. However, there has been little research on assessing the effect of IT security professionals' knowledge on the use of IT security controls. This study examined the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology…

  11. Examining science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the context of a professional development program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsopawiro, Dirk Soenario


    This dissertation reports on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of science teachers during a professional development program. This research intended to help us understand why and how teachers make their classroom decisions as they teach science. The main questions in this study were: What is

  12. The basic professional knowledge of teachers and suborganizational transformation processes of external pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Hansen


    Danish research (Hansen 2009; Lund 2012) have shown, that the basic professional knowledge of the profession of teachers (theoretical and philosophical pedagogy and didactics ) is under press, when different kinds of extern pressure (Scott 2008, Institutions and Organizations) are to be implement...... of the profession of teachers are given a central role and position, when extern pressure are to be transformed into new practice?...

  13. Philosophy of the Profession and Professional Knowledge in the Structure of Professional Identity of Hei Teachers in Riga and Smolensk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermolajeva Jelena


    Full Text Available Teacher is a key figure in the implementation of reforms in higher education. Pedagogical research of the professional identity (PI of teacher, her/his priority values, self-evaluation of performances and professional knowledge and the way how she/he conceptualises the profession at an individual level can lead to the most appropriate strategies to manage the educational reforms successfully. This article presents some results of the Latvian-Russian project ‘Professional Identity of Contemporary Pedagogue’ implemented in 2014-2016 by researchers of Riga (Latvia and Smolensk (Russia. In the realisation of project, a hypothetical model of the content of Higher Education Institution (HEI teacher’s PI was created, and HEI teachers’ survey was carried out. In total, 198 teachers were surveyed in Riga and Smolensk. The aim of this article is to examine the relevance of the proposed model and analyse the indicators of the first two components of the model: Philosophy of the Profession and Professional Knowledge. The results show that, on the whole, the answers of the Russian and Latvian teachers in the questionnaire are fairly well agreed; however, some differences and peculiarities in the data of Riga and Smolensk were observed. The relevance of the proposed model has been confirmed, and some problems of PI of HEI teachers have been identified. To improve the educational process, executives of the reform and teachers should pay due attention to these problems.

  14. Effects of professional development on the knowledge and classroom practices of elementary school science teachers (United States)

    Minuskin, Sondra

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of professional development on the knowledge and classroom practices of teachers of science in kindergarten through Grade 5. These teachers, trained to be generalists in the content areas, were strongly prepared in pedagogical practices, reading skills, basic language arts, and mathematics content areas. Science reform has led to more content-specific science standards that were difficult for these unprepared teachers to address without professional development. The researcher implemented a professional development program that used a collaborative model involving 8 teachers in Grade 4. The researcher conducted the professional development, assisted at times by personnel from the New Jersey State Department of Education. The new standards were learned, reinforced, and adopted. The data that were analyzed to determine the effects of the professional development came from a comparison of student achievement of the classes of 2 sets of teachers in Grade 4, one of which was the control set ( n = 8). The other was the experimental set (n = 8). The researcher administered pre- and postintervention content tests to both groups to measure teacher knowledge. In addition, the researcher reviewed lesson plans, conducted observations, and administered surveys to determine whether professional development in science impacted teacher practices in the classroom. This limited study suggested that teacher instruction did not significantly differ after professional development intervention. It also suggested that teacher content knowledge did not significantly increase due to the intervention. The researcher believes that local factors influenced the outcome and recommends a more systemic program that includes the involvement of all stakeholders.

  15. Declarative knowledge and professional vision in teacher education: effect of courses in teaching and learning. (United States)

    Stürmer, Kathleen; Könings, Karen D; Seidel, Tina


    Teachers' professional vision includes the ability to apply general pedagogical knowledge about components of effective teaching and learning to reason about significant features of classroom practice. It requires teachers to (a) describe, (b) explain, and (c) predict classroom situations. Although the acquisition of underling knowledge can be considered as a key element of university-based teacher education programmes, to date, there has been little empirical research on teacher candidates' development of professional vision. This study aims to improve understanding of how different university-based courses in teaching and learning impact the development of professional vision. Participants were teacher candidates (N= 53) attending the same teacher education programme at a German university. They were enrolled in one of three different compulsory courses in teaching and learning, lasting one semester. In a pre-test-post-test design, participants' declarative knowledge about teaching and learning was measured with a test, professional vision with the online tool Observer. Analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance were conducted. Teacher candidates in all three courses showed significant gains both in declarative knowledge and professional vision. Patterns of results differed depending on the course attended. A video-based course with a focus on effective teaching resulted in highest gains in prediction of the consequences of observed events for student learning processes, which is the highest level of knowledge transfer. The development of professional vision is a strongly knowledge-guided process. In line with their content and aims, university-based courses can enhance teaching-relevant knowledge for teacher candidates. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Knowledge Economy and Research Innovation (United States)

    Bastalich, Wendy


    The "knowledge economy" has been received with considerable scepticism by scholars within the fields of political economy, social and political philosophy, and higher education. Key arguments within this literature are reviewed in this article to suggest that, despite policy claims, "knowledge economy" does not describe a "new" mode of economic…

  17. Health Research Funding Agencies' Support and Promotion of Knowledge Translation: An International Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacqueline M. Tetroe; Ian D. Graham; Robbie Foy; Nicole Robinson; Martin P. Eccles; Michel Wensing; Pierre Durieux; France Légaré; Camilla Palmhøj Nielson; Armita Adily; Jeanette E. Ward; Cassandra Porter; Beverley Shea; Jeremy M. Grimshaw


    Context: The process of knowledge translation (KT) in health research depends on the activities of a wide range of actors, including health professionals, researchers, the public, policymakers, and research funders...

  18. English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Williams


    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.

  19. Nutritional knowledge and eating habits of professional rugby league players: does knowledge translate into practice? (United States)

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony


    Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected during the Super League competitive season in the first team squad of 21 professional Rugby league players (mean age 25 ± 5 yrs, BMI 27 ± 2.4 kg/m2, experience in game 6 ± 4 yrs). According to their nutritional knowledge scores, the players were assigned to either good or poor nutritional knowledge group (n = 11, n = 10, respectively). Their dietary habits were assessment using a food frequency questionnaire. The findings revealed that nutritional knowledge was adequate (mean 72.82%) in this group of athletes with the highest scores in dietary advice section (85.71%), followed by food groups (71.24%) and food choice (69.52%). The majority of athletes were not aware of current carbohydrate recommendations. This translated into their dietary habits as many starchy and fibrous foods were consumed only occasionally by poor nutritional knowledge group. In terms of their eating habits, the good nutritional knowledge group consumed significantly more fruit and vegetables, and starchy foods (p <.05). Nutritional knowledge was positively correlated to fruit and vegetables consumption (rs = .52, p <.05) but not to any other eatwell plate categories. The study identified adequate general nutritional knowledge in professional rugby league players with the exception of recommendation for starchy and fibrous foods. Players who scored higher in nutritional knowledge test were more likely to consume more fruits, vegetables and carbohydrate-rich foods.

  20. Research on knowledge representation, machine learning, and knowledge acquisition (United States)

    Buchanan, Bruce G.


    Research in knowledge representation, machine learning, and knowledge acquisition performed at Knowledge Systems Lab. is summarized. The major goal of the research was to develop flexible, effective methods for representing the qualitative knowledge necessary for solving large problems that require symbolic reasoning as well as numerical computation. The research focused on integrating different representation methods to describe different kinds of knowledge more effectively than any one method can alone. In particular, emphasis was placed on representing and using spatial information about three dimensional objects and constraints on the arrangement of these objects in space. Another major theme is the development of robust machine learning programs that can be integrated with a variety of intelligent systems. To achieve this goal, learning methods were designed, implemented and experimented within several different problem solving environments.

  1. Health regulation: knowledge of Family Health Strategy professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Roney Mota Lima


    Full Text Available This is a descriptive and qualitative study that aimed to verify the knowledge of nurses, doctors and dentists of the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Bela Cruz, Ceará, Brazil, about health regulation. Data collection happened from November to December 2008 by applying a questionnaire. Data were organized according to content analysis of Bardin. The results show that the participants have knowledge about the referral flow of patients referred from the primary care to specialized care, the mechanisms used for this purpose, as well as the reference and counter-reference system; they also reported difficulties in the return of patients with the counter-reference form properly filled, thus jeopardizing the continuity of assistance. For these professionals, the regulation is an important management tool for SUS, guaranteeing the right to health.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rias Ning Astuti


    Full Text Available English becomes an international language that has to be mastered by the students in Indonesia and many countries in the world. Teaching English is not easy as we thought. As an English teachers, we should master some criteria to be  good teachers. Because English today in Indonesia is considered as a foreign language, then it difficult for the students to learn it. Teacher is also  important in teaching learning process in the classroom, the foundation of English teacher education, teacher knowledge, and professionalism of the teacher is primary goal that should be mastered In this case, the writer tries to explore the phenomena that happened in Indonesia especially in East Indonesia, that is,  Merauke - Papua. The educational system in Merauke- Papua is good enough, but there are several terms that should be changed by the government and the teachers themselves. There are some problems faced by the teacher when they teach in the class, such as: what they teach does not match with the skills the  subject requires and they only focus on finishing the curriculum. In this context, the roles of the government is very important in order to improve the teacher professionalism in Indonesia, one of which is certification for the teacher and the government will increase their salary per month. But, it is not only the matter of salary, but the government should find another ways to improve the teacher’s professionalism such as: conference, seminars, or another activities.

  3. Analysis of professional competencies for the clinical research data management profession: implications for training and professional certification. (United States)

    Zozus, Meredith N; Lazarov, Angel; Smith, Leigh R; Breen, Tim E; Krikorian, Susan L; Zbyszewski, Patrick S; Knoll, Shelly K; Jendrasek, Debra A; Perrin, Derek C; Zambas, Demetris N; Williams, Tremaine B; Pieper, Carl F


    To assess and refine competencies for the clinical research data management profession. Based on prior work developing and maintaining a practice standard and professional certification exam, a survey was administered to a captive group of clinical research data managers to assess professional competencies, types of data managed, types of studies supported, and necessary foundational knowledge. Respondents confirmed a set of 91 professional competencies. As expected, differences were seen in job tasks between early- to mid-career and mid- to late-career practitioners. Respondents indicated growing variability in types of studies for which they managed data and types of data managed. Respondents adapted favorably to the separate articulation of professional competencies vs foundational knowledge. The increases in the types of data managed and variety of research settings in which data are managed indicate a need for formal education in principles and methods that can be applied to different research contexts (ie, formal degree programs supporting the profession), and stronger links with the informatics scientific discipline, clinical research informatics in particular. The results document the scope of the profession and will serve as a foundation for the next revision of the Certified Clinical Data Manager TM exam. A clear articulation of professional competencies and necessary foundational knowledge could inform the content of graduate degree programs or tracks in areas such as clinical research informatics that will develop the current and future clinical research data management workforce.

  4. Research data management practical strategies for information professionals

    CERN Document Server


    It has become increasingly accepted that important digital data must be retained and shared in order to preserve and promote knowledge, advance research in and across all disciplines of scholarly endeavor, and maximize the return on investment of public funds. To meet this challenge, colleges and universities are adding data services to existing infrastructures by drawing on the expertise of information professionals who are already involved in the acquisition, management and preservation of data in their daily jobs. Data services include planning and implementing good data management practices, thereby increasing researchers’ ability to compete for grant funding and ensuring that data collections with continuing value are preserved for reuse. This volume provides a framework to guide information professionals in academic libraries, presses, and data centers through the process of managing research data from the planning stages through the life of a grant project and beyond. It illustrates principle...

  5. Prevalence, knowledge and attitudes relating to β-alanine use among professional footballers. (United States)

    Kelly, Vincent G; Leveritt, Michael D; Brennan, Christopher T; Slater, Gary J; Jenkins, David G


    To investigate β-alanine supplementation use and level of knowledge amongst professional footballers. Cross-sectional survey of Australian professional football players. Questionnaires assessing β-alanine supplementation behaviours, level of knowledge and sources of information were completed by professional rugby union (RU) (n=87), rugby league (RL) (n=180) and Australian Rules Football (ARF) (n=303) players. Approximately 61% of athletes reported β-alanine use, however use by ARF football players (44%) was lower than that of RU (80%) and RL players (80%). The majority of respondents were not using β-alanine in accordance with recommendations. Only 35% of the participants were able to correctly identify the potential benefits of β-alanine supplementation. The main information sources that influenced players' decision to use β-alanine were strength and conditioning coach (71%) and dietitian (52%). Forty-eight per cent of athletes never read labels prior to supplementing and only 11% completed their own research on β-alanine. Compared to RL and ARF players, RU players had both a greater knowledge of β-alanine supplementation and better supplementation practices. Despite over half the surveyed professional footballers using β-alanine, the majority of athletes used β-alanine in a manner inconsistent with recommendations. A better understanding of the environment and culture within professional football codes is required before supplement use becomes consistent with evidence based supplement recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge of nursing professionals of a surgical center regarding malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Silva Sousa

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of the nursing professionals in a surgical center about malignant hyperthermia. This is a descriptive exploratory study on malignant hyperthermia conducted with mid- and high-level nursing professionals in the surgical center of an institution located in the city of São Paulo, where the research was conducted between August and September 2013. Analysis of the data was descriptive and the average of the correct answers was compared using Student's t-test. Among the 96 participants, the two items in which at least 70% of the team showed knowledge were: the definition of malignant hyperthermia and the professionals involved in the health care provided. With respect to all test items, 70% of nurses answered 50% correctly. The same percentage of mid-level professionals answered only 20% correctly. There was no statistically significant difference between the professional categories. This study revealed insufficient knowledge on the part of the nursing team about malignant hyperthermia.

  7. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson


    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  8. The Construction of a State of Knowledge on Professional Values in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hirsch Adler


    Full Text Available This article presents the state of knowledge on professional values in Mexico and the elements that have allowed its construction, beginning in 2001. This is a meaningful, open-ended task, which grows as it is enriched by the addition of new-found research relevant to the study topic. There is described the process of the article’s preparation, which took into account six types of resources: two anthologies from which were taken the chapters related to professional values; a state of knowledge produced by the Mexican Council of Educational Research, dedicated to research in this field; some articles from the online journalReencuentro’s special issue on ethics; an anthology on values and moral development in education; and research reports on professional ethics and graduate thesis, not included in the five publications mentioned above. The construction of states of knowledge is considered to be greatly useful for the discussion of new research projects, and for supporting the development for those in process.

  9. The Development and Validation of a Knowledge Activities Scale for the Information Professionals in University Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ho Huang


    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a scale for measuring knowledge activities of information professionals which include the attributes for positive and negative, individual and group. The research processes include interviewing several experts, the exploratory analysis of the pre-test, and the confirmatory factor analysis of the formal questionnaire collecting from academic librarians. The result indicates that there are four factors for individual level, including knowledge absorption, knowledge share, knowledge hampering, and knowledge transfer; and three factors for group level, including knowledge enlarging, knowledge clustering, and knowledge initiating. The scale from both individual and group level demonstrated robust psychometric properties, with acceptable levels of reliability and validity. Library managers could adopt the scales to examine the extent to knowledge activities in order to design a future plan according to the status of the existing library for promoting knowledge management. Furthermore, the result of t-test and ANOVA revealed some facts that we need to consider some business strategies we need to improve for managing human resources. [Article content in Chinese

  10. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana


    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  11. Health Professionals' knowledge and attitude towards the Umbilical Cord Blood donation in Greece. (United States)

    Hatzistilli, H; Zissimopoulou, O; Galanis, P; Siskou, O; Prezerakos, P; Zissimopoulos, A; Kaitelidou, D


    In the last years a major emphasis is laid on the Allogeneic Transplantation of Blood Stem Cells from the Umbilical Cord Blood with a simultaneous development of Umbilical Cord Blood bank. The attitude and knowledge of Health Professionals is vital to the success of this attempt as it affects significantly the promotion of Umbilical Cord Blood donation. The aim of present study is the examination of Health Professionals' knowledge and attitudes towards Umbilical Cord Blood in Greece. The study was conducted from April 25th 2012 to May 7th 2012. The sample consisted of 109 Health Professionals from 3 provincial hospitals and 2 hospitals in Thessaloniki. In order to collect the data, a questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was designed by the researcher and a group of experts to serve the mission of the present study. From the 130 questionnaires sent, 109 were completely answered (response rate 84%). Of those who participated to the research, 23.9% were physicians, 34.9% were midwives, and 34.8% were nurses. As far as the Health Professionals' knowledge on the Umbilical Cord Blood is concerned, only 15.6% of the participants declared to be quite or well informed on the collection methods and the usage of Umbilical Cord Blood. The vast majority of the participants (89%), declared that a well-organized program on a continual training is very essential. 93.5% of the participants declared that in the last 5 years received no or very little training regarding the collection, storing and transplantation of Umbilical Cord Blood. Although according to a relevant research health professionals are considered by the public as the most credible source of information about Umbilical Cord Blood, their level of knowledge on the usage and storing of Umbilical Cord Blood is inadequate. The present study indicates the necessity of creation or reinforcing of effective programs of continual training with the use of technology (i.e. Internet).

  12. Educational research and knowledge policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle


    The paper is structured in three main sections. The first is a general description of educational research in Denmark and the types of quality assessment used. The second is a discussion of a particular instance of quality assessment, the 2004 OECD review of educational research in Denmark and it...

  13. Confidence level in venipuncture and knowledge on causes of in vitro hemolysis among healthcare professionals. (United States)

    Milutinović, Dragana; Andrijević, Ilija; Ličina, Milijana; Andrijević, Ljiljana


    This study aimed to assess confidence level of healthcare professionals in venipuncture and their knowledge on the possible causes of in vitro hemolysis. A sample of 94 healthcare professionals (nurses and laboratory technicians) participated in this survey study. A four-section questionnaire was used as a research instrument comprising general information for research participants, knowledge on possible causes of in vitro hemolysis due to type of material used and venipuncture technique and specimen handling, as well as assessment of healthcare professionals' confidence level in their own ability to perform first and last venipuncture. The average score on the knowledge test was higher in nurses' than in laboratory technicians (8.11±1.7, and 7.4±1.5, respectively). The difference in average scores was statistically significant (P=0.035) and Cohen's d in the range of 0.4 indicates that there is a moderate difference on the knowledge test among the health care workers. Only 11/94 of healthcare professionals recognized that blood sample collection from cannula and evacuated tube is method which contributes most to the occurrence of in vitro hemolysis, whereas most risk factors affecting occurrence of in vitro hemolysis during venipuncture were recognized. There were no significant differences in mean score on the knowledge test in relation to the confidence level in venipuncture (P=0.551). Confidence level at last venipuncture among both profiles of healthcare staff was very high, but they showed insufficient knowledge about possible factors affecting hemolysis due to materials used in venipuncture compared with factors due to venipuncture technique and handling of blood sample.

  14. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Couverture du livre Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Editor(s):. Mercedes Botto. Publisher(s):. Routledge, CRDI. October 7, 2009. ISBN: 9780415801911. 246 pages.

  15. The Role of Community Trust and Altruism in Knowledge Sharing: An Investigation of a Virtual Community of Teacher Professionals (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Fan, Hsueh-Liang; Tsai, Chin-Chung


    The knowledge sharing process within a virtual community of teacher professionals is viewed as a social exchange process in that the knowledge sharing intention and behavior of individuals are influenced by the exchange relationship among members. However, relatively little research has focused on this approach to exploring the factors that…

  16. The Knowledge Work of Professional Associations: Approaches to Standardisation and Forms of Legitimisation (United States)

    Nerland, Monika; Karseth, Berit


    This paper examines how professional associations engage themselves in efforts to develop, regulate and secure knowledge in their respective domains, with special emphasis on standardisation. The general emphasis on science in society brings renewed attention to the knowledge base of professionals, and positions professional bodies as key…

  17. An Evaluation of Professional Development to Improve Teachers' Perspectives and Behaviors: An Action Research Study (United States)

    Beckford-Young, Paulette Vivienne


    The purpose of this action research study was to conduct a professional development activity to provide content-area teachers with academic vocabulary strategies to be implemented during instruction on a daily basis. Professional development is essential for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills in order to hone their craft to improve student…

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals and women towards medication use in breastfeeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermele Narmin


    Full Text Available Abstract Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health

  19. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer


    Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.

  20. Research Capacity Building through Professional Development for K-12 Teachers (United States)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Cable, J.; Bolton, W. R.


    Engaging teachers in field research provides opportunities to learn and use the knowledge and skills in the eight practices of science and engineering emphasized in the Next Generation Science Standards. At Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) professional development workshops for teachers in Alaska, we use a professional development model that we developed in the Seasons and Biomes Project. Daily activities integrate an earth system and interdisciplinary approach, science content and processes based on GLOBE measurement protocols in various fields of investigations such as weather and climate, hydrology, land cover, phenology, and soils, best teaching practices such as inquiry, and a model for student science research investigation. Besides learning and practicing the measurement protocols and the steps in conducting a science investigation inside and outside the workshop classroom, teachers conduct field research with scientists studying the ecosystems of a deciduous forest and a black spruce forest. In addition to enhancing science content and practices learning, assessment results and student work indicate increased research capacity when the trained teachers return to their classroom and engage their students in ongoing regional or global research investigations as well as in conducting their own studies at or close to their schools.

  1. Using Doubly Latent Multilevel Analysis to Elucidate Relationships between Science Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Students' Performance (United States)

    Mahler, Daniela; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute


    Teachers make a difference for the outcome of their students in science classrooms. One focus in this context lies on teachers' professional knowledge. We describe this knowledge according to three domains, namely (1) content knowledge (CK), (2) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and (3) curricular knowledge (CuK). We hypothesise a positive…

  2. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah


    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  3. Research Knowledge Assessment: A Study of MSW Students' Acquisition and Retention of Research Knowledge (United States)

    Secret, Mary; Abell, Melissa L.; Ward, Christopher J.; Charles, Jennifer L. K.; Perkins, Nathan H.


    In response to the need for meaningful data about student learning in research courses, we developed and implemented the Research Knowledge Assessment instrument to measure MSW student acquisition, application, and retention of research knowledge over a 3-year period across the research curriculum. Initial findings indicated that students entered…

  4. Risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals: a systematic review. (United States)

    Corrin, Tricia; Waddell, Lisa; Greig, Judy; Young, Ian; Hierlihy, Catherine; Mascarenhas, Mariola


    Recently, attention to chikungunya has increased due to its spread into previously non-endemic areas. Since there is no available treatment or vaccine, most intervention strategies focus on mosquito bite prevention and mosquito control, which require community involvement to be successful. Thus, our objective was to systematically review the global primary literature on the risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals to inform future research and improve our understanding on which intervention strategies are likely to be successful. Potentially relevant articles were identified through a standardized systematic review (SR) process consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy in seven databases (Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, CAB, LILACS, Agricola, and Cochrane) and a grey literature search of public health organizations, relevance screening, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction. Two independent reviewers performed each step. Reporting of this SR follows PRISMA reporting guidelines. Thirty-seven relevant articles were identified. The majority of the articles were published since 2011 (83.8%) and reported on studies conducted in Asia (48.7%) and the Indian Ocean Islands (24.3%). The results were separated into four categories: general knowledge and perceptions on chikungunya; perceptions on the risk and severity of chikungunya; knowledge of chikungunya-harboring vectors and transmission; and knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes on mitigation practices. Overall, the systematic review found that risk perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge of chikungunya among the public and health professionals vary across populations and countries and knowledge is higher in areas that have experienced an outbreak. The results suggest that most of the affected populations in this study do not understand mosquito borne diseases or chikungunya and are therefore less likely to protect themselves from mosquito

  5. Continuing Education Effects on Cultural Competence Knowledge and Skills Building among Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Hall


    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority health data from a national perspective indicates there is much to learn in the public health workforce about the ongoing health disparities crisis. This suggests a level of urgency to assist our public health professionals in obtaining specific skills sets that will assist them in working better with vulnerable populations. The purpose of this research is to assess cultural competence knowledge and programmatic skill sets, utilizing an explorational case study, of individuals employed within an urban public health department. In order to effectively evaluate these constructs, a quantitative research approach was employed to examine participants’ knowledge and competencies of the subject matter. This data was further analyzed to determine if continuing education participation and training was correlated to the levels of culturally competent practice engagement and self-reported confidence. In addition, researchers obtained data on the availability of employer sponsored training opportunities. The data suggested when health professionals engage in cultural competence education, their level of awareness of unique characteristics between ethnic and racial minorities increased. Those who exhibited the healthiest behaviors, as it relates to effectively working with diverse populations, had a heightened sense of knowledge related to culture and healthcare services. Continuing education in cultural competence is an essential strategy for improving public health employees’ effectiveness in working with diverse clients and reducing racial and ethnic health disparities. As the finding illustrated, training programs must incorporate educational components which foster skill building to enable subsequent culturally appropriate clinical interactions.

  6. It Matters Who You Are: Indigenous Knowledge Research and Researchers (United States)

    Keane, Moyra; Khupe, Constance; Muza, Blessings


    It is common for researchers in Indigenous Knowledge (IK) in science education research to draw on aspects of the scientific paradigm from their science training. The consequent research seeks to be objective. This paradigm is not necessarily appropriate for IK research. While there have been calls for IK-aligned methodologies (Chilisa 2012; Keane…

  7. Special Education Research Advances Knowledge in Education (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.


    Research in special education has yielded beneficial outcomes for students with disabilities as well as typical achieving students. The authors provide examples of the valuable knowledge special education research has generated, including the elements of response to intervention (e.g., screening and progress monitoring), instructional practices…

  8. Collaborative Research Partnerships for Knowledge Mobilisation (United States)

    Edelstein, Hilary


    This study examines elements of collaborative research partnerships (CRPs) between university researchers and organisations who engage in knowledge mobilisation activities in education. The study uses key informant interviews and document analysis from one type of partnership, and a survey of university-community partnerships across Canada to…

  9. Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research Results in Ecohealth Projects. This study brings together lead investigators from 11 past and ongoing Ecohealth projects across Latin America who are interested in achieving better development outcomes guided by research results. Their collective ...

  10. Knowledge and Policy: Research--Information--Intervention (United States)

    Gogolin, Ingrid; Keiner, Edwin; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; Ozga, Jenny; Yates, Lyn


    At the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) 2006 in Geneva, Switzerland, the EERJ Roundtable focused upon the relationships between information, research and intervention. These relationships could be understood as a circular flow of decontextualising and recontextualising terms, concepts or "knowledge" according to the respective…

  11. Attitudes, Knowledge, Use, and Recommendation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Health Professionals in Western Mexico. (United States)

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Rios-Gonzalez, Blanca Estela; Lopez-Barragan, Liliana; Saldaña-Cruz, Ana Miriam; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Katya


    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased in many countries, and this has altered the knowledge, attitudes, and treatment recommendations of health professionals in regard to CAM. Considering Mexican health professionals׳ lack of knowledge of CAM, in this report we surveyed 100 biomedical researchers and Ph.D. students and 107 specialized physicians and residents of a medical specialty in Guadalajara, México (Western Mexico) with a questionnaire to address their attitudes, knowledge, use, and recommendation of CAM. We observed that significantly more researchers had ever used CAM than physicians (83% vs. 69.2%, P = .023) and that only 36.4% of physicians had ever recommended CAM. Female researchers tended to have ever used CAM more than male researchers, but CAM use did not differ between genders in the physician group or by age in either group. Homeopathy, herbal medicine, and massage therapy were the most commonly used CAMs in both the groups. Physicians more frequently recommended homeopathy, massage therapy, and yoga to their patients than other forms of CAM, and physicians had the highest perception of safety and had taken the most courses in homeopathy. All CAMs were perceived to have high efficacy (>60%) in both the groups. The attitude questionnaire reported favorable attitudes toward CAM in both the groups. We observed a high rate of Mexican health professionals that had ever used CAM, and they had mainly used homeopathy, massage therapy, and herbal medicine. However, the recommendation rate of CAM by Mexican physicians was significantly lower than that in other countries, which is probably due to the lack of CAM training in most Mexican medical schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge and attitude of dental professionals of north India toward plagiarism. (United States)

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Guram, Namrata


    Plagiarism is stealing of some others work or idea without proper citation. It is one of the biggest challenges faced by the scholarly world and by far a grim form of delinquency in academics. The study was designed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of dental professionals toward plagiarism. A questionnaire having 14 questions was sent either via e-mails or by sending printed copies to 5000 dental professionals, while maintaining anonymity of all the participants. Most of the dental professionals know about plagiarism, and they believe that plagiarism cannot be avoided successfully. Pressure to publish was a major reason along with several others, which accounts for more and more indulgence in plagiarism. At the same time lack of facilities in private institutions and lack of funding for research work were the major factors as well, which hinder in creating research environment and hence promotes plagiarism and false studies to publish it. Plagiarism is present in dental professionals and that significant reduction can only be brought by awareness, objective check methods and stringent punishment. Plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct must be recognized and must not be tolerated.

  13. Knowledge and Attitude of Dental Professionals of North India Toward Plagiarism (United States)

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Guram, Namrata


    Background: Plagiarism is stealing of some others work or idea without proper citation. It is one of the biggest challenges faced by the scholarly world and by far a grim form of delinquency in academics. Aim: The study was designed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of dental professionals toward plagiarism. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire having 14 questions was sent either via e-mails or by sending printed copies to 5000 dental professionals, while maintaining anonymity of all the participants. Result: Most of the dental professionals know about plagiarism, and they believe that plagiarism cannot be avoided successfully. Pressure to publish was a major reason along with several others, which accounts for more and more indulgence in plagiarism. At the same time lack of facilities in private institutions and lack of funding for research work were the major factors as well, which hinder in creating research environment and hence promotes plagiarism and false studies to publish it. Conclusion: Plagiarism is present in dental professionals and that significant reduction can only be brought by awareness, objective check methods and stringent punishment. Plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct must be recognized and must not be tolerated. PMID:24678470

  14. Preservice Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Its Relation to Academic Self-Concept (United States)

    Paulick, Isabell; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute; Möller, Jens


    We investigated the factorial structure of preservice teachers' academic self-concept with regard to three domains of professional knowledge (content knowledge [CK], pedagogical content knowledge [PCK], and pedagogical/psychological knowledge [PPK]). We also analyzed the relation between preservice teachers' academic self-concept and their…

  15. Knowledge Asymmetries Between Research and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard


    This article discusses the problem of implementing scientific knowledge in practice. The discussion is based on a case study of barriers to implementing research-based principles of sustainable organic arable farming. The current literature tends to see this problem either as a dissemination issu...

  16. RESEARCH Professionalism in the intimate examination: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 25, 2013 ... contact or masturbation, and touching of any sexualised part of the body for purposes other than appropriate medically related examination or treatment. Exchange of prescriptions or other professional services for sexual favours is also a violation.1. Despite this codified prohibition, complaints of sexual ...

  17. [The professional reading group, a space for sharing knowledge]. (United States)

    Didry, Pascale


    Reading groups, staples of libraries and associations, offer an original space for sharing when, within teams of nurses or trainers, diverted from their habitual objects, they focus on professional themes. Writing is shared no longer as a leisure activity, but as a convivial time of training in a group of professionals. This article shares the experience of a nurse training institute in Nancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Personal Practices regarding Colorectal Cancer Screening among Health Care Professionals in Rural Colorado: A Pilot Survey (United States)

    Rim, Sun Hee; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.; Overholser, Linda; Froshaug, Desiree; Coughlin, Steven S.


    Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members'…

  19. Educational Group Practices in Primary Care: Interaction Between Professionals, Users and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Flavia Gazzinelli


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the concept understood by Family Healthcare Strategy (ESF professionals of knowledge, education and subjects participating in learning activities. METHOD Qualitative study carried out with the ESF professionals with university degree, members of the healthcare staff who undertook educational health group activities at Basic Healthcare Units (UBS in Belo Horizonte. The following triangulation techniques were used: participant observation, photos and field notes; interviews with professionals; and document analysis. RESULTS We identified three interaction patterns that are different from each other. Firstly, the professional questions, listens and provides information to users, trusting in the transmission of knowledge; secondly, the professional questions and listens, trusting that users can learn from each other; thirdly, the professional questions, listens, discusses and produces knowledge with users, both teaching and learning from each other. CONCLUSION There are educational practices that include unique methods capable of creating a militant space for citizenship engagement.

  20. [Educational group practices in primary care: interaction between professionals, users and knowledge]. (United States)

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flavia; Souza, Vania de; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Fernandes, Marconi Moura; Carneiro, Angélica Cotta Lobo Leite; Godinho, Luanna Kelen


    To investigate the concept understood by Family Healthcare Strategy (ESF) professionals of knowledge, education and subjects participating in learning activities. Qualitative study carried out with the ESF professionals with university degree, members of the healthcare staff who undertook educational health group activities at Basic Healthcare Units (UBS) in Belo Horizonte. The following triangulation techniques were used: participant observation, photos and field notes; interviews with professionals; and document analysis. We identified three interaction patterns that are different from each other. Firstly, the professional questions, listens and provides information to users, trusting in the transmission of knowledge; secondly, the professional questions and listens, trusting that users can learn from each other; thirdly, the professional questions, listens, discusses and produces knowledge with users, both teaching and learning from each other. There are educational practices that include unique methods capable of creating a militant space for citizenship engagement.

  1. Research on the professional ethics issues of CPA in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuejun


    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, auditing collusion cases have occured frequently, reducing the integrity degree of CPA. Of all reasons, we should pay attention to professional ethics issues most. Because of professional ethics issues, the public have lost confidence in the industry of CPA. The industry of CPA is faced with serious crisis. In the circumstance, this paper researched professional ethics issues of CPA. Firstly, it explained the connotation of professional ethics, emphasized the importance. Secondly, through real cases, this paper analyzed the present situation of professional ethics of CPA, explained the lack of professional ethics. Finally, for solving the problem, this paper proposed the countermeasures to enhance the standards of professional ethics of CPA from the external and internal practice environment.

  2. Knowledge of memory aging and Alzheimer's disease in college students and mental health professionals. (United States)

    Jackson, Erin M; Cherry, Katie E; Smitherman, Emily A; Hawley, Karri S


    In this study, college students and mental health professionals completed the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire, Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test and the Fraboni Scale of Ageism before and after a lecture on normal and pathological memory issues in adulthood. Results confirmed that professionals were more knowledgeable about memory aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and less ageist than college students. Analyses of pre- and post-lecture response accuracy yielded comparable benefits in memory aging and AD knowledge for both groups. Correlation analyses provided modest evidence for the influence of ageist attitudes on the knowledge measures. Implications for memory education programs and psychology curriculum are considered.

  3. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, Practise and Adoption Among Health Care Professionals for Informatics/Computerised Technology Systems. (United States)

    Karthik, Kavitha; Munuswamy, Suresh


    This proposed study will be conducted in Telangana and Tamil Nadu states in India. Mapping of Health care Professionals by a web-based Delphi technique followed by Focus Group Discussion and Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, Practise and Adoption among Health Care Professionals for informatics/computerised technology systems by using structured questionnaire for knowledge and practice and for Attitudes toward Computers in Healthcare (P.A.T.C.H.) Scale will be used to collect the data. This study results will create evidence on present and relevant informatics/computerized technology systems needs and help the research team to develop informatics competencies list and design an online or offline skill up gradation programs for health professionals in India according to their diverse roles in the health care system. The researcher team believes these results will have National relevance to the current focus areas of Government of India and to strengthen the Health Informatics Program offered in IIPH, Hyderabad.

  4. Effects of Biology Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Cognitive Activation on Students' Achievement (United States)

    Förtsch, Christian; Werner, Sonja; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.


    This study examined the effects of teachers' biology-specific dimensions of professional knowledge--pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and content knowledge (CK)--and cognitively activating biology instruction, as a feature of instructional quality, on students' learning. The sample comprised 39 German secondary school teachers whose lessons on…

  5. Knowledge Management: Education for Information Professionals in the Age of the Mind. (United States)

    Todd, Ross J.; Southon, Gary


    Discussion of knowledge management focuses on the program for professional education for knowledge management at the University of Technology, Sydney (Australia). Considers attributes of graduates, industry trends that inform the program, the information-knowledge debate, information management, organizational culture, and learning principles and…

  6. Small and Local until it hurts? -Architects and Engineers development in a Professional knowledge industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Buser, Martine


      Micro, Small and Mediumsize enterprises are important in European Economy, both in terms of employment and innovation. Equally these firms are assigned an important role in the Architectural, Engineering and Construction industry (AEC). This article reports research made amongst small professio......  Micro, Small and Mediumsize enterprises are important in European Economy, both in terms of employment and innovation. Equally these firms are assigned an important role in the Architectural, Engineering and Construction industry (AEC). This article reports research made amongst small...... professional knowledge service AEC-companies in the region of Central Denmark. The aim of the paper is to analyse how SMEs is managed, is innovating, using ICT and their response to the financial crisis.   Drawing on management studies, professional knowledge service is viewed as something precariously......, innovation for example occurs in a complex interplay with limited internal efforts and external networking. And still as a relatively local phenomenon. Even if the financial crisis has considerably impact of the AEC-sector in 2008-9, the microfirms investigated still haven't been impacted and the pain...

  7. Using action research for teacher professional development: Research in science and technology education (United States)

    van Oostveen, Roland Harry

    Initial plans for this project called for collaborative action research to be used as a means of providing authenticity to the teacher development process by: (1) giving teacher opportunities to improve their understanding of their subject matter, (2) allowing teachers to improve their own practice, and (3) determining factors which may affect this type of professional development. After some time it became apparent that the collaborative nature of the action research engaged in by the participating teachers needed to be modified. The modified collaboration, termed purposeful action research, was employed through the remainder of the project. Purposeful action reaction can be viewed as a community of teachers who engage in professional development using 'purposeful' action research as a means of progressive knowledge building around science (and technology) education. Action research holds the promise of offering science and technology teachers more control of their growth as pedagogical practitioners. However, it appears that teachers need to be exposed to issues that extend beyond the reach of the government imposed curriculum guidelines. During the course of this research project it became clear that purposeful action research was necessary in order to address these issues. This thesis provides a detailed account and a description of the characteristics of purposeful action research in action. Two teams of elementary and secondary science and technology teachers were formed to work within collaborative communities. These teams identified common pedagogical problems that they agreed to use as the focus of their work. Over the four months duration of the project, the teachers worked together to prepare unit plans, organize lessons and share resources. The thesis concludes with a reiteration of the aims of the project and a brief discussion of the implications of the findings for science and technology education, teacher professional development, and educational

  8. Embodied knowledge: writing researchers' bodies into qualitative health research. (United States)

    Ellingson, Laura L


    After more than a decade of postpositivist health care research and an increase in narrative writing practices, social scientific, qualitative health research remains largely disembodied. The erasure of researchers' bodies from conventional accounts of research obscures the complexities of knowledge production and yields deceptively tidy accounts of research. Qualitative health research could benefit significantly from embodied writing that explores the discursive relationship between the body and the self and the semantic challenges of writing the body by incorporating bodily details and experiences into research accounts. Researchers can represent their bodies by incorporating autoethnographic narratives, drawing on all of their senses, interrogating the connections between their bodily signifiers and research processes, and experimenting with the semantics of self and body. The author illustrates opportunities for embodiment with excerpts from an ethnography of a geriatric oncology team and explores implications of embodied writing for the practice of qualitative health research.

  9. Action Research: Informing Professional Practice within Schools (United States)

    Hine, Gregory S. C.; Lavery, Shane D.


    This research paper explores the experiences of three teacher-researchers, "Simone", "Damian" and "Michael", who undertook an action research project in their respective schools as part of their postgraduate studies. The paper initially outlines the construct of action research in the light of its applicability to…

  10. Ethical Knowledge in Teaching: A Moral Imperative of Professionalism (United States)

    Campbell, Elizabeth


    Increasingly, literature from both the academic and the professional fields has focused attention on the moral dimensions of teaching and the ethical demands they place on the daily practice of teachers. On one hand, consideration of ethical intent and behaviour seems quite simple and self-evident. In teaching, as in life more generally, core…

  11. Criteria for Continuing Professional Development of Technology Teachers' Professional Knowledge: A Theoretical Perspective (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Werner; Ankiewicz, Piet


    Continuing professional teacher development (CPTD) is generally accepted as an indispensable tool for the professional development of technology teachers. The current theoretical framework for CPTD comprises a variety of models. However, criteria underpinning these models are not explicit. If, in turn, the criteria were explicit, it could serve as…

  12. Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education. Cambridge Education Research Series (United States)

    McLaughlin, Colleen, Ed.


    "Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education" is part of The Cambridge Education Research series, edited by senior colleagues at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education, which has a longstanding tradition of involvement in high quality, innovative teacher education and continuing professional development.…

  13. Knowledge: a possible tool in shaping medical professionals' attitudes towards homosexuality. (United States)

    Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Pantović, Maja; Vuković, Vuk; Randjelović, Dunja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Ivković, Maja


    The attitudes of medical professionals towards homosexuals can influence their willingness to provide these individuals with medical help. The study evaluated the medical professionals' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes towards it. The sample consisted of 177 participants (physicians n=79 and students n=98). The study respondents anonymously completed three questionnaires (socio-demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire on knowledge, and the questionnaire on attitudes towards homosexuals). Male and religious participants showed a lower level of knowledge and a greater tendency to stigmatize. Furthermore, the subjects who knew more about homosexuality tended to hold less stigmatizing attitude. Age group, specialty (psychiatry, gynecology, internal medicine and surgery), and student's/physician's status had no effect on stigmatization. The study showed that the final year students/ residents had more knowledge than the second year students/specialists did. Knowledge had significant negative predictive effect on attitudes in the analyzed predictive model. To our knowledge, this has been the first study in Serbia and Eastern Europe, which provides information on knowledge and attitudes of health professionals towards homosexuality. We would like to point out the degree of knowledge on homosexuality as a possible, but not exclusive tool in shaping the attitudes towards homosexuals and reducing stigmatization. However, regardless of the personal attitude, knowledge and variable acceptance of the homosexuals' rights, medical professionals' main task is to resist discriminative behavior and provide professional medical help to both homosexual and heterosexual patients.

  14. Narrative as a knowledge translation tool for facilitating impact: translating physical activity knowledge to disabled people and health professionals. (United States)

    Smith, Brett; Tomasone, Jennifer R; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A


    Theoretically informed by narrative inquiry, this article examines the utility of stories as a possible tool for disseminating synthesized physical activity knowledge to adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and health care professionals (HCPs) working with this population. It is the first research to systematically examine in this context the use of narratives as a knowledge translation tool. Forty-three participants (15 adults with SCI; 13 peer mentors with SCI; and 15 HCPs) individually listened to an evidence-based story set in a rehabilitation hospital about the process of becoming physically active following SCI. Individual telephone interviews were conducted to examine participants' perceptions of the story. Qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. Five themes were inductively identified: (a) effective communication, (b) narrative authenticity, (c) credible messengers, (d) narrative format, and (e) narrative as a form of action. Together, the themes reveal that the story had utility, the various attributes that help explain why this is case, how the utility might be maximized, what the stories could do on and for people, and how the narratives can be used to support behavior change. The article advances knowledge by revealing the value of narrative as a means for disseminating evidence-based information to people with SCI and to HCPs. It also reveals that stories can be used to facilitate dialogue, teach, remind, reassure, and reinvigorate people. This article is a resource for enabling knowledge to be more effectively shared to different audiences and applying what we know in practice to help people live meaningful lives. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Revisiting Professional Learning Communities to Increase College Readiness: The Importance of Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jennifer Merriman Bausmith; Carol Barry


    For over a decade, professional learning communities (PLCs) have been touted as an effective way to build upon the knowledge and skills of experienced teachers, yet much of the evidence base is derived from self-reports by practitioners...

  16. A scoping review of medical professionalism research published in the Chinese language. (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Shih, Julie; Kuo, Fen-Ju; Ho, Ming-Jung


    The Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA) adopted the Charter of Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium (Charter) and published the Chinese Medical Doctor Declaration (Declaration). This is an important step to re-building medical professionalism in China at a time when the commercialization of health care has led to a decline in physician accountability and public trust in the profession. In response, authors have begun to examine and promote medical professionalism in China. This study aims to present the key research themes, identify research gaps and offer recommendations from reviewing the increasing pool of Chinese-language literature on medical professionalism. A scoping review of Chinese language papers was conducted using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (including China Academic Journals Full-text Database, China Doctoral Dissertations Full-text Database, Masters' Theses Full-text Database, China Core Newspapers Full-text Database, and China Yearbooks Full-text Database) (CNKI) database. Four major research themes were identified in Chinese discourse: (1) teaching professionalism, (2) practicing professionalism, (3) conceptualizing professionalism and (4) assessing professionalism. Overall, authors were concerned with the cultivation of humanism in physicians and emphasized the importance of communication skills to improve the physician-patient relationship in China. They explored the role of traditional Chinese values, such as Confucian and Taoist values, as well as the Communist Party's political values, in promoting professional behaviour. Authors demonstrate increasing interest in medical professionalism in China. The literature is of variable quality and further empirical studies are required in order to evaluate teaching interventions and guide professionalism assessment. A common professionalism framework is absent and could be developed with consideration to China's socio-cultural context.

  17. Knowledge-Creation in Educational Leadership and Administration through Practitioner Research. (United States)

    Whitehead, Jack; Delong, Jackie

    This paper explains how practitioner researchers can contribute to the knowledge-base of education leadership and administration using the basic self-inquiries "What do we know?" and "How do we know it?" Jackie Delong researched her practice as a school superintendent, and Jack Whitehead researched his as a professional educator in the University…

  18. Learning for Teaching: Building Professional Knowledge on a National Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hartnell-Young


    Full Text Available This paper takes a large-scale social perspective in describing a national project in Australia that was premised on local school communities working together and contributing ideas for the benefit of their students, and potentially, the whole country. The project was intended to improve schools’ capacity for educating boys, and in the long-term, the learning outcomes of under-performing boys, using evidence-based and action research methods. It was supported by the web spaces and tools of the National Quality Schooling Framework and This paper emphasises the structures and processes teachers engaged in while building knowledge through their daily work, where the resulting ideas became the property of the whole community. Analyses focus on the extent to which an underlying social structure for knowledge building developed in various parts of the nation during the project, making it possible to characterize a process for innovations in education with commitment to continual idea improvement. Résumé Le présent article adopte une perspective sociale à grande échelle pour décrire un projet national en Australie fondé sur la collaboration des communautés scolaires locales et leur contribution d’idées au bénéfice de leurs élèves et, éventuellement, de l’ensemble du pays. Le projet avait pour but de rendre les écoles plus aptes à éduquer les garçons et, à long terme, d’améliorer les résultats d’apprentissage des garçons qui sous-performent à l’aide de méthodes de recherche-action fondées sur des données probantes. Il a bénéficié du soutien des espaces et des outils Web du National Quality Schooling Framework et de Le présent article met l’accent sur les structures et les processus que les enseignants ont utilisés dans leur travail quotidien pour la coélaboration de connaissances; les idées qui en ont résulté sont par la suite devenues la propriété de l’ensemble de la communaut

  19. Learning Processes in the Professional Development of Mental Health Counselors: Knowledge Restructuring and Illness Script Formation (United States)

    Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans


    An important part of learning processes in the professional development of counselors is the integration of declarative knowledge and professional experience. It was investigated in-how-far mental health counselors at different levels of expertise (experts, intermediates, novices) differ in their availability of experience-based knowledge…

  20. The Virtuous, Wise, and Knowledgeable Teacher: Living the Good Life as a Professional Practitioner (United States)

    Campbell, Elizabeth


    In this essay, Elizabeth Campbell reviews three recent books that address the ethical nature of professional practice: "Knowledge and Virtue in Teaching and Learning: The Primacy of Dispositions," by Hugh Sockett; "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice," by Chris Higgins; and "Towards Professional…

  1. Assessing tree care professionals' awareness and knowledge about the Asian Longhorned Beetle (United States)

    Jason M. Hathaway; Cem M. Basman; Susan C. Barro


    The level of knowledge and awareness possessed by tree care professionals about the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is critical for the successful detection and eradication of this pest. A small sample of tree care professionals was surveyed about the ALB (from within the City of Chicago) in the summer of 2001. Results indicate that only 35 percent of survey respondents...

  2. Categorizing Health Websites: E-Knowledge, E-Business and E-Professional (United States)

    Usher, Wayne; Skinner, James


    This article presents three types of health website categories (e-knowledge, e-business and e-professional) which are currently being used to disseminate health-related information, services and medical literature to the health consumer and professional. Moreover, criteria which have been used to establish a health website's category is…

  3. Innovative strategic Canadian research training from TomorrOw's Research Cardiovascular Health Care Professionals (TORCH). (United States)

    Armstrong, Paul W; Ezekowitz, Christina; Michelakis, Evangelos; Anderson, Todd; Archer, Stephen; Ghali, William; Hayward, Robert; Jensen, Louise; Lopaschuk, Gary; Sheldon, Robert


    Cardiovascular research training is experiential, and "skills" are traditionally acquired through a master-apprentice paradigm. The complexity of contemporary clinical research requires a new model for research training. Facilitated through a Strategic Training Program Initiative, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), with its partners the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and the Heart and Stroke Foundation, supported the Universities of Alberta and Calgary to create a new and innovative training model. Tomorrow's Research Cardiovascular Health Professionals (TORCH) is an integrated 2-year program for health care professionals from diverse disciplines to be mentored toward careers as leaders in translational cardiovascular research, applying discovery to human health. This report describes the vision, mission, core values, objectives, design and curriculum of the program. Our vision is the development of a new generation of cardiovascular research clinician-scientists, with particular emphasis on thought, leadership and collaboration. The program incorporates 4 core values: innovation and discovery, a translational and transdisciplinary focus, an emphasis on collaboration and integration of research concepts, and the teaching of a core body of research knowledge coupled with real-world "survival" skills. The core curriculum, organized according to a cluster concept, traverses the 4 pillars of the CIHR. Through the medium of 1-hour weekly videoconferences, the curriculum cycles through case studies, seminars and a journal club in focused areas of cardiovascular research. Mentors in the TORCH program have diverse backgrounds that epitomize the transdisciplinary translational aspects of the program and are chosen for their proven record of research accomplishment and prior history of successful mentoring. The program has recruited 19 trainees from a broad cross-section of disciplines, integrating 2 University of Alberta campuses. The

  4. The transfer of content knowledge in a cascade model of professional development


    Brownhill, Simon


    A cascade model of professional development presents a particular risk that ‘knowledge’ promoted in a programme will be diluted or distorted as it passes from originators of the programme to local trainers and then to the target teachers. Careful monitoring of trainers’ and teachers’ knowledge as it is transferred through the system is therefore imperative. This paper focuses on the transfer of content knowledge through an in-service teacher professional development programme and offers an in...

  5. The Professional Status of Educational Research: Professionalism and Developmentalism in Twenty-First-Century Working Life (United States)

    Evans, Linda


    "How helpful and how necessary is it for at least some of us to see ourselves as professional educational researchers?" asked Donald McIntyre in his 1996 presidential address to the British Educational Research Association. Still pertinent to consideration of the direction in which the British educational research community ought to…

  6. Knowledge acquisition and research evidence in autism: Researcher and practitioner perspectives and engagement. (United States)

    Carrington, Sarah J; Uljarević, Mirko; Roberts, Alessandra; White, Louise J; Morgan, Lynda; Wimpory, Dawn; Ramsden, Christopher; Leekam, Susan R


    Government policy and national practice guidelines have created an increasing need for autism services to adopt an evidence-based practice approach. However, a gap continues to exist between research evidence and its application. This study investigated the difference between autism researchers and practitioners in their methods of acquiring knowledge. In a questionnaire study, 261 practitioners and 422 researchers reported on the methods they use and perceive to be beneficial for increasing research access and knowledge. They also reported on their level of engagement with members of the other professional community. Researchers and practitioners reported different methods used to access information. Each group, however, had similar overall priorities regarding access to research information. While researchers endorsed the use of academic journals significantly more often than practitioners, both groups included academic journals in their top three choices. The groups differed in the levels of engagement they reported; researchers indicated they were more engaged with practitioners than vice versa. Comparison of researcher and practitioner preferences led to several recommendations to improve knowledge sharing and translation, including enhancing access to original research publications, facilitating informal networking opportunities and the development of proposals for the inclusion of practitioners throughout the research process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Research in clinical laboratory science: professionals' educational preparation. (United States)

    Laudicina, Rebecca; Fenn, JoAnn P; Freeman, Vickie; McCoy, Carol; McLane, Mary Ann; Mundt, Lillian; Polancic, Joan; Randolph, Tim; Shanahan, Kristy


    To describe the educational preparation of CLS professionals for conducting research. A link to 3-part online survey was sent by electronic mail to 7,572 members of the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science and 500 program directors research project. Barriers to participation in research by undergraduates include time limitations within the curriculum, insufficient faculty time, and lack of funds, space, and equipment. Increased emphasis on developing research skills is found in educational programs at the master's degree level. The formal educational background of many CLS professionals may leave them unprepared or underprepared for conducting research. Although there was broad representation among participants across educational levels, employment settings, and job positions, the number of survey respondents was limited. Possible directions for future research include conducting this survey using members of additional professional organizations.

  8. A narrative research design for moral courage of professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Marion; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl


    Narrative research is an appropriate method for studying the constructs and sensemaking of moral courage. Moral courage or speaking up by professionals is needed for maintaining ethical checks and balances in organizations. Personal narratives give the researcher and the researched increased

  9. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana


    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  10. Impact of "+Contigo" training on the knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals about suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Santos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of "+Contigo" training, developed by nurses and directed at 66 health professionals of integrated school health teams in Primary Health Care.METHOD: quantitative with data collection through the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire, administered before and after the training.RESULTS: significant increases were observed in suicide prevention knowledge and in changing attitudes of health professionals towards individuals with suicidal behavior.CONCLUSION: these results allow us to affirm that nurses hold scientific and pedagogical knowledge that grant them a privileged position in the health teams, to develop training aimed at health professionals involved in suicide prevention.

  11. Knowledge uptake by technical professionals and decision-makers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 17, 2008 ... While significant knowledge appears to be available on developmental water services (a term for service provision, to meet developmental objectives, with an emphasis on poor communities, in which a range of factors other than purely technical factors are addressed), there appears to be insufficient ...

  12. A Research Design for NASA-Funded Professional Development Projects (United States)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J.; Getty, S. R.


    This proposal outlines a research plan designed to measure gains in student learning resulting from their teachers participating in professional development. Project Description Misconceptions about global climate change (GCC) are prevalent in the general public (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). One solution is to provide high school students with a better grounding in the basic science and data that underlie GCC. The overarching goal of a NASA-funded project, Promoting Educational Leadership in Climate Change Literacy (PEL), is to increase GCC literacy in high school students. Research Design The research design is interpretative (Erickson, 2006), framed within a multi-method design, synthesizing both quantitative and qualitative data sources (Morse, 2003). Overall, the data will provide rich information about the PEL's impact on curriculum development, teacher pedagogical knowledge, and student learning. The expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation (E-V-C) (Fan, 2011; Wigfield & Eccles, 1994) provides a theoretical foundation for the research. Expectancy is the degree to which a teacher or student has reason to expect that they will be successful in school. Value indicates whether they think that performance at school will be worthwhile to them. Cost is the perceived sacrifices that must be undertaken, or factors that can inhibit, a successful performance at school. For students, data from an embedded E-V-C investigation will help articulate how E-V-C factors relate to student interest in science, continuing to study science, or embarking on STEM related careers. For teachers, the E-V-C measures will give insight into a key mediating variable on student achievement in science. The evaluation will seek to address research questions at the student and teacher levels. Table 1 presents a sample of research questions and data sources. This is a sample of a much larger set of questions that will be addressed in the project. Data

  13. Telling and Retelling Our Stories on the Professional Knowledge Landscape. (United States)

    Whelan, Karen Keats; Huber, Janice; Rose, Chuck; Davies, Annie; Clandinin, D. Jean


    Describes teachers' experiences in a narrative research group. Meeting regularly to discuss their work as educators and researchers, they examined the story of a disagreement between a teacher and parent. Retelling the story within the supportive research group allowed the teacher to reach new insights about what she shared with the parent and why…

  14. Institutional Review Boards and Professional Counseling Research (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H., III; Curry, Jennifer R.


    Institutional review boards (IRBs) are responsible for regulating and safeguarding research with human participants in academic institutions in the United States. The authors explore (a) the historical impetus for IRBs, (b) the ethical values and principles as core components of the review process, and (c) the American Counseling Association's…

  15. Statewide Mathematics Professional Development: Teacher Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Beliefs (United States)

    Carney, Michele B.; Brendefur, Jonathan L.; Thiede, Keith; Hughes, Gwyneth; Sutton, John


    We examined the impact of a state-mandated K-12 mathematics professional development course on knowledge, self-efficacy, and beliefs of nearly 4,000 teachers and administrators. Participants completed the Mathematical Thinking for Instruction course, emphasizing student thinking, problem-solving, and content knowledge specific to mathematics…

  16. The Transfer of Content Knowledge in a Cascade Model of Professional Development (United States)

    Turner, Fay; Brownhill, Simon; Wilson, Elaine


    A cascade model of professional development presents a particular risk that "knowledge" promoted in a programme will be diluted or distorted as it passes from originators of the programme to local trainers and then to the target teachers. Careful monitoring of trainers' and teachers' knowledge as it is transferred through the system is…

  17. Using the World Wide Web to Connect Research and Professional Practice: Towards Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Moody


    Full Text Available In most professional (applied disciplines, research findings take a long time to filter into practice, if they ever do at all. The result of this is under-utilisation of research results and sub-optimal practices. There are a number of reasons for the lack of knowledge transfer. On the "demand side", people working in professional practice have little time available to keep up with the latest research in their field. In addition, the volume of research published each year means that the average practitioner would not have time to read all the research articles in their area of interest even if they devoted all their time to it. From the "supply side", academic research is primarily focused on the production rather than distribution of knowledge. While they have highly developed mechanisms for transferring knowledge among themselves, there is little investment in the distribution of research results be-yond research communities. The World Wide Web provides a potential solution to this problem, as it provides a global information infrastructure for connecting those who produce knowledge (researchers and those who need to apply this knowledge (practitioners. This paper describes two projects which use the World Wide Web to make research results directly available to support decision making in the workplace. The first is a successful knowledge management project in a health department which provides medical staff with on-line access to the latest medical research at the point of care. The second is a project currently in progress to implement a similar system to support decision making in IS practice. Finally, we draw some general lessons about how to improve transfers of knowledge from research and practice, which could be applied in any discipline.

  18. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Commissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The article finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships in the commissioning......Who determines what ideas matter in reform debates? This article examines reform proposals from the expert groups that emerged during the recent international financial crisis. To do so it follows fractal distinctions - distinctions that replicate themselves in subsequent iterations – among...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behavior’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, experts’ professional context, and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analyzing fractal distinctions provides a useful way to understand...

  19. Distinctions, Affiliations, and Professional Knowledge in Financial Reform Expert Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni


    to understand the different stresses in reports with and without clear mandates, and the role of important members of the policy community in promoting particular reform ideas. The contribution finds that differences in ideas emerging from the financial reform expert groups reflect nested power relationships......Who determines what ideas matter in reform debates? This contribution examines reform proposals from the expert groups that emerged during the recent international financial crisis. To do so it follows fractal distinctions – distinctions that replicate themselves in subsequent iterations – among...... the reports. Fractal distinctions, such as between ‘behaviour’ or ‘system’ as a reform focus, allow us to locate the object of regulation within expert groups, the experts' professional context and the politics behind the commissioning of work. Analysing fractal distinctions provides a useful way...

  20. Applications of social constructivist learning theories in knowledge translation for healthcare professionals: a scoping review. (United States)

    Thomas, Aliki; Menon, Anita; Boruff, Jill; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ahmed, Sara


    Use of theory is essential for advancing the science of knowledge translation (KT) and for increasing the likelihood that KT interventions will be successful in reducing existing research-practice gaps in health care. As a sociological theory of knowledge, social constructivist theory may be useful for informing the design and evaluation of KT interventions. As such, this scoping review explored the extent to which social constructivist theory has been applied in the KT literature for healthcare professionals. Searches were conducted in six databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1948 - May 16, 2011), Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycInfo, and AMED. Inclusion criteria were: publications from all health professions, research methodologies, as well as conceptual and theoretical papers related to KT. To be included in the review, key words such as constructivism, social constructivism, or social constructivist theories had to be included within the title or abstract. Papers that discussed the use of social constructivist theories in the context of undergraduate learning in academic settings were excluded from the review. An analytical framework of quantitative (numerical) and thematic analysis was used to examine and combine study findings. Of the 514 articles screened, 35 papers published between 1992 and 2011 were deemed eligible and included in the review. This review indicated that use of social constructivist theory in the KT literature was limited and haphazard. The lack of justification for the use of theory continues to represent a shortcoming of the papers reviewed. Potential applications and relevance of social constructivist theory in KT in general and in the specific studies were not made explicit in most papers. For the acquisition, expression and application of knowledge in practice, there was emphasis on how the social constructivist theory supports clinicians in expressing this knowledge in their professional interactions. This scoping review was the first to examine

  1. Altruism in clinical research: coordinators' orientation to their professional roles. (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A


    Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus reshaping their professional identities. The purpose of this study was to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semistructured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Altruism is adopted by research coordinators to: (1) Teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, (2) minimize the conflict between research and care, and (3) contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy used to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Altruism in Clinical Research: Coordinators’ Orientation to their Professional Roles (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.


    Background Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus re-shaping their professional identities. Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. Method A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semi-structured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Discussion Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Conclusion Altruism is adopted by research coordinators: 1) to teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, 2) to minimize the conflict between research and care, and 3) to contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy employed to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. PMID:22083045

  3. How common is "common knowledge" about child witnesses among legal professionals? Comparing interviewers, public defenders, and forensic psychologists with laypeople. (United States)

    Buck, Julie A; Warren, Amye R; Bruck, Maggie; Kuehnle, Kathryn


    The present study evaluates the knowledge of jury-eligible college students (n = 192), investigative interviewers (n = 44), forensic psychologists (n = 39), and public defenders (n = 137) in regard to the research on interviewing children. These groups' knowledge was compared with the scientific research on the impact of interview techniques and practices on the accuracy of child witnesses. Jury-eligible students were the least knowledgeable, but their accuracy varied widely across items. Both interviewers and public defenders performed better than jury-eligible students, but they lacked substantial knowledge about the research on interviewing children on certain topics (e.g., using anatomically detailed dolls); forensic psychologists were the most knowledgeable. These findings suggest that professionals in the legal system need substantial professional development regarding the research on interviewing strategies with child witnesses. They also highlight the need for experts to provide case-relevant information to juries who lack basic information about the validity and reliability of children's reports. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Is Chinese Software Engineering Professionalizing or Not?: Specialization of Knowledge, Subjective Identification and Professionalization (United States)

    Yang, Yan


    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss the challenge for the classical idea of professionalism in understanding the Chinese software engineering industry after giving a close insight into the development of this industry as well as individual engineers with a psycho-societal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study starts with the general…

  5. Knowledge, skills and professional ethics of real estate appraiser. Basic dimensions of a training plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gomez-Bezares Revuelta


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research conducted to support a training proposal which enables students to work as real estate appraisers. Nowadays in Spain it is enough to be an architect or an engineer to become a real estate appraiser, while further complementary training rests in the hands of the appraisal companies. Analyzing the knowledge needed to perform adjusted appraisals, the international standards and other empiric analysis, we will try to build a coherent training plan showing how the need for technical training emerges, especially in finance, in psychoeducational skills and professional ethics. Our aim is to claim the capacity of the pedagogic science as a relevant factor in solving important socio-economic problems by diagnosing training needs and the design of programs.

  6. Professionals' Recommended Strategies to Improve Australian Adolescents' Knowledge of Nutrition and Food Systems. (United States)

    Sadegholvad, Sanaz; Yeatman, Heather; Parrish, Anne-Maree; Worsley, Anthony


    Education and policy measures within schools are valuable strategies to promote health. This study explored views of experienced food-related educators, researchers and policy-makers regarding their recommended strategies to improve Australian adolescents' knowledge of nutrition and food systems (N&FS). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-one experienced food-related experts from across Australia. Interviews were conducted either by telephone or face-to-face. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Five central themes and five sub-themes were identified from food professionals' suggestions for best strategies to improve adolescents' knowledge of N&FS. The central themes included: (1) specific improvements in schools' core curricula; (2) pre-service and in-service training of school teachers about N&FS; (3) training students to develop a critical mind about N&FS issues; (4) multidisciplinary collaborations to improve school-based N&FS education; and (5) a supportive N&FS education environment for students. These findings provide a guide for curriculum developers, educational policy developers, and food educators to incorporate the suggested N&FS strategies into Australian education programs in order to improve Australian adolescents' knowledge and skills of N&FS issues. The results of this investigation also may assist the development of international N&FS curricula guides.

  7. Research the professional diseases of cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko V.S.


    Full Text Available The pre-pathological and pathological states are exposed at employments by bicycle sport on a highway. In research took part bicyclists from 25 cities of Ukraine (65 sportsmen. Unfavorable influence of loadings of power character is well-proven at a low ambient temperature. The factors of the use of alcohol which can substantially influence on the general picture of morbidity among bicyclists are exposed. The diseases of the cardiovascular system, knee-joint, exchange of matters and digestive system are selected in a separate group (liver and stomach.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Willingness Toward Organ Donation Among Health Professionals in China. (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Huang, Hai


    The purposes of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and willingness toward organ donation among the health professionals in China. Questionnaires were delivered to 400 health professionals from 7 hospitals in Dalian and 1 hospital in Chaozhou of China between October 2013 and January 2014. In all, 400 health professionals were approached, 373 valid responses were returned. Over 90% of the participants knew about organ donation, but only 17.4% had taken part in some training courses or lectures about organ donation. Health professionals (64.9%) knew the shortage status of organ, and doctors knew more than nurses and nonclinical staffs (P death, and 68.9% professionals thought brain death was the reasonable criteria to judge death. Doctors showed a higher knowledge level about brain death than nurses and nonclinical staffs (P donation; however, only 48.5% approved living donation. Doctors' attitudes were more positive than nurses and nonclinical both in deceased donation (P donation (P donate their own organs postmortem, and doctors had higher willingness to donation postmortem compared with nurses and nonclinical staffs (P donation was: "afraid that organs would be picked up inhumanely and body would be disfigured". Health professionals showed lower favorable attitudes and willingness toward organ donation than Chinese general public. A proportion of Chinese health professionals' knowledge about organ donation was limited.

  9. Precarity of Megapolis and Professional Identity in the Context of Tacit Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Yu. Posukhova


    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and globalization change the old forms of social life. A modern city is presented as a space defined by routine behavioral rules. Institutional and technological changes cause increased instability and uncertainty for the megalopolis inhabitant, this is accompanied by changes in usual forms of employment in the direction of "flexibility" and therefore precarization. Precarity has become a significant feature of our society. This paper focuses on the problem of precariatization from an erosion of professional identity in conditions of frequent job changes and internalization of tacit knowledge. Tacit knowledge serves as a transmission mechanism between professional identity and position of precarity on the labor market. On the one hand, the lack of professional identity is a barrier for tacit knowledge and incorporation into a professional network. In turn, a precarit has not tacit and specialized knowledge to become an unsuccessful position. Every time he must start all over again, becoming a novice. Continuous career change does not allow to use a explicit skills and become a professional in a certain field, and as a result create a professional identity. Person flashed as a tile set in a kaleidoscope of situational techniques. And he is deprived of personal integrity in the case of non-permanent employment.

  10. Teaching Research Methodologies to Professionally Oriented Honors Students (United States)

    Levinson, Julie; Mandel, Richard


    The benefits of encouraging undergraduate students to pursue independent research have been well documented (Craney; Guterman; Hathaway et al.; Ishiyama; Kremer and Bringle; Volkwein and Carbone). Introducing students to research processes and protocols is always a challenge, particularly for students enrolled in professionally oriented,…

  11. Teacher Research as Professional Development for P-12 Music Teachers (United States)

    Conway, Colleen; Edgar, Scott; Hansen, Erin; Palmer, C. Michael


    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of seven music educators who conducted teacher research in their classrooms and to document whether the teachers and the local school district considered the project as professional development. Research questions included: (1) How do these music educators describe the experience of planning…

  12. Ethical and Professional Norms in Community-Based Research (United States)

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.


    In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…

  13. Researching Professional Educational Practice: The Case for "Dirty Theory" (United States)

    Hardy, Ian J.


    In this essay, Ian Hardy argues that a research process involving generalizing from professional educational practice can and should inform the work of educators, including academic researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, but that these generalizations need to be derived from, and in dialogue with, the complexity and specificity of actual…

  14. Purposeful Action Research: Reconsidering Science and Technology Teacher Professional Development (United States)

    vanOostveen, Roland


    Initial plans for this project arose from a need to address issues of professional development of science and technology teachers that went beyond the norm available within school board settings. Two teams of 4 teachers responded to an invitation to participate in a collaborative action research project. Collaborative action research was chosen in…

  15. Anatomy of Professional Practice: Promising Research Perspectives on Educational Leadership (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.


    This is the first book to bring into focus the full scope of professional practice in educational leadership. This book probes the limitations of traditional research in fully comprehending the true nature of leadership, and points out how future research must be expanded to deal with understanding the complexity of educational leadership…

  16. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating Professional Development Program (United States)

    Kaden, Ute


    Research has shown that teachers' skills and knowledge are key determinants of students' opportunities to learn (Haycock, 2003). As highlighted in the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) professional development must include experiences that engage teachers in active learning that builds their knowledge, understanding, and ability. The 2004 to 2006 Teacher and Researcher Exploring and Collaborating Professional Development Program (TREC) program funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and implemented by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) targeted well documented shortcomings in professional development by offering two to six weeks field research experiences in the Arctic Region for K-12 teachers as a collaborative approach between scientists and science teachers. This study described the extent of effectiveness of TREC with regard to teachers' abilities to teach science in terms of knowledge, attitudes, and skills and identified program components that were most effective. A mixed methods research design was used requiring the collection and systematic analysis of (1) archival data collected by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS); and (2) participant survey. Data were analyzed and interpreted utilizing descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and triangulation (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The results of this study provides evidence that TREC was effective as a professional development program in refining science teachers' knowledge, skills, and confidence to teach science effectively, renewed their enthusiasm for teaching and promoted students' learning. Respondents reported that they introduced new topics in their science lessons, incorporated new hands-on activities, gave more emphasis to data collection, integrated more technology, assigned projects based on "real world" problems more frequently, and communicated the excitement of Polar research. The

  17. The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel


    A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self

  18. Producing Dangerous Knowledge: Researching Knowledge Production in Belgium (United States)

    Mangez, Catherine; Mangerz, Eric


    This is an article about the struggle for control of knowledge in a divided society. It starts off by describing Belgium as a consociational democracy--that is, a society organized around integrated pillars of society (Catholic, secular), each of which provides a wide range of services (educational, training, health, health insurance, social care,…

  19. Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining in Iran's Climatic Researches (United States)

    Karimi, Mostafa


    Advances in measurement technology and data collection is the database gets larger. Large databases require powerful tools for analysis data. Iterative process of acquiring knowledge from information obtained from data processing is done in various forms in all scientific fields. However, when the data volume large, and many of the problems the Traditional methods cannot respond. in the recent years, use of databases in various scientific fields, especially atmospheric databases in climatology expanded. in addition, increases in the amount of data generated by the climate models is a challenge for analysis of it for extraction of hidden pattern and knowledge. The approach to this problem has been made in recent years uses the process of knowledge discovery and data mining techniques with the use of the concepts of machine learning, artificial intelligence and expert (professional) systems is overall performance. Data manning is analytically process for manning in massive volume data. The ultimate goal of data mining is access to information and finally knowledge. climatology is a part of science that uses variety and massive volume data. Goal of the climate data manning is Achieve to information from variety and massive atmospheric and non-atmospheric data. in fact, Knowledge Discovery performs these activities in a logical and predetermined and almost automatic process. The goal of this research is study of uses knowledge Discovery and data mining technique in Iranian climate research. For Achieve This goal, study content (descriptive) analysis and classify base method and issue. The result shown that in climatic research of Iran most clustering, k-means and wards applied and in terms of issues precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns most introduced. Although several studies in geography and climate issues with statistical techniques such as clustering and pattern extraction is done, Due to the nature of statistics and data mining, but cannot say for

  20. Perception and knowledge about stem cell and tissue engineering research: a survey amongst researchers and medical practitioners in perinatology. (United States)

    Gucciardo, Léonardo; De Koninck, Philip; Verfaillie, Catherine; Lories, Rik; Deprest, Jan


    Stem cell and tissue engineering (SC&TE) research remain controversial. Polemics are potential hurdles for raising public funds for research and clinical implementation. In view of future applications of SC&TE in perinatal conditions, we aimed to measure the background knowledge, perceptions or beliefs on SC&TE research among clinicians and academic researchers with perinatal applications on the department's research agenda. We polled three professional categories: general obstetrician gynecologists, perinatologists and basic or translational researchers in development and regeneration. The survey included questions on demographics, work environment, educational background, general knowledge, expectations, opinions and ethical reflections of the respondent about SC&TE. The response rate was 39 %. Respondents were mainly female (54 %) and under 40 years (63 %). The general background knowledge about SC&TE is low. Respondents confirm that remaining controversies still arise from the confusion that stem cell research coincides with embryo manipulation. Clinicians assume that stem cell research has reached the level of clinical implementation, and accept the risks associated of purposely harvesting fetal amniotic cells. Researchers in contrast are more cautious about both implementation and risks. Professionals in the field of perinatology may benefit of a better background knowledge and information on current SC & TE research. Though clinicians may be less aware of the current state of knowledge, they are open to clinical implementation, whereas dedicated researchers remain cautious. In view of the clinical introduction of SC & TE, purposed designed informative action should be taken and safety studies executed, hence avoid sustaining needless polemics.

  1. How user involvement is transforming professional work, knowledge and identities –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina; Kamp, Annette


    User involvement is currently a cornerstone in the transformation of the health sector in most Western European countries, as part of a “shared governance for health “(Kickbusch ,2011) involving citizens as co-producers with new roles, responsibilities and duties in relation to health provision...... in the health sector in Denmark in 2017, based on ethnographic field studies within psychiatry. In psychiatry users are supposed to take on a major responsibility for mastering and monitoring their own health, and so cooperation with the patient is a centerpiece for professional work in psychiatry...... and unaccountable professional knowledge, which enables user involvement. We explore how the professionals manage knowledge and quality when they engage in coproduction with patients, and we show how the balance between responsibility and risk is played out in new ways. Focus is on how the health professionals...

  2. Systematic review of knowledge, confidence and education in nutritional genomics for students and professionals in nutrition and dietetics. (United States)

    Wright, O R L


    This review examines knowledge and confidence of nutrition and dietetics professionals in nutritional genomics and evaluates the teaching strategies in this field within nutrition and dietetics university programmes and professional development courses internationally. A systematic search of 10 literature databases was conducted from January 2000 to December 2012 to identify original research. Any studies of either nutrition and/or dietetics students or dietitians/nutritionists investigating current levels of knowledge or confidence in nutritional genomics, or strategies to improve learning and/or confidence in this area, were eligible. Eighteen articles (15 separate studies) met the inclusion criteria. Three articles were assessed as negative, eight as neutral and seven as positive according to the American Dietetics Association Quality Criteria Checklist. The overall ranking of evidence was low. Dietitians have low involvement, knowledge and confidence in nutritional genomics, and evidence for educational strategies is limited and methodologically weak. There is a need to develop training pathways and material to up-skill nutrition and/or dietetics students and nutrition and/or dietetics professionals in nutritional genomics through multidisciplinary collaboration with content area experts. There is a paucity of high quality evidence on optimum teaching strategies; however, methods promoting repetitive exposure to nutritional genomics material, problem-solving, collaborative and case-based learning are most promising for university and professional development programmes. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Quo Vadimus : Integrating fishers' knowledge research in science and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephenson, Robert L.; Paul, Stacy; Pastoors, M.A.; Kraan, M.L.; Holm, Petter; Wiber, M.; Mackinson, S.; Dankel, D.J.; Brooks, K.; Benson, Ashleen


    Fishers' knowledge research (FKR) aims to enhance the use of experiential knowledge of fish harvesters in fisheries research, assessment, and management. Fishery participants are able to provide unique knowledge, and that knowledge forms an important part of “best available information” for

  4. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reactions Reporting Among Healthcare Professionals


    Siddeshwara M.G.; Jeevangi Santoshkumar; Vardhamane S. H.


    Objectives:  This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) reporting among Healthcare Professionals.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done by survey using questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed to 260 healthcare professionals working at M.R. Medical College and S Nijalingappa Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalaburagi, India.Results: Out 260 people 221 provided the response, giving a response rate of 85%. Among respondents 69.68% ...

  5. The professional research support in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Anya Bjørn


    for research is becoming increasingly competitive and there is significant political influence on the scope and scale of funding programmes. This along with the ever more complicated and varied administrative procedures and demands for compliance both with pre-award and postaward activities has led...... to a growing demand for a professional approach in those areas. How is the professionalisation coming along, and what are the focus areas in the building of a new profession? The focal points in the development of a professional research support are pointed out – and an overview and extrapolation of tendencies...

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 53: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the technical communications practices of early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.


    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information-use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that early career-stage aerospace engineers and scientists must possess to be successful. Feedback from industry rates communications and information-use skills high in terms of their importance to engineering practice; however, this same feedback rates the communications and information-use skills of early career-stage engineers low. To gather adequate and generalizable data about the communications and information-related activities of entry-level aerospace engineers and scientists, we surveyed 264 members of the AIAA who have no more than 1-5 years of aerospace engineering work experience. To learn more about the concomitant communications norms, we compared the results of this study with data (1,673 responses) we collected from student members of the AIAA and with data (341 responses) we collected from a study of aerospace engineering professionals. In this paper, we report selected results from these studies that focused on the communications practices and information-related activities of early career-stage U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists in the workplace.

  7. Involuntary Hospitalization of Patients With Mental Disorders: Knowledge of Health Professionals. (United States)

    Arena Ventura, Carla Aparecida; Fernandes Moll, Marciana; Correia, Rubens; Oyan de Moraes, Viviana Carolina; Duarte Silva, Lucas; Costa Mendes, Isabel Amélia


    A descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach was undertaken to describe the knowledge of health professionals at a psychiatric hospital about involuntary hospitalization. Health professionals from the admission ward of a psychiatric hospital located in an inner city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with sixteen health professionals and the analysis was based on thematic analysis. The professionals' lack of knowledge about involuntary hospitalizations was evidenced, including unfamiliarity with the modalities of psychiatric hospitalization, confusion to understand involuntary and compulsory hospitalization as well as the role of the public prosecutor in these cases. In that sense, the study participants' lack of knowledge and, on the other hand, the inertia of the public prosecutor's office can hamper the full enjoyment of rights by persons with mental disorders. In this scenario, psychiatric health professionals should know and understand the legislation as well their responsibility according to it, combining political with theoretical-technical knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Knowledge workers and knowledge-intense organizations, Part 3. Implications for preparing healthcare professionals. (United States)

    Sorrells-Jones, J; Weaver, D


    We have outlined a framework for understanding knowledge workers, knowledge-intense organizations, and the promise of sophisticated, interdisciplinary knowledge work teams because we believe that healthcare is the quintessential knowledge-based service industry. These changes will revolutionize healthcare. We have choices to make, as individuals, and as leaders of the nursing profession. We can choose to help drive and shape the changes needed to realize the potential of this framework, or we can decide to wait and see what happens. We must find the courage and the vision to move nursing and healthcare into this knowledge-intense, interdisciplinary future. We end this series as we started it, with a quote from Peter Drucker, who said: "The best way to cope with the radically changing future is to help shape it."

  9. Design-Based Research for Professional Learning for "Cultural Mathematics" (United States)

    Kravia, Geori; Owens, Kay


    Design-based research is being used to develop and refine the principles used in professional learning workshops with teachers from three different Papua New Guinean ecologies: highlands, coastal, and inland in a coastal province. The appropriateness of the design of principles for Papua New Guinean Elementary Schools is tried over several phases…

  10. Developing Professional Teacher Researchers: Transforming Language Learning through Discourse Analysis (United States)

    Troiano, Beverly


    I conducted a two-year case study of a cohort of two middle school mainstream teachers, one a mathematics and science teacher and the other a language arts teacher, and one elementary teacher involved in the LSciMAct ("Transforming Literacy, Math and Science Through Participatory Action Research") professional development project. The…

  11. McCallen Professional Research and Teaching Leave Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This end of assignment report for a Professional Research and Teaching (PRT) Leave award includes the attached assessment of success by the host organization, University of California Davis (UCD). The following summarizes the accomplishments and attached are a selection of documented items.

  12. Collaboration: Perceptions of FCS Professionals in Teaching, Research, and Service (United States)

    Kandiah, Jay; Saiki, Diana


    The purpose of this study is to investigate family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals' perceptions of multidisciplinary collaboration in teaching, research, and service. A focus group and survey were participants identified projects, strengths, weaknesses, and suggestions related to collaboration.Topics and projects that incorporated…

  13. Female Teachers' Professional Development through Action Research Practice (United States)

    Hassen, Rukya


    This is a study on teachers' professional development through action research practice. The participants of the study were 23 English Language Teachers (ELT) who teach in high schools, preparatory schools and colleges in Debre Markos, in Dessie and around in 2014. The methods of data collection were teacher reflection, and in-depth interview. The…

  14. Knowledge and attitude of health-care professionals in hospitals towards pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alamri, Khaled K; Ghawa, Yazeed A; Alohali, Noura F; Abualkol, Shaza A; Aljadhey, Hisham S


    Drug safety has major implications for patients' lives. However, this concept is still considered new to some healthcare professionals. This study aims to investigate the knowledge and awareness of Saudi healthcare professionals to pharmacovigilance (PV). Setting Governmental and private hospitals at three main cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam). A cross-sectional survey among healthcare professionals (pharmacists, physicians, and nurses) within 12 Saudi hospitals was conducted between November and December 2012. The questionnaire consisted of 18 questions assessing the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of healthcare professionals (HCPs) towards science and the concept of PV. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The data were analyzed using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS 9.3). Main outcome measure Knowledge, attitude and practice of HCPs toward pharmacovigilance. Three-hundred and thirty-two healthcare professionals completed the survey (response rate 72 %), 110 (34 %) physicians, 106 (33 %) pharmacists, and 104 (32 %) nurses. More than half of the participants (55 %) did not know the correct definition of PV. Two-thirds of the respondents, 207 (65.5 %), had knowledge of the aim of post-marketing surveillance, yet only 113 (36.9 %) were aware that the National Pharmacovigilance and Drug Safety Center is the official body for monitoring adverse drug reaction in Saudi Arabia. In addition, 34.7 % agreed that lack of time could be a major barrier for reporting. The majority of the respondents (78.4 %) believed that reporting was a professional obligation and hospitals should have a drug safety department. There was a limited knowledge of pharmacovigilance that could have affected reporting incidence. Educational intervention and a practical training program need to be applied by the drug regulatory body as well as health authorities to enhance the pharmacovigilance and drug safety culture in Saudi Arabia.

  15. [Knowledge level and professional attitudes to the Living Will: Differences between different professionals and provinces in the same autonomous community]. (United States)

    Fajardo Contreras, M C; Valverde Bolívar, F J; Jiménez Rodríguez, J M; Gómez Calero, A; Huertas Hernández, F


    Primary: To determine the differences, by occupational category and province, in the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals on the Living Wills Document (LWD) in 4 Andalusian provinces: Cordoba, Jaen, Cadiz, and Granada. Secondary: To determine the number of documents prepared in these areas and the number consulted in terminal situations. Descriptive observational multicenter study, with 17 health areas in 4 Andalusian provinces. Family doctors, nurses and social workers of the areas studied (n=340). Interventions Validated self-administered questionnaire about advance directives. Descriptive and bivariate (×2) analysis of data was performed. Mean age 46±8.8 years, 53.2% women. Physicians 56.1%, nurses 41.1%, social workers 2.6%. The mean score (0-10) of their knowledge was 5.42±2.41, with 78.4% believing that LWD are regulated in Andalusia (provinces differences, P=.001). More than one-third (36.7%) had read the document (differences by occupation, P=.001). The mean score on the advantage of preparing a LWD for the patient was 8.27±2.16 (significant differences between provinces P=.02). Mean score about the practitioner would respect the wishes of a patient in a LWD was 9.14±1.64 (significant difference between provinces P=.03). The mean score of the question about expressing the desires of the professional on preparing their LWD in the following year was 4.85±3.74 (P=.02). There are different behaviors between professions on reading the LWD. There are differences between provinces in the following aspects: whether the documents are regulated, whether the professionals prepare the LWD, and whether the professionals respects the provisions of the LWD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals (United States)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  17. Teacher Transformation: An Exploration of Science Teachers' Changing Professional Identities, Knowledge, and Classroom Practices (United States)

    Whitacre, Michelle Phillips

    This qualitative, multiple case study examines five teachers' experiences with a National Science Foundation-funded professional development (PD) program focused on science literacy. Using a three dimensional conceptual framework combining transformative learning theory, communities of practice, and sociocultural conceptions of identity it explores: the ways the "Science Literacy through Science Journalism" (SciJourn) project built professional community and influenced teacher learning; the influence of the project on participating science teachers' professional identities, knowledge, and classroom practices; and the ways teachers were or were not transformed by participation in the project. To this end, data from surveys and phenomenological interviews were analyzed through qualitative textual analysis and narrative analysis. Four of the teachers experienced a change in their stories to live by, aka, an identity shift. Three predominant themes emerged across these cases. These included a changed conceptualization of science literacy, the importance of student engagement and authenticity, and the value of SciJourn's professional development and community. The changed conceptualization of science literacy was particularly salient as it challenged these teachers' assumptions, led them to rethink how they teach science literacy, and also influenced them to re-evaluate their teaching priorities beyond the PD. Consequently, this study concludes that PD efforts should focus as much, or more, on influencing teachers' ideas regarding what and how they teach and less on teaching strategies. A close comparison between two teachers' diverging experiences with the program showed that student engagement played a significant role in teachers' perceptions of the value of project, suggesting that whether or not teachers sustain a new practice is closely tied to their students' feedback. Additionally, this analysis showed that a teacher's individualized needs and sense of efficacy

  18. Analysis of knowledge of the general population and health professionals on organ donation after cardiac death. (United States)

    Bedenko, Ramon Correa; Nisihara, Renato; Yokoi, Douglas Shun; Candido, Vinícius de Mello; Galina, Ismael; Moriguchi, Rafael Massayuki; Ceulemans, Nico; Salvalaggio, Paolo


    To evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of the public and professionals working in intensive care units regarding organ donation after cardiac death. The three hospitals with the most brain death notifications in Curitiba were selected, and two groups of respondents were established for application of the same questionnaire: the general public (i.e., visitors of patients in intensive care units) and health professionals working in the same intensive care unit. The questionnaire contained questions concerning demographics, intention to donate organs and knowledge of current legislation regarding brain death and donation after cardiac death. In total, 543 questionnaires were collected, including 442 from family members and 101 from health professionals. There was a predominance of women and Catholics in both groups. More females intended to donate. Health professionals performed better in the knowledge comparison. The intention to donate organs was significantly higher in the health professionals group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the intention to donate in terms of education level or income. There was a greater acceptance of donation after uncontrolled cardiac death among Catholics than among evangelicals (p donate, with greater intentions expressed by females. Education and income did not affect the decision. The type of transplant that used a donation after uncontrolled cardiac death was not well accepted in the study population, indicating the need for more clarification for its use in our setting.

  19. Enchancing coaches' professional development through a goal setting program : an action research cross-case study


    Erkina, Elena; Kiens, Kristel


    Erkina Elena, Kiens Kristel, 2013. Enhancing Coaches’ Professional Development Through a Goal Setting Program: An Action Research Cross-Case Study. Master’s Thesis in Sport and Exercise Psychology. Department of Sport Sciences, University of Jyväskylä. 115 p. Lack of knowledge and practical training are some of the main barriers for coaches not to use mental training in their everyday practice. Educational programs for coaches should include relevant topics and hands-on experiences to in...

  20. Addiction Counseling Competencies: The Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Professional Practice. Technical Assistance Publication Series. (United States)


    This document presents knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are needed for achieving and practicing the competencies listed in Addiction Counseling Competencies, as written by the National Curriculum Committee of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center Program. The document is intended to provide guidance for the professional treatment of…

  1. Indonesian EFL Teachers Professional Knowledge Development during Their Participation in TSG: A Case Study (United States)

    Munifatullah, Feni; Musthafa, Bachrudin; Sundayana, Wachyu


    The study examines three new EFL teachers professional knowledge development through discussion in a "Teacher Study Group" ("TSG") in Indonesian (Asian) context. These three participants have less than five year-teaching experience and teach junior high schools in Bandarlampung in the time of the study. The data were collected…

  2. It Takes Two to Develop Professional Knowledge of a Student: A Case Study (United States)

    Wolffensperger, Yochie; Patkin, Dorit


    This case study examines the effect of coteaching on the development of a student's professional knowledge. The study analyzes the student's perceptions of her experiences in a yearlong seminar course of math teaching in elementary school, conducted at a teachers college in Israel. The course was interdisciplinary and taught jointly by two…

  3. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India (United States)

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat


    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  4. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia (United States)

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc


    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  5. Understanding Parents' and Professionals' Knowledge and Awareness of Autism in Nepal (United States)

    Heys, Michelle; Alexander, Amy; Medeiros, Emilie; Tumbahangphe, Kirti M.; Gibbons, Felicity; Shrestha, Rita; Manandhar, Mangala; Wickenden, Mary; Shrestha, Merina; Costello, Anthony; Manandhar, Dharma; Pellicano, Elizabeth


    Autism is a global phenomenon. Yet, there is a dearth of knowledge of how it is understood and its impact in low-income countries. We examined parents' and professionals' understanding of autism in one low-income country, Nepal. We conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with parents of autistic and non-autistic children and…

  6. Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management - LOKMOL and L3NCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memmel, Martin; Ras, Eric; Weibelzahl, Stephan; Burgos, Daniel; Olmedilla, Daniel; Wolpers, Martin


    Memmel, M., Ras, E., Weibelzahl, S., Burgos, D., Olmedilla, D., & Wolpers, M. (2006). Joint International Workshop on Professional Learning, Competence Development and Knowledge Management - LOKMOL and L3NCD. Proceedings of ECTEL 2006. October 2nd-4th, Crete, Greece. Retrieved October 2nd, 2006,

  7. Student Affairs Professionals' Self-Report of Multicultural Competence: Understanding Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills (United States)

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Mayorga, Melissa M.; Salas, Christina


    Pope and Reynolds' (1997) theoretical model of multicultural competence for student affairs was empirically tested with 100 student affairs professionals. The domain subscales of awareness, knowledge, and skills revealed high internal consistency and intercorrelation. Males reported significantly higher multicultural awareness in their…

  8. High School Counselors' Knowledge of Professional Nursing as a Career Option. (United States)

    Mignon, Deolinda; Cadenhead, Gerry; McKee, Adam


    A survey completed by 189 high school counselors assessed their knowledge of professional nursing in terms of educational preparation, career opportunities, and salary and mobility potential. Most felt well informed about nursing careers. Females and whites rated nursing higher as a profession than did males and African Americans. (SK)

  9. Professional Knowledge Required When Teaching Mathematics for Numeracy in the Multiplicative Domain (United States)

    Mills, Judith


    This paper presents findings as part of a wider study that investigated the professional knowledge of teachers when teaching mathematics for numeracy in the primary school classroom. This paper focuses on teachers in action as they taught two lessons on multiplication. It outlines the specific pedagogical categories the teachers used and the…

  10. The Silencing of the Knowledge-Base in Early Childhood Education and Care Professionalism (United States)

    Campbell-Barr, Verity


    It is widely accepted that the early childhood education and care (ECEC) workforce is central to the quality of services. Modernist constructs of quality signal the importance of qualifications for quality, but the preoccupation with qualification levels silences questions about the knowledge required of ECEC professionals. Postmodern perspectives…

  11. Learning Study: Helping Teachers to Use Theory, Develop Professionally, and Produce New Knowledge to Be Shared (United States)

    Pang, Ming Fai; Ling, Lo Mun


    The lesson study approach is a systematic process for producing professional knowledge about teaching by teachers, and has spread rapidly and extensively in the United States. The learning study approach is essentially a kind of lesson study with an explicit learning theory--the variation theory of learning. In this paper, we argue that having an…

  12. The Effect of Professional Learning on Early Algebra Teachers' Content Knowledge in Nigeria (United States)

    Ladele, Omolola; Ormond, Christine; Hackling, Mark


    Teachers' knowledge of the early algebra content that is to be taught is crucial for effective pedagogy and ensuring that the students' understanding of early algebra is not flawed. This article reports the findings of two of the activities that a group of in-service teachers participated in during a professional learning intervention program that…

  13. Practicalising Theoretical Knowledge in Student Teachers' Professional Learning in Initial Teacher Education (United States)

    Cheng, May M. H.; Tang, Sylvia Y. F.; Cheng, Annie Y. N.


    This paper reports the findings collected from a four year longitudinal study aiming to investigate the professional learning of student-teachers in Bachelor of Education programmes. Four case studies which suggest a typology of ways of practicalising theoretical knowledge with one extreme as the testing out of teaching approaches mainly to find…

  14. Possible Strategies for Facilitating the Exchange of Tacit Knowledge in a Team of Creative Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Søren; Borum, Nanna; Petersson, Eva


    by the authors, a preference for analog tools over digital has been detected among creative professionals. In a new series of interviews done at the same workplace, it is shown that it is possible for a designer to build up tacit knowledge of the field in which he works, for use in a digital environment. Using...

  15. Awareness Knowledge Attitude Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Kumar, Santosh


    Introduction: Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess…

  16. Knowledge as a factor in vulnerability to tuberculosis among nursing students and professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Virgínia Felício Mussi


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify vulnerability to tuberculosis (TB related to knowledge about the disease among 76 nursing students and professionals. A quantitative descriptive study was conducted using a closed questionnaire for the collection of data regarding transmission, preventive and biosafety measures, diagnosis, and prejudice regarding the disease. The SAS software version 9.1.3 was used for data analysis, with the level of significance set at 5% (p < 0.05. Nursing students and professionals showed a vulnerability to TB related to knowledge about transmission, preventive and biosafety measures, and diagnosis of the disease. With respect to transmission, vulnerability was higher among nursing professionals. The results indicate the need for investment by healthcare institutions surrounding this topic in view of the important role of nursing in the establishment of strategies for prevention and control of the disease.

  17. Too much coffee... - Negotiation of Knowledge Forms in Participatory Research Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context...

  18. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Breast Cancer among Health Professionals in Douala References Hospitals, Cameroon. (United States)

    Nguefack, Charlotte Tchente; N'djeudjui, Calvin; Engbang, Jean Paul Ndamba; Nana, Théophile Njamen; Ekane, Gregory Halle; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie


    In Cameroon, patients with breast cancer are more often diagnosed at stage III and IV, hence the need of preventives actions. Knowledge and attitude of medical personnel may influence their practice with regards to screening and early detection of breast cancer. Very few is known about this subject in Cameroon. The objective was to describe the knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care professionals on breast cancer risk factors, diagnostic methods, and screening. This was a cross-sectional study conducted during a 6-month period, among health professionals of Douala General Hospital and Laquintinie Hospital, Cameroon.Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, questions on breast cancer risk factors, screening, and diagnostic methods. Marks were attributed to each question and calculated for each section. Participants fell in four categories of knowledge, attitude, and practice: very weak, weak, good, and excellent. The software XLStat7.5.2 was used for data analysis. Overall, 445 health professionals were interviewed. The average age was 39 ± 9 years. The level of knowledge, attitude, and practice was accessed respectively as weak (50.1%), very good (64.5%), and poor (36.4%). The personal practice of female workers was poor (43.0%). Compared to participants with very weak to weak knowledge, those with good to excellent knowledge had 1.55-fold odds of excellent attitude p knowledge was the participant qualification (academic degree). These results suggest the need for training of health professionals in Douala references hospitals on breast cancer risks factors, diagnostic, and screening methods.

  19. Healthcare professionals' sources of knowledge of complementary medicine in an academic center. (United States)

    Aveni, Eleonore; Bauer, Brent; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Decosterd, Isabelle; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Bonvin, Eric; Rodondi, Pierre-Yves


    Complementary medicine (CM) is utilized in a growing number of academic centers despite the debate concerning its value, risks and benefits. Healthcare professionals often feel uncomfortable discussing CM with patients, and little is known about their sources of knowledge in the field of CM. To assess healthcare professionals' sources of knowledge and attitude toward CM in an academic hospital. The cross-sectional web-based survey took place from October to December 2013. A total of 4,925 healthcare professionals working at Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, were invited to answer the questionnaire. Factors influencing healthcare professionals' opinion toward CM, knowledge and communication about CM. The questionnaire was answered by 1,247 healthcare professionals. The three key factors influencing professionals' opinion toward CM were personal experience, clinical experience and evidence demonstrating the physiological mechanism of CM. Personal experience was more associated with nurses' and midwives' opinion compared to physicians' (80.8% vs 57.1%, OR = 3.08, [95% CI: 2.35-4.05], Pprofessionals trained in CM compared to non-trained professionals (86.0% vs 73.2%, OR = 2.60, [95% CI: 1.92-3.53], Pprofessionals used different strategies to forge opinions regarding CM: physicians relied more on scientific evidence, while nurses and midwives were more influenced by personal experience. Regardless of preferred information source, most respondents did not feel prepared to address patient questions regarding CM. Enhancing interprofessional education opportunities is an important strategy to help providers become empowered to discuss CM with patients. This in turn will help patients making informed decisions in their healthcare.

  20. Connecting Curriculum to Community Research: Professional Services, Research, and Teaching (United States)

    Messer, W. Barry; Collier, Peter J.


    Portland State University's Community Environmental Services (CES) has helped shape the Portland metropolitan region's sustainable materials management practices for more than twenty-five years. CES's research and program development services have benefitted community partners that in turn have provided hundreds of students with rich educational…

  1. Healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study. (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya Lynne; Heath, Anne-Louise Mary; Taylor, Rachael Waring


    Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative approach for introducing complementary foods to infants that emphasises infant self-feeding rather than adult spoon-feeding. Here we examined healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Healthcare professionals (n=31) and mothers who had used BLW (n=20) completed a semistructured interview using one of two tailored interview schedules examining their knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Interview notes and transcripts were analysed using content analysis to identify subcategories and extract illustrative quotes. Healthcare professionals had limited direct experience with BLW and the main concerns raised were the potential for increased risk of choking, iron deficiency and inadequate energy intake. Although they suggested a number of potential benefits of BLW (greater opportunity for shared family meal times, fewer mealtime battles, healthier eating behaviours, greater convenience and possible developmental advantages) most felt reluctant to recommend BLW because of their concern about the potential increased risk of choking. In contrast, mothers who had used this style of feeding reported no major concerns with BLW. They considered BLW to be a healthier, more convenient and less stressful way to introduce complementary foods to their infant and recommended this feeding approach to other mothers. Although mothers did not report being concerned about choking, 30% reported at least one choking episode-most commonly with raw apple. Given the lack of research on BLW, further work is needed to determine whether the concerns expressed by healthcare professionals and potential benefits outlined by mothers are valid. The current study suggests that there is a mismatch between healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences, with BLW.

  2. Valuing Professional Development Components for Emerging Undergraduate Researchers (United States)

    Cheung, I.


    In 2004 the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) at Oregon State University (OSU) established a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program to engage undergraduate students in hands-on research training in the marine sciences. The program offers students the opportunity to conduct research focused on biological and ecological topics, chemical and physical oceanography, marine geology, and atmospheric science. In partnership with state and federal government agencies, this ten-week summer program has grown to include 20+ students annually. Participants obtain a background in the academic discipline, professional development training, and research experience to make informed decisions about careers and advanced degrees in marine and earth system sciences. Professional development components of the program are designed to support students in their research experience, explore career goals and develop skills necessary to becoming a successful young marine scientist. These components generally include seminars, discussions, workshops, lab tours, and standards of conduct. These componentscontribute to achieving the following professional development objectives for the overall success of new emerging undergraduate researchers: Forming a fellowship of undergraduate students pursuing marine research Stimulating student interest and understanding of marine research science Learning about research opportunities at Oregon State University "Cross-Training" - broadening the hands-on research experience Exploring and learning about marine science careers and pathways Developing science communication and presentation skills Cultivating a sense of belonging in the sciences Exposure to federal and state agencies in marine and estuarine science Academic and career planning Retention of talented students in the marine science Standards of conduct in science Details of this program's components, objectives and best practices will be discussed.

  3. Knowledge and skills needed to improve as preceptor: development of a continuous professional development course - a qualitative study part I. (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mariette; Carlson, Elisabeth


    Preceptors are expected to have the skills to be able to form an effective learning environment and facilitate a constructive clinical learning experience for students and new employees. Internationally, access to education for preceptors varies, with preceptors worldwide requesting more education in preceptorship. This article is based on a two-part study focusing on both the development and evaluation of a continuous, credit-bearing professional development course. The aim of this part of the study was to investigate and include preceptors' requests and educational needs when developing a continuous professional development course on an advanced level. This study used a qualitative research approach. In total, 64 preceptors (62 women and two men) answered one single written, self-administered global question online. The participants were all interested in teaching and had completed an undergraduate training in preceptorship. The collected data was analysed by content analysis inspired by Burnard's description of the method. The participating preceptors illuminated two main themes: 'Tools for effective precepting of students and healthcare professionals' and 'in-depth knowledge and understanding of preceptorship in an academic setting'. The results suggest that vital components for preceptor preparation could be a) teaching and learning strategies, b) reflective and critical reasoning, c) communication models, d) the role of the preceptor, and e) preceptorship. Using the results from this study as a guide, a continuous professional development course was designed to assist preceptors in deepening their knowledge of preceptorship in regard to planning, leading and implementing educational activities directed at students, healthcare professionals, patients and their families. The course content focuses on skills needed for preceptorship and is based on adult learning principles. A continuous, credit-bearing professional development course must include an exam by

  4. Theoretical Framework of Researcher Knowledge Development in Mathematics Education (United States)

    Kontorovich, Igor'


    The goal of this paper is to present a framework of researcher knowledge development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing filters that influence a researcher's decision making. The components…

  5. Building a Foundation for Knowledge Management Research: Developing, Validating, and Applying the Knowledge Internalization Construct (United States)

    Wipawayangkool, Kamphol


    The notion of knowledge internalization (KI), albeit a critical link in Nonaka's (1994) organizational knowledge creation theory, has not been rigorously conceptualized and defined, let alone operationalized. To strengthen the foundation for knowledge management (KM) research, we attempt to fulfill the following research objectives in the three…

  6. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory (United States)

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz


    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  7. Impact of training on Nigerian healthcare professionals' knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance. (United States)

    Osakwe, Adeline; Oreagba, Ibrahim; Adewunmi, Adebowale J; Adekoya, Abisola; Fajolu, Iretiola


    Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug related problem.. The effectiveness of this system revolves on the active participation of the healthcare practitioners. Poor knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance has necessitated training of healthcare professionals in different parts of Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance amongst health professionals in Nigeria and the impact of previous training in pharmacovigilance on their knowledge and practice. In this descriptive cross sectional study, purposive and systematic random sampling method was used in selecting health facilities and health care practitioners respectively. Data were collected using a three-part peer-reviewed structured questionnaire administered through electronic mail (25) and self administration by healthcare professionals (316). Respondents who had received training on pharmacovigilance had better knowledge of correct definition of pharmacovigilance (P = 0.001) and better theoretical knowledge and practice scores of pharmacovigilance (P = 0.001). Receiving quarterly newsletters was not significantly associated (p = 0.220) with improved knowledge of pharmacovigilance. Overall, knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance in Nigeria was still below average. The main challenges faced in the reporting and detecting of ADR were lack of awareness, poor communication, lack of continuity in training and poor funding. Although training was associated with improved knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance amongst the health care providers studied, its overall impact was mild. Strengthened awareness creation and innovations in PV training methods are necessary to improve the efficiency of the program.

  8. Knowledge and practice of tuberculosis infection control among health professionals in Northwest Ethiopia; 2011. (United States)

    Temesgen, Chanie; Demissie, Meaza


    Tuberculosis (TB) is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, making the risk of infection transmission high in these countries. Despite high prevalence of TB and expected high probability of nosocomial transmission in Ethiopia, a rapid assessment done in 2008 revealed that most health facilities in Ethiopia do not use tuberculosis infection control (TBIC) practices. Patients and providers are therefore at risk of exposure to TB, especially at high case load facilities. The purpose of this study was to assess TBIC knowledge and practices among health professionals working in hospitals in the Amhara region of Northwest Ethiopia. An institution-based hybrid study was implemented form August 2010 to January 2011. The subjects were health professionals who were proportionally selected from each hospital. Subjects self-administered a questionnaire that contained sections on socio-demographics and on TBIC knowledge and practice. Those answering ≥60% of knowledge questions correctly and ≥50% of practice questions correctly were considered to have good knowledge and practice, respectively. A total of 313 healthcare professionals were enrolled from four healthcare facilities. The response rate was 96%. Only 18.8% received in-service training. Among those who were trained, 74.4%, 95% CI (69.6, 79.3%) were found to have good knowledge and 63.2%, 95% CI (57.9, 68.6%) good practice on TBIC. Training was found to be a predictor of TBIC knowledge, AOR* 3.386 and 95% CI (1.377, 8.330) while knowledge of TBIC was a strong predictor of good TBIC practice, AOR* 10.667 and 95% CI (5.769, 19.721). Though the majority of the respondents had good TBIC knowledge and practice, a considerable proportion of healthcare professionals were not trained on TBIC. Respondents trained on TBIC were found to be more knowledgeable than those not trained. Similarly, respondents with good TBIC knowledge were 10 times more likely to have good TBIC practice compared to those with poor TBIC knowledge

  9. Expert knowledge maps for knowledge management: a case study in Traditional Chinese Medicine research. (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Yang, Shuo; Yu, Tong; Yang, Ce; Gao, Yonghong; Zhu, Haiyan


    To design a model to capture information on the state and trends of knowledge creation, at both an individual and an organizational level, in order to enhance knowledge management. We designed a graph-theoretic knowledge model, the expert knowledge map (EKM), based on literature-based annotation. A case study in the domain of Traditional Chinese Medicine research was used to illustrate the usefulness of the model. The EKM successfully captured various aspects of knowledge and enhanced knowledge management within the case-study organization through the provision of knowledge graphs, expert graphs, and expert-knowledge biography. Our model could help to reveal the hot topics, trends, and products of the research done by an organization. It can potentially be used to facilitate knowledge learning, sharing and decision-making among researchers, academicians, students, and administrators of organizations.

  10. Implementing Action Research and Professional Learning Communities in a Professional Development School Setting to Support Teacher Candidate Learning (United States)

    Shanks, Joyce


    The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…

  11. The Effects of a Systematically Designed Online Learning Environment on Preservice Teachers' Professional Knowledge (United States)

    Evens, Marie; Larmuseau, Charlotte; Dewaele, Katrien; Van Craesbeek, Leen; Elen, Jan; Depaepe, Fien


    This study examines the effects of an online learning environment on preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), content knowledge (CK) (related to French in primary teacher education), and pedagogical knowledge (PK) in a quasi-experimental design. More specifically, the following research question is addressed: Is a systematically…

  12. Exploring the Role of Information Professionals in Improving Research Reproducibility:A Case Study in Geosciences (United States)

    Yan, A.; West, J.


    The validity of Geosciences research is of great significance to general public and policy-makers. In an earlier study, we surveyed 136 faculty and graduate students in geosciences. The result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing, suggesting a general lack of research reproducibility in geosciences. Although there is much enthusiasm for creation of technologies such as workflow system, literate programming, and cloud-based system to facilitate reproducibility, much less emphasis has been placed on the information services essential for meaningful use of these tools. Library and Information Science (LIS) has a rich tradition of providing customized service for research communities. LIS professionals such as academic librarians have made strong contribution to resources locating, software recommending, data curation, metadata guidance, project management, submission review and author training. In particular, university libraries have been actively developing tools and offering guidelines, consultations, and trainings on Data Management Plan (DMP) required by National Science Foundation (NSF). And effective data management is a significant first step towards reproducible research. Hereby we argue that LIS professionals may be well-positioned to assist researchers to make their research reproducible. In this study, we aim to answer the question: how can LIS professionals assist geoscience researchers in making their research capable of being reproduced? We first synthesize different definitions of "reproducibility" and provide a conceptual framework of "reproducibility" in geosciences to resolve some of the misunderstandings around related terminology. Using a case study approach, we then examine 1) university librarians' technical skills, domain knowledge, professional activities, together with their awareness of, readiness for, and attitudes towards research reproducibility and

  13. Participatory Action Research (PAR) cum Action Research (AR) in Teacher Professional Development: A Literature Review (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.


    This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…

  14. Informing Estimates of Program Effects for Studies of Mathematics Professional Development Using Teacher Content Knowledge Outcomes. (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Kelcey, Benjamin; Jones, Nathan; Liu, Shuangshuang


    Mathematics professional development is widely offered, typically with the goal of improving teachers' content knowledge, the quality of teaching, and ultimately students' achievement. Recently, new assessments focused on mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) have been developed to assist in the evaluation and improvement of mathematics professional development. This study presents empirical estimates of average program change in MKT and its variation with the goal of supporting the design of experimental trials that are adequately powered to detect a specified program effect. The study drew on a large database representing five different assessments of MKT and collectively 326 professional development programs and 9,365 teachers. Results from cross-classified hierarchical growth models found that standardized average change estimates across the five assessments ranged from a low of 0.16 standard deviations (SDs) to a high of 0.26 SDs. Power analyses using the estimated pre- and posttest change estimates indicated that hundreds of teachers are needed to detect changes in knowledge at the lower end of the distribution. Even studies powered to detect effects at the higher end of the distribution will require substantial resources to conduct rigorous experimental trials. Empirical benchmarks that describe average program change and its variation provide a useful preliminary resource for interpreting the relative magnitude of effect sizes associated with professional development programs and for designing adequately powered trials. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Healthcare professionals' awareness and knowledge of adverse drug reactions and pharmacovigilance. (United States)

    Almandil, Noor B


    To document the knowledge of, attitudes toward, and practices of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting and pharmacovigilance systems among healthcare professionals. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire. This study took place at King Fahd Hospital of the University (KFHU), Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,  between  April 2015 and  April 2016. Healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and nurses, were considered eligible and invited to take part in the study. A link to the online questionnaire was sent to each participant via E-mail, and a hard copy was circulated at the hospital after the objectives of the study were explained. The questionnaire comprised items regarding knowledge/awareness of pharmacovigilance and ADRs, perception/attitude towards pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting, and practices of ADR reporting. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to the healthcare professionals and 331 participants responded, providing a response rate of 82.75%. The healthcare professionals comprised 161 physicians, 39 pharmacists, 21 pharmacist technicians, and 110 nurses. Most of the participants were female (n=198) and Saudi (61.9%). Most healthcare professionals (62.5%) were unaware of the term pharmacovigilance; the pharmacists and pharmacist technicians had the highest rate of pharmacovigilance awareness (60.5% of the pharmacists and 40% of pharmacist technicians). Conclusion: There is a lack of awareness and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting among healthcare professionals working at KFHU.

  16. A survey of Autism knowledge and attitudes among the healthcare professionals in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of Autism in Pakistan occurs in multiple settings and is provided by variety of health professionals. Unfortunately, knowledge and awareness about Autism is low among Pakistani healthcare professionals & the presence of inaccurate and outdated beliefs regarding this disorder may compromise early detection and timely referral for interventions. The study assessed the baseline knowledge and misconceptions regarding autism among healthcare professionals in Pakistan which can impact future awareness campaigns. Methods Physicians (psychiatrists, pediatricians, neurologists and family physicians and non-physicians (psychologists and speech therapists participated in this study. Knowledge of DSM-IV TR criteria for Autistic Disorder, beliefs about social, emotional, cognitive, treatment and prognosis of the disorder were assessed. Demographic information regarding the participants of the survey was also gathered. Results Two hundred and forty seven respondents (154 Physicians & 93 Non-physicians participated in the study. Mean age of respondents was 33.2 years (S.D 11.63 with 53% being females. Reasonably accurate familiarity with the DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria of Autistic Disorder was observed. However, within the professional groups, differences were found regarding the utilization of the DSM-IV-TR criteria when diagnosing Autistic Disorder. Non-Physicians were comparatively more likely to correctly identify diagnostic features of autism compared with Physicians (P-value Conclusion Results suggests that current professionals in the field have an unbalanced understanding of autism due to presence of several misconceptions regarding many of the salient features of autism including developmental, cognitive and emotional features. The study has clinical implications and calls for continued education for healthcare professionals across disciplines with regards to Autism in Pakistan.

  17. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Oct 7, 2009 ... Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers. The world-class research teams will direct their focus towards new frontiers in cancer research. View moreSix world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality ...

  18. Knowledge and Awareness of Teledentistry among Dental Professionals - A Cross Sectional Study. (United States)

    Boringi, Mamatha; Waghray, Shefali; Lavanya, Reddy; Babu, Dara Balaji Gandhi; Badam, Raj Kumar; Harsha, Niharika; Garlapati, Komali; Chavva, Sunanda


    The use of technology in the form of smart phones and other electronic media in day to day life has become an integral part of life today. Technology today is seeing a paradigm shift towards better inter-professional communications which can help doctors, patients and the masses as a whole. Putting these technological advancements to good use evolves as a major milestone in medicine/ dentistry in the form of telemedicine/teledentistry. The present study was aimed at knowing the knowledge and awareness of teledentistry among dental professionals of a dental college in India. The study was conducted in a dental college in India and was circulated among dental professionals. A questionnaire was prepared to assess the knowledge and awareness of teledentistry and was circulated among dental professionals in a dental college. The data thus collected was statistically analysed and results obtained. The data collected was statistically analysed using SPSS software. A total of 406 persons responded to the questionnaire. In the present study it was found that the knowledge and awareness about teledentistry was very low among post graduates (7.23%) and interns (9.38%) when compared to I & II BDS while most of them agreed that teledentistry is a practice of dentistry through various media options with limited application in dentistry without a legal issue. In the present study, it was apparent that most of the respondents were lacking adequate knowledge and awareness on teledentistry. Hence, there is an immense need to create awareness among dental professionals on teledentistry as the future lies in technological advancement. Tele dentistry can mark the beginning of a new era in dentistry. This can be achieved by conducting CDE programs and awareness campaigns/programs which helps in various levels.

  19. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain


    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  20. Rural outreach in Maine: A research-driven professional development teacher community (United States)

    Wittmann, Michael


    In the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (MainePSP), researchers at the University of Maine have joined together with the state's Department of Education, non-profits, and teachers in multiple school districts to create a dynamic and growing community dedicated to improving K12 education of the physical sciences. Through ongoing efforts to introduce and adapt instructional materials, guided by education research and research-guided professional development, we have built a community responsive to student and teacher needs. This work has fed back into the university setting, where teachers are playing a role in graduate courses taken by our Master of Science in Teaching students. In this talk, I will focus on the role of education research in the partnership, showing how we use research in professional development, the development of assessments, and the analysis of the resulting data. I will describe two projects, one to understand how teachers' content knowledge affects the development of items assessing knowledge of acceleration, the other to see how teachers use their content knowledge of systems and energy to make pedagogical choices based on students' incorrect ideas about conservation of energy. Sponsored in part by NSF Grants MSP-0962805, DRL-1222580, and DUE-1340033.

  1. Assessing the Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities of Public Health Professionals in Big City Governmental Health Departments. (United States)

    McGinty, Meghan D; Castrucci, Brian C; Rios, Debra M


    To identify essential knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) for and characterize gaps in KSAs of professionals working in large, urban health departments. A survey was disseminated to potentially eligible supervisors within 26 of 28 health departments in the largest, most urban jurisdictions in the country. A supervisor was eligible to participate if he or she supervised at least 1 staff member whose highest level of education was a master's degree. A total of 645 eligible supervisors participated in the workforce survey for a response rate of 27.1% and cooperation rate of 55.2%. Supervisors were asked to rate the importance of KSAs to their masters-level staffs' work and indicate their staffs' proficiency. Fifty-eight percent of supervisors reported supervising staff with a master of public health/master of science in public health degree. More than 30% of supervisors indicated that all of the 30 KSAs were essential. Four of the top 10 KSAs rated as essential by supervisors pertained to the ability to communicate. The top skills gaps perceived by supervisors were professional staffs' ability to apply quality improvement concepts to their work (38.0%), understanding of the political system (37.7%), and ability to anticipate changes (33.8%). Public health practitioners receive training in methods, theories, and evidence-based approaches, yet further investment in the workforce is necessary to advance population health. A focus should be placed developing strategic skills rather than advancing narrow specialties. Findings from this research can guide the creation and implementation of training curricula and professional development programs offered within local health departments or targeted to their staff, as well as satisfaction of accreditation requirements. By focusing on building strategic skills, we can ensure a public health workforce that is equipped with the KSAs necessary to practice Public Health 3.0 and leaders who are able to serve as their communities

  2. Translational Research Training at Various Levels of Professional Experience to Address Health Disparities. (United States)

    Lane, Montez; Bell, Ronny; Latham-Sadler, Brenda; Bradley, Catherine; Foxworth, Judy; Smith, Nancy; Millar, A Lynn; Hairston, Kristen G; Roper, Bernard; Howlett, Allyn


    Translational research addressing health disparities brings interventions and medical discoveries into clinical practice to improve health outcomes. However, academic researchers' and clinicians' lack of understanding of methodologies limits the application of basic science to clinical settings. To solve the problem, a multidisciplinary collaboration from two academic institutions offered a workshop building on translational research methodologies to clarify the measures and interventions needed to address health disparities from a research perspective. Three two-day workshops targeted underrepresented minority participants whose research experience and professional development varied. The evaluation surveys administered after the three workshops indicated that workshop 1 which focused on translational and educational research increased participants' knowledge, and made all participants think critically about the subject. Training opportunities focused on translational research can enhance researchers and clinicians' confidence and capabilities to address health disparities.

  3. Healthcare associated infection: good practices, knowledge and the locus of control in heatlhcare professionals. (United States)

    Taffurelli, Chiara; Sollami, Alfonso; Camera, Carmen; Federa, Francesca; Grandi, Annise; Marino, Marcella; Marrosu, Tiziano; Sarli, Leopoldo


      The incidence of Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) is an important indicator of the quality of care. The behaviors associated with the prevention of infections are not only supported by rational knowledge or motivation, but are mediated by social, emotional and often stereotyped behaviors. The awarness of the good practices related to HAI, may be a factor. Other studies, identify how the perception of the problem in healthcare professionals is often influenced by a tendency towards an external Locus of Control: the patient, the family, the other wards, other care settings. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of healthcare professionals. In particular they have been measured their  awarness of the good practices, perceptions of the potential contamination level of some commonly used objects, knowledge about the management of invasive devices, Locus of Control.   A cross-sectional correlational design was utilized.  An ad hoc questionnaire was interviewed by 222 health professionals nurses and physicians in a northern hospital of Italy. The percentage of professionals who have attended training courses over the last 5 years was quite high, both for upgrades on HAI (78.7%) and Vascular Catheters (78.8%), while the percentage of professionals who updated on bladder catheterization (59.46%) was lower. The mean  score of good practice awareness towards HAI (5.06), is high. The perception of the potential level of contamination of some devices had a  mean ranging from 4.62 (for the drip) to 5.26 (for the door handle). The average value of the Locus of Control (43.54) indicates that participants demonstrated a value that is midway between External and Internal. The correlation test analysis revealed no significant relationships among professionals'age, knowledge about HAI, or infection related venus catheter. Also, results revealed that there were statistically significant positive relationships between professionals' Good Practices

  4. Research in Social Work: the future in the present. Reflections on the portuguese knowledge building process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marta


    Full Text Available The debate surrounding the construction of scientific knowledge within social work is discussed. The social work class seeks new foundations that allow within the context of structural change, the strengthening of professional identity and challenge of the vestiges of intellectual segregation that historical constraints have left. This paper seeks to outline a research strategy for reconciliation and coordination of intellectual and professional work in order to give visibility to new and different domains of interpretation and action, while claiming that considering pluri-perspectives potentiates the knowledge transformation process. Underlining this confluence of complex thinking elements, this article incorporates the space-time dimension and discusses and recognizes the unavoidable circularity as a way to interrogate knowledge that is compartmentalized and fragmented, placing an emphasis both on knowledge and on the interrelationship between knowing, doing, being and relating. In addition, examines the recognition of the nature of those relationships among various disciplines and perspectives.

  5. Trainee health care professionals' knowledge of the health risks associated with obesity. (United States)

    Swift, J A; Sheard, C; Rutherford, M


    Trainee nurses, doctors and dietitians will direct the future of obesity treatment and prevention. To do so effectively, they must have sufficient knowledge regarding the health risks associated with obesity and feel that part of their professional role is to counsel obese patients regarding these risks. An online survey collected data on professional roles, training needs and the Obesity Risk Knowledge-10 (ORK-10) scale from 38 dietetic, 88 nursing (Diploma), 74 nursing (Masters) and 389 medical students. Final-year dietetic students demonstrated higher ORK-10 scale scores than final-year nursing (Dip), nursing (MSc) and medical students (P profession's role was to counsel obese patients about the health risks associated with obesity. Dietetic students were more satisfied with the teaching they had received than each of the other student groups (P professionals recognize their responsibility to communicate health risk information to obese patients. Dietetic students have a sound knowledge base to support them in this. Educators of trainee nurses and doctors may like to respond to their students' lower levels of knowledge and desire for more training.

  6. Improving the Mathematical Content Knowledge of General and Special Educators: Evaluating a Professional Development Module that Focuses on Number Sense (United States)

    Faulkner, Valerie N.; Cain, Chris R.


    Student performance in mathematics has been linked to the mathematical knowledge of the teacher. Based on this finding, a 5-day professional development module was created to improve teachers' mathematical knowledge and their understanding of number sense. We found no difference prior to the professional development in mathematical content…

  7. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  8. Research methods in indigenous mathematical Knowledge: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous games are an integral component of indigenous knowledge systems. These and other games in general are usually viewed from the narrow perspective of play, enjoyment and recreation. Even though these are important, there is more to games than just the three aesthetic aspects. Analysis of games reveals ...

  9. [Knowledge and attitudes of health professionals to the living will declaration process]. (United States)

    Contreras-Fernández, Eugenio; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Castilla-Soto, Jose; Méndez-Martínez, Camila


    To identify the underlying interests of the Living Will Declaration (LWD) process and to determine the consensus, using a questionnaire, of the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals. A study was performed in two phases using a Delphi technique with a Rand method. 1. Dimensions proposed: generation of ideas and their subsequent prioritizing; 2. Proposal and prioritizing of items grouped into blocks of Knowledge and Attitudes, developed between August 2012 and January 2013. The work was carried out by initial telephone contact with panellists, and then later by the panellists belonged to the Andalusia Public Health System. The criteria for selecting the eight components of the panel were knowledge and experience in the field of the freedom of the patient in Andalusia. The Knowledge identified included: 1 A) Legal and general aspects; 2 A) A conceptual definition; 3 A) Standardised LWD documents: 4 A) Practical experience; 5 A) Procedure and registering of the LWDs. The second block included Attitudes: 1 B) Attitudes of the professional in the application of LWDs in clinical practice, and 2 B) Attitudes of the professional in «complex» ethical scenarios The 7 panellists who finally took part proposed 165 items. After applying the prioritizing criteria, scores, and scenario selection, 58 (35.2%) items were identified as suitable scenarios. The proposed questionnaire included wide parcels of concepts and contents that, once validated, will help to measure the training interventions carried out on health professionals in order to improve knowledge and attitudes on the subject of LWDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of error management culture on knowledge performance in professional service firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Scheel


    Full Text Available Knowledge is the most crucial resource of the 21st century. For professional service firms (PSFs, knowledge represents the input as well as the output, and thus the fundamental base for performance. As every organization, PSFs have to deal with errors – and how they do that indicates their error culture. Considering the positive potential of errors (e.g., innovation, error management culture is positively related to organizational performance. This longitudinal quantitative study investigates the impact of error management culture on knowledge performance in four waves. The study was conducted in 131 PSFs, i.e. tax accounting offices. As a standard quality management system (QMS was assumed to moderate the relationship between error management culture and knowledge performance, offices' ISO 9000 certification was assessed. Error management culture correlated positively with knowledge performance at a significant level and predicted knowledge performance one year later. While the ISO 9000 certification correlated positively with knowledge performance, its assumed moderation of the relationship between error management culture and knowledge performance was not consistent. The process-oriented QMS seems to function as facilitator for the more behavior-oriented error management culture. However, the benefit of ISO 9000 certification for tax accounting remains to be proven. Given the impact of error management culture on knowledge performance, PSFs should focus on actively promoting positive attitudes towards errors.

  11. Knowledge Mobilization and Educational Research: Politics, Languages and Responsibilities (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara, Ed.; Farrell, Lesley, Ed.


    How can educational research have more impact? What processes of knowledge exchange are most effective for increasing the uses of research results? How can research-produced knowledge be better "mobilized" among users such as practicing educators, policy makers, and the public communities? These sorts of questions are commanding urgent…

  12. Knowledge Building and Social Work Research: A Critical Perspective (United States)

    LeCroy, Craig Winston


    This article addresses efforts to build social work research in a manner consistent with good science and research. A critical perspective is applied to examine what does not work in building knowledge and how social work research can address factors that limit knowledge building. A critical perspective is imperative to social work knowledge…

  13. Royal, Warrior, Magician, Lover: Archetypal Reflectivity and the Construction of Professional Knowledge (United States)

    Dobson, Darrell


    Teacher reflectivity has become significant to practice and research in teacher education and development. The literature on teacher reflectivity is substantial, and reflection has come to be widely accepted as a central factor in the professional growth of teachers. In contemporary research and practice, teacher reflectivity has come to refer to…

  14. Cooperative research and knowledge flow in the marine commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. Johnson


    Full Text Available Integration of fishers’ knowledge into scientific-based fisheries management is difficult due to a history of distrust between fishers and scientists and institutional constraints that limit management to only the best scientific information available. A recent response to the Northeast U.S. fisheries crisis has been to include fishers in scientific research. Cooperative research, where fishers and scientists collaborate to produce knowledge for fisheries management, aims improve the knowledge base of fisheries management and integrate fishers and their knowledge into the science policy process, which together is expected to generate broader acceptance of scientific-based management. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in the Northeast U.S., this paper discusses the value of cooperative research as a tool for managing the commons. Specifically, it focuses on the flow of knowledge and expertise between fishers and scientists. The flow of knowledge from fishers to science involves a process of translation, where fishers’ knowledge is transformed (proven, verified, etc. into scientific knowledge. This process enables the flow of fishers’ knowledge into the science policy process. Knowledge and expertise also flow from scientists to fishers, where fishers gain understandings of the scientific research process. With this new expertise, fishers develop a greater capacity to participate in science and management discussions. The paper argues that 2-way knowledge flow between fishers and scientists, in particular flow that results in capacity building, can improve commons management through communication, translation, and conflict resolution. Finally, boundary spanners are identified as being critical to success in cooperative research.

  15. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D


    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  16. Turning the Table on Professional Development in Mathematics by Setting the Stage for Teacher-Led Inquiry: An Action Research Study (United States)

    McCullough, Sabrina D.


    This action research study investigated the change in professional development model in the acquisition of content knowledge for fourth-grade math teachers. The current professional development atmosphere is a traditional "sit and get" opportunity. However, research offers that teachers should be active participants in their learning.…

  17. Do patients and health care professionals view the communication processes of clinical research differently? A Rasch analysis from a survey. (United States)

    González-de Paz, Luis; Kostov, Belchin; Solans-Julian, Pilar; Navarro-Rubio, M Dolores; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni


    The increasing amount of the clinical research conducted in the primary health care has enabled extending research beyond traditional settings, but this transfer has implied some trade-offs. Health care professionals who conduct research with trusted patients require assuming the ethical standards of research and communication skills to enable patients' autonomy and freedom of choice. This study aims to measure the opinions of health professionals and patients on issues of communication in clinical research. A cross-sectional study with health care professionals and patients from primary health care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Each group completed a similar self-administered questionnaire. A Rasch model was fitted to data. After examination of goodness-of-fit, differences between groups were compared using analysis of variance, and patients' measures were calibrated to professionals' measures to compare overall mean measures. Professionals and patients found the ethical attitudes most difficult to endorse related to trust in clinical researchers and conflicts of interest. Patients' perceptions of professional ethical behaviour were significantly lower than professionals'. Different item functioning between nurses and family doctors was found in the item on seeking ethical collaboration when collaborating in clinical research. Effective knowledge of ethical norms was associated with greater perceived ethical values in clinical research and confidence in health care professionals among patients. Differences in the views of the communication process between patients and professionals could alert research boards, health care institutions and researchers to the need for greater transparency, trust and ethical instruction when patients are involved in clinical research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The motivation of health professionals to explore research evidence in their practice: An intervention study. (United States)

    Henderson, Amanda; Winch, Sarah; Holzhauser, Kerri; De Vries, Sue


    To assess the impact of multifaceted clinically focused educational strategies that concentrated on introducing dementia care research evidence on health professionals' awareness and inclination to use research findings in their future practice. The promise of evidence-based practice is slow to materialize with the limitations of adopting research findings in practice readily identifiable. A pre- and post-test quasi experimental design. The study involved the administration of: a pretest (baseline), an intervention phase, and a post-test survey, the same research utilization survey. TOOL: The Edmonton Research Orientation Survey (EROS), a self-report tool that asks participants about their attitudes toward research and about their potential to use research findings, was used to determine health professionals' orientation to research. The introduction of dementia care research evidence through multifaceted clinically focused educational strategies to improve practice. This was achieved through a resource team comprising a Clinical Nurse Consultant, as a leader and resource of localized evidence-based knowledge in aged care; an experienced Registered Nurse to support the introduction of strategies and a further experienced educator and clinician to reinforce the importance of evidence in change. Across all the four subscales that are measured in the Edmonton Research Orientation Survey, statistical analysis by independent samples t-test identified that there was no significant change between the before and after measurements. Successful integration of changes based on evidence does not necessarily mean that staff become more aware or are more inclined to use research findings in future to address problems.

  19. Healthcare professionals' attitudes, knowledge and self-efficacy levels regarding the use of self-hypnosis in childbirth: A prospective questionnaire survey. (United States)

    McAllister, Sophie; Coxon, Kirstie; Murrells, T; Sandall, J


    to examine healthcare professionals' attitudes, knowledge and levels of self-efficacy regarding the use of self-hypnosis in childbirth. a prospective survey. two large maternity units in London, England. healthcare professionals (n=129) involved in the care of childbearing women (anaesthetists, midwives and obstetricians). online questionnaire assessing healthcare professionals' experience, knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy relating to self-hypnosis in childbirth. attitude, self-efficacy and knowledge. over half of the participants surveyed (56%) reported they had minimal or no knowledge of hypnosis. Higher levels of knowledge were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (pchildbirth, they need to be confident in their ability to facilitate this method. Previous research has established that self-efficacy is a strong indicator of performance. Professionals with more knowledge of self-hypnosis are also more confident in supporting women using this technique in childbirth. Multi-disciplinary staff training which aims to increase knowledge, and which includes exposure to hypnosis in labour, may be beneficial in assisting staff to support women choosing to use self-hypnosis in labour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge of social anxiety disorder relative to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among educational professionals. (United States)

    Herbert, James D; Crittenden, Kia; Dalrymple, Kristy L


    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), the 3rd most common psychiatric disorder in the United States, follows a chronic and unremitting course, often resulting in severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. Despite a typical age of onset in early adolescence, the disorder is rarely recognized and treated in adolescent populations. Given its early age of onset, school professionals are arguably in the best position to detect symptoms of SAD and to provide appropriate referrals for assessment and intervention. This study examined the knowledge that teachers, school counselors, and school psychologists have of SAD in relation to their knowledge of a prototypical externalizing disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results suggest that all 3 groups of educational professionals are surprisingly unfamiliar with adolescent SAD.

  1. Translating Knowledge From a Family Systems Approach to Clinical Practice: Insights From Knowledge Translation Research Experiences. (United States)

    Duhamel, Fabie


    While there has been continued growth in family nursing knowledge, the complex process of implementing and sustaining family nursing in health care settings continues to be a challenge for family nursing researchers and clinicians alike. Developing knowledge and skills about how to translate family nursing theory to practice settings is a global priority to make family nursing more visible. There is a critical need for more research methods and research evidence about how to best move family nursing knowledge into action. Enhancing health care practice is a multifactorial process that calls for a systemic perspective to ensure its efficacy and sustainability. This article presents insights derived from lessons learned through recent research experiences of using a knowledge translation model to promote practice changes in health care settings. These insights aim to optimize (a) knowledge translation of a Family Systems Approach (FSA) in practice settings; (b) knowledge translation research processes; and (c) sustainability of desired changes in practice with families in health care settings.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 19: Computer and information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.


    To remain a world leader in aerospace, the US must improve and maintain the professional competency of its engineers and scientists, increase the research and development (R&D) knowledge base, improve productivity, and maximize the integration of recent technological developments into the R&D process. How well these objectives are met, and at what cost, depends on a variety of factors, but largely on the ability of US aerospace engineers and scientists to acquire and process the results of federally funded R&D. The Federal Government's commitment to high speed computing and networking systems presupposes that computer and information technology will play a major role in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. However, we know little about information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The use of computer and information technology by US aerospace engineers and scientists in academia, government, and industry is reported.

  3. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role 1 (United States)

    Rigol-Cuadra, Assumpció; Galbany-Estragué, Paola; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció; Burjales-Martí, Maria Dolors; Rodríguez-Martín, Dolors; Ballester-Ferrando, David


    OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships. METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities. RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances. CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum. PMID:26312637

  4. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assumpció Rigol-Cuadra


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships.METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities.RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances.CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum.

  5. Academic and Professional Communities of Discourse: Generating Knowledge on Transnational Human Resource Management


    Nancy J Adler; Susan Bartholomew


    Increasing global competition is changing the nature of knowledge needed for international human resource management. This article assesses the publishing trends in international organizational behaviour and human resource management (OB/HRM) and interprets their implications for conducting transnational business. A review of over 28,000 articles in seventy-three academic and professional journals identified three important trends in international OB/HRM: first, the focus has shifted from sin...

  6. Training in the Archives: Archival Research as Professional Development (United States)

    Buehl, Jonathan; Chute, Tamar; Fields, Anne


    This article describes the rationale and efficacy of a graduate-level teaching module providing loosely structured practice with real archives. Introducing early career scholars to archival methods changed their beliefs about knowledge, research, teaching, and their discipline(s). This case study suggests that archives can be productive training…

  7. Poor knowledge of age-related fertility decline and assisted reproduction among healthcare professionals. (United States)

    García, Désirée; Vassena, Rita; Prat, Andrés; Vernaeve, Valérie


    Reproduction is a matter of concern for individuals and society due to the postponement of childbearing, and healthcare professionals are the main source of information and counselling. This study aims to evaluate how knowledgeable healthcare professionals are about fertility and assisted reproduction, and to explore attitudes towards social oocyte freezing. A cross-sectional study was performed with 201 professionals (gynaecologists, physicians and nurses) from four public centres in Spain. Participants completed a survey about fertility, IVF, oocyte donation (OD) and social oocyte freezing, between May 2013 and March 2014. Reported mean age limits for pregnancy were 39.5 ± 4.5 (spontaneously), 43.7 ± 5.2 (IVF) and 49.0 ± 6.5 (OD). Gynaecologists reported a younger limit for spontaneous and IVF pregnancies (P 39, compared with 77.3% of other physicians and 72.9% of nurses. Regarding social oocyte freezing, 41.8% of gynaecologists thought it should be offered to every young woman, versus 62.7% of other physicians and 48.9% of nurses (P = 0.041). In conclusion, gynaecologists are more knowledgeable about fertility and assisted reproduction, while more restrictive towards social oocyte freezing. Knowledge and attitudes could influence the quality of information and counselling given to patients. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Involving lay People in Research and Professional Development Through Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke


    Due to the increasing significance of games where lay people are involved in generating knowledge for research or development, the current paper presents a mapping review of status and trends in research of games designed for citizen science, crowdsourcing or community driven research. Using....... Design involvement; and 6. Ethics. The majority of the studies focused on investigating the first three of these themes. Significantly fewer studies involved research on the remaining three categories and the mapping thus indicates that the focus of future research should be on these areas....... a systematic mapping review methodology, the focus was to map and examine research in these types of games or game environments, and to identify potentials and gaps in the field to inform future research. 89 studies were identified through iterative searching and identification processes applying keywords...

  9. The REVEL Project: an Oceanographic Research Immersion Professional Development Program (United States)

    Robigou, V.


    The REVEL Project (Research and Education: Volcanoes, Exploration and Life) is an NSF-funded, professional development program for middle and high school science teachers that are motivated to use deep-sea research and seafloor exploration as tools to implement inquiry-based science in their classrooms, schools, and districts, and to share their experiences with their communities. Initiated in 1996 as a regional program for Northwest science educators, REVEL evolved into a multi-institutional program inviting teachers to practice doing research on sea-going research expeditions. Today the project offers teachers throughout the U. S. an opportunity to participate and contribute to international, multidisciplinary, deep-sea research in the Northeast Pacific ocean to study the relationship between geological processes such as earthquakes and volcanism, fluid circulation and life on our planet. In addition, the program supports teachers to implement research-based, data-oriented activities in their classrooms, and prepares them to use curriculum that will enhance student learning through the research process. Evaluation for year 2003-2004 of the program reveals that the program is designed as a successful research immersion opportunity during which teachers learn content, process, culture and ethos of authentic research. Qualitative results indicate that teachers who have participated in the program assimilate the scientific process over several years and share their expertise in ways most beneficial for their communities for years to come.

  10. Increasing Knowledge -- How to Read a Research Paper (United States)

    ... events Join the fight against LBD! Donate Increasing Knowledge - How to Read a Research Paper Click here ... definition work. As you continue your research, the vocabulary will become more familiar to you, but it ...

  11. A Survey of Knowledge Management Research & Development at NASA Ames Research Center (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)


    This chapter catalogs knowledge management research and development activities at NASA Ames Research Center as of April 2002. A general categorization scheme for knowledge management systems is first introduced. This categorization scheme divides knowledge management capabilities into five broad categories: knowledge capture, knowledge preservation, knowledge augmentation, knowledge dissemination, and knowledge infrastructure. Each of nearly 30 knowledge management systems developed at Ames is then classified according to this system. Finally, a capsule description of each system is presented along with information on deployment status, funding sources, contact information, and both published and internet-based references.

  12. The Effect of Cognitive Apprenticeship-Based Professional Development on Teacher Self-Efficacy of Science Teaching, Motivation, Knowledge Calibration, and Perceptions of Inquiry-Based Teaching (United States)

    Peters-Burton, Erin E.; Merz, Sydney A.; Ramirez, Erin M.; Saroughi, Maryam


    This study investigated the effects of a 1-year professional development (PD) based on a cognitive apprenticeship model of research experiences on inservice teacher self-efficacy of science teaching, motivation, knowledge calibration, and perceptions of inquiry of 19 secondary earth science and biology teachers. The PD facilitator, who serves a…

  13. Access to Knowledge Southern Africa : Universities, Open Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Access to Knowledge Southern Africa : Universities, Open Research and Open Science in the Internet Age. Southern African universities face several constraints to accessing published knowledge (print or digital) for research and teaching. Removing these constraints is essential if universities are to participate effectively in ...

  14. Knowledge Representation and Ontological Model based on Software Engineering Body of Knowledge as a tool to Evaluate Professional and Occupational Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo- Alejandro Quezada Sarmiento


    Full Text Available Knowledge representation is a multidisciplinary subject that needs to apply theories, and techniques from logic, ontology, and computation, for this reason the Bodies of Knowledge (BOK, contain the relevant information for an area of knowledge, and it is necessary for the development of the science, and application in the professional, occupational profiles, and the possible incidence in the industry. This paper showed an evaluation of professional, and occupational profiles based on standard Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK, and ontological model as tool in order to obtain the necessary information to establish the relationship in these contexts.

  15. Reflexively exploring knowledge and power in collaborative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth

    knowledge forms, knowledge interests and wishes as to the research outcome. In official policy discourse and research practices, a positive picture is often painted of dialogue as a site for mutual learning on the basis of the different knowledge forms that the different participants bring with them...... will be designed in order to stimulate dialogue across different analytical perspectives and empirical research. The analytical perspectives on which facilitation will be based are rooted in social constructionist approaches to dialogic communication theory and action research. The challenges of collaborative...... research stem from the methodological, epistemological and ethical problems and dilemmas that are inherent in collaborative knowledge production and communication and which relate to the inexorable workings of knowledge/power. The problems and dilemmas arise in the meeting between participants’ multiple...

  16. Professional development in scientifically based reading instruction: teacher knowledge and reading outcomes. (United States)

    Podhajski, Blanche; Mather, Nancy; Nathan, Jane; Sammons, Janice


    This article reviews the literature and presents data from a study that examined the effects of professional development in scientifically based reading instruction on teacher knowledge and student reading outcomes. The experimental group consisted of four first- and second-grade teachers and their students (n = 33). Three control teachers and their students (n = 14), from a community of significantly higher socioeconomic demographics, were also followed. Experimental teachers participated in a 35-hour course on instruction of phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency and were coached by professional mentors for a year. Although teacher knowledge in the experimental group was initially lower than that of the controls, their scores surpassed the controls on the posttest. First-grade experimental students' growth exceeded the controls in letter name fluency, phonemic segmentation, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading. Second-grade experimental students exceeded controls in phonemic segmentation. Although the teacher sample was small, findings suggest that teachers can improve their knowledge concerning explicit reading instruction and that this new knowledge may contribute to student growth in reading.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reactions Reporting Among Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddeshwara M.G.


    Full Text Available Objectives:  This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR reporting among Healthcare Professionals.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done by survey using questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed to 260 healthcare professionals working at M.R. Medical College and S Nijalingappa Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalaburagi, India.Results: Out 260 people 221 provided the response, giving a response rate of 85%. Among respondents 69.68% were Doctors, 23.53% were Nurses and 6.78% were Pharmacists. 71% of the healthcare professionals knew what are ADRs, 62.4% knew what is pharmacovigilance, 35.7% were aware of Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI and 21.7% knew nearest pharmacovigilance center. 50.2% had seen patients experiencing ADR out of which only 8.1% of them have reported ADR to the concerned unit. 72.4% feel that all the cases of ADR should be reported irrespective of seriousness. Concern that report may be wrong and fear of legal liability were the main factors discouraging them for reporting ADR. Local coordination, Financial Support, ADR reporting awareness programmes were the major expectations from respondents.Conclusion: Healthcare professionals working at HKE Society’s M.R. Medical College and S Nijalingappa Institute of Dental Sciences have positive attitudes towards ADR reporting. However knowledge regarding ADR reporting among Doctors is superior to that of Nurses and Pharmacists, awareness programmes can overcome this problem. But the practice of ADR reporting is poor among all Healthcare professionals.

  18. Roads to knowledge | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 13, 2010 ... Governments seeking effective policies to support their development efforts often need to consult independent experts. The stories of three IDRC-funded research consortia that operate in varied environments demonstrate the range of fruitful approaches available for harnessing outside expertise. “He who ...

  19. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 oct. 2009 ... The editor. Mercedes Botto is Senior Researcher at FLACSO, the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Contenus connexes. Politiques d'innovation régionales dans la zone Mercosur - obstacles et possibilités. Cette subvention soutiendra l'exécution d'une étude des ...

  20. Liberating Knowledge: Research, Feminism, and Adult Education. (United States)

    Barr, Jean

    This book, which is directed toward tutors and learners in women's studies and community-based adult education programs who wish to cross the boundaries between arts, social science, and natural science, explores the relationship between research, feminism, and adult education. The book begins with a preface that provides background information on…

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and experience of health professionals of female genital mutilation (FGM): A qualitative study in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P; Ahmed, Hamdia M; Safari, Kolsoom


    We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and experience of health professionals of female genital mutilation (FGM). The study involved content analysis of semistructured interviews with 21 health professionals. The participants had poor knowledge regarding different aspects of FGM including its types, prevalence, and complications as well as the existing legislation that prohibits FGM. They believed that FGM is mainly practiced for religious reasons and to reduce sexual desire/arousal. Health professionals are apparently not involved in performing FGM, and they do not support its continuation. Health professionals can take a leading role in raising the awareness of women and combating FGM.

  2. Professional development as seen by children’s education teachers in a training-research context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Brostolin


    Full Text Available This article presents part of a broader research developed between July 2010 and October 2013 and proposes an analysis of the professional development of four children’s education teachers participating in a training-research group. The resource used to give support to the reflections was the production of (auto biographical narratives stimulated by mnemonic resources such as photos, films, objects, etc. The analysis reflects their formative journeys and professional development. The fragments analyzed showed the progress of the teachers, from getting to know the school as a space for learning and professional development, remembering moments of initial training, teaching initiation and, later, investing in their career by means of new courses, lato and strictu sensu. The narratives also show that the teachers are aware of their obligation and of the complexity involved in educating a child universally, and of their vulnerability, as well as of the need for constructing their specific professional life that integrates knowledge on childhood in the 21st century.

  3. Research Ethics Consultation: Ethical and Professional Practice Challenges and Recommendations (United States)

    Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin


    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  4. Improving science literacy: The knowledge-transforming process within an on-line professional development project (United States)

    Sherwood, Susan A.


    This study examined connections between science literacy and writing. Science e-mails were written as content-oriented professional development materials for K-8 teachers. E-mail drafts underwent multiple revisions. The study data included drafts, final e-mails, and feedback from the supervising scientist and the e-mails' teacher audience. The analyses, informed by Bereiter & Scardamalia's knowledge-transforming process (1987), Schindler's audience theories (2001), and Johnson and Aragon's on-line instruction framework (2003), sought connections among three components: the writer's struggle between content and discourse, audience, and format. The e-mail drafts indicated a large percentage of text changes involving two or more of the components, primarily concerning discourse. Redundancies surfaced among the components, indicating Bereiter and Scardamalia's knowledge-transforming process sufficiently explained the e-mail project; additional format and audience models were unnecessary. Recommendations for extending the knowledge-transforming process specifically for science are included.

  5. Teaching professional development of science and engineering professors at a research-extensive university: Motivations, meaningfulness, obstacles, and effects (United States)

    Bouwma-Gearhart, Jana

    There is a national movement to improve undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Given the percentage of academics teaching and training at research institutions, there is a parallel movement to improve the quality of teaching-focused professional development for practicing and future STEM educators at these institutions. While research into the effectiveness of teaching professional development at the postsecondary level has increased over the last 40 years, little attention has been paid to understanding faculty perceptions regarding what constitutes effective teaching professional development. Less is known about how to best meet the needs of STEM faculty at research universities and why, given that they are seldom required to engage in teaching professional development, they bother to participate at all. The higher education research community must develop theory grounded in the knowledge and practical experiences of the faculty engaged in teaching professional development. I have studied what motivates twelve research university science and engineering faculty to engage in teaching professional development in light of local supports and barriers and the resulting value of their participation. I have interpreted the experiences of my research participants to indicate that they were motivated to engage in teaching professional development to fulfill a need to bring their teaching competencies in better concordance with their professional strengths as researchers. Once engaged, my research participants increased their teaching competence and achieved more autonomy with respect to their professional practice. As they continued to engage, they internalized the values and practices associated with effective teaching professional development and adopted the commitment to continually problematize their teaching practice as more of their own. My research participants attempted to transfer their revised stance regarding teaching

  6. Library and Information Professionals as Knowledge Engagement Specialists. Theories, Competencies and Current Educational Possibilities in Accredited Graduate Programmes (United States)

    Prado, Javier Calzada; Marzal, Miguel Angel


    Introduction: The role of library and information science professionals as knowledge facilitators is solidly grounded in the profession's theoretical foundations as much as connected with its social relevance. Knowledge science is presented in this paper as a convenient theoretical framework for this mission, and knowledge engagement…

  7. Examining the Professional, Technical, and General Knowledge Competencies Needed by Beginning School-Based Agricultural Education Teachers (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Barrick, R. Kirby


    The philosophy behind the kind of teacher education one receives affects the preparedness of beginning agricultural education teachers. The purpose of this philosophical study was to examine and summarize the professional knowledge, technical knowledge, and general knowledge competencies needed in a comprehensive teacher education program to…

  8. How Teachers Develop Their Professional Knowledge in English Study Group in Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ching


    The purpose of this qualitative research was to understand the perceptions of Taiwanese teachers of the effects of a study group on their professional growth in the workplace. This case study employed the following data collection techniques: (1) informal observations and interviews, (2) focus group interview, (3) semi-structured individual…

  9. Nursing Home Social Workers and Allied Professionals: Enhancing Geriatric Mental Health Knowledge (United States)

    Bonifas, Robin P.


    Research has highlighted the challenges social services professionals face in providing quality psychosocial care to persons living in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). A primary area of difficulty is addressing the needs of persons with mental health conditions, including problematic behaviors associated with dementia. This study evaluated the…

  10. German nursing home professionals' knowledge and specific self-efficacy related to palliative care. (United States)

    Pfister, David; Markett, Sebastian; Müller, Monika; Müller, Sigrun; Grützner, Felix; Rolke, Roman; Kern, Martina; Schmidt-Wolf, Gabriele; Radbruch, Lukas


    In Germany, more and more terminally ill patients spend their last days of life in nursing homes, and this presents a challenge for these institutions. Even though palliative care is a growing domain in health care, no quantitative in-depth evaluations of the status quo in nursing homes has been conducted so far in Germany, partly because of lacking measuring tools. This study used a new questionnaire to assess German health care professionals' theoretical knowledge of palliative care and their perceived self-efficacy. Both variables have been proven to be indicators for the quality of the implementation of palliative care in nursing homes. We used the Bonn Palliative Care Knowledge Test (Bonner Palliativwissenstest, BPW) questionnaire to measure knowledge of palliative care in the domains of medicine, care, and psychosocial care and to measure self-efficacy relating to palliative care. Care workers (N=130) in five nursing homes in the region of Aachen in western Germany answered the questionnaires. The results show low knowledge (on average 52.8% correct answers) and self-efficacy relating to palliative care, although work with dying people is their daily challenge. While general knowledge correlated with work experience, a negative correlation of specific self-efficacy with age and working experience was observed. Lower self-efficacy of care workers experienced in palliative care probably implies that the difficulty of palliative care skills is underestimated by inexperienced care workers. Palliative care training is urgently needed to improve knowledge and self-efficacy. Guidance to assist care professionals involved in palliative care in nursing homes needs to be developed and provided.

  11. An outline of the need for psychology knowledge in health professionals: implications for community development and breast cancer prevention. (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Saidu, Mohammed Bashir


    Knowledge of health and community psychology in health professionals influences psychosocial and community determinants of health and promoting participation in disease prevention at the community level. This paper appraises the potential of knowledge on psychology in health care professionals and its contribution to community empowerment through individual behavior change and health practice. The authors proposed a schematic model for the use of psychological knowledge in health professionals to promote participation in health interventions/disease prevention programs in developing countries. By implication, the paper provides a vision on policies towards supporting breast cancer secondary prevention efforts for community health development in Asian countries.

  12. Relation Analysis of Knowledge Management, Research, and Innovation in University Research Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyder Paez-Logreira


    Full Text Available Knowledge is a competitive advantage for companies. Knowledge Management helps to keep this competitiveness. Universities face with challenges in research, innovation and international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper includes studying Knowledge Management Models, and Innovation Models apply to Research Groups of Universities, through an analysis of relation in inter-organizational level. Some researchers and leaders of research groups participated in a survey about knowledge management and innovation. Here we show the relationship between knowledge management, innovation and research, including processes and operations performed by universities around these. We organize the results in three dimensions: Knowledge Management perception, the relationship between Knowledge Management and Innovation, and Strategic Knowledge organization. Too, we identify a generality of good practices, challenges, and limitations on Research Groups for Knowledge Management.

  13. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  14. Towards a semantic web connecting knowledge in academic research

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    Cope, Bill; Magee, Liam


    This book addresses the question of how knowledge is currently documented, and may soon be documented in the context of what it calls 'semantic publishing'. This takes two forms: a more narrowly and technically defined 'semantic web'; as well as a broader notion of semantic publishing. This book examines the ways in which knowledge is represented in journal articles and books. By contrast, it goes on to explore the potential impacts of semantic publishing on academic research and authorship. It sets this in the context of changing knowledge ecologies: the way research is done; the way knowledg

  15. Action learning enhances professional development of research supervisors: an Australian health science exemplar. (United States)

    Davis, Kierrynn; Brownie, Sonya; Doran, Frances; Evans, Sue; Hutchinson, Marie; Mozolic-Staunton, Beth; Provost, Stephen; van Aken, Rosalie


    The worldwide academic workforce is ageing. At the same time, health and human services workforces are expanding. The preparation of educators to fill gaps in expertise and to position the health sciences for future growth is an urgent need. The findings from a recent action learning project that aimed to enhance the professional growth and development of higher degree researcher student supervisors in a School of Health and Human Sciences are presented. Seven early career researchers and the facilitator met for two hours every two to three weeks over 4 months between April and July 2010, in a rural and regional university in New South Wales, Australia. The processes initiated were a combination of experiential knowledge, referral to relevant published reports, use of an effective supervision checklist, and critical conversations. Learning outcomes centered on higher degree management and supervision pedagogy, communities of practice, knowledge translation, and the establishment of a research culture. The contextual barriers and implications of the methodology and learning outcomes for the professional development of health and human science practitioners, researchers and educators is also discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. A 'good' ethical review: audit and professionalism in research ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel


    How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... by FERCAP, which recognises committees according to a set of standards that are designed to render ‘local’ committees internationally legible. The article adds to a growing comparative literature that expands studies of audit-like measuring and disciplining activities beyond western contexts and enriches...

  17. Integrated Knowledge Translation: illustrated with outcome research in mental health. (United States)

    Preyde, Michele; Carter, Jeff; Penney, Randy; Lazure, Kelly; Vanderkooy, John; Chevalier, Pat


    Through this article the authors present a case summary of the early phases of research conducted with an Integrated Knowledge Translation (iKT) approach utilizing four factors: research question, research approach, feasibility, and outcome. iKT refers to an approach for conducting research in which community partners, referred to as knowledge users, are engaged in the entire research process. In this collaborative approach, knowledge users and researchers jointly devise the entire research agenda beginning with the development of the research question(s), determination of a feasible research design and feasible methods, interpretation of the results, dissemination of the findings, and the translation of knowledge into practice or policy decisions. Engaging clinical or community partners in the research enterprise can enhance the utility of the research results and facilitate its uptake. This collaboration can be a complex arrangement and flexibility may be required to accommodate the various configurations that the collaboration can take. For example, the research question can be jointly determined and refined; however, one person must take the responsibility for orchestrating the project, including preparing the proposal and application to the Research Ethics Board. This collaborative effort also requires the simultaneous navigation of barriers and facilitators to the research enterprise. Navigating these elements becomes part of the conduct of research with the potential for rewarding results, including an enriched work experience for clinical partners and investigators. One practice implication is that iKT may be considered of great utility to service providers due to its field friendly nature.

  18. Contemporary HIV/AIDS research: Insights from knowledge management theory. (United States)

    Callaghan, Chris William


    Knowledge management as a field is concerned with the management of knowledge, including the management of knowledge in research processes. Knowledge management theory has the potential to support research into problems such as HIV, antibiotic resistance and others, particularly in terms of aspects of scientific research related to the contribution of social science. To date, however, these challenges remain with us, and theoretical contributions that can complement natural science efforts to eradicate these problems are needed. This paper seeks to offer a theoretical contribution grounded in Kuhn's paradigm theory of innovation, and in the argument by Lakatos that scientific research can be fundamentally non-innovative, which suggests that social science aspects of knowledge creation may hold the key to more effective biomedical innovation. Given the consequences of ongoing and emerging global crises, and the failure of knowledge systems of scientific research to solve such problems outright, this paper provides a review of theory and literature arguing for a new paradigm in scientific research, based on the development of global systems to maximise research collaborations. A global systems approach effectively includes social science theory development as an important complement to the natural sciences research process. Arguably, information technology and social media technology have developed to the point at which solutions to knowledge aggregation challenges can enable solutions to knowledge problems on a scale hitherto unimaginable. Expert and non-expert crowdsourced inputs can enable problem-solving through exponentially increasing problem-solving inputs, using the 'crowd,' thereby increasing collaborations dramatically. It is argued that these developments herald a new era of participatory research, or a democratisation of research, which offers new hope for solving global social problems. This paper seeks to contribute to this end, and to the recognition

  19. [Validation of the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals in the Living Will Declaration process]. (United States)

    Contreras-Fernández, Eugenio; Barón-López, Francisco Javier; Méndez-Martínez, Camila; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Cabezón Rodríguez, Isabel; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco


    Evaluate the validity and reliability of the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals questionnaire on the Living Will Declaration (LWD) process. Cross-sectional study structured into 3 phases: (i)pilot questionnaire administered with paper to assess losses and adjustment problems; (ii)assessment of the validity and internal reliability, and (iii)assessment of the pre-filtering questionnaire stability (test-retest). Costa del Sol (Malaga) Health Area. January 2014 to April 2015. Healthcare professionals of the Costa del Sol Primary Care District and the Costa del Sol Health Agency. There were 391 (23.6%) responses, and 100 participated in the stability assessment (83 responses). The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts: (i)Knowledge (5 dimensions and 41 items), and (ii)Attitudes (2 dimensions and 17 items). In the pilot study, none of the items lost over 10%. In the evaluation phase of validity and reliability, the questionnaire was reduced to 41 items (29 of knowledge, and 12 of attitudes). In the stability evaluation phase, all items evaluated met the requirement of a kappa higher than 0.2, or had a percentage of absolute agreement exceeding 75%. The questionnaire will identify the status and areas for improvement in the health care setting, and then will allow an improved culture of LWD process in general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Digital Nutrition Education Intervention on the Nutritional Knowledge Levels of Information Technology Professionals. (United States)

    Sharma, Priya; Rani, M Usha


    The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in knowledge of information technology (IT) professionals after receiving a nutrition education intervention for a month. The sample comprised of 40 IT professionals (29 males and 11 females). The sample was drawn from four IT companies of Hyderabad city using random sampling techniques. The data on the general information of the subjects was collected. The data regarding the commonly accessed sources of nutrition and health information by the subjects was also obtained from the study. The intervention study group received nutrition education by distribution of the developed CD-ROMs to them followed by interactive sessions. To assess the impact of nutrition education intervention, the knowledge assessment questionnaire (KAQ) was developed and administered before and after the education programme. A significant improvement in the mean nutritional knowledge scores was observed among the total study subjects from 22.30 to 40.55 after the intervention (p educated groups on nutrition, physical activity and overall health education to improve their health, lifestyle and eating habits.

  1. Body mass index, nutritional knowledge, and eating behaviors in elite student and professional ballet dancers. (United States)

    Wyon, Matthew A; Hutchings, Kate M; Wells, Abigail; Nevill, Alan M


    It is recognized that there is a high esthetic demand in ballet, and this has implications on dancers' body mass index (BMI) and eating behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine the association between BMI, eating attitudes, and nutritional knowledge of elite student and professional ballet dancers. Observational design. Institutional. One hundred eighty-nine participants from an elite full-time dance school (M = 53, F = 86) and from an elite ballet company (M = 16, F = 25) volunteered for the study. There were no exclusion criteria. Anthropometric data (height and mass), General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ), and the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) were collected from each participant. Univariate analysis of variance was used to examine differences in gender and group for BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Regression analyses were applied to examine interactions between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. Professional dancers had significantly greater BMI than student dancers (P Student dancers had a significant interaction between year group and gender because of significantly higher EAT-26 scores for females in years 10 and 12. Regression analysis of the subcategories (gender and group) reported a number of significant relationships between BMI, GNKQ, and EAT-26. The findings suggest that dancers with disordered eating also display lower levels of nutritional knowledge, and this may have an impact on BMI. Female students' eating attitudes and BMI should especially be monitored during periods of adolescent development.

  2. Attitudes towards and knowledge of nutrition support amongst health care professionals on London intensive care units. (United States)

    Lane, C; Wedlake, L J; Dougherty, L; Shaw, C


    Nutrition support on intensive care units (ICUs) has gained a higher profile ever since the development of published guidelines (Clin. Nutr. 2006, 25, 210; J. Parenter. Enteral Nutr. 2009, 33, 277;; Clin. Nutr. 2009, 28, 387). However, there are limited data available on knowledge and attitudes towards nutrition support specific to ICU. An online survey was sent to all healthcare professionals working on ICUs across London via an e-mail link. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge base of and attitudes of staff towards nutrition support, within an ICU setting, and to understand their educational needs. The results were analysed using descriptive statistics. Attitudes were in line with the evidence in current nutrition guidelines. The proportion of healthcare professionals who were regarded as demonstrating sufficient understanding of the evidence set out in the nutrition support guidelines were 44% of clinicians, 26% of nurses, 76% of dietitians and 67% of other staff. In total, 59% of staff wanted more education on a number of aspects related to nutrition support on ICU. The present study highlights the need for more prominent dissemination of the current guidelines and illustrates the preferred mode. Specific gaps in knowledge regarding energy intake and the use of parenteral feeding are highlighted. It is hoped that the present survey will help to guide education in this area. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  3. Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain: Personal and Professional Characteristics and Patient Reported Pain Satisfaction. (United States)

    Brant, Jeannine M; Mohr, Carla; Coombs, Nicholas C; Finn, Susan; Wilmarth, Estella


    Pain is a nursing sensitive indicator and yet pain is often not well managed in both hospital and ambulatory settings. Improving nurse knowledge and attitudes about pain may translate to improved patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes about pain (KAP) in nurses who work in diverse settings, professional and personal characteristics that predict KAP, and whether KAP correlated with patient satisfaction according to Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers (HCAHPS). Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational study. A large integrated health care facility in the northwest. A total of 217 registered nurses working in acute, ambulatory, and long-term care. A Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Survey was administered to registered nurses in diverse settings. Scores were examined for personal and professional predictors of KAP and correlated with HCAHPS patient satisfaction surveys. Nurses scored an average of 72%; nurses in long-term care scored the highest. Having more than 5 years of nursing experience, being a certified nurse, and receiving pain education in the last year were predictive of a higher score on the KAP survey, which explained only 9.8% of the variance. Unit mean KAP scores were highly correlated with unit-based HCAHPS scores (r = 0.917, p = .01). Certified nurses scored higher on the KAP survey, consistent with other studies. This study suggests that having more knowledge and better attitudes about pain may improve patient satisfaction of pain. Further studies are needed that link knowledge and attitudes about pain to patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Deconstructing and Assessing Knowledge and Awareness in Public Health Research


    Trevethan, Robert


    When people’s knowledge and awareness are the subject of public health research, the meanings applied to the words knowledge and awareness are often unclear. Although frequently used interchangeably without that being problematic, these words sometimes appear to have different intended meanings but those meanings are not made explicit or, despite the meanings having been made explicit, they are not adhered to. It is necessary to overcome obscurities when knowledge and awareness are intended t...

  5. Peer review, basic research, and engineering: Defining a role for QA professionals in basic research environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnarczuk, M.


    Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.

  6. Knowledge mobilization in bridging patient-practitioner-researcher boundaries: A systematic integrative review protocol. (United States)

    Cowdell, Fiona; Booth, Andrew; Appleby, Ben


    To review published literature to identify when and how patients and healthcare practitioners have been involved in knowledge mobilization activity and the impact this may have had on their care. Improving patient outcomes, satisfaction and quality of care is increasingly reliant on shared decision-making between health professionals and patients. Knowledge mobilization, at its simplest: "moving knowledge to where it can be most useful" is a growing field of academic study. To date, it appears that much effort has focused on moving knowledge from researchers to healthcare practitioners. Knowledge mobilization to patients is currently under-researched. Integrative review. Methods of integrative review will be used to address the review problem. PRISMA guidelines were used as a general framework to guide structuring and reporting the review. Elements of method-specific reporting guidelines for specific streams of evidence will be used as required. This review will aim to provide a broad and deep understanding of patient-practitioner-researcher engagement in knowledge mobilization activity. This synthesis of the extant literature should offer insights into the optimum characteristics of methods for bridging patient-practitioner-researcher boundaries in knowledge mobilization action. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The case for integrating grounded theory and participatory action research: empowering clients to inform professional practice. (United States)

    Teram, Eli; Schachter, Candice L; Stalker, Carol A


    Grounded theory and participatory action research methods are distinct approaches to qualitative inquiry. Although grounded theory has been conceptualized in constructivist terms, it has elements of positivist thinking with an image of neutral search for objective truth through rigorous data collection and analysis. Participatory action research is based on a critique of this image and calls for more inclusive research processes. It questions the possibility of objective social sciences and aspires to engage people actively in all stages of generating knowledge. The authors applied both approaches in a project designed to explore the experiences of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse with physical therapy and subsequently develop a handbook on sensitive practice for clinicians that takes into consideration the needs and perspectives of these clients. Building on this experience, they argue that the integration of grounded theory and participatory action research can empower clients to inform professional practice.

  8. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Apr 5, 2009 ... It shows how research can contribute to better governance in at least three ways: by encouraging open inquiry and debate, by empowering people with the knowledge to hold governments accountable, and by enlarging the array of policy options and solutions available to the policy process. Knowledge to ...

  9. Exploring a Knowledge-focused Trajectory for Researching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the past twenty years of environmental learning in the South African curriculum in order to consider how one might best research a knowledge focus within the Fundisa for Change national teacher education programme. In exploring this knowledge focus, the paper draws on international literature.

  10. Evidence Check: Knowledge Brokering to Commission Research Reviews for Policy (United States)

    Campbell, Danielle; Donald, Braedon; Moore, Gabriel; Frew, Deborah


    Evidence Check, a programme managed by the Sax Institute in Sydney, Australia, assists Australian policy makers to commission quality reviews of research to inform health policy decision making. The programme involves an iterative knowledge brokering process to formulate and refine the scope of and questions for the review. The knowledge brokering…

  11. The Impact of Training on School Professionals' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Regarding HIV/AIDS and Adolescent Homosexuality. (United States)

    Remafedi, Gary


    Examines the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) training on 129 secondary school professionals. Training focused on adolescents and homosexuality. Results indicate the trained professionals increased knowledge and tolerance, exhibited constructive behaviors, and were more likely to teach about…

  12. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals-Iran. (United States)

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad


    Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians' competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students' curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject.The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05.Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%-52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%-63.55%) had not heard the term "medical professionalism" before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67.The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to have a proper knowledge of

  13. Organizational Cultural Theory and Research Administration Knowledge Management (United States)

    Lehman, Dwayne W.


    The administration and management of sponsored projects spans many levels within an institution of higher education. Research administration professionals require an operational understanding of a complex and intertwined set of disciplines that include project management, finance, legal, ethics, communication, and business acumen. The explicit…

  14. Healthcare professionals? and mothers? knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study


    Cameron, Sonya Lynne; Heath, Anne-Louise Mary; Taylor, Rachael Waring


    Objective Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative approach for introducing complementary foods to infants that emphasises infant self-feeding rather than adult spoon-feeding. Here we examined healthcare professionals? and mothers? knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Design, setting and participants Healthcare professionals (n=31) and mothers who had used BLW (n=20) completed a semistructured interview using one of two tailored interview schedules examining their knowledge o...

  15. Knowledge Development and Utilization: Getting Employability Research into Public Use. (United States)

    Miguel, Richard J.; And Others

    The Knowledge Development and Utilization project was created to facilitate the public use of research by educators and trainers in the employability development field. The research to be disseminated emanated from the Youth Employability Research Program findings concerning employer demand and schooling effectiveness for employability. A…

  16. U.S. and Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors toward dietary supplements: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.

  17. Enhancing Knowledge Sharing and Research Collaboration among Academics: The Role of Knowledge Management (United States)

    Tan, Christine Nya-Ling


    Although knowledge sharing (KS) has been acknowledged as important, universities face issues that may hinder active sharing among its faculty members such as the absence of trust among its members or insufficient incentives rewarded to those who deserved it. The aim of this research is to focus on the impact of knowledge management (KM) factors in…

  18. Teaching and Personal Educational Knowledge--Conceptual Considerations for Research on Knowledge Transformation (United States)

    Wieser, Clemens


    Teacher knowledge is currently explored in three major research paradigms. This paper reviews how teaching and personal educational knowledge are related in these three paradigms, namely: the evidence paradigm, the life history paradigm and the practice theory paradigm. The paradigms can be linked through their demand to elaborate knowledge…

  19. Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research


    Van Wesel, F.


    Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn based on the research findings. Although this procedure is a logical one, more scientific knowledge can be gained by starting a research project with a sharper focu...

  20. University Knowledge Management Tool for Academic Research Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela OPREA


    Full Text Available The implementation of an efficient university knowledge management system involves the de-velopment of several software tools that assist the decision making process for the three main activities of a university: teaching, research, and management. Artificial intelligence provides a variety of techniques that can be used by such tools: machine learning, data mining, text mining, knowledge based systems, expert systems, case-based reasoning, decision support systems, intelligent agents etc. In this paper it is proposed a generic structure of a university knowledge management system, and it is presented an expert system, ACDI_UPG, developed for academic research activity evaluation, that can be used as a decision support tool by the university knowledge management system for planning future research activities according to the main objectives of the university and of the national / international academic research funding organizations.

  1. Wisdom in professional knowledge: Why it can be valuable to listen to the voices of senior psychotherapists. (United States)

    Råbu, Marit; McLeod, John


    To explore the nature of professional wisdom, through learning from the experiences of a group of highly experienced senior therapists. Twelve senior psychotherapists took part in qualitative in-depth interviews about their professional role and their views around a range of aspects of therapy theory and practice. Interview transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis. The analysis yielded nine wisdom themes, clustered within three domains. Each domain represented efforts to resolve dilemmas arising from the experience of being a therapist, around the use of theory in psychotherapy practice, the type of therapeutic relationship that is most helpful for clients, and the experience of therapeutic failure. Therapist wisdom can be viewed as a form of contextualized knowledge, which functions as a source of emergent insights that arise as responses to the limitations of prevailing ways of thinking. Research into the nature of therapist wisdom draws attention to sources of knowledge within philosophy and the humanities that have the potential to enhance therapy practice and contribute to our understanding of therapist expertise.

  2. Knowledge in palliative care of nursing professionals at a Spanish hospital. (United States)

    Chover-Sierra, Elena; Martínez-Sabater, Antonio; Lapeña-Moñux, Yolanda


    to determine the level of knowledge in palliative care of nursing staff at a Spanish tertiary care hospital. descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data were collected about the results of the Spanish version of the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), sociodemographic aspects, education level and experience in the field of palliative care. Univariate and bivariate descriptive analysis was applied. Statistical significance was set at p palliative care and 64.2% educational background (mainly basic education). The mean percentage of hits on the quiz was 54%, with statistically significant differences in function of the participants' education and experience in palliative care. although the participants show sufficient knowledge on palliative care, they would benefit from a specific training program, in function of the mistaken concepts identified through the quiz, which showed to be a useful tool to diagnose professionals' educational needs in palliative care.

  3. Oral Health-Related Complications of Breast Cancer Treatment: Assessing Dental Hygienists’ Knowledge and Professional Practice (United States)

    Taichman, L. Susan; Gomez, Grace; Inglehart, Marita Rohr


    Objective Approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer in the U.S. every year. These patients commonly suffer from oral complications of their cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to assess dental hygienists’ knowledge and professional practice related to providing care for breast cancer patients. Methods A pre-tested 43-item survey was mailed to a random sample of 10% of all licensed dental hygienists in the State of Michigan (N=962). The survey assessed the respondents’ knowledge of potential oral complications of breast cancer treatments as well as their professional practices when treating patients with breast cancer. After two mailings, the response rate was 37% (N=331). Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using SAS. Results Many dental hygienists were unaware of the recommended clinical guidelines for treating breast cancer patients and lacked specific knowledge pertaining to the commonly prescribed anti-estrogen medications for pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Over 70% of the respondents indicated they were unfamiliar with the AI class of medications. Only 13% of dental hygienists correctly identified the mechanism of action of anti-estrogen therapy. Dental hygienists reported increased gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, periodontal pocketing, xerostomia and burning tissues in patients receiving anti-estrogen therapies. Less than 10% believed that their knowledge of breast cancer treatments and the oral side effects is up to date. Conclusions Results indicate a need for more education about the potential oral effects of breast cancer therapies and about providing the best possible care for patients undergoing breast cancer treatment. PMID:26338905

  4. Building Virtual Collaborative Research Community Using Knowledge Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Ling Shih


    Full Text Available Many online communities nowadays are emphasized more on peer interactions and information sharing among members; very few online communities are built with knowledge management in nature supported by knowledge management system (KMS. This study aims to present a community of practice on how to effectively adopt a knowledge management system (KMS to neutralize a cyber collaborative learning community for a research lab in a higher education setting. A longitudinal case for 7 years was used to analyze the retention and extension of participants‟ community of practice experiences. Interviews were conducted for the comparison between experiences and theories. It was found that the transformations of tacit and explicit knowledge are in accordance with the framework of Nonaka‟s model of knowledge management from which we elicit the strategies and suggestions to the adoption and implementation of virtual collaborative research community supported by KMS.

  5. An Examination of the Technical Product Knowledge of Contracting Professionals at Air Force System Program Offices (United States)


    the surveys via electronic mail with a web address link to Survey Monkey . The surveys were administered on a voluntary basis; participation was not...they acquire, yet within the government procurement world , product knowledge is never focused on or defined in training or education. The most...closely associated government-recognized term with the concept of product knowledge is market research, which is alluded to in the smallest section of the

  6. [Hospital biomedical research through the satisfaction of a Health Research Institute professionals]. (United States)

    Olmedo, C; Plá, R; Bellón, J M; Bardinet, T; Buño, I; Bañares, R


    A Health Research Institute is a powerful strategic commitment to promote biomedical research in hospitals. To assess user satisfaction is an essential quality requirement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional satisfaction in a Health Research Institute, a hospital biomedical research centre par excellence. Observational study was conducted using a satisfaction questionnaire on Health Research Institute researchers. The explored dimensions were derived from the services offered by the Institute to researchers, and are structured around 4 axes of a five-year Strategic Plan. A descriptive and analytical study was performed depending on adjustment variables. Internal consistency was also calculated. The questionnaire was completed by 108 researchers (15% response). The most valued strategic aspect was the structuring Areas and Research Groups and political communication and dissemination. The overall rating was 7.25 out of 10. Suggestions for improvement refer to the need for help in recruitment, and research infrastructures. High internal consistency was found in the questionnaire (Cronbach alpha of 0.9). So far research policies in health and biomedical environment have not been sufficiently evaluated by professionals in our field. Systematic evaluations of satisfaction and expectations of key stakeholders is an essential tool for analysis, participation in continuous improvement and advancing excellence in health research. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China. (United States)

    Su, Tong; Han, Xue; Chen, Fei; Du, Yan; Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen


    Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (pstudents performed better than clinical medical students (pTraining needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. 'Lecture' and 'practical training' were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (ptraining needs into consideration.

  8. Pediatric information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences of health care professionals in general emergency departments: Results from the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) Needs Assessment. (United States)

    Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; Given, Lisa M; Hartling, Lisa; Johnson, David W; Jabbour, Mona; Klassen, Terry P


    The majority of children requiring emergency care are treated in general emergency departments (EDs) with variable levels of pediatric care expertise. The goal of the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) initiative is to implement the latest research in pediatric emergency medicine in general EDs to reduce clinical variation. To determine national pediatric information needs, seeking behaviours, and preferences of health care professionals working in general EDs. An electronic cross-sectional survey was conducted with health care professionals in 32 Canadian general EDs. Data were collected in the EDs using the iPad and in-person data collectors. Total of 1,471 surveys were completed (57.1% response rate). Health care professionals sought information on children's health care by talking to colleagues (n=1,208, 82.1%), visiting specific medical/health websites (n=994, 67.7%), and professional development opportunities (n=941, 64.4%). Preferred child health resources included protocols and accepted treatments for common conditions (n=969, 68%), clinical pathways and practice guidelines (n=951, 66%), and evidence-based information on new diagnoses and treatments (n=866, 61%). Additional pediatric clinical information is needed about multisystem trauma (n=693, 49%), severe head injury (n=615, 43%), and meningitis (n=559, 39%). Health care professionals preferred to receive child health information through professional development opportunities (n=1,131, 80%) and printed summaries (n=885, 63%). By understanding health care professionals' information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences, knowledge synthesis and knowledge translation initiatives can be targeted to improve pediatric emergency care. The findings from this study will inform the following two phases of the TREKK initiative to bridge the research-practice gap in Canadian general EDs.

  9. Concussion knowledge and management practices among coaches and medical staff in Irish professional rugby teams. (United States)

    Fraas, M R; Coughlan, G F; Hart, E C; McCarthy, C


    Self-reported concussion rates among U-20 and elite rugby union players in Ireland are 45-48%. Half of these injuries go unreported. Accurate knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms and appropriate management practices among coaches and medical staff is important to improve the welfare of players. Examine concussion knowledge among coaches, and management techniques among medical staff of professional Irish rugby teams. Surveys were administered to 11 coaches and 12 medical staff at the end of the 2010-2011 season. Coaches demonstrated an accurate knowledge of concussion with a good understanding of concussion-related symptoms. Medical staff reported using a variety of methods for assessing concussion and making return-to-play decisions. Reliance on subjective clinical methods was evident, with less reliance on objective postural stability performance. Overall, the coaches in this investigation have accurate knowledge of concussion and medical staff use effective techniques for managing this injury. On-going education is needed to assist coaches in identifying concussion signs and symptoms. It is recommended that medical staff increase their reliance on objective methods for assessment and return-to-play decision making.

  10. Research's Practice and Barriers of Knowledge Translation in Iran. (United States)

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Gholami, Jaleh; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Nedjat, Sima; Maleki, Katayoun; Majdzadeh, Reza


    Knowledge Translation is a process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and application of knowledge to improve the health, services and products In this study we have attempted to examine the knowledge translation practice and its perceived barriers on the universalities and research institutes (research sector) in Iran. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire had prepared for this study was completed by 88 authors country wide from randomly selected papers. In the qualitative section 13 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions were held with managers and policy makers, clinical and health service providers, and researchers. Twenty four percent of the authors had no interaction whatsoever with the target audience. Lack of expectation toward creating change in the target audience, researchers' incentives, low level of trust among researchers and decision makers, absence of a predefined mechanism for delivery of research results and inappropriate research priorities were among the most important barriers identified in the qualitative section. Translation of research findings into some concrete outputs which can affect health of people is not in mandate of researchers and subsequently they are not prepared for this as well. Based on the barriers identified, it seems that the following interventions are necessary: cooperation among policy makers at macro and meso (organizational) level and the research sector; establishing networks for researchers and decision makers in choosing the research topic, priority setting, and building trust among researchers and policy makers.

  11. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals—Iran (United States)

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad


    Abstract Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians’ competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students’ curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject. The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05. Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%–52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%–63.55%) had not heard the term “medical professionalism” before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67. The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to

  12. Integration of research and teaching practices and the training of reflective professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Therrien


    Full Text Available This study approaches critical reflexivity as a mediating element of the integration between research and teaching practices in the training of the education professional. Based on the parameter of research as an educational principle associated to the presupposition that involvement in research activities encourages the development of rationalities that support reflective practices, which lead the most significant and independent learning processes, this essay aims at, on the one hand, identifying “macro” theoretic schemes that may support the analysis of different knowledge types and therefore, the rationalities that affect theory-practice dynamics in education initiatives and on the other hand, finding “micro” theoretical-practical schemes for reflective training related to the practice in learning contexts. The study analyzes proposals made by reference authors, as well as educational practices that support enunciated presuppositions.

  13. Knowledge Integration and Inter-Disciplinary Communication in Action Research

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    Hahn Heidi Ann


    Full Text Available In a plenary talk at WMSCI 2012 entitled "Planning for Action Research: Looking at Practice through a Different Lens," this author asserted that behavioral science practitioners, often "back into" action research – they start out doing a process improvement or intervention and discover something along the way, i.e., generalizable knowledge, that seems worthwhile to share with their community of practice. It was further asserted that, had the efforts been conceived of as research from the outset, the contributions to the body of knowledge would be more robust and the utility of the projects would improve as well. This paper continues on that theme. Action research and process improvement methods are briefly described and compared. A comparison of two Los Alamos National Laboratory engineering ethics training projects – one developed using a process improvement framework, the other using an action research framework – is put forth to provide evidence that use of a research "lens" can enhance behavioral science interventions and the knowledge that may result from them. The linkage between the Specifying Learning and Diagnosing stages of the Action Research Cycle provides one mechanism for integrating the knowledge gained into the product or process being studied and should provide a reinforcing loop that leads to continual improvement. The collaborative relationships among researchers and the individual, group, or organization that is the subject of the imp rovement op p ortunity (the "client", who are likely from very different backgrounds, and the interpretive epistemology that are among the hallmarks of action research also contribute to the quality of the knowledge gained. This paper closes with a discussion of how Inter-Disciplinary Communication is embedded within the action research paradigm and how this likely also enriches the knowledge gained.

  14. Formation of students of higher educational institutions ready to use injury-prevention knowledge in professional work.

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    Gavrilenko I.V.


    Full Text Available The article explains the theoretical model of the readiness of future teachers of physical culture to use injury-prevention knowledge in professional work. Professional readiness of future teachers to teaching involves his professional qualifications and a set of personal qualities and properties. In order to assess the effectiveness of the model components have been identified as signs proving the degree of quality training for students. Efficiency of the model is evaluated on specific indicators, taking into account the level of preparedness for future professionals in injury-prevention activities.

  15. The Impact of the Next Generation Science Standards on Future Professional Development and Astronomy Education Research (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn


    The Next Generation Science Standards will have a profound impact on the future science education of students and professional development for teachers. The science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas laid out in the Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2011) will change the focus and methods of how we prepare teachers to meet these new standards. Extending beyond just the use of inquiry in the classroom, teachers will need support designing and implementing integrated experiences for students that require them to apply knowledge of content and practices. Integrating the three dimensions central to the new standards will pose curricular challenges and create opportunities for innovative space science projects and instruction. The science research and technology community will have an important role in supporting authentic classroom practices as well as training and support of teachers in these new ways of presenting science and technology. These changes will require a new focus for teacher professional development and new ways to research impacts of teacher training and changes in classroom practice. In addition, new and innovative tools will be needed to assess mastery of students’ knowledge of practices and the ways teachers effectively help students achieve these new goals. The astronomy education community has much to offer as K-12 and undergraduate level science educators rethink and redefine what it means to be scientifically literate and figure out how to truly measure the success of these new ways of teaching science.

  16. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices. (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross


    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  17. Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece

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    Anastasia Moysidou


    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4 out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate

  18. Female genital mutilation/cutting: changes and trends in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among health care professionals in The Gambia

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    Kaplan Marcusán A


    Full Text Available Adriana Kaplan Marcusán,1–3 Laura Riba Singla,3 Mass Laye,3 Dodou M Secka,3 Mireia Utzet,4 Marie-Alix Le Charles3 1Social Knowledge Transfer/Parc de Recerca UAB – Santander, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Interdisciplinary Group for the Study and Prevention of Harmful Traditional Practices, Department of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Wassu Gambia Kafo, Fajara F Section, The Gambia; 4Africa and Latin America Research Group, Unit of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Background: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C is a harmful traditional practice that affects two out of three girls in The Gambia, seriously threatening their life and well-being with severe health consequences. By tracking the reference values established in former research conducted between 2009 and 2011, the objectives of this study are to explore trends and to measure and assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among health care professionals (HCPs in The Gambia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed to collect and analyze data from an overall stratified sample consisting of 1,288 HCPs including health professionals and students throughout the six regions of The Gambia. Data were collected by the implementation of a self-administered written knowledge, attitudes, and practices questionnaire between 2012 and 2014.Results: The results of this study showed that 76.4% of HCPs are eager to abandon FGM/C, and 71.6% of them regard it as a harmful practice with negative consequences on life and health. HCPs reported more knowledge and favorable attitudes towards FGM/C abandonment, being better able to identify the practice, more aware of its health complications, and more concerned in their essential role as social agents of change. However, 25.4% of HCPs still embraced the continuation of the

  19. Experienced EFL Teachers' Professional Practical Knowledge, Reasoning and Classroom Decision Making in Egypt: Views from the Inside Out (United States)

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed


    This study aimed to investigate the areas that constituted the professional practical knowledge of experienced English as a Foreign Language teachers in Egypt and how their knowledge informed their classroom practice. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 236 preparatory and secondary school teachers in 38 schools through…

  20. Teacher Research: Uncovering Professional Identities and Trajectories of Teacher Researchers through Narrative Research--A Colombian Case (United States)

    Ubaque, Diego Fernando; Castañeda-Peña, Harold


    This work explores real-life experiences around research. Thinking of the English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher as an inquirer of the academic reality, the study presents accounts of professional identity as narrated in the life histories of three EFL teachers-researchers in a private but non-profit institution in Bogota, Colombia. This…

  1. Knowledge Attitude and Behavior in the Domain of Organ Transplantation Among Healthcare Professionals Working in a Tertiary Care Hospital and Patients Admitted to the Urology Clinic

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    Mustafa Karabıçak


    Full Text Available Objective: To measure the knowledge level about organ and tissue donation and to determine the attitudes and behaviors of patients admitted to our hospital as well as healthcare professionals working in our hospital. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire designed to document knowledge attitude and behavior in the domain of organ transplantation and donation was prepared by the researchers. This survey was conducted among 298 participants including patients who were admitted to the urology clinic in our hospital between March 2015 and June their relatives as well as healthcare professionals working in our hospital. Results: 90.3% of the participants did not donate any organ previously. Only 50% of respondents knew that brain death and vegetative state were different concepts. 69.1% the participants had knowledge about organ donation. Conclusion: Public education about organ donation and transplantation and a positive attitude on this issue are very important to increase the number of organ donations.

  2. Reflections on Knowledge Brokering within a Multidisciplinary Research Team (United States)

    Urquhart, Robin; Porter, Geoffrey A.; Grunfeld, Eva


    Knowledge brokering (KB) may be one approach of helping researchers and decision makers effectively communicate their needs and abilities, and move toward increased use of evidence in health care. A multidisciplinary research team in Nova Scotia, Canada, has created a dedicated KB position with the goal of improving access to quality colorectal…

  3. Reflexively exploring knowledge and power in collaborative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Phillips, Louise Jane; Pedersen, Christina Hee

    research stem from the methodological, epistemological and ethical problems and dilemmas that are inherent in collaborative knowledge production and communication and which relate to the inexorable workings of knowledge/power. The problems and dilemmas arise in the meeting between participants’ multiple....... The realities of dialogic practices are much more complex and fraught with tensions. There are, for instance, tensions between the instrumental use of dialogue to achieve pre-defined research goals, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, dialogue as a basis for co-producing knowledge through processes...... with the complexities and tensions of collaborative research through reflexive analyses of how “dialogue” and “participation” are played out concretely in collaborative research practices. Therefore, the workshop will be designed as a forum in which we go into depth with the different problems, dilemmas, ambivalences...

  4. Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Strategies to Promote Research Uptake in Child Health Settings. (United States)

    Albrecht, Lauren; Archibald, Mandy; Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna; Scott, Shannon D


    Strategies to assist evidence-based decision-making for healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure high quality patient care and outcomes. The goal of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize the evidence on knowledge translation interventions aimed at putting explicit research evidence into child health practice. A comprehensive search of thirteen electronic databases was conducted, restricted by date (1985-2011) and language (English). Articles were included if: 1) studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials (CCT), or controlled before-and-after (CBA) studies; 2) target population was child health professionals; 3) interventions implemented research in child health practice; and 4) outcomes were measured at the professional/process, patient, or economic level. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Study data were aggregated and analyzed using evidence tables. Twenty-one studies (13 RCT, 2 CCT, 6 CBA) were included. The studies employed single (n=9) and multiple interventions (n=12). The methodological quality of the included studies was largely moderate (n=8) or weak (n=11). Of the studies with moderate to strong methodological quality ratings, three demonstrated consistent, positive effect(s) on the primary outcome(s); effective knowledge translation interventions were two single, non-educational interventions and one multiple, educational intervention. This multidisciplinary systematic review in child health setting identified effective knowledge translation strategies assessed by the most rigorous research designs. Given the overall poor quality of the research literature, specific recommendations were made to improve knowledge translation efforts in child health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Portuguese Coaches' Perceptions of and Preferences for Knowledge Sources Related to their Professional Background. (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Isidro, Sofia; Rosado, António


    The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches' perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study's participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches' demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey's HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical) and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means. Key pointsCoaches recognized that learning is obtained from a broad range of sources of coaching knowledge and each source has a particular role in the development of a coach.Experiential guided sources reached more importance to coaches as working with experts, learning by doing, attending seminars/clinics outside of the formal system and interaction with peers were the most acknowledged.The only source that is related to formal learning, national certification programs, was

  6. A Survey of Handwashing Knowledge and Attitudes among the Healthcare Professionals in Lahore, Pakistan. (United States)

    Zil-E-Ali, Ahsan; Cheema, Mohsin A; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Tariq, Mariam


    To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes towards handwashing of clinical year medical and dental students and health-care professionals (HCPs) working in the departments of medicine, surgery, dentistry, nursing, and physiotherapy in Lahore, Pakistan. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted during May and June 2016. After approval from the institutional review board, a modified form of the World Health Organization (WHO) Hand Hygiene Knowledge Questionnaire for Healthcare workers that included 18 items was sent to 400 clinical year students and HCPs from six medical colleges and affiliated hospitals of Lahore. The data obtained was entered and analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 20 (IBM, NY, USA). Chi-square was used as the test of significance. A p-value of hand hygiene. Statistically significant associations of various groups of HCPs were observed with their satisfaction regarding knowledge about hand hygiene (p-value = 0.022), their awareness of the proper technique required for handwashing proposed by the WHO (p-value = 0.001), and their awareness about other preventive techniques proposed by the WHO and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (p-value = 0.021). The majority of the clinical year students and HCPs were not satisfied with their knowledge regarding hand hygiene. HCPs working in different departments have varying knowledge and attitudes towards hand hygiene. Females were found to be more satisfied with their handwashing practices. Teaching proper technique of handwashing to medical students and starting refresher courses regarding hand hygiene for HCPs are dire needs. The WHO-recommended guidelines should not only be taught but also implemented in the medical field as poor hand hygiene techniques have led to the spread of many diseases around the globe.

  7. Knowledge management systems in support of an induction programme: An action research approach

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    Murali Raman


    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are in the knowledge business since they are involved in knowledge creation, dissemination and learning. However, not many higher education institutions get the most benefit out of managing their knowledge. Most of these institutions are so busy delivering knowledge that they fail to capture the best practices in their knowledge delivery. The induction programme for new lecturers is therefore very important to improve the quality of teaching. In teaching, lecturers might be the subject matter experts but could lack knowledge related to teaching, such as theories of teaching and learning, classroom organization and management, development of curriculum and course content, and professionalism. This paper examines if knowledge management systems (KMS can support the induction programmes for new lecturers in an academic setting at the Bina Nusantara University in Indonesia. Action research is used as the underlying methodology. Specifically, a 5-step canonical action research was used to conduct the study. Our findings post intervention suggests that most lecturers understand the importance of the induction programme and the lecturers have positive attitudes towards the implementation of KMS to support the induction programme.

  8. Research on an Agricultural Knowledge Fusion Method for Big Data

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    Nengfu Xie


    Full Text Available The object of our research is to develop an ontology-based agricultural knowledge fusion method that can be used as a comprehensive basis on which to solve agricultural information inconsistencies, analyze data, and discover new knowledge. A recent survey has provided a detailed comparison of various fusion methods used with Deep Web data (Li, 2013. In this paper, we propose an effective agricultural ontology-based knowledge fusion method by leveraging recent advances in data fusion, such as the semantic web and big data technologies, that will enhance the identification and fusion of new and existing data sets to make big data analytics more possible. We provide a detailed fusion method that includes agricultural ontology building, fusion rule construction, an evaluation module, etc. Empirical results show that this knowledge fusion method is useful for knowledge discovery.

  9. Breast Cancer Genetics Knowledge and Testing Intentions among Nigerian Professional Women. (United States)

    Ngene, Samuel O; Adedokun, Babatunde; Adejumo, Prisca; Olopade, Olufunmilayo


    Genetic testing services for breast cancer are well established in developed countries compared to African populations that bear a disproportionate burden of breast cancer (BC). The objective of this study is to examine the knowledge of professional Nigerian women about BC genetics and their intentions to utilize genetic testing services when it is made available in Nigeria. In this study, 165 lecturers and 189 bankers were recruited and studied using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The respondents' mean age was 34.9 years (SD = 10.9), 6.5% had family history of BC, and 84.7% had limited knowledge of breast cancer genetics. The proportion of women with genetic testing intentions for breast cancer was 87.3%. Health care access (OR = 2.35, 95% CI, 1.07-5.13), religion (OR = 3.51, 95% CI, 1.03-11.92), and perceived personal risk if a close relative had breast cancer (OR = 2.31, 95% CI, 1.05-5.08) independently predicted testing intentions. The genetic testing intentions for BC were high despite limited knowledge about breast cancer genetics. Promotion of BC genetics education as well as efforts to make BC genetic testing services available in Nigeria at reduced cost remains essential.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mesquita


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse Portuguese coaches' perceptions of, and preferences for, knowledge sources as related to professional background; namely academic education level, coach education level and coaching experience. The study's participants comprised 336 Portuguese coaches from twenty-two sports. A questionnaire was used to identify coaches' demographic characteristics and representations about their preferred sources of coaching knowledge. MANOVA using Tukey's HSD test was used to compare groups. The results highlighted that coaches perceived that coaching knowledge is built from a broad range of sources from personal coaching and playing experiences to more explicit formal, informal and non-formal learning situations. Results indicated that the coaches ascribed more importance to experiential sources such as working with experts, learning by doing, interacting with peer coaches and attending informal seminars and clinics, than to the formal learning situations provided by the national coaching certification programs. Differences, however, were found in that coaches who had a greater background within higher education (physical and sport valued informal and non-formal learning sources more than did coaches who were defined as not coming from an academic background. The findings point to the importance of developing new learning, experientially-based, opportunities within the Portuguese context, where curricula content continues to be delivered via didactic means

  11. An "Evidence-Based" Professional Development Program for Physics Teachers Focusing on Knowledge Integration (United States)

    Berger, Hana

    This dissertation is concerned with the design and study of an evidence-based approach to the professional development of high-school physics teachers responding to the need to develop effective continuing professional development programs (CPD) in domains that require genuine changes in teachers' views, knowledge, and practice. The goals of the thesis were to design an evidence-based model for the CPD program, to implement it with teachers, and to study its influence on teachers' knowledge, views, and practice, as well as its impact on students' learning. The program was developed in three consecutive versions: a pilot, first, and second versions. Based on the pilot version (that was not part of this study), we developed the first version of the program in which we studied difficulties in employing the evidence-based and blended-learning approaches. According to our findings, we modified the strategies for enacting these approaches in the second version of the program. The influence of the program on the teachers and students was studied during the enactment of the second version of the program. The model implemented in the second version of the program was characterized by four main design principles: 1. The KI and evidence aspects are acquired simultaneously in an integrated manner. 2. The guidance of the teachers follows the principles of cognitive apprenticeship both in the evidence and the KI aspects. 3. The teachers experience the innovative activities as learners. 4. The program promotes continuity of teachers' learning through a structured "blended learning" approach. The results of our study show that this version of the program achieved its goals; throughout the program the teachers progressed in their knowledge, views, and practice concerning the knowledge integration, and in the evidence and learner-centered aspects. The results also indicated that students improved their knowledge of physics and knowledge integration skills that were developed

  12. A Model of Professional Competences in Mathematics to Update Mathematical and Didactic Knowledge of Teachers (United States)

    Díaz, Verónica; Poblete, Alvaro


    This paper describes part of a research and development project carried out in public elementary schools. Its objective was to update the mathematical and didactic knowledge of teachers in two consecutive levels in urban and rural public schools of Region de Los Lagos and Region de Los Rios of southern Chile. To that effect, and by means of an…

  13. A Job Announcement Analysis of Educational Technology Professional Positions: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (United States)

    Kang, YoungJu; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.


    The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation, and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill,…

  14. Research into the development of a knowledge acquisition taxonomy (United States)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy


    The focus of the research was on the development of a problem solving taxonomy that can support and direct the knowledge engineering process during the development of an intelligent tutoring system. The results of the research are necessarily general. Being only a small initial attempt at a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, the process has had to be bootstrapped and the results can only provide pointers to further, more formal research designs.

  15. Determining the effects of a professional development program on teachers' inquiry knowledge and classroom action: A case study of a professional development strategy (United States)

    Bell, Cheryl A.

    Science teaching and learning has been the focus of reform efforts for many years. The most recent efforts call for change in the way science is taught and the way students learn science in our nation's classrooms, with an effort to move toward an inquiry-based approach. These efforts present challenges for today's teachers. Many teachers want to do an effective job of teaching science, yet are not sure of what inquiry teaching should look like in the classroom or what they need to change to move toward inquiry-based instruction. The problem posed for the educational community is to identify means to provide teachers with the experiences they need to develop the knowledge and techniques necessary to teach using an inquiry approach in their classrooms. This research addressed this problem by developing a case study of a professional development program designed to enhance the inquiry knowledge and inquiry-based teaching of middle level teachers through the development of leadership teams and peer training. Teachers participated at one of two levels: Level I received intense training at a major university; and Level II received their training from their Level I teammates. Two teams of teachers participated in this research, involving five teachers. The program's effectiveness varied in the changes evident in the teachers' knowledge and use of inquiry in their classrooms. The Level I teachers' knowledge and use of inquiry was influenced by their interpretations of their experiences and how these related to what occurred in their classrooms prior to the institute. Similarly, their interpretation influenced the emphasis placed on including information about inquiry and involving their Level II teammates in inquiry-based instructional experiences during the peer-training sessions. The peer-training session for Team 1 provided a stimulus for the Level II teacher to reflect on her teaching and her students' questions and, consequently, change the level of inquiry in her

  16. Online continuing education course enhances nutrition and health professionals' knowledge of food safety issues of high-risk populations. (United States)

    Wallner, Stephanie; Kendall, Patricia; Hillers, Virginia; Bradshaw, Eva; Medeiros, Lydia C


    To develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online continuing education course for professionals who provide food safety information to high-risk populations. A 2-credit graduate-level class was converted into six web-based modules (overview of foodborne illness, immunology, pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus, cancer and transplants, and lifecycle) and offered to nutrition and health professionals. Participants had 8 weeks to complete the modules, pre and post questionnaires, and course evaluation. Those who successfully completed the protocol received six continuing education units from one of three professional associations. Change in knowledge was measured using pre and post questionnaires. Course efficacy was evaluated using a post-course questionnaire. A convenience sample of 140 registered dietitians/dietetic technicians registered, nurses, and extension educators were recruited through professional conferences and electronic mailing lists to take the course. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences in knowledge scores for all groups across five main effects (attempt, module, profession, age, and education). Course evaluation responses were used to assess course effectiveness. For each module, knowledge scores increased significantly (POnline continuing education courses, such as "Food Safety Issues for High Risk Populations," seem to be a convenient, effective option for dietetics professionals, nurses, and extension educators seeking knowledge about food safety issues of high-risk populations. Online learning is a promising delivery approach for the continuing education of health professionals.

  17. "Interventions for Promoting Research Knowledge Translation: Intellectual Property Rights of Stakeholders for Promotion of Knowledge Translation"


    Katayoun Maleki; Sharareh Ahghari; Reza Majdzadeh


    "nOne of the vital aspects of transferring research results is intellectual property of information. The key point in intellectual property is lack of use or misuse of research results. At times the urgent or early transfer of research results is necessary, and at times it is not possible prior to peer review. Since there were no specific rules in this field in the country, one of the innovations suggested for strengthening knowledge translation was compilation of an ethical code for res...

  18. Action Research as a School-Based Strategy in Intercultural Professional Development for Teachers (United States)

    Sales, Auxiliadora; Traver, Joan A.; Garcia, Rafaela


    Teacher professional development is a key factor for transforming professional and school culture. This article describes a case study undertaken in a Spanish school during the 2007-2008 academic year. Our aim is to explain how action research methodology was applied to encourage professional and school culture towards an intercultural and…

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of pharmacovigilance among health care professionals in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wangge


    Abstract Background: World Health Organization (WHO defines pharmacovigilance (PV as a science and activities related to detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effect or any other drug related problem. It aims to enhance patient care and patient safety in drug use. Although Indonesia has joined WHO international drug safety monitoring program since 1970s, the implementation is not applied effectively especially in developing country and there are poor contribution of health care professionals (HCPs as an agent of the program. In this study, we assessed current knowledge, activities and practice of PV among HCPs in Indonesia. Methods: This is a preliminary survey using a questionnaire distributed among HCPs through health seminar and internet. The questionnaire consists of statement/question about knowledge(6, activities(6 and whether HCPs who encounter ADRs handle and report it correctly.  If the respondents gave 80 % suitable answers in the knowledge or attitude sections, they were categorized as having “good” knowledge or attitude. We analyzed whether knowledge, attitude and other characteristic had any influence on the respodents PV practice. Results: We included 109 questionnaires from 118 distributed questionnaires. Most of the respondents were females (90 respondents, 82.6%, medical doctors (100 respondents, 91.7%, and were working in primary health care level. Good knowledge was found in 28 (25.7 % of respondents, while good attitude towards PV were found in less than 20 % (18 of the respondents. Only 4 (3.7 % of total respondents did a good pharmacovigilance practice.  We found no significant association between level of knowledge, attitude and other factors to the poor pratice of PV. Conclusion: The knowledge, activities and practices of pharmacovigilance among HCPs in Indonesia were poor and requires a continuous socialization among HCPs in different level of care. Key Words: pharmacovigilance, health care professionals, patient

  20. The ethics of professionality in educational care: competence, knowledge and passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Contini


    Full Text Available The article presents a critical reflection on current cultural contexts paying particular attention to the “sad passions” they connote and the heavy price paid by young people and adolescents reducing their capacity for planning. In order to resist this tendency and open up to the possibility of “joyful passions” we refer to the commitment of educational professionality, to the ethical substratum of its deontology, and to the various competences and meta-competences which characterise it. In particular emphasises the importance of an “emotional knowledge”, which gives value to, and enriches the intersection between knowledge and feeling and favours empowerment on the subjective and social level, promoting passion and growth and to involve oneself in pacific, rich relationships with the Other.

  1. Assessment of hospice health professionals' knowledge, views, and experience with medical marijuana. (United States)

    Uritsky, Tanya J; McPherson, Mary Lynn; Pradel, Françoise


    The medicinal and recreational use of cannabis has been controversial, especially in the United States. Marijuana for medicinal use is approved in 14 U.S. states and has recently been considered for legalization in several additional states. Given its demonstrated efficacy in symptom management, marijuana has a potential role in palliative care. This study utilized a 16-item questionnaire to assess the knowledge, experience, and views of hospice professionals regarding the use of marijuana in terminally ill patients. The study results revealed that, like the general public, hospice health care providers are generally in favor of legalization of marijuana and, if legalized, would support its use in symptom management for their terminally ill patients.

  2. Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development (United States)

    Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher


    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ ( N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed lessons to advance thinking from macroscopic to abstract models. Middle/secondary teachers gained PSTE, PCK, and introduced macroscopic models to develop understanding of previously taught abstract models. All implemented representational thinking and conceptual change strategies. Results suggest that: (1) constructivist PD meets the needs of teachers of varying CK, and (2) instruction should connect representational models with alternative conceptions, integrating radical and social constructivism.

  3. Empowerment interventions, knowledge translation and exchange: perspectives of home care professionals, clients and caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Louis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined empowerment interventions as they actually unfold in home care in the context of chronic health problems. This study aims to document the empowerment process as it plays out in interventions with adults receiving home care services. Methods/design The qualitative design chosen is a fourth generation evaluation combined with case studies. A home care team of a health and social services center situated in the Eastern Townships (Québec, Canada will be involved at every step in the study. A sample will be formed of 15 health care professionals and 30 of their home care clients and caregiver. Semi-structured interviews, observations of home care interventions and socio-demographic questionnaires will be used to collect the data. Nine instruments used by the team in prior studies will be adapted and reviewed. A personal log will document the observers' perspectives in order to foster objectivity and the focus on the intervention. The in-depth qualitative analysis of the data will illustrate profiles of enabling interventions and individual empowerment. Discussion The ongoing process to transform the health care and social services network creates a growing need to examine intervention practices of health care professionals working with clients receiving home care services. This study will provide the opportunity to examine how the intervention process plays out in real-life situations and how health care professionals, clients and caregivers experience it. The intervention process and individual empowerment examined in this study will enhance the growing body of knowledge about empowerment.

  4. Degree of knowledge of health care professionals about pain management and use of opioids in pediatrics. (United States)

    de Freitas, Gabriel R M; de Castro, Cláudio G; Castro, Stela M J; Heineck, Isabela


    To evaluate the degree of knowledge about pain management and opioids use by professionals working at three pediatric units. This is a cross-sectional study. This study was carried out at three pediatric units (pediatrics, intensive care unit, and oncology) of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, which is a university hospital located in southern Brazil. The subjects of this study include physicians, pharmacists, physiotherapists, nurses, nursing technicians, and nursing assistants. Cross-sectional study carried out in a university hospital in southern Brazil. A self-applicable semi-structured questionnaire was handed out to 182 professionals from December 2011 to March 2012. The response rate was 67% (122); the average percentage of correct answers was 63.2 ± 1.4%. The most frequent errors were: an opioid must not be used if the cause of pain is unknown (47%; 54/115); patients often develop respiratory depression (42.3%; 22/52); and confusion about symptoms of withdrawal, tolerance, and dependency syndromes (81.9%; 95/116). Only 8.8% (10/114) reported the use of pain scales to identify pain in children. The most often cited hindrance to control pain was the difficulty to measure and spot pain in pediatric patients. Finally, 50.8% (62/122) of them did not have any previous training in pain management. Problems in the processes of pain identification, measurement, and treatment have been found. Results suggest that there is a need for both an investment in continuing education of professionals and the development of protocols to optimize the analgesic therapy, thus preventing increased child suffering. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Teaching methodologies to promote creativity in the professional skills related to optics knowledge (United States)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Fernandez, Paz; Peña-García, Antonio; Oliveras, Maria L.


    We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are "Illumination Engineering" (Bachelor's degree in Civil-Engineering) and "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation" (Bachelor's degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For "Illumination Engineering" we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation". The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.

  6. A Knowledge Management Technology Architecture for Educational Research Organisations: Scaffolding Research Projects and Workflow Processing (United States)

    Muthukumar; Hedberg, John G.


    There is growing recognition that the economic climate of the world is shifting towards a knowledge-based economy where knowledge will be cherished as the most prized asset. In this regard, technology can be leveraged as a useful tool in effectually managing the knowledge capital of an organisation. Although several research studies have advanced…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acatrinei Carmen


    Full Text Available In the online environment, the users have more control regarding what they want to see and this affects the advertising they are exposed to (due to the profiles created by the websites they have visited. Organizations can personalize the advertising campaigns designed at a higher level, to better meet the needs of the consumers. This paper offers an in-depth view about online advertising from 12 Romanian experts, who represent companies or digital advertising agencies and who employ this tool in order to promote themselves or to develop campaigns for their clients. The empirical research undertaken has a qualitative nature, semi-structured detailed interviews with the professionals have taken place in February-March 2015, in Bucharest. Online advertising was mostly defined by the specialists as being dynamic; and some of the attributes that characterizes this domain are measurability and personalization. Clear objectives settled, correct targeting of users, a well-established strategy and planning are the key elements that would lead to a successful online advertising campaign. The Romanian agencies offer integrated online advertising services, from research and market analysis to implementation and results’ assessment of the campaigns. The formats they have been using are: search, display, video, social media advertising, affiliated marketing and sponsorship. Most of the representatives interviewed suggest that their companies’ offers might / will change due to the dynamics of the medium. Online advertising helps the other online marketing tools perform better and develop the online presence of the companies. All the respondents have confirmed that following the introduction and great use of smartphones, their companies have adjusted the online advertising campaigns to better target the potential customers that use mobile devices. Most of the companies that invest in online advertising campaigns come from sectors such as: retail, telecom

  8. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Paraguayan Communities, Patients, and Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ruoti


    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL due to Leishmania (V. braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n=463, health professionals (n=25, and patients (n=25. Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P=0.002. The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community.

  9. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Paraguayan Communities, Patients, and Health Professionals (United States)

    Ruoti, Mónica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orué, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A.; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M.; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Krentel, Alison


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. PMID:23690792

  10. Fires in hospital buildings: knowledge held by nursing professionals regarding prevention, combat and escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santiago Costa Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the knowledge and conduct of nursing professionals regarding hospital fire prevention, combat and escape. A descriptive study conducted in a public teaching hospital in Goiânia/GO, Brazil, with 109 nursing professionals. Data was collected in 2011 using structured interviews with questionnaires, and descriptive statistics for analysis. Most subjects were female, nursing technicians/assistants (67.9%, knew the Fire Department’s number (85.3% and the extinguisher’s location (80.7%, but ignored how they functioned (69.7%. Also, 57.8% of interviewees ignored the exit routes and, in case of fire, would alert the fire department, guide people towards the exit, use the extinguisher or jump out of the windows. The gaps identified in this study indicate that in order to guarantee adequate conduct, fire training is necessary, as is the establishment of escape routes, since technological resources are useless without individuals who can act preventively. Risk reduction implies in institutional safety and quality. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.25054

  11. [Professional values: a strategic component of health professionals. The contribution of decisional research at the Toulouse University Hospital Center]. (United States)

    Péoc'h, Nadia; Ceaux, Christine


    The organizational involvement concept is often developed by many researchers and practitioners. This study is in the right inheritance of Allen and Meyer (1990) and Thevenet and Neveu (2002) works who all considered the involvement as "an affective or emotional attachment towards the organization such as an individual strongly involved identifies himself, reinforces his own agreement and enjoys being a member of the organization that employs him". The aim of this study was to demonstrate the impact of professional values (in terms of adherence to the purposes, norms and values of the establishment upon the subject's involvement in professional activities). 1538 health professionals practising in Toulouse academic hospital center have answered a questionnaire upon the subject's individual perception of his personal involvement in his workplace; the possible working impacts upon his own motivation, the perceptions upon professional values. Results indicate that if involvement is subject to professional values, it turns towards a double determination: technical and axiological or ethical. The professional and axiological dimension introduces a moral position and a cognitive framework that participates in the decision-making action : working together, creating a climate of confidence, trusting the group, and progressing for greater cohesion. The ethical dimension joins historic and humanist values: self respect and altruism; developing human values for oneself and for others. Specifying values is already a project in itself, in terms of consciousness. Understanding those impacts upon health professionals involvements' is also the aim to include the historical of our Care Project in collective interaction, alteration and construction purposes.

  12. Knowledge, loyalty and the dividual corporate researcher body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhl, Perle; Simonsen, Anja

    of loyalty in a collaborative project and the necessity of keeping knowledge to oneself in order not to breach both one’s own and one’s fellow researchers’ loyalties to the field and thus, by extension, to one another. It is, in sum, the end of some loyalties in order not to betray others, constructing...... a dividual corporate researcher body where positions can be upheld and where knowledge can be protected because not shared. As a result, our corporate researcher body becomes dividual, a body with organs that operate independently of each other....

  13. "Professionalism" in Second and Foreign Language Teaching: A Qualitative Research Synthesis (United States)

    Jansem, Anchalee


    This qualitative research synthesis concludes and displays pictures of professionalism in second/foreign language education. Adopting Weed's processes as the methodological framework for doing qualitative research synthesis, the researcher employed seven steps, from retrieving to selecting studies directly associated with professionalism. The…

  14. The opinion and response of health professionals associated with academics about the research design and methods: A study. (United States)

    Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Kujan, Omar Bashar


    The study aimed to survey the opinions and responses of health professionals in academics about their interest and experience in research, knowledge over study designs, and application of a common study design to find out the objectives behind any research study. A semi-structured questionnaire containing three variables with 15 questions were sent to 300 health professionals associated with academics in the category of Bachelor/Master/Doctorate working at Al-Farabi Colleges campuses located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected manually, descriptive frequencies were generated and the variables were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. The knowledge scores between the qualification and gender were carried out using ANOVA and t-test. The final response rate was in conjuction to the statistician to exclude the uncompleted responses from the statistical analysis. The results showed a discrepancy in the participation; of 95 health professionals, (40) were females and (55) were males. Bachelor (16), Masters (61) and Doctorate holders (18) gave their opinion. For the first variable (research experience), all the surveyed categories showed the same response. However, for the second variable (study design and research criteria) bachelor holders showed poor, but equal performance was reported to the master and doctorate holders. In the third variable (objectives and common designs), bachelor holders showed a poor response in contrast to the master and doctorate holders whose have mixed opinions. For knowledge scores, no significance was present between the master and doctorate holders. There is a lack of understanding of the research objectives and common designs frequently used in research studies particularly among the bachelor holders. Additional postgraduate education on research methods is recommended to improve the knowledge and practices of research.

  15. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj


    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  16. Evaluating Scientific Research Knowledge and Attitude among Medical Representative in Jordan: A Cross-sectional Survey. (United States)

    Mukattash, Tareq; Alattar, Meys; Farha, Rana Abu; Alsous, Mervat; Jarab, Anan; El-Hajii, Feras; Mukattash, Ibrahim L


    Pharmaceutical companies provide a broad range of different mandatory trainings to their medical representatives to keep the business running, however research related training has often been neglected by these companies. Thus, this study was developed to assess the amount of scientific research knowledge and interest among pharmacy medical representatives in Jordan. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. During the study period, a questionnaire was administered to 250 medical representatives working in pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their scientific research knowledge and attitudes. The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and believe that it will increase the value of their work, but a considerable number of medical representatives did not detail clinical trials on every visit and found difficulty in answering clinical trials and research related questions asked by health care professionals. Most of the medical representatives did not have a complete understanding of some basic research terminologies. Medical representatives working in multinational companies seemed to have a significantly better understanding of research and terminologies compared to local companies (P-value= 0.000). Also Medical representatives with higher educational degrees seemed to have significantly better understanding of basic research terminologies (P-value= 0.023). The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and found that it will increase the value of their work, but still there is a gap in their frequency of detailing. Thus, local pharmaceutical companies need to invest more in research and clinical trials knowledge kind of training. Also, universities need to include research related courses and subject in their bachelors' program curriculum in order to make pharmacists equipped in terms of research knowledge

  17. Deconstructing and Assessing Knowledge and Awareness in Public Health Research. (United States)

    Trevethan, Robert


    When people's knowledge and awareness are the subject of public health research, the meanings applied to the words knowledge and awareness are often unclear. Although frequently used interchangeably without that being problematic, these words sometimes appear to have different intended meanings but those meanings are not made explicit or, despite the meanings having been made explicit, they are not adhered to. It is necessary to overcome obscurities when knowledge and awareness are intended to represent different domains. This occurs when they are compared with each other; it also occurs when knowledge and awareness are assessed separately in relation to such variables as health behavior; physical, psychological, or socioeconomic statuses; gender; age; and ethnic backgrounds. For those particular research ventures, recommendations are made that knowledge be used to refer to information that is, to a greater or lesser extent, detailed and factual, and that awareness be associated with information that is personally relevant. Some suggestions are made, and issues are raised, about how the psychometric foundations for each of those two domains might be established prior to use in empirical research. Adopting the recommendations and suggestions made in this article provides opportunities for greater conceptual and empirical clarity and success.

  18. Knowledge of the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics Among Biomedical Researchers in Southern Nigeria. (United States)

    Ogunrin, Olubunmi A; Daniel, Folasade; Ansa, Victor


    Responsibility for protection of research participants from harm and exploitation rests on Research Ethics Committees and principal investigators. The Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics defines responsibilities of stakeholders in research so its knowledge among researchers will likely aid ethical conduct of research. The levels of awareness and knowledge of the Code among biomedical researchers in southern Nigerian research institutions was assessed. Four institutions were selected using a stratified random sampling technique. Research participants were selected by purposive sampling and completed a pre-tested structured questionnaire. A total of 102 biomedical researchers completed the questionnaires. Thirty percent of the participants were aware of the National Code though 64% had attended at least one training seminar in research ethics. Twenty-five percent had a fairly acceptable knowledge (scores 50%-74%) and 10% had excellent knowledge of the code (score ≥75%). Ninety-five percent expressed intentions to learn more about the National Code and agreed that it is highly relevant to the ethical conduct of research. Awareness and knowledge of the Code were found to be very limited among biomedical researchers in southern Nigeria. There is need to improve awareness and knowledge through ethics seminars and training. Use of existing Nigeria-specific online training resources is also encouraged.

  19. Theory of Regression Apple Professional Cooperation Organization Research


    Ouyang Bin


    In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...

  20. Storylines as an alternative method to communicate river research via a knowledge platform (United States)

    Cortes Arevalo, Juliette; Verbrugge, Laura N. H.; den Haan, Robert Jan; Baart, Fedor; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.; van der Voort, Mascha C.


    Sustainable river management relies on diverse and multi-faceted knowledge from fundamental and applied research. Communicating the context, added value and potential use of river research to actors working in multiple disciplines or organizations is challenging. RiverCare is a research programme studying the mid-term effects of innovative river interventions in the Netherlands. Effective communication between researchers and potential users of scientific information, such as water professionals, requires an interactive, two-way communication approach. As part of the communication strategy, we are designing a knowledge platform to provide access to, explain and gather feedback about the potential use of results from water professionals. The knowledge platform is a combination of online services including: a content management system in which storylines are the main component; a data repository to the underlying research data and; hyperlinks to existing online sites that present our results via short news articles. Storylines engage water professionals via experiences or stories of river management actors to explain research outputs instead of or in addition to more technical means such as scientific papers and reports. The use of storylines enables us to explain research outcomes in a way that is captivating and easily understood by a multi-disciplinary audience. To explore its usefulness as communication approach, we developed a storyline example for research about stakeholder perceptions of a re-landscaping intervention in the Waal river in the Netherlands. The storyline's layout consisted of a menu outline and three tabs: (1) storyline's content; (2) contact details; and (3) links to available resources or related publications. The storyline's content was divided in four sections including subsections to navigate. Each section had a heading statement or question to engage users: "Imagine this!"; "What matters? Places matter to people"; "Surveying people

  1. Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Experience has shown us that development efforts that ignore local technologies, local systems of knowledge, and the local environment generally fail to achieve their desired objectives. Examples abound of western-lead teams of researchers failing to consult properly with indigenous populations,with the resulting ...

  2. Closing the gap between research and knowledge | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The approach encourages thinking across boundaries – geographic, disciplinary, and interest-based – and aims to break down the barriers between research and action. It also seeks to close the gap between local knowledge and that of outside specialists by drawing on the information, imagination, and skills of many ...

  3. Research Trends in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Tien


    Recently, the importance of TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) for understanding effective teaching with technology has been advocated. This study aimed to review empirical TPACK studies published in in?uential international journals from 2002 to 2011, addressing four research questions: (1) What is the status of the TPACK studies…

  4. Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning: An International Research Perspective (United States)

    Walczak, Steven


    Purpose: This article aims to examine international studies of knowledge management (KM) and organizational learning (OL). Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of a literature review of KM and OL research that focuses on a business or businesses located outside traditional Western economies. Findings: There is a need to…

  5. Enhancing Canadian Civil Society Research and Knowledge-Based ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing Canadian Civil Society Research and Knowledge-Based Practice in a Rapidly Changing Landscape for International Development ... Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and ...

  6. Defining the requisite knowledge for providers of in-service professional development for K--12 teachers of science: Refining the construct (United States)

    Tucker, Deborah L.

    Purpose. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to refine, using a Delphi study process, the four categories of the theoretical model of the comprehensive knowledge base required by providers of professional development for K-12 teachers of science generated from a review of the literature. Methodology. This grounded theory study used data collected through a modified Delphi technique and interviews to refine and validate the literature-based knowledge base required by providers of professional development for K-12 teachers of science. Twenty-three participants, experts in the fields of science education, how people learn, instructional and assessment strategies, and learning contexts, responded to the study's questions. Findings. By "densifying" the four categories of the knowledge base, this study determined the causal conditions (the science subject matter knowledge), the intervening conditions (how people learn), the strategies (the effective instructional and assessment strategies), and the context (the context and culture of formal learning environments) surrounding the science professional development process. Eight sections were added to the literature-based knowledge base; the final model comprised of forty-nine sections. The average length of the operational definitions increased nearly threefold and the number of citations per operational definition increased more than twofold. Conclusions. A four-category comprehensive model that can serve as the foundation for the knowledge base required by science professional developers now exists. Subject matter knowledge includes science concepts, inquiry, the nature of science, and scientific habits of mind; how people learn includes the principles of learning, active learning, andragogy, variations in learners, neuroscience and cognitive science, and change theory; effective instructional and assessment strategies include constructivist learning and inquiry-based teaching, differentiation of instruction

  7. Interactive and Hands-on Methods for Professional Development of Undergraduate Researchers (United States)

    Pressley, S. N.; LeBeau, J. E.


    Professional development workshops for undergraduate research programs can range from communicating science (i.e. oral, technical writing, poster presentations), applying for fellowships and scholarships, applying to graduate school, and learning about careers, among others. Novel methods of presenting the information on the above topics can result in positive outcomes beyond the obvious of transferring knowledge. Examples of innovative methods to present professional development information include 1) An interactive session on how to write an abstract where students are given an opportunity to draft an abstract from a short technical article, followed by discussion amongst a group of peers, and comparison with the "published" abstract. 2) Using the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) method to evaluate and critique a research poster. 3) Inviting "experts" such as a Fulbright scholar graduate student to present on applying for fellowships and scholarships. These innovative methods of delivery provide more hands-on activities that engage the students, and in some cases (abstract writing) provide practice for the student. The methods also require that students develop team work skills, communicate amongst their peers, and develop networks with their cohort. All of these are essential non-technical skills needed for success in any career. Feedback from students on these sessions are positive and most importantly, the students walk out of the session with a smile on their face saying how much fun it was. Evaluating the impact of these sessions is more challenging and under investigation currently.

  8. Knowledge map of artemisinin research in SCI and Medline database. (United States)

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Jing; Lyu, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jing; Ma, Fei-Cheng; Fang, Jian-Guo


    Artemisinin was first extracted from the herb Artemisia annua which has been used for many centuries in Chinese traditional medicine as a treatment for fever and malaria. It has been given the 2011 Lasker-DeBakey clinical medical research award. In this paper, knowledge map of artemisinin research was drawn to provide some information for global researchers interested in artemisinin and its relevant references. In this work, bibliometric analysis and knowledge visualization technology were applied to evaluate global scientific production and developing trend of artemisinin research through Science Citation Index (SCI) papers and Medline papers with online version published as following aspects: publication outputs, subject categories, journals, countries, international collaboration, citations, authorship and co-authorship, author key words and co-words analysis. The Thomson Data Analyzer (TDA), Netdraw and Aureka software were employed to analyze the SCI as well as Medline papers data for knowledge mapping. Global literature of artemisinin research has increased rapidly over the past 30 years and has boosted in recent years. Seen from the statistical study in many aspects, Pharmacology & Pharmacy, and Chemistry are still the main subjects of artemisinin research with parasitology and tropical medicine increasing quickly. Malaria Journal and American Journal of Tropical Medicine are top productive journals both in SCI and Medline databases. Quantity and quality of papers in US are in a leading position, although papers quantity and active degree in developing countries such as P.R. China, Thailand and India are relatively high, the quality of papers from these countries needs to be improved. New emerging key words and co-words remind us that mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, artemisinin-based alternatives, etc. are the future trends of artemisinin research. Through bibliometric analysis the development trends of artemisinin research are predicted. With further

  9. Covert leadership: notes on managing professionals. Knowledge workers respond to inspiration, not supervision. (United States)

    Mintzberg, H


    The orchestra conductor is a popular metaphor for managers today--up there on the podium in complete control. But that image may be misleading, says Henry Mintzberg, who recently spent a day with Bramwell Tovey, conductor of the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, in order to explore the metaphor. He found that Tovey does not operate like an absolute ruler but practices instead what Mintzberg calls covert leadership. Covert leadership means managing with a sense of nuances, constraints, and limitations. When a manager like Tovey guides an organization, he leads without seeming to, without his people being fully aware of all that he is doing. That's because in this world of professionals, a leader is not completely powerless--but neither does he have absolute control over others. As knowledge work grows in importance, the way an orchestra conductor really operates may serve as a good model for managers in a wide range of businesses. For example, Mintzberg found that Tovey does a lot more hands-on work than one might expect. More like a first-line supervisor than a hands-off executive, he takes direct and personal charge of what is getting done. In dealing with his musicians, his focus is on inspiring them, not empowering them. Like other professionals, the musicians don't need to be empowered--they're already secure in what they know and can do--but they do need to be infused with energy for the tasks at hand. This is the role of the covert leader: to act quietly and unobtrusively in order to exact not obedience but inspired performance.

  10. Impact of partial participation in integrated family planning training on medical knowledge, patient communication and professionalism. (United States)

    Steinauer, Jody E; Turk, Jema K; Preskill, Felisa; Devaskar, Sangita; Freedman, Lori; Landy, Uta


    Obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are required to provide access to abortion training, but residents can opt out of participating for religious or moral reasons. Quantitative data suggest that most residents who opt out of doing abortions participate and gain skills in other aspects of the family planning training. However, little is known about their experience and perspective. Between June 2010 and June 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with current and former residents who opted out of some or all of the family planning training at ob-gyn residency programs affiliated with the Kenneth J. Ryan Residency Training Program in Abortion and Family Planning. Residents were either self-identified or were identified by their Ryan Program directors as having opted out of some training. The interviews were transcribed and coded using modified grounded theory. Twenty-six physicians were interviewed by telephone. Interviewees were from geographically diverse programs (35% Midwest, 31% West, 19% South/Southeast and 15% North/Northeast). We identified four dominant themes about their experience: (a) skills valued in the family planning training, (b) improved patient-centered care, (c) changes in attitudes about abortion and (d) miscommunication as a source of negative feelings. Respondents valued the ability to partially participate in the family planning training and identified specific aspects of their training which will impact future patient care. Many of the effects described in the interviews address core competencies in medical knowledge, patient care, communication and professionalism. We recommend that programs offer a spectrum of partial participation in family planning training to all residents, including residents who choose to opt out of doing some or all abortions. Learners who morally object to abortion but participate in training in family planning and abortion, up to their level of comfort, gain clinical and professional skills. We

  11. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research. (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O


    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  12. Connecting practice-based research and school development. Cross-professional collaboration in secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenke, W.


    Research and development (R&D) projects can increasingly be observed in secondary schools in the Netherlands. In such projects, cross-professional collaboration of school leaders and teachers with researchers, advisers, and supervisors is encouraged. These professionals have the purpose to stimulate

  13. Participatory Action Research for Development of Prospective Teachers' Professionality during Their Pedagogical Practice (United States)

    Strode, Aina


    Implementation of participatory action research during pedagogical practice facilitates sustainable education because its objective is to understand professional practice, enrich the capacity of involved participants and an opportunity to make inquiries for the improvement of quality. In the research of professional practice, subjects explore…

  14. Master's Training as a Part of Young Researcher's Professional Development: British and Ukrainian Experience (United States)

    Bidyuk, Natalya


    The problem of the professional development of young researchers in terms of Master's training has been analyzed. The analysis of the literature references, documental and other sources gave grounds to state that the basic principle of Master's professional training is a research-oriented paradigm. The necessity of using the innovative ideas of…

  15. Developing an Explicit-Reflective Inquiry-Based Professional Development Workshop and Examining the Effects on Nature of Scientific Knowledge


    BAYIR, Eylem; Fitnat KÖSEOĞLU


    Improving understanding of nature of science and scientific knowledge for individuals has been seen one of the essential objectives for science education for years. Teachers have a critical role in the process of learning nature of science by students. For this reason, we have turned our attentions toward improving science teachers‟ views about nature of science and scientific knowledge. This study focused specifically on introducing the explicit-reflective inquiry-based professional developm...

  16. Designing and Developing a NASA Research Projects Knowledge Base and Implementing Knowledge Management and Discovery Techniques (United States)

    Dabiru, L.; O'Hara, C. G.; Shaw, D.; Katragadda, S.; Anderson, D.; Kim, S.; Shrestha, B.; Aanstoos, J.; Frisbie, T.; Policelli, F.; Keblawi, N.


    The Research Project Knowledge Base (RPKB) is currently being designed and will be implemented in a manner that is fully compatible and interoperable with enterprise architecture tools developed to support NASA's Applied Sciences Program. Through user needs assessment, collaboration with Stennis Space Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, and NASA's DEVELOP Staff personnel insight to information needs for the RPKB were gathered from across NASA scientific communities of practice. To enable efficient, consistent, standard, structured, and managed data entry and research results compilation a prototype RPKB has been designed and fully integrated with the existing NASA Earth Science Systems Components database. The RPKB will compile research project and keyword information of relevance to the six major science focus areas, 12 national applications, and the Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). The RPKB will include information about projects awarded from NASA research solicitations, project investigator information, research publications, NASA data products employed, and model or decision support tools used or developed as well as new data product information. The RPKB will be developed in a multi-tier architecture that will include a SQL Server relational database backend, middleware, and front end client interfaces for data entry. The purpose of this project is to intelligently harvest the results of research sponsored by the NASA Applied Sciences Program and related research program results. We present various approaches for a wide spectrum of knowledge discovery of research results, publications, projects, etc. from the NASA Systems Components database and global information systems and show how this is implemented in SQL Server database. The application of knowledge discovery is useful for intelligent query answering and multiple-layered database construction. Using advanced EA tools such as the Earth Science Architecture Tool (ESAT), RPKB will enable NASA and

  17. Systematic collection of patient reported outcome research data: A checklist for clinical research professionals. (United States)

    Wehrlen, Leslie; Krumlauf, Mike; Ness, Elizabeth; Maloof, Damiana; Bevans, Margaret


    Understanding the human experience is no longer an outcome explored strictly by social and behavioral researchers. Increasingly, biomedical researchers are also including patient reported outcomes (PROs) in their clinical research studies not only due to calls for increased patient engagement in research but also healthcare. Collecting PROs in clinical research studies offers a lens into the patient's unique perspective providing important information to industry sponsors and the FDA. Approximately 30% of trials include PROs as primary or secondary endpoints and a quarter of FDA new drug, device and biologic applications include PRO data to support labeling claims. In this paper PRO, represents any information obtained directly from the patient or their proxy, without interpretation by another individual to ascertain their health, evaluate symptoms or conditions and extends the reference of PRO, as defined by the FDA, to include other sources such as patient diaries. Consumers and clinicians consistently report that PRO data are valued, and can aide when deciding between treatment options; therefore an integral part of clinical research. However, little guidance exists for clinical research professionals (CRPs) responsible for collecting PRO data on the best practices to ensure quality data collection so that an accurate assessment of the patient's view is collected. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop and validate a checklist to guide quality collection of PRO data. The checklist synthesizes best practices from published literature and expert opinions addressing practical and methodological challenges CRPs often encounter when collecting PRO data in research settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Connecting Practice & Research: A Shared Growth Professional Development Model (United States)

    Lampi, Jodi P.; Dimino, Renee K.; Taylor, Judi Salsburg


    The authors write here that they fundamentally believe that developmental education is about social justice. Professionals in this field are not only responsible to implement evidence-based best practices but also to ensure access to higher education. To meet this need, it is imperative that practitioners turn, as a supportive team, to…

  19. The perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapy and chiropractic students regarding each others’ professional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Naidoo


    Full Text Available Introduction: The roles of physiotherapists and chiropractors demon-strate some overlap. Both are members of a multidisciplinary team and contributeto the holistic care of patients. Good understanding of each others’ professionalpractice may lead to good working relationships with effective referrals, inter -disciplinary and multidisciplinary management of patients. Purpose: To investigate the perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of undergraduatephysiotherapy and chiropractic students about each others’ professional roles inclinical practice. Methodology: Data was obtained using a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions. First and final-yearphysiotherapy (n = 72 and chiropractic students (n = 49 participated. Results: First and final year physiotherapy students scored 58% and 62% respectively in the “test” on chiropractic;chiropractic students scored 52% and 68% respectively in the test on physiotherapy. Seventy percent of the chiropractic and 14% of the physiotherapy students had visited the practice of other profession. Sixty seven percent of the chiropractic and 38% of the physiotherapy students found it was effective. Forty seven percent chiropractic and 80% physiotherapy students considered physiotherapy and chiropractic to be in direct competition. Sixty six percentof the chiropractic students and 49% of the physiotherapy students expressed the intention of working together withthe other profession.  Discussion: The reason for the possible feelings of competitiveness could be because in South A frica there is vastoverlap of practice in both professions; Physiotherapists and chiropractors are seen to use modalities that are similar.This may be viewed as an indication of the importance in defining the roles, scope and characteristics of both physio-therapy and chiropractic.Conclusion: The knowledge of the physiotherapy and chiropractic students is equal, however, chiropractic studentshave more positive perceptions

  20. Methodological procedures in the construction of scientific knowledge: bibliographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Cristiane Sasso de Lima


    Full Text Available This article concerns bibliographic research in the context of production of knowledge, as a methodological procedure that offers the researcher the possibility of seeking solutions to a research problem. It recognizes the need to present the scientific method chosen by the researcher; to present the forms of construction of the methodological design and the choice of procedures; and demonstrates how the presentation and analysis of the data obtained is configured. It also presents a methodological design of successive approximations, considering that the flexibility in the apprehension of data guarantees the dialectical movement in which the object of study can be constantly revised. That is, it postulates that bibliographic research involves conducting a tireless movement of apprehension of objectives, observance of steps, reading, questioning and critical interlocution with the bibliographic material and this demands epistemological vigilance.

  1. Knowledge and experience sharing practices among health professionals in hospitals under the Addis Ababa health bureau, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Asemahagn, Mulusew Andualem


    Health professionals need updated health information from credible sources to improve their knowledge and provide evidence based health care services. Various types of medical errors have occurred in resource-limited countries because of poor knowledge and experience sharing practices among health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge-sharing practices and determinants among health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 randomly selected health professionals from August12-25/2012. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about different variables. Data entry and analysis were done using Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version20 respectively. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses were applied to describe study objectives and identify the determinants of knowledge sharing practices respectively. Odds ratio at 95% CI was used to describe the strength of association between the study and outcome variables. Most of the respondents approved the need of knowledge and experience sharing practices in their routine activities. Nearly half, 152 (49.0%) of the study participants had knowledge and experience sharing practices. A majority, 219 (70.0%) of the respondents showed a willingness to share their knowledge and experiences. Trust on others' knowledge, motivation, supportive leadership, job satisfaction, awareness, willingness and resource allocation are the determinants of knowledge and experience sharing practices. Supportive leadership, resources, and trust on others' knowledge can enhance knowledge and experience sharing by OR = 3.12, 95% CI = [1.89 - 5.78], OR = 2.3, 95% CI = [1.61- 4.21] and OR = 2.78, 95% CI = [1.66 - 4.64] times compared with their counterparts respectively. Even though most of the respondents knew the importance of knowledge and experience sharing practices, only a limited number

  2. Teorizando acerca del Conocimiento Productivo para Entender la Educacion Teorico Profesional (Theorizing about Productive Knowledge To Understand Professional Technical Education). (United States)

    Hidalgo, Abelardo Castro; Carrasco, Decler Martinez


    States that, internationally, Professional Technical Education emerges as a method of providing educational solutions for poor sectors of the population. Cites University of Chalmer (Sweden) and University of Bio-Bio (Chile) as institutions transformed into technological universities. Discusses what is productive knowledge and conditions under…

  3. Characterizing Teaching Assistants' Knowledge and Beliefs Following Professional Development Activities within an Inquiry-Based General Chemistry Context (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Whitworth, Brooke A.


    The purpose of this investigation was to explore changes in undergraduate and graduate teaching assistants' (TAs') content knowledge and beliefs about teaching within the context of an inquiry-based laboratory course. TAs received professional development (PD), which was informed by the TA training literature base and was designed for TAs…

  4. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.


    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  5. Examining Teachers' Enactment of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) in Their Mathematics Teaching after Technology Integration Professional Development (United States)

    Polly, Drew


    Technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) has been advanced as a construct to describe teachers' understandings related to effectively teaching with technology. This study examined the development of TPACK of two teachers during their mathematics teaching after participating in a learner-centered professional development (LCPD)…

  6. An Enquiry into the Professional Competence of Inclusive Education Teachers in Beijing: Attitudes, Knowledge, Skills, and Agency (United States)

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Feng, Yajing; Deng, Meng; Liang, Songmei


    Attitudes, knowledge, and skills are widely recognised as the three pillars of professional competence of inclusive education teachers. Studies emerging from the Chinese context consider these three pillars important for the practice of Learning in Regular Classrooms--an idiosyncratic Chinese form of inclusive education. Our mixed methods study…

  7. Enhancing Pedagogical Content Knowledge in a Collaborative School-Based Professional Development Program for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching (United States)

    Lee, Yeung-Chung


    This study reports on the trial of a school-based professional development process aimed at helping science teachers improve their inquiry-based science teaching skills. This process focuses on developing the pedagogical content knowledge of teachers through peer collaboration, under the guidance of a teacher educator. A multi-method interpretive…

  8. Distinguishing Models of Professional Development: The Case of an Adaptive Model's Impact on Teachers' Knowledge, Instruction, and Student Achievement (United States)

    Koellner, Karen; Jacobs, Jennifer


    We posit that professional development (PD) models fall on a continuum from highly adaptive to highly specified, and that these constructs provide a productive way to characterize and distinguish among models. The study reported here examines the impact of an adaptive mathematics PD model on teachers' knowledge and instructional practices as well…

  9. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity (United States)

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.


    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  10. The future of 'pure' medical science: the need for a new specialist professional research system. (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter


    Over recent decades, medical research has become mostly an 'applied' science which implicitly aims at steady progress by an accumulation of small improvements, each increment having a high probability of validity. Applied medical science is, therefore, a social system of communications for generating pre-publication peer-reviewed knowledge that is ready for implementation. However, the need for predictability makes modern medical science risk-averse and this is leading to a decline in major therapeutic breakthroughs where new treatments for new diseases are required. There is need for the evolution of a specialized professional research system of pure medial science, whose role would be to generate and critically evaluate radically novel and potentially important theories, techniques, therapies and technologies. Pure science ideas typically have a lower probability of being valid, but the possibility of much greater benefit if they turn out to be true. The domination of medical research by applied criteria means that even good ideas from pure medical science are typically ignored or summarily rejected as being too speculative. Of course, radical and potentially important ideas may currently be published, but at present there is no formal mechanism by which pure science publications may be received, critiqued, evaluated and extended to become suitable for 'application'. Pure medical science needs to evolve to constitute a typical specialized scientific system of formal communications among a professional community. The members of this putative profession would interact via close research groupings, journals, meetings, electronic and web communications--like any other science. Pure medical science units might arise as elite grouping linked to existing world-class applied medical research institutions. However, the pure medical science system would have its own separate aims, procedures for scientific evaluation, institutional organization, funding and support

  11. [Overview of nursing knowledge production on the professional's health: impact and outlooks]. (United States)

    Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Lacerda, Maria Ribeiro; Ulbrich, Elis; Bandeira, Janaína Marielen; Gaio, Daniela Maria


    It is a literature review held by means of abstract consultation in the theses and dissertations data base of the Coordination of Specialization for the Superior Level Staff (CAPES - in Portuguese), from 1997 to 2006, using the words: professional's health and nursing. 172 abstracts were identified. Most used key words were: nursing job and work (14.3%), occupational hazards (10%) and work accidents (10%). Only 119 out of 172 productions referred to the nature of the study, 52.9% have a quantitative approach in many research studies, ultimately descriptive or exploratory studies or both. Future outlook in this production field may be the issue of changing the study typology, putting aside descriptive and exploratory qualitative or quantitative studies in order to search scientific evidences and modern investigative methodologies besides the implementation of intervention proposals as well as the appreciation of nurses' educational function.

  12. The Impact of a Professional Development Program on Elementary Teachers' Science Knowledge and Pedagogical Skills (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Madalena


    Teacher professional development plays an important role in a teacher's growth and every year school districts spend a large portion of their budgets in professional development activities. However, as districts face increasing budget cuts, funds for professional development compete against other district priorities. As a result, partnerships…

  13. Exploring arts-based knowledge translation: sharing research findings through performing the patterns, rehearsing the results, staging the synthesis. (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra; Schultz, Annette S H


    Cultivation of knowledge translation (KT) strategies that actively engage health professionals in critical reflection of their practice and research-based evidence are imperative to address the research-practice gap. While research-based evidence is exponentially growing, our ability to facilitate uptake by nurses and other health professionals has not kept pace. Innovative approaches that extend epistemological bias beyond a singular standpoint of postpositivism, such as the utilization of arts-based methods, expand the possibility to address the complexities of context, engage audience members, promote dissemination within communities of practice, and foster new audiences interested in research findings. In this paper, we address the importance of adopting a social constructivist epistemological stance to facilitate knowledge translation to diverse audiences, explore various arts-based knowledge translation (ABKT) strategies, and open a dialogue concerning evaluative tenets of ABKT. ABKT utilizes various art forms to disseminate research knowledge to diverse audiences and promote evidence-informed practice. ABKT initiatives translate knowledge not based upon a linear model, which views knowledge as an objective entity, but rather operate from the premise that knowledge is socially situated, which demands acknowledging and engaging the learner within their context. Theatre, dance, photography, and poetry are art forms that are commonly used to communicate research findings to diverse audiences. Given the emerging interest and importance of utilizing this KT strategy situated within a social constructivist epistemology, potential challenges and plausible evaluative criteria specific to ABKT are presented. ABKT is an emerging KT strategy that is grounded in social constructivist epistemological tenets, and holds potential for meaningfully sharing new research knowledge with diverse audiences. ABKT is an innovative and synergistic approach to traditional

  14. Proceedings of the National Conference on Professional Priorities. [Research. (United States)

    American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Hastings-on-Hudson, NY.

    The following papers on research in foreign language are presented: (1) "Research and Design," by Thomas C. Cooper; (2) "Action Research versus Needed Research for the 1980s," by Gilbert A. Jarvis; and (3) "Second Language Acquisition Research: Needs and Priorities," by Stephen D. Krashen. The first paper discusses three research procedures…

  15. Tales from the Dark Side: Teacher Professional Development , Support , Activities, Student Research & Presentations (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.


    In a partnership last Spring with Arizona Public Service, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) created the 'Dark-Skies Energy Education Program: Energy Awareness for a Sustainable Future'. In this program, experienced science and technology education specialists from NOAO led 2 one-day professional development workshops for thirteen 6th grade teachers on dark skies and energy education. The workshops focused on three foundational, scaffolding activities and a final student research project. This in turn culminated in a Family Science Night where students presented their projects. In between these events, our NOAO team provided support for teachers through real-time video conferencing using FaceTime. In addition to the professional development, each teacher received a kit full of resource materials to perform the activities and research project. The kit was at no cost to the teacher, school, or district. Each kit contained the latest version of a tablet, which was used to facilitate communication and support for the teachers, as well as provide all the program's written teaching materials. The activities are in accordance with state, Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards. Our NOAO instructors gave firsthand experiences on how best to use these materials in a classroom or public setting. They also discussed opportunities on how they can incorporate, adapt and expand upon the activities and research projects in the classroom. Evaluation reports from the program's independent evaluator showed that the students enjoyed learning from the three foundational activities and research projects. The project presentations by the Yuma students were outstanding in their creativity, level of effort, and scientific accuracy. To summarize the evaluations, significant changes in knowledge and attitude were made with the teachers and students (from one-on-one interviews and surveys), but behavioral changes (albeit only over a semester) seemed minimal. The AGU

  16. Knowledge of different medical and dental professional groups in Switzerland about halitosis. (United States)

    Roth, Barbara; Oppliger, Nathalie; Filippi, Andreas


    Although halitosis is a widespread condition, it is still seen as too personal or embarrassing to talk about. The cause of real halitosis can be intraoral or extraoral. In order to determine the level of knowledge of health care providers in Switzerland, a survey was conducted over a period of three years in which 150 family physicians, 150 ear, nose and throat specialists, 154 dentists and 151 dental hygienists were personally interviewed. The survey shows that only 46.7% of the dentists and only 47.0% of the dental hygienists are consulted by patients for their halitosis, whereas 58.0% of the family physicians and 50.7% of the ENT specialists reported treating 1-10 patients for halitosis per year, while 46.7% of the ENT doctors even reported treating 11-100 patients for halitosis per year. 81.5% of all interviewed doctors and dental hygienists were of the opinion that halitosis mainly originates intraorally. 76.0% of the dentists and 72.8% of the dental hygienists as well as 33.3% of the family physicians recommend periodontitis therapy as halitosis treatment. This proves that a large percentage of medical professionals thinks that marginal periodontitis is the most common cause of halitosis. This study also shows that patients seek first consultations with dentists and dental hygienists less often than with family physicians and ENT specialists, despite the fact that the cause of halitosis is primarily intraoral.

  17. Working Papers in Acquisition of Knowledge for Image Understanding Research, (United States)


    mechanisms useful in generating these transcriptions in the first place. 11. MET1-0D The picture -puzzle paradigm used was human simulation of image ...University, 1975. 18. R. N. Shepard, Recognition memory for words, sentences and pictures , Jornal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 1976. 19. D. L...protocols in the picture -puzzle experiment. 29 REFERENCES 1. Akin, 0. and Reddy, R. Knowledge acquisition for image understanding research, Jour~a of

  18. Profession based research through Action research. Framing knowledge production in an interdisciplinary perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Bladt, Mette; Husted, Mia

    to work on tendencies to privilege some types of knowledge above others when it comes to knowledge production and research processes. The participatory worldview mandates action researchers to consider participants as a collaborative resource and agents of cyclical transformation who bring to the table......., & Aagard Nielsen, K. (2006). A framework for the book. In K. Aagaard Nielsen & L. Svensson (Eds.), Action research and interactive research (pp. 13–45). Maastricht: Shaker Publishing. Park, P., M. Brydon-Miller, B. Hall & T. Jackson (Eds.) (1993), Voices of change: Participatory research in the United...

  19. They think they know but do they? Misalignment of perceptions of lifestyle modification knowledge among health professionals. (United States)

    Parker, Whadi-Ah; Steyn, Nelia P; Levitt, Naomi S; Lombard, Carl J


    The present study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and practices of public-sector primary-care health professionals and final-year students regarding the role of nutrition, physical activity and smoking cessation (lifestyle modification) in the management of chronic diseases of lifestyle within the public health-care sector. A comparative cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was conducted in thirty primary health-care facilities and four tertiary institutions offering medical and/or nursing programmes in Cape Town in the Western Cape Metropole. Stratified random sampling, based on geographical location, was used to select the health facilities while convenience sampling was used to select students at the tertiary institutions. A validated self-administered knowledge test was used to obtain data from the health professionals. Differential lifestyle modification knowledge exists among both health professionals and students, with less than 10 % achieving the desired scores of 80 % or higher. The majority of health professionals seem to be promoting the theoretical concepts of lifestyle modification but experience difficulty in providing practical advice to patients. Of the health professionals evaluated, doctors appeared to have the best knowledge of lifestyle modification. Lack of time, lack of patient adherence and language barriers were given as the main barriers to providing lifestyle counselling. The undergraduate curricula of medical and nursing students should include sufficient training on lifestyle modification, particularly practical advice on diet, physical activity and smoking cessation. Health professionals working at primary health-care facilities should be updated by providing lifestyle modification education as part of continuing medical education.

  20. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  1. Contributions of co-curricular summer research programs to my professional growth (United States)

    Moore, K. D.


    The co-curricular summer research program, in which I was involved over three summers as an undergraduate student, greatly benefited me. In this paper I will briefly describe the program and how the experience contributed to my value and growth. The U.S. Department of Energy operated the Global Change Education Program (GCEP), from 1999-2013, as an outreach to both undergraduate and graduate students. Its goals were to: provide students with hands-on research experience in a one-on-one setting with leaders in global change fields, encourage undergraduate students to enter graduate school, and increase the number of high quality U.S. scientists. I took part in GCEP as a Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (SURE) Fellow. Each Fellow was teamed with a scientist to conduct research over the summer. I spent one summer at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA working with Dr. William Shaw. The next two summers I spent working at Aerodyne Research, Inc. in Billerica, MA with Dr. Leah Williams. My experiences as a SURE Fellow have benefitted me in many ways. The research presentations, required of SURE Fellows, helped to improve my presentation skills. The GCEP workshops expanded the scope of my knowledge about global change impacts at all scales. I was involved in two large, collaborative field studies, which provided experiences and examples that have helped me lead my own field studies. I took part in well-functioning research teams, helping me see the value of open communication in collaborative work. My critical and analytical thinking abilities were continually honed. My problem solving skills were challenged in laboratory and field work. I worked with talented professionals and students that are now part of my professional network. My contributions resulted in being a coauthor on two peer-reviewed publications. I was able to experience research teams outside of academia, which included government and private sectors. The time spent as a SURE

  2. Psychometric Development of the Research and Knowledge Scale (United States)

    Powell, Lauren R.; Ojukwu, Elizabeth; Person, Sharina D.; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros C.


    Background: Many research participants are misinformed about research terms, procedures, and goals; however, no validated instruments exist to assess individual’s comprehension of health-related research information. We propose research literacy as a concept that incorporates understanding about the purpose and nature of research. Objectives: We developed the Research and Knowledge Scale (RaKS) to measure research literacy in a culturally, literacy-sensitive manner. We describe its development and psychometric properties. Research Design: Qualitative methods were used to assess perspectives of research participants and researchers. Literature and informed consent reviews were conducted to develop initial items. These data were used to develop initial domains and items of the RaKS, and expert panel reviews and cognitive pretesting were done to refine the scale. We conducted psychometric analyses to evaluate the scale. Subjects: The cross-sectional survey was administered to a purposive community-based sample (n=430) using a Web-based data collection system and paper. Measures: We did classic theory testing on individual items and assessed test-retest reliability and Kuder-Richardson-20 for internal consistency. We conducted exploratory factor analysis and analysis of variance to assess differences in mean research literacy scores in sociodemographic subgroups. Results: The RaKS is comprised of 16 items, with a Kuder-Richardson-20 estimate of 0.81 and test-retest reliability 0.84. There were differences in mean scale scores by race/ethnicity, age, education, income, and health literacy (all P<0.01). Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the RaKS. This scale can be used to measure research participants’ understanding about health-related research processes and identify areas to improve informed decision-making about research participation. PMID:27579914


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ace vedo Zapata


    Full Text Available The objective is to describe the social management of knowledge through research and innovation networks to promote social inclusion. The reflection of the exploratory stage is presented within the doctoral thesis analyzing the challenges of the universities in the achievement of social inclusion with networks of research and innovation. A descriptive work was done, with documentary tracking, systematization and analysis. The findings show that it is necessary to articulate efforts in interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary networks with different actors: state, company, education, scientists, technologists and vulnerable, excluded populations, to build policies and strategies for social inclusion.

  4. Collaborative Action Research Approaches Promoting Professional Development for Elementary School Teachers (United States)

    Jaipal, Kamini; Figg, Candace


    Action research in classrooms can be challenging for novice teacher researchers. This paper reports on a study involving eight action research teacher teams. Analysis of the teams as they conducted action research resulted in the identification of three collaborative action research approaches promoting professional development. The findings…

  5. School nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of role as opinion leader, and professional practice regarding human papillomavirus vaccine for youth. (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L


    Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine. We used a cross-sectional design by recruiting members from the National Association of School Nurses. All participants (N = 505) were e-mailed a survey designed for this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM) tested direct and indirect effects. Overall, school nurses had knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and positive attitudes toward the vaccine. They had less-than-enthusiastic perceptions of their role as opinion leaders regarding the vaccine and implemented few activities related to providing vaccine information. The model revealed a good fit (χ(2)=20.238 [df=8, popinion leaders. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  6. Solar Astronomy as a Means to Promote Authentic Science Research in a Teacher Professional Development Program (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Croft, S.; Pompea, S. M.; Plymate, C.; McCarthy, D.


    Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) is an NSF-funded Teacher Enhancement Program hosted by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) in Tucson, AZ. Consistent with national priorities in education, TLRBSE seeks to retain and renew middle and high school science teachers. Within the exciting context of astronomy, TLRBSE integrates the best pedagogical practices of Research Based Science Education with the process of mentoring. One means by which participants are provided training in astronomy content, pedagogy, image processing, research and leadership skills is through a 15-week distance-learning course and an in-residence, two-week institute at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). Throughout the program, teachers work with professional astronomers and education specialists. At the in-situ, two-week institute, teachers are the researchers on one of four research projects, including solar astronomy. Preparation for the solar project dictates much of the design of the program (e.g., development and feasibility testing of the observing program, the reduction and analysis software, the preparatory documents for the teachers). The program design of the solar project is centered on teachers experiencing the scientific process. Initially through a staff-facilitated guided inquiry and then on their own as a team, the teachers propose a research question and discuss alternative hypotheses. They operate the solar telescope and take, calibrate, reduce and analyze the data. Teachers interpret and report results to their peers and pundits. Ultimately the observing experience and knowledge gained by the teachers is transferred to the classroom, where students learn science by doing science. Staff astronomers and education specialists provide continuing support with the goal of sustaining a professional learning community that outlives the research experience. Further observing experience is available during the

  7. Self-regulation Learning, Feedback and Knowledge Transfer. Design Research with University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Virginia Garello


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the processes of self-regulation of learning, feedback and the transfer of academic knowledge in students majoring in education at the Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Argentina. With the aim of impacting the acquisition of knowledge, the transfer of concepts in the field of teaching and the development of self-regulated learning, we applied, by means of design-based research methodology, two sequences of tasks that allowed us to analyze the answers that the students developed to complex problems similar to those they might face in their future professional practice. The theoretical framework of the study was structured based on current developments of the social constructivist approach of educational psychology. The joint analysis of the results shows the importance of giving university students assignments that employ the processes of interpretation and the transfer of problematic situations, group elaborations, and instances of feedback that permit the revision and improvement of answers.

  8. The impact of professional development in informal science contexts on teachers' content knowledge and discourse (United States)

    Holliday, Gary M.

    The Contextual Model of Learning (CML; Falk & Dierking, 1992, 2000) and reform documents have emphasized the unique learning environments that ISIs provide and the social aspects of that learning. As a result, individuals are able to use "each other as vehicles for reinforcing beliefs and meaning making" (Kisiel, 2003, p. 3). This study looked at two science content courses that were taught over two years by education staff of a large science and technology museum located in the Midwest. Data from six courses, with 187 participating elementary and middle school teachers, included content tests, portfolios and graduate credit assignments, daily and final evaluations of the course, as well as audio and video recordings of teachers while they were interacting with exhibits or engaged in an exhibit related activity. Results of this study found that PD educators' use of exhibits during both courses did not fully take into account the sociocultural context of CML and did not incorporate opportunities for discourse into the course instruction. However, when PD staff did make explicit connections between exhibits, science content, and activities, participants were more likely to be involved in in-depth, content related and pedagogical conversations while engaged in the courses. At the same time, even though teachers were very satisfied with the courses and felt that PD staff was effective in their instruction, participating teachers did not increase their science content knowledge even when explicit content connections were made to exhibits. It was unclear what outcomes the PD educators expect or want for their teacher students other than relaying content in a didactic manner (which was a secondary concern), sparking an interest in science, and providing many hands-on activities to bring back to the classroom. There is a need for a standardized professional development program for ISI educators and a need for restructuring ISI professional development so that it will

  9. Conocimientos sobre alfabetización informacional en profesionales de la salud Knowledge about information literacy in health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara García Hernández


    health professionals about information literacy. Methods: a transversal descriptive research was performed in " Eusebio Hernández" Gynecobsteric Teaching Hospital from September 1st to December 31st including a total of 120 professionals. They were selected by a random sampling based on the information skills necessary for their professional development, specifying the following information: use of information search, learning, knowledge about search engines, opinions on advanced search options and their use in daily work. The data collection was based on the application of an anonymous questionnaire which consisted of three questions to define learning needs using the program for competency development in health that INFOMED is conducting. Results: most respondents reported that they carried out a bibliographic search to perform academic works and they also reported that they learned independently. The highest percentage knew and used information searchers, but advanced search options were unknown to them. Conclusions: in this study we could verify the lack of skills in the management and use of Scientific and Technical Information the professionals under this study have, which represents an important challenge for both information technology technicians and health professionals.

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infections - Prevalence, Knowledge and Behaviours among Professional Defence Forces in Estonia: a Pilot Study. (United States)

    Parker, R. David; Rüütel, Kristi


    Our study assessed sexually transmitted infections (STI) occurrence and risk behaviours from a sample of the defence forces of Estonia. Previous research on military personnel yields various results on the prevalence of STIs and high risk behaviours. The increasing recognition of high risk behaviours among military personnel is evident given increased programmes that focus on education of drug use and risky sexual behaviours. Many militaries conduct routine, periodic screening for diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis at entry and pre-foreign deployment. Protecting deployed forces from secondary infections is important as persons with chronic viral infections are living longer, healthier lives and are more frequently serving in military forces. A cross sectional study used convenient sampling among professional defence forces. Participation was both voluntary and anonymous. Of 186 participants accounting for 7.3% of all forces (86.6% male, mean age 30 years) at selected bases, there were four cases of chlamydia. No cases of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, or HIV were found. One person reported ever injecting drugs. These findings indicate a lower STI occurrence among professional defence forces in Estonia compared with the non-military population. While these rates were lower than expected, as a voluntary study, people suspicious of having an STI might opt not to participate, limiting generalizability to the remainder of the military. Militaries without regular screening programmes could consider regular scheduled testing for STIs, HIV and blood borne pathogens, even if voluntary, especially prior to foreign deployment. Consistent testing would align across many militaries who deploy international peace keepers.

  11. Knowledge Management (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)


    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  12. [Research within the reach of Osakidetza professionals: Primary Health Care Research Program]. (United States)

    Grandes, Gonzalo; Arce, Verónica; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Soledad


    To provide information about the process and results of the Primary Health Care Research Program 2010-2011 organised by the Primary Care Research Unit of Bizkaia. Descriptive study. Osakidetza primary care. The 107 health professionals who applied for the program from a total of 4,338 general practitioners, nurses and administrative staff who were informed about it. Application level, research topics classification, program evaluation by participants, projects funding and program costs. Percentage who applied, 2.47%; 95% CI 2.41-2.88%. Of the 28 who were selected and 19 completed. The research topics were mostly related to the more common chronic diseases (32%), and prevention and health promotion (18%). Over 90% of participants assessed the quality of the program as good or excellent, and half of them considered it as difficult or very difficult. Of the18 new projects generated, 12 received funding, with 16 grants, 10 from the Health Department of the Basque Government, 4 from the Carlos III Institute of Health of the Ministry of Health of Spain, and 2 from Kronikgune. A total of €500,000 was obtained for these projects. This program cost €198,327. This experience can be used by others interested in the promotion of research in primary care, as the program achieved its objectives, and was useful and productive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Harnessing the social web for health and wellness: issues for research and knowledge translation. (United States)

    Ho, Kendall


    Social media is a powerful, rapid, and popular way of communication amongst people around the world. How can health professionals and patients use this strategy to achieve optimal disease management and prevention and attainment of wellness? An interdisciplinary group at University of British Columbia, supported by a grant from UBC Peter Wall Institute of Advanced Studies, conducted a research workshop in February 2013 to explore what is known and yet to be researched in using social media for nurturing the growth of virtual communities of people for health and wellness. This two and a half day workshop brought together a group of 30 multidisciplinary experts in closed discussions to reflect on five research themes in detail: (1) individual information acquisition and application, (2) community genesis and sustainability, (3) technological design issues, (4) knowledge management, dissemination, and renewal, and (5) research designs. In addition, a public forum for the general public, which attracted over 195 live participants, over 100 participants via Web casting, 1004 tweets, and 1,124,886 impressions following the #HCSMForum hash tag on Twitter, demonstrated the keen interest of the general public in this topic. Key concepts were captured in JMIR publications in this issue, and future directions, including research, knowledge translation approaches, and strategic partnerships of interdisciplinary researchers with policy makers and industries emerged from the workshop proceedings.

  14. Informatics Observed [and] Agenda: A Tool for Agenda Setting Research [and] Telos Language Partner: Multimedia Language Learning, Authoring and Customisation [and] Towards a Consumer Perspective on Information Behaviour Research [and] The Digital Library as Access Management Facilitator [and] Knowledge and Information Management (KIM'21) [and] Perspectives of ICT in Professional Development and Education. (United States)

    Cawkell, Tony; Kok, Yeong Haur; Goh, Angela; Holaday, Duncan; Hoffstaedter, Petra; Kohn, Kurt; Rowley, Jennifer; van Halm, Johan; Pye, Jo


    The following collection of articles reprinted from "CD ROM and Online Review" include "a new way of learning." Discuses research and development funding in educational technology and recommends to offer vast sums to investigate the best way of teaching a particular topic, and through that to fund the use of computers as an incidental part of the…

  15. Impact of health professional training in breastfeeding on their knowledge, skills, and hospital practices: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carvalho de Jesus

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To identify the impact of training in breastfeeding on knowledge, skills, and professional and hospital practices. Data source The systematic review search was carried out through the MEDLINE, Scopus, and LILACS databases. Reviews, studies with qualitative methodology, those without control group, those conducted in primary care, with specific populations, studies that had a belief and/or professional attitude as outcome, or those with focus on the post-discharge period were excluded. There was no limitation of period or language. The quality of the studies was assessed by the adapted criteria of Downs and Black. Summary of data The literature search identified 276 articles, of which 37 were selected for reading, 26 were excluded, and six were included through reference search. In total, 17 intervention articles were included, three of them with good internal validity. The studies were performed between 1992 and 2010 in countries from five continents; four of them were conducted in Brazil. The training target populations were nursing practitioners, doctors, midwives, and home visitors. Many kinds of training courses were applied. Five interventions employed the theoretical and practical training of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. All kinds of training courses showed at least one positive result on knowledge, skills, and/or professional/hospital practices, most of them with statistical significance. Conclusions Training of hospital health professionals has been effective in improving knowledge, skills, and practices.

  16. Impact of health professional training in breastfeeding on their knowledge, skills, and hospital practices: a systematic review. (United States)

    de Jesus, Patricia Carvalho; de Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto; Fonseca, Sandra Costa


    To identify the impact of training in breastfeeding on knowledge, skills, and professional and hospital practices. The systematic review search was carried out through the MEDLINE, Scopus, and LILACS databases. Reviews, studies with qualitative methodology, those without control group, those conducted in primary care, with specific populations, studies that had a belief and/or professional attitude as outcome, or those with focus on the post-discharge period were excluded. There was no limitation of period or language. The quality of the studies was assessed by the adapted criteria of Downs and Black. The literature search identified 276 articles, of which 37 were selected for reading, 26 were excluded, and six were included through reference search. In total, 17 intervention articles were included, three of them with good internal validity. The studies were performed between 1992 and 2010 in countries from five continents; four of them were conducted in Brazil. The training target populations were nursing practitioners, doctors, midwives, and home visitors. Many kinds of training courses were applied. Five interventions employed the theoretical and practical training of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. All kinds of training courses showed at least one positive result on knowledge, skills, and/or professional/hospital practices, most of them with statistical significance. Training of hospital health professionals has been effective in improving knowledge, skills, and practices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining research knowledge infrastructure for healthcare systems: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavis John N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines research knowledge infrastructures (RKIs found in health systems. An RKI is defined as any instrument (i.e., programs, interventions, tools implemented in order to facilitate access, dissemination, exchange, and/or use of evidence in healthcare organisations. Based on an environmental scan (17 key informant interviews and scoping review (26 studies, we found support for a framework that we developed that outlines components that a health system can have in its RKI. The broad domains are climate for research use, research production, activities used to link research to action, and evaluation. The objective of the current study is to profile the RKI of three types of health system organisations--regional health authorities, primary care practices, and hospitals--in two Canadian provinces to determine the current mix of components these organisations have in their RKI, their experience with these components, and their views about future RKI initiatives. Methods This study will include semistructured telephone interviews with a purposive sample region of a senior management team member, library/resource centre manager, and a 'knowledge broker' in three regional health authorities, five or six purposively sampled hospitals, and five or six primary care practices in Ontario and Quebec, for a maximum of 71 interviewees. The interviews will explore (a which RKI components have proven helpful, (b barriers and facilitators in implementing RKI components, and (c views about next steps in further development of RKIs. Discussion This is the first qualitative examination of potential RKI efforts that can increase the use of research evidence in health system decision making. We anticipate being able to identify broadly applicable insights about important next steps in building effective RKIs. Some of the identified RKI components may increase the use of research evidence by decision makers, which may then lead to more

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions of agricultural professionals toward genetically modified (GM) foods: a case study in Southwest Iran. (United States)

    Ghasemi, Sedigheh; Karami, Ezatollah; Azadi, Hossein


    While there has been a number of consumers' studies looking at factors that influence individuals' attitudes and behavior toward GM foods, few studies have considered agricultural professionals' intentions in this regard. This study illuminates agricultural professionals' insights toward GM foods in Southwest Iran. A random sample of 262 respondents was studied. The results indicated that the majority of the respondents had little knowledge about GM foods. They perceived few benefits or risks of GM foods. Their perceived benefits and trust in individuals and institutions had positive impacts on the behavioral intentions of the agricultural professionals. The results also revealed that the low knowledge level of the respondents had a negative impact on the behavioral intentions toward GM foods. This state of affairs is problematic, either GM foods have serious problems or the knowledge conveyed to the Iranian agricultural experts is inappropriate. We recommend a well defined communication strategy to provide information in such a way that allows individuals to feel adequately informed about GM foods. Furthermore, the development of trust and knowledge regarding GM foods can be greater when risk analysis frameworks are transparent, risk assessment methodologies are objective, all stakeholders are engaged in the risk management process, and risk communication focuses on consumers.

  19. HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among Northern Plains American Indian adolescents, parents, young adults, and health professionals. (United States)

    Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Frerichs, Leah; Black Bird, Arlene E; Workman, Karen; Dobberpuhl, Mitchell; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu


    Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n=10), Indian Health Service providers (n=7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n=22), girls (14-18) (n=18), and parents (n=16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women.

  20. Beginner teacher professional development: An action research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    As researcher, I as first author examined the application of the principles of action research and the application ..... used the following self-managing learning app- ...... Benefits of collaborative action research for the beginning teacher. Teaching and Teacher Education,. 25(2):344-349. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2008.06.008.

  1. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen


    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this: th th. 1. “See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of. Uri, the son Hur, of the tribe of Judah. And I have filled him with the Spirit of God, in understanding, in knowledge and all manner of workmanship, to design artistic works, to work in gold, in silver, in bronze, in cutting. Jewels for setting in carving wood, and to work.

  3. School improvement within a knowledge economy: Fostering professional learning from a multidimensional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. S. Bolhuis; P. Sleegers; F. Geijsel


    Professional development needs to be understood as a spontaneous process of learning at work before moving on toward the 'desired' professional development. Learning as a result of working is often implicit, stems from social interaction and direct experience, involves the (thoughtless, implicit)

  4. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules


    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  5. Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules


    McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.

  6. Helping early career research scientists ascend the professional ladder. (United States)

    King, Laina


    The Keystone Symposia Early Career Investigator Travel Award initiative is a unique successful research mentoring program tailored for 'end of the pipeline' life and biomedical scientists from academia and industry. Using targeted educational, mentoring, and networking activities, the program benefits early career scientists in solving a specific laboratory-based research question that is limiting their evolving research and could increase their ability to obtain new grants and improve their career progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Training of Teacher-Researcher as Prior Consideration of Professional Training of Pedagogues in Great Britain (United States)

    Kozubovska, Iryna; Popovych, Iryna


    The article is devoted to the problem of professional training of pedagogues in foreign countries. Special attention has been paid to the experience of Great Britain. It has been underlined that the teacher has to acquire thorough knowledge in profession as well as to master the methods of teaching. Nevertheless, this is not enough to reach…

  8. Research methods for students, academics and professionals information management and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Kirsty


    Research is such an important subject for information professionals that there will always be a need for effective guides to it. Research skills are a prerequisite for those who want to work successfully in information environments, an essential set of tools which enable information workers to become information professionals. This book focuses on producing critical consumers of research. It also goes some way towards producing researchers in the fields of information management and systems.The first edition of this book was enthusiastically received by researchers, students and information pr

  9. Translating research-based knowledge about infant sleep into practice. (United States)

    Middlemiss, Wendy; Yaure, Robin; Huey, Erron L


    Review infant sleep research with a focus on understanding the elements related to infant safety and infant and maternal well-being during nighttime care. This review summarizes current research and addresses the controversies and conflicting outcomes reported in infant nighttime care. This review addresses current literature on infant sleep patterns, as well as factors that influence infant sleep and are consequences of different care routines. Conversation points are provided to help nurse practitioners (NPs) address safety and practice concerns. Shared information can help parents provide a safe and healthy environment for infants and help to facilitate communication ties between the healthcare providers and the families. NPs need to help parents understand infant sleep patterns norms, what is current knowledge about infant nightwakings and parental presence, as well as about approaches to altering infant sleep patterns. Integrating this knowledge with parent preferences that are influenced by cultural practices and individual differences is crucial in helping parents develop a strong sense of competence and comfort with their choices and behaviors. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  10. Technology Integration: A Research-Based Professional Development Program (United States)

    Faulder, Tori Rose


    This research-based thesis project explains the governmental acts and policies, investors, and other stakeholders who have worked to promote, question, and explore the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom. Research suggests that best-practice ICT integration requires using ICT alongside constructivist pedagogy.…

  11. Evaluating a 5 year climate change research teacher professional development program in Southern Nevada (United States)

    Buck, P.; Rudd, L.; McAlister, J.; Bonde, A.


    We present results of a 5 yr NSF funded project, part of Nevada ';s Climate Change Research Education and Outreach EPSCoR award. Goals of the K-12 portion of the project included: a replicable professional development model of K-12 climate change science education for Nevada and other institutions; strengthened relationships between secondary school teachers and NSHE climate change researchers; and greater teacher pedagogical content knowledge in climate change science and greater confidence in ability to teach effectively. Two overarching research questions formed the foundation of our teacher professional development program: 1) How will climate change affect Nevada's baseline water resources (groundwater and surface water) and linked ecosystem services? 2) How will climate change affect natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., wildland fires, invasive species, and insect outbreaks)? All teachers participated in at least one (2-week long) summer institute and academic year follow up focused on one of two overarching research questions forming the basis of the award assisted by a disciplinary graduate student . An on-line class (ENV 794) was a 3 credit graduate credit bearing class from UNLV based on the fundamentals of climate change science was available free to participating teachers. A supplemental program in the final award year was added following advisory board recommendations to develop a cohort or "learning community" approach at an interested high school. The 'About Climate Change' Integrated Curriculum spans several subject areas and cuts across national standards for STEM English and Social Studies; a 2-week unit developed by Clark HS teachers for their classes. Our teachers increased their content knowledge about climate change science. This is indicated in student evaluations of the on-line course ENV 794, and in the summer institute post test of content knowledge which included about 25 questions. There was improvement for our one focus

  12. Research and application of knowledge resources network for product innovation. (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Li, Wen-qiang; Li, Yan; Na, Hui-zhen; Shi, Qian


    In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users' enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  13. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li


    Full Text Available In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users’ enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method.

  14. Medical education for equity in health: a participatory action research involving persons living in poverty and healthcare professionals. (United States)

    Hudon, Catherine; Loignon, Christine; Grabovschi, Cristina; Bush, Paula; Lambert, Mireille; Goulet, Émilie; Boyer, Sophie; De Laat, Marianne; Fournier, Nathalie


    Improving the knowledge and competencies of healthcare professionals is crucial to better address the specific needs of persons living in poverty and avoid stigmatization. This study aimed to explore the needs and expectations of persons living in poverty and healthcare professionals in terms of medical training regarding poverty and its effects on health and healthcare. We conducted a participatory action research study using photovoice, a method using photography, together with merging of knowledge and practice, an approach promoting dialogue between different sources of knowledge. Nineteen healthcare professionals and persons from an international community organization against poverty participated in the study. The first phase included 60 meetings and group sessions to identify the perceived barriers between persons living in poverty and healthcare teams. In the second phase, sub-committees deployed action plans in academic teaching units to overcome barriers identified in the first phase. Data were analysed through thematic analysis, using NVivo, in collaboration with five non-academic co-researchers. Four themes in regard to medical training were highlighted: improving medical students' and residents' knowledge on poverty and the living conditions of persons living in poverty; improving their understanding of the reality of those people; improving their relational skills pertaining to communication and interaction with persons living in poverty; improving their awareness and capacity for self-reflection. At the end of the second phase, actions were undertaken such as improving knowledge of the living conditions of persons living in poverty by posting social assistance rates, and tailoring interventions to patients' reality by including sociodemographic information in electronic medical records. Our findings also led to a participatory research project aiming to improve the skills and competency of residents and health professionals in regard to the quality of

  15. Health education with older adults: action research with primary care professionals. (United States)

    Mendonça, Francielle Toniolo Nicodemos Furtado de; Santos, Álvaro da Silva; Buso, Ana Luisa Zanardo; Malaquias, Bruna Stephanie Sousa


    To assess the development and implementation of permanent education action. Quantitative-qualitative research based on action research in three phases (diagnosis of reality, implementation of activity and evaluation), performed with health professionals and managers of basic health units. The evaluation was on the perception of changes immediately following the activity and after 120 days. In the first phase, 110 professionals took part, 36.4% of whom indicated the existence of groups for older adults at work. In the second phase, 98 professionals participated, pointing out interferences of the group in the life of older adults, items of importance and facilitation in forming groups and developing reality-based activities. The third phase showed, in the quantitative analysis, positive impact of the training, and in the qualitative analysis, reassessment of groups, greater knowledge and confidence in managing groups and increased respect for older adults. Permanent education opens pathways for the construction of differentiated care for older adults based on respect and health promotion. Avaliar o desenvolvimento e implementação de uma ação de educação permanente. Pesquisa quantitativo-qualitativa baseada na pesquisa-ação em 3 fases (diagnóstico da realidade, implementação de atividade e avaliação), realizada com profissionais de saúde e gerentes de unidades básicas. A avaliação se deu pela percepção de mudanças imediatamente à atividade e após 120 dias. Na 1ª fase, participaram 110 profissionais, dos quais 36,4% apontaram a existência de grupos para idosos no trabalho. Na 2ª fase, participaram 98 profissionais, que apontaram interferências do grupo na vida do idoso, itens de importância e facilitação para construção de grupos e atividade baseada na realidade. A 3ª fase mostrou, na análise quantitativa, impacto positivo do treinamento; e, na qualitativa, releitura dos grupos e manejo com mais conhecimento, segurança e respeito ao

  16. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of patients and their healthcare professionals around oral dosage form modification: A systematic review of the qualitative literature. (United States)

    Mc Gillicuddy, Aoife; Kelly, Maria; Crean, Abina M; Sahm, Laura J

    The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the available qualitative evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of adult patients, healthcare professionals and carers about oral dosage form modification. A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies was undertaken, utilising the thematic synthesis approach. The following databases were searched from inception to September 2015: PubMed, Medline (EBSCO), EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ProQuest Databases, Scopus, Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Citation tracking and searching the references lists of included studies was also undertaken. Grey literature was searched using the OpenGrey database, internet searching and personal knowledge. An updated search was undertaken in June 2016. Studies meeting the following criteria were eligible for inclusion; (i) used qualitative data collection and analysis methods; (ii) full-text was available in English; (iii) included adult patients who require oral dosage forms to be modified to meet their needs or; (iv) carers or healthcare professionals of patients who require oral dosage forms to be modified. Two reviewers independently appraised the quality of the included studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Checklist. A thematic synthesis was conducted and analytical themes were generated. Of 5455 records screened, seven studies were eligible for inclusion; three involved healthcare professionals and the remaining four studies involved patients. Four analytical themes emerged from the thematic synthesis: (i) patient-centred individuality and variability; (ii) communication; (iii) knowledge and uncertainty and; (iv) complexity. The variability of individual patient's requirements, poor communication practices and lack of knowledge about oral dosage form modification, when combined with the complex and multi

  17. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes and Competencies of Health Professionals Attended an International Training Programme in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despena Andrioti


    Full Text Available Background: Continuing education is a fundamental aspect of health personnel professional life. These enable health professionals improve patient-centred care, stay current and provide quality services.Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitudes and competencies from the interprofessional training programme in public health held in cooperation with WHO/EURO.Methods: A structured questioner for self-ratings on perceived seminar usefulness and implementation was placed on the internet followed by email notification to the 300 participants. We have received 128 completed questionnaires (42.5%.Programme effects were tested by categorical analysis using Pearson chi-Square or Fisher's exact test. Logistic regression was used to reveal correlation between implementation of competencies according to discipline and type of employer. All tests were considered to be significant at a 5% level. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. Findings: 85.9% (p = 0.021 <0.05 of the participants applied the knowledge they acquired in the seminar. The application of the competencies in public health services differed according to position (p<0.05. Supervisors achieved higher scores (81.4% in the administration and management than the officers (48.5%. Health professionals felt that their performance has been improved and consequently the quality of the services (75%. Conclusion: The international programme gave them confidence that the acquired knowledge and skills were equal to those of their European colleagues and that they are able to deal with public health issues and to provide the respective services.

  18. A Case Study: Leadership Style and Practice Leveraging Knowledge Management in Multigenerational Professional Learning Communities (United States)

    Giles-Weeks, Veda


    Age related demographic changes, within public school organizations are resulting in leadership challenges in leveraging organizational knowledge across four unique generational cohorts. Competitive success within schools has linkages to organizational cohesiveness and knowledge management (KM). Generational cohorts maintain values affecting…

  19. Developing Social Work Professional Judgment Skills: Enhancing Learning in Practice by Researching Learning in Practice (United States)

    Rawles, Joanna


    The aims of this article are twofold: to discuss the value of practice-based research as a basis for enhancing learning and teaching in social work and, as an illustration of this, to present the findings of a preliminary qualitative research study into social work students' development of professional judgment skills. The research was conducted…

  20. How Research Moves into Practice: A Preliminary Study of What Training Professionals Read, Hear, and Perceive (United States)

    Carliner, Saul; Legassie, Regan; Belding, Shaun; MacDonald, Hugh; Ribeiro, Ofelia; Johnston, Lynn; MacDonald, Jane; Hehn, Heidi


    In the growing body of research on the practice of training and development, several studies suggest that use of research-based findings in practice is low. The present study was designed to better understand the research-practice gap by exploring these questions: (1) Which published sources in the field are practicing professionals reading? How…

  1. Knowledge Boosting Curriculum for New Wind Industry Professionals Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, Ruth H; Rogers, Anthony L


    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV KEMA) received a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the curriculum for a series of short courses intended to address Topic Area 5 Workforce Development, one of the focus areas to achieve the goals outlined in 20% Wind by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to Electricity Supply. The aim of the curriculum development project was to provide material for instructors to use in a training program to help professionals transition into careers in wind energy. Under this grant DNV KEMA established a knowledge boosting program for the wind energy industry with the following objectives: 1. Develop technical training curricula and teaching materials for six key topic areas that can be implemented in a flexible format by a knowledgeable instructor. The topic areas form a foundation that can be leveraged for subsequent, more detailed learning modules (not developed in this program). 2. Develop an implementation guidance document to accompany the curricula outlining key learning objectives, implementation methods, and guidance for utilizing the curricula. This curriculum is intended to provide experienced trainers course material that can be used to provide course participants with a basic background in wind energy and wind project development. The curriculum addresses all aspects of developing a wind project, that when implemented can be put to use immediately, making the participant an asset to U.S. wind industry employers. The curriculum is comprised of six short modules, together equivalent in level of content to a one-semester college-level course. The student who completes all six modules should be able to understand on a basic level what is required to develop a wind project, speak with a reasonable level of confidence about such topics as wind resource assessment, energy assessment, turbine technology and project economics, and contribute to the analysis and review of project information. The content of

  2. Organizational Approaches to Managing Tacit Knowledge Loss of Legacy System Information Technology Professionals (United States)

    Bitner, Michael


    Information Technology (IT) employment shortages may be related to employee retirement or normal attrition. Within IT job shortages, tacit knowledge is lost when employees retire or leave organizations. Tacit knowledge is unwritten or unspoken knowledge that is not easily articulated, and exists only with the individuals who obtain the knowledge…

  3. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research (United States)


    Background In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Methods Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. Results HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. Conclusions HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of

  4. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research. (United States)

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Lyu, Peng-hui; Yang, Tian-an; Luo, Fei; Chen, Shan-quan; He, Lu-yang; Liu, Zhi-yong


    In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of hospital have been identified as the

  5. Knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward complementary and alternative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M AlBedah


    Full Text Available Background: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a popular treatment option for many populations. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge and attitude of health professionals in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia, toward CAM. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a multistage random sample was taken from health professionals working in hospitals in Riyadh city and surrounding governorates. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, from 306 health professionals working in 19 hospitals, on socio-demographic data, knowledge about CAM and their sources, and attitudes toward CAM practices. Results: Of the participants, 88.9% had some knowledge about CAM. Respondents with a doctorate degree (94.74% and 92.53% of those with a bachelor′s degree had significantly higher knowledge of CAM than subjects with a diploma, a fellowship, or a master′s degree (68.75%, 76.67%, and 85.41%, respectively, P = 0.004. Mass media represented 60.1% of sources of the knowledge of CAM followed by family, relatives, and friends (29.08% and health educational organizations (14.71%. Participants estimated that prophetic medicine including prayer, honey and bee products, medical herbs, Hijama, nutrition and nutritional supplements, cauterization, and camel milk and urine were the most commonly used CAM practices (90.5%, 85%, 76.9%, 70.6%, 61.4%, 55.9%, and 52.5%, respectively in addition to medical massage (61.8% and acupuncture (55%. One hundred and fifteen (80% physicians were ready to talk with their patients on CAM. Conclusion: The willingness to improve knowledge and create a positive attitude in health professionals toward CAM has increased. Religious practices, especially those related to prophetic medicine, are more common in the region. Health educational organizations have to play a greater role by being the source of evidence-based knowledge of CAM. Talking on CAM with patients should be improved by rooting

  6. Bipolar disorder research 2.0: Web technologies for research capacity and knowledge translation. (United States)

    Michalak, Erin E; McBride, Sally; Barnes, Steven J; Wood, Chanel S; Khatri, Nasreen; Balram Elliott, Nusha; Parikh, Sagar V


    Current Web technologies offer bipolar disorder (BD) researchers many untapped opportunities for conducting research and for promoting knowledge exchange. In the present paper, we document our experiences with a variety of Web 2.0 technologies in the context of an international BD research network: The Collaborative RESearch Team to Study psychosocial issues in BD (CREST.BD). Three technologies were used as tools for enabling research within CREST.BD and for encouraging the dissemination of the results of our research: (1) the website, (2) social networking tools (ie, Facebook, Twitter), and (3) several sorts of file sharing (ie YouTube, FileShare). For each Web technology, we collected quantitative assessments of their effectiveness (in reach, exposure, and engagement) over a 6-year timeframe (2010-2016). In general, many of our strategies were deemed successful for promoting knowledge exchange and other network goals. We discuss how we applied our Web analytics to inform adaptations and refinements of our Web 2.0 platforms to maximise knowledge exchange with people with BD, their supporters, and health care providers. We conclude with some general recommendations for other mental health researchers and research networks interested in pursuing Web 2.0 strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Knowledge of tuberculosis among medical professionals and university students in Oman. (United States)

    Al-Jabri, A A; Dorvlo, A S S; Al-Rahbi, S; Al-Abri, J; Al-Adawi, S


    This study in Oman investigated knowledge about tuberculosis among 142 medics (medical students, paramedics) and 133 non-medics (arts and social science students). Knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire with 28 statements on general knowledge, risk factors and diagnosis of tuberculosis. As expected, tuberculosis knowledge was significantly higher among medics but there was no significant difference between men and women. Although medics had better knowledge in general, some of the technical statements were answered correctly by higher proportions of non-medics.

  8. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards droplet and airborne isolation precautions amongs dental health care professionals in India. (United States)

    Jain, Manish; Sawla, Leena; Mathur, Anmol; Nihlani, Tarun; Ayair, Uttara; Prabu, Duraiswamy; Kulkarni, Suhas


    The purpose of this study is to obtain comprehensive information about the knowledge, attitude and practices in regard to droplet and airborne infection related precautions among faculty member and the undergraduate students in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 311 dental faculty and the undergraduate students under clinical training in Udaipur, Rajasthan. A self-assessment questionnaire composed of queries on three levels, namely knowledge, attitude and practices with respect to airborne and droplet isolation precautions was used. The data was collected and analyzed by using SPSS software. Frequency distribution scores of knowledge, attitude and practice in relation to droplet and airborne isolation precautions were revealed that even the students under training along with the faculty member were quite aware of the precautions and the principles of airborne and droplet isolation. Mean score for knowledge was 9.17±2.07; Mean scores for attitude and practice were 48.65±7.47 and 6.88±3.51 respectively. There were no significant difference in all groups regarding knowledge, attitude and practice. In addition, a positive linear correlation was found between two items of survey including knowledge- attitude, knowledge- practice and attitude- practice (Pknowledge and attitude but the practice levels for the same were low. The study confirms from the findings that the infection control measures among the health care professionals are fairly good and an educational program on isolation precautions can further enhance these levels and thereby, reducing the risk of infection transmission risks.

  9. Collaboration between a researcher and science teachers as research and professional development: A two-way learning street (United States)

    Finley, Sandra Jean

    The purposes of this study was to explore the evolution of a collaborative research relationship between a novice university researcher and three "ordinary" science teachers, to describe the ways teachers talk about and make sense of their practice, and to determine the personal and cultural barriers to the success of collaborative efforts and improvement of practice. The teachers had no requirement to participate in the study other than their own desires to understand and improve their teaching. Conversation was the primary mode of research. A postmodern standpoint was taken and a creative, open, and experimental approach to writing and analysis was used. By making the collaborative relationship problematic, it could be critically examined to determine why the group never reached the full potential of a collaborative research partnership. It starts as a story of a research project "gone south." The three science teachers and I had to define a new study when the original project was determined to be premature. We decided it was important to explore how our own experiences and beliefs shaped our lives as teachers and a researcher before we could look at a particular innovation for use in their classrooms. Given the present context of classrooms coupled with the radical changes in science teaching that are called for today, it has become critical to understand how individual teachers see their practice, how they talk about it, how they make sense of the dilemmas they encounter, and how they use their knowledge of teaching to improve their practice in the face of these new challenges. Our group evolved from a community of practitioners who talked about constraints to their teaching to a community of learners who talked about making sense of teaching and learning. Trends and tensions were identified in the structure and content of our conversations. Our representations of ourselves in the conversations affected the way our group collaborated. Barriers to changing the

  10. Understanding the Influence of knowledge-sharing in Project Portfolio Management in professional services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mads Lyngsø; Horsager, Betina; Tambo, Torben


    A significant challenge in project portfolio management (PPM) is the need for continuously collecting knowledge about pending and ongoing projects to perform project selection and resource allocation. This paper outlines an explorative case study of a small project-based organization, where...... emphasis is put upon the knowledge management processes of individual projects to aggregate to the joint PPM perspective navigable by senior management. Since PPM relies closely on knowledge-sharing, the effectiveness of the organizations knowledge-sharing capabilities is assessed in the perspective...... that combine the entire project-, program and portfolio life-cycle. The information processing must facilitate controlled knowledge flows and learnings, while helping the project managers to reduce non-productive knowledge acquisition. This is accomplished with a balance between the need for knowledge...

  11. Effectiveness of Adaptive E-Learning Environments on Knowledge, Competence, and Behavior in Health Professionals and Students: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Fontaine, Guillaume; Cossette, Sylvie; Maheu-Cadotte, Marc-André; Mailhot, Tanya; Deschênes, Marie-France; Mathieu-Dupuis, Gabrielle


    beginning of 2018. Providing tailored instruction to health professionals and students is a priority in order to optimize learning and clinical outcomes. This systematic review will synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of AEEs in improving knowledge, competence, and behavior in health professionals and students. It will provide guidance to policy makers, hospital managers, and researchers in terms of AEE development, implementation, and evaluation in health care.

  12. Qualitative research for the information professional a practical handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, G E


    This text serves an integrated manual on how to conduct qualitative research. Its extensive coverage includes all aspects of work in this field from conception to completion and all types of study in a variety of settings from multi-site studies to data organization.

  13. Merging research orientation with professional apprenticeship training through PBL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren


    The paper discusses an ongoing process of merging two university-based teaching traditions. The two traditions are alike in that both share a basic commitment to PBL-related values. Differences refer (as stated in the paper’s title) to one tradition being relatively more research oriented, wherea...

  14. Preliminary Results of Professional Development Program for School Science Research (United States)

    Wuttiprom, Sura; Wuttisela, Karntarat; Phonchaiya, Sonthi; Athiwaspong, Wanwalai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Sharma, Manjula Devi


    Teachers need to design their courses to be as similar to real-life situations as possible as genuine learning emerges in real life as opposed to studying in class. Research-based learning is an innovative approach exploring many critical strategies for success in the twenty-first century. In it, students drive their own learning through inquiry,…

  15. Knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety. (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Li, Dandan; Gao, Yue; Mu, Li; Zhou, Qixing


    With the wide research and application of nanomaterials in various fields, the safety of nanomaterials attracts much attention. An increasing number of reports in the literature have shown the adverse effects of nanomaterials, representing the quick development of nanotoxicology. However, many studies in nanotoxicology have not reflected the real nanomaterial safety, and the knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety remain large. Considering the remarkable influence of biological or environmental matrices (e.g., biological corona) on nanotoxicity, the situation of performing nanotoxicological experiments should be relevant to the environment and humans. Given the possibility of long-term and low-concentration exposure of nanomaterials, the reversibility of and adaptation to nanotoxicity, and the transgenerational effects should not be ignored. Different from common pollutants, the specific analysis methodology for nanotoxicology need development and exploration furthermore. High-throughput assay integrating with omics was highlighted in the present review to globally investigate nanotoxicity. In addition, the biological responses beyond individual levels, special mechanisms and control of nanotoxicity deserve more attention. The progress of nanotoxicology has been reviewed by previous articles. This review focuses on the blind spots in nanotoxicological research and provides insight into what we should do in future work to support the healthy development of nanotechnology and the evaluation of real nanomaterial safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge and Perceptions about Fragile X Syndrome: Implications for Diagnosis, Intervention, and Research (United States)

    Finucane, Brenda; Haas-Givler, Barbara; Simon, Elliott W.


    We surveyed 439 professionals in the field of autism to assess their knowledge and perceptions about fragile X syndrome (FXS) and related issues. Almost half had worked with at least one child diagnosed with FXS, yet most lacked basic knowledge about the condition, underestimated its significance in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, and…

  17. InSITEs into Practitioner Research: Findings from a Research-Based ESOL Teacher Professional Development Programme (United States)

    Davis, Matt; Kiely, Richard; Askham, James


    This article describes an innovative continuing professional development (CPD) programme for experienced English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teachers, and a research study into its impact. The programme incorporates the principles of Practitioner Research (PR) and focuses in particular on the skills of data analysis and situated…

  18. Knowledge of Health Professionals on Folic Acid Use and Their Prescribing Practice in Bahir Dar City Administration, Northwest Ethiopia: Cross-Sectional Study (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta; Asres Nigussie, Azezu


    Background Taking folic acid supplement during periconception period is effective to prevent neural tube defects. Unfortunately, a minority of Ethiopian women took folic acid supplement during this period. Low consumption of folic acid might be correlated with knowledge and prescribing practice of health professionals. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess knowledge and prescribing practice of health professionals. Methods Institution based cross-sectional quantitative study supplemented by qualitative approach using thematic content analysis of in-depth interview was conducted. A total of 424 health professionals were selected by simple random sampling technique. A convenience sampling technique was used to generate the qualitative data. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with knowledge of health professionals. Result About 47.7% of health professionals had sufficient knowledge and 9.7% of them had prescribed folic acid to women during periconception period. Age, having work experience in ANC clinic, and being a general practitioner were independent predictors for knowledge of health professionals. Lack of guideline to use as a reference, refreshment training and clear direction from health bureau, time constraint, differing patient priorities, and competing topics were some of the reasons for insufficient knowledge and poor practice. Conclusion The majority of the health professionals had insufficient knowledge and poor prescribing practice on folic acid during periconception period. Lack of guideline to be used as a reference, refreshment training and clear direction from health bureau, time constraint, differing patient priorities, and competing topics were some of the reasons for low level of knowledge and poor prescribing practice. Thus, guideline to use as a reference, refreshment training, incorporate the topic in the curriculum of health professionals and supportive supervision should

  19. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study (United States)

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista


    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  20. Knowledge about persons with disability act (1995) among health care professionals dealing with persons affected by disabilities. (United States)

    Berry, B S; Devapitchai, K S; Raju, M S


    To assess the level of awareness about the different provisions of the persons with Disability Act (1995) among the health care professionals, 201 health care professionals dealing with the disabled persons from different parts of India were interviewed using structured interview checklist. The data were analysed through statistical package of social sciences software. Chi-square test were applied on the variables and the Pvalues were ascertained. The results show that 48.3% knew about administration hierarchy, 53.7% of respondents were aware of the free education available for the disabled, 68.5% were aware of the employment scheme, 62.7% about poverty alleviation schemes, 59.2% know about the traveling benefits, 56.2% of professionals were aware of the benefits for people with low vision. Only 29.9% of respondents knew about provisions to overcome architectural barriers. 43.8% of them knew about the least disability percentage whereas only 28.4% were aware of research and manpower schemes. Regarding affirmative action, 32.17% told correctly and 52.7% of the professionals responded correctly with respectto non- discrimination schemes. The level of awareness among the professionals working in rural regions is lower with regard to administration hierarchy and poverty alleviation schemes. Informations regarding disabled friendly environments and research and manpower development were found to be low among respondents of all professions which need to be effectively intervened. Gender did not show any influence with respect to the components of the act. The study showed that there is an ample need for educational interventions among the health care professionals in all socio-demography. Inclusion of PWD Act in the curriculum of medical schools as a topic in conferences and workshops for health care professionals are suggested.