Lameiras, João; Almeida, Pedro L; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre
In team sports, athletes' goals may focus on the task (enhancing performance, developing better skills, etc.) or on ego (being better than the others, achieving superiority, etc.). This study investigated the relationships between athletes' goal orientation and their tendency to cooperate with teammates and coaches. 158 professional men (M age = 24.1 yr., SD = 4.6) who played on various sport teams participated in this study. Goal orientation was measured with the Portuguese version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, and cooperation was measured with the Questionário de Cooperação Desportiva. Cooperation was positively correlated with task orientation, and negatively correlated with ego orientation. Overall, the findings support that in sports, directing the players' focus on task may promote prosocial behavior.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength and, sprinting ability, agility and vertical jump performance in male volleyball players. Twenty professional male volleyball players (average age 24.5±1.1 years; mean body height 186.5±5.02 cm; mean body mass 75.34±8.39 kg) participated in this study voluntarily. For each player, isokinetic concentric muscle strength tests were performed at 60°/s and 300°/s, jump performance...
The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study focused on the relationship between the relative age effect and lengths of professional careers among professional male Japanese baseball players. The birth dates of players and lengths of professional careers were collected from an official publication, and data were divided into four quarters (Q1: April-June; Q2: July-September; Q3: October-December; Q4: January-March of the following year) grouped by 3 years. Based on the data for Q4, the expected numbers for the lengths of professional careers were calculated for Q1, Q2, and Q3. The number of players with professional careers of more than 19 years was significantly smaller in Q4 than in Q1, Q2, and Q3. The relative age effect among professional male Japanese baseball players was associated with the lengths of professional careers. Relative age appears to be a very important factor for the development of expertise among male Japanese baseball players and involves long-term disadvantages after becoming professional players.
Toni Caparrós, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Gregory D. Myer, Lluís Capdevila, Kristian Samuelsson, Bruce Hamilton, Gil Rodas
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship among game performance, injury rate, and practice exposure in a professional male basketball team. A retroospective analysis of prospective collected data was conducted over seven consecutive seasons (2007/2008 to 2013/2014. Data collection included sports performance during competition (statistical evaluation, injury rate, and total exposure (games and practices. Over the surveillance period, 162 injuries (91 practice; 71 matches occurred over 32,668 hours of exposure (556 games and 2005 practices. There was a strong positive correlation between: 1 exposure (total number of practices and hours of exposure and the total number of injuries (r = 0.77; p = 0.04; 2 exposure (total hours of exposure and total hours of practice exposure and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.77 and p = 0.04, and r = 0.8 and p = 0.03, respectively; and 3 total number of injuries and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.84; p = 0.02. While increasing practice and competition time is related to greater team performance, it also increases the number of injuries. However, higher injury rates were not associated with worse overall team performance. Efforts to reduce high-risk activity during practice, optimally replaced with injury prevention training, might help to reduce injury risk.
Caparrós, Toni; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D.; Capdevila, Lluís; Samuelsson, Kristian; Hamilton, Bruce; Rodas, Gil
The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship among game performance, injury rate, and practice exposure in a professional male basketball team. A retroospective analysis of prospective collected data was conducted over seven consecutive seasons (2007/2008 to 2013/2014). Data collection included sports performance during competition (statistical evaluation), injury rate, and total exposure (games and practices). Over the surveillance period, 162 injuries (91 practice; 71 matches) occurred over 32,668 hours of exposure (556 games and 2005 practices). There was a strong positive correlation between: 1) exposure (total number of practices and hours of exposure) and the total number of injuries (r = 0.77; p = 0.04); 2) exposure (total hours of exposure and total hours of practice exposure) and performance (total team ranking) (r = 0.77 and p = 0.04, and r = 0.8 and p = 0.03, respectively); and 3) total number of injuries and performance (total team ranking) (r = 0.84; p = 0.02). While increasing practice and competition time is related to greater team performance, it also increases the number of injuries. However, higher injury rates were not associated with worse overall team performance. Efforts to reduce high-risk activity during practice, optimally replaced with injury prevention training, might help to reduce injury risk. Key points Increasing practice and competition time is related to greater team performance. Increasing practice and competition time increases the number of injuries. Higher injury rates were not associated with worse overall team performance. PMID:27803617
Yang, Cheng-I; Gau, Meei-Ling; Shiau, Shu-Jen; Hu, Wei-Herng; Shih, Fu-Jin
The aim of this paper is to report a study to: (a) explore Taiwanese male nurses' motivations for becoming a nurse; (b) reveal their professional developmental process in nursing; (c) understand the difficulties hindering their professional development from both professional and gender aspects; and (d) identify the strategies they use to cope with these difficulties. Hindered by historical, cultural, economic and warfare factors, the proportion of male nurses in Taiwan remains low. Taiwanese male nurses' career development process has not been well investigated yet. A descriptive qualitative research design was used, with a convenience sample of 15 male nurses (mean age 30.8 years) with a Bachelor's degree in Nursing Science. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and analysed by content analysis. Taiwanese male nurses' entrance into the nursing profession involved three phases: pre-study, study and employment. The difficulties encountered during career development were related to the gender expectations of patients and the general public. The nurses received support more from superiors than from colleagues. The strategies they used included (a) improving their professional knowledge and skills to obtain higher levels of satisfaction and better opportunities for promotion; (b) thinking aggressively about job promotion; (c) choosing specialist departments as appropriate environments for graduate study and personal growth; and (d) changing their professional track for personal growth. Based on the nature of nursing work and clinical experiences, Taiwanese male nurses believed that nursing was a profession suitable for both men and women. Their preparation for career development started at the pre-study phase. The major strategies they used were related to a strong desire for personal growth and professional promotion. Finally, a conceptual framework was developed to depict this complex phenomenon.
Devlin, P K; Cowan, G A
This study examined the relationships among homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimacy with significant male and female best friends. A questionnaire, administered to 130 adult heterosexual males, included McDonald and Game's homophobia measure (ATHMS), eight intimacy scales, and four scales measuring subjects' recollections of their fathers' parenting styles. Correlations of ATHMS and individual intimacy scales revealed a significant relationship between homophobia and intimacy in male-male relationships. Homophobia was related to male-female intimacy on those measures which reflected subjects' perception of their female partner's sensitivity to them. Although homophobia was related to perception of the father as enforcing sex roles, none of the perceived fathering variables were directly related to intimacy with males. The findings provide evidence for a direct relationship between male homophobia and lack of intimacy in friendships between men.
Isabel García Toca
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to know the attitude that men have towards stereotypes in couples relationships established by society. The rating scale used consists of 51 items divided in five families: macho thoughts, power, demonstrating feelings, expectations in couple’s relationships and how a couple is seen in society. The instrument used Likert scale, and valued by three types of discrimination, reliability and the validation to content. The instrument was applied to men in a not random way. The results indicate that now a day’s men are still concerned in following stereotypes established in couple’s relationships. However this conduct has decreased slowly and insignificantly.
永井, 智; 小池, 春妙
This study investigated the relationship among factors of seeking professional help in Japanese university students. Two hundred and thirty-eight students completed a questionnaire about their attitude toward seeking professional help, intention to seek professional help, concerns regarding counseling, expectations from counseling, help-seeking preference, and previous counseling experience. An analysis of variance indicated that（ a） students who have previous counseling experience had a more...
Williams, C A
Relationships between empathy and burnout and possible confounding influences of sex and profession were explored in a sample of 492 male and female nurses, social workers, and teachers. Respondents completed Mehrabian's Emotional Empathy Scale, Stotland's Fantasy-Empathy Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). There were no main effects of profession on empathy or burnout variables. There was, however, an interaction effect of sex and profession on depersonalization, which was accounted for by subjects in social work and teaching. Women had significantly higher empathy scores than men; however, men had higher scores than male normative groups. Age related negatively to depersonalization and emotional exhaustion for women, whereas percentage of work time spent in direct practice correlated with depersonalization for men. The possibility that empathy and burnout might represent opposite poles of the same underlying construct was examined but not found. Instead, emotional empathy was significantly positively correlated with both emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, whereas emotional exhaustion was also positively related to depersonalization. It is hypothesized that high emotional empathy may predispose helping professionals to emotional exhaustion and that emotional exhaustion, if not mediated by personal accomplishment, may lead to the development of depersonalization. This more complex, interactive model of the empathy-burnout relationship needs longitudinal study.
Orishimo, Karl F; Kremenic, Ian J; Pappas, Evangelos; Hagins, Marshall; Liederbach, Marijeanne
The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries among dancers is much lower than that among team sport athletes and no clear gender disparity has been reported in the dance population. Although numerous studies have observed differences in lower extremity landing biomechanics between male and female athletes, there is currently little research examining the landing biomechanics of male and female dancers. Comparing landing biomechanics within this population may help explain the lower overall anterior cruciate ligament injury rates and the lack of gender disparity. Due to the fact that dancers receive jump-specific and balance-specific training from a very young age, we hypothesized that there would be no gender differences in drop-landing biomechanics in professional dancers. Controlled laboratory study. Kinematics and ground-reaction forces were recorded as 33 professional modern and ballet dancers (12 men and 21 women) performed single-legged drop landings from a 30-cm platform. Joint kinematics and kinetics were compared between genders. No gender differences in joint kinematics or kinetics were found during landings (multivariate analysis of variance: P = .490 and P = .175, respectively). A significant relationship was found between the age at which the dancers began training and the peak hip adduction angle during landing (r = .358, P = .041). In executing a 30-cm drop landing, male and female dancers exhibited similar landing strategies and avoided landing patterns previously associated with increased injury rates. Commonly reported biomechanical differences between men and women, as well as the gender disparity among athletes in the incidence of ACL injuries, may be the result of inadequate experience in proper balance and landing technique rather than intrinsic gender factors. Beginning jump-specific and balance-specific training at an early age may counteract the potentially harmful adaptations in landing biomechanics observed in female athletes
Handberg, Charlotte; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and interpret the attitudes and conduct of hospital healthcare professionals (HCPs) in association with male cancer survivors and their municipal rehabilitation participation. Design: Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted, consisting of participant...
Professionalising the early childhood workforce in terms of improving pay and conditions of work and employing male workers can be seen as independent trends: there is no necessary relationship between the two. However, when the definition of professionalism is extended to include the scope and quality of practice, the experiences and views of…
Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.
Zorlular, Ali; ?obano?lu, Gamze; Keklik, Sinem Suner; G?kdo?an, ?a?atay M?slim; Akaras, Esedullah; Polat, Elif Ayg?n; Kafa, Nihan; G?zel, Nevin Atalay
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between endurance of periscapular muscle, anaerobic performance and agility in professional athletes. Methods: 70 professional basketball, volleyball, and handball players (male: 25 female: 45 age 20.41?5.72, BMI: 21.70?2.51) were included to this study. Anaerobic performance was assessed with vertical jump test. Periscapular muscles endurance was evaluated using scapular muscle endurance test and agility was measured hexagona...
Blau, Gary; Hill, Theodore L.; Snell, Corinne; Atwater, Craig; Halbert, Terry; Zuckerman, M. Michael
This study's results, with 664 surveyed graduating business students, demonstrated that creating four groups, using gender and quantitative or nonquantitative major, was useful for testing their relationships to professional development behaviors and expected employment. Results showed that male-nonquantitative majors (n = 144) reported the lowest…
Flaherty, Anne Guerin
This study investigates the relationship between student engagement (as measured by the National Survey of Student Engagement benchmarks) and pharmacy student professionalism (as measured by the Pharmacy Professionalism Domain instrument) in first and third year pharmacy students at seven different schools of pharmacy. Engagement provides the…
Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan
Context: The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. Objective: To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Study Selection: Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. Data Synthesis: A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Conclusions: Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players. PMID:27244125
Hashimoto, Noboru; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Iida, Takuji; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Nakajima, Masahiro
.... We measured the maxillofacial complex and occlusal plane on standardized lateral cephalograms of 239 male students and analyzed the potential relation-ship of these measurements with the mandibular plane angle...
Bradley, Stacy; Drapeau, Martin; DeStefano, Jack
Introduction: Continuing education is one of the means by which professionals maintain and increase their level of competence. However, the relationship between continuing education and the professional's sense of personal competence and other practice-related variables remains unclear. This study examined practicing psychologists' continuing…
Cansoy, Ramazan; Parlar, Hanifi
The objective of this study is to examine the relationships between the levels of schools for being professional learning communities and teacher professionalism based on teachers' perceptions. The participants were a total of 543 teachers working at elementary, middle and high schools in the Eyüp District of Istanbul. The data were gathered…
Skaates, Maria Anne; Seppänen, Veikko
Client relations play a major role in the competence development of professional service providers. However mutuality and particularity are also key concerns in providers' client relationships. Therefore four inter-linked frameworks for classifying relationship-related competence dynamics at the ...
One challenge that therapist however face as they get to know their clients intimately in the course of therapy is how to maintain proper boundaries. This is because the relationship often involves regular contact over time with client sharing their feelings with the therapist. These feelings often times have the potential to ...
Suzana Helena Strate Bonzanini
Full Text Available Nowadays people need to follow the speed of changes that happen around the world. Taking that into consideration, the present study aims at studying, analyzing, and verifying possibilities of improvement in the University Institutions, through the optimization of the tasks performed by the Executive Secretary Professional, in order to meet one of the objectives of the Institutions, that is to promote the Academic Exchange of students and professors for cultural, technical, and scientific growth. Therefore, the study focuses on globalization and internationalization, specifically in the scope of University Institutions. The Executive Secretary background, his/her present profile, and new functions his/her performs in the organizations, are pointed out the role as mediator. Regarding the International Relations topic, address the cultural differences.
Chan, Zenobia C Y; Chan, Vera W S; Tse, Judy K M
This article explores the therapeutic relationship between male nursing students and female patients, through the use of autobiography in a qualitative approach. For this study, 18 male nursing students enrolled in master's and bachelor's programs in Hong Kong were recruited. They were asked to make records in a diary and draw pictures of their therapeutic relationship with female patients from their clinical experiences and then participate in a focus group interview. Content analysis was carried out on the collected data. The essential factors influencing the development of a therapeutic relationship were found to be gender, symbolic meanings, and career features. Good experiences were also discussed. The results shed light on the experiences of male nursing students and how they make sense of their therapeutic relationship with female patients. © The Author(s) 2013.
Edwards, Heather; Dirette, Diane
ABSTRACT Health professionals have been identified as a high risk group for job-related stress and burnout. This study builds on the existing literature to examine the links between burnout and the development of professional values as well as the broad scope of occupational therapy, which may act as a hindrance to establishing a concise and well recognized professional identity. One hundred and twenty six occupational therapists completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Professional Identity Questionnaire. The factors that contribute to the relationship between a lack of professional identity in the field of occupational therapy and the levels of burnout among occupational therapists are identified and implications for establishing a strong and healthy workforce in occupational therapy are discussed.
Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.
Wood, Susan; Harrison, Lesley K; Kucharska, Jo
Male professional footballers (soccer) represent an at-risk population of developing mental health difficulties and not accessing professional support. One in four current footballers report mental health difficulties. Higher prevalence is reported after retirement. This qualitative study aimed to provide in-depth insight into male professional footballers' lived experiences of mental health difficulties and help-seeking. Seven participants were interviewed. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. One superordinate theme emerged; 'Survival'. This related to survival in the professional football world, of mental health difficulties and after transition into the 'real world'. Six subordinate themes are explored alongside literature pertaining to male mental health, identity, injury, transition, and emotional development. Shame, stigma, fear and level of mental health literacy (knowledge of mental health and support) were barriers to help-seeking. Support for professional footballers' mental wellbeing requires improvement. Recommendations are made for future research, mental health education and support.
Danet Danet, A; Prieto Rodríguez, M A; March Cerdà, J C
To evaluate the (inter)relation between chronic patient activation and its relationship with health professionals in Andalusia. Descriptive and quantitative study involving 258 chronic patients from the School of Patients, contacted by email. One hundred and forty-two answered the Patient Activation Measurement (PAM) and the chronic patient's experience (IEXPAC) questionnaires. Statistical analyses included correlation study and comparison of means. The mean of Patient Activation Measurement was 87 points (scale from 0 to 100) and IEXPAC scale was 5.3 (scale from 0 to 10), with a directly proportional relation between variables. Males and participants belonging to patients' associations had higher levels of activation. The relationship with health professionals was better among patients with primary education and with <10 years of chronic disease. In general, medical staff received better evaluation, yet nurses were considered more prone to encouraging relationships among patients. The dimensions with higher impact on patient activation were inter-professional coordination and the attention paid to treatment and medication. Feeling confident to communicate one's concerns had more impact on IEXPAC scale. The correlation observed between patient activation and its relationship with health professionals leads to the need to improve the involvement and self-management of chronic patients, as well as to strengthen improved professional coordination and patient-staff communication.
This qualitative study was undertaken to explore and describe the experiences of professional nurses in their relationships with nurse managers. Concerns about declining nursing care standards have been expressed in radio newsbulletins, television interviews and newspapers. This decline is thought to come from the ...
Parlar, Hanifi; Cansoy, Ramazan
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' individual innovativeness and their teacher professionalism. The participants were 567 teachers working in elementary, middle and high schools located across Istanbul. The data were gathered through the "Individual Innovativeness Scale" and the "Teacher…
Yorulmaz, Yilmaz Ilker; Altinkurt, Yahya; Yilmaz, Kursad
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational professionalism and organizational alienation levels of teachers. The study is designed as a survey model. The sample of the study consists of 303 teachers working in the Mugla province of Turkey. Participants were selected by using the disproportionate cluster…
Nakhaee, Samaneh; Nasiri, Ahmad
Nurse-physician inter-professional relationship is an important issue in health care system that can affect job satisfaction and patient care quality. The present study explores the major issues of nurse-physician inter-professional relationships in Iran. In this in-depth qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2014, 12 participants (5 physicians and 7 nurses) were recruited from two educational hospitals. The data were collected from deep, open, and unstructured interviews, and analyzed based on content analysis. The participants in this study included 12 individuals, 6 females and 6 males, with the age ranging 27-48 years and tenure ranging 4-17 years. Four themes were identified, namely, divergent attitudes, uneven distribution of power, mutual trust destructors, and prudence imposed on nurses. The results revealed some major inter-professional issues and challenges in nurse-physician relationships, some of which are context-specific whereas others should be regarded as universal. It is through a deep knowledge of these issues that nurses and physicians can establish better collaborative inter-professional relationships.
Mehrabi, Maryam; Madanipour, Ali; Ahmadnia, Shirin
During recent decades, various factors have modified the nurse-physician professional relationship pattern in hospital settings. The present study investigates the typology and dynamics of this relationship as well as the effects of social structures and the actors' agency by considering the gender variable in two professional groups of nurse and physician. A survey was conducted in 2009 using a quota sampling method of 100 female nurses and male physicians in four hospitals in Tehran. The study revealed three distinct patterns of nurse-physician professional relationship including "dependence-independence," "nondominance-dominance," and "cooperation-participation." Occupational socialization, gender stereotypes, organization support, and actors' agency were discovered as the most effective factors. Observing caution in generalizing the results, the predominant relationship pattern was derived from the persistence of gender stereotypes in the occupational context. Although there is a paradigm shift in the relational and embodied structures, balancing power resources are being formed by younger nurses who require more organizational support to improve the professional fulfilment and authority.
Dahlbäck, Elisabeth; Makelele, Patrick; Yamba, C Bawa; Bergström, Staffan; Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit
The role adolescent boys play in premarital sexual activities, gender power relations, and the reproductive health risks they are exposed to, has received little attention in research. This qualitative study has aimed to explore Zambian male adolescents' perceptions and expectations about premarital sexual relationships. Seven focus group discussions were conducted between November 2000 and May 2001, in George and Chimwemwe compounds, with 53 boys aged 15 to 19. The findings reveal that adolescent premarital sexual relationships are common and considered by many boys as a prerequisite to achieving an adult male's autonomy and status. The boys viewed themselves as the privileged gender, with greater freedom than girls, and were the major decision-makers on sexual matters in relationships. The results indicate that traditional values and stereotypical gender roles continue to influence Zambian boys' male identity. However, a sense of ambiguity among the boys on issues of gender imbalance in premarital relationships indicates a potential and preparedness to break with traditional trends - a true challenge for public health priorities and interventions.
Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros
Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.
Booysen, Marc Jon; Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Watson, Estelle
Unilateral balance is critical to kicking accuracy in football. In order to design interventions to improve dynamic balance, knowledge of the relationships between dynamic balance and specific neuromuscular factors such as eccentric strength and power is essential. Therefore, the aim was to determine the relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance in male footballers. The Y-balance test, eccentric isokinetic strength testing (knee extensors and flexors) and the countermovement jump were assessed in fifty male footballers (university (n = 27, mean age = 20.7 ± 1.84 years) and professional (n = 23, mean age = 23.0 ± 3.08 years). Spearman Rank Order correlations were used to determine the relationships of eccentric strength and power with dynamic balance. Multiple linear regression, adjusting for age, mass, stature, playing experience and competitive level was performed on significant relationships. Normalised reach score in the Y-balance test using the non-dominant leg for stance correlated with (1) eccentric strength of the non-dominant leg knee extensors in the university group (r = 0.50, P = 0.008) and (2) countermovement jump height in the university (r = 0.40, P = 0.04) and professional (r = 0.56, P = 0.006) football groups, respectively. No relationships were observed between eccentric strength (knee flexors) and normalised reach scores. Despite the addition of potential confounders, the relationship of power and dynamic balance was significant (r = 0.52, P power correlates moderately with dynamic balance on the non-dominant leg in male footballers.
Hanafy, S; Sabry, J H; Akl, E M; Elethy, R A; Mostafa, T
Puberty is the transitional period between childhood and adulthood, a process encompassing morphological, physiological and behavioural development to attain full reproductive capability. This study aimed to assess serum relaxin-3 hormone relationship with male delayed puberty. Sixty males were investigated as two equal groups: males with delayed puberty and healthy matched males as controls. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination and estimation of serum FSH, LH, testosterone, relaxin-3 hormonal levels. The results showed that the secondary sexual characters in the patients group were at Tanner stages 1-2 and in the healthy controls at Tanner stages 3-5. The mean BMI in the patients group was significantly increased, whereas the mean levels of the span, testicular volume, serum LH, FSH, testosterone as well as relaxin-3 hormonal levels were significantly decreased compared with the healthy controls. Serum relaxin-3 levels showed significant positive correlation with the age, testis volume, span, Tanner stages, serum testosterone, FSH, LH hormones. In addition, serum relaxin-3 levels showed significant negative correlation with BMI. It is concluded that serum level of relaxin-3 hormone is an important mediator in the pathophysiological process of normal puberty being significantly decreased in males with delayed puberty. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Bartholomew, Kim; Regan, Katherine V; Oram, Doug; White, Monica A
We investigated correlates of partner abuse in male same-sex relationships in a randomly selected community sample (N = 186). We included factors associated with abuse in heterosexual relationships, as well as factors of relevance to gay relationships. We assessed perpetration and receipt of partner abuse to examine whether variables were associated independently with abuse perpetration and/or receipt. Correlates of same-sex partner abuse were largely parallel to established correlates of heterosexual abuse. Income, education, and attachment orientation were associated with bidirectional partner abuse, and family violence and substance use were uniquely associated with victimization. Further, there were factors unique to same-sex partner abuse; HIV status and public outness were associated with bidirectional partner abuse, and internalized homophobia was uniquely associated with abuse perpetration.
Marwan, Yousef; Behbehani, Abdullah; Al-Mousawi, Abdullah; Mulla-Juma'a, Ali; Sadeq, Husain; Shah, Nasrah
To assess a 12-month period and the lifetime prevalence of sports injuries among male athletes according to type of sport, type of injury and its seriousness, and to examine the association of injuries with sociodemographic, lifestyle and preventive factors. In this cross-sectional study, we approached 475 professional athletes participating in ball sports, aged 15 years and older, from 5 sports clubs in Kuwait. Of them, 452 responded. Four ball games--football (soccer), basketball, handball and volleyball--were included. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate relationships between associated factors and experience of injury were tested by using χ(2) and logistic regression. The overall 12-month and lifetime prevalence of sports injuries were 73.8 and 89.8%, respectively. Prevalence was highest among volleyball athletes (79%) and lowest among football (soccer) athletes (69%). Lower limbs (73.1%) were the most common site of injuries and joint injuries (43.6%) were the most common type. For the most recent injury, 138 (42%) of athletes took more than 10 days off practice. Compared to volleyball, football (soccer) and handball athletes were 2.9 times (95% CI: 1.3-6.3) and 3.4 times (95% CI: 1.5-7.8) more likely to take more than 10 days off practice. Athletes who sometimes wore protective gears were 3.1 times (95% CI: 1.7-5.8) more likely to report an injury compared with those who never wore protective gears (p injuries are highly prevalent among professional athletes in Kuwait. Future studies are needed to provide guidelines for interventions that may reduce such injuries. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Ekstrand, Jan; Verhagen, Evert A L M; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J
To explore the associations of severe musculoskeletal injuries (joint and muscles) and surgeries with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour , smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among male European professional footballers. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on electronic questionnaires completed by professional footballers recruited from the national players' unions of Finland, France, Norway, Spain or Sweden. The number of severe (time loss of more than 28 days) musculoskeletal injuries (total, joint, muscle) and surgeries during a professional football career was examined through four questions, while symptoms of common mental disorders were evaluated through validated scales. A total of 540 professional footballers (mean age of 27 years; 54 % playing in the highest leagues) participated in the study. Sixty-eight per cent of the participants had already incurred one or more severe joint injuries and 60 % one or more severe muscle injuries. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 3 % for smoking to 37 % for anxiety/depression and 58 % for adverse nutrition behaviour. The number of severe musculoskeletal injuries during a football career was positively correlated with distress, anxiety and sleeping disturbance, while the number of surgeries was correlated with adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking. Professional footballers who had sustained one or more severe musculoskeletal injuries during their career were two to nearly four times more likely to report symptoms of common mental disorders than professional footballers who had not suffered from severe musculoskeletal injuries. It can be concluded that the number of severe musculoskeletal injuries and surgeries during a career is positively correlated and associated with symptoms of common mental disorders among male European professional footballers. This study emphasises the importance of applying a
de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Bertoncini, Judite Hennemann; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Matos, Eliane; Azambuja, Eliana; Borges, Ana Maria Fernandes
This is an integrative review with the aim of tracing the scientific production concerning the influence of technological innovation in health care professionals' workloads. Fifty-seven (57) publications presented from 2004 to 2009 were selected from the LILACS and PubMed databases. In the selected studies field research using qualitative approaches and carried out in hospitals predominated. No study had the purpose to analyze the relationship between technological innovation and workloads. In studies involving technological innovation, publications concerning information and communication technologies and new forms of work organizations were highlighted studies concerning conditions which promote stress and Burnout predominated in the workloads theme. Results show an ambiguous relationship between technological innovation and workloads, which are either increased or diminished by innovations.
Zorlular, Ali; Çobanoğlu, Gamze; Keklik, Sinem Suner; Gökdoğan, Çağatay Müslim; Akaras, Esedullah; Polat, Elif Aygün; Kafa, Nihan; Güzel, Nevin Atalay
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between endurance of periscapular muscle, anaerobic performance and agility in professional athletes. Methods: 70 professional basketball, volleyball, and handball players (male: 25 female: 45 age 20.41±5.72, BMI: 21.70±2.51) were included to this study. Anaerobic performance was assessed with vertical jump test. Periscapular muscles endurance was evaluated using scapular muscle endurance test and agility was measured hexagonal obstacle test. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software SPSS 22. Results: Spearman correlation analysis results showed that there was positive significant correlation between anaerobic performance and endurance of periscapular muscles (pagility (pagility and endurance of periscapular muscles (pagility performance in sports.
Corboz, Julienne; Flood, Michael; Dyson, Sue
Programs aimed at preventing violence against women have increasingly adopted bystander approaches, yet large gaps remain in our knowledge about what drives bystanders to act or not, particularly in settings where there is an increased risk of violence against women occurring. This article contributes to this gap by examining data from research with professional male athletes from the Australian Football League. Drawing from a mixed methods approach, including a survey and interviews with football players, we outline some of the challenges to bystander intervention faced by professional athletes and discuss some of the possible similarities and differences between these and other groups of men. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Purpose–The investigation of relationship between professional and family life of managers from Romania in terms of time allocated to these aspects. Design/methodology/approach – This study was conducted on 111 managers from Arad County (56 men and 55 women from various fields of activity. Findings – The results support the idea that leisure time decreases after taking over the position of manager. Practical implications/originality/value – There is no significant association between gender and the amount of leisure time. Although we expected women to report less leisure time after taking over the top management position (and men more leisure time this situation cannot be reported. Explanations: 1. there are differences but they could not be depicted through the manner the data were collected 2. Women managers get help from other people (parents, in-laws, husband, housekeeper after taking over management positions.
Wieringa, NF; Denig, P; de Graeff, PA; Vos, R
Objectives: To study considerations used by professional and academic leaders to assess the position of new cardiovascular drugs in the therapeutic regimen in relationship to professional characteristics and the level of prescribing. Methods: Interviews with 39 internists, cardiologists, general
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate professional readiness of a selected group of male and female experts in Iranian sports organizations. It is a descriptive study with an applied objective. The statistical population of the study includes the entire selected male and female experts (406 experts of Iranian sports organizations among which 352 cases cooperated with the researchers and therefore were selected as research sample. Measurement tool is the professional readiness assessment standard questionnaire (Aliabadi, 2014; the validity and reliability of this questionnaire have been approved by sport experts. The descriptive and inferential statistics including KS- and T-test was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between male and female experts in sports organizations regarding mental readiness and its components (motivation, commitment, confidence; but there is a significant difference at 0.01 level between them with regard to work readiness and its components (skill, knowledge, experience. Moreover, based on the average of work/technical readiness components, male experts are better than female experts.
Ashton, Kathleen S
Nurse educators should teach students about the nature of the nurse-patient relationship, which is a professional relationship and different from other relationships they have. In addition to teaching students how to establish relationships with their patients, nurse educators should also teach students about terminating relationships with patients. Without this professional guidance, nursing students may be tempted to use social media to maintain a relationship with patients. This may inadvertently lead to professional boundary violations, causing harm to patients and problems for nursing students or nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Taminiau, Y.T.A.; Ferguson, J.E.; Moser, C.
Informal client contact forms a crucial part of the daily routine of service professionals, in particular among top-ranking professionals working for consultancy and accountancy firms. In this paper, we investigate how 34 service professionals develop informal client contact, by studying their
Dr. M S Nagarajan
Full Text Available Background: Football is the world's most popular sport. There are over 240 million registered players worldwide and many more recreational footballers. The knee is a complex joint with many components making it vulnerable to a variety of injuries. The study has investigated the effect of knee proprioception error on injured and uninjured male professional footballers. Methods: This was a cross sectional comparative study with hundred and six (106 male professional footballers were selected for the study as per the selection criteria. Hundred and eighteen injured and ninety four uninjured knee samples were analysed for this study. Photographic analysis method was used to evaluate proprioception error at inner, middle and outer range of knee joint. Proprioception error of knee joint was measured at inner range, middle range and outer range for injured and uninjured groups. Data analysis found that there is significant difference in proprioception error between the groups. Result: Comparative study was performed using independent t’ test for proprioception error between knee injured and uninjured groups. P<0.05 were considered as significant difference in effect for this study. The means of knee injured and uninjured groups were 6.08 and 5.55 respectively with t’ value 2.21 and degree of freedom 634. The study found that proprioception error has significant difference in effect on knee injury, with P< 0.03*. Conclusion: The study concluded that proprioception error was varied between knee injured and uninjured groups. Proprioception error of knee joint was more among injured male professional footballers compared to the uninjured footballers.
Farag, Magdy S.; Elias, Rafik Z.
Professional skepticism is an essential component of every successful audit. Research in psychology identified the trait professional skepticism as an enduring personality construct. The current study examines the relationship between the Big Five personality characteristics and accounting students' trait professional skepticism and their level of…
Darcy, Monica G.; Abed-Faghri, Nahid M.
A state's counseling association conducted a study to explore characteristics of its licensed mental health counselors. Responses were collected regarding employment, priorities for the state professional association, competence in professional activities, and sources of professional support. The majority of respondents indicated high job…
Full Text Available To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.
March Cerdá, Joan Carles; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles; Pérez Corral, Olivia; Lorenzo, Sergio Minué; Danet, Alina
A study was undertaken for the purpose of describing internal communication and the professional-patient relationship and to establish a descriptive model of the interaction between these 2 variables. A nationwide survey was carried out in primary care and specialist care centers in Spain. A simple random sampling method was used with 1183 health care professionals. The data collection instrument was a Likert questionnaire that recorded information on the perceived quality of internal communication (0-100 scale), professional-patient relationships (0-100 scale), and sociodemographic variables. The results were analyzed using SPSS 15.0, performing mean comparisons and a suitable linear regression model.The total average of the quality of internal communication was 53.79 points, and that of the professional-patient relationships was 74.17 points. Sex made no statistically significant difference. Age shows that the older the participant, the better his/her opinion of internal communication and professional-patient relationships. Nursing staff had the highest opinion of internal communication and professional-patient relationships. The association between internal communication and professional-patient relationship was positive (R = 0.45).It was concluded that continuous exchange of information among health care professionals, together with learning and shared decision making or a positive emotional climate, is an element that will consolidate good professional-patient relationships and ensure patient satisfaction.
Nasi, Milena; Cristani, Alessandro; Pinti, Marcello; Lamberti, Igor; Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Guazzaloca, Alessandro; Trenti, Tommaso; Cossarizza, Andrea
Exercise exerts various effects on the immune system, and evidence is emerging on its anti-inflammatory effects; the mechanisms on the basis of these modifications are poorly understood. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) released from damaged cells acts as a molecule containing the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns and can trigger sterile inflammation. Indeed, high plasma levels of mtDNA are associated to several inflammatory conditions and physiological aging and longevity. The authors evaluated plasma mtDNA in professional male volleyball players during seasonal training and the possible correlation between mtDNA levels and clinical parameters, body composition, and physical performance. Plasma mtDNA was quantified by real-time PCR every 2 mo in 12 professional volleyball players (PVPs) during 2 consecutive seasons. As comparison, 20 healthy nonathlete male volunteers (NAs) were analyzed. The authors found lower levels of mtDNA in plasma of PVPs than in NAs. However, PVPs showed a decrease of circulating mtDNA only in the first season, while no appreciable variations were observed during the second season. No correlation was observed among mtDNA, hematochemical, and anthropometric parameters. Regular physical activity appeared associated with lower levels of circulating mtDNA, further confirming the protective, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise.
Balaban, Mehtap; Idilman, Ilkay S; Ipek, Ali; Ikiz, Sinem Sigit; Bektaser, Bulent; Gumus, Mehmet
Elastography is a new sonographic technique that evaluates the elasticity of different tissues such as the Achilles tendon. In this study, we aimed to investigate the elastographic findings of Achilles tendons in professional athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers. Twenty-one professional male volleyball players with no history of Achilles trauma were included in this study. Twenty-one healthy male volunteers with similar ages and body mass indices were selected as control participants. All participants underwent sonographic and elastographic evaluations of the Achilles tendons to evaluate Achilles tendon thickness and stiffness. We observed thickening in many of the thirds of the Achilles tendons (right proximal, right middle, left middle, and left distal thirds) of athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers. We did not detect any abnormalities according to the sonographic evaluations in both athletes and healthy volunteers. In the elastographic evaluations, we observed softening in the middle thirds of the Achilles tendons of athletes according to the main types (P < .001) and subtypes (P < .001 for right; and P = .002 for left middle third). There was no difference observed in the elastographic evaluations of the proximal and distal thirds. On sonography and elastography, we observed thickening and softening in Achilles tendons of athletes in comparison with healthy volunteers who had similar ages and body mass indices. These changes could be associated with early tendon degeneration. Further longitudinal studies may support this consideration. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Metcalfe, Alan J; Menaspà, Paolo; Villerius, Vincent; Quod, Marc; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Govus, Andrew D; Abbiss, Chris R
To describe the within-season external workloads of professional male road cyclists for optimal training prescription. Training and racing of 4 international competitive professional male cyclists (age 24 ± 2 y, body mass 77.6 ± 1.5 kg) were monitored for 12 mo before the world team-time-trial championships. Three within-season phases leading up to the team-time-trial world championships on September 20, 2015, were defined as phase 1 (Oct-Jan), phase 2 (Feb-May), and phase 3 (June-Sept). Distance and time were compared between training and racing days and over each of the various phases. Times spent in absolute (500 W) and relative (0-1.9, 2.0-4.9, 5.0-7.9, >8 W/kg) power zones were also compared for the whole season and between phases 1-3. Total distance (3859 ± 959 vs 10911 ± 620 km) and time (240.5 ± 37.5 vs 337.5 ± 26 h) were lower (P distance decreased (P < .01) from phase 2 to phase 3 (10911 ± 620 vs 8411 ± 1399 km, respectively). Mean absolute (236 ± 12.1 vs 197 ± 3 W) and relative (3.1 ± 0 vs 2.5 ± 0 W/kg) power output were higher (P < .05) during racing than training, respectively. Volume and intensity differed between training and racing over each of 3 distinct within-season phases.
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Li, Ren-Hau; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Sheng-Hwang
The purpose of this study was to test a relationship model of self-esteem and job adjustment affecting the service attitude of male nurses in Taiwan. Service attitude of nurses may affect their intention to leave and the quality of health care for their patients. Self-esteem is an important predictor of service attitude. Very few researchers have assessed job adjustment and service attitude in male nurses. Reducing job stress and burnout would help to increase job satisfaction. A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. In 2009, 338 male nurses were invited to participate in this study. Finally, 284 participants completed the questionnaire, and the response rate was 84.0%. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data from this study well. Self-esteem did not significantly correlate to service attitude. Job adjustment was a significantly influencing factor on service attitude. We conclude that job adjustment was indeed important in explaining the service attitude of male nurses. Nurse managers must help male nurses adjust their job as soon as possible to improve their service attitude. In clinical practice and management, our findings provide concrete directions for nursing management and professionals in helping male nurses adjust to their job to improve male nurses' service attitude. More clinical situation must be provided and practiced before male nursing students graduate from school. We suggest future study is needed to generalise this model to different populations. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mosler, Andrea B; Crossley, Kay M; Waarsing, Jan H; Jomaah, Nabil; Weir, Adam; Hölmich, Per; Agricola, Rintje
Participation in high-impact athletic activities has recently been associated with a higher prevalence of cam deformity. Bony hip morphology has also emerged as an important factor in the development of hip osteoarthritis. However, it is unknown whether bony morphology differs between ethnicities in athletes participating in high-impact sports. To investigate whether the prevalence of specific bony hip morphological abnormalities differed between professional male soccer players of diverse ethnic backgrounds. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Professional male soccer players from an entire league attending preparticipation screening were invited to participate in this study. Ethnicity was registered, and standardized radiographs of anteroposterior pelvic and Dunn views were obtained. Cam and pincer deformity, and acetabular dysplasia were quantified using the alpha angle, triangular index, and lateral center-edge angle (LCEA). Regression analyses with generalized estimating equations were used to determine prevalence differences in bony hip morphology. A total of 445 male soccer players (890 hips; mean age ± SD, 25 ± 4.9 years) participated in the study, representing the following ethnic groups: Arabic (59%), black (24%), Persian (7%), white (6%), East Asian (2%), and other (2%). The prevalence of cam deformity (alpha angle >60°) ranged from 57.5% to 71.7% across 4 of the groups, but East Asians had a significantly lower prevalence (18.8%; P ≤ .032). A large cam deformity (alpha angle >78°) was more prevalent in white (33.3%) compared with black soccer players (17.8%; P = .041) and was absent in East Asian players. Pincer deformity (LCEA >40°) was uncommon (3%) in all ethnicities. The prevalence of acetabular dysplasia (LCEA <20°) ranged from 8.0% to 16.7%, apart from the white group, in which prevalence was only 1.9% (P = .03). The prevalence of a cam deformity and acetabular dysplasia differed between ethnicities in this cohort of professional
Gabbett, Tim J; Whyte, Douglas G; Hartwig, Timothy B; Wescombe, Holly; Naughton, Geraldine A
The expectation that training enhances performance is well explored in professional sport. However, the additional challenges of physical and cognitive maturation may require careful consideration when determining workloads to enhance performance in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the state of knowledge on the relationship between workloads, physical performance, injury and/or illness in adolescent male football players. A systematic review of workloads, physical performance, injury and illness in male adolescent football players was conducted. Studies for this review were identified through a systematic search of six electronic databases (Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science). For the purpose of this review, load was defined as the cumulative amount of stress placed on an individual from multiple training sessions and games over a period of time, expressed in terms of either the external workloads performed (e.g., resistance lifted, kilometres run) or the internal response (e.g., heart rate, rating of perceived exertion) to that workload. A total of 2,081 studies were initially retrieved from the six databases, of which 892 were duplicates. After screening the titles, abstracts and full texts, we identified 23 articles meeting our criteria around adolescent football players, workloads, physical performance, injury and/or illness. Seventeen articles addressed the relationship between load and physical performance, four articles addressed the relationship between load and injury and two articles addressed both. A wide range of training modalities were employed to improve the physical performance of adolescent football players, with strength training, high-intensity interval training, dribbling and small-sided games training, and a combination of these modalities in addition to normal football training, resulting in improved performances on a wide range of physiological and skill assessments
Berry, Clio; Greenwood, Kathryn
Personal recovery accounts suggest that a positive therapeutic relationship with an optimistic mental health professional may facilitate social inclusion. However, little empirical research has investigated the role of the therapeutic relationship in social outcomes or explored potential mechanisms of change within community psychosis care. This study investigated the direct predictive associations of the therapeutic relationship and professional expectancies for social inclusion and vocational activity for young people with psychosis, and indirect associations through hopefulness. Young people with psychosis and their main mental health professional (n=51 dyads) participated across two time points. Measures of therapeutic relationships, professional expectancies, and vocational activity were obtained at baseline. Measures of hopefulness, social inclusion and vocational activity were obtained at follow-up. Direct and indirect associations between variables were analysed using path modelling. Directed path models were consistent with a positive therapeutic relationship and positive professional expectancies predicting social inclusion and vocational activity through mediation by increased patient domain-specific hopefulness. The professional-rated therapeutic relationship more directly predicts change in vocational activity status. Change in vocational activity status predicts increased patient hopefulness. The therapeutic relationship between professionals and young people with psychosis appears hope-inspiring and important to patients' social inclusion and vocational outcomes. Vocational activity may produce reciprocal gains in hopefulness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kästner, Andreas; Braun, Markus; Meyer, Tim
We report 2 cases of enormously elevated creatine kinase (CK) activity after training with electromyostimulation (EMS) by 2 young male professional soccer players. In one of them, a single training session with EMS caused exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis with a maximal CK activity of 240 000 U/L. These cases illustrate that unaccustomed EMS exercise may be harmful and can cause rhabdomyolysis even in highly trained athletes and even after 1 single session. Thus, EMS has to be conducted carefully especially by individuals who are known to frequently show notable increases in CK activity even after modest training stimuli. We suggest that EMS should not be applied as sole training stimulus and should not be conducted by strength training beginners. Furthermore, we recommend controlling plasma CK activity and urine color for beginners with EMS when they report strong muscle ache. Athletes with signs of rhabdomyolysis after EMS should be brought to hospital for monitoring of renal function and possible further treatment.
Full Text Available This contribution presents a part of the results of the research project entitled “Stereotipi di genere, relazioni educative e infanzie” (“Gender stereotypes, educational relationships and childhood" conducted between 2010 and 2012 by a group of researchers from the CSGE Centre for Gender and Education Studies at the Department of Education Studies, funded by the Emilia-Romagna Region. The purpose of the research was to measure the ideas and representations of gender and the relations between genders in adults who are educationally (and emotionally significant for preschool children (0-6 years and to foster widespread thought on the issue of the stereotyped images of the female and male identity that still exist and are transmitted from a very early age. In particular this article presents the focus of the analysis of the presence of males from the parents' point of view.
Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben
The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher (p sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football (rs = 0.962, p sports science/medicine practitioners in generating bespoke hydration and electrolyte-replacement strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.
aus der Fünten, Karen; Faude, Oliver; Lensch, Jochen; Meyer, Tim
The winter break in the top 2 German professional soccer leagues was shortened from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks in the 2009-2010 season. To investigate whether this change affected injury characteristics by comparing the second half of the 2008-2009 (long winter break) with the equivalent period in the 2009-2010 season (short winter break). Prospective cohort study. German male professional soccer leagues. Seven professional German male soccer teams (184 players in the 2008-2009 season, 188 players in the 2009-2010 season). Injury incidences and injury characteristics (cause of injury, location, severity, type, diagnosis), including their monthly distribution, were recorded. A total of 300 time-loss injuries (2008-2009 n = 151, 2009-2010 n = 149) occurred. The overall injury incidence per 1000 soccer hours was 5.90 (95% confidence interval = 5.03, 6.82) in 2008-2009 and 6.55 (5.58, 7.69) in 2009-2010. Match injuries per 1000 hours were 31.5 (25.0, 38.0) in the first season and 26.5 (20.2, 32.7) in the second season; the corresponding training values were 2.67 (2.08-3.44) and 3.98 (3.19-4.95), respectively. The training injury incidence (incidence rate ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.08], P = .02) and the risk of sustaining a knee injury (incidence rate ratio = 1.66 [1.00, 2.76], P = .049) were higher in 2009-2010 after the short winter break; the incidence of moderate and severe injuries (time loss >7 days) trended higher (incidence rate ratio = 1.34 [0.96, 1.86], P = .09). Shortening the winter break from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks did not change the overall injury incidence; however, a higher number of training, knee, and possibly more severe injuries (time loss >7 days) occurred.
Fincke, Janna I; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees' interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.
Fincke, Janna I.; Möller, Heidi; Taubner, Svenja
Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees’ interpersonal behavior on work involvement (WI) and compared their social behavior within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, and cognitive behavioral therapy training. Trainees from Sample 1 (N = 184) were asked to describe their interpersonal behavior in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from Sample 2 (N = 135) were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of healing involvement, while stress involvement was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees’ relationships with their patients. Social behavior within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behavior. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behavior with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behavior could only be found when comparing trainees’ level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees’ interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behavior in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training. PMID:26106347
Janna Ida Fincke
Full Text Available Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behaviour on Work Involvement (WI and compared their social behaviour within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic (PA, psychodynamic (PD and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT training. Trainees from sample 1 (N = 184 were asked to describe their interpersonal behaviour in relation to their patients when filling out the Intrex, whereas trainees from sample 2 (N = 135 were asked to describe the private relationship with a significant other. Results: Interpersonal affiliation in professional relationships significantly predicted the level of Healing Involvement (HI, while Stress Involvement (SI was predicted by interpersonal affiliation and interdependence in trainees' relationships with their patients. Social behaviour within professional relationships provided higher correlations with WI than private interpersonal behaviour. Significant differences were found between private and professional relation settings in trainees’ interpersonal behaviour with higher levels of affiliation and interdependence with significant others. Differences between therapeutic orientation and social behaviour could only be found when comparing trainees' level of interdependence with the particular relationship setting. Conclusion: Trainees' interpersonal level of affiliation in professional relationships is a predictor for a successful psychotherapeutic development. Vice versa, controlling behaviour in professional settings can be understood as a risk factor against psychotherapeutic growth. Both results strengthen an evidence-based approach for competence development during psychotherapy training.
This study was conducted to explore the relationship between university students' school engagement and instructors' professional competencies. The study group consisted of 314 students from the Faculty of Art at Çankiri Karatekin University. The participants filled in the Scale for Professional Competence of Instructor (SPCI) and the Scale for…
Kosar, Serkan; Kilinç, Ali Çagatay; Er, Emre; Ögdem, Zeki; Savas, Gökhan
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between primary school principals' power styles and teacher professionalism. A total of 264 teachers employed in 10 primary schools in Kastamonu, Turkey, participated in this study. Kosar's (2008) "Power Styles Scale,"and the "Teacher Professionalism Scale"--originally…
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' Professional Identity and their types of Multiple Intelligences. Moreover, it aimed to see the extent to which their multiple intelligences can predict their professional identity. The participants of the study were 137 Iranian EFL teachers teaching in…
Laura Elvira Piedrahita Sandoval; Ana Lucia Rosero Prado
..., CUIDEN, Ovid, Pub Med and TESEO, between 2000 and 2014. This study aimed to identify, in scientific literature, the problems of the theory-praxis relationship in the education of nursing professionals...
Iciar Pablo-Lerchundi; María-Cristina Núñez-del-Río
.... This study was designed to explore the students' choice for technical degrees. It is centered on the relationship between the quality of their choice and their motivation, satisfaction and development of professional plans...
Lomos, C.; Hofman, R.H.; Bosker, R.J.
Secondary school teaching is organized in departments and effective departments functioning as collaborative teams have been associated with effective schools. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship of mathematics departments perceived as professional communities and student achievement
Men publicly struggled with the stigma of dating women who are considered to be engaged in a shamed profession, but privately saw meaning in these relationships. In coping with the stigma, some described the work of their partners in terms that distanced them from sex work, while others struggled to have the control that ...
Full Text Available Advice provided by financial planners has the potential to impact the financial and emotional well being ofclients. Despite the outcomes of quality financial planning relationships, there is little direct evidence tosupport the importance of ‘relationship quality’ in financial planning. Previous research has emphasised theimportance of relationship quality in psychology, nursing, and business settings. This research investigatesdeterminants of client-professional relationship quality in financial planning, measured in a survey of clientsand financial planners regarding relationship factors of trust, engagement, empowerment, ownership, clientactivity and commitment. Ratings for relationship dimensions were compared between clients and financialplanners, with financial planners found to overestimate their clients’ levels of trust and commitment andunderestimate their client’s levels of empowerment. The relationship dimension of ‘trust’ was found to becritical for client-professional relationship quality.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and usefulness of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT in professional male and female futsal players. Thirteen male (24.4 ± 5.6 years; 174.5 ± 10.3 cm; 70.3 ± 9.9 kg and fourteen female (23.3 ± 4.5 years; 165.8 ± 6.2 cm; 61.7 ± 5.5 kg professional futsal players performed the 30-15IFT on two occasions, separated by 5 days. Maximal intermittent running velocity (VIFT and heart rate at exhaustion (HRpeak data were collected for both tests. Reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, typical error (TE expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV, and smallest worthwhile change (SWC. VIFT demonstrated very good reliability between sessions, both for male (ICC = 0.92 and female (ICC = 0.96 players. As the TE for VIFT and HRpeak was similar to the calculated SWC for both male and female players, the usefulness of the test was rated as “medium”. A change in performance of at least 2 stages in male players, or a change of more than 1 stage in female players could be interpreted as a meaningful change in aerobic futsal fitness. The results of this study demonstrate that the 30-15IFT is both a reliable and useful test for male and female professional futsal players.
Rose, Jayln; Glass, Nel
The article reports on selected findings of a research study concerning emotional wellbeing and professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). It highlights the relationship between community mental health nurses' and emotional wellbeing, and their capacity to provide satisfying professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). The notion of emotional wellbeing, factors that impacted upon the participants' emotional wellbeing, and the relationship of emotional wellbeing to professional practice were revealed in the study. These findings were based on a qualitative critical feminist research inquiry and specifically, interviews with five women community mental health nurses in Australia. Whilst complex, emotional wellbeing was found to be both implicitly and explicitly linked to the participants intertwined personal and professional experiences. Four key components were identified: the nebulous notion; the stress relationship; the mind, body, spirit connection; and, inner sense of balance. In terms of emotional wellbeing and professional practice, three themes were revealed. These were: being able to speak out (or not); being autonomous (or not) and being satisfied (or not). The authors argue that the emotional wellbeing of nurses working in community mental health settings is critical to satisfying professional practice. Furthermore nursing work involves emotional work which impacts on one's emotional wellbeing and emotional wellbeing is integrally linked to professional practice. It is recommended that health organisations must be pro-active in addressing the emotional needs of nurses to ensure the delivery of health care that is aligned to professional practice. This approach will ensure nurses will feel more recognised and validated in terms of their nursing practice.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Access to oestrus females tends to be the main driver of male sociality. This factor can lead to complex behavioural interactions between males and groups of males. Male bottlenose dolphins may form alliances to consort females and to compete with other males. In some populations these alliances may form temporary coalitions when competing for females. I examined the role of dyadic and group interactions in the association patterns of male bottlenose dolphins in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. There is no apparent mating competition in this population and no consortship has been observed, yet agonistic interactions between males occur regularly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By comparing the network of male interactions in several social dimensions (affiliative, agonistic, and associative I show that while agonistic interactions relate to dyadic association patterns, affiliative interactions seem to relate to group association patterns. Some evidence suggests that groups of males also formed temporary coalitions during agonistic interactions. While different groups of males had similar relationships with non-oestrus females, the time they spent with oestrus females and mothers of newborns differed greatly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After considering several hypotheses, I propose that the evolution of these complex relationships was driven by sexual competition probably to out-compete other males for female choice.
Prip, Anne; Møller, Kirsten Alling; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet
on satisfaction of care, that hope and positivity are both a need and a strategy for patients with cancer and were facilitated by healthcare professionals, and that outpatient clinic visits framed and influenced communication and relationships. CONCLUSIONS:: The relationship and communication between patients...... and healthcare professionals in the outpatient setting were important for the patients’ ability to cope with cancer. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Healthcare professionals need to pay special attention to the relational aspects of communication in an outpatient clinic because encounters are often brief. More......BACKGROUND:: Today, cancer care and treatment primarily take place in an outpatient setting where encounters between patients and healthcare professionals are often brief. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to summarize the literature of adult patients’ experiences of and need for relationships...
Xiao, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Fan, H M; Che, C L; Lu, Y; Cong, L X; Gao, X J; Liu, Y J; Yuan, J X; Li, X M; Hu, B; Chen, Y P
Objective: To investigate the relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in male steel workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted among the male steel workers selected during health examination in Tangshan Steel Company from March 2015 to March 2016. The relationship between shift work and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers were analyzed by using logistic regression model and restricted cubic splinemodel. Results: A total of 7 262 male steel workers were surveyed, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesitywas 64.5% (4 686/7 262), the overweight rate was 34.3% and the obesity rate was 30.2%, respectively. After adjusting for age, educational level and average family income level per month by multivariable logistic regression analysis, shift work was associated with overweight/obesity and obesity in the male steel workers. The OR was 1.19(95% CI: 1.05-1.35) and 1.15(95% CI: 1.00-1.32). Restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that the relationship between shift work years and overweight/obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ2=7.43, Pshift work years and obesity in the male steel workers was a nonlinear dose response one (nonlinear test χ2=10.48, PShift work was associated with overweight and obesity in the male steel workers, and shift work years and overweight/obesity had a nonlinear relationship.
Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Mixon, Kacy; Park, Yang Min; Kim, Bo Young; Lee, Sang Min
This study aimed to determine the nature of the relationship between job burnout and personal wellness among mental health professionals. The authors performed intercorrelations and multivariate multiple regression analyses to identify the relationship between subscales of job burnout and personal wellness. Results showed that all subscales of job…
Dana, Laura Beckham
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among job satisfaction, professional efficacy, student and school performance, and teacher absenteeism in Mississippi. This study also addressed methods that can be used by policymakers to better ensure low rates of absenteeism. The study measured the relationship between teachers'…
Sumantri, Mohamad Syarif; Whardani, Prayuningtyas Angger
This study aims to determine the relationship between achievement motivation and professional competence with regard to the performance of teachers in public elementary schools in Central Java. The quantitative method is used in this study. The results of this study indicate that (1) there is a significant positive relationship between achievement…
Li, Shaolin; Zhao, Wenji; Hao, Shuai; Hu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xintao
To analyze the imaging abnormal findings of ankle injuries in professional soccer player of males. The thirty-two professional soccer players in local region soccer club had been selected as research objects from March 2014 to January 2015, and all were men. Average age was 22.03±3.0 years old (19-33 years); the average age was 8.6±2.0 years old that began to engage in professional football training, and average time of engaged in football sports was 13±4 years (7-27 years). X-ray examination was used VM DR (Philips Co.), anteroposterior and lateral position of ankle joints. CT scan was used MSCT of 64 rows detector (Aquilion 64, TOSHIBA Co.). After routine scan, raw data was transmitted to the workstation and then reconstructed to be axial, sagittal, coronal imaging. MR examination was used 1.5 T superconducting equipment system (Achieva Dual, Philips Co.) and with ankle joint special phased array coil. TSE sequence be used to scan routine axial T2-weighted imaging; coronal T1-weighted imaging; coronal PWI; and sagittal T2-weighted imaging with fat suppressed. The sagittal PWI scan was used with Isotropic with fat suppressed FFE sequence. The X-ray examination was finished for 28 person and 51 ankle joints. 26 person and 52 ankle joints were completed CT scan and reconstructed imaging for all joints. MR examination was finished in 30 person and 51 ankle joints. On X-ray and CT display that the abnormal changes of the talus is most commonly found that the incidence of "dolphin mouth" like protrusion at posterior edge was 35 ankles (rate of occurrence was 68.6%), the triangle prominence at out edge was 45 ankles (rate of occurrence was 88.2%). It also was found that 8 lateral malleolus have osteophytes, 5 ankles have medial malleolus osteophytes and 12 ankles have loose bodies at posterior ankle. MRI showed that 30 ankles were the anterior talofibular ligaments injury and incidence was 58.82%, 26 ankles were posterior talofibular ligaments injury (incidence was
Kilinc, Ali Çagatay; Cemaloglu, Necati; Savas, Gökhan
Problem Statement: Teacher leadership has recently attracted the attention of scholars and practitioners due to its promotion of student learning and school improvement. Thus, there is a need for investigating the construct of teacher leadership and its relationship with various organizational and personal variables. Considering the fact that…
Rosenbaum, S; Maldonado-Chaparro, A A; Stoinski, T S
Relationships between conspecifics are influenced by both ecological factors and the social organization they live in. Systematic variation of both--consistent with predictions derived from socioecology models--is well documented, but there is considerable variation within species and populations that is poorly understood. The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) is unusual because, despite possessing morphology associated with male contest competition (e.g., extreme sexual dimorphism), they are regularly observed in both single-male and multimale groups. Both male-female and male-infant bonds are strong because males provide protection against infanticide and/or predation. Risk of these threats varies with social structure, which may influence the strength of social relationships among group members (including females and offspring, if females with lower infant mortality risk are less protective of infants). Here, we investigate the relationship between group structure and the strength of proximity relationships between males and females, males and infants, and females and offspring. Data come from 10 social groups containing 1-7 adult males, monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. After controlling for group size and infant age, association strength was similar for male-female pairs across group types with both dominant and nondominant males, but male-infant relationships were strongest in single-male groups where paternity certainty was high and animals had fewer social partners to choose from. The male:female and male:infant ratios better predicted both male-female and male-infant associations than the absolute number of males, females, or infants did. The fewer the number of males per female or infant, the more both pair types associated. Dominant males in groups containing fewer males had higher eigenvector centrality (a measure of importance in a social network) than dominant males in groups
Niall A. Clark
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine season-to-season variations in physiological fitness parameters among a 1st team squad of professional adult male soccer players for the confirmatory purposes of identifying normative responses (immediately prior to pre-season training (PPS, mid-season (MID, and end-of-season (EOS. Test-retest data were collected from a student population on the primary dependent variables of anaerobic threshold (AT and maximal aerobic power (VO2 max to define meaningful measurement change in excess of test-retest technical error between test-to-test performances. Participants from a pool of 42 professional soccer players were tested over a set sequence of tests during the 3-year period: 1 basic anthropometry, 2 countermovement jump (CMJ tests 3 a combined AT and VO2 max test. Over the 3-year period there were no test-to-test changes in mean VO2 max performance exceeding pre-defined limits of test agreement (mean of eight measures: 61.6 ± 0.6 ml·kg-1·min-1. In contrast, VO2 at AT was significantly higher at the MID test occasion in seasons 2 (+4.8%; p = 0.04, p < 0.05 and 3 (+6.8%; p = 0.03, p < 0.05. The CMJ tests showed a test-to-test improvement of 6.3% (best of 3 jumps (p = 0.03, p < 0.05 and 10.3% (20-s sustained jumping test (p = 0.007, p < 0.01 between PPS2 and MID2 and thereafter remained stable. Anthropometrics were unaffected. In summary, despite some personnel changes in the elite cohort between test-to-test occasions, VO2 max values did not vary significantly over the study which supports previous short-term observations suggesting a general 'elite' threshold of 60 ml·kg-1 min. Interestingly, AT significantly varied where VO2 max was stable and these variations also coincided with on- and off-seasons suggesting that AT is a better indication of acute training state than VO2 max.
Morcillo, Jose A; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Cuadrado-Peñafiel, Victor; Lozano, Emilio; Ortega-Becerra, Manuel; Párraga, Juan
This study analyzed the acute metabolic and mechanical responses to a specific repeated sprint ability (RSA) test. Eighteen male professional soccer players from a team of the First Division of Spanish National League participated. A 12 × 30-m RSA test with 30-second recovery together with countermovement jump test (CMJ) pre a post RSA test was performed. Mechanical responses (i.e., height performance in CMJ and speed loss) and metabolic responses (i.e., blood lactate and ammonia concentrations) were measured before and after exercise. A related sample t-test was used to analyze CMJ height pre-post changes as well as to compare pre- and post-exercise lactate and ammonia levels. Countermovement jump height loss pre-post session (8%) was significant, and fatigue, measured as CMJ height loss, was strongly correlated to lactate (r = 0.97; p < 0.001) and ammonia (r = 0.92; p < 0.001) for all players. The relationships between the variables studied were determined by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficients. The metabolic stress developed during the effort can be estimated by controlling CMJ because of the high correlation between CMJ and blood lactate and ammonia concentrations. The high correlations found between mechanical (speed and CMJ height losses) and metabolic (lactate and ammonia) measures of fatigue highlight the utility and validity of using CMJ to monitor training load and quantify objectively neuromuscular fatigue during RSA.
Nolan, G; Walsh, E
In this paper, we present a synthesis of two doctoral theses where links are made between the intersubjective, relational dynamics seen in clinical supervision, and applied in practice to a framework for emotional labor in prison nurses. We explore the nature of intersubjectivity, from nursing and psychotherapeutic perspectives, and discuss the way in which it impacts on and influences relationships between nurses, prisoner patients, prison officers, and organizations within prison healthcare...
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Lambert, Michael; Stewart, William; Kerkhoffs, Gino
Recent reports suggest that exposure to repetitive concussions in sports is associated with an increased risk of symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance or substance abuse/dependence (typically referred as symptoms of common mental disorders[CMD]) and of later development of neurodegenerative disease, in particular chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sports career-related concussions and the subsequent occurrence of symptoms of CMD among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline electronic questionnaires from three prospective cohort studies among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). The number of confirmed concussions was examined through a single question, while symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance and adverse alcohol use were assessed using validated questionnaires. From 1,957 former professional athletes contacted, a total of 576 (29%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, 23% had not incurred a concussion during their career, 34% had two or three, 18% four or five, and 11% six or more concussions. The number of sports career-related concussions was a predictor for all outcome measures (β = 0.072-0.109; P ≤ 0.040). Specifically, former professional athletes who reported a history of four or five concussions were approximately 1.5 times more likely to report symptoms of CMD, rising to a two- to five-fold increase in those reporting a history of six or more sports career-related concussions. These data demonstrate an association between exposure to sports concussion and subsequent risk of symptoms of CMD in former professional athletes across a range of contact sports. Further work to explore the association between sports concussion and symptoms of CMD is required; in
Yeldell, Karyn Mitchell
This research study was focused on teacher dispositions and practices that create positive teacher-student relationships with African-American elementary male students. Robert Pianta's work on relationships between teachers and students, over the past decade, provided a conceptual framework for this specific study. A review of the literature…
Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul
The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.
Sabanciogullari, Selma; Dogan, Selma
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction, professional identity and intention to leave the profession among nurses in Turkey. Although there are many studies on job satisfaction among nurses in Turkey, there is a gap in the literature in relation to professional identity, particularly for intentions to leave the profession. This cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational study was conducted with 2122 nurses from Turkey. A positive and significant correlation was determined between the nurses' job satisfaction and professional identities. It was found that 15.5% of the nurses intended to leave their profession. Intention to leave the profession was greater among the nurses with inadequate professional identity development and low job satisfaction. Professional identity is a factor affecting job satisfaction. Both professional identity and job satisfaction are important factors affecting nurses' intention leaving the profession. Given that professional identity and job satisfaction affect intention to leave the profession and professional identity affects job satisfaction, nurse managers who are mainly responsible for the quality of nursing care should develop strategies that support nurses' professional identity and increase their job satisfaction if they are to prevent nurses from leaving the profession. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C
Existing data linking testosterone (T) and aggression in human adult males are surprisingly tenuous. In one of the few studies based on adolescent males, Olweus et al. (1988) demonstrated strong relationships between concurrent measures of T and aggression. However, the conclusions that could be drawn regarding developmental change were limited. Using data from a three-year panel study of 100 adolescent males (ages 12 to 13 at study entry), we examined whether there are significant relationships between concurrently collected measures of T and self-ratings of aggression, and whether the dramatic pubertal rise in T predicts subsequent change in aggression ratings. Panel analyses incorporating concurrent, lagged, and change measures found few significant relationships between aggression and T or pubertal development. The general absence of T/aggression relationships is discussed in the context of other empirical findings, the aggression measures used, and prepubertal differentiation on aggression.
Dubovsky, Steven L; Kaye, David L; Pristach, Cynthia A; DelRegno, Paula; Pessar, Linda; Stiles, Keith
The authors describe the development of a comprehensive policy for relationships of full-time and volunteer faculty and residents with industry. The underlying philosophy was that an academic approach to relations with industry that emphasizes objective outcomes and internal change will be more effective than rote restrictions on behavior that assume that physicians cannot learn new behaviors and that are impossible to enforce. The policy, developed through much discussion and debate with stakeholders, involves elimination of industry-supplied meals, gifts, and favors; integration of industry-sponsored and academic research; education of faculty and residents about the ways in which industry marketing influences clinical decision making; and comprehensive disclosure by faculty, including to patients, of financial interests in industry. At occasional points in the psychopharmacology curriculum and at a departmental "pharma symposium," industry representatives or industry-sponsored guest speakers are allowed to present peer-reviewed articles followed by comments by a faculty member with relevant expertise about aspects of the presentation that are accurate or misleading and by a general discussion of research and clinical implications of the research and the manner in which it is presented. Adherence to new protocols has been high because faculty and residents participated in developing them and are involved in their implementation. Acceptance by industry representatives has been variable. Experience with this approach suggests that it is possible to develop a collaborative relationship with industry that maintains appropriate boundaries between industry and academia.
Wang, Li; Du, Xiangyun
-teacher relationships are shaped by both their prior experiences and backgrounds and the current social and cultural contexts in which they are situated. Changes of context (e.g., from China to Denmark) often lead to a transformation of their professional identity and beliefs. Being a teacher in an intercultural......, they developed diverse individualized coping strategies to handle student-teacher interactions and other aspects of teachers’ professional identity....
Fronek, Patricia; Kendall, Melissa; Ungerer, Greg; Malt, Julianne; Eugarde, Ellen; Geraghty, Timothy
Boundary violations that threaten professional-client relationships are rarely discussed at the coalface. There is an assumption that healthcare practitioners have the skills necessary to manage professional boundary dilemmas with clients. The issue, if addressed, is usually confined to discipline specific education and training. A one-day Professional Boundaries for Health Professionals (PBHP) training program was developed in response to real life practice dilemmas experienced by health practitioners across the continuum of care. The program was delivered to 109 participants throughout the state of Queensland, Australia, from government and non-government organizations. Participants were doctors, nurses, allied health (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers, psychologists, dietitians, speech therapists), therapy assistants and personal care staff from a diverse range of hospital and community settings. Evaluations of PBHP suggest that the interprofessional learning context was valued with specific advantages identified in the use of adult learning approaches, the teaching of ethical decision making principles, the value of supervision and peer support and the opportunities provided for critical reflection. The effectiveness of training for healthcare practitioners in this area is discussed as a meaningful way of developing skills and engendering collaborative relationships between professional (e.g., occupational therapist, social worker) and paraprofessional (e.g., therapy assistant, personal care worker) groups. A combination of intensive training in professional boundaries and opportunities for ongoing professional development are important for all health practitioners.
Valente, Sharon M
Caring nurse-patient relationships in mental health settings are key components in helping patients recover. These professional relationships provide a safe, trustworthy, reliable, and secure foundation for therapeutic interactions; however, nurses face challenges in setting and maintaining relationship boundaries. Although patients ask for special privileges, romantic interactions, and social media befriending, or offer expensive gifts, nurses must recognize that these boundary violations may erode trust and harm patients. These violations may also trigger discipline for nurses. Professional relationship guidelines must be applied with thoughtful consideration, and nurses must monitor their emotions and reactions in these relationships. The current article is a sharing of personal experiences about boundaries augmented by evidence in the literature, and focuses on managing potential boundary violations (i.e., social media, sexuality, over-involvement, and gift giving) in mental health settings. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(1), 45-51.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde; Lund, Jens Hansen; Beck, Mette Holdsendorf
In the Center for Didactic Methods and Approaches, VIA University College, we have developed a didactic model of reflection for teachers and managers with the purpose of reflecting on education, teaching, and explaining the educators’ educational paradigms. During the work, we found different...... understandings of the relationship between teacher education and professional practice. We found that this relationship may impact how a teacher or manager actually practices the profession of education, including the methods teachers employ to teach, the methods the student teachers employ to teach......, and on the education totality. We also found that a lack of explanation of the educational paradigms to which teachers adhere may influence students’ optimal professional development....
Shalaj, I; Tishukaj, F; Bachl, N; Tschan, H; Wessner, B; Csapo, R
The incidence and severity of football-related injuries has been found to differ strongly between professional leagues from different countries. The aims of this study were to record the incidence, type and severity of injuries in Kosovarian football players and investigate the relationship between injury incidence rates (IRs), players' age and playing positions. Players' age, anthropometric characteristics and playing positions, training and match exposure as well as injury occurrences were monitored in 11 teams (143 players) of Kosovo's top division during the 2013/14 season. The exact type, severity and duration of football-related injuries were documented following International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) recommendations. A total of 272 injuries were observed, with traumatic injuries accounting for 71 %. The overall injury IR was 7.38 (CI: 7.14, 7.63) injuries per 1,000 exposure hours and ~11x lower during training as opposed to matches. Strains and ruptures of thigh muscles, ligamentous injuries of the knee as well as meniscus or other cartilage tears represented the most frequent differential diagnoses. While no statistical differences were found between players engaged in different playing positions, injury IR was found to be higher by 10-13 % in younger (IR = 7.63; CI: 7.39, 7.87) as compared to middle-aged (IR = 6.95; CI: 6.41, 7.54) and older players (IR = 6.76; CI: 5.71, 8.00). The total injury IR in elite football in Kosovo is slightly lower than the international average, which may be related to lesser match exposure. Typical injury patterns agree well with previously reported data. Our finding that injury IR was greater in younger players is related to a higher rate of traumatic injuries and may indicate a more aggressive and risky style of play in this age group.
Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob
A sexual agreement is an explicit mutual understanding made between two partners about which sexual and relational behaviors they agree to engage in within and/or outside of their relationship. Factors that prompt male couples to form a sexual agreement and under what circumstances remain underinvestigated, yet are important considerations for development of couples-based sexual health and HIV prevention interventions. By using thematic analysis with qualitative dyadic data from a convenience sample of 29 HIV-negative male couples, the present study sought to describe the timing and investigate the context and circumstances that led male couples to establish a sexual agreement in their relationship at both the individual and couple levels, and by agreement type. Themes identified for when a sexual agreement was formed included within the first 6 months, and after 6 months in the relationship. Themes related to context and circumstances of couples' sexual agreement formation were as follows: (a) desire for sexual exploration, (b) arisen circumstances or events with other men, (c) influences from past relationship(s) and/or other couples (i.e., peers), (d) to protect against HIV, and (e) purposeful conversations versus understood. Findings suggest HIV prevention efforts should include skill-building exercises to help improve communication and promote sex positivity within male couples' relationships.
Kamen, Charles; Burns, Michelle; Beach, Steven R H
The minority stress model (Meyer, 2003) has been proposed to explain higher rates of psychopathology in lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. However, studies of minority stress have rarely taken into account the interface between minority stress and same-sex relationship processes. In the current study, 142 gay men in romantic relationships completed an online survey assessing minority stress constructs, relationship features, and relationship satisfaction. Minority stress was not directly related to relationship satisfaction, while commitment, trust, and support from one's partner were related to relationship satisfaction. Significant moderation effects emerged between discrimination and trust and between internalized heterosexism and commitment, indicating that trust was related to satisfaction for those who had experienced frequent discrimination, while commitment was related to satisfaction for those low in internalized heterosexism.
M.Cur. (Professional Nursing Science: Nursing Management) The history of nursing focuses almost exclusively on a female-dominated profession, created with the assumption that such a role is inherently natural to women only. Yet, men have worked as nurses since the profession’s infancy, 250 BC, but their contributions seem to be unnoticed and underrepresented. Male nurses ascribe to a minority status within the nursing profession, with only 6.8% currently registered with the South African N...
Nazila Tokhmehforoushan Khiabani
Full Text Available The learners’ identity is one of the most important key elements of learning to motivate learners to learn English. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the male and female EFL learners’ motivation and their identity with a focus on gender. The study had a descriptive correlational design. The participants of this study were 50 Iranian male and 50 female postgraduate English majors, aged between 23 and 41, who were selected through convenient sampling. Three questionnaires of motivation, hardiness, and perfectionism were distributed among the participants. The results of Pearson correlation analyses demonstrated that there was not a significant relationship between EFL learners’ motivation and their hardiness in both genders. Also, the results showed no significant relationship between EFL learners’ motivation and their perfectionism in the two groups. Moreover, the results of independent-sample t-tests failed to find any significant difference between male and female students’ motivation and their hardiness and perfectionism.
Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung
[Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as hig...
Nazila Tokhmehforoushan Khiabani; Nasrin Hadidi Tamjid
The learners’ identity is one of the most important key elements of learning to motivate learners to learn English. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the male and female EFL learners’ motivation and their identity with a focus on gender. The study had a descriptive correlational design. The participants of this study were 50 Iranian male and 50 female postgraduate English majors, aged between 23 and 41, who were selected through convenient sampling. Three quest...
Bianco, Antonino; Spedicato, Mirco; Petrucci, Marco; Messina, Giuseppe; Thomas, Ewan; Nese Sahin, Fatma; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio
Background: The effects of synthetic surfaces on the risk of injuries is still debated in literature and the majority of published data seems to be contradictory. For such reasons the understanding of injury incidence on such surfaces, especially in youth sport, is fundamental for injury prevention. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prospectively report the epidemiology of injuries in young football players, playing on artificial turfs, during a one sports season. Patients and Methods: 80 young male football players (age 16.1 ± 3.7 years; height 174 ± 6.6 cm; weight 64.2 ± 6.3 kg) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. The participants were then divided in two groups; the first included players age ranging from 17 to 19 (OP) whereas the second included players age ranging from 13 to 16 (YP). Injury incidence was recorded prospectively, according to the consensus statement for soccer. Results: A total of 107 injuries (35 from the OP and 72 from the YP) were recorded during an exposure time of 83.760 hours (incidence 1.28/1000 per player hours); 22 during matches (incidence 2.84/1000 per player hours, 20.5%) and 85 during training (incidence 1.15/1000 per player hours, 79.5%). Thigh and groin were the most common injury locations (33.6% and 21.5%, respectively) while muscle injuries such as contractures and strains were the most common injury typologies (68.23%). No statistical differences between groups were displayed, except for the rate of severe injuries during matches, with the OP displaying slightly higher rates compared to the YP. Severe injuries accounted for 10.28% of the total injuries reported. The average time lost due to injuries was 14 days. Re-injuries accounted for 4.67% of all injuries sustained during the season. Conclusions: In professional youth soccer injury rates are reasonably low. Muscle injuries are the most common type of injuries while groin and thigh the most common locations. Artificial turf pitches don’t seem to
Bakken, A; Targett, S; Bere, T; Eirale, C; Farooq, A; Tol, J L; Whiteley, R; Witvrouw, E; Khan, K M; Bahr, R
The Nine Plus screening battery test (9+) is a functional movement test intended to identify limitations in fundamental movement patterns predisposing athletes to injury. However, the interseason variability is unknown. To examine the variability of the 9+ test between 2 consecutive seasons in professional male football players. Asymptomatic Qatar Star League players (n=220) completed the 9+ at the beginning of the 2013 and 2014 seasons. Time-loss injuries in training and matches were obtained from the Aspetar Injury and Illness Surveillance Program. No intervention was initiated between test occasions. A significant increase in the mean total score of 1.6 points (95% CI 1.0 to 2.2, p<0.001) was found from season 1 (22.2±4.1 (SD)) to season 2 (23.8±3.3). The variability was large, as shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.24 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.36) and a minimal detectable change (MDC) of 8.7 points. Of the 220 players, 136 (61.8%) suffered a time-loss injury between the 2 tests. There was an improvement in mean total scores in the injured (+2.0±0.4 (SE), p<0.001) group but not in the uninjured group (+0.9±0.5, p=0.089). The variability from season 1 to season 2 was large both in the injured (ICC 0.25, 0.09 to 0.40, MDC 8.3) and uninjured (ICC 0.24, 0.02 to 0.43, MDC 9.1) groups. The 9+ demonstrated substantial intraindividual variability in the total score between 2 consecutive seasons, irrespective of injury. A change above 8 points is necessary to represent a real change in the 9+ test between seasons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Berry, C; Greenwood, K
Therapeutic relationships are a central component of community treatment for psychosis and thought to influence clinical and social outcomes, yet there is limited research regarding the potential influence of professional characteristics on positive therapeutic relationships in community care. It was hypothesised that professionals' relating style and attitudes toward their work might be important, and thus this exploratory study modelled associations between these characteristics and therapeutic relationships developed in community psychosis treatment. Dyads of professionals and young patients with psychosis rated their therapeutic relationships with each other. Professionals also completed measures of attachment style, therapeutic optimism, outcome expectancy, and job attitudes regarding working with psychosis. Professionals' anxious attachment predicted less positive professional therapeutic relationship ratings. In exploratory directed path analysis, data also supported indirect effects, whereby anxious professional attachment predicts less positive therapeutic relationships through reduced professional therapeutic optimism and less positive job attitudes. Professional anxious attachment style is directly associated with the therapeutic relationship in psychosis, and indirectly associated through therapeutic optimism and job attitudes. Thus, intervening in professional characteristics could offer an opportunity to limit the impact of insecure attachment on therapeutic relationships in psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A
This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Badiyepeymaie Jahromi, Zohreh
Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses' better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses' professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses' self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses' self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration.
Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie
Background: Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses’ better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses’ professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. Results: The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). Conclusion: In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses’ self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration. PMID:26573035
Bassal, Catherine; Czellar, Judith; Kaiser, Susanne; Dan-Glauser, Elise S
So far, limited research has been carried out to better understand the interplay between the emotions, the use of emotion regulation strategies, and the well-being of professional caregivers of People with Dementia (PwD). This pilot study (N = 43 professional caregivers) aimed to (1) describe the type and frequency of emotions experienced at work; (2) analyze the associations between experienced emotions, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being; and (3) test whether the use of specific emotion regulation strategies moderates the relationship between experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. In the challenging context of professionally caring for PwD, results suggest that (1) caregivers experience positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions; (2) caregivers using relatively inappropriate regulation strategies are more likely to experience negative emotions, less likely to experience positive emotions, and have poorer physical and mental health; and (3) expressive suppression significantly moderates the relationship between positive experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. © The Author(s) 2015.
Collier-Harris, Christine A.; Goldman, Juliette D. G.
In many countries, there are no professional standards determining attributes, praxis, effectiveness and evaluation for teachers of relationships and sexuality education in schools. However, in the USA, a new set of pre-service teacher preparation standards has been developed for sexuality education and health. Australia has a set of generic…
Zegers, M.A.M.; Schuengel, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.
This study prospectively examined the effects of adolescent (N=81) and professional caregiver (N=33) attachment representations, measured using the Adult Attachment Interview, on therapeutic relationships in a youth treatment institution. After the first 3 months of the clients' stay in the
Parlar, Hanifi; Cansoy, Ramazan; Kilinç, Ali Çagatay
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between schools' levels of having teacher leadership culture and teachers' professional behaviors. A total of 254 teachers working in primary and secondary schools located in Üsküdar district of Istanbul province participated in the study. The "Teacher Leadership Culture Scale" and…
The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the emotional intelligence and professional burnout levels of teachers. The nature of the study consists of high school teachers employed in city center of Kirsehir Province; 563 volunteer teachers form the nature of sampling. The statistical implementation of the study is performed…
Savicki, Victor; Cooley, Eric
Explored the relationship of the work environment and client contact to scores of mental health professionals (N=94) on the Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment, and Depersonalization subscales of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Work environments associated with low levels of general burnout were those in which workers were strongly…
Toriello, Paul J.; Leierer, Stephen J.
In this study, the authors examined the relationship between the clinical orientations of substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and their clinical decisions. Cluster analysis grouped a sample of 245 SAPs on two clinical orientations that differed in their relative endorsement of traditional versus contemporary substance abuse counseling processes…
This research uses relational survey method to determine the relationship between professional learning community, bureaucratic structure and organisational trust according to the perceptions of teachers who work in primary education schools. Data were collected from 805 teachers who work in primary education schools in the districts (Altindag,…
In this study, we examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes towards professional development and school performance in the state accountability system using the 2013 Kentucky Teaching, Empowering, Leading and Learning (TELL) survey data and the 2013 school accountability profile data from the Kentucky Department of Education. We were…
Prip, Anne; Møller, Kirsten Alling; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Jarden, Mary; Olsen, Marie-Helene; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard
Today, cancer care and treatment primarily take place in an outpatient setting where encounters between patients and healthcare professionals are often brief. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature of adult patients' experiences of and need for relationships and communication with healthcare professionals during chemotherapy in the oncology outpatient setting. The systematic literature review was carried out according to PRISMA guidelines and the PICO framework, and a systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, and Joanna Briggs Institute Evidence Based Practice Database. Nine studies were included, qualitative (n = 5) and quantitative (n = 4). The studies identified that the relationship between patients and healthcare professionals was important for the patients' ability to cope with cancer and has an impact on satisfaction of care, that hope and positivity are both a need and a strategy for patients with cancer and were facilitated by healthcare professionals, and that outpatient clinic visits framed and influenced communication and relationships. The relationship and communication between patients and healthcare professionals in the outpatient setting were important for the patients' ability to cope with cancer. Healthcare professionals need to pay special attention to the relational aspects of communication in an outpatient clinic because encounters are often brief. More research is needed to investigate the type of interaction and intervention that would be the most effective in supporting adult patients' coping during chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
Chien, Hui-Min; Kao, Chia-Pin; Yeh, I-Jan; Lin, Kuen-Yi
This study was conducted to investigate elementary school teachers' attitudes and motivation toward web-based professional development. The relationship between teachers' attitudes and motivation was explored using the AWPD (Attitudes toward Web-based Professional Development) and MWPD (Motivation toward Web-based Professional Development)…
Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi Babatunde Alex; Aiyegbusi, Ayoola Ibifubara; Fapojuwo, Oluwaseun Akinleye; Badru, Oluwaseun Abdulganiyu; Babalola, Anike Rasheedat
Research on the epidemiology of football injuries in Africa is very sparse despite its importance for injury prevention planning in a continent with limited sports medicine resources. The vast majority of studies available in literature were conducted in Europe and only a very few studies have prospectively reported the pattern of football injury in Africa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and pattern of injuries in a cohort of male and female semi-professional football players in Nigeria. A prospective cohort design was conducted, in which a total of 756 players with an age range of 18-32 years (356 males and 300 females) from 22 different teams (12 male and 10 female teams), were prospectively followed in a National Football Tournament. Physiotherapists recorded team exposure and injuries. Injuries were documented using the consensus protocol for data collection in studies relating to football injury surveillance. An overall incidence of 113.4 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 93.7-136.0) equivalent to 3.7 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 15.6 injuries/1000 h were recorded for male players and 65.9 injuries/1000 h (95% CI 48.9-86.8) equivalent to 2.2 injuries/match and time-loss incidence of 7.9 injuries/1000 h were recorded for female players. Male players had a significantly higher risk of injuries [IRR = 1.72 (95% CI 1.23-2.45)]. Injuries mostly affected the lower extremity for both genders (n = 81, 70% and n = 31, 62% for males and females respectively). Lower leg contusion (n = 22, 19%) and knee sprain (n = 9, 18%) were the most common specific injury types for male and female players respectively. Most of the injuries were as a result of contact with another player (n = 102, 88%-males; n = 48, 96%-females). Time-loss injuries were mostly estimated as minimal (n = 11, 69%) for male players and severe (n = 4, 66%) for female players. The overall incidence of injuries among Nigerian semi-professional football
Full Text Available Background: The lumbopelvic-hip complex, also referred to as the “core”, is composed of every muscle between the knees and sternum. The back squat (BS and front squat (FS are both staple exercises that challenge the core in different ways. Possessing a properly balanced squat ratio (SR = 1-RM FS/1-RM BS; 1-RM = one-repetition maximum could lead to a more stable core. Objective: This study attempted to determine if there was a meaningful relationship between the SR and core strength (CS in resistance-trained males. If a strong relation exists between the SR and CS, strength and conditioning professionals would have a readily available assessment tool for examining CS by simply viewing the SR. Method: Twenty-one resistance-trained males (age = 28.3 ± 6.2 years; body mass = 93.1 ± 13.1 kg; height = 181.9 ± 7.6 cm; weight training experience with FS & BS = 6.4 ± 3.7 years performed CS tests (flexor endurance, extensor endurance, prone bridge, left side-bridge, and right side-bridge, along with a 1-RM in the BS and FS. An aggregate of the CS test times (CSA was also calculated for comparison with the SR. A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r was used to compare the SR with the CS tests and the CSA. Results: The CS test results were as follows (secs: flexor endurance 228.2±93.0, extensor endurance 137.0±28.2, prone bridge 166.7±51.3, left side-bridge 97.36±31.0, right side-bridge 100.2±28.3, and CSA 729.8±165.4. The 1-RM BS, 1-RM FS, and SR were: 157.5±29.7 kgs, 132.2±24.3 kgs, and 0.84±0.06 respectively. A moderate correlation was found between total CSA and the SR (r = 0.50, CD2 = 0.25, p<0.05. In addition, a moderate correlation was found between the prone bridge test and the SR (r = 0.49, CD2 = 0.24, p<0.05. A very strong positive correlation was also found between 1-RM BS and 1-RM FS (r = 0.93, CD2 = 0.86, p<0.05. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the CSA and prone bridge test are
Hammig, Bart; Ogletree, Roberta; Wycoff-Horn, Marcie R
The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of professional preparation and class structure on health content delivery and time spent delivering content among required health education classes in the United States. Data from the classroom-level file of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study were utilized. A series of multivariable logistic regression models were employed to determine if instruction of content was dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Years of teaching health topics and size of the school district were included as covariates in the multivariable logistic models. We also conducted a multivariable logistic regression model to examine if time spent teaching each topic area was dependent upon professional preparation and/or class structure. Findings indicated that professionally prepared teachers were significantly more likely to deliver content in 6 of 12 health topic areas when compared to untrained teachers. Class structure was also an important predictor of content delivery among many topic areas. Teachers who taught classes that were devoted to health instruction were significantly more likely to deliver content in the following topic areas: alcohol/drug prevention, tobacco prevention, sexuality, pregnancy, human immuno virus and sexually transmitted disease prevention, emotional/mental health and suicide, and violence prevention. Research concerning the relationship between professional preparation and teaching outcomes is scant. The present study indicates that health content coverage and time spent on instruction are associated with both professional preparation and class structure for many health content areas. © 2011, American School Health Association.
Skordilis, E K; Gavriilidis, A; Charitou, S; Asonitou, K
To examine the differences in sport achievement orientation among 35 professional, 36 amateur, and 35 wheelchair basketball athletes, these men completed three subscales of Competitiveness, Win orientation, and Goal orientation of the 25-item Sport Orientation Questionnaire. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among groups. Win orientation was the factor, through discriminant function analysis, that significantly separated the athletes into the three groups. The highest win score was obtained by the professional, followed by the amateur and wheelchair groups. Replication study is necessary to confirm the present findings.
Capell, Jen; Dean, Elizabeth; Veenstra, Gerry
The study examined the relationship between cultural competence and ethnocentrism among health care professionals. Physical therapists, occupational therapists, and nurses ( N = 71) from three hospitals in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, participated in the survey research project. The survey questionnaire incorporated the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among Healthcare Professionals-Revised and the Generalized Ethnocentrism Scale. Cultural competence scores and ethnocentrism scores were inversely related (r = -.28, p = .017). Results suggest that cultural competence may not be entirely distinct from ethnocentrism. The construct of cultural competence warrants further study vis-à-vis its correlates and its impact on clinical outcomes.
Jones, Rhys M.; Cook, Christian C.; Kilduff, Liam P.; Zoran Milanović; Nic James; Goran Sporiš; Bruno Fiorentini; Fredi Fiorentini; Anthony Turner; Goran Vučković
Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO2?max) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in a group of professional soccer players. Methods. Forty-one professional soccer players (age 23 ? 4?yrs, height 180.0 ? 5.3?cm, weight 79.6 ? 5.3?kg) were required to perform tests to assess RSA and VO2?max on two separate days with at least 48?hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their VO2?max and...
Lya, Kremer-Hayon; Faraj, Hani; Wubbels, Theo
Study of burnout among Israeli Arab school principals as a function of professional identity and interpersonal relationships with teachers. Finds, for example, a low extent of burnout, a high extent of professional identity, and a negative correlation between burnout and the positive elements of interpersonal relationships. (Contains 30…
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino
To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep
van Gurp, Jelle; van Selm, Martine; Vissers, Kris; van Leeuwen, Evert; Hasselaar, Jeroen
The problems and needs of advanced cancer patients and proxies normally increase as the disease progresses. Home-based advanced cancer patients and their proxies benefit from collaborations between primary care physicians and hospital-based palliative care specialists when confronted with complex problems in the last phase of life. Telemedicine might facilitate direct, patient-centered communication between patients and proxies, primary care physicians, and specialist palliative care teams (SPCTs). This study focuses on the impact of teleconsultation technologies on the relationships between home-based palliative care patients and hospital-based palliative care specialists. This work consists of a qualitative study among patients, family members, and caregivers that utilizes long-term direct observations, semi-structured interviews, and open interviews following the observations. The analysis of the empirical data resulted in three key concepts that describe the impact of teleconsultation on the patient-professional relationship in palliative homecare: transcending the institutional walls of home and hospital; transparency of teleconsultation technology; and technologized, intimate patient-professional relationships. Teleconsultation offers (1) condensed encounters between home-based palliative care patients and distant professionals, (2) a unique insight into the patients' daily lives for palliative care specialists, and (3) long-term interaction that results in trustful relationships and experiences of intimacy and relief. Teleconsultation fits the practice of home-based palliative care. Teleconsultation can, if well applied, facilitate computer-mediated but empathic patient-palliative care specialist relationships, which enable professional care attuned to the patient's context as well as patient involvement. This article proposes a teleconsultation implementation guide for optimal use of teleconsultation in daily palliative care practice.
Grassi, Alberto; Smiley, Stephen Paul; Roberti di Sarsina, Tommaso; Signorelli, Cecilia; Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria; Bondi, Alice; Romagnoli, Matteo; Agostini, Alessandra; Zaffagnini, Stefano
Soccer is considered the most popular sport in the world concerning both audience and athlete participation, and the incidence of ACL injury in this sport is high. The understanding of injury situations and mechanisms could be useful as substratum for preventive actions. To conduct a video analysis evaluating the situations and mechanisms of ACL injury in a homogeneous population of professional male soccer players, through a search entirely performed on the YouTube.com Web site focusing on the most recent years. A video analysis was conducted obtaining videos of ACL injury in professional male soccer players from the Web site YouTube. Details regarding injured players, events and situations were obtained. The mechanism of injury was defined on the basis of the action, duel type, contact or non-contact injury, and on the hip, knee and foot position. Thirty-four videos were analyzed, mostly from the 2014-2015 season. Injuries occurred mostly in the first 9 min of the match (26%), in the penalty area (32%) or near the side-lines (44%), and in non-rainy conditions (97%). Non-contact injuries occurred in 44% of cases, while indirect injuries occurred in 65%, mostly during pressing, dribbling or tackling. The most recurrent mechanism was with an abducted and flexed hip, with knee at first degrees of flexion and under valgus stress. Through a YouTube-based video analysis, it was possible to delineate recurrent temporal, spatial and mechanical characteristics of ACL injury in male professional soccer players. Level IV, case series.
Nadirlene Pereira Gomes
Full Text Available The authors aim to investigate the meanings attributed by health professionals working in the Family Health Strategy to women‟s remaining in violent conjugal relationships. The research is based in the method of Grounded Theory. Interviews were held between May and August 2012 with 52 professionals who work in Family Health in a city in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. It is indicated that violence is related to the threats made, to the partner‟s involvement in drug trafficking, to economic and emotional dependence, to the valuing of marriage, to the belief in female submission, and to shame. The professionals indicate the need for strategies in defense of a life free from violence for women: psycho-social support; educational activities regarding the social construction of gender; and articulation of policies based on intersectoriality.
Full Text Available Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and single women in their ratings of male facial attractiveness in different phases of the menstrual cycle; and second, their satisfaction with the current relationship in relation to the cycle phase and selfperceived mate value. Two groups of women (single vs. partnered rated the attractiveness of two sets of male faces (normal vs. symmetrical. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that women in a relationship gave higher ratings of attractiveness for both normal and symmetrical faces in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase of a cycle, while single women showed the opposite pattern. Analyses of satisfaction with their current relationship in relation to cycle phase and self-perceived mate value showed that women with higher mate value are generally more satisfied with their current partners, and show smaller differences in satisfaction in various phases of the cycle. The results are interpreted in terms of content-specificity of hormone mediated adaptive design.
Inagaki, Hideaki; Mori, Yuji
Ultrasonic calls in rats induced by the presence of a predator, referred to as "22-kHz calls," are mainly emitted by socially dominant male rats. Testosterone levels are closely related to social dominance in male rats. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls and circulating testosterone levels in male rats, using a combination of surgery (castration or sham operation) and chronic steroid administration (testosterone or cholesterol) to modify circulating testosterone levels. We also assessed the effects of androgen and/or estrogen receptor antagonists on the emission of 22-kHz calls in male rats. An air puff stimulus, known to reliably induce 22-kHz calls in rats, was used as a stressor. Castrated rats with cholesterol implants exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants, and there was no significant difference between castrated rats with testosterone implants and rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants. Only male rats pretreated with a binary mixture of androgen and estrogen antagonists exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than controls. These results show that testosterone in male rats has a positive effect on the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls, and the calls may be regulated by the activation of both androgen and estrogen receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ludewig, Revital; LaLlave, Juan
This chapter contributes towards understanding the effect of gender on judging. It examines whether the experiences of women and men judges with their profession support a gender differences or a gender similarities hypothesis. Women and men judges in Switzerland (N = 243) were asked to rank their experiences with professional difficulties, coping strategies, work-life balance, satisfaction and discrimination to determine whether there were differences or similarities due to gender. Significa...
Gomes, Romeu; Couto, Márcia Thereza
The objective of this article is to analyze relationships between health professionals and users from a gender perspective. Using Pierre Bourdieu as a theoretical reference, we critically analyze data from two studies carried out in Brazil in which we took part as authors. The first of these studies was based in Rio de Janeiro and the second was a multicenter and ethnographical study carried out in eight health care facilities distributed throughout four Brazilian states, two in the Southeast region and two in the Northeast region. Among the principal results of the present study, we found that although the relationships between health professionals and users demonstrate varied opinions, all are marked by a gendered habitus. We conclude that, among other aspects, the construction of diverse femininities and masculinities and the way in which these are exercised in health care contexts are the product of process that is both socio-historical and personal.
Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde; Lund, Jens Hansen; Beck, Mette Holdsendorf
In the Center for Didactic Methods and Approaches, VIA University College, we have developed a didactic model of reflection for teachers and managers with the purpose of reflecting on education, teaching, and explaining the educators’ educational paradigms. During the work, we found different und......, and on the education totality. We also found that a lack of explanation of the educational paradigms to which teachers adhere may influence students’ optimal professional development.......In the Center for Didactic Methods and Approaches, VIA University College, we have developed a didactic model of reflection for teachers and managers with the purpose of reflecting on education, teaching, and explaining the educators’ educational paradigms. During the work, we found different...... understandings of the relationship between teacher education and professional practice. We found that this relationship may impact how a teacher or manager actually practices the profession of education, including the methods teachers employ to teach, the methods the student teachers employ to teach...
Elahe Ramezanzade Tabriz
Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Study of clinical competence in nursing helps determine the quality of health care delivered to patients. Given the priority of observance of principles over caretaking and necessity of spirituality existence at the core of health care provision, this study was conducted to investigate clinical competence and its relationship with professional ethics and spiritual health in nurses. Methods: In this cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study, 281 nurses were enrolled by consensus sampling. Sampling was conducted from February, 2016 till June, 2016. The data were gathered by a demographics questionnaire, a self-assessment scale of clinical competence, a nursing ethics questionnaire, and a spiritual health questionnaire, and analyzed by descriptive statistics and t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, ANOVA, and linear regression analysis in SPSS 21. Results: The total scores for self-assessment scale of nurses' clinical competence, professional ethics, and spiritual health were moderate. In the light of the results of Spearman's correlation coefficient, there was a significant and positive correlation between clinical competence and spiritual health. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between professional ethics and spiritual health but there was no correlation between professional ethics and clinical competence. Conclusion: Managers' and personnel's Knowledge about the level of nurses clinical competence, professional ethics, and spiritual health in teaching health care centers provides valuable information to develop in-service and efficacious education programs and ultimately to improve the quality of nursing services.
Rentmeester, Christy A
In February 2012, The Wall Street Journal summarized cases and research documenting growth in the numbers of physicians who ask families to leave their practices due to parental refusal of vaccines for pediatric patients.1 Some physicians ask families to leave because they feel that they have a professional obligation to maintain a standard of care that is unattainable when parents refuse vaccines for their children. Others struggle with how to maintain a therapeutic relationship with a child...
Much of the PR literature tends to focus on engagement in building relationships between organisations and publics or stakeholders. However, less is known about everyday interpersonal engagement, especially in regard to the professional context of the PR consulting firm (Sissons, 2015). This paper asks what it means to engage with clients and journalists, from the perspectives of managing directors and owners of London-based public relations agencies. What are the “feeling rules” (Hochschild,...
Janna Ida Fincke; Heidi eMöller; Svenja eTaubner
Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of trainees' interpersonal behaviour on Work Involvement (WI) and compared their social behaviour within professional and private relationships as well as between different psychotherapeutic orientations. Methods: The interpersonal scales of the Intrex short-form questionnaire and the Work Involvement Scale (WIS) were used to evaluate two samples of German psychotherapy trainees in psychoanalytic (PA), psychodynamic (PD) and cognitive behavi...
Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Yuste, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Francesc; Sanabria, Daniel
The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer) and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36) took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between regular sport participation (soccer and vigilance performance. Two groups of male and female adolescents differentiated in terms of their sport participation (athletes, n = 39, and non-athletes, n = 36 took part in the study. In one session, participants performed the Leger Multi-stage fitness test to estimate their aerobic fitness level. In the other session, participants completed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT to evaluate their vigilance performance. Perceived arousal prior to the task and motivation toward the task were also measured in the PVT session. The results revealed that athletes had better cardiovascular fitness and showed better performance in the PVT. However, correlation analyses did not show any significant relationship between cardiovascular fitness and performance in the PVT. Athletes showed larger scores in motivation and perceived arousal measures with respect to non-athletes, although, once again, these variables were not correlated with PVT performance. Gender differences were observed only in the Leger test, with males showing greater fitness level than females. The major outcome of this research points to a positive relationship between regular sport participation and vigilance during adolescence. This relationship did not seem to be influenced by gender, perceived arousal, motivation toward the task or cardiovascular fitness. We discuss our results in terms of the different hypotheses put forward in the literature to explain the relationship between physical activity and cognitive functioning.
van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A
In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 450 male first-class amateur soccer players (mean age, 24.5 years). Hamstring flexibility was measured by performing the sit-and-reach test (SRT). The relationship between hamstring flexibility and the occurrence of hamstring injuries in the following year, while adjusting for the possible confounding effects of age and previous hamstring injuries, was determined with a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 450 soccer players, 21.8% reported a hamstring injury in the previous year. The mean (±SD) baseline score for the SRT was 21.2 ± 9.2 cm. During the 1-year follow-up period, 23 participants (5.1%) suffered a hamstring injury. In the multivariate analysis, while adjusting for age and previous injuries, no significant relationship was found between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries ( P = .493). In this group of soccer players, hamstring flexibility (measured with the SRT) was not related to hamstring injuries. Age and previous hamstring injuries as possible confounders did not appear to influence this relationship. Other etiological factors need to be examined to further elucidate the mechanism of hamstring injuries.
Ivana Hromatko; Meri Tadinac; Helena Prizmić
Numerous findings suggest that female preferences for certain features of male faces vary during the menstrual cycle. Similarly, changes during the cycle have also been found in women's commitment to a current relationship. Furthermore, from the perspective of securing benefits from extra-pair affairs, the differences between women with high vs. low mate value could be expected. In this study we have tried to connect these sets of findings: first, we explored differences between partnered and...
This study was designed to determine the relationship of flexibility with swimming performance. For this purpose, 14 flexibility tests and eight swimming performance tests were administrated to 153 skilled college male swimmers. The major findings of which are shown below : 1) In the flexibility of ankle extension, back crawl and butterfly swimmers were more flexible than the other swimmers. 2) Water polo swimmers were less flexible than the other swimmers in all flexibility areas. 3) Trunk r...
Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.
Gilliam, Melissa; Woodhams, Elisabeth; Sipsma, Heather; Hill, Brandon
To describe the extent to which African-American male adolescents perceive responsibility for contraception and condom use and to understand the perceived importance of dual method use for respondents in casual versus committed relationships. Data were collected using surveys informed by formative focus group sessions. Participants included African-American male high-school students aged 14-19 years from the Chicago's South Side. Respondents were surveyed regarding contraceptive behavioral intentions and perceived importance of dual method use. Responses were compared by relationship type. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the association between contraception responsibility and perceiving dual method protection as important for each sexual relationship type. Sample included 348 young men (mean age: 16.1 years; mean age at first sex: 13.8 years). Among those who had heard of condoms (99.4%) and withdrawal (90.4%), most reported liking these methods (83.7% and 53.9%). Participants were more likely to report greater responsibility within a committed relationship for all perceived contraceptive responsibilities (e.g., going with partner to get contraception). Participants were more likely to engage in conversation about pregnancy prevention with a committed partner. Among sexually active respondents, perceived contraceptive responsibility was associated with perceiving dual protection as very important (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.05-2.38). Respondents felt partially responsible for pregnancy prevention, particularly within committed relationships, and were open to using dual protection. However, many respondents had low levels of contraception knowledge. These findings indicate that male African-American adolescents might benefit from increased education and support around contraception methods and condom use. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Milanese, Chiara; Cavedon, Valentina; Corradini, Giuliano; De Vita, Francesco; Zancanaro, Carlo
This work investigated changes in body composition of professional soccer players attending an Italian Serie A club across the competitive season; it is original insofar as body composition was assessed at multiple time points across the season using the accurate three-compartment model provided by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Thirty-one players (4 goalkeepers, 13 defenders, 8 midfielders, 6 forwards) underwent DXA and anthropometry at pre-, mid- and end-season. One operator measured whole body and regional body composition (fat mass, FM; fat-free soft tissue mass, FFSTM; mineral mass). Two players were excluded from analysis due to serious injury. Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA; factors were season time point and playing position. Results showed that whole-body FM and %FM significantly (P professional soccer players undergo changes in their FM, FFSTM, and mineral mass across the season with some regional variations, irrespective of the playing position. Changes are mostly positive at mid-season, possibly due to difference in training between the first and second phase of the season.
Zemp, Martina; Merz, Corina A; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Halford, W Kim; Schaer Gmelch, Marcel; Bodenmann, Guy
The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of an evidence-based relationship distress prevention program, the Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET), in dual well-earning couples and to investigate whether effects vary by (a) hours of professional contact and (b) mode of delivery (face to face vs. self-learning DVD). N = 159 couples were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intervention conditions: (1) standard CCET (15 hours face to face), (2) compact CCET (12 hr face to face), (3) short CCET (self-learning DVD + 8 hr face to face), or (4) wait-list control group. Relationship satisfaction and dyadic coping skills were assessed by means of questionnaires completed prior to and 2 weeks after completion of the treatment, at 3-month follow-up, and at 6-month follow-up. Baseline latent change models for 2 factors showed that the CCET enhanced relationship satisfaction and dyadic coping skills in couples relative to the wait-list control group, albeit effects were small. The standard format of the CCET was not more effective than the compact or the short format indicating that reduced amount of professional contact did not decrease the treatment's efficacy and that the self-learning DVD successfully replaced the psycho-educational part of the program. Since dual earner couples usually face multiple stressors, it is a promising finding that they can strengthen their relationship with a relatively short time investment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn
OBJECTIVE: High risks for locomotor diseases have been reported for bus and truck drivers in general; however, little is known about the specific risks of long-haul truck drivers. METHODS: Standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for different locomotor diseases of bus drivers, long-haul truck...... drivers and other truck drivers were compared with each other and with the general Danish working population. RESULTS: Intervertebral disc disorders were more common among professional drivers (SHR: 119, 95% CI: 114-125) and of similar magnitude for cervical and non-cervical disorders. Both long......-haul truck drivers and bus drivers had higher SHR for intervertebral disc disorders (SHR: 133, 95% CI: 114-155/SHR: 141, 95% CI: 129-154, respectively) than other truck drivers (SHR: 109, 95% CI: 102-116). The SHR for carpal tunnel syndrome was high among long-haul drivers (SHR: 163, 95% CI: 101...
Lubiatowski, Przemyslaw; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Cisowski, Pawel; Breborowicz, Ewa; Grygorowicz, Monika; Dzianach, Marcin; Krupecki, Tomasz; Laver, Lior; Romanowski, Leszek
Glenohumeral range of motion adaptations may affect throwing athletes and contribute to shoulder injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder rotation deficits among elite professional handball players and its correlation to the presence of shoulder pain and morphological changes. Eighty-seven elite professional handball players and 41 healthy non-athlete volunteers participated in the study. Evaluations included measurement of range of internal and external rotation, total arch of motion, identification of shoulder pain and ultrasound scan for diagnosis of rotator cuff tears and internal impingement. Glenohumeral rotational deficits (>20-25°) were found among 11 players group (13%). The throwing shoulders in the players group showed a decrease in internal rotation and an increase in external rotation with significantly larger ranges among players compared to the non-athlete group. Internal rotation deficit >20° was associated with higher incidence of shoulder pain among players. Both internal rotation deficits (>25°) and total arch of motion deficit (>20°) co-existed with higher incidence of internal impingement. Shoulder pain was common (36/97-41%) and was associated with decreased external rotation and total arch of motion. Internal impingement (found in 13/87-15%) correlated with decreased rotation ranges and a greater deficit in total arch of motion, whereas higher gain in external rotation correlated with a partial rotator cuff tear (found in 12/87-14%). Shoulder pathologies and problems commonly affected the group of handball players. Greater glenohumeral rotational deficits in throwing shoulders of handball players correlate with shoulder pain and internal impingement, while increased external rotation with partial rotator cuff tears. Such deficits affect 13% of the athlete population. Major clinical relevance of the study is to monitor handball players' shoulders both clinically and by proper imaging. Evaluation of range of rotation seems
Choi, Y J; Lee, W H; Rha, K H; Xin, Z C; Choi, Y D; Choi, H K
This study examined the masturbatory experiences and other sexual activities of young Korean males in military service. The actual status of masturbation and its relationship to sexual activity questionnaire. A total of 1,212 young males among military personnel in Korea were interviewed with sexuality questionnaires on masturbation, sexual intercourse and personal characteristics. We divided these subjects into four groups according to the age of initiation of masturbation and analyzed the relationship between masturbation and other sexual activities. The mean age of subjects was 22.03 +/- 1.22 (19-27) years. The percentage of men who reported ever having masturbated was 98.1% (1189/1212) and the average age of initiation of masturbation was 14.26 +/- 1.66 years. So we divided 1,212 males into four groups on the basis of the average age below and above one standard deviation. Overall, 67.7% (821/1212) had experienced sexual intercourse, and significantly, the earlier the initiation age of masturbation, the higher the coitus rate in each group (p masturbation were closely linked to the initiation age of masturbation, respectively (p masturbation was earlier. Coital incidence in this study was 67.7% for young males in Korean military service, and 21.5% of them had their first sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prostitution still plays an important role in the sexual lives of males in Korea. The incidence of STD was over 10% and homosexual manifestation was seen in 1.07% of subjects. Thus a proper and sound sex education at school during childhood is needed in Korea. A large scale survey of sexual behavior in various populations is essential for the improvement of correct sexual concepts.
Song, Hyo-Suk; Choi, JiYeon; Son, Youn-Jung
Ineffective communication of critical care nurses can lead to higher levels of burnout and negatively affect quality of patient care and patient outcomes such as higher mortality. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between professional communication competences and nursing performance of critical care nurses in South Korea. This cross-sectional study collected data on 197 intensive care unit staff nurses in 3 tertiary academic medical centres in South Korea from July to November 2014. In the hierarchical regression analysis, the professional communication competences were the only significant predictors of nursing performance after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. In addition, the greater professional communication competences of nurses were associated with being older and having a higher education level, more years of overall clinical and intensive care unit experience, and a higher monthly salary. Our findings indicate that communication skills-related training should be included in the practical education to improve nursing performance for the quality of intensive care. Further research is needed to identify the comprehensive factors on professional communication competences of nurses in intensive care units. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Vitale, Jacopo Antonino; Lombardi, Giovanni; Cavaleri, Luca; Graziani, Rosa; Schoenhuber, Herbert; Torre, Antonio La; Banfi, Giuseppe
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance and promotion of musculoskeletal health, for the functioning of the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and its main action is to keep calcium and phosphate plasmatic physiological concentrations at intestinal, renal and bony level. Vitamin D affects several parameters related to physical performance too and a particularly high percentage of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in professional athletes has been observed. Several variables are able to impair the synthesis of 25(OH)D in athletes, specifically both genetic and environmental factors, but the most probable explanation for the deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels is the insufficient ultraviolet B light (UVB) exposure during winter. To confirm this, the existence of a circannual rhythm of vitamin D in professional soccer players, highlighting a peak in summer and lowest values in winter regardless the period of the season, has been documented. Nonetheless, from what we are aware of, no other study adopted a chronobiologic approach to better understand and describe the circannual variations of serum 25(OH)D in other sport disciplines. Therefore, we studied serum vitamin D in a cohort of top-level professional skiers, during a period of three consecutive competitive seasons (2015, 2016 and 2017), in order to evaluate, with a rhythmometric approach, the vitamin D behavior along the year. The study population was composed by 152 professional Italian alpine skiers of FISI (Winter Sport Italian Federation), 63 females and 89 males (mean age: 24.1 ± 3.2 years) and a total of 298 blood drawings were carried out to determine plasma 25(OH)D. Vitamin D data were compared between genders and then processed with the population mean cosinor tests to evaluate the presence of a circannual rhythm, both for female and male athletes. In total, 77 skiers (50.7%) showed, at least once during the three competitive seasons, an insufficient level of 25(OH)D and
Wald, Hedy S
A fundamental goal of medical education is the active, constructive, transformative process of professional identity formation (PIF). Medical educators are thus charged with designing standardized and personalized curricula for guiding, supporting, and challenging learners on the developmental professional identity pathway, including the process of socialization. The author of this Commentary provides an overview of foundational principles and key drivers of PIF supporting the being, relating, and doing the work of a compassionate and competent physician. Key elements of PIF including guided reflection, use of personal narratives, integral role of relationships and role modeling, and community of practice are viewed through various lenses of PIF theory and pedagogy. Questions informing the PIF discourse are raised, including interprofessional identity considerations. Central emergent themes of reflective practice, relationships, and resilience are described as supporting and reciprocally enhancing PIF. Overarching lessons include attending to learners' and faculty's PIF within a developmental trajectory of the professional life cycle; process and content within PIF curricula as well as learners' individual and collective voices; curricular/extracurricular factors contributing to socialization, self-awareness, development of core values, and moral leadership; integrating PIF domains within pedagogy; faculty development for skilled mentoring and reflective coaching; and implementing resilience-promoting skill sets as "protective" within PIF. Outcomes assessment including the impact of curricula on learners and on patient-centered care can be challenging, and potential next steps toward this goal are discussed.
Francisca Eliene de Oliveira Callou
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.
Rivilla García, Jesús; Grande Rodriguez, Ignacio; Chirosa, L.J.; Gómez Ortiz, María Jose; Sampedro Molinuevo, Javier
The present study analyzed the differences in distance throwing with heavy and light medicine ball and throwing velocity between handball players of different competitive and professional level. Likewise, the relationship between the three throwing test of progressive specificity was analyzed: throwing with heavy medicinal ball (TH), throwing with light medicinal ball (TL) and throwing velocity (TV). For this purpose, sixty-five professional (P), semiprofessional (S) and non-professional (...
Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J
Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Rhys M. Jones
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity ( and repeated sprint ability (RSA in a group of professional soccer players. Methods. Forty-one professional soccer players (age yrs, height cm, weight kg were required to perform tests to assess RSA and on two separate days with at least 48 hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their and a test for RSA involving the players completing m sprints (turn after 20 m with 20 s active recovery between each sprint. Results. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass normalised and mean sprint time ( (; and total sprint time ( (, . Conclusion. Results of the current study indicate that is one important factor aiding soccer players in the recovery from repeated sprint type activities.
Josefa Caridad López-Ferrera
Full Text Available The article reveals the dialectical relationship of gender and socio-historical memory aims to reflect on the development of educational strategy in the formation of professional education from this perspective that enriches the educational professional culture of students, and its development through it; academic, research, labor and extension in acquiring skills, habits and values associated with the genre from inclusion, social justice and gender equality elements that enable viewed through the socio-economic roots gender asymmetries in what influences of historical memory, which places students at the center of the educational process, to be able to criticize, confront and resolve the problems in teaching practice, creatively and responsibly and meet the university social custom.
Full Text Available Abstract Records were collected in an experimental herd over an 11-year period from purebred Charolais heifers (n = 351, cows (n = 615 and young entire bulls (n = 383. The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationship between the components of female ovarian activity (age at puberty and postpartum anoestrus length, their growth rate and body condition score and beef traits measured on related bulls. Two methods were used to estimate age at puberty and postpartum anoestrus length: the detection of oestrous behaviour and a test of cyclicity based on plasmatic progesterone assay. This study shows the existence of significant heritability estimates for the different cyclicity traits (h2 between 0.11 and 0.38. Most of the genetic correlation coefficients between ovarian activity and growth rate of females and males are negative and favourable (rg between -0.43 and 0.06. Cyclicity is also favourably related with body condition score in young or adult females (rg between -0.65 and -0.22. The genetic relationship between female ovarian activity and proportion of adipose tissue in the male carcass is, however, close to zero. These results show that an antagonism between male beef traits measured in this study and female ovarian activity is unlikely to be a cause for concern in the short term.
Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma. Subsequently, associations between hormone concentrations (9 steroids), POPs (21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 8 OH-PCBs, 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and OCP metabolites, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and biological variables (age, head length, body mass, girth, body condition index), capture date, location (latitude and longitude), lipid content and cholesterol levels were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) modelling. Average concentrations of androgens, estrogens and progestagens were in the range of 0.57-83.7 (0.57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen/estrogen ratios being approximately 60 times higher in adult males than in subadult males. PCA plots and OPLS models indicated that TS was positively related to biometrics, such as body condition index in male polar bears. A negative relationship was also observed between POPs and DHT. Consequently, POPs and body condition may potentially affect the endocrinological function of steroids, including development of reproductive tissues and sex organs and the
Lee, Hsing-Ming; Chou, Mei-Ju; Chin, Chia-Hui; Wu, Ho-Tang
The purpose of this research mainly lies in exploration of influence of psychological capital of preschool teachers on professional commitment, and moderation effect of their working years on the influential relationship between psychological capital and professional commitment. 400 Taiwan preschool teachers took part in this research as the…
Shorter, Casey D.
This study examined the strength and the direction of the relationship between principals' leadership behaviors and the development of professional learning communities, specifically teacher study groups. In effect, I sought to uncover principal leadership behaviors that positively affect the development of professional learning communities (PLC)…
Foerster, Christopher R; Tavares, Walter; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Kämäräinen, Antti
Paramedicine is often dependent on physician medical directors and their associated programs for direction and oversight. A positive relationship between paramedics and their oversight physicians promotes safety and quality care while a strained or ineffective one may threaten these goals. The objective of this study was to explore and understand the professional relationship between paramedics and physician medical oversight as viewed by front-line paramedics. All active front-line paramedics from four municipal paramedic services involving three medical oversight groups in Ontario were invited to complete an online survey. Five hundred and four paramedics were invited to participate in the study, with 242 completing the survey (48% response rate); 66% male, 76% primary care paramedics with an average of 13 (SD=9) years of experience. Paramedics had neutral or positive perceptions regarding their autonomy, opportunities to interact with their medical director, and medical director understanding of the prehospital setting. Paramedics perceived medical directives as rigid and ambiguous. A significant amount of respondents reported a perception of having provided suboptimal patient care due to fear of legal or disciplinary consequences. Issues of a lack of support for critical thinking and a lack of trust between paramedics and medical oversight groups were often raised. Paramedic perceptions of physician medical oversight were mixed. Concerning areas identified were perceptions of ambiguous written directives and concerns related to the level of trust and support for critical thinking. These perceptions may have implications for the system of care and should be explored further.
Sogabe, Natsuko; Maruyama, Rieko; Sato, Kazuto; Goseki-Sone, Masae
The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between smoking and eating habits or behavior in male students. We performed a questionnaire regarding smoking, eating habits, eating behavior, and the frequency of food intake for 277 male students. We also measured bone mass by a quantitative ultrasound device, along with height, weight, body fat, and gripping power. The percentage of students who had a smoking habit was 22.4%. No significant differences in physical factors between the smoker and non-smoker groups were observed. However, there was significant variation for having meals regularly, and for the habit of assessing their own eating behavior (both P students who wanted to obtain nutritional support for maintaining their health, or desiring nutritional support in order to keep a good body style was significantly lower in the smoker group compared to the non-smoker group (P students who had a habit of drinking alcohol or skipping meals was significantly higher in the smoker group (P = 0.002). In addition, the percentage of smoking students who had a habit of exercise was significantly lower (P eating habits in male students. These results suggested that appropriate nutritional education is important in the smoker group of male students for promotion of their health.
Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Alderete, John F.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Jenkins, Frank J.; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.
Objective Several epidemiologic studies have investigated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and later risk of genitourinary conditions with suggestive positive results. While these results may reflect causal associations, other possible explanations include confounding by factors possibly related to both STI acquisition and genitourinary condition risk, such as recognized STI risk factors/correlates, and other factors not typically considered in relation to STIs (e.g., general health-related behaviors or markers of such behaviors). Very few of these factors have been investigated in older populations in which STIs and genitourinary conditions are typically studied. Therefore, we investigated STI history correlates in one such population, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Methods We ascertained histories of potential correlates, and gonorrhea and syphilis by questionnaire (n=36,032), and performed serologic testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, human papillomavirus, and human herpesvirus type 8 infection in a subset (n=651). Results Positive correlations were observed for African-American race, foreign birth, southern residence, smoking, alcohol consumption, ejaculation frequency, vasectomy, and high cholesterol. Inverse correlations were observed for social integration and routine health-related examinations. Conclusions These findings provide useful information on potential confounders for epidemiologic investigations of STIs and chronic diseases, and interesting new hypotheses for STI prevention (e.g., STI counseling before vasectomy). PMID:19655261
Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective.
Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective. PMID:27313344
Xing, Xin; Pan, Bo-Chen; Du, Qiang; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Xu-Mei; Wang, Lie
To investigate the impact of infertility on men's self-esteem, self-confidence, sexual satisfaction and overall relationship with their spouses. Using Self-Esteem and Relationship questionnaire (SEAR), we conducted an investigation among 253 infertile men and 52 fertile male controls. We divided the infertile men into four subgroups according to their perceived causes of infertility: male (M) factors, female (F) factors, both M and F factors, and unknown factors, and compared the SEAR scores among different groups. In the infertile men, the total SEAR score was significantly higher in those with or = 3 years of infertility duration (75.50 +/- 17.05 vs 68.66 +/- 17.19, P or = 30- and 0.05). The total SEAR scores in the M factor, M & F factor, unknown factor and F factor groups were 65.69 +/- 18.68, 68.52 +/- 17.68, 74.85 +/- 15.19 and 83.21 +/- 12.61, respectively, with significant differences between the first two and the latter two groups (P sexual relationship, self-confidence, self-esteem and overall relationship were 90.04 +/- 9.85, 88.40 +/- 10.74, 92.23 +/- 9.41, 91.95 +/- 10.67 and 90.38 +/- 14.14, respectively, all remarkably higher than in the M factor, M&F factor and unknown factor groups of the infertile men after adjustment of their infertility duration and education levels (P self-esteem, self-confidence, sexual satisfaction and relationship with their spouses, and the degree of its impact is correlated with the patients' infertility duration and education level.
Stubbe, Janine H.; van Beijsterveldt, Anne-Marie M. C.; van der Knaap, Sissi; Stege, Jasper; Verhagen, Evert A.; van Mechelen, Willem; Backx, Frank J. G.
Context: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Dutch premier soccer league. Patients or Other Participants: During the 2009–2010 soccer season, a total of 217 professional soccer players from 8 teams were prospectively followed. Main Outcome Measure(s): The medical staff recorded time-loss injuries, including information on injuries (ie, type, body part, duration) and exposure data for training sessions and matches. Results: A total of 286 injuries were recorded, affecting 62.7% of the players. The overall injury incidence was 6.2 injuries per 1000 player-hours, 2.8 in training sessions and 32.8 in matches. Most of the recorded injuries were acute (68.5%). Eight percent of the injuries were classified as recurrent. Injuries were most likely to be located in the lower extremities (82.9%). Injury time loss ranged from 1 to 752 days, with a median of 8 days. Knee injuries had the greatest consequences in terms of days of absence from soccer play (on average, 45 days). The most common diagnosis was muscle/tendon injury of the lower extremities (32.9%). Conclusions: Injury risk in the Dutch premier soccer league is high, especially during matches. Preventive measures should focus on the most common diagnoses, namely, muscle/tendon injuries of the lower extremities. PMID:25531144
Boullosa, Daniel A.; Tonello, Lais; Ramos, Isabela; Silva, Alessandro Oliveira; Simoes, Herbert G.; Nakamura, Fabio Y.
Purpose To evaluate the relationship between aerobic and intermittent capacities in a team of professional futsal players. Methods Fifteen futsal players from Brazilian first division (age: 25.9±5.1 yrs; height: 1.77±0.04 m, body mass: 74.37±6.02 kg) performed in random order a ramp test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) at the start of the season for determination of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak running speed (Speak), and intermittent running ability. ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical fitness of professional Bosnian basketball players (n = 38 and shooting accuracy during one basketball season. A related, secondary aim was to examine relationships between basketball shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. Physical fitness components included: muscular endurance and aerobic endurance, lower and upper-body power, speed, agility, anaerobic capacity and anaerobic power. The specific basketball shooting accuracy was assessed by stationary and dynamic shooting assessments. Competitive shooting accuracy was represented by data collected during one basketball season for each player (free throw, field goal, and three-point %. Results of the regression analyses showed that there were significant positive relationships among shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. The relationship was stronger when the dynamic shooting tests were applied compared to the stationary tests. However, few or weak relationships existed among physical fitness components and competitive shooting accuracy. Only the power tests showed to be good predictors for shooting over longer distances. The findings support the inclusion of the dynamic basketball shooting accuracy tests in regular basketball assessment procedures as a valuable testing instrument.
Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah
Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM, rectus femoris (RF, vastus lateralis (VL, and biceps femoris (BF in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women’s superleague and eight in the Spanish men’s superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL and flexion (BF regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players.
Rodríguez-Ruiz, D.; Diez-Vega, I.; Rodríguez-Matoso, D.; Fernandez-del-Valle, M.; Sagastume, R.; Molina, J. J.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players. PMID:25003109
Rodríguez-Ruiz, D; Diez-Vega, I; Rodríguez-Matoso, D; Fernandez-del-Valle, M; Sagastume, R; Molina, J J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the normalized response speed (Vrn) of the knee musculature (flexor and extensor) in high competitive level volleyball players using tensiomyography (TMG) and to analyze the muscular response of the vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) in accordance with the specific position they play in their teams. One hundred and sixty-six players (83 women and 83 men) were evaluated. They belonged to eight teams in the Spanish women's superleague and eight in the Spanish men's superleague. The use of Vrn allows avoiding possible sample imbalances due to anatomical and functional differences and demands. We found differences between Vrn in each of the muscles responsible for extension (VM, RF, and VL) and flexion (BF) regardless of the sex. Normalized response speed differences seem to be larger in setters, liberos and outside players compared to middle blockers and larger in males when compared to females. These results of Vrn might respond to the differences in the physical and technical demands of each specific position, showing an improved balance response of the knee extensor and flexor musculature in male professional volleyball players.
Yildiz, Süleyman M
Numerous variables influence burnout, one of which is leader-member exchange. The present study was conducted to determine whether leader-member exchange quality affects burnout in professional footballers. The study used the Leader-Member Exchange-7 scale developed by Scandura and Graen ( 1984 ) to measure leader (coach)-member (player) exchange and Pines's ( 2005 ) abbreviated version of the burnout scale developed by Pines and Aronson ( 1988 ) to measure burnout. The data were obtained from the professional players (N = 107) of six football clubs in the Turkish Secondary Football League in western Turkey. The results demonstrated that quality of leader-member exchange significantly and inversely influenced burnout of professional footballers. The study also evaluated quality of leader-member exchange in terms of three strengths of relationship (low, fair, and high) between the coach and players. Contrary to expectations, the results revealed significant differences in burnout when comparing low versus fair quality and low versus high quality, while no significant difference in burnout was observed between fair and high quality.
Full Text Available Choosing a university degree is a relevant process for the personal, social and economic development. This study was designed to explore the students' choice for technical degrees. It is centered on the relationship between the quality of their choice and their motivation, satisfaction and development of professional plans. The inquiry involved an incidental sample of 89 students from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM in Architecture, Computer Sciences and Forestry Engineering. After the analysis of the ad hoc adapted inventory, descriptive data and the results concerning dependence between the variables considered (analyzed with Pearson's chi-squared test are presented. Non-parametric tests were used to asses differences on satisfaction by gender and degree studied. Results show dependence between the students' motivation and satisfaction, and the later and their professional plans' content. Gender and degree are also dependent with professional plans' temporality, as well as degree with their structure. No significant differences were found for the means in satisfaction.
Albin-Clark, Jo; Shirley, Ian; Webster, Maggie; Woolhouse, Clare
The dyadic nature of the teacher-child relationship is recognized as a significant factor in young children's learning experiences. However understandings about how teachers' own personal and professional identities and experiences influence their construction of teacher-child relationships are under researched. This article extends upon earlier…
He, Shanshan; Tsang, Sandra
Attachment theory has great potential to help our understanding of the apparent contradiction between violence and intimacy. Yet very few studies applied this theory to explain or predict sexual coercion in the context of intimate relationships. This study examined the relation between male partners' attachment styles and women's coerced first sexual intercourse in dating relationships. There were 927 valid questionnaires collected by purposive snowball sampling in five main cities in China to college students who were currently in a romantic relationship. Results showed that in both male and female samples, male partners' anxious attachment style were significantly and positively predicted emotional manipulation coercive tactics. In the female sample, male partners' two attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) positively predicted violence threat tactics, and male partners' avoidant attachment style positively predicted defection threat tactics. The research hypothesis of this study has been successfully supported, and implications and limitations were discussed.
Weiss, Kaitlyn J; Allen, Sian V; McGuigan, Mike R; Whatman, Chris S
To establish the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio and lower-extremity overuse injuries in professional basketball players over the course of a competitive season. The acute:chronic workload ratio was determined by calculating the sum of the current week's session rating of perceived exertion of training load (acute load) and dividing it by the average weekly training load over the previous 4 wk (chronic load). All injuries were recorded weekly using a self-report injury questionnaire (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Injury Questionnaire 20 ). Workload ratios were modeled against injury data using a logistic-regression model with unique intercepts for each player. Substantially fewer team members were injured after workload ratios of 1 to 1.49 (36%) than with very low (≤0.5; 54%), low (0.5-0.99; 51%), or high (≥1.5; 59%) workload ratios. The regression model provided unique workload-injury trends for each player, but all mean differences in likelihood of being injured between workload ratios were unclear. Maintaining workload ratios of 1 to 1.5 may be optimal for athlete preparation in professional basketball. An individualized approach to modeling and monitoring the training load-injury relationship, along with a symptom-based injury-surveillance method, should help coaches and performance staff with individualized training-load planning and prescription and with developing athlete-specific recovery and rehabilitation strategies.
Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P; Pianta, Robert C; Lun, Janetta
We investigated the effects of My Teaching Partner-Secondary (MTP-S), a teacher professional development intervention, on students' peer relationships in middle and high school classrooms. MTP-S targets increasing teachers' positive interactions with students and sensitive instructional practices and has demonstrated improvements in students' academic achievement and motivation. The current study tested the prediction from systems theory that effects of MTP-S on students would extend beyond the academic domain-that is, the ecology of teachers' behaviors towards students should also influence the ecology of students' behaviors towards one another. Participants were 88 teachers (43 randomly assigned to MTP-S and 45 assigned to a control group that received the regular professional development offerings in their school) and 1423 students in their classrooms. Observations and student self-report of classroom peer interactions were collected at the start and at the end of the course. Results indicated that in MTP-S classrooms, students were observed to show improvement in positive peer interactions, although this pattern was not found in self-report data. However, moderation analyses suggested that for students with high disruptive behavior at the start of the course, teacher participation in MTP-S mitigated a typical decline towards poorer self-reported peer relationships. The relevance of findings for the social ecology of classrooms is discussed.
Mikami, Amori Yee; Gregory, Anne; Allen, Joseph P.; Pianta, Robert C.; Lun, Janetta
We investigated the effects of My Teaching Partner—Secondary (MTP-S), a teacher professional development intervention, on students’ peer relationships in middle and high school classrooms. MTP-S targets increasing teachers’ positive interactions with students and sensitive instructional practices and has demonstrated improvements in students’ academic achievement and motivation. The current study tested the prediction from systems theory that effects of MTP-S on students would extend beyond the academic domain—that is, the ecology of teachers’ behaviors towards students should also influence the ecology of students’ behaviors towards one another. Participants were 88 teachers (43 randomly assigned to MTP-S and 45 assigned to a control group that received the regular professional development offerings in their school) and 1423 students in their classrooms. Observations and student self-report of classroom peer interactions were collected at the start and at the end of the course. Results indicated that in MTP-S classrooms, students were observed to show improvement in positive peer interactions, although this pattern was not found in self-report data. However, moderation analyses suggested that for students with high disruptive behavior at the start of the course, teacher participation in MTP-S mitigated a typical decline towards poorer self-reported peer relationships. The relevance of findings for the social ecology of classrooms is discussed. PMID:22736890
McGarry, Sarah; Girdler, Sonya; McDonald, Ann; Valentine, Jane; Lee, Shew-Lee; Blair, Eve; Wood, Fiona; Elliott, Catherine
To investigate the impact of regular exposure to paediatric medical trauma on multidisciplinary teams in a paediatric hospital and the relationships between psychological distress, resilience and coping skills. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, secondary traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout, compassion satisfaction, resilience and coping skills were measured in 54 health professionals and compared with published norms. Participants experienced more symptoms of secondary traumatic stress (P coping strategies, and less use of dealing with the problem and non-productive coping strategies than comparative groups. Non-productive coping was associated with more secondary traumatic stress (r = 0.50, P = 0.05), burnout (r = 0.45, P = 0.01), post-traumatic stress disorder (r = 0.41, P = 0.05), anxiety (r = 0.42, P = 0.05), depression (r = 0.54, P = 0.01), and stress (r = 0.52, P = 0.01) and resilience was positively associated with optimism (r = 0.48, P = 0.01). Health professionals coping strategies (P = 0.05), less 'sharing as a coping strategy' (P = 0.05) and tended to have more symptoms of depression (P = 0.06). Paediatric medical trauma can adversely affect a health professional's well-being, particularly those coping strategies and more use of non-productive coping. These findings will assist the development of effective and meaningful interventions for health professionals working in paediatric hospitals. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Tu, Meng; Luo, Ying-zhen; Fan, Fei; Yun, Li-bing; Deng, Zhen-hua
To establish regression model between craniofacial lines and body height by measuring craniofacial lines in Southwest Han males using CT and to accumulate data for the study of forensic anthropology. Head CT data of 273 Han males in Southwest were collected and 7 craniofacial lines were determined. Multiplanar reconstruction and volume rendering were performed by image post-processing software and the selected lines were measured. The relationship between each measuring indicator and body height was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. The regression equation of body height estimation was established and 50 samples were selected again and put into the mathematics models to verify its accuracy. The linear regression equations of 7 lines were established (P estimate (SEE) were 4.597-5.023 cm. The correlation coefficients of the multiple linear regression equation were 0.494-0.524 and the SEE were 4.418-4.458 cm. The return tests showed that the highest ± 1SEE accuracy of the multiple regression equation: y = 83.959+3.589 x6+2.573 x2, were 30%; and the highest ± 2SEE accuracy of the multiple regression equation: y = 72.646+3.316 x6+1.586 x2+1.553 x4+2.211 x3, were 92%. There is significant linear correlation between 7 selected lines and the stature in this study, and the plural linear regression equation established could be applied for estimating the stature of Southwest Han males.
Full Text Available Background Marital satisfaction is a multidimensional concept and depends on many factors including general health. As educated males have an effective role in the productive activities, it is essential to present some appropriate perspectives in the field of their mental health and marital satisfaction. Objectives The current study aimed at investigating the association between mental health and marital satisfaction in married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. Methods The study sample consisted of 100 married male students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences selected through the convenience sampling method. The data were gathered using the ENRICH marital satisfaction inventory and the general health questionnaire, and analyzed through Pearson correlation coefficient by SPSS version 16. Results In 25% of the subjects, scores of physical function was higher than the cutoff point.The anxiety, social function, depression, and general health scores of 30%, 45%, 19%, and 44% of the subjects were higher than the cutoff point, respectively. There was significant association between marital satisfaction of the students and physical symptoms (r = -0.51, anxiety (r = -0.49, social performance (r = -0.34, depression (r = -0.33, and total score of mental health (r = -0.53. Conclusions Prevention and intervention efforts can focus on how mental health problems can trigger interpersonal relationship and vice versa.
Almutairi, Khalid M
This study describes the relationships of smoking behavior among a sample of male college students in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to their religious practice, parents' smoking behaviors and attitudes, peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes, and knowledge about the dangers of smoking. A 49-item questionnaire was developed and pilot tested in KSA. This questionnaire was completed during the academic year 2013 by 715 undergraduate male students at the King Saud University in Riyadh. 29.8% of the students were smokers (13.8% cigarette smokers, 7.3% sheesha smokers, and 27% cigarette and sheesha smokers). Students in the College of Education were much more likely to be smokers than the students in the College of Science. The differences between the College of Education and the College of Science was statistically significant (χ (2) = 16.864. df = 1, p = .001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that students who were more faithful in their practice of Islam were 15% less likely to smoke. Students who were more knowledgeable about the dangers of smoking were 8% less likely to smoke. The logistic analysis identified peers (friends) as the most powerful factor in predicting smoking. The four-factor model had an overall classification accuracy of 78%. The need to understand more fully the dynamics of peer relations among Saudi Arabian males as a basis for developing tobacco education/prevention programs. Prevention programs will need to include education and changes in the college level or earlier in KSA.
Robert, Courtney A; Munroe-Chandler, Krista J; Gammage, Kimberley L
Muscle dysmorphia is a form of body dysmorphic disorder in which individuals have a pathological preoccupation with their muscularity and, more specifically, an extreme fear that their bodies are too small. Relatively few empirical studies have been completed on muscle dysmorphia, and even fewer studies on the relationship between the drive for muscularity and muscle dysmorphia in men and women. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the drive for muscularity and muscle dysmorphia in male (n = 55) and female (n = 59) recreational weight trainers. Results revealed that the behavior and diet subscales of the drive for muscularity significantly predicted muscle dysmorphia in males and females accounting for 69% and 46% of the total variance, respectively. Although the overall scores of muscle dysmorphia do not indicate clinical levels, these findings suggest that behaviors such as arranging one's schedule around his/her training regimen and dieting in order to gain muscle predict characteristics of muscle dysmorphia in men and women.
Ross, John As; Macdiarmid, Jennifer I; Rostron, Claire L; Watt, Stephen J; Crawford, John R
Underwater divers are more likely to complain of musculoskeletal symptoms than a control population. Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine whether musculoskeletal symptoms reflected observable physical disorder, to ascertain the relationship between symptoms and measures of mood, memory and executive function and to assess any need for future screening. A 10% random sample of responders to a prior postal health questionnaire was examined (151 divers, 120 non-diving offshore workers). Participants underwent physical examination and a neuropsychological test battery for memory and executive function. Participants also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for anxiety (HADSa) and depression (HADSd), and questionnaires for physical health-related quality of life (SF36 PCS), mental health-related quality of life (SF36 MCS), memory (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ)), executive function (dysexecutive syndrome questionnaire (DEX)), musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS) and general unrelated symptom reporting. Of participants with moderate/severe musculoskeletal symptoms, 52% had physical signs, and of participants with no symptoms, 73% had no physical signs. There was no difference in the prevalence of signs or symptoms between groups. Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with lower SF36 PCS for both groups. In divers, musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with higher general unrelated symptom reporting and poorer scoring for HADSa, PRMQ, CFQ and DEX with scores remaining within the normative range. A positive physical examination was associated with general unrelated symptom reporting in divers. There were no differences in neuropsychological test scores attributable to either group or musculoskeletal symptoms. Musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with physical signs, but this was not a strong effect. Reporting of musculoskeletal symptoms by the divers studied was also associated
Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.
Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by
Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul
The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…
Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab
The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…
Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] The purpose of this research was to study the relationships between selected personality features, the speed and accuracy of visumotor ability and hormonal status in the blood of male judokas. [b]Materials and method. [/b]Forty-five male judokas whose body mass ranged from 66–100 kg were included in the study. Each one was examined once during a single annual competitive season lasting from March – October. The protocol of the study comprised five procedures carried out in the following order: (a capillary blood sampling in the morning (07:30, (b second capillary blood sampling directly prior to the personality examination, (c examination of the personality traits, (d testing of visuo-motor ability with the use of an electronic cross-shape electronic device, (e third capillary blood sampling after the entire study. The entire study started and ended in the morning. For each subject, the three serum samples were pooled and the levels of cortisol (C and testosterone (T were determined in the serum specimen. [b]Results.[/b] There were significant correlations among the scores in selected personality traits, anxiety (A, neuroticism (N, extraversion (E, perseveration (P, emotional reactivity (ER and achievement motivation (AM. The C level did not correlate with any variables, however, it did positively correlate with E and visuo-motor ability. There were inverse relationships between E and A, N, P and ER. [b]Conclusions.[/b] The study confirmed relationships in the androgenic status in circulation, personality traits and psycho-motor abilities.
Miller, Peter; Hargreaves, Jessica; Curtis, Ashlee; Zinkiewicz, Lucy
While alcohol consumption and heavy episodic (binge) drinking are well-established predictors of male-to-male alcohol-related aggression (MMARA), the role of the father-son relationship in MMARA has yet to be explored. This study therefore examined whether fathering by the biological father rather than another father figure, negative fathering, and gender role modeled by the father figure were significant predictors of involvement in MMARA, once drinking frequency and quantity and heavy episodic drinking were controlled for. A total of 121 university students aged 18 to 25 years (M = 20.63, SD = 1.77 years) voluntarily completed the online questionnaire. The only significant predictors of perpetration of MMARA were a more abusive paternal relationship and drinking quantity (number of standard drinks usually consumed when drinking). Negative father-son relationships may play a role in fostering young men's perpetration of MMARA in the barroom context. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Piggott, Ben; McGuigan, Michael; Newton, Michael
This study investigated the relationship between physical performance and match performance in Australian Rules Football (ARF). Thirty-six semi-professional ARF players participated in this study. Physical capacity was measured using a 3 km time trial. Match performance was measured throughout the 2013 season via two methods; direct game involvements (DGI) per minute and a recording of coaches' vote post game. The main finding of the study was that 3 km time trial performance was a significant predictor of DGI per minute (p games played was also significant in predicting DGI per minute (p games significantly correlated with coaches' votes (p relationships between 3 km time trial and coaches' vote. The results highlight the importance of developing physical capacity in the pre-season period; the players who were better performers in the 3 km time trial had a greater number of DGI's per minute. This information is important to consider in pre-season planning to ensure sufficient time is dedicated to developing physical capacity in the training program, as it is directly associated with performance. In addition, this research also highlights the importance of playing experience in relation to team selection. Playing experience, as measured by the number of senior games played, had a significant relationship with both measures of match performance.
Full Text Available For many years translation theorists have discussed the degree of translational freedom a legal translator has in rendering the meaning of a legal source text in a translation. Some believe that in order to achieve the communicative purpose, legal translators should focus on readability and bias their translation towards the target language community. Others insist that because of the special nature of legal texts and the sometimes binding force of legal translations, translators should stay as close to the source text as possible, i.e., bias their translation towards the source language community. But what is the relationship between these ‘academic’ observations and the way professional users and producers, i.e., lawyers and translators, think of legal translation? This article examines how actors on the Danish legal translation market view translational manoeuvres that result in a more or less close relationship between a legal source text and its translation, and also the translator’s power to decide what the nature of this relationship should be and how it should manifest itself in the translation.
Sansone, Andrea; Sansone, Massimiliano; Proietti, Marco; Ciocca, Giacomo; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Romanelli, Francesco
male sexuality, specifically for ejaculatory response and sexual desire. Sansone A, Sansone M, Proietti M, et al. Relationship Between Use of Videogames and Sexual Health in Adult Males. J Sex Med 2017;14:898-903. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bovenzi, Massimo; Schust, Marianne; Menzel, Gerhard; Prodi, Andrea; Mauro, Marcella
To investigate the relationships between low back symptoms and alternative measures of external dose and internal spinal dose in professional drivers exposed to whole body vibration (WBV). The occurrence of low back symptoms was investigated in a cohort of 537 drivers over a 2-year follow-up period. Low back pain (LBP), individual characteristics, and work-related risk factors were investigated with a structured questionnaire. Exposure to WBV was evaluated by means of measures of external dose (daily vibration exposure in terms of either equivalent continuous acceleration over an 8-h period (A(8)) or vibration dose value according to the EU Directive on mechanical vibration) and measures of internal lumbar load (daily compressive dose S ed and risk factor R according to ISO/CD 2631-5 2014). In the drivers' cohort, the cumulative incidence of 12-month low back outcomes was 16.8% for LBP, 9.3% for chronic LBP, and 21.8% for sciatic pain. The measures of internal spinal load were better predictors of the occurrence of low back symptoms than the measures of daily vibration exposure. A twofold increase in the risk estimates for low back outcomes was found in the upper quartile of the R factor (0.41-0.72 units) compared to the lower one (0.07-0.19 units). In this prospective cohort study, measures of internal spinal dose performed better than measures of daily vibration exposure (external dose) for the prediction of low back outcomes in professional drivers. The ISO boundary values of the risk factor R for low and high probabilities of adverse health effects on the lumbar spine tend to underestimate the health risk in professional drivers.
The current economic and security challenges placed an additional burden on U.S. airlines to provide optimum service at reasonable costs to the flying public. In efforts to stay competitive, U.S. airlines increased foreign-based outsourcing of aircraft major repair and overhaul (MRO) mainly to reduce labor costs and conserve capital. This concentrated focus on outsourcing and restructuring, ignored job dissatisfaction among remaining employees which could reduce and or eliminate an airline's competitiveness. The purpose of this quantitative study was (a) to assess the relationship between increased levels of foreign-based MRO outsourcing and aviation professionals' job satisfaction (Y1); (b) to assess the influence of increased levels of foreign-based outsourcing on MRO control (Y2), MRO error rate (Y3), and MRO technical punctuality (Y4) as perceived by aviation professionals; and (c) to assess the influence of increased levels of foreign-based MRO outsourcing on technical skills (Y5) and morale ( Y6) as perceived by aviation professionals. The survey instrument was utilized based on Paul Spector's Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and MRO specific questions. A random sample of 300 U.S. airline participants was requested via MarketTools to meet required sample size of 110 as determined through a priori power analysis. Study data rendered 198 useable surveys of 213 total responses, and correlation, multiple regression, and ANOVA methods were used to test study hypotheses. The Spearman's rho for (Y 1) was statistically significant, p = .010 and multiple regression was statistically significant, p < .001. A one-way ANOVA indicated participants differed in their opinions of (Y2) through (Y6), Recommendations for future research include contrasting domestic and global MRO providers, and examining global aircraft parts suppliers and aviation technical training.
Kasabalis, Athanasios; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas P
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anaerobic power of elite male volleyball players, using the Wingate Anaerobic Test to examine the relationship between anaerobic power and jumping performance. Athletes (n=56) and Nonathletes (n=53) were divided into three age groups: Adults (18-25 yr.), Juniors (15-16 yr.), and Youth (10-11 yr.). Measurements of height, body mass, vertical jump and Wingate scores indicated higher values for athletes. The specific training effects of anaerobic power were more pronounced at the age of 10-11 years than for Nonathletes. A significant correlation coefficient between peak power and vertical jump was found for Athletes (r=.86) and for the total group (r=.82). These results indicated that vertical jump may predict the maximal anaerobic power and could be used by coaches as a practical and easy-to-apply field screening test for evaluation in volleyball training.
Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don
This study investigated the relationship between stress and body satisfaction in adolescence. A sample consisting of 515 adolescents aged 12-16 years completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing general and specific aspects of adolescent stress, body satisfaction and the psychological constructs of self-esteem, depressive symptoms and body importance. Results revealed a significant association between higher body dissatisfaction and higher ratings of peer stress, lower self-esteem and greater body importance for female and male adolescents. These findings suggest that adolescent stress relates to satisfaction with the body and that this stress is specifically focused on the peer environment for both genders during adolescence. This may have implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving body satisfaction, suggesting that the inclusion of stress management training in these programmes could specifically focus on difficulties within the peer domain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lisa J. Blodgett
Full Text Available Based on an ongoing research study of the development of self-regulation in early childhood (BOYER, 2005a, 2005b; BOYER, BLODGETT, & TURK, 2004, this work explores both the ethical and professional considerations of participant sampling in a large qualitative study. The study involved 146 families of preschool children and 15 educators across 7 preschools. Data collection included 30-45 minute audiotaped individual interviews, twenty-eight 90-120 minute audiotaped focus group sessions, and 30 minute videotaped footage of each child's natural play. The challenge of gaining informed consent and ongoing participation within a large study has been considered in the literature (GALL, GALL, & BORG, 2005. In qualitative studies the participants are selected purposefully because they will be particularly informative about the topic (CRESWELL, 2002. This is a challenge for qualitative researchers seeking maximal participation and large sample sizes because volunteer participants "tend to be better educated, higher socioeconomically, more intelligent, more in need of social approval, more sociable, more unconventional, less authoritarian, and less conforming than nonvolunteers" (MCMILLAN, 2004, p.116. This paper provides a response to these sampling challenges and advocates for the building of community relationships based on ethical, interpersonal and professional foundations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503353
Jones, Rhys M; Cook, Christian C; Kilduff, Liam P; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Sporiš, Goran; Fiorentini, Bruno; Fiorentini, Fredi; Turner, Anthony; Vučković, Goran
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in a group of professional soccer players. Forty-one professional soccer players (age 23 ± 4 yrs, height 180.0 ± 5.3 cm, weight 79.6 ± 5.3 kg) were required to perform tests to assess RSA and VO(2max) on two separate days with at least 48 hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their VO(2max) and a test for RSA involving the players completing 6 × 40 m sprints (turn after 20 m) with 20 s active recovery between each sprint. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass normalised VO(2max) and mean sprint time (RSAmean) (r = -0.655; P soccer players in the recovery from repeated sprint type activities.
Mazuquin, B F; Dela Bela, L F; Pelegrinelli, A R M; Dias, J M; Carregaro, R L; Moura, F A; Selfe, J; Richards, J; Brown, L E; Cardoso, J R
Soccer matches consist of a variety of different activities, including repeated sprints. Time to attain velocity (TTAV), load range (LR) and the torque-angle-velocity relationship (TAV 3D ) represent an important measurement of muscle performance, however there are few related studies. The aim of this study was to compare these outcomes between soccer players of different age category. 17 professional (PRO) and 17 under-17 (U17) soccer players were assessed for concentric knee flexion/extension at 60, 120 and 300°/s. For the extensor muscles, differences were found in favor of the U17 group for TTAV and LR outcomes at 120°/s, however, the PRO group maintained higher torques in both movement directions in comparison to the U17 in TAV 3D evaluation. These results suggest that muscle performance of the PRO group is more efficient than the U17 group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mitchell, Jason W.
Although substance use is linked to HIV seroconversion, little is known about male couples substance use with sex. The present study sought to: describe whether neither, one, or both partners in the couple used a particular substance with sex within or outside their relationship; assess, by substance type used with sex, whether relationship factors differed between these groups of couples. Dyadic data from 83 behaviorally non-monogamous HIV-negative male couples were used with multinomial regression models. Those who used with sex within the relationship varied by substance type; outside the relationship, most only had one partner who used with sex. Couples with one or both partners who used substances with sex within or outside the relationship were more likely to have higher commitment to their relationship yet less likely to trust their main partner; mixed results were found regarding communication. Further research is warranted toward the need for preventive intervention development. PMID:26223222
Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung
[Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116
Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung
[Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.
Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Masiulis, Nerijus; Matulaitis, Kestutis; Balciūnas, Mindaugas; Peters, Derek; Skurvydas, Albertas
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between general coordination, sport-specific coordination, and sport-specific fitness of 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players. 312 males with training experience ranging from one year in the 8-year-old cohort up to 10 years for the 17-year-olds performed basketball-specific fitness (20 m sprint, Illinois, countermovement jump), general coordination (20 m run with three obstacles), semi-basketball-specific coordination (20 m sprint dribbling two balls, countermovement jump with arm swing) and basketball-specific coordination (Illinois ball dribbling) tests. There were moderate to large correlations between the results of both general and basketball-specific coordination with the results of most basketball-specific coordination tests in all age groups. Correlations between general and basketball-specific coordination were large in four age groups (11-14 yr., r = .52 to r = .76), moderate in five groups (8-10, 15 & 16 yr., r = .37 to r = .46), while not significant in the 17-year-olds. These results suggest that the importance of general coordination for sport-specific skills improvements during a sports-specific skill acquisition phase, remains high at the skill refinement phase, and decreases when sport-specific skills have been mastered to near-perfection.
Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen
In this study, the air layer distribution and evaporative resistances of 39 sets of male Chinese ethnic clothing were investigated using a sweating thermal manikin and the three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technique. Relationships between the evaporative resistance and air layers (i.e., air gap thickness and air volume) were explored. The results demonstrated that the clothing total evaporative resistance increases with the increasing air gap size/air volume, but the rate of increase gradually decreases as the mean air gap size or the total air volume becomes larger. The clothing total evaporative resistance reaches its maximum when the average air gap size and the total air volume are 41.6 mm and 69.9 dm(3), respectively. Similar general trends were also found between local mean air gap size and clothing local evaporative resistance at different body parts. However, different body parts show varied rates of increase and decrease in the local evaporative resistance. The research findings provide a comprehensive database for predicting overall and local human thermal comfort while wearing male Chinese ethnic clothing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Eirale, Cristiano; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Tol, Johannes L.; Whiteley, Rod; Khan, Karim M.; Bahr, Roald
The 9+ screening battery test consists of 11 tests to assess limitations in functional movement. To examine the association of the 9+ with lower extremity injuries and to identify a cut-off point to predict injury risk. Professional male football players in Qatar from 14 teams completed the 9+ at
Andersen, Thor Einar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald
Foul play is an important cause of injury in football. Reduction of foul play and adherence to the laws of the game may be possible interventions to reduce the rate of injuries. To evaluate how violations of the laws of the game contribute to injury and to investigate whether the decisions made by the referees are correct in high-risk situations. Prospective cohort study. Videotapes and injury information were collected for 174 of 182 matches from the male Norwegian professional league during the 2000 season. Three Norwegian FIFA referees performed retrospective blinded evaluation of the 406 incidents. Less than one-third of the injuries identified on video and about 40% of the incidents with a high risk of injury resulted in a free kick being awarded. About 1 in 10 of these situations led to either a yellow or red card. The agreement between decisions made by the match referee and the expert referee panel was good, that is, their decisions agreed in 85% of the situations in which injury occurred. There may be a need for an improvement of the laws of the game of football to protect players from dangerous play.
Gamarel, Kristi E.; Reisner, Sari L.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don
Research has demonstrated associations between experiences of discrimination, relationship quality, and mental health. However, critical questions remain unanswered with regard to how stigma enacted and experienced at the dyadic-level influences relationship quality and mental health for transgender women and their cisgender (non-transgender) male partners. The present study sought to examine how experiences of transgender-related discrimination (i.e., unfair treatment, harassment) and relationship stigma (i.e., the real or anticipated fear of rejection based on one’s romantic affiliation), were associated with both partners relationship quality and mental health. Couples (N=191) were recruited to participate in cross-sectional survey. Actor-partner interdependence models (APIM) were fit to examine the influence of minority stressors on clinically significant depressive distress and relationship quality. For both partners, financial hardship, discrimination, and relationship stigma were associated with an increased odds of depressive distress. For both partners, financial hardship was associated with lower relationship quality. Among transgender women, their own and their partner’s higher relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality; however, among male partners, only their partner’s greater relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality. Findings provide preliminary support for dyadic crossover effects of relationship stigma on the health of partners. Findings illustrate the importance of minority stress and dyadic stress frameworks in understanding and intervening upon mental health disparities among transgender women and their male partners. Couples-based interventions and treatment approaches to help transgender women and their male partners cope with minority stressors are warranted to improve the health and well-being of both partners. PMID:24932942
Wilkinson, Helen; Whittington, Richard; Perry, Lorraine; Eames, Catrin
Empathy and burnout are two related yet distinct constructs that are relevant to clinical healthcare staff. The nature of their relationship is uncertain and this review aimed to complete a rigorous, systematic exploration of the literature investigating the relationship between burnout and empathy in healthcare staff. A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Search terms (Burnout OR Burn-out OR "Burn out") AND (Empathy OR Empath*) enabled identification of studies investigating burnout and empathy in healthcare staff, using five electronic data bases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, PubMed, and SCOPUS). Manual searching amongst reference lists of eligible articles was also completed. Databases were searched for studies published in the English language, from inception to February 2017. Key inclusion criteria were: 1) participants who were nurses or medical professionals, 2) full written manuscript in English, 3) use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory to assess burnout and a standardized outcome measure for empathy, 4) quantitative methodology exclusively. Ten eligible studies were reviewed. Of those, seven were conducted in countries where English was not the first language. Eight of the studies provided empirical support for a negative relationship between empathy and burnout. One study provided support for a positive relationship between burnout and empathy. One study reported contradictory evidence with positive and negative correlations between different subscales of the empathy and burnout measures. In general, the quality of the studies was assessed to be good. However, some of the studies failed to provide information pertaining to sample size, with the reporting of data less than adequate from one study. There was consistent evidence for a negative association between burnout and empathy. This review avoided a common English-speaking country bias of some
Barati, Amirhossein; Safarcherati, Afsaneh; Aghayari, Azar; Azizi, Faeze; Abbasi, Hamed
Fatigue of trunk muscle contributes to spinal instability over strenuous and prolonged physical tasks and therefore may lead to injury, however from a performance perspective, relation between endurance efficient core muscles and optimal balance control has not been well-known. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of trunk muscle endurance and static balance. Fifty male students inhabitant of Tehran university dormitory (age 23.9±2.4, height 173.0±4.5 weight 70.7±6.3) took part in the study. Trunk muscle endurance was assessed using Sørensen test of trunk extensor endurance, trunk flexor endurance test, side bridge endurance test and static balance was measured using single-limb stance test. A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to test if the trunk muscle endurance measures significantly predicted the static balance. There were positive correlations between static balance level and trunk flexor, extensor and lateral endurance measures (Pearson correlation test, r=0.80 and Pstatic balance, the linear combination of trunk muscle endurance measures was significantly related to the static balance (F (3,46) = 66.60, Pstatic balance level. The regression model which included these factors had the sample multiple correlation coefficient of 0.902, indicating that approximately 81% of the variance of the static balance is explained by the model. There is a significant relationship between trunk muscle endurance and static balance.
Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Nakazawa, Rie; Shirakura, Kenji
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between acceleration and joint movement by synchronizing accelerometers and a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and to show the utility of an accelerometer as a postural control assessment tool. [Subjects and Methods] Head, lumbar, shank accelerations and various joint angles during single-leg standing were measured of 20 healthy males. Root mean squares of acceleration and joint angle were calculated. Fast Fourier transform analysis was performed for head, lumbar, and shank accelerations, and the median frequencies were calculated. Then, principal component analysis was performed for the median frequency of each acceleration. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was also used to examine the relationship between joint angle and acceleration. [Results] The score of the first principal component was highest for shank acceleration, while that of the second principal component was highest for lumbar and head accelerations. In multiple regression analysis, hip flexion/extension and adduction/abduction were identified as variables associated with head acceleration. [Conclusion] We were able to confirm the aggregation of acceleration into two components, which we interpreted as postural control strategies using primarily the ankle and hip joints. Furthermore, though multiple regression analysis, we were able to clarify the joint movement indicated by acceleration of each segment.
Mitchell, Jason W; Champeau, Donna; Harvey, S Marie
Recent research has investigated the association of relationship factors and dynamics with sexual behaviors and HIV risk among gay male couples. However, few studies with gay male couples have used the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework to examine whether factors influence an individual and his partner's sexual risk behaviors. None of these studies analyzed whether relationship factors had influenced the sexual risk behaviors of both partners within the couple. Our cross-sectional study used dyadic data from 142 gay male couples to assess actor-partner effects of relationship commitment, trust, and investment in one's sexual agreement for HIV risk. Multilevel modeling was used to examine which actor-partner effects of these factors were predictive of individuals and their partners having had UAI within and outside the relationship. Results indicated that participants' likelihood of having had UAI within and outside of the relationship significantly decreased with: (1) actor effects of value in and commitment to a sexual agreement, and quality of alternatives to the relationship and (2) partner effects of participant's age, dependability of trust, quality of alternatives to the relationship, and investment of relationship commitment. No significant actor-partner effects were detected for having had UAI within the relationship. Our findings suggest that future HIV prevention strategies should take into account how relationship factors influence an individual and his main partners' sexual risk behaviors and in turn, the couple's risk for HIV. However, more research is needed to examine how actor-partner effects of relationship factors influence a variety of sexual risk behaviors within gay male couples.
Jaspers, Arne; Brink, Michel S; Probst, Steven G M; Frencken, Wouter G P; Helsen, Werner F
In professional senior soccer, training load monitoring is used to ensure an optimal workload to maximize physical fitness and prevent injury or illness. However, to date, different training load indicators are used without a clear link to training outcomes. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the state of knowledge with respect to the relationship between training load indicators and training outcomes in terms of physical fitness, injury, and illness. A systematic search was conducted in four electronic databases (CINAHL, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science). Training load was defined as the amount of stress over a minimum of two training sessions or matches, quantified in either external (e.g., duration, distance covered) or internal load (e.g., heart rate [HR]), to obtain a training outcome over time. A total of 6492 records were retrieved, of which 3304 were duplicates. After screening the titles, abstracts and full texts, we identified 12 full-text articles that matched our inclusion criteria. One of these articles was identified through additional sources. All of these articles used correlations to examine the relationship between load indicators and training outcomes. For pre-season, training time spent at high intensity (i.e., >90 % of maximal HR) was linked to positive changes in aerobic fitness. Exposure time in terms of accumulated training, match or combined training, and match time showed both positive and negative relationships with changes in fitness over a season. Muscular perceived exertion may indicate negative changes in physical fitness. Additionally, it appeared that training at high intensity may involve a higher injury risk. Detailed external load indicators, using electronic performance and tracking systems, are relatively unexamined. In addition, most research focused on the relationship between training load indicators and changes in physical fitness, but less on injury and illness. HR indicators showed relationships
Full Text Available PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the effect of FIFA 11+ (11+ and HarmoKnee injury preventive warm-up programs on conventional strength ratio (CSR, dynamic control ratio (DCR and fast/slow speed ratio (FSR in young male professional soccer players. These ratios are related to the risk of injury to the knee in soccer players. METHODS: Thirty-six players were divided into 3 groups; FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee and control (n = 12 per group. These exercises were performed 3 times per week for 2 months (24 sessions. The CSR, DCR and FSR were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After training, the CSR and DCR of knee muscles in both groups were found to be lower than the published normal values (0.61, 0.72, and 0.78 during 60°.s(-1, 180°.s(-1 and 300°.s(-1, respectively. The CSR (60°.s(-1 increased by 8% and FSR in the quadriceps of the non-dominant leg by 8% in the 11+. Meanwhile, the DCR in the dominant and non-dominant legs were reduced by 40% and 30% respectively in the 11+. The CSR (60°.s(-1 in the non-dominant leg showed significant differences between the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups (p = 0.02. As for the DCR analysis between groups, there were significant differences in the non-dominant leg between both programs with the control group (p = 0.04. For FSR no significant changes were found between groups. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the 11+ improved CSR and FSR, but the HarmoKnee program did not demonstrate improvement. We suggest adding more training elements to the HarmoKnee program that aimed to enhance hamstring strength (CSR, DCR and FSR. Professional soccer players have higher predisposition of getting knee injuries because hamstring to quadriceps ratio were found to be lower than the average values. It seems that the 11+ have potentials to improve CSR and FSR as well as prevent knee injuries in soccer players.
Gallagher, Ruth M
Despite their common history, there are many cultural, attitudinal and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that ultimately influence patient care and health outcomes. While poor communication between doctors and pharmacists is a major cause of medical errors, it is clear that effective, deliberate doctor-pharmacist collaboration within certain clinical settings significantly improves patient care. This may be particularly true for those patients with chronic illnesses and\\/or requiring regular medication reviews. Moreover, in hospitals, clinical and antibiotic pharmacists are successfully influencing prescribing and infection control policy. Under the new Irish Pharmacy Act (2007), pharmacists are legally obliged to provide pharmaceutical care to their patients, thus fulfilling a more patient-centred role than their traditional \\'dispensing\\' one. However, meeting this obligation relies on the existence of good doctor-pharmacist working relationships, such that inter-disciplinary teamwork in monitoring patients becomes the norm in all healthcare settings. As discussed here, efforts to improve these relationships must focus on the strategic introduction of agreed changes in working practices between the two professions and on educational aspects of pharmaceutical care. For example, standardized education of doctors\\/medical students such that they learn to prescribe in an optimal manner and ongoing inter-professional education of doctors and pharmacists in therapeutics, are likely to be of paramount importance. Here, insights into the types of factors that help or hinder the improvement of these working relationships and the importance of education and agreed working practices in defining the separate but inter-dependent professions of pharmacy and medicine are reviewed and discussed.
Riding, Nathan R; Salah, Othman; Sharma, Sanjay; Carré, François; O'Hanlon, Rory; George, Keith P; Hamilton, Bruce; Chalabi, Hakim; Whyte, Gregory P; Wilson, Mathew G
Aim Differentiating physiological cardiac hypertrophy from pathology is challenging when the athlete presents with extreme anthropometry. While upper normal limits exist for maximal left ventricular (LV) wall thickness (14 mm) and LV internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd, 65 mm), it is unknown if these limits are applicable to athletes with a body surface area (BSA) >2.3 m2. Purpose To investigate cardiac structure in professional male athletes with a BSA>2.3 m2, and to assess the validity of established upper normal limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Methods 836 asymptomatic athletes without a family history of sudden death underwent ECG and echocardiographic screening. Athletes were grouped according to BSA (Group 1, BSA>2.3 m2, n=100; Group 2, 2–2.29 m2, n=244; Group 3, athlete with a normal ECG presented a maximal wall thickness and LVIDd greater than 13 and 65 mm, respectively. In Group 3 athletes, Black African ethnicity was associated with larger cardiac dimensions than either Caucasian or West Asian ethnicity. Three athletes were diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy (0.4% prevalence); with two athletes presenting a maximal wall thickness >13 mm, but in combination with an abnormal ECG suspicious of an inherited cardiac disease. Conclusion Regardless of extreme anthropometry, established upper limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy of 14 mm for maximal wall thickness and 65 mm for LVIDd are clinically appropriate for all athletes. However, the abnormal ECG is key to diagnosis and guides follow-up, particularly when cardiac dimensions are within accepted limits. PMID:23097487
Ning, Hoi Kwan; Lee, Daphnee; Lee, Wing On
The development of teacher professional learning communities (PLC) has attracted growing attention among practitioners, policy-makers and researchers. The aims of this study were to identify typologies of professional learning teams based on measures of professional learning engagement, and assess their linkages with teachers' value orientations.…
Joynes, Viktoria C T
This paper is concerned with exploring the relationship between perceptions of professional identities, interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice. It seeks to introduce the concept of interprofessional responsibility as both a shift in the way in which to conceptualise the professional identity of Health and Social Care (H&SC) staff and as a new set of practices that help to inform the way in which students are prepared for collaborative working. The presented research, undertaken as part of a Ph.D. study, is based upon semi-structured interviews (n = 33) with H&SC staff who were recruited from both the United Kingdom (UK) Health Service and UK universities. Drawing upon thematic analysis of the data, the results of the research identified that previous conceptualisations of professional identity aligned to a whole profession do not relate to the way in which professionals perceive their identities. Senior professionals claimed to be more comfortable with their own professional identity, and with working across professional boundaries, than junior colleagues. Academic staff also identified that much IPE currently taught in universities serves the purpose of box-ticking rather than being delivered in meaningful way. It is proposed that the findings have implications for the way in which IPE is currently taught, and that adoption of the proposed concept of 'interprofessional responsibility' may help address some of the concerns these findings raise.
Ciampa, Donna Lynn
This study examined how the role expectations, responsibilities toward fundraising, and professional relationships by the vice president of institutional advancement influenced commitment to the institution. A qualitative analysis was conducted across the mid-Atlantic region by interviewing community college vice presidents of institutional…
Byrne, Daria McConnell
The purpose of this research was to determine if there was a relationship between the leadership style of the nursing department head and the level of professional satisfaction and organizational commitment by nursing faculty members. The survey instrument was a self-constructed four point Likert scale designed by the researcher to determine the…
This study examines the mediating effect of teacher empowerment on the relationship between teachers' participation in decision making and their professional commitment. The data were collected through quantitative questionnaires from a sample of 983 teachers in 25 junior high schools and 27 high schools in Israel. Hierarchical regression analyses…
Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Cox, Sara J; Cox, Tom; Vahtera, Jussi
The proportion of overweight and obese people has grown rapidly, and obesity has now been widely recognized as an important public health problem. At the same time, stress has increased in working life. The 2 problems could be connected if work stress promotes unhealthy eating habits and sedentary behavior and thereby contributes to weight gain. This study explored the association between work stress and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). We used cross-sectional questionnaire data obtained from 45,810 female and male employees participating in the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Cohort Study. We constructed individual-level scores, as well as occupational- and organizational-level aggregated scores for work stress, as indicated by the demand/control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Linear regression analyses were stratified by sex and socioeconomic status (SES) and adjusted for age, marital status, job contract, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and negative affectivity. The results with the aggregated scores showed that lower job control, higher job strain, and higher effort-reward imbalance were associated with a higher BMI. In men, lower job demands were also associated with a higher BMI. These associations were not accounted for by SES, although an additional adjustment for SES attenuated the associations. The results obtained with the individual-level scores were in the same direction, but the relationships were weaker than those obtained with the aggregated scores. This study shows a weak association between work stress and BMI.
Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Ibuki, Chikao; Kusama, Yoshiki
This study examined the relationship between job stain and radial arterial wave reflection as expressed by the augmentation index (AI), a marker of cardiovascular risk, in middle-aged male workers. Radial AI was measured using automated applanation tonometry in 808 working men (mean age; 47+/-5 years) at a company in Kanagawa, Japan in 2007. An elevated AI represents the deterioration of arterial properties and increased cardiovascular risk. Job demand and job control (decision latitude) were evaluated by a self-administered, Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. High job strain was defined as the combination of high job demand and low job control. In the entire study population, the mean+/-SD and the median of AI were 74+/-13% and 75%, respectively. High job strain was seen in 267 subjects. In a multiple logistic regression analysis with adjustment for multiple potential confounders, high job strain showed a significantly increased odds ratio (1.47, 95% CI; 1.04-2.09, P=0.029) for an elevated AI (> or =75%). High job strain was significantly associated with an elevated radial AI. The measurement of AI may be useful when incorporated in workplace interventions to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially at sites where workers tend to perceive high job strain.
Sega, G. A.
Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced in the germ cells of male mice by chemical and physical agents can be studied in vivo by making use of the timing of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. In meiotic and post-meiotic germ-cell stages UDS occurs from leptotene through mid-spermatid stages but is not detected in later stages. No consistent correlation has been seen between the occurrence of UDS in the germ cells and reduced dominant-lethal frequencies or reduced specific-locus mutation frequencies. It is suggested that the UDS observed in the germ cells may be principally involved in the removal of DNA lesions which, if left, could give rise to subtle genetic damage that current mammalian genetic tests may not be able to detect. Characterization of mouse stocks with reduced UDS capability in their germ cells plus the development of biochemical genetic markers that can measure single amino acid substitutions will likely be necessary before the relationship between UDS in mammalian germ cells and repair of genetic damage can be clearly established.
Tod, D; Edwards, C
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among bodybuilding dependence, muscle satisfaction, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping strategies, and test the hypothesis that muscle dysmorphia characteristics may predict quality of life via coping strategies. Participants (294 males, Mage=20.5 years, SD=3.1) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed questionnaires assessing muscle satisfaction, bodybuilding dependence, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping. Quality of life was correlated positively with muscle satisfaction and bodybuilding dependence but negatively with body image coping (Pbodybuilding dependence and negatively with muscle satisfaction (Pbodybuilding dependence and muscle satisfaction predicted quality of life both directly and indirectly via body image coping strategies (as evidenced by the bias corrected and accelerated bootstrapped confidence intervals). These results provide preliminary evidence regarding the ways that muscularity concerns might influence body image-related quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.
Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12 week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects w...
Social media have the potential to revolutionize health and healthcare, but fulfilling this potential requires attention to the ethical issues social media may raise. This article reviews the major ethical issues arising when social media are used for research, public health, mobile health applications, and global health. It focuses on social media use outside fiduciary relationships between healthcare professionals and patients. Emphasis is given to the potential of social media in these contexts, the ethical issues relatively unique to each, and where possible how existing ethical principles and frameworks could help navigate these issues. In some cases social media create the circumstance for particular ethical issues but also facilitate managing them, such as in informed consent for research. In other cases, disagreement exists about whether social media - despite their potential - should be used for certain purposes, such as in public health surveillance (where confidentiality represents a significant ethical concern). In still others, ethical uncertainty exists about how social media will affect ethical issues, such as inequality in global health. As social media technologies continue to develop, identifying and managing the ethical issues they raise will be critical to their success in improving health while preserving fundamental ethical values.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The appearance and evolution of some clinical pain conditions may be influenced by stress and other psychosocial factors. Face, head and cervical muscles may increase their activity and tension in the presence of stress, leading to craniocervicomandibular pain in individuals exposed to stress. Objective: To assess the relationship among perceived stress, anxiety, depression and craniocervicomandibular pain in nursing professionals under stress at work. Materials and Methods: Forty-three women under stress at work, according to the Job Stress Scale (JSS, were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, pressure pain threshold, measured by algometry, and muscle sensitivity to hand palpation of the masticatory and cervical muscles. Results: A low moderate level of perceived stress was found in 62.79% of the sample, anxiety in 11.63% and depression in 9.30%. The psychosocial scales correlated with each other. No correlation was found between pressure pain threshold and perceived stress, anxiety and depression. The level of pain to hand palpation correlated with the perceived stress scores. Conclusion: Pressure pain threshold was not influenced by the psychosocial factors assessed. Pain intensity to hand palpation, however, was higher as the perception of stress increased.
Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.
Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12 week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects were detected for both alcohol and acceptance variables such that greater verbal aggression was observed among participants with a recent history of heavy episodic drinking and failure to accept the status of the relationship with their female victim. The interaction between time in treatment and relationship status acceptance was significant and showed that participants who accepted their relationship status reported low verbal aggression across measurement occasions while those who did not accept their relationship status reported high initial verbal aggression that decreased over treatment. PMID:23680991
Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Oberleitner, Lindsay M S; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J
Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12-week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects were detected for both alcohol and acceptance variables such that greater verbal aggression was observed among participants with a recent history of heavy episodic drinking and failure to accept the status of the relationship with their female victim. The interaction between time in treatment and relationship status acceptance was significant and showed that participants who accepted their relationship status reported low verbal aggression across measurement occasions while those who did not accept their relationship status reported high initial verbal aggression that decreased over treatment.
Treasure, D C; Carpenter, P J; Power, K T
The recent professionalization of rugby union makes it an excellent achievement context in which to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of sport as a function of competitive standard. During the 1996-97 season, 73 professional and 106 amateur rugby players in England completed a series of questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, beliefs about the purposes of rugby and demographic information. The results of a canonical correlation analysis revealed a conceptually coherent relationship between achievement goal orientations and purposes of rugby. Specifically, a high ego/moderate task orientation was positively related to fitness, aggression and financial remuneration as significant purposes of rugby. Professional players scored higher on those purposes of rugby related to aggression, financial remuneration and fitness, but lower on sportspersonship than amateur players. Professional players also reported higher task and ego goal orientations than amateur players. The findings are discussed in terms of the differences in lifestyle and motivation of professional and amateur rugby union players.
Buck, Katherine S; Littleton, Heather L
Up to 60% of women prefer a female obstetrician-gynecologist (OB-GYN), perhaps in part due to holding negative stereotypes of male providers. However, provider gender stereotypes have not been directly examined. The purpose of the current studies was to evaluate women's stereotypes of male and female OB-GYN providers and the impact of these stereotypes on provider evaluations. First, stereotypes of male and female OB-GYNs were elicited from 96 undergraduate women who described the attributes and behaviors of a typical male or female OB-GYN. Next, 126 undergraduate women were randomized to review recordings depicting male or female OB-GYNs engaging in male or female-stereotype congruent behaviors during a well-woman visit. Participants overall had positive stereotypes of female OB-GYNs (e.g. knowledgeable, easy to talk to) but some negative stereotypes of males (e.g. unable to fully understand women's health issues). However, male and female OB-GYNs who engaged in female stereotype-congruent behaviors were similarly preferred over providers who engaged in male-stereotype congruent behavior. Women generally regard female OB-GYNs as highly competent, whereas some believe that being male is a disadvantage in providing OB-GYN care. However, providers who engage in behaviors associated with high quality care are evaluated positively, regardless of the provider's gender.
Tame, Susan L
To report perceived changes to UK perioperative nurses' relationships with medical staff following periods of formal, university-based study. Continuing professional development is considered important for nursing internationally; however, practice changes may not result following formal study. The literature did not describe perioperative nurses' experiences of formal study, and it was believed differences may exist due to hierarchical interprofessional relationships in the operating theatre. Descriptive, qualitative. Unstructured interviews (N=23) were conducted between 2006-2007 with a purposive sample of perioperative nurses who had recent experience of continuing professional education. All participants were employed by one National Health Service Trust in the North of England, UK. Audio-taped interviews were transcribed fully into the ethnograph computer-assisted qualitative data analysis programme and data coded and analysed to identify themes. Findings. The findings indicated that whilst continuing professional education did not have a direct impact on practice, development of increased knowledge and confidence facilitated participants' collaboration with and questioning of medical colleagues. Such increased interprofessional collaboration was attributed to indirectly enhancing patient care. Continuing professional education appeared to lead to intrinsic changes to practitioners rather than direct behavioural change. Nurses' increased knowledge and confidence affected the balance of power in the doctor-nurse relationship in British perioperative environments. This paper is of significance to perioperative nursing and may be transferable to other areas of care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
José A. Bragada
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze longitudinal changes in 3,000 m running performance and the relationship with selected physiological parameters. Eighteen well-trained male middle-distance runners were measured six times (x3 per year throughout two consecutive competitive seasons. The following parameters were measured on each occasion: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, running economy (RE, velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max, velocity at 4mmol L-1 blood lactate concentration (V4, and performance velocity (km·h-1 in 3,000 m time trials. Values ranged from 19.59 to 20.16 km·h-1, running performance; 197 to 207 mL·kg-1·km-1. RE; 17.2 to 17.7 km·h-1, V4; 67.1 to 72.5 mL·kg-1·min-1, VO2max; and 19.8 to 20.2 km·h-1, vVO2max. A hierarchical linear model was used to quantify longitudinal relationships between running performance and selected physiological variables. Running performance decreased significantly over time, between each time point the decrease in running velocity was 0.06 km·h-1. The variables that significantly explained performance changes were V4 and vVO2max. Also, vVO2max and V4 were the measures most strongly correlated with performance and can be used to predict 3,000 m race velocity. The best prediction formula for 3,000 m running performance was: y = 0.646 + 0.626x + 0.416z (R2=0.85; where y = V3,000 m velocity (km·h-1, x = V4 (km·h-1 and z = vVO2max (km·h-1. The high predictive power of vVO2max and V4 suggest that both coaches and athletes should give attention to improving these two physiological variables, in order to improve running performance.
Full Text Available This study was focused on the monitoring of behaviour and complex social relationships existing among gelada (Theropithecus gelada monkeys. The study involved a group of five males that were raised in captivity in the Zoo Zlín – Lešná. Ethological monitoring was performed by means of photographing of the group behaviour of these animals. Studied were the basic forms of social behaviour, i.e. food collection (foraging, free movement, (locomotion observing of the neighbourhood (watching, grooming, climbing on trees, playing, aggressive behaviour (fighting, and resting. The temporary point of view, foraging was the most important time-consuming activity (55.3 ± 2.0 % of the study time; its maximum frequencies occurred in time intervals of 9 and 11 a.m. and 1 to 3 p.m.. The second place was occupied by the locomotion (15.3 ± 4.1 % of the study time and its maximum frequencies were recorded between 9 and 11 a.m. and between 2 and 3 p.m. Grooming was the third most important activity (8.5 ± 4.8 % of the study time. The distribution of periods of rest (7.5 ± 3.1 % of the study time was relatively uniform and its maxima were observed between 10:30 a.m. and 4 p.m. Observing of the neighbourhood and climbing on trees occupied 5.6 ± 3.3 % and 3.6 ± 3.0 % of the time, respectively and playing was the least frequent activity (2.2 ± 9.0 % of the study time, similarly as the aggressive behaviour (2.0 ± 23.0 % of the study time.
The attitudes of 323 veterinarians toward professional continuing education were distilled into 3 dimensions: relevance, benefit, and accessibility. Significant differences were found between participants and nonparticipants. (SK)
Castillo, Jose M.; March, Amanda L.; Tan, Sim Yin; Stockslager, Kevin M.; Brundage, Amber
Questions remain regarding whether professional development focused on response to intervention can be implemented effectively on a large scale. One important goal of professional development involves educators' beliefs regarding foundational response-to-intervention concepts (e.g., data-based decision making, importance of effective instruction).…
Strayhorn, Terrell L.
Prior research on student affairs professionals has focused largely on the nature of student affairs work with most attention given to mid- and senior-level administrators. Thus, relatively little is known about new professionals and their socialization to the student affairs profession. Based on a multivariate analysis of survey data from a…
Penrose, John M.
Aspects of research and pedagogy from the public relations discipline can benefit the business and professional communication instructor seeking new dimensions for the business and professional communication classroom. Elements of public relations (PR) found in Association for Business Communication articles and journals may be incorporated in the…
Cotner-Klingler, Amy L.
This quantitative study explored self-reported orientation and organizational socialization experiences of new student affairs professionals through a survey instrument constructed by the researcher and administered online. Individuals who identified themselves as entry level professionals through membership of the American College Personnel…
Algadheeb, Nourah A.
This study aimed at exploring the differences in professional/career orientation and awareness while considering a number of variables including locus of control, academic specialization and school backwardness. Several measures were used to achieve the study's goals. The first two, a professional/career orientation measure and a…
Professional interventions are rarely successful when used to “normalize” the behaviour of a disruptive group of Dutch-Caribbean migrants. Surprisingly a large number of professionals have not succeeded in assimilating a relatively small groupFoucault developed a means of analysing power mechanisms,
Linton, Jack, Jr.
The ultimate goal of teacher professional development is to improve student achievement by improving teacher practices. To that end, the literature and research supports the development of professional learning communities as one of the most effective ways to accomplish that goal. Therefore, the research questions addressed in this study were: (a)…
Callahan, J. Sean; Grantham, Tarek C.
One would be hard-pressed to deny the impact that hip hop is having on gifted students. More specifically, because hip hop is a creative and exciting male-dominated culture, gifted males gravitate to hip hop culture. From the perspective of two Black men from two different generations, this article was inspired by discussions about the role of hip…
Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket
Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. A gordura epicárdica é um depósito de gordura visceral na parte superior do organismo que pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de perfis cardiovasculares e metabólicos adversos. Há uma relação direta significativa entre a quantidade de gordura epicárdica e a adiposidade corporal geral (índice de massa corporal, IMC), mas dados sobre a adiposidade
Van Uitert, Victoria Jean
Attachment representations in friendship and romantic relationship contexts were examined in a sample of 398 college students. Analyses examined patterns of attachment style in both relationship contexts, divergence and convergence in attachment style, and links between attachment representations and negative peer and romantic relationship experiences (i.e., relational and physical victimization and betrayal). The majority of participants reported more secure attachment representations, relat...
Smailhodzic, Edin; Hooijsma, Wyanda; Boonstra, Albert; Langley, David J.
Background Since the emergence of social media in 2004, a growing percentage of patients use this technology for health related reasons. To reflect on the alleged beneficial and potentially harmful effects of social media use by patients, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the extant literature on the effects of social media use for health related reasons on patients and their relationship with healthcare professionals. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review on em...
Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Prado, Marta Lenise do
This study is a philosophical reflection and stresses the importance of freedom spaces inside the pedagogical relationship as a tool for the constitution of a critical and creative professional. We view the teaching "art" in the educational work as a possibility for freedom, with projects arising from the objectives established within his/her contextualized reality. It is paramount to value the intersection space as a privileged space for freedom and autonomy to be expressed, where the pedagogical relationship favors a practical and though-provoking learning, rescuing the creative potential of individuals and their self-guidance.
Lublóy, Ágnes; Keresztúri, Judit Lilla; Benedek, Gábor
Shared care in chronic disease management aims at improving service delivery and patient outcomes, and reducing healthcare costs. The introduction of shared-care models is coupled with mixed evidence in relation to both patient health status and cost of care. Professional interactions among health providers are critical to a successful and efficient shared-care model. This article investigates whether the strength of formal professional relationships between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists (SPs) in shared care affects either the health status of patients or their pharmacy costs. In strong GP-SP relationships, the patient health status is expected to be high, due to efficient care coordination, and the pharmacy costs low, due to effective use of resources. This article measures the strength of formal professional relationships between GPs and SPs through the number of shared patients and proxies the patient health status by the number of comorbidities diagnosed and treated. To test the hypotheses and compare the characteristics of the strongest GP-SP connections with those of the weakest, this article concentrates on diabetes-a chronic condition where patient care coordination is likely important. Diabetes generates the largest shared patient cohort in Hungary, with the highest frequency of specialist medication prescriptions. This article finds that stronger ties result in lower pharmacy costs, but not in higher patient health status. Overall drug expenditure may be reduced by lowering patient care fragmentation through channelling a GP's patients to a small number of SPs.
Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh
Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and ...
Potthoff, Sebastian; Presseau, Justin; Sniehotta, Falko F; Johnston, Marie; Elovainio, Marko; Avery, Leah
Gaps in the quality of care provided to people with type 2 diabetes are regularly identified. Healthcare professionals often have a strong intention to follow practice guidelines during consultations with people with type 2 diabetes; however, this intention does not always translate into action. Action planning (planning when, where and how to act) and coping planning (planning how to overcome pre-identified barriers) have been hypothesised to help with the enactment of intentions by creating mental cue-response links that promote habit formation. This study aimed to investigate whether habit helps to better understand how action and coping planning relate to clinical behaviour in the context of type 2 diabetes care. The study utilised a prospective correlational design with six nested sub-studies. General practitioners and practice nurses (n = 427 from 99 UK primary care practices) completed measures of action planning, coping planning and habit at baseline and then self-reported their enactment of guideline-recommended advising, prescribing and examining behaviours 12 months later. Bootstrapped mediation analyses were used to test the indirect effect of action and coping planning on healthcare professionals' clinical behaviour via their relationship with habit. Healthcare professionals who reported higher degrees of action or coping planning for performing six guideline recommended behaviours in the context of type 2 diabetes care were more likely to report performing these behaviours in clinical practice. All 12 bootstrapped mediation analyses showed that the positive relationship between planning (action and coping planning) and healthcare professionals' clinical behaviour operated indirectly through habit. These findings suggest that habit mediates the relationship between planning (action and coping planning) and healthcare professional behaviour. Promoting careful action and coping planning may support routinised uptake of guideline-recommended care by
Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Bruno; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Calvete, Francisco; Carriço, Sandro; Owen, Adam Lee
Monitoring internal training load has been extensively used and described within team sport environments, however when compared to internal physiological measures such as heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), the literature is sparse. The primary aim of this investigation study was to assess differences of playing position on ITL, session-RPE and wellness across two different training microcycles (1 vs. 2 competitive games), in addition with examining the relationship between ITL and Hooper's Index across an entire season. Thirty-five professional soccer players from the Portuguese premier league participated in the study (25.7±5.0years; 182.3±6.4cm; 79.1±7.0kg). Analysis of variance revealed higher values of DOMS (Means(M): 3.33 vs. 3.10; p=0.001; effect Size (ES)=0.087), fatigue (M: 3.18 vs. 2.99; p=0.001; ES=0.060) and HI (M: 11.85 vs. 11.56; p=0.045; ES=0.034) in 2-game weeks compared with 1-game weeks. Correlation between ITL and HI levels found significant negative correlations between ITL and DOMS (ρ=-0.156), ITL and sleep (ρ=-0.109), ITL and fatigue (ρ=-0.225), ITL and stress (ρ=-0.188), and ITL and HI (ρ=-0.238) in 2-game weeks. Results from 1-game microcycle only highlighted negative correlations between ITL and stress (ρ=-0.080). It was concluded from the study that greater fatigue potential, muscle soreness, stress and ITL was significantly more apparent within a 2-game microcycle. As a result, care should be taken when planning the lead into and out of a 2-game fixture microcycle highlighting key specific recovery strategies to damped the increased stress effect. Additionally, the potential utilization of squad rotation strategies may be a positive approach with aim of managing the fatigue effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tanner, Amanda E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Zimet, Gregory D; Reece, Michael; Graham, Cynthia A; Murray, Maresa
Currently in clinical trials, vaginal microbicides are proposed as a female-initiated method of sexually transmitted infection prevention. Much of microbicide acceptability research has been conducted outside of the United States and frequently without consideration of the social interaction between sex partners, ignoring the complex gender and power structures often inherent in young women's (heterosexual) relationships. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to build on existing microbicide research by exploring the role of male partners and relationship characteristics on young women's use of a microbicide surrogate, an inert vaginal moisturizer (VM), in a large city in the United States. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 young women (18-23 years old; 85% African American; 47.5% mothers) following use of the VM during coital events for a 4 week period. Overall, the results indicated that relationship dynamics and perceptions of male partners influenced VM evaluation. These two factors suggest that relationship context will need to be considered in the promotion of vaginal microbicides. The findings offer insights into how future acceptability and use of microbicides will be influenced by gendered power dynamics. The results also underscore the importance of incorporating men into microbicide promotion efforts while encouraging a dialogue that focuses attention on power inequities that can exist in heterosexual relationships. Detailed understanding of these issues is essential for successful microbicide acceptability, social marketing, education, and use.
Alpay Ates, M; Algul, Ayhan; Semiz, Umit B; Gecici, Omer; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut
The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics of self-mutilation (SM) and examine the relationship between SM and psychopathy in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD). APD diagnosis was established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders. Subjects (N = 116) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a semi-structured self-mutilation questionnaire form. In males with APD, the percentages of psychopathy and SM were 48.3% (N =56) and 96.6% (N = 112), respectively. There were positive correlations between severity of psychopathy and severity, number, and frequency of SM. Considerably high rates of SM and psychopathy were found in Turkish males with APD. The features of SM were associated with comorbidity of psychopathy. These results showed the importance of exploring the self-injurious behavior and psychopathy when diagnosed with APD.
Ten Jorge; López-Espín José J; Moreno-Grau Stella; Elvira-Rendueles Belén; García-Sánchez Antonio; Martínez-García María J; Vergara-Juárez Nuria; Roca Manuela; Moreno José M; Mendiola Jaime; Bernabeu Rafael; Torres-Cantero Alberto M
Abstract Background Animal studies have shown the reproductive toxicity of a number of heavy metals. Very few human observational studies have analyzed the relationship between male reproductive function and heavy metal concentrations in diverse biological fluids. Methods The current study assessed the associations between seminal and hormonal parameters and the concentration of the 3 most frequent heavy metal toxicants (lead, cadmium and mercury) in three different body fluids. Sixty one men...
Conclusions: The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.
Isaiah T. McFarland
Full Text Available In collegiate level soccer acceleration, maximal velocity and agility are essential for successful performance. Power production is believed to provide a foundation for these speed qualities. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of change of direction speed, acceleration, and maximal velocity to both the counter movement jump (CMJ and squat jump (SJ in collegiate soccer players. Thirty-six NCAA Division II soccer players (20 males and 16 females were tested for speed over 10 and 30 m, CODS (T-test, pro agility and power (CMJ, SJ. Independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05 were used to derive gender differences, and Pearson’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 calculated relationships between the different power and speed tests. Female subjects displayed moderate-to-strong correlations between 30 m, pro agility and T-test with the CMJ (r = −0.502 to −0.751, and SJ (r = −0.502 to −0.681. Moderate correlations between 10 and 30 m with CMJ (r = −0.476 and −0.570 and SJ (r = −0.443 and −0.553, respectively were observed for males. Moderate to strong relationships exist between speed and power attributes in both male and female collegiate soccer players, especially between CMJ and maximal velocity. Improving stretch shortening cycle (SSC utilization may contribute to enhanced sport-specific speed.
Fite, Paula J; Rubens, Sonia L; Preddy, Teresa M; Raine, Adrian; Pardini, Dustin A
The current study examined whether reactive and/or proactive aggression in adolescent males prospectively predicted increased levels of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) in late adolescence. It was postulated that reactive aggression would be robustly related to later internalizing problems, but only among adolescent males who had problematic family or peer social relationships. Participants were a racially diverse group of 289 adolescent males (Mean age = 16). Measures of reactive and proactive aggression, peer rejection, and poor parent-adolescent communication were examined as predictors of both depression and anxiety symptoms assessed approximately 3 years later. The interactive effects between the two facets of aggression and measures of peer rejection and poor parent-adolescent communication in predicting internalizing problems was also examined. Adolescents with high levels of reactive aggression were more likely to exhibit elevated internalizing problems during late adolescence, even when controlling for pre-existing levels of anxiety/depression. However, this association only emerged for adolescents who had high levels of peer rejection and/or poor communication with their parent. Consistent with expectations, proactive aggression was unrelated to internalizing symptoms regardless of social relationship quality. Adolescent reactive, but not proactive, aggression is a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. However, the findings suggest that interventions designed to foster positive social relationships among reactively aggressive youth may help protect them from developing significant internalizing problems over time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Waldén, Markus; Krosshaug, Tron; Bjørneboe, John; Andersen, Thor Einar; Faul, Oliver; Hägglund, Martin
Current knowledge on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms in male football players is limited. To describe ACL injury mechanisms in male professional football players using systematic video analysis. We assessed videos from 39 complete ACL tears recorded via prospective professional football injury surveillance between 2001 and 2011. Five analysts independently reviewed all videos to estimate the time of initial foot contact with the ground and the time of ACL tear. We then analysed all videos according to a structured format describing the injury circumstances and lower limb joint biomechanics. Twenty-five injuries were non-contact, eight indirect contact and six direct contact injuries. We identified three main categories of non-contact and indirect contact injury situations: (1) pressing (n=11), (2) re-gaining balance after kicking (n=5) and (3) landing after heading (n=5). The fourth main injury situation was direct contact with the injured leg or knee (n=6). Knee valgus was frequently seen in the main categories of non-contact and indirect contact playing situations (n=11), but a dynamic valgus collapse was infrequent (n=3). This was in contrast to the tackling-induced direct contact situations where a knee valgus collapse occurred in all cases (n=3). Eighty-five per cent of the ACL injuries in male professional football players resulted from non-contact or indirect contact mechanisms. The most common playing situation leading to injury was pressing followed by kicking and heading. Knee valgus was frequently seen regardless of the playing situation, but a dynamic valgus collapse was rare. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro
Nutrition is the focus of a new treatment target in older hospitalized cardiac patients. However, little is known about the differences in nutritional status in relation to physical performance in these inpatients. We determined the differences in physical performance based on the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and physical performance cut-off values according to the GNRI in older male cardiac inpatients. We enrolled 251 Japanese male inpatients aged ≥65 years (mean age 74.7 years) with cardiac disease in the present cross-sectional study. We divided the patients into two groups according to GNRI: high-GNRI group (≥92 points; n=178) and low-GNRI group (nutrition, as shown by a low GNRI, could be a useful predictor of physical performance. The cut-off values determined in the present study might be expected minimum target values that can be attained by Japanese older male cardiac inpatients. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Hoyt, Wendy D.; Kogan, Lori R.
Surveyed primarily white college students regarding their body image and peer relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that women, particularly those under or over average weight, were more dissatisfied with their appearance than were men, while men were more dissatisfied with their relationships and sex lives than were women. Body parts…
Farnan, Jeanne M; Paro, John A M; Higa, Jennifer T; Reddy, Shalini T; Humphrey, Holly J; Arora, Vineet M
The rising popularity of digital applications, such as social networking, media share sites, and blogging, has significantly affected how medical trainees interact with educators, colleagues, and the public. Despite the increased popularity and use of such applications amongst the current generation of trainees, medical educators have little evidence or guidance about preventing misuse and ensuring standards for professional conduct. As trainees become more technologically savvy, it is the responsibility of medical educators to familiarize themselves not only with the advantages of this technology but also with the potential negative effects of its misuse. Professionalism, appropriateness for public consumption, and individual or institutional representation in digital media content are just some of the salient issues that arise when considering the ramifications of trainees' digital behavior in the absence of established policies or education on risk. In this commentary the authors explore the rising use of digital media and its reflection of medical trainees' professionalism. To address possible issues related to professionalism in digital media, the authors hypothesize potential solutions, including exploring faculty familiarity with digital media and policy development, educating students on the potential risks of misuse, and modeling professionalism in this new digital age.
Zulkifli, Juliana; Noel, Brad; Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm
To examine the contribution of programme year and demographic factors to medical students' perceptions of evidence-based classification categories of professional misconduct. Students at an Irish medical school were administered a cross-sectional survey comprising 31 vignettes of professional misconduct, which mapped onto a 12-category classification system. Students scored each item using a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 represents the least severe form of misconduct and 5 the most severe. Of the 1012 eligible respondents, 561 students completed the survey, providing a response rate of 55%. Items pertaining to disclosure of conflict of interest were ranked as the least severe examples of professional misconduct, and this perception was highest among finalyear students. While ratings of severity declined for items related to 'inappropriate conduct not in relation to patient' and 'inappropriate use of social media' between years 1 and 3, ratings for both categories increased again among clinical cycle (fourth and final year) students. Increased clinical exposure during years 4 and 5 of the undergraduate programme was associated with better recognition of the importance of selected professional domains. Disclosure of conflict of interest is identified as an area of medical professionalism that requires greater emphasis for students who are at the point of transition from student to doctor. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Haidet, Paul; Hatem, David S; Fecile, Mary Lynn; Stein, Howard F; Haley, Heather-Lyn A; Kimmel, Barbara; Mossbarger, David L; Inui, Thomas S
Studies of physicians' professional development highlight the important effect that the learning environment has in shaping student attitudes, behaviors, and values. The objective of this study was to better understand the interplay among relationships and experiences in mediating the effects of the learning environment. We randomly recruited 2nd- and 4th-year students from among volunteers at each of five medical schools. One interviewer at each school conducted a face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interview with each student. The interviewers used a method called 'life-circle diagramming' to direct the student to draw a picture of all of the relationships in his/her life that had an influence on the sort of doctor that each student saw him/herself becoming. Interviews lasted between 60 and 120 min. Using a narrative framework that focuses on elements of students' stories (e.g., setting, characters, plot), we analyzed transcripts through an iterative process of individual reading and group discussion to derive themes and relationships among themes. Twenty students completed interviews. These students are embedded in complex webs of relationships with colleagues, friends, family, role models, patients, and others. Most students entered medical school with formed notions of what they wanted to 'be like' as physicians. While students generally gravitated toward relationships with like-minded people, their experiences varied, and some students could sense themselves changing as they moved through school. Such changes were often related to important events or issues. The relationships that students found themselves in during the context of these events had an important effect on students' beliefs about what kinds of behaviors and attitudes were possible and desirable in their future practice. Students proceed through medical school embedded in complex webs of relationships that exert a powerful influence (both positive and negative) on their formation as
McCauley, Heather L; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; Tancredi, Daniel J; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Austin, S Bryn; Jones, Kelley; Miller, Elizabeth
School-based athletic programs remain an important context for violence prevention efforts although a better understanding of how gender attitudes and abuse perpetration differ among athletes is needed. We analyzed baseline survey data from the "Coaching Boys into Men" study-a school-based cluster-randomized trial in 16 high schools in Northern California. We describe relationships among gender-inequitable attitudes, sport type, and recent adolescent relationship abuse perpetration among a sample of male athletes (n = 1,648). Gender-inequitable attitudes (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.56, 4.15), participation in both high school football and basketball (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.37, 3.18), and participation in football only (AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.22) emerged as independently associated with recent ARA perpetration. Findings warrant targeted violence prevention efforts among male high school athletes that incorporate discussions of gender attitudes and healthy relationships, especially among sports teams at greater risk of adolescent relationship abuse perpetration. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Miyoung; Kim, Jisoo
As pediatric nurses must make decisions on a regular basis when caring for hospitalized children, clinical decision-making abilities are necessary in this profession. In the present study, we explored clinical decision-making patterns and their association with self-efficacy and nursing professionalism in pediatric nurses. We surveyed 173 pediatric nurses and analyzed the relationships between their clinical decision-making patterns and self-efficacy and nursing professionalism. Factor analysis identified 5 clinical decision-making patterns: patient-family-nurse collaborative (PNC), individual patient-oriented (IP), nurse model-oriented (NM), pattern-oriented intuitive (PI), and nursing knowledge-oriented (NK). The most frequently observed clinical decision-making pattern was the PNC. The self-efficacy and nursing professionalism were found to be higher in pediatric nurses using the IP and NM, and were lower for those using the PNC. Thus, the present results suggest that pediatric nurses' clinical decision-making patterns are influenced by nursing professionalism and self-efficacy. Therefore, intervention programs focusing on these variables might improve clinical decision-making in pediatric nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Voisin, Dexter R.; Wong, Marleen; Samuels, Gina Miranda
Relationships are central to the profession of social work; relationships with allied disciplines, among professional social work organizations, and between classroom and field education. However, embedded within these relationships are historical tensions, and contemporary opportunities that can advance both the science of social work and the…
use the internet to prepare for the client-professional meeting and to seek second opinions. Professionals reported more limitations than benefits in relation to internet use. Limitations were linked to doubts of reliability of internet information and information overload. Midwifery clients were...... reported to use internet chatrooms as an information source. However, these were often perceived as interfering with midwifery work. Although midwifery clients were frequent users of internet information, they also turned to midwives for verification of the information they found. Seeking reassurance...
Fabiane Elpidio de Sá
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the interpersonal relationships between professionals and mothers of premature newborns of the Kangaroo Unit. Methods: This was an exploratory study of qualitative approach. The interviews were conducted with 10 mothers and 7 professionals who joined in Kangaroo Program and then analyzed by the content analysis technique. The guiding questions used were related to feelings perceived in relation to the Kangaroo method, related to mother-child dyad and interpersonal relationships. Results: Mothers reported on their speeches: “safe to be with the baby in Kangaroo Method” and “sense of maternal feeling during breastfeeding”, while in the professionals’ discourses have emerged: “guidelines on caring for the babies”, “the embracement by the team” and “the importance of family support.” Conclusions: The interaction between professionals and mothers of Kangaroo Unit facilitates the permanence of the binomial in the method, therefore develops feelings of security, tranquility and confidence to take care of the baby. It is important that the team be aware of the difficulties, supporting them in the weakest moments and sharing their fears, doubts and concerns over the baby’s hospitalization.
Kalyn, Brenda; Campbell, Eric; McAvoy, Alekcei; Weimer, Michelle
Teacher candidates entering the world of curricula face the realities of teaching a variety of subjects, some more conceptually foreign than others. One challenging area for teacher candidates, particularly males, is in dance education (Gard, 2008; Kiley, 2010). A teacher's former dance experience, beliefs about who dances and why, personal…
Background: In recent years, social work has become increasingly concerned with efforts to produce professionals capable of effectively supporting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) clients. Research examining LGBT-competence in social work remains limited, however, because it often neglects to address the role social work education…
Li, Ling; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Xingchun; Han, Yumei
This study used expectancy-value theory to better understand no-fee teacher education and improve the relevant educational methods and policies. It applies a self-developed scale, derived from the theory, to identify entry motivation and professional satisfaction levels among no-fee teacher education students (N = 700) at Southwest University. The…
Jaspers, Arne; Brink, Michel S.; Probst, Steven G M; Frencken, Wouter G. P.; Helsen, Werner F.
Background In professional senior soccer, training load monitoring is used to ensure an optimal workload to maximize physical fitness and prevent injury or illness. However, to date, different training load indicators are used without a clear link to training outcomes. Objective The aim of this
Aschauer, Ewald; Fink, Matthias; Andrea, Moro
and clients using narrative interviews in order to identify the working definitions of interpersonal trust and professional skepticism and also to develop an empirical and testable hypothesis against the backdrop of the current literature. Second, in Study 2, an ordinary least Squares regression based on data...
Thadani, V.; Breland, W.; Dewar, J.
Implicit theories about the malleability of skills/abilities have been shown to predict learners' willingness to participate in learning opportunities. The authors examined whether college professors' implicit theories about the malleability of teaching skills predicted their willingness to engage in professional development (PD) related to…
Lapid, Maria; Moutier, Christine; Dunn, Laura; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss
Objective: Awareness of the privileges and limits of one's role as physician, as well as recognition and respect for the patient as a human being, are central to ethical medical practice. The authors were particularly interested in examining the attitudes and perceived needs of psychiatric residents toward education on professional boundaries and…
Scavenius, Michael; Schmidt, Sonja; Klazinga, Niek
CONTEXT: As a rule, undergraduate medical students experience everyday work in health care as spectators. They are not allowed to participate in real-life interaction between professionals and patients. We report on an exception to this rule. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine
Marra, Rose M.; Arbaugh, Fran; Lannin, John; Abell, Sandra; Ehlert, Mark; Smith, Rena; Merle-Johnson, Dominike; Rogers, Meredith Park
Given the large investment in teacher professional development (PD), further understanding of the factors that impact PD success is needed. In a previous study, the authors established a framework for categorizing PD projects using the notion of orientations. A PD orientation is comprised of project characteristics that drive the PD design and…
Aschauer, Ewald; Fink, Matthias; Moro, Andrea
and clients using narrative interviews in order to identify the working definitions of interpersonal trust and professional skepticism and also to develop an empirical and testable hypothesis against the backdrop of the current literature. Second, in Study 2, an ordinary least Squares regression based on data...
Zimmermann, Angelika; Ravishankar, M. N.
While IT offshoring has generated heated debates both in scholarly circles and in the popular press, its impact on professional role identities and career experiences of situated individuals in both onshore and offshore locations has received much less attention. In this paper, we present a qualitative case study featuring a large global German…
Mahler, Daniela; Großschedl, Jörg; Harms, Ute
Teachers make a difference for the outcome of their students in science classrooms. One focus in this context lies on teachers' professional knowledge. We describe this knowledge according to three domains, namely (1) content knowledge (CK), (2) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and (3) curricular knowledge (CuK). We hypothesise a positive…
Cummings, Katrina P.; Sills-Busio, Dionne; Barker, A. Fain; Dobbins, Nicole
The increasing enrollment of children with disabilities and developmental delays in inclusive settings requires reconsiderations of the scope and depth of early childhood professional development. In this study, a phenomenological research design was used to gain the perspectives of 13 parents and child care providers about their participation in…
Weiner, Jennie M.; Higgins, Monica C.
This study focuses on the understudied connection between teachers' and students' perceptions of school culture. Utilizing a longitudinal sample of approximately 130,000 students and 9000 teachers in 225 New York City traditional public schools, we investigate how professional culture among teachers intersects with students' collective emotional…
Fischer, Mark A.
One of the most important issues for organizations and information technology (IT) professionals is measuring the success or failure of information technology projects. How we understand the value and usefulness of IT projects is critical to how information technology executives evaluate and decide on technology investments. In a 2009 CHAOS…
Daugbjerg, Peer; Sillasen, Martin Krabbe
The relation between teachers’ experience, foreground and the intentions of professional development programs (PDP) has been investigated in a Danish case, where a balance between top-down and bottom-up processes intended to integrate local and individual perspectives of the participating teacher...
Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE......), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma.......57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen...
Long, Vonda Olson
Investigated the relationship of masculinity to self-esteem and self-acceptance in female professionals, clients, victims of domestic violence, and college students. Masculinity was found to be the best predictor of self-esteem in all groups and the best predictor of self-acceptance in all groups except professionals. Femininity was generally…
Braga, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira; Halpern, Gabriela; Figueira, Rita de Cássia S; Setti, Amanda S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson
To investigate the influence of the male partner's lifestyle, including eating and social habits, on semen quality and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) success. Observational study. Private fertility clinic. Two hundred fifty male patients undergoing ICSI cycles. We recorded dietary and social habits using a food frequency questionnaire adapted to meet specific study objectives. Evaluation of semen parameters and ICSI outcomes were performed. Frequency of intake of food items and social habits were registered on a scale with five categories ranging from no consumption to repeated daily consumption. The sperm concentration was negatively influenced by body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption and was positively influenced by cereal consumption and the number of meals per day. The sperm motility was also negatively influenced by BMI, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, whereas it was positively influenced by the consumption of fruits and cereals. The consumption of alcohol had a negative influence on the fertilization rate. The consumption of red meat as well as being on a weight loss diet had a negative impact on the implantation rate. In addition, the consumption of red meat and being on a weight loss diet had an effect on the pregnancy chance. Couples seeking assisted reproduction treatments must be advised about the drastic effect of both the male and female lifestyle on treatment success. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shannon L. Mathis
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether race day cortisol was related to bone mineral density (BMD in competitive male cyclists. A secondary purpose was to determine additional factors associated with BMD in competitive male cyclists. Methods. Measurements of lumbar spine and hip BMD were performed in 35 male competitors in a state championship cycling time trial event. Salivary cortisol was measured 10 minutes prior to the start of the race and 5 minutes after race finished. Participants reported daily calcium intake, age, years of bike training, races per season, and average weekly minutes spent riding a bike, weight training, and running on a survey. Results. Cortisol level increased significantly from pre- to postcompetition but was not significantly associated with BMD. Increased weekly minutes of weight training was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and the hip. The increased number of years of cycling experience was associated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Increased daily calcium intake was associated with higher BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Conclusions. Findings indicate that cyclists should participate in weight training and increase calcium intake in order to increase or maintain BMD of the lumbar spine and hip.
Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Sabbah, Ammar; Kailani, Ghazi; Tønnessen, Espen; Enoksen, Eystein
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vertical jump measures and sprint speed over 10, 20, and 40 m in professional basketball players. Thirty-three professional basketball players aged (±SD) (27.4 ± 3.3 years), body mass (89.8 ± 11.1 kg), and stature (192 ± 8.2 cm) volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on squat jump, countermovement jump, and 40-m running speed. The results show that all jump measures in absolute terms were correlated significantly to running performance over 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint times. None of the jumping performance peak powers and reactive strength were found to have a correlation to running speed times in absolute term. Furthermore, all jump height measures relative to body mass except reactive strength had a marked and significant relationship with all sprint performance times. The results of this study indicate that while there is a strong and marked relationship between 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint, there is also a considerable variation within the factors that contribute to performance over these distances. This may indicate that, separate training strategies could be implemented to improve running speed over these distances.
Full Text Available Background: This study investigated quality of healthcare services from patients’ perspectives and its relationship with patient safety culture and nurse-physician professional communication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 surgery patients and 101 nurses caring them in a public hospital in Tabriz–Iran. Data were collected using the service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL, hospital survey on patient safety culture (HSOPSC and nurse physician professional communication questionnaire. Results: The highest and lowest mean (±SD scores of the patients’ perception on the healthcare services quality belonged to the assurance 13.92 (±3.55 and empathy 6.78 (±1.88 domains,respectively. With regard to the patient safety culture, the mean percentage of positive answers ranged from 45.87% for "non-punitive response to errors" to 68.21% for "organizational continuous learning" domains. The highest and lowest mean (±SD scores for the nurse physician professional communication were obtained for "cooperation" 3.44 (±0.35 and "non participative decision-making" 2.84 (±0.34 domains, respectively. The "frequency of reported errors by healthcare professionals" (B=-4.20, 95% CI = -7.14 to -1.27, P<0.01 and "respect and sharing of information" (B=7.69, 95% CI=4.01 to 11.36, P<0.001 predicted the patients’perceptions of the quality of healthcare services. Conclusion: Organizational culture in dealing with medical error should be changed to non punitive response. Change in safety culture towards reporting of errors, effective communication and teamwork between healthcare professionals are recommended.
Ghahramanian, Akram; Rezaei, Tayyebeh; Abdullahzadeh, Farahnaz; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Dianat, Iman
Background: This study investigated quality of healthcare services from patients' perspectives and its relationship with patient safety culture and nurse-physician professional communication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 surgery patients and 101 nurses caring them in a public hospital in Tabriz-Iran. Data were collected using the service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL), hospital survey on patient safety culture (HSOPSC) and nurse physician professional communication questionnaire. Results: The highest and lowest mean (±SD) scores of the patients' perception on the healthcare services quality belonged to the assurance 13.92 (±3.55) and empathy 6.78 (±1.88) domains,respectively. With regard to the patient safety culture, the mean percentage of positive answers ranged from 45.87% for "non-punitive response to errors" to 68.21% for "organizational continuous learning" domains. The highest and lowest mean (±SD) scores for the nurse physician professional communication were obtained for "cooperation" 3.44 (±0.35) and "non-participative decision-making" 2.84 (±0.34) domains, respectively. The "frequency of reported errors by healthcare professionals" (B=-4.20, 95% CI = -7.14 to -1.27, P<0.01) and "respect and sharing of information" (B=7.69, 95% CI=4.01 to 11.36, P<0.001) predicted the patients'perceptions of the quality of healthcare services. Conclusion: Organizational culture in dealing with medical error should be changed to non-punitive response. Change in safety culture towards reporting of errors, effective communication and teamwork between healthcare professionals are recommended.
Jamilia J. Blake
Full Text Available African American males are at increased risk for experiencing disciplinary practices that exclude them from the school environment. It is believed that African American males’ overrepresentation in the receipt of these practices contributes to their involvement in the criminal justice system as they approach adolescence and enter adulthood. The connection of exclusionary discipline with incarceration rates is termed the School to Prison Pipeline. Although some scholars have identified school-wide initiatives as having potential in curtailing African American males’ overrepresentation in these punitive discipline practices, less discussion has focused on the role of school-based mental health professionals to address this issue. School-based mental health professionals possess a unique set of skills that may assist schools in decreasing African American males’ exposure to exclusionary discipline practices and consequently reducing their risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this review is to provide school-based mental health professionals with specific recommendations for reducing this negative educational experience.
Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran
Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.
Bjørneboe, John; Bahr, Roald; Einar Andersen, Thor
A recent study from Norwegian male professional football found that the risk of acute match injuries increased from 2002 to 2007. To compare the incidence of incidents with a propensity for injury, from the 2000 season to the 2010 season in Norwegian male professional football using video analysis. We conducted a video analysis of incidents in Norwegian professional football. An incident was recorded if the match was interrupted by the referee, and the player lay down for more than 15 s, and appeared to be in pain or received medical treatment. We also conducted a video analysis of all player-to-player contact situations occurring during 30 randomly selected matches. A total of 1287 incidents were identified during the two seasons. The corresponding rate of incidents was 74.4 (95% CI 67.3 to 81.5) in the 2000 season and 109.6 (95% CI 102.3 to 116.9) in the 2010 season, a significant increase from 2000 to 2010 (rate ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.66). We observed a significantly higher rate of opponent-to-player contact and non-contact incidents in the 2010 season, but no change in the proportion of fouls or sanctions awarded by the referee. The rate of player-to-player contact situations in both heading and tackling duels was lower during the 2010 season. We found an increased rate of non-contact and opponent-to-player contact incidents in both heading and tackling duels in the 2010 season compared with 10 years earlier, even if there was no increase in the frequency of player-to-player contact situations.
Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle characteristics such as low physical activity (PA and high plasma glucose levels (PGLs may lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate (i the level of physical activity; (ii the prevalence of pre-diabetes and (iii the relationship between PA and plasma glucose level in a rural Ellisras adult population aged 18 to 28 years. A total of 713 young adults (349 males and 364 females who took part in the Ellisras Longitudinal Study participated in the study. Fasting plasma glucose levels were analysed using Accutrend glucose meters. Physical activity data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between PA and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was between 45.7% and 50.2% and that of physical inactivity was 67.3% and 71.0% for males and females, respectively. There was no significant (p > 0.05 relationship between PA and pre-diabetes (beta = 1.016; 95% Confidence Interval from 0.352 to 2.777. The health benefits of PA increased with the increasing frequency, duration and intensity of exercise. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was found to be very high in this population. Our results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with low plasma glucose levels.
Anshel, Mark H; Seipel, Scott J
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between two constructs, social physique anxiety and perfectionism, both conceptually linked to exercise behavior. A secondary purpose was to examine sex differences. Men (n = 80) and women (n = 106) university students who exercised regularly at the campus fitness center completed the Brief Multiple Perfectionism Scale and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale immediately prior to their exercise session. A small but significant correlation was found between the two measures through the Brief Multiple Perfectionism Scale Doubts about Actions. It was concluded that the overall relationship between social physique anxiety and perfectionism is weak.
Grannell, Andrew; De Vito, Giuseppe
During incremental exercise, heart rate variability (HRV) has been shown to display distinct stabilization and inflection points, which have been used to indirectly detect the ventilatory threshold (VT). Ten moderately trained males (26·5 ± 5·9 years: VO2peak 48·7 ± 4·1 ml min(-1 ) kg(-1) ) performed an incremental test on a cycle ergometer until volitional exhaustion with both R-R intervals and respiratory indices recorded. HRV was quantified using both nonlinear (Poincare plot; short-term variability SD1) and spectral analysis of the R-R intervals (high-frequency component; HFp). The VT was identified using the V-slope method. The relationship between HRV parameters and the VT was assessed using both a paired t-test and Pearson's product correlation. In addition, Bland and Altman plots were used to quantify the mean difference along with a 95% confidence interval. When expressed as the corresponding heart rate values, both the SD1 and the HFp stabilization points revealed a strong (r = 0·86 and 0·087, respectively) correlation with the VT. However, only for SD1 this relationship was different to the VT (t-test). The Bland-Altman plots supported these findings showing wide limits of agreement present for SD1 and the VT whilst the relationship between HFp and the VT revealed narrower limits. There does not appear to be a relationship present between the VT and the SD1 stabilization point in moderately trained healthy males, whereas the HFp stabilization point revealed a strong relationship with the VT when expressed as heart rate. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Morita, Ichizo; Sheiham, Aubrey; Nakagaki, Haruo; Yoshii, Saori; Mizuno, Kinichiro; Sabbah, Wael
The objective of this study is to examine whether the well-known association between periodontal disease and smoking persists after adjusting for job classification. A sample of 16,110 employed Japanese males aged 20-69 years was included in the study. Periodontal examinations were conducted using the Community Periodontal Index. The association between periodontal disease and smoking status was examined using logistic regression adjusting for age, diabetes and job classification. Job classification was based on criteria of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. There are nine major job groups: (1) Professional (professionals, specialists), (2) Managers, (3) Office workers (computer operators, clerks, secretaries), (4) Skilled worker (factory workers, construction workers), (5) Salesperson (shop assistants), (6) Service occupations (superintendents, cleaners or car park attendants), (7) Security (guards), (8) Farmers and fishermen, (9) Transport and telecommunication workers (truck drivers). Current and former smokers were more likely to have periodontal disease than non-smokers. Adjusting for job classification attenuated the association between smoking and periodontal disease but did not eliminate the association. The odds ratios for the association between smoking and Community Periodontal Index score 3 or 4 attenuated from 2.25 to 2.04 and from 2.62 to 2.52 for individuals aged 20 to 39 and 40 to 69 years, respectively. The effect of job classification on the association between periodontal disease and smoking was higher among younger participants aged 20 to 39 years. Smoking persisted as an important determinant of periodontal disease after adjusting for job classification in Japanese employed males.
In onderzoek op het gebied van psychotherapie en sociaal werk wordt het belang van de relatie tussen professional en cliënt onderstreept. Het doel van dit artikel is om de kenmerken van ondersteunende professionele relaties vanuit het perspectief van cliënten binnen de verslavingszorg in kaart te brengen. Het onderzoek vond plaats in Zweden en omvatte kwalitatieve interviews en focusgroepsgesprekken met cliënten in vier residentiele instellingen. Uit de analyse van dit kwalitatieve materiaal kwamen vijf interactieve en elkaar deels overlappende thema’s, tezamen kenmerkend voor een ondersteunende professionele relatie, naar voren: (1 “De perfecte match” – de professional als persoon; (2 Fysieke en psychische aanwezigheid; (3 Net als vriendschap – maar toch niet helemaal; (4 Betrouwbare samenwerking; (5 Een voertuig voor flexibele en meervoudige ondersteuning.
Full Text Available Knowledge and research on sexual-economic relationships between local men and Western female tourists in different touristic locations around the world has grown, as has public interest and awareness of the phenomenon. However, the direct perspectives of the men whose lives constitute the focus of such studies remain scarce. This has resulted in the phenomenon being understood mainly and inadequately through the concepts of 'romance tourism' and 'female sex tourism'. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Kenya's South Coast region, this article foregrounds the voices of male beach workers and the meanings they assign to these relationships, against a backdrop of the historical, social, economic and political dynamics within which these relationships are pursued. The men attest to socio-economic hardships and marginalization, against which they seek to establish long-term intimate relationships with foreign female tourists, as well as non-sexual economically motivated friendships with foreign tourists, termed family friends. The narratives and analyses show that the pursuit of these relationships as livelihood strategies also flows from the men's struggles to fulfil traditional and contemporary ethno-societal gender expectations, through which men are generally construed as the expected breadwinners and providers.
Pau, Massimiliano; Arippa, Federico; Leban, Bruno; Corona, Federica; Ibba, Gianfranco; Todde, Francesco; Scorcu, Marco
To assess the existence of correlations between static and dynamic balance abilities in young and professional elite soccer players. Cross-sectional. Fifty-one elite players who regularly compete at national level divided into two groups: Professional (age 18-34, n = 20) and Under 15-17 (age 14-16, n = 31). Dynamic balance was assessed for the case of a single-leg landing task by means of vertical time to stabilization (TTS) and postural sway calculated on the basis of center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories (sway area, COP displacements in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction, COP path length). The same parameters were also measured for a 20 s one-legged stance to assess static balance abilities. No significant correlations were found between static and dynamic balance parameters except for TTS and COP displacements in the antero-posterior direction (r = 0.29, p = 0.003). Professional players are characterized by lower TTS in comparison with youth leagues players (0.767 vs. 1.188 s for the dominant limb, p balance in soccer players should be performed with both dynamic and static tests, considering that the postural control performances in the two cases are not related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lindsay, Angus; Lewis, John G; Gill, Nicholas; Draper, Nick; Gieseg, Steven P
We investigated the level of cardiovascular stress associated with professional rugby union and whether these changes could be explained through external workload systems like GPS and video analysis. Urine samples (14 in game one and 13 in game two) were collected from professional rugby players before, immediately post- and 36h post-play in two consecutive games. Urine was analysed for NT-proBNP by ELISA. Comparison with GPS (player-load and distance covered at specific speed bands) and video analysis (total impacts) were conducted. There was a significant increase in urinary NT-proBNP during game one (31.6±5.4 to 53.5±10.8pg/mL) and game two (35.4±3.9 to 49.8±11.7pg/mL) that did not correlate with the number of impacts, total distance covered, distance covered at pre-determined speed bands or player-load. Concentrations returned to pre-game concentrations 36h post-game whilst a large inter-individual variation in NT-proBNP was observed among players (pProfessional rugby union causes a transient increase in cardiovascular stress that seems to be independent of the external workload characteristics of a player. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sexton, Thomas L.; And Others
To determine the effects of divorce on the relationship between parental bonding and sexrole identification, 369 men between the ages of 24 and 40 completed the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and personal data sheet. Significant differences between sexrole groups in levels of perceived care are reported.…
Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.
Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…
Boyes, Alice D; Fletcher, Garth J O; Latner, Janet D
The influence of family and peers on dieting and body image is well known, but, despite the centrality of romantic partnerships in the lives of adults, little research has investigated dieting and body image in the context of intimate relationships. This study investigated unhealthy dieting (e.g., skipping meals, vomiting), healthy dieting (e.g., reducing calories, reducing or eliminating snacks), and body satisfaction in intimate relationships in 57 predominantly unmarried couples, who were recruited in a college setting. The within-participant findings replicated prior research showing that women with higher self-esteem and lower depressive symptoms were more satisfied with their own bodies and dieted less. Controlling for body mass index and the relevant self-perceptions of each partner, the across-partner associations showed that men who had more depressive symptoms and were less satisfied with their relationships had female partners who dieted more and were less satisfied with their bodies. In contrast, men dieted more when their female partners had higher self-esteem and fewer depressive symptoms. These results suggest that psychological processes in intimate relationships are linked with dieting and body satisfaction but that these links are different for men and for women.
Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Sablik, Zbigniew
S Burnout syndrome reveals high prevalence among family doctor in many countries. Its universality in outpatient practice is influenced by numerous relationships with demanding patients. The authors of this work described chosen interpersonal games in patient - doctor relationships on the base of transactional analysis. These games, bearing significant emotional burden, predispose doctors to burnout. In the authors' opinion a diminishing of the prevalence of burnout syndrome in family doctors may be achieved with creating a friendly work environment for them and developing their skills in managing with difficult patient - doctor relationships.
Yoshino, Koichi; Suzuki, Seitaro; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Takayanagi, Atsushi; Sugihara, Naoki; Kamijyo, Hideyuki
The aim was to assess subjective oral health symptoms and job stress, as measured by self-assessment of how demanding the job is, in male financial workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. For the stress check, 7 items about how demanding the job is were selected from The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ). Participants comprised a total of 950 financial male workers, ages 25 to 64. Participants who answered "I can't complete my work in the required time" had more decayed teeth (p=0.010). Participants who felt that their job is highly demanding (answered affirmatively to 6 or all 7 items) were more likely to report "often get food stuck between teeth" (p=0.030), "there are some foods I can't eat" (p=0.005), "bad breath" (p=0.032), and "jaw makes clicking sound" (p=0.032). The independent variable of total stress score of 24-28 was found to be correlated to at least three oral health symptoms (OR: 3.25; 95%CI: 1.66-6.35). These results indicate that certain job stress factors are associated with certain oral health symptoms, and that oral health symptoms are likely predictors of job stress.
Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L; Hermida, Elisabet; Díaz, Olga; Torres, Ángela
Activities designed to be performed outside of the intervention are considered an essential aspect of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, these have received little attention in interventions aimed at individuals with subclinical depressive symptoms who do not yet meet diagnostic criteria for depression (indicated prevention). In this study, the completion of tasks given as homework and their relationship with post-treatment depressive symptoms was with relation to an indicated prevention of depression intervention. Eighty-nine female non-professional caregivers recruited from an official registry completed an intervention involving 11 homework tasks. Tasks performed were recorded and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Among caregivers, 80.9% completed 9-11 tasks. The number of tasks performed was associated with post-treatment depressive symptoms, with 9 being optimal for clinically significant improvement. These findings highlight the relationship between homework and post-treatment depressive symptoms.
Lamster, Ira B; DePaola, Dominick P; Oppermann, Rui V; Papapanou, Panos N; Wilder, Rebecca S
The body of research defining relationships among periodontal disease and certain systemic diseases and disorders has been expanding, and questions have been raised regarding what information should be conveyed to health care professionals and patients. Representatives from dentistry, medicine, the academic community and the insurance industry convened a two-day workshop July 23 and 24, 2007. The workshop participants achieved general consensus on a number of issues, including the need for greater cooperation between the health care professions. This cooperation should translate into improved clinical care as physicians refer patients for dental care, and dentists are proactive in regard to the general health of their patients. Communication to health care professionals requires a multifaceted approach that includes publication of research findings in medical and dental journals, cooperation among professional organizations and initiatives at the local level such as presentations at medical grand rounds. Dental schools should play a role in their health science centers. Communication with patients may improve through the use of targeted informational brochures in the offices of medical specialists, appropriate media campaigns and efforts led by local dental organizations. It is too early to provide specific recommendations regarding the treatment of periodontal disease to improve specific health outcomes, but dentists can become advocates for a general health promotion and disease prevention message. The lifestyles approach includes an improved diet, smoking cessation, appropriate hygiene practices and stress reduction. These strategies can improve oral and general health outcomes.
Hur, Won-Moo; Kim, Minsung; Kim, Hanna
This study examined the role of brand trust in customers' luxury brand consumption behavior. Perceived value and brand satisfaction were presented within a framework as antecedents of brand trust, while brand loyalty and brand risk were presented as consequences. A face-to-face survey was administered to a sample (N = 400) of men between 25 and 54 years of age who had purchased luxury brand and non-luxury brand suits within the previous three months. The results showed the greater the hedonic value on brand satisfaction, the greater the influence of brand satisfaction on brand trust, and the greater was the effect of brand trust on brand loyalty for luxury brands as compared with non-luxury brands. Similar patterns are identified between luxury and non-luxury brands for the positive relationship between utilitarian value and brand satisfaction and the negative relationship between brand trust and brand risk.
Salyers, Michelle P; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; White, Dominique A; Adams, Erin L; Rollins, Angela L
Healthcare provider burnout is considered a factor in quality of care, yet little is known about the consistency and magnitude of this relationship. This meta-analysis examined relationships between provider burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) and the quality (perceived quality, patient satisfaction) and safety of healthcare. Publications were identified through targeted literature searches in Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses through March of 2015. Two coders extracted data to calculate effect sizes and potential moderators. We calculated Pearson's r for all independent relationships between burnout and quality measures, using a random effects model. Data were assessed for potential impact of study rigor, outliers, and publication bias. Eighty-two studies including 210,669 healthcare providers were included. Statistically significant negative relationships emerged between burnout and quality (r = -0.26, 95 % CI [-0.29, -0.23]) and safety (r = -0.23, 95 % CI [-0.28, -0.17]). In both cases, the negative relationship implied that greater burnout among healthcare providers was associated with poorer-quality healthcare and reduced safety for patients. Moderators for the quality relationship included dimension of burnout, unit of analysis, and quality data source. Moderators for the relationship between burnout and safety were safety indicator type, population, and country. Rigor of the study was not a significant moderator. This is the first study to systematically, quantitatively analyze the links between healthcare provider burnout and healthcare quality and safety across disciplines. Provider burnout shows consistent negative relationships with perceived quality (including patient satisfaction), quality indicators, and perceptions of safety. Though the effects are small to medium, the findings highlight the importance of effective burnout interventions for
John M. Tokish
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD exist in an asymptomatic population of professional pitchers, and to assess whether these changes are primarily a bony or soft tissue adaptation. Twenty three, active, asymptomatic professional (Major League Baseball pitchers volunteered for the study. Clinical measures of glenohumeral ranges of motion, laxity, GIRD, as well as radiographic measures of humeral retroversion were taken by two independent orthopaedic surgeons. Data comparing side to side differences in range of motion, laxity, and humeral retroversion were analyzed for statistical significance using a paired t-test for continuous data and a Chi-squared test for ordinal data, with a significance set at 0.05. Evaluations of statistical correlations between different measurement parameters were accomplished using a Pearson product moment correlation. We hypothesized GIRD will be positively correlated with humeral retroversion (HR in the pitching arm. All clinical and radiographic measures were made in the field, at spring training, by physicians of both private and institutional based sports medicine practices. For the entire group, significant differences were exhibited for HR, external rotation at 90° and internal rotation at 90°, for dominant vs. non-dominant arms. GIRD of greater than 25° was noted in 10/23 of pitchers. In this group, HR was significantly increased and correlated to GIRD. No such increase or correlation was noted for the non-GIRD group. GIRD is a common finding in asymptomatic professional pitchers, and is related to humeral retroversion. Thus internal rotation deficits should not be used as the sole screening tool to diagnose the disabled throwing shoulder
Smailhodzic, Edin; Hooijsma, Wyanda; Boonstra, Albert; Langley, David J
Since the emergence of social media in 2004, a growing percentage of patients use this technology for health related reasons. To reflect on the alleged beneficial and potentially harmful effects of social media use by patients, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the extant literature on the effects of social media use for health related reasons on patients and their relationship with healthcare professionals. We conducted a systematic literature review on empirical research regarding the effects of social media use by patients for health related reasons. The papers we included met the following selection criteria: (1) published in a peer-reviewed journal, (2) written in English, (3) full text available to the researcher, (4) contain primary empirical data, (5) the users of social media are patients, (6) the effects of patients using social media are clearly stated, (7) satisfy established quality criteria. Initially, a total of 1,743 articles were identified from which 22 were included in the study. From these articles six categories of patients' use of social media were identified, namely: emotional, information, esteem, network support, social comparison and emotional expression. The types of use were found to lead to seven identified types of effects on patients, namely improved self-management and control, enhanced psychological well-being, and enhanced subjective well-being, diminished subjective well-being, addiction to social media, loss of privacy, and being targeted for promotion. Social media use by patients was found to affect the healthcare professional and patient relationship, by leading to more equal communication between the patient and healthcare professional, increased switching of doctors, harmonious relationships, and suboptimal interaction between the patient and healthcare professional. Our review provides insights into the emerging utilization of social media in healthcare. In particular, it identifies types of use by patients
Benning, Carin L; Lahm, Karen F
There is very little current information on the nature and extent of contacts between inmate parents and their children. To fill in this gap, it was the purpose of this study to determine how parental contacts with children, in the form of visits, mail, and telephone calls, affected inmate behavior behind bars. A subsample of more than 6,000 inmate parents from a larger sample of state prison inmates in the United States was analyzed. Results showed that inmates who got visits, both males and females, and mail (female inmates only) were more likely to be written up and/or found guilty of rule violations. Policy implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Jaspers, Arne; Beéck, Tim Op De; Brink, Michel S; Frencken, Wouter G P; Staes, Filip; Davis, Jesse J; Helsen, Werner F
Machine learning may contribute to understanding the relationship between the external load and internal load in professional soccer. Therefore, the relationship between external load indicators and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was examined using machine learning techniques on a group and individual level. Training data were collected from 38 professional soccer players over two seasons. The external load was measured using global positioning system technology and accelerometry. The internal load was obtained using the RPE. Predictive models were constructed using two machine learning techniques, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and one naive baseline method. The predictions were based on a large set of external load indicators. Using each technique, one group model involving all players and one individual model for each player was constructed. These models' performance on predicting the reported RPE values for future training sessions was compared to the naive baseline's performance. Both the ANN and LASSO models outperformed the baseline. Additionally, the LASSO model made more accurate predictions for the RPE than the ANN model. Furthermore, decelerations were identified as important external load indicators. Regardless of the applied machine learning technique, the group models resulted in equivalent or better predictions for the reported RPE values than the individual models. Machine learning techniques may have added value in predicting the RPE for future sessions to optimize training design and evaluation. Additionally, these techniques may be used in conjunction with expert knowledge to select key external load indicators for load monitoring.
Roberts, L D; Davis, M C; Radley-Crabb, H G; Broughton, M
The strength of health science students' identification with their chosen profession is associated with their attitudes towards interprofessional education (IPE). However, little is known about the factors that might mediate this relationship. In this article, we examine the relationships between professional identification, communication and teamwork skills, perceived relevance of IPE, and positive and negative attitudes towards IPE. A sample of 444 first-year university students from 25 health science professions enrolled in a first-year interprofessional program participated in this research by completing a questionnaire. Data were analysed using path analysis. Positive IPE attitudes were more strongly endorsed than negative IPE attitudes. Perceived relevance of IPE to future careers was the strongest predictor of both positive and negative attitudes to IPE, and fully mediated the effect of professional identity. Self-reported communication and teamwork skills were a significant negative predictor of negative attitudes to IPE only, and the effect was not mediated by perceived relevance. These findings indicate that IPE may be particularly challenging for students who do not have confidence in their abilities to communicate and work effectively in teams. Building these skills through alternative communication technologies may decrease negative attitudes. In order to maintain or increase positive attitudes towards IPE in introductory programs that span professions, the curriculum needs to be designed to demonstrate relevance to the future careers of participating students.
Ajo, Raquel; Segura, Ana; Mira, Laura; Inda, María-Del-Mar; Alfayate, Rocío; Sánchez-Barbie, Angel; Margarit, César; Peiró, Ana M
Opioids are an effective treatment for chronic non-malignant pain (CNP). Long-term use risks and side effects such as opioid-induced androgen deficiency (OPIAD) exist. This could be measured by saliva testosterone (Sal-T). To evaluate OPIAD in long-term opioid use in CNP patients. A cross-sectional study included CNP male outpatients under opioid treatment. Total-Testosterone (Total-T), Free-Testosterone (Free-T), Bio-Testosterone (Bio-T) and Sal-T were measured. Correlations were calculated by Spearman's rho (SPSS 20). From 2012 to 2014, 134 from 249 (54%) consecutive male outpatients reported erectile dysfunction (ED), 37% of them related to opioids and 19% evidenced OPIAD. A total of 120 subjects (94 cases and 26 matched-controls) were included. A significantly lower luteinizing hormone, Total-T and Free-T were found, as well as, a significant correlation between Sal-T and Total-T (r = 0.234, p = 0.039), Bio-T (r = 0.241, p = 0.039), IIEF (r = 0.363, p = 0.003) and HAD-anxiety (r = -0.414, p = 0.012) in OPIAD patients. Sal-T levels were significantly lower in patients with severe-moderate ED versus mild ED (p = 0.045) and in patients with severe ED versus moderate-mild ED (p = 0.036). These data demonstrate the high prevalence of ED in long-term use of opioids, part of this is associated to OPIAD, which can be tested by Sal-T as a non-invasive approach.
Jefferies, Diana; McNally, Stephen; Roberts, Katriona; Wallace, Anna; Stunden, Annette; D'Souza, Suzanne; Glew, Paul
This systematic review was designed to assess the importance of academic literacy for undergraduate nursing students and its relationship to future professional clinical practice. It aimed to explore the link between academic literacy and writing in an undergraduate nursing degree and the development of critical thinking skills for their future professional clinical practice. A systematic review of qualitative studies and expert opinion publications. A systematic literature search was undertaken of the following databases: ERIC, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE and Scopus. All papers reviewed were from 2000 to 2016 and were written in English. We identified 981 studies and expert opinion papers from the selected databases. After reviewing key words and abstracts for the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 papers were selected for review. These were read and reread, with 22 papers, including one thesis, selected for quality appraisal. One paper was discarded due to the exclusion criteria. Three major themes were evident from this study. First, students need assistance to develop tertiary level academic literacy skills when they commence their undergraduate nursing degree. Second, that teaching practices need to be consistent in both designing assessments and in giving feedback to students, in order to assist improvement of academic literacy skills. And finally, academic literacy can facilitate critical thinking when students are assessed using discipline specific genres that relate to their future professional nursing practice. This review highlights the importance of critical thinking in clinical nursing practice and its strong relationship with academic writing skills. It has shown critical thinking is discipline specific and nursing students need to be taught discipline specific literacy genres in undergraduate nursing degrees. Nursing has a diverse educational and cultural mix of students, and educators should not assume academic literacy skills upon commencement of an
Teratani, Toshiyasu; Morimoto, Hideki; Sakata, Kouichi; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Kumihiko; Nakada, Satoru; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Yasushi
The aim of this study was to examine the dose-response relationships between tobacco or alcohol consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus. An 8-year prospective cohort study was conducted in 8423 male workers who received annual health check-ups between 2002 and 2010 at a Japanese steel company. The endpoints were defined as an HbA(lc)≥6.1% or taking any anti-diabetic medication. The dose-response relationships of tobacco or alcohol consumption were investigated using a proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates selected from baseline age, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, total serum cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and uric acid, shift work or day work, and habitual exercise by stepwise selection method. A positive dose-response relationship between tobacco consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus was observed, with a significantly higher hazard ratio (HR) seen with higher tobacco consumption (11-20 cigarettes/day, HR 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00-1.59], ≥21 cigarettes/day, HR 1.54 [95%CI, 1.20-1.97]). In contrast, we observed a negative dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus, with a significantly lower HR with higher weekly alcohol consumption (7.0-13.9 gou/week [154-307 g/week], HR 0.73 [95% CI, 0.55-0.97], ≥14.0 gou/week [308 g/week], HR 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57-0.98]). The results indicated that decreasing tobacco consumption will achieve significant prevention of diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, we observed a significant, negative dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and the development of diabetes mellitus, in contrast to previous studies that reported a positive relationship in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmad yarmohammadian; Heydar Sharafi rad
Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and social adjustment in a sample of teenager students from Fasa city. Method: For this purpose, 150 students, who were volunteers to participate in this research, of three age groups- 10-12 years old(first grade of guidance school), 13-15 years old (third grade of guidance school), and 16-18 years old (third grade of high school)- were selected by multiple clustral random sampling. All particip...
Full Text Available This article reports on a study that was carried out in autumn 2007 with students in a professional nurse education distance course at a Swedish university. The study aimed to develop a greater understanding of the student-teacher relationship based on research questions addressing the teachers’ role, the learning process, and the assessment process in traditional approaches to teaching and learning. A didactical design was adopted, focusing on three learning outcomes in three phases. In each of the three phases, these learning outcomes were assessed by each student documenting his/her knowledge at the beginning, middle, and end of the course. Data was collected via in-depth interviews with students (n = 14 and through a questionnaire (n = 40 and was analysed using an inductive thematic analysis of the material. The results indicate a student-teacher relationship involving ambiguity and complexity in relation to the degree of teacher direction as being teacher-centred or learner-centred and also in relation to the learning process as being reproductive or productive. The interpretation of the results shows diverse aspects of the student-teacher relationship arising from students’ beliefs about teaching, learning, and assessment and, in particular, process-based assessment. The locus of control involves the teachers’ role, the learning process, and the assessment process, which illuminates different perspectives of power relations in the student-teacher relationship.
Baniassadi, Tayebeh; Javanmard, Zeinab; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Adhami, Masoumeh
Smoking is the most common and cheapest addictive substance and has physical, psychological, and social side effects. Personality traits and low self-control have been identified as key factors for substance and tobacco abuse. This study examined the relationship between personality traits and self-control, and symptoms of nicotine dependence in male prisoners. This was a descriptive correlational study. The research sample consisted of 384 male prisoners in Kerman, Iran. The participants were selected using simple random sampling method. The data collection tools consisted of the NEO five factor personality inventory (NEO-FFI), self-control Inventory, and the nicotine dependence symptoms inventory. The mean age of the prisoners was 35.33 ± 9.28 year. The results showed a significant negative relationship between self-control and nicotine dependence. The most important predictors of prisoners' self-control were the personality traits of conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and temperamental neuroticism, respectively. The most important predictors of nicotine dependence in prisons were personality traits of adaptability, temperamental neuroticism, extroversion, and openness, respectively. Personality traits and self-control have an important role in nicotine dependence; therefore, by training self-control, behaviors such as smoking and consumption of drugs can be reduced.
Mansuri, Samir; Mujeeb, Abdul; Hussain, Seema Abid; Hussain, Mohammed Abid Zahir
This paper investigates the relationship betweendifferent types of impactions with postoperativeinflammatory tissue reaction. Consecutive patients with only mandibular third molar impactions were included in our study. They were classified by winter's classification. The disimpactions were performed under local anaesthesia. Time for surgery was noted for each surgical procedure. Postoperative inflammatory complication in terms of pain, swelling and trismus were noted. 150 male patients in the age groupof 18-40 years were studied. Inflammatory tissue reactions were increasing with more operative time. Distoangular and Horizontal impactions were associated with more pain on first 3 days of surgery along with more swelling and trismus. Vertically impacted teeth were associated with least complications. Post operative morbidity was increasing along with moreoperating time and increase in the depth of mandibular third molar impaction. How to cite the article: Mansuri S, Mujeeb A, Hussain SA, Hussain MA. Mandibular third molar impactions in male adults: Relationship of Operative time and Types of impaction on inflammatory complications. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):9-15.
Lanzetti, R M; Ciompi, A; Lupariello, D; Guzzini, M; De Carli, A; Ferretti, A
Our hypothesis is that there are no difference in the injury incidence on artificial turf and natural grass. During the 2011/2012 season, we recorded injuries which occurred to two Italian stadiums equipped with third-generation artificial turf during 36 games (391 players). Data were compared with the injuries which occurred in the same season in two stadiums equipped with natural grass (372 players). We recorded 43 injuries during the playing time (16.7 per 1000 h). About 23 (18.1 per 1000 h) injuries occurred on artificial turf, while 20 (15.2 per 1000 h) on the natural grass with no statistical differences P > 0.05. We recorded 10 (7.87 per 1000 h) contact and 13 (10.23 per 1000 h) non-contact injuries on artificial turf, while 5 (3.8 per 1000 h) contact and 15 (11.4 per 1000 h) non-contact injuries on natural grass P > 0.05. The overall relative risk was 1.15; 95% CI: 0.64-2.07). Our study demonstrates a substantial equivalence in injury risk on natural grass and artificial turf in elite professional soccer athletes during official matches. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
João Henrique Gomes
Full Text Available Abstract AIMS This study aimed to verify th erelation ship between of anthropometric and physical performance variables with game-related statistics in professional elite basketball players during a competition. METHODS Eleven male basketball players were evaluated during 10 weeks in two distinct moments (regular season and playoffs. Overall, 11 variables of physical fitness and 13 variables of game-related statistics were analysed. RESULTS The following significant Pearson’scorrelations were found in regular season: percentage of fat mass with assists (r = -0.62 and steals (r = -0.63; height (r = 0.68, lean mass (r = 0.64, and maximum strength (r = 0.67 with blocks; squat jump with steals (r = 0.63; and time in the T-test with success ful two-point field-goals (r = -0.65, success ful free-throws (r = -0.61, and steals (r = -0.62. However, in playoffs, only stature and lean mass maintained these correlations (p ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS The anthropometric and physical characteristics of the players showed few correlations with the game-related statistics in regular season, and these correlations are even lower in the playoff games of a professional elite Champion ship, wherefore, not being good predictors of technical performance.
Afonso, Veronica M; Eikelboom, Roelof
The amount of wheel running varies widely between rats. Wheel introduction and running also have profound effects on the animal's energy balance. We explored the effects of ad lib wheel access and running levels on feeding, drinking, and body weight in 30 young adult male rats with wheel access and in 30 rats without wheel access. The initial running period (Days 1-8) and a time of stable running [Days 29-32 (DEnd)] were analyzed using both between- and within-group approaches. Initially, wheel access suppressed feeding (by about 25% over the 8 days) but not drinking. There were no significant correlations between the amount of wheel running and the other behaviors. The degree of feeding suppression was also not correlated to the amount of running. When running had stabilized (animal ran from 841 to 13,124 wheel turns per day), food intake was increased by about 0.75 g per 1000 wheel turns. Running at this time correlated positively with feeding and drinking and negatively with body weight and weight gain. In animals without wheel access, feeding and drinking were positively correlated with weight and weight gain, but in animals with wheel access, these correlations were close to zero. Only early running predicted later levels of running but accounted for only 23% of the variance in running. Wheel access has profound but very different immediate and long-term effects on the rats' energy balance.
Bjørneboe, John; Bahr, Roald; Dvorak, Jiri; Andersen, Thor Einar
Video analyses reveal that the rate of incidents with a propensity for injury caused by opponent-to-player contact has increased by about 50% from 2000 to 2010 in Norwegian male professional football. The aim of the study was to assess whether a stricter interpretation of the Laws of the Game (red cards for high elbows in heading duels and for late/two foot tackles) could reduce the potential for injuries in Norwegian male professional football. A preintervention/postintervention design was employed, where the rate of incidents and injuries from the 2010 season (pre) was compared to the 2011 season (post). An incident was recorded if the match was interrupted by the referee, and the player lay down for more than 15 s, and appeared to be in pain or received medical treatment. Time-loss injuries were recorded by the medical staff of each club. A total of 1421 contact incidents were identified, corresponding to a rate of 92.7 (95% CI 86.0 to 99.4) in the 2010 season and 86.6 (95% CI 80.3 to 99.4) in the 2011 season, with no difference between the two season. We found a reduction in the incidence of total head incidents (rate ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99), and head-incidents caused by arm-to-head contact (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97). We found no difference in tackling characteristics or contact injury rate. We found no significant differences in the overall rate of incidents after the introduction of stricter rule enforcement. However, the rate of head and arm-to head incidents was lower in the 2011 season.
Fieseler, Georg; Hermassi, Souhail; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Schulze, Stephan; Irlenbusch, Lars; Bartels, Thomas; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Laudner, Kevin G; Schwesig, René
The primary aim of the study was to examine the anthropometric characteristics as well as throwing and sprinting performance of professional handball players classified by playing position and competition level. 21 male players (age: 25.2±5.1 years) from the first German handball league (FGL) and 34 male players (age: 26.1±4.1 years) from the third German handball league (TGL) were categorized as backs, pivots, wings and goalkeepers. Measurements included anthropometric data (height, mass and body mass index (BMI)), throwing and sprinting performance selected out of a complex handball test (HBCT), which was conducted twice (2 rounds). During the HBCT, the subjects performed two sprints (10, 20 m), two standing throws with run-up (ST) and four vertical jump throws (VJT) over a hurdle (20 cm) with and without precision for goal shot. The anthropometric data revealed a significantly (P=0.038 and η2=0.079) shorter body height for TGL than for FGL players. In the cohort of first league athletes the pivots were the tallest (1.98±0.04 m), backs in the third league showed the maximum body height (1.90±0.05 m). Regarding body mass, pivots were the heaviest players independent from the league membership. The FGL players showed a significantly (P0.10) higher throwing velocity in all type of throws. Body height was significantly related to ST (r=0.53) and VJT (r=0.52) in the first round of HBCT but only for the FGL athletes. Throwing velocity was also correlated with BMI (r=-0.50) among the TGL players. Substantial differences of body characteristics, throwing and sprinting performance between playing positions and competitive levels underline the importance of a careful scouting and position-specific training for professional handball players.
Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; García-Peiró, Agustí; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi
Some studies have shown that complementary biomarkers are needed in semen analysis to provide a more accurate diagnosis for couples with infertility problems. To our knowledge no study has been done to determine the relationships among nuclease activity in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and male infertility. A total of 94 semen samples were collected according to WHO 2010 semen analysis parameters. Samples were analyzed using the single radial enzyme diffusion method for nuclease activity in seminal plasma, and alkaline and neutral Comet assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. Samples were obtained from 11 fertile donors with proven fertility, 17 patients with normozoospermia in an infertile couple, and 16 patients with asthenozoospermia, 19 with teratozoospermia, 21 with asthenoteratozoospermia and 10 with azoospermia. Nuclease activity analyzed in seminal plasma was higher in patients than in controls. It correlated with sperm motility and morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation measured by the alkaline Comet assay. No correlation with sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the neutral Comet assay. ROC curves to determine male infertility revealed 0.658 sensitivity, 0.727 specificity and 0.705 cm(2) AUC for the single radial enzyme diffusion method, 0.918, 1 and 0.994 cm(2) for the alkaline Comet assay, and 0.917, 0.250 and 0.373 cm(2), respectively, for the neutral Comet assay. Nuclease activity in seminal plasma corrected by sperm count is a good variable to predict male infertility. Results indicate that it could be a useful complementary parameter for male infertility diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robertson, Christopher; Rose, Susannah; Kesselheim, Aaron S
This paper explores the empirical evidence regarding the impact financial relationships on the behavior of health care providers, specifically, physicians. We identify and synthesize peer-reviewed data addressing whether financial incentives are causally related to patient outcomes and health care costs. We cover three main areas where financial conflicts of interest arise and may have an observable relationship to health care practices: (1) physicians' roles as self-referrers, (2) insurance reimbursement schemes that create incentives for certain clinical choices over others, and (3) financial relationships between physicians and the drug and device industries. We found a well-developed scientific literature consisting of dozens of empirical studies, some that allow stronger causal inferences than others, but which altogether show that such financial conflicts of interests can, and sometimes do, impact physicians' clinical decisions. Further research is warranted to document the causal relationship of such changes on health outcomes and the cost of care, but the current base of evidence is sufficiently robust to motivate policy reform. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Carvalho, Teresa; Diogo, Sara
By comparing two distinct settings--Portugal and Finland--and based on previous studies revealing similar trends in both countries, this article analyses the relationship between institutional and academic autonomy in the higher education sector. Based on crosschecking of the literature review and 47 interviews with key actors in both the…
Lipsky, Eliana; Friedman, Ilana Dvorin; Harkema, Rebecca
Utilizing organizational role theory and cognitive role theory as a theoretical framework, this phenomenological study examined the experience of parent-teachers and colleague-teachers in small educational settings and their perceptions of these dynamic relationships and potential areas of conflict. Findings highlighted perceived strengths, yet…
A literature review and data from 346 British business studies students identified the importance of relationship marketing approaches in business and highlighted the need for students to gain experience in work placements. Careful management of work placements by universities is required. (SK)
Mitchell, Jason W
Previous research with men who have sex with men (MSM) has found that substance use with sex is strongly associated with HIV acquisition and poor adherence to HIV treatments. Although some studies have assessed male couples' use of substances with unprotected anal sex, little is known on whether differences in their relationship dynamics are associated with their usage. Current HIV prevention initiatives underscore the importance of studying male couples' relationship dynamics. Using dyadic data from 28 HIV-positive and 58 HIV-discordant male couples, this analysis sought to: (1) describe, by substance type, whether neither, one, or both partners in the couple used a particular substance with sex within their relationship or outside of the relationship, respectively, and (2) assess, by substance type, whether relationship characteristic differences existed between these three groups of couples with respect to substance use with sex within and outside the relationship. Data from 86 dyads came from a cross-sectional, Internet study. Multivariate multinomial regression models were employed to achieve the aims. Except for alcohol, most did not use substances with sex. Within the relationship, those who used with sex varied by substance type; outside the relationship, most couples had only one partner who used with sex regardless of substance type. Several relationship characteristic differences were noted between the groups of couples. Within the relationship, marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication (EDM) use with sex was associated with having less tangible resources; for outside the relationship, these were associated with perceiving to have greater quality of alternatives. In general, amyl nitrates and party drug use with sex were associated with viewing the main partner as being less dependable for trustworthiness. Marijuana and party drug use with sex within the relationship and EDM use with sex outside the relationship were negatively associated with being
Saarmann, L; Freitas, L; Rapps, J; Riegel, B
Exposure to faculty is assumed to positively influence critical thinking ability and professional values; therefore, faculty must be assumed to be superior in these characteristics. As a first step toward testing these assumptions, this study used a cross-sectional survey technique to compare critical thinking ability and values in ADN-prepared (n = 32) and BSN-prepared (n = 32) registered nurses, nursing faculty (n = 32), and sophomore college students (n = 32) beginning a baccalaureate degree program in nursing. The critical thinking ability of faculty was not significantly higher than that of sophomore nursing students when the influence of age was controlled statistically. The values of all three groups of nurses were strikingly similar, although faculty valued achievement most highly (P = .0001), while sophomore students valued goal orientation most highly (P = .001). All subjects valued support highly, but only sophomore students valued benevolence highly.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were related to the research of the relations between the abilities of professional basketball players in the performance of one repetition maximum (1RM back squat and explosive movements, such as 5, 10 and 20-metre running, and vertical jump; as well as the detection and comparison of these abilities between players who play on the outside and inside positions. The study involved 35 professional basketball players (22 outside and 13 inside who were selected as candidates for the national team of Bulgaria. Independent variables of muscular strength were obtained by applying the 1RM back squat test (142.06 ± 29.31 kg, and were normalized with respect to the body mass (1RM Squat/kg (1.51 ± 0.25 and by applying suitable allometric exponent (1RM SquatAl (6.86 ± 1.16. Dependent variables were obtained using two tests: 20-metre run (times registered at 5 and 10 metres and vertical jump (used to calculate the variable peak anaerobic power (PAPW. The results indicated that none of the variables of strength were significantly related to the speed performance, while moderate correlations occurred between the normalized strength variables (1RM Squat/kg and 1RM SquatAl and vertical jump (r = 0.310 and r = 0.308 / p < 0.05. The results obtained show greater correlation (r = 0.660 / p < 0.01 in the ability to deliver power when performing squat and mechanical work performed in vertical jumps. Outside and inside players were significantly different in three variables only: peak anaerobic power, body height and body weight.
Trujillo, Juan C; Carrillo, Bladimir; Iglesias, Wilman J
The determinants of maternal and child health have been the recurrent topics of study in developing countries. Using the Demographic and Health Survey (2010) of Colombia, this study aimed to identify the determinants for professional antenatal care and institutional delivery, taking into account the interdependence of these two decisions, which we consider using a bivariate probit model. This study found that when certain factors affecting both the decision to seek prenatal care and giving birth in a hospital are neglected, the results of the estimates are inefficient. Estimates show that the effects of education, parity, regional location and economic status on institutional delivery tend to be underestimated in a univariate probit model. The results indicate that economic status, level of education, parity and medical-insurance affiliation influenced the joint likelihood of accessing professional antenatal care and delivering in a health facility. An important finding is that mothers with a higher level of education are 9 percentage points more likely to access these two health services compared with mothers who are illiterate. Another observed finding is the regional disparities. The evidence indicates that mothers in the Pacific Region, the poorest region of Colombia, are 6 percentage points less likely to access such services. Thus, the results indicate that the Colombian health policy should emphasize increasing the level of schooling of mothers and establish health facilities in the poorest regions of the country to ensure that women in need are provided with social health insurance. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.
Everard, Eoin M; Harrison, Andrew J; Lyons, Mark
Everard, EM, Harrison, AJ, and Lyons, M. Examining the relationship between the functional movement screen and the landing error scoring system in an active, male collegiate population. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1265-1272, 2017-In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on movement screening as the principal aspect of preparticipation testing. Two of the most common movement screening tools are the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Several studies have examined the reliability and validity of these tools, but so far, there have been no studies comparing the results of these 2 screening tools against each other. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between FMS scores and LESS scores. Ninety-eight male college athletes actively competing in sport (Gaelic games, soccer, athletics, boxing/mixed martial arts, Olympic weightlifting) participated in the study and performed the FMS and LESS screens. Both the 21-point and 100-point scoring systems were used to score the FMS. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the 2 screening scores. The results showed a significant moderate correlation between FMS and LESS scores (rho 100 and 21 point = -0.528; -0.487; p < 0.001). In addition, r values of 0.26 and 0.23 indicate a poor shared variance between the 2 screens. The results indicate that performing well in one of the screens does not necessarily equate to performing well in the other. This has practical implications as it highlights that both screens may assess different movement patterns and should not be used as a substitute for each other.
Maria Suely Pagliarini
Full Text Available Meiosis is an event of high evolutionary stability which culminates in a reduction of chromosome number. The normal and harmonious course of meiosis ensures gamete viability. The cytologic events of gametogenesis are controlled by a large number of genes that act from premeiotic to postmeiotic mitosis. Mutations in these genes cause anomalies that may impair fertility, and many abnormalities affecting plant fertility or causing total male sterility have been detected during the evaluation of meiotic behavior in some species. Some of these abnormalities have been frequently described in the literature, while others have not been previously reported. The most frequent abnormalities found in the species analyzed were irregular chromosome segregation, cytomixis, chromosome stickiness, mixoploidy, chromosome fragmentation, syncyte formation, abnormal spindles, and failure of cytokinesis. Uncommon abnormalities, such as chromosome elimination during microsporogenesis, were found in one species. Original meiotic mutations affecting different steps of meiosis were also observed in these species, especially in maize, Paspalum and soybean. Some mutants present characteristics that may be exploited successfully in breeding programs because they cause total male sterility.A meiose é um evento de alta estabilidade evolucionária que culmina na redução do número de cromossomos. O curso normal e harmonioso da meiose garante a viabilidade gamética. Os eventos citológicos da gametogênese são controlados por um grande número de genes que atuam desde as mitoses pré-meióticas até as pós-meióticas. Mutações nestes genes causam anomalias que podem afetar a fertilidade. Durante a avaliação do comportamento meiótico em algumas espécies de plantas, muitas anormalidades que afetaram a fertilidade ou causaram total macho-esterilidade foram detectadas. Algumas das anormalidades encontradas já eram descritas na literatura, enquanto outras eram
Yang, Shu-Yu; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Sun, Su-Yun; Wang, Li-Ying; Yan, Bing; Liu, Chang-Qin; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xue-Jun
Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians. One hundred and seventy-one Chinese male vegetarians were screened for metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk and carotid IMT. They were compared with 129 age-matched omnivores recruited from a community-based health project. The effects of confounding factors were adjusted by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Compared to the omnivores, the vegetarians had lower BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Also, the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB, uric acid, albumin and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly reduced in vegetarians. Omnivores had significantly higher fasting blood glucose than that of vegetarians. However, there were no differences in fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and HOMA-IR between the two groups. IMT was thinner in the vegetarian group than in the omnivore group (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 cm, P vegetarians were divided according to duration of vegetarian diet ( 11 years), those in tertile 1 (vegetarian diet. Moreover, taking a low-calorie, low-protein, or vegetarian diet might have great beneficial effects on IMT through improved lipid profile, and the beneficial effects appeared to be correlated with the duration of vegetarian diet.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate a number of demographic characteristics in males with osteoporosis (OP treated with bisphosphonate and determine whether any of these measures could act as an effective indicator of medication persistence and compliance. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Among the patients with OP who applied to our clinic and were prescribed weekly oral bisphosphonate treatment, 89 patients over 50 years of age were included in this study. The demographic characteristics of these patients were evaluated. The number of medications used by the patients over the past 1 and 3 years were counted, and the persistence and compliance with bisphosphonate treatment was estimated. The patients were divided into two groups: fully compliant and noncompliant subjects. The two groups of patients were compared separately for 1 and 3 years while considering their demographic characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age of the 89 patients included in the study was 62.43 + 9.41 years. Comparisons among the studied demographic characteristics during the 1-year period of medication use indicated that the educational status of the fully compliant patients was higher. During the 3-year period of medication use, educational status was the only demographic characteristic that was determined to be significantly lower in the noncompliant patients than in the fully compliant group. CONCLUSION: Although deficiencies in medication persistence and compliance during osteoporosis treatment can lead to serious health and social problems in both genders, the causes of these deficiencies have not been thoroughly clarified. We suggest that the educational status of the patient may contribute to these deficiencies.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective Many studies have shown that vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of vegetarian diet on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, as well as the association between IMT and duration of vegetarian diet, are still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the influence of duration of vegetarian diet on cardiovascular risk factors, and more importantly on IMT among Chinese vegetarians. Methods One hundred and seventy-one Chinese male vegetarians were screened for metabolic profile, cardiovascular risk and carotid IMT. They were compared with 129 age-matched omnivores recruited from a community-based health project. The effects of confounding factors were adjusted by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the omnivores, the vegetarians had lower BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Also, the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, ApoA1, ApoB, uric acid, albumin and γ-glutamyltransferase were significantly reduced in vegetarians. Omnivores had significantly higher fasting blood glucose than that of vegetarians. However, there were no differences in fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and HOMA-IR between the two groups. IMT was thinner in the vegetarian group than in the omnivore group (0.59 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.10 cm, P 11 years, those in tertile 1 ( Conclusion A decrease in multiple cardiovascular risk factors such as BMI, blood pressure and lipid profile was associated with vegetarian diet. Moreover, taking a low-calorie, low-protein, or vegetarian diet might have great beneficial effects on IMT through improved lipid profile, and the beneficial effects appeared to be correlated with the duration of vegetarian diet.
Durmus, Dilek; Safaz, Ismail; Adıgüzel, Emre; Uran, Ayça; Sarısoy, Gökhan; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan
The purpose of this study was to identify psychiatric symptoms by comparing male patients with traumatic leg amputations (LAs) with healthy controls and to determine the association between these psychiatric symptoms and phantom pain and prosthesis use characteristics. One hundred four volunteers, 51 LA patients (group 1) and 53 healthy controls (group 2) were included. Demographic data including age, height, weight, time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use, and Satisfaction with Prosthesis Questionnaire scores were recorded. Phantom pain was measured a visual analog scale (VAS). Psychiatric symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R, Beck Depression Inventory, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Correlations were determined between time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use and satisfaction with prosthesis questionnaire scores and psychiatric scale scores. Amputee patients had higher phobic anxiety, state anxiety, trait anxiety and sleep disturbance scores (p0.05). There were significant negative correlations between time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use, duration of daily prosthesis use, and satisfaction with prosthesis questionnaire scores and psychiatric symptoms. Apart from anxiety (state, trait or phobic) and disturbed sleep, other psychiatric symptoms in amputee patients undergoing lengthy prosthetic rehabilitation may not differ from those of healthy controls. The presence and severity of phantom pain appear to be unrelated to general psychiatric symptomatology. Length of time since amputation, length of prosthesis use, daily length of prosthesis use and prosthesis satisfaction are negatively correlated with general psychiatric symptoms. These characteristics must be borne in mind in psychiatric and prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ashraf, Hamid; Kafi, Zahra H.
The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between Iranian EFL, English as a foreign language, male and female instructors' philosophy of education and their professional development to see whether there is any significant relation between the type of philosophy of education that teachers hold and their professional development. It…
Bártová, Klára; Štěrbová, Zuzana; Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Binter, Jakub; Varella, Marco Antonio Corrêa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella
The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -.41 [-.71, -.02]) and Affectional Expression (r = -.38 [-.60, -.13]). Our results add to previous evidence showing that similarity in same-sex couples increased relationship quality. Although, on average, gay men were not coupled on the basis of homogamy in gender roles, their relationship quality is linked to the gender egalitarian model rather than to the gender stratified one. Thus, a widespread stereotype suggesting that same-sex partners are divided by different gender roles seems to be, at least in our sample from a Western society, rather incorrect.
manager’s job: Folklore and fact . Harvard Business Review, 53(4), 49–61. Mohr, L. (1995). Impact analysis for social evaluation (2nd ed.). Thousand...and Mintzberg (1975) documented the attributes and competencies of effective managers. B. Fox’s Studies J. Ronald Fox’s two books (1974, 1988...significantly better than those of other components. In almost no cases, however, was this relationship evident. In fact , outcomes of Army programs
Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao
This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GMAT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GMAT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GMAT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, PGMAT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fishbein, Diana H; Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Eldreth, Diana; Paschall, Mallie J; Hyde, Christopher; Hubal, Robert; Hubbard, Scott; Williams, Jason; Ialongo, Nicholas
Exposure to chronic or severe acute stressors throughout the lifespan has been linked with numerous negative behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and physical consequences. Adolescence is considered to be a particularly vulnerable period given that the brain is experiencing dramatic developmental change during this time. The present study examined a sample of adolescents (N=125) considered to be at high risk for stress exposures and drug use by virtue of their environment and low income levels to identify possible neurocognitive (i.e., impulsivity, delay of gratification, emotional perception, and risky decision-making) and social competency mechanisms that may mediate this relationship. Using Mplus, a mediational model was tested using full information maximum likelihood estimates. Risky decision-making and poor social competency skills were related to previous stressful experiences; however, only social competencies mediated the effect of stressors on reports of past year marijuana, alcohol, and polydrug use. As such, stress appears to exert its negative impact through alterations in abilities to generate and execute prosocial decisions and behaviors. Interventions that directly address the effects of stress on social competencies may be especially important for children who have experienced adversity including those exposed to parental divorce, parental psychopathology, neglect or abuse, parental death, and poverty.
Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.
The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist
Pezzuto, Justin J.
The goal of this work was to investigate whether there was a relationship present between extracellular free water and gray matter volumes in the brains of retired professional football players. A study done by Maier-Hein et al. was able to establish the relationship in a population of participants that presented clinical symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease. Due to the multiple similarities between Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) and Alzheimer’s Disease, the relationship mentioned above wa...
Berkery, Elaine; Tiernan, Siobhan; Morley, Michael
To examine the relationship between gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics within the nursing and midwifery profession. Studies have been carried out to determine gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics across a number of industries and among student samples. No study has been carried out within the nursing and midwifery profession. In order to allow for direct comparisons with previous research Schein's Descriptive Index (SDI) was used. A total 239 undergraduate and 171 postexperience responses were collected. Female nurses and midwives did not gender type the managerial role, whereas males gender typed the managerial role in favour of men. Student nurses and midwives recorded a stronger correlation between women and management than their qualified counterparts. Males gender typed the managerial role in favour of men. With an increase in numbers of men joining the profession and increased representation of males at the Clinical Nurse Manager (CMN) level there is a possibility that the profession will become two tiered. Health care organisations should pay careful consideration to career development and implement career structures which ensure equal access to managerial roles for both genders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Campos-Vazquez, Miguel A; Toscano-Bendala, Francisco J; Mora-Ferrera, José C; Suarez-Arrones, Luis J
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of accumulated internal training load (ITL) during the preseason (4 weeks) on changes in the intermittent performance, in a professional soccer team. Twelve professionals soccer players (Mean ± SD age: 27.7 ± 4.3 years; height: 177.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 73.1 ± 5.2 kg; % body fat [Faulkner]: 10.2 ± 1.2) belonging to a Spanish second division team (2013-2014) participated in this study. The 30-15 intermittent fitness test was performed before and after the preseason, and the speed for the last period completed by each player was recorded (VIFT). During the preseason, the team alternated practice of training sessions (TRNs) with friendly matches (FMs). Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), heart rate (HR), and HR reserve were analyzed every TRN and FM to calculate ITL (ITL: sRPE-TL, Edward's-TL and Edward's-TLres). The players' VIFT substantially increased after the preseason period (20.1 ± 0.8 vs. 21.1 ± 0.8 km·h; effect size [ES] = 1.15 ± 0.25; almost certainly). The average value of sRPE throughout FMs was substantially greater than the value of the TRNs (7.4 ± 0.9 vs. 5.25 ± 0.2; ES = 2.31 ± 2.45; almost certainly). sRPE-TL, practice volume, and sum of RPE during the preseason were positively and largely correlated (r = 0.70-0.75) with changes on intermittent performance. No relationships were found between HR-derived measures of exercise load and changes on intermittent fitness. The present results suggest that practice volume and subjective measures of TL, related better than HR-based TL methods to changes on intermittent performance after the preseason, in professional soccer players.
Rothman, David J; McDonald, Walter J; Berkowitz, Carol D; Chimonas, Susan C; DeAngelis, Catherine D; Hale, Ralph W; Nissen, Steven E; Osborn, June E; Scully, James H; Thomson, Gerald E; Wofsy, David
Professional medical associations (PMAs) play an essential role in defining and advancing health care standards. Their conferences, continuing medical education courses, practice guidelines, definitions of ethical norms, and public advocacy positions carry great weight with physicians and the public. Because many PMAs receive extensive funding from pharmaceutical and device companies, it is crucial that their guidelines manage both real and perceived conflict of interests. Any threat to the integrity of PMAs must be thoroughly and effectively resolved. Current PMA policies, however, are not uniform and often lack stringency. To address this situation, the authors first identified and analyzed conflicts of interest that may affect the activities, leadership, and members of PMAs. The authors then went on to formulate guidelines, both short-term and long-term, to prevent the appearance or reality of undue industry influence. The recommendations are rigorous and would require many PMAs to transform their mode of operation and perhaps, to forgo valuable activities. To maintain integrity, sacrifice may be required. Nevertheless, these changes are in the best interest of the PMAs, the profession, their members, and the larger society.
Full Text Available In the present study we were interested in how coping styles relate to different indicators of well- and ill-being. We assumed that coping styles are differently related to well- and ill-being indicators because they are theoretically and empirically independent from each other. To examine this assumption we asked 139 professional firemen to fill in measures of coping styles (COPE, EAS, well-being (PANAS, SWLS and ill-being (IES-R, PANAS. The results confirmed the overall importance of non-constructive coping for illbeing and well-being, whereas constructive coping predicted only positive emotionality. The prototypical masculine working environment characteristic for our sample could be the cause that socially/emotionally oriented coping is the weakest predictor of well-being, although other studies report the adaptive role of conscientious dealing with individual’s own emotions as a coping style. Both well- and ill-being measures should be used to get an insight into a complex area of individual’s adaptation to stress.
Justin Wai-Yuk Lee
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.
McGowan, Brian Lamont
African American men enter postsecondary institutions having been socialized to adopt stereotypical notions of masculinity. These traditional expectations of masculinity play a role in how African American men negotiate relationships with their male counterparts on the campus. African American men cultivate close relationships with other men to…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of the employees in five-star hotels their regarding managerial ethics and professional burnout levels and also to present the relationship between managerial ethics and professional burnout level. Survey method was used as data collection instrument. A total of 385 questionnaires were implemented on employees working in five-star hotels operating in Istanbul, Turkey and Palermo, Italy. Independent Samples t Test was used for the comparison of data obtained from each country. Furthermore, the relationship between managerial ethics and professional burnout was described through correlation and regression analyses, as a result meaningful correlations between the variables (managerial ethics and professional burnout are found.
Nasseh, Kamyar; Vujicic, Marko
The authors examined the relationship between education debt and career choice, particularly dentists' decisions to specialize, participate in public health insurance programs, and join dental management service organizations (DMSOs). The authors used data from the American Dental Association 2015 office database, which contains dentist demographic information and identifies dentists who participate in public health insurance programs for pediatric dental care services. The authors merged this database with the 2002-2015 American Dental Association Survey of Dental Graduates, which contains information about education debt, to assess the relationship between education debt and career choices. The authors used probit and multinomial logit models to determine the relationships among education debt, demographic characteristics, and dentist career choices. For each $10,000 increase in education debt, dentists were 0.9% more likely to join a DMSO (relative risk ratio, 1.009; 95% confidence interval, 1.0021 to 1.0164) and 0.6% less likely to join a non-DMSO group practice (relative risk ratio, 0.994; 95% confidence interval, 0.9897 to 0.9987) over a solo practice. Education debt did not have a statistically significant association with the decision to participate in public health insurance programs, but it did have a statistically significant association with the decision to specialize. Education debt had a modest association with some career choices among dentists. Demographic characteristics, such as race and sex, had a greater association. Dental education debt has increased substantially in recent years. Debt had only a modest association with some career choices. Policy makers could consider this when considering education debt relief. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlos Eduardo Laburú
Full Text Available In this work we investigated particular reasons that take medium physics teachers to use or not experimental activities. Starting from the presupposition that experimental activities in physics are important for teaching, it is essentially looked for to understand the reasons of the “experimental failure”, in the sense of little given importance to that teaching practice, demonstrable by absence of practically widespread of empiric activities in physics schools. We associated the relationship professional knowledge physics teacher's with that little instructional practice. Based in a reading of the ideas of Charlot, we directed an argument line that seeks to reinterpret the inadequacy of the explanation found in the lack or absence of something that is commonly disseminated in the literature in scientific education.
José Cícero Moraes
Full Text Available At present, the role the attack plays in a high level volleyball game and team performance is unquestionable. This sports modality is characterized by fast, precise and powerful attacks that require technical control and the ability to adapt to situational constraints of the game. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the relationship between time and type of attack and the effect of the attack in national junior male volleyball teams. For this purpose, 1191 attack actions of national teams participating in the World Junior Championship were analyzed. The most recurrent effect of attack was the point, and faster and powerful attacks occurred more frequently. The fastest game favored gaining of a point and the powerful attack emerged from the need to overlap the opponent’s defensive system
Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P
The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: Mounting evidence suggests a putative link between overuse of digital media and easily accessible drugs such as alcohol and nicotine. Method: We assessed Internet addiction tendencies in a sample of N=1,362 male players of online first-person-shooter-video games. We used Young’s 20-item Internet addiction test (IAT. We also asked participants about their smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results: No significant differences were observed on the IAT between smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers. However, in line with the majority of the literature, the results yielded support for a link between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption. Of importance, this correlation was influenced by the current smoking status. This relationship was especially pronounced for the group of ex-smokers. Conclusions: It is possible that after quitting smoking, drinking habits and online activities may be used to compensate for nicotine abstinence.
Suarez-Arrones, L; Torreño, N; Requena, B; Sáez De Villarreal, E; Casamichana, D; Barbero-Alvarez, J C; Munguía-Izquierdo, D
The aim was to quantify for the first time the physical and physiological profile of professional soccer players in official games using GPS and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty professional soccer players were investigated during a half in competitive club level matches (N.=348) using GPS devices. The relative total distance was 118.9±10.7 m∙min(-1) and player's Work-To-Rest Ratio was 2.1:1. Defenders covered the lowest total distance, while Second-Strikers (2(nd)S) and Wide-Midfielders (W-MD) traveled the greatest total distance. Defenders presented the lowest Work-To-Rest Ratio values. Playing position also impacted on all sprinting performance results, except in average sprint distance and time of sprint. The number of sprints and repeated-sprint sequences recorded by the W-MD and Strikers (S) were significantly greater than any other group. The average HR recorded was 87.1%HRmax and the relationship between the external and internal load value (Effindex) was 1.4 with significant differences in both between playing positions. W-MD recorded a significantly smaller average HR than any other group and Centre-Backs showed a significantly smaller Effindex value than any other group. Conversely, W-MD showed a significantly greater Effindex value than any other group, except the 2(nd)S. This study has verified a number of statistically significant differences between the different playing positions. Coaches should be focused on the specific physical and physiological requirements of the playing positions to optimize the training prescription in soccer. The relationships between external and internal load measures among position-specific indicates that players with less overall running performance during match-play were the worst in Effindex.
Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Orjalo, Ashley J; Stage, Alyssa A; Liu, Tricia M; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Hurley, Jillian M; Torne, Ibett A; Beiley, Megan D; Risso, Fabrice G; Davis, DeShaun L; Lazar, Adrina; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V
Repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in essential for soccer. Important considerations when assessing RSA is whether there are differences between positions (defenders, midfielders, forwards), and what physiological characteristics may contribute to RSA. This has not been assessed in collegiate male players. Eighteen Division I male field players from one school performed several performance tests. The RSA test involved 7 x 30-m sprints completed on 20-s cycles. Measurements included total time (TT), and performance decrement (percent change in time from the first to last sprint; PD). Subjects also completed tests of lower-body power (vertical [VJ] and standing broad [SBJ] jump); linear (30-m sprint; 0-5, 0-10, 0-30 m intervals) and change-of-direction (505) speed; and soccer-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2; YYIRT2). A one-way ANOVA (p RSA TT and PD with the other tests. There were no significant between-position differences for any test. There were large effects for the faster right-leg 505 and greater YYIRT2 distance for midfielders compared to defenders and forwards. Nonetheless, no between-position differences in RSA TT and PD were documented. There were relationships between RSA TT and the VJ (r = -0.59), SBJ (r = -0.61), 0-10 m (r = 0.64) and 0-30 m (r = 0.83) sprint intervals. There were no significant correlations for RSA PD. Male field players from one collegiate soccer team can demonstrate similar RSA across different positions. Greater lower-body power and sprinting speed could augment RSA.
Wei, Yi; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Zou, Guangyong; Campbell, Craig
This study investigated the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and assessed factors other than health that contribute to differences in QoL in young males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In this cross-sectional study, QoL and HRQoL measures were completed by 98 parents and 85 children. The Quality of My Life (QoML) questionnaire measured QoL and HRQoL as single-items, and the Pediatric Quality of Life 4.0 Generic Core (PedsQL) questionnaire was used as a multidimensional measure of HRQoL. Simple regression was used to examine the relationship between single-item measures of HRQoL and QoL. Multivariable regression was used to investigate factors that may contribute to difference in QoL and HRQoL. While ratings of QoL and HRQoL were significantly correlated with one another, HRQoL only accounted for 21% and 44% of the variability in QoL by child- and parent-reports respectively. None of the factors measured contributed ratings of the child's QoL to be much higher than HRQoL. QoL and HRQoL are related but distinct constructs as rated by children with DMD and their parents. Further research is needed to elucidate factors outside HRQoL that contribute to QoL. Quality of life (QoL) and health-related quality of life are distinct concepts rated by young males with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and their parents. Factors outside of 'health' contribute to overall QoL in the paediatric population with DMD. This article's abstract has been translated into Spanish and Portuguese. Follow the links from the abstract to view the translations. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.
Evren, Cuneyt; Cinar, Ozgul; Evren, Bilge; Celik, Selime
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between severity of borderline personality features and history of suicide attempt (HSA) in male substance-dependent inpatients and the effect of anger, hostility and aggression on this relationship. Further, the effect of some variables that may be related to suicide and/or borderline personality, such as age at inception of regular substance use, substance of dependence (alcohol/drug), depression, and both state and trait anxiety, were controlled. Participants were 200 consecutively admitted male substance-dependent inpatients. Patients were investigated with the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Among substance-dependent inpatients, 33.0% (n=66) were identified as the group with HSA. Mean scores employment status, marital status and duration of education did not differ between groups, whereas current age and age at onset of regular substance use were lower in group with HSA. Mean scores of BPI, AQ and its subscales (anger, hostility and physical/verbal aggression), BDI and STAI were higher in the HSA group. In addition, the rates of drug dependency and borderline personality disorder were higher in this group. The severity of borderline personality symptoms was highly correlated with subscales of the AQ, depression and anxiety, whereas it was negatively correlated with age at onset of regular substance use. The severity of anger and borderline personality features predicted HSA in the logistic regression model. Results suggest that, to reduce the risk of suicide attempt among substance-dependent patients, the feeling of anger must be the target of evaluation and treatment among those with borderline personality features. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paulo H. F. Lucinda
Full Text Available Recently discovered male specimens of Phallotorynus pankalos are described and diagnosed from males of congener species on the basis of gonopodial morphology, color pattern and number of dorsal and anal-fin rays. The phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among Phallotorynus species is reappraised with the inclusion of P. pankalos. Phallotorynus pankalos is hypothesized as sister to P. jucundus, a clade sister to P. victoriae or to a clade composed of P. dispilos and P. psittakos. Biogeography of Phallotorynus species is discussed, and it is suggested: (1 an early basal split between the rio Paraíba do Sul drainage and the Paraná-Paraguay system, separating P. fasciolatus from the ancestor of the remaining Phallotorynus species followed by a dispersal to rio Paraíba do Sul; (2 that the formation of the Sete Quedas falls may have isolated the ancestors of P. psittakos and P. dispilos. However, the sequence of events associated with the evolutionary history of Phallotorynus remains unclear and unsatisfactory.
Hekman, David R; Steensma, H Kevin; Bigley, Gregory A; Hereford, James F
Administrative social influence is a principal tool for motivating employee behavior. The authors argue that the compliance of professional employees (e.g., doctors) with administrative social influence will depend on the degree to which these employees identify with their profession and organization. Professional employees were found to be most receptive to administrator social influence to adopt new work behavior when they strongly identified with the organization and weakly identified with the profession. In contrast, administrator social influence was counterproductive when professional employees strongly identified with the profession and weakly identified with the organization.
Liu, Xiang-quan; Zhang, Zhong
To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 3 (XRCC3) and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers. Peripheral venous blood and morning urine samples were collected from 326 male lead-exposed workers in a storage battery factory in Fuzhou. Blood lead, urine lead, blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood calcium, and blood iron were measured. The genotype of XRCC3 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The relationship between XRCC3 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers was analyzed. Genetic polymorphism of XRCC3 was seen in the 326 subjects. The frequency distribution of XRCC3 genotypes, XRCC3-241CC (wild type), XRCC3-241CT (heterozygous mutation), and XRCC3-241TT (homozygous mutation), was in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in urine lead, blood ZPP, blood calcium, and blood iron between the lead-exposed workers with different XRCC3 genotypes (P > 0.05). The workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT had a significantly higher mean blood lead level than those with XRCC3-241CC (P lead level of 1.90 µmol/L as the cutoff value, the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT was significantly higher than that of workers with XRCC3-241CC in the subjects with high blood leads (P lead was significantly higher in the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT than in those with XRCC3-241CC (OR = 2.34, 95%CI = 1.61 ∼ 5.13); the multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT had high blood lead levels (β = 0.116, P lead absorption (β = 0.188, P lead absorption (β = -0.247, P lead levels (β = -0.145, P lead at workplace, the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT have a significantly higher blood lead level than those with XRCC3-241CC, so the genotype of XRCC3-241CT
Full Text Available Aim. Poor sleep quality due to pain has been reported among opioid-dependent male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT but objective pain data are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the rate of pain-sensitivity using cold pressor test (CPT and the relationship between pain-sensitivity and sleep quality in this population.Methods. A total of 168 male participants were included into the study. Objective pain-tolerance was evaluated at 0 h and at 24 h after the first CPT. Malay version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the subjective opiate withdrawal scale (SOWS questionnaires were administered to evaluate the quality of sleep and withdrawal symptoms, respectively.Results. The mean age of study participants was 37.22 (SD 6.20 years old. Mean daily methadone dose was 76.64 (SD 37.63 mg/day, mean global PSQI score was 5.47 (SD 2.74 and mean averaged SOWS score was 5.43 (SD 6.91. The averaged pain-tolerance time ranged from 7 to 300 s with a mean time of 32.16 (SE 2.72 s, slightly below the cut-off score of 37.53 s. More specifically, 78.6% (n = 132 of participants were identified as pain-sensitive (averaged pain-tolerance time ≤37.53 s, and 36 (21.4% participants were pain-tolerant (averaged pain-tolerance time >37.53 s. The pain-sensitive group reported poorer sleep quality with mean (SD PSQI of 5.78 (2.80 compared with the pain-tolerant group with mean (SD PSQI of 4.31 (2.18 (p = 0.005. With analysis of covariance, pain-sensitive group was found to have higher global PSQI scores (adjusted mean 5.76, 95% CI 5.29; 6.22 than pain-tolerant participants (adjusted mean 4.42, 95% CI 3.52; 5.32 (p = 0.010.Conclusions. Majority of opioid-dependent male patients on methadone treatment are pain-sensitive with CPT. Poor sleep quality is associated with cold pressor pain-sensitivity. Pain and sleep complaints in this male population should not be overlooked.
Zahari, Zalina; Lee, Chee Siong; Tan, Soo Choon; Mohamad, Nasir; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Ismail, Rusli
Aim. Poor sleep quality due to pain has been reported among opioid-dependent male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) but objective pain data are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the rate of pain-sensitivity using cold pressor test (CPT) and the relationship between pain-sensitivity and sleep quality in this population. Methods. A total of 168 male participants were included into the study. Objective pain-tolerance was evaluated at 0 h and at 24 h after the first CPT. Malay version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the subjective opiate withdrawal scale (SOWS) questionnaires were administered to evaluate the quality of sleep and withdrawal symptoms, respectively. Results. The mean age of study participants was 37.22 (SD 6.20) years old. Mean daily methadone dose was 76.64 (SD 37.63) mg/day, mean global PSQI score was 5.47 (SD 2.74) and mean averaged SOWS score was 5.43 (SD 6.91). The averaged pain-tolerance time ranged from 7 to 300 s with a mean time of 32.16 (SE 2.72) s, slightly below the cut-off score of 37.53 s. More specifically, 78.6% (n = 132) of participants were identified as pain-sensitive (averaged pain-tolerance time ≤37.53 s), and 36 (21.4%) participants were pain-tolerant (averaged pain-tolerance time >37.53 s). The pain-sensitive group reported poorer sleep quality with mean (SD) PSQI of 5.78 (2.80) compared with the pain-tolerant group with mean (SD) PSQI of 4.31 (2.18) (p = 0.005). With analysis of covariance, pain-sensitive group was found to have higher global PSQI scores (adjusted mean 5.76, 95% CI 5.29; 6.22) than pain-tolerant participants (adjusted mean 4.42, 95% CI 3.52; 5.32) (p = 0.010). Conclusions. Majority of opioid-dependent male patients on methadone treatment are pain-sensitive with CPT. Poor sleep quality is associated with cold pressor pain-sensitivity. Pain and sleep complaints in this male population should not be overlooked.
Ahmed, Shameer; Burke, Timothy; Weiss, Michael; Trapp, Taylor; Neri, Lori; Matsumura, Martin E
A growing body of evidence supports an association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and dental diseases, particularly periodontitis (PD). The present study was designed to assess the relationship between childhood dental care and adult CHD in a single community dental clinic. Consecutive patients (n = 223) at a single urban U.S. dental clinic were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the details of their childhood and present dental care as well as CHD and PD diagnoses. A significantly greater proportion of patients who reported a lack of prophylactic dental care in childhood also reported a present diagnosis of CHD (54.2% vs 23.6%, P history, age and sex, the relationship between dental care in childhood and reduced CHD remained significant (OR = 0.318, 95% CI = 0.159-0.635, P = 0.001). This association cannot be explained wholly by a mechanism involving the development of PD in patients with poor childhood dental care, as PD was not significantly associated with CHD in the multivariate model (OR = 1.646, 95% CI = 0.836-3.239, P = 0.149). In our single dental clinic assessment, adequate childhood professional dental prophylactic care was associated with reduced CHD in adulthood, an association independent of traditional risk factors. Further studies are required to better define the magnitude of this association.
Freund, K; Blanchard, R
Study 1 compared the retrospectively reported father-son relationships of four groups of adult males: (a) Gynephiles (males who erotically prefer physically mature females), (b) androphiles (who prefer physically mature males), (c) a combined group of heterosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter being attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent females), and (d) a combined group of homosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent males). The gynephiles were paid volunteers; the latter three groups were patients. The androphiles, the only group among those compared known to exhibit a measurably greater degree of cross gender identity in childhood, were also the only group to report significantly poorer father-son relations. The homosexual pedo/pedohebephiles, who also prefer male partners but who exhibit typical male gender identity in childhood, did not differ in father-son relations from the gynephiles or the heterosexual pedo/pedohebephiles. Study 2 showed that, within a sample of nonpatient volunteer androphiles, those individuals who reported the greatest degree of cross gender behavior in childhood also tended to report the worst relationships with their fathers. This correlation was replicated within a sample of androphilic patients in Study 3. The consistent pattern of results obtained from these three studies suggests that the emotionally distant relationships of fathers and androphilic sons relate to the sons' atypical childhood gender identity (or observable gender role behavior) rather than to the sons' erotic preference for male partners per se.
Mirela Elena Nichita
Full Text Available The purpose of financial reports is to provide useful information to users; the utility of information is defined through the qualitative characteristics (fundamental and enhancing. The financial crisis emphasized the limits of financial reporting, which has been unable to prevent investors about the risks they were facing. Due to the current changes in business environment, managers been highly motivated to rethink and improve the risk governance philosophy, processes and methodologies. The lack of quality, timely data and adequate systems to capture, report and measure the right information across the organization are fundamental challenges to implementing and sustaining all aspects of effective risk management. Starting from ‘80s, the investors have become more interested in narratives (from the Notes to financial statements, than in primary reports (which disclose financial position and performance. In this research, we aim to identify whether the accounting services entities disclose risk information in their financial statements. The research will use a regression model for the assessment of the relationship between the size, profitability, leverage ratios and risk reporting by the accounting and taxation services providers in Romania during the period 2009-2013
Por, Jitna; Barriball, Louise; Fitzpatrick, Joanne; Roberts, Julia
Emotional intelligence (EI) has been highlighted as an important theoretical and practical construct. It has the potential to enable individuals to cope better and experience less stress thus contributing to a healthy and stable workforce. The study aimed to explore the EI of nursing students (n=130, 52.0%) and its relationship to perceived stress, coping strategies, subjective well-being, perceived nursing competency and academic performance. Students were on the adult pathway of a nursing diploma or degree programme in one Higher Education Institution (HEI) in the United Kingdom (UK). A prospective correlational survey design was adopted. Three methods of data collection were used: i) A self-report questionnaire; ii) an audit of students' academic performance; and iii) mapping of EI teaching in the curricula. Emotional intelligence was positively related to well-being (pemotional competence assist nursing students to adopt active and effective coping strategies when dealing with stress, which in turn enhances their subjective well-being. This study highlights the potential value of facilitating the EI of students of nursing and other healthcare professions. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdullahi, Yahaya; Coetzee, Ben; Van den Berg, Linda
The study purpose was to determine relationships between results of internal and external match load determining methods. Twenty-one players, who participated in selected badminton championships during the 2014/2015 season served as subjects. The heart rate (HR) values and GPS data of each player were obtained via a fix Polar HR Transmitter Belt and MinimaxX GPS device. Moderate significant Spearman's rank correlations were found between HR and absolute duration (r = 0.43 at a low intensity (LI) and 0.44 at a high intensity (HI)), distance covered (r = 0.42 at a HI) and player load (PL) (r = 0.44 at a HI). Results also revealed an opposite trend for external and internal measures of load as the average relative HR value was found to be the highest for the HI zone (54.1%) compared to the relative measures of external load where average values (1.29-9.89%) were the lowest for the HI zone. In conclusion, our findings show that results of an internal and external badminton match load determining method are more related to each other in the HI zone than other zones and that the strength of relationships depend on the duration of activities that are performed in especially LI and HI zones. Overall, trivial to moderate relationships between results of an internal and external match load determining method in male, singles badminton players reaffirm the conclusions of others that these constructs measure distinctly different demands and should therefore be measured concurrently to fully understand the true requirements of badminton match play.
Davis, Larry E.; Emerson, Shirley; Williams, James Herbert
Studied romantic perceptions of 44 single black men and 91 single black women in professional occupations. Males and females indicated similar levels of overall satisfaction, but females reported perceiving less equity and wielding more power in their relationships than did males. Females also reported their existing relationships to be less ideal…
Nakhaee, Z; Rahimi, A; Abaee, M; Rezasoltani, A; Kalantari, K Khademi
Usually the rate of lower extremity's injuries in sports such as running is known to be correlated with the height of foot arches. Foot pressure measurement studies have shown controversial results in this issue, mainly due to the complexity of the foot structure. This study aimed to investigate if any relationship exists between the MLA height and the ankle/knee injuries in professional runners. It was also aimed to find out any association between the foot pressure patterns and the clinical navicular drop test in the subjects. Forty-seven professional runners were participated in this study and using the clinical navicular drop test, they were categorized into normal, low and high arch foot subjects. Using an Emed pedography platform (Novel, Germany), the maximum force, peak pressure and the contact area of their feet were studied in both static (single limb support) and dynamic conditions. The results of this study showed no strong correlation between the height of MLA and the rate of the ankle/knee injuries (P=0.58). The correlation between the clinical navicular drop test and the modified arch index (MAI) was between 0.32 in static and 0.57 in dynamic tests. The results of this study conveyed that having a lower or higher than a normal MLA is not a definite risk factor for sports-related injuries. This might be due to the complexity of the foot structure and its ability to accommodate with new situations routinely occurs in sport. Furthermore, although a high correlation was not found between the clinical navicular drop test and the foot pressure indices, due to the clinical entity of this test, the obtained association is relatively good. A significant correlation was found between the foot pressure distribution in single limb support (static) and the dynamic conditions, which provides an extrapolation of the results of this type static condition tests to the dynamic conditions.
Tang, Lu; Guan, Mengfei
The physician-patient relationship in China is highly strained. This study examined the professional identity of physicians and their perceptions of the physician-patient relationship against the backdrop of the rise of health consumerism in China. Structured interviews with 29 physicians found that the marketization of medical care and the rise of health consumerism caused physicians to have a conflicted professional identity. The traditional bureaucratic relationship between physicians and patients based on implicit trust was gradually replaced by an arm's length relationship characterized by self-interest, opportunism, and mistrust. In addition, the transition from physician-centered communication to patient-centered communication in China was tenacious. Theoretical and practical implications of the current study are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal studies have shown the reproductive toxicity of a number of heavy metals. Very few human observational studies have analyzed the relationship between male reproductive function and heavy metal concentrations in diverse biological fluids. Methods The current study assessed the associations between seminal and hormonal parameters and the concentration of the 3 most frequent heavy metal toxicants (lead, cadmium and mercury in three different body fluids. Sixty one men attending infertility clinics that participated in a case-control study to explore the role of environmental toxins and lifestyles on male infertility were analyzed. Concentration of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in blood and seminal plasma and whole blood using anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlations were used for unadjusted analyses. Multiple linear regression models were performed controlling for age, body mass index and number of cigarettes per day. Results There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the concentrations of heavy metals in any of the three body fluids. In multivariate analyses using all subjects no significant associations were found between serum hormone levels and metal concentrations. However there was a significant positive association between the percentage of immotile sperms and seminal plasma levels of lead and cadmium. Conclusions Our results suggest that the presence of lead and cadmium in the reproductive tract of men may be related to a moderate alteration of their seminal parameters.
Mendiola, Jaime; Moreno, José M; Roca, Manuela; Vergara-Juárez, Nuria; Martínez-García, María J; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; Moreno-Grau, Stella; López-Espín, José J; Ten, Jorge; Bernabeu, Rafael; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M
Animal studies have shown the reproductive toxicity of a number of heavy metals. Very few human observational studies have analyzed the relationship between male reproductive function and heavy metal concentrations in diverse biological fluids. The current study assessed the associations between seminal and hormonal parameters and the concentration of the 3 most frequent heavy metal toxicants (lead, cadmium and mercury) in three different body fluids. Sixty one men attending infertility clinics that participated in a case-control study to explore the role of environmental toxins and lifestyles on male infertility were analyzed. Concentration of lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in blood and seminal plasma and whole blood using anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlations were used for unadjusted analyses. Multiple linear regression models were performed controlling for age, body mass index and number of cigarettes per day. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the concentrations of heavy metals in any of the three body fluids. In multivariate analyses using all subjects no significant associations were found between serum hormone levels and metal concentrations. However there was a significant positive association between the percentage of immotile sperms and seminal plasma levels of lead and cadmium. Our results suggest that the presence of lead and cadmium in the reproductive tract of men may be related to a moderate alteration of their seminal parameters.
Full Text Available Bodybuilding is a high-risk sport for distal triceps tendon ruptures. Management, especially in high-demanding athletes, is operative with suture anchor refixation technique being frequently used. However, the rate of rerupture is high due to underlying poor tendon quality. Thus, additional augmentation could be useful. This case report presents a reconstruction technique for a complete traumatic distal triceps tendon rupture in a bodybuilder with postoperative biomechanical assessment. A 28-year-old male professional bodybuilder was treated with a synthetic augmented suture anchor reconstruction for a complete triceps tendon rupture of his right dominant elbow. Postoperative biomechanical assessment included isokinetic elbow strength and endurance testing by using multiple angular velocities to simulate the “off-season” and “precompetition” phases of training. Eighteen months postoperatively and after full return to training, the biomechanical assessment indicated that the strength and endurance of the operated elbow joint was fully restored with even higher ratings compared to the contralateral healthy arm. The described reconstruction technique can be considered as an advisable option in high-performance athletes with underlying poor tendon quality due to high tensile strength and lack of donor site morbidity, thus enabling them to restore preinjury status and achieve safe return to sports.
Nikolaidou, Maria-Elissavet; Banke, Ingo J.; Laios, Thomas; Petsogiannis, Konstantinos; Mourikis, Anastasios
Bodybuilding is a high-risk sport for distal triceps tendon ruptures. Management, especially in high-demanding athletes, is operative with suture anchor refixation technique being frequently used. However, the rate of rerupture is high due to underlying poor tendon quality. Thus, additional augmentation could be useful. This case report presents a reconstruction technique for a complete traumatic distal triceps tendon rupture in a bodybuilder with postoperative biomechanical assessment. A 28-year-old male professional bodybuilder was treated with a synthetic augmented suture anchor reconstruction for a complete triceps tendon rupture of his right dominant elbow. Postoperative biomechanical assessment included isokinetic elbow strength and endurance testing by using multiple angular velocities to simulate the “off-season” and “precompetition” phases of training. Eighteen months postoperatively and after full return to training, the biomechanical assessment indicated that the strength and endurance of the operated elbow joint was fully restored with even higher ratings compared to the contralateral healthy arm. The described reconstruction technique can be considered as an advisable option in high-performance athletes with underlying poor tendon quality due to high tensile strength and lack of donor site morbidity, thus enabling them to restore preinjury status and achieve safe return to sports. PMID:24711944
Pool, I.A.; Poell, R.F.; Berings, M.G.M.C.; Ten Cate, O.
Background To effectively enhance professional development, it is important to understand the motivational factors behind nurses' engagement in particular types of learning activities. Nurses have various motives for professional development and utilise different learning activities. Not much is
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to realize an anthropometric analysis including common indicators, somatotype rating and body fatness (BF in males with myocardial infarction (MI Methods: Cross-sectional study of 116 males aged 30-75 years. Results: Weight (81.6±13.2 kg; height (169.4±7.1 cm; waist circumference (WC (98.3±18.5 cm; umbilical circumference (102.4 ±21.8; hip circumference (99.3±13.6 cm; body mass index (BMI (28.4±4 kg/m2; waist-hip ratio (WHR (0.99±0.1, CI: 0.97-1; waist-height ratio (WHtR (0.58±0.1, CI: 0.56-0.60; BF (27.4%±4.5; endomorphy (4.6±1.3; mesomorphy (5.7±1.2; ectomorphy (0.8±0.8; conicity index (1.30±0.17. Correlations: BMI: BF (0.70, WC (0.70, WHR (0.48, WHtR (0.72, endomorphy (0.82, mesomorphy (0.81, ectomorphy (-0.81; WHR: BF (0.38, WC (0.69, endomorphy (0.39, mesomorphy (0.38; WHtR: BF (0.50, WC (0.96, endomorphy (0.58, mesomorphy (0.56, ectomorphy (-0.56; conicity index: WC (0.85, WHR (0.58, WHtR (0.85, endomorphy (0.45. Prevalence: WHtR (92%, WHR ≥0.95 (87%, conicity index (86.7%, WHR ≥1 (64%, BF ≥25 (69.4%, BMI ≥25-29.9 (45.6%, BMI ≥30 (37%, endomorphy ≥4.5 (47.2%, mesomorphy ≥5.6 (50%, ectomorphy ≤1.1 (71%. Conclusions: MI males present a high-risk anthropometric profile. The somatotype rating is endomorphic-mesomorph. Waist, hip and height measurements show different involvement on the body composition. BMI-defined obesity appears to be the indicator with the more weak association and it does not discriminate between body components. WHR presents high prevalence but a weak relationship with the body composition of risk. WHtR reflects body volume distribution and the best correlations with the risk bodily components, actually being the most prevalent and accurate index to explain the biological risk associated to MI.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In gymnastics judging, evaluation of routines in their execution is based on form and technique displayed during the performance. A vaulting performance takes a short time and is affected by the quantity of biomechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vault score and specific aspects of the gymnast’s vault should motivate coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of Lou Yun vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. METHODS: Ten top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D kinematic analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data was digitized by Simi Motion software. The Hay and Reid method (1988 was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear motions of the Lou Yun vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges’ scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p RESULTS: Six out of 24 examined variables showed significant correlations with the scores. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body centre of mass in the second flight phase (r = .68, in the height of centre of mass at mat touchdown (r = .75, in the relative height from table take-off to mat touchdown (r = –.85, in the duration of the table contact phase (r = –.71, in the duration of the second flight phase (r = .62 and in the vertical velocity of body centre of mass at table take-off (r = .70. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Lou Yun vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to minimize duration of table support phase; to maximize the vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to
muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs. 91.7%, respectively; t = 6.125,p = 0.0133. Calculated values of specificity (when three different cut-off were applied were also significantly different. Threshold of 0.6 of Hcon/Qcon resulted with significantly lower specificity compared to 0.47 value (specificity of 46.9% vs. 94.5%, respectively; t = 153.0,p<0.0001, and significantly higher specificity when compared to 0.658 (specificity of 46.9% vs. 24.1%, respectively; t = 229.0, p<0.0001.The use of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic testing. The interpretation of usefulness of isokinetic test as a screening tool in a group of male professional football players to predict hamstring injury occurrence within the next 12 months might be therefore significantly biased due to the different threshold values of Hcon/Qcon. Using one "normative" value as a cut-off (e.g. 0.47 or 0.60, or 0.658 to quantify soccer players (or not to the group with a higher risk of knee injury might result in biased outcomes due to the natural strength asymmetry that is observed within the group of soccer players.
Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Shephard, Roy J
This study aimed to investigate relationships between peak power (PP) as measured by upper limb (PPUL) and lower limb (PPLL) force-velocity tests, maximal upper limb force assessed by 1 repetition maximum bench press (1RMBP), and pullover (1RMPO) exercises, estimates of local muscle volume and 3-step running handball throwing velocity (T3-Steps). Fourteen male handball players volunteered for the investigation (age: 19.6+/-0.6 years; body mass: 86.7+/-12.9 kg; and height 1.87+/-0.07 m). Lower and upper limb force-velocity tests were performed on appropriately modified forms of a Monark cycle ergometer, with measurement of PPUL and PPLL, and the corresponding respective maximal forces (F0UL and F0LL) and velocities (V0UL and V0LL). T3-Steps was assessed using a radar Stalker ATS system. Muscle volumes of the upper and lower limbs were estimated with a standard anthropometric kit. T3-Steps was closely related to absolute PPUL and to F0UL (r=0.69, plimb muscle volume, the relationship with T3-Steps disappeared. This suggests the importance of muscle volume to performance in throwing events. Force-velocity data may prove useful in regulating conditioning and rehabilitation programs for handball players. Our results also highlight the contribution of both the lower and the upper limbs to handball throwing velocity, suggesting the need for coaches to include upper and lower limb strength and power programs when improving the throwing velocity of handball players.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between students' entrepreneurial attitudes and traits and their classification of employment six months after university graduation. It aims to identify what specific attitudes and traits of entrepreneurial graduates are linked to employability in a professional or managerial…
Kao, Chia-Pin; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study was conducted to explore the relationships between teachers' motivation toward web-based professional development, Internet self-efficacy, and beliefs about web-based learning. By gathering questionnaire data from 484 elementary school teachers, this study indicated that the teachers' Internet self-efficacy and behavioral beliefs about…
Bailey, Bonita Wingfield
This study was conducted to advance knowledge by examining the reasons that motivate teachers to participate in professional development and the relationship to teacher job satisfaction and retention in Christian-based K-12 Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) member schools. The study contributes to the literature in the field…
EDIMANSYAH, Bin Abdin; RUSLI, Bin Nordin; NAING, Lin; MOHAMED RUSLI, Bin Abdullah; WINN, Than
...) in male automotive assembly plant workers in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A total of 728 male workers were recruited in March-July 2005 from 2 major automotive assembly plants in Selangor and Pahang...
Christo A. Bisschoff, Ben Coetzee, Michael R. Esco
Full Text Available The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV, and heart rate recovery (HRR are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match, during (in-match, after (post-match and during rest periods (in-match rest of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014 was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626 and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085 and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258 for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.
Bisschoff, Christo A; Coetzee, Ben; Esco, Michael R
The primary aim of the study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV), and heart rate recovery (HRR) are related to several subjective indicators of recovery status (muscle soreness, hydration status, sleep quality and quantity as well as pre-competition mood states) for different match periods in male, elite, African, singles badminton players. HRV and HRR were measured in twenty-two badminton players before (pre-match), during (in-match), after (post-match) and during rest periods (in-match rest) of 46 national and international matches. Muscle soreness, hydration status, and sleep quality and quantity were measured on a daily basis whereas mood states were measured just before each match via questionnaires. Prior to each match warm-up, players were fitted with a Fix Polar Heart Rate Transmitter Belt to record heart rate every second during each match and HRR during service breaks and after matches. Kubios HRV software was used for final HRV analyses from the series of R-R-intervals. A strong, significant canonical correlation (Rc = 0.96, p = 0.014) was found between HRV, HRR and subjective indicators of recovery status for the in-match period, but only strong, non-significant relationships were observed for pre-match (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.626) and post-match periods (Rc = 0.98, p = 0.085) and a low non-significant relationship (Rc = 0.69, p = 0.258) for the in-match rest period. Canonical functions accounted for between 47.89% and 96.43% of the total variation between the two canonical variants. Results further revealed that Ln-HFnu, the energy index and vigour were the most prominent variables in the relationship between the autonomic markers of heart rate and recovery-related variables. In conclusion, this study proved that subjective indicators of recovery status influence HRV and HRR measures obtained in a competitive badminton environment and should therefore be incorporated in protocols that evaluate these ANS-related parameters.
Brosnan, Mark; Daggar, Rajiv; Collomosse, John
Within the Extreme Male Brain theory, Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterised as a deficit in empathising in conjunction with preserved or enhanced systemising. A male advantage in systemising is argued to underpin the traditional male advantage in mental rotation tasks. Mental rotation tasks can be separated into rotational and non-rotational…
[The criteria for the relationship between hearing impairment and professional occupation and the criteria for professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel engaged in civilian aviation].
Pankova, V B
This article describes the main clinical features associated with the development and manifestations of disturbed sound perception in the members of the aeronautical personnel engaged in the Russian civilian aviation. The main expert criteria for the relationship between the diseases of the organs of hearing (as exemplified by chronic sensorineural hearing impairment) and professional occupation have been developed based on the results of the clinical and diagnostic examination with the use of whispered and loud speech acumetry, tonal threshold audiometry, speech audiometry, impedancometry and evoked optoacoustic emission. Civilian aviation sectoral approaches to the evaluation of professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel are considered in accordance with the criteria adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized UN agency that sets the international standards for the civilian aviation and co-ordinates its development with the purpose of enhancing the safety and effectiveness of flights. The criteria are formulated for the solution of the expert problems arising from the relationship between the professional occupation and the diseases of the organs of hearing and for the evaluation of the professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel engaged in civilian aviation.
Spilt, Jantine L; Koomen, Helma M Y; Jak, Suzanne
Although research consistently points to poorer teacher-student relationships for boys than girls, there are no studies that take into account the effects of teacher gender and control for possible measurement non-invariance across student and teacher gender. This study addressed both issues. The sample included 649 primary school teachers (182 men) and 1493 students (685 boys). Teachers completed a slightly adapted version of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale. The results indicated limited measurement non-invariance in teacher reports. Female teachers reported better (i.e., more close, less conflictual, and less dependent) relationships with students than male teachers. In addition, both male and female teachers reported more conflictual relationships with boys than with girls, and female teachers also reported less close relationships with boys than with girls. The findings challenge society's presumption that male teachers have better relationships with boys than women teachers. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...
Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Musa, Saif A
Professional caregivers dealing with traumatized victims or mental health clients are at increased risk for developing the same symptoms as persons who are exposed directly to the trauma. This research was aimed at examining the relationship between secondary traumatic stress, burnout and coping strategies in 502 professional caregivers who work in schools, hospitals, charity institutes and welfare centers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A further aim was to test the mediating effect of coping on the relationship between burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Measures used in this study were the Professional Quality of Life Questionnaire (ProQOL), The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), The Maslach Burnout Inventory: Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and Endler and Parker's Coping Inventory. Task-focused coping, personal accomplishment and compassion satisfaction were negatively associated with secondary traumatic stress. Burnout, emotion-focused and distraction coping were positively related to secondary traumatic stress. Coping partially mediated the relationship between burnout and secondary traumatic stress. There were also significant gender differences in depersonalization and distraction coping. Efforts need to focus on improvement of caregivers' work environments, enhancing their coping skills and professional development.
Jencks, Jennifer W; Burton, David L
In this project, the authors examined the relationship trait anxiety has on incarcerated male adolescents' progression from childhood exposure to violence/victimization to violent behavior. Self-report survey data were analyzed to determine the youth's levels of trait anxiety, how the degree of childhood trauma was related to their level of anxiety, as well as whether their level of anxiety affected the relationship between trauma and subsequent frequency and severity of their delinquent acts using a moderation analysis. Anxiety significantly decreased the relationship between victimization and the commission of violence (F = 15.93, p < .001).
Yadav, Radha; Khanna, Ashu; Singh, Dharmendra
This observational paper endeavours to recognize the connection between spirituality and stress. Four types of indicators are utilized for the estimation of anxiety, vis-à-vis, behavioural indicators, emotional indicators, sleep indicators and personal habits. As per pre-documented theory, if spirituality is high within an individual, then his/her stress will be low and vice versa. In college, the stress of education and scoring grades influences the understudy. Information is gathered through a survey in the light of spirituality index and stress index. Findings prove that the indicators of the stress are more visible in female students. Apart from this, there has been not much substantial study in the area of stress and spirituality among college students. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to discuss the various types of stress and effects of spirituality on the engineering students belonging to the age group of 21-26 years, prioritizing the indicators of stress as per the gender of students. The entire study constituted of a sample group of 200 participants, and for the entire process, correlation analysis was used to find the relative relation between spirituality and stress among girls and boys. T test is used for rejection of the null hypothesis. The article focuses on the current issues that students have been facing in the twenty-first century. Result of the study showed that there is a negative relationship between the spirituality and stress of male and female students. Moreover, the article provides unique contribution to the literature and also offers suggestions for generating new research ideas that can be used to ameliorate the problems that plague individuals and organizations in today's world. This is the first article which covers the spirituality and stress of the engineering student and discusses the impact on young adults, as well as highlighting certain ways to overcome stress and enhance spirituality.
Hermassi, Souhail; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Irlenbusch, Lars; Fieseler, Georg; Noack, Frank; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Gabbett, Tim J; Souhaiel Chelly, Mohamed; Schwesig, René
We investigated the relationship between the Handball Complex-Test (HBCT) and two selected field performance tests (the repeated sprint ability [RSA], and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test) in elite handball players. Nineteen handball players (age: 25.7±5.1 years) were drawn from the First Professional German League. The HBCT consists of four activity series (AS): agility parcours, defensive action, sprint (10 m, 20 m) and throw-on-goal parcours; these activities were completed twice, with five active pauses of 30-35 s, and a follow-up of recovery over the subsequent 10 minutes. The RSA comprised 6 x (15+15 m) sprints starting every 20 s; scoring noted best time (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and decrement (RSAdec). In the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recover, we recorded the total distance covered (TD). Heart rates (HR) were recorded throughout and recovery was assessed for measurements immediately post-test (R0) and 10 minutes after completing the test (R10). A strong correlation was found between HBCT and fastest 10 m and 20 m RSA sprint times (r=0.811, r=0.815, respectively). Also, the HBCT total 10 m and 20 m sprint times showed a strong positive association with RSATT (r=0.70; r=0.63, respectively), and the RSA heart rate post-test was strongly correlated with the HBCT heart rate after round two (r=0.865). Data from the match-specific HBCT Test shows a strong positive association with other more generic intermittent field test measurements. These observations support the validity of using the generic tests to monitor current fitness and responses to training in team handball players.
Cooper, Calvin H., Jr.
Consistent with a recognized challenge across the United States, the local problem addressed in this study was teachers' inability to implement new technologies in the classroom. Professional development is the channel through which teachers improve, and high-quality professional development has been shown to enhance teacher efficacy. Professional…
Kaupins, Gundars Egons; Wanek, James Edward; Coco, Malcolm Paulin
Based on a survey of 264 human resources professionals from 10 Society for Human Resource Management chapters in Texas, the authors investigated how human resources professionals accept online degrees compared to degrees based on face-to-face coursework for hiring and promotion purposes. If respondents were satisfied with their own online course…
Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen
This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…
Liberati, Elisa Giulia; Gorli, Mara; Scaratti, Giuseppe
The purpose of this paper is to understand how the introduction of a patient-centered model (PCM) in Italian hospitals affects the pre-existent configuration of clinical work and interacts with established intra/inter-professional relationships. Qualitative multi-phase study based on three main sources: health policy analysis, an exploratory interview study with senior managers of eight Italian hospitals implementing the PCM, and an in-depth case study that involved managerial and clinical staff of one Italian hospital implementing the PCM. The introduction of the PCM challenges clinical work and professional relationships, but such challenges are interpreted differently by the organisational actors involved, thus giving rise to two different "narratives of change". The "political narrative" (the views conveyed by formal policies and senior managers) focuses on the power shifts and conflict between nurses and doctors, while the "workplace narrative" (the experiences of frontline clinicians) emphasises the problems linked to the disruption of previous discipline-based inter-professional groups. Medical disciplines, rather than professional groupings, are the main source of identification of doctors and nurses, and represent a crucial aspect of clinicians' professional identity. Although the need for collaboration among medical disciplines is acknowledged, creating multi-disciplinary groups in practice requires the sustaining of new aggregators and binding forces. This study suggests further acknowledgment of the inherent complexity of the political and workplace narratives of change rather than interpreting them as the signal of irreconcilable perspectives between managers and clinicians. By addressing the specific issues regarding which the political and workplace narratives clash, relationship of trust may be developed through which problems can be identified, mutually acknowledged, articulated, and solved.
Borowski, Zbigniew; Malinowska, Aleksandra; Książek, Aneta
In many species, dominance increases a male's mating success via intrasexual competition and/or female choice. The level of androgen hormones, mainly testosterone (T), the intensity of scent marking and body mass are traits that are known to be linked to mammalian male social rank. Recently, however, it has been noted that this link between male dominance and the aforementioned traits in natural free-living populations is not universal and does not exist in some species. That is why we tested the hypothesis of whether a male's social rank is related to the expression of T, scent-marking and his body mass. We conducted the study on the promiscuous rodent species, root voles (Microtus oeconomus), which originated from a natural population (wild-born). These tests provided support for the following conclusions: (1) the social status of a male root vole is partly related to his level of testosterone; (2) the highest T level was observed in subdominant males; (3) T levels proved to be independent of male body mass; (4) marking frequency was not dependent on a male's social status nor their body mass; and (5) the mean body mass of dominant, subdominant and subordinate individuals was similar. Our results indicate that in natural free-living populations, the link between the T levels and dominance behaviour of root vole males is ambiguous. Moreover, there is no link between the social status and the intensity of scent-marking. We therefore conclude that in this species, male marking intensity cannot be used as an indicator of social rank. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study investigated the characteristics of the age-job satisfaction relationship for public school teachers. Past studies examining this relationship have found both linear and non-linear relationships. However, such studies have yet to examine these relationships by comparing job satisfaction of teachers with that of company employees in the same cultural context. In order to investigate the characteristics of Japanese teachers' working environment, we examined how different the age-job satisfaction relationships were between teachers and company employees. We conducted hierarchical polynomial regression analyses with four job satisfaction variables to compare the age-job satisfaction relationships of Japanese public elementary, junior and high school teachers with Japanese professional and technical workers who belonged to their respective labor unions. 1) Among teachers, the effects of age on overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with pay were significantly negative, and the effects of age on satisfaction with human relationships and working hours were not significant. 2) Among company employees, these four kinds of satisfactions had U shaped relationships with age. 3) Compared to company employees, teachers showed higher intrinsic satisfaction and lower extrinsic satisfaction. The age-job satisfaction relationship for teachers decreases with age. This result may be explained by the excessive workload of Japanese teachers, a characteristic of their working environment. Elderly teachers' burnout may be related to this characteristic. It may be necessary for elderly teachers to be supported in order to enhance their job satisfaction, especially extrinsic satisfaction.
Full Text Available Ethics, how to live and how to behave in a professional style and in a professional environment, both individual and organizational sets. In this regard, the present study was to determine the relationship between the ethics of the profession and improve the quality of care with nurses, hospital staff empowerment from the perspective of Ayatollah Rouhani was performed. The study was a descriptive one. The population consisted of nurses Ayatollah spiritual Babylon, which uses random sampling method, 163 samples were selected and evaluated. Collection tool was a questionnaire, content validity of the questionnaire in consultation with experts confirmed the reliability of the test-retest on 10% of the total of 2-week interval was calculated, and Cronbach's alpha for the whole questionnaire 0.85respectively. To analyze the data, structural equation modeling was used. The results showed that relations professional ethics to improve the quality of care (P <0.01 and staff empowerment (P <0.01 was significant. The ability of the staff as well as improve the quality of care (P <0.05 there was a significant relationship. Based on the results of research, professional ethics directly and indirectly improve the quality of nursing care was effective (P<0.05. In general it can be said that rely on moral and ethical management, increases the effectiveness of the approach is to improve the quality of care and sense of empowerment among nurses.
Macías Fernández, Antonio José; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, Carlos; Carmona González, Francisco Jesús; Crespillo Vílchez, Daniel
To examine the relationship between "Quality of Professional Life" and "Perceived Emotional Intelligence" and the relationship of both of these with the level of achievement of occupational objectives in the Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District. Multicentre descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The Costa del Sol Primary Health Care District in the province of Málaga. Sample of Employees of all categories in fixed and contracted employment in the Management Units of the Costa del Sol District. (N=303). Respondents 247 (81.5%) The data collected was that of the percentage of achievement of objectives in 2010 and the socio-demographic data of the participants, using ad hoc designed self-report questionnaires. The TMMS -24 questionnaire was used to measure the "Perceived Emotional Intelligence", with the following dimensions: Perception, comprehension, and emotional control, and the CVP-35 measuring: management support, work demands, and intrinsic motivation. Significant correlationas were observed between Quality of Professional Life and Emotional Intelligence in the Regulation (p<.01) and Comprehension categories (p<0.05). There were also significant correlations between the profession and the type of contract in the achievement of objectives (p<.005), and quality of professional life and type of contract (p<.05). The perceived quality of professional life is related to perception and regulation dimensions of Emotional Intelligence. Knowledge of emotion management methods should be promoted by management organisations for all employees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Munivrana, Goran; Filipčić, Aleš; Filipčić, Tjaša
The aim of the study was to analyses the relation between the selected speed, agility, and neuromuscular power test items. The sample of subjects consisted of 154 male and 152 female young tennis players. Using six motor and three anthropometrical tests we investigate differences between males and females and between two age categories. Finally, we analyzed the relation between motor and anthropometrical tests and a player's tennis performance. The correlation between the two agility test items and 5-m sprint is very large in male players, while only moderate with 20-m sprint in female category. Male tennis players have higher correlations between speed test items and neuromuscular test items. The speed test item (5-m sprint) has large correlation with a player's tennis performance. One-way analysis of variance results indicated that young male tennis players performed significantly better than females in all motor test items. Significant differences between genders have not been revealed only in the body mass index. Differences between the males aged 18& under and 16& under have been noted as significant in all test items, except the vertical jump, while differences between the females have been noted as significant in three anthropometrical tests, quarter jump, and the fan-drill test. Regression analyses have shown that the system of prediction variables explains a relatively small part of variance (46%--males and 40%--females). In both genders, it has been revealed that test items measuring speed significantly influence a player's tennis performance.
This paper presents a scale to measure the professional self-esteem of physicians. It describes the scale's theoretical basis, psychometric properties, and its value for explaining physicians' well-being. Statistical analyses, conducted on data from two independent studies of physicians in Israel (ns = 214 and 122), indicate internal consistency and construct validity of the scale. Scores on professional self-esteem are associated positively with life satisfaction and work satisfaction and negatively with burnout. Scores also correlate significantly with global self-esteem and with anxiety. The professional self-esteem scale appears to be a useful tool for explaining professionals' work performance, work-related well-being, and general well-being.
Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.
In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…
Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E
Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid
Samira Joorabbaf Motlagh
Full Text Available One of the important reasons for accidents is sleepiness.With this description, the sleep disorders are associated with health and mortality, and not only affect the person but also the family and the whole society. Aim of this study was assessing of relationship between Sleep Quality, Obstructive sleep Apnea and Sleepiness during day with related factors in professional drivers. This was a cross-sectional study measuring correlation between sleep quality questionnaire (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index or PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Stop Bang questionnaire (STOP BANG.the appropriate sample size to achieve a 95% confidence level was 943 people. The study population was chosen among qualified drivers using a convenience sampling method that took place over 12 months duration. Exclusion criterion consisted of the presence of a physical or mental disability. Data analyzed by software SPSS, version 15. In this study, all drivers were men with mean of age 36±9/5 year (minimum 22 year and maximum 72 year, 799 (84.7% were married, 535 (56.7% had high school education. Also, 96.4 % of drivers had undesirable sleep quality, 25.8% obstructive sleep apnea and 6.8% abnormal sleepiness during day. Multiple linear regression test showed, Score of STOP-Bang was correlated with smoking (OR (β=0/2, P=0.006 and history of hurt disease (OR (β=0.95, P=0.003, shift work (OR (β=0.19, P=0.006 more probability. Moreover, PSQI was statistically significant with shift work (OR (β=0.44, P=0.02, smoking (OR (β=0.98, P=0.001, history of pulmonary disease (OR (β=3.58, P=0.009 more probability , and ESS was statistically significant with smoking (OR (β=0.64, P=0.007 and history of pulmonary disease(OR (β=2.82, P=0.006, shift work (OR (β=0.59, P=0.008 more probability. In our study, according to the results, it should be planning to reduce the driving time in day and night and also it are recommended short breaks during driving. It is suggested the more
Joorabbaf Motlagh, Samira; Shabany, Maryam; Sadeghniiat Haghighi, Khosro; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Emami Razavi, Seyed Hassan
One of the important reasons for accidents is sleepiness.With this description, the sleep disorders are associated with health and mortality, and not only affect the person but also the family and the whole society. Aim of this study was assessing of relationship between Sleep Quality, Obstructive sleep Apnea and Sleepiness during day with related factors in professional drivers. This was a cross-sectional study measuring correlation between sleep quality questionnaire (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index or PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Stop Bang questionnaire (STOP BANG).the appropriate sample size to achieve a 95% confidence level was 943 people. The study population was chosen among qualified drivers using a convenience sampling method that took place over 12 months duration. Exclusion criterion consisted of the presence of a physical or mental disability. Data analyzed by software SPSS, version 15. In this study, all drivers were men with mean of age 36±9/5 year (minimum 22 year and maximum 72 year), 799 (84.7%) were married, 535 (56.7%) had high school education. Also, 96.4 % of drivers had undesirable sleep quality, 25.8% obstructive sleep apnea and 6.8% abnormal sleepiness during day. Multiple linear regression test showed, Score of STOP-Bang was correlated with smoking (OR (β)=0/2, P=0.006) and history of hurt disease (OR (β)=0.95, P=0.003), shift work (OR (β)=0.19, P=0.006) more probability. Moreover, PSQI was statistically significant with shift work (OR (β)=0.44, P=0.02), smoking (OR (β)=0.98, P=0.001), history of pulmonary disease (OR (β)=3.58, P=0.009) more probability , and ESS was statistically significant with smoking (OR (β)=0.64, P=0.007) and history of pulmonary disease(OR (β)=2.82, P=0.006), shift work (OR (β)=0.59, P=0.008) more probability. In our study, according to the results, it should be planning to reduce the driving time in day and night and also it are recommended short breaks during driving. It is suggested the more
Munivrana, Goran; Filipčić, Aleš; Filipčić, Tjaša
The aim of the study was to analyses the relation between the selected speed, agility, and neuromuscular power test items. The sample of subjects consisted of 154 male and 152 female young tennis players. Using six motor and three anthropometrical tests we investigate differences between males and females and between two age categories. Finally, we analyzed the relation between motor and anthropometrical tests and a player’s tennis performance. The correlation between the two agil...
The bone quality values (OSI) of 119 male high school students were evaluated by acoustic osteo screener. The questionnaire survey on the exercise experience and competence was made from the term of elementary to high school. The relationship between exercise experience and bone mineral density was researched.Result showed that the students who made regular exercise had higher OSI values than that who had not exercise customs. The values of OSI produced higher value within the participants wh...
José H. Osorio
Full Text Available Introduction: Glucose metabolism in birds is directly related to insulin secretion, given that this hormone exerts an anabolic function and this response is reflected in the growth of poultry. There is little information on variables such as sex, age and weight, and their effect on insulin secretion and the regulation of glucose concentrations. Objective: To compare concentrations of insulin, glucose, and weight in four-weeks-old male and female broiler chickens, in order to establish reference values for them. Materials and methods: Fasting blood samples were collected from 80 broilers of both sexes (four-weeks-old Cobb 500 line. Enzyme immunoassay (sandwich method was used to determine levels of insulin, glucometer for glycemia levels, and scales for weight. Results were analyzed using the Stata statistical program; a statistically significant difference is accepted when p is < 0.05. Results: Insulin values are 0.60 ± 0.63 ng/mL; regarding glucose levels, males reported values between 415.45 ± 40.52 mg/dL, and females between 350.72 ± 68.37 mg/dL; finally, weight values were 963.73 g in males and 865.64 g in females. Conclusions: Males are heavier than females. Glycemia concentrations are higher in males than in females; reference values according to sex are: in females (mg/dL 350.72 ± 68.37, and in males (mg/dL 415 ± 40.52; finally, insulin levels are higher in females than in males.
Full Text Available Patent information is seen to be a kind of information with the features of exactitude and trustfulness, and it can be used as an indicator to measure the capability of research and development in a company. This research initially explores the relationships among the R&D productivities of patent inventors in patents, academic achievements and professional performances in terms of a patent production aspect. Our research object is the Pixar Company, which had been devoted to 3D animation production for a long time and become one of the key players in the industry. This paper presents a study to discover the technical human resource in the company based on inventor analyses from patent information. Three problems were addressed as follows: (1 Pixar’s key inventors and their active periods, (2 the collaboration among these inventors, and (3 their academic achievements and professional performances and then examined their relationships among the patents, academic achievements and professional performances. In the study, we produced a graph to depict the collaboration of patent inventors when they cooperated to develop technologies and applied patents, and finally we integrated the graph with the search results from the ACM database and the IMDB databases to synthesize another graph to demonstrate the relationships among the productivities of key patent inventors in patents, academic achievements and professional performances. The findings show that in the digital content industry the performances of patent producing of technical talents principally come from the accumulation of their academic ability. When they applied the knowledge and the competence to the industry, they not only achieved remarkable success but also gained confirmation from international awards. Finally, the study also approved the potential and the feasibility of applying knowledge and techniques of bibliometrics to industrial analysis. [Article content in Chinese
Okuyama, Minami W; Shimozuru, Michito; Abe, Go; Nakai, Mariko; Sashika, Mariko; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ryohei; Tsubota, Toshio
The raccoon (Procyon lotor), indigenous to North America, has naturalized in Japan as an invasive alien species, having been introduced into the country in the 1970s. In Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan, feral raccoons have been increasing in number and spreading throughout the island. The age at the onset of puberty for raccoons is important for estimating individual lifetime reproductive success and population growth. The present study investigated the timing of and potential factors affecting the onset of puberty in male raccoons in Hokkaido. External characteristics and histology of testes were studied in 151 male feral raccoons and in 1 captive juvenile. For the majority of feral yearling raccoons, prepubertal development began in May, and spermatozoa production began in October prior to their second mating season. However, some larger juveniles attained puberty during the juvenile period. The captive juvenile, which was fed throughout the winter, attained puberty only 11 months after birth. These results suggest that if male raccoons can achieve enough body growth before the first mating season, puberty can be attained early. In both juveniles and yearlings, spermatozoa production was only observed after autumn. This timing coincided with the recrudescence of seasonally active spermatogenesis in adult males. Therefore, attaining puberty in male raccoons appears to require both adequate body nutrient development and several environmental factors that control seasonal testicular changes.
Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Campbell, Chadwick; Wilson, Patrick; Grisham, Kirk; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B; Hoff, Colleen
Research is clear that power differentials between women and men shape women's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risks; however, little research has attempted to examine power differentials within same-sex male (SSM) couples and whether these influence sexual risk outcomes. To produce the first quantitative scale that measures power in SSM relationships, the current work was a Phase 1 qualitative study that sought to understand domains of relationship power and how power operated in the relationship among 48 Black, White, and interracial (Black-White) SSM couples recruited from San Francisco and New York. Interview domains were focused on definitions of power and perceptions of how power operated in the relationship. Findings revealed that couples described power in three key ways: as power exerted over a partner through decision-making dominance and relationship control; as power to accomplish goals through personal agency; and as couple-level power. In addition, men described ways that decision-making dominance and relationship control could be enacted in the relationship-through structural resources, emotional and sexual influence, and gender norm expectations. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexual risks and HIV care and treatment with SSM couples that are focused on closing gaps in power.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, youths of Moroccan origin account for a disproportionately large percentage of the population in juvenile justice institutions. Previous research showed that Moroccan adolescents in pre-trial arrest are characterized by less serious offending behavior (i.e., primarily property-based and lower levels of mental health problems than native Dutch adolescents in pre-trial arrest. To date, little is known about the parent-child relationship of these adolescents. This study examines the mother-son relationships of Moroccan and native Dutch delinquent adolescents and their association with adolescent delinquency. Methods In the present study, differences in the mother-son relationship characteristics between families of incarcerated (N = 129 and non-incarcerated (N = 324 adolescents were examined, and it was analyzed if these differences between incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents were the same for Moroccans and native Dutch. Data collection for the incarcerated sample took place from 2006 to 2008. Comparison data were used of interviews conducted with mothers originating from former larger studies in the general Dutch population. Latent Class Analysis was performed in order to identify types of mother-son relationship. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the relationships between mother-son relationship types, incarceration and ethnicity. Results A three class model of mother-son relationship types was found: a low-conflict mother-son relationship type, a high-conflict mother-son relationship type, and a neglectful mother-son relationship type. Compared to the native Dutch adolescents, Moroccans (both in the incarcerated and non-incarcerated population more often showed a neglectful mother-son relationship type. For Moroccans, no differences in mother-son relationship types were found between the incarcerated and non-incarcerated adolescents, whereas considerable differences occurred
Yoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen R.; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.
Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to other aspects of parental care such as offspring provisioning. However, geographic variation in brooding behavior has received much less attention than variation in incubation attentiveness or provisioning rates. We compared parental behavior during the nestling period in populations of orange-crowned warblers Oreothlypis celata near the northern (64°N) and southern (33°N) boundaries of the breeding range. In Alaska, we found that males were responsible for the majority of food delivery whereas the sexes contributed equally to provisioning in California. Higher male provisioning in Alaska appeared to facilitate a higher proportion of time females spent brooding the nestlings. Surprisingly, differences in brooding between populations could not be explained by variation in ambient temperature, which was similar between populations during the nestling period. While these results represent a single population contrast, they suggest additional hypotheses for the ecological correlates and evolutionary drivers of geographic variation in brooding behavior, and the factors that shape the contributions of each sex.
Wade, Quentarius Dewayne
Using a correlational research design, this dissertation sought to examine the variables--self-efficacy, motivation, reading attitude, and gender--which could serve as a predictors for reading achievement with a purposive sample of 81 African-American 5th grade males attending two elementary schools in North Texas. Using a bivariate correlation,…
Abu-Shreah, Mohammad; Zidan, Hiam
The study aims to know the degree of schools principals practicing innovation and its relationship with the teachers' professional development; the population of the study is consisted of all male and female teachers numbering to 415 teachers; the sample of the study is consisted of 205 male and female teachers from members of the study…
Canrinus, Esther T.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Beijaard, Douwe; Buitink, Jaap; Hofman, Adriaan
This study investigates how relevant indicators of teachers' sense of their professional identity (job satisfaction, occupational commitment, self-efficacy and change in level of motivation) are related. A model is proposed, tested with structural equation modelling (SEM) and refined using data from
White, Kelley Mayer
For a majority of teachers, traditional professional development workshops lack relevancy and leave teachers on their own to implement what was learned. Workshops are frequently structured in ways in which teachers are seen simply as recipients of information handed down by trainers (a more passive role) versus those who reflect on and construct…
Canrinus, Esther T.; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Beijaard, Douwe; Buitink, Jaap; Hofman, Adriaan
This study investigates how relevant indicators of teachers' sense of their professional identity (job satisfaction, occupational commitment, self-efficacy and change in level of motivation) are related. A model is proposed, tested with structural equation modelling (SEM) and refined using data from 1,214 Dutch teachers working in secondary…
Senormancı, Omer; Konkan, Ramazan; Güçlü, Oya; Senormancı, Güliz
.... We designed this study in order to evaluate the predictor effect of depression, loneliness, anger and interpersonal relationship styles for internet addiction as well as develop a model. Forty (40...
Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cruz, Bárbara
Job stress and burnout are common among healthcare professionals, and nurses in particular. In addition to the heavy workload and lack of recourses, nurses are also confronted with emotionally intense situations associated with illness and suffering, which require empathic abilities. Although empathy is one of the core values in nursing, if not properly balanced it can also have detrimental consequences, such as compassion fatigue. Self-compassion, on the other hand, has been shown to be a protective factor for a wide range of well-being indicators and has been associated with compassion for others. The main goal of this study was to explore how empathy and self-compassion related to professional quality of life (compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout). In addition, we wanted to test whether self-compassion may be a protective factor for the impact of empathy on compassion fatigue. Using a cross-sectional design, 280 registered nurses from public hospitals in Portugal's north and center region were surveyed. Professional quality of life (Professional Quality of Life), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale) were measured using validated self-report measures. Correlations and regression analyses showed that empathy and self-compassion predicted the three aspects of professional quality of life. Empathic concern was positively associated with compassion satisfaction as well as with compassion fatigue. Mediation models suggested that the negative components of self-compassion explain some of these effects, and self-kindness and common humanity were significant moderators. The same results were found for the association between personal distress and compassion fatigue. High levels of affective empathy may be a risk factor for compassion fatigue, whereas self-compassion might be protective. Teaching self-compassion and self-care skills may be an important feature in interventions that aim to reduce burnout
Choi, Jung-Seok; Payne, Thomas J; Ma, Jennie Z; Li, Ming D
Personality characteristics are linked to nicotine dependence (ND). It remains unclear whether these factors differ across African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) male and female smokers. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between personality traits and smoking status, as well as the degree of ND, in AA and EA male and female samples. A total of 5,040 participants (AA: N = 3,737, female = 54.31%; EA: N = 1,313, female = 64.51%) were included in this study, with 2,474 smokers and 2,566 non-smokers. The measures used in this study included five dimensions of personality by the NEO-personality inventory-revised (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness), Fagerström test for ND, and drive subscale of the ND Syndrome Scale (NDSS). In the AA sample, neuroticism was significantly associated with a higher risk of smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.057; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.032, 1.083; p smoking (OR = 0.936; 95% CI 0.912, 0.961; p predicting the severity of ND in the AA samples. However, no differential association was detected between male and female smokers of both AA and EA samples. There exist differential relationships between personality traits and the severity of ND in the AA and EA samples.
Ruth F. Castillo Cajas
Full Text Available Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species (Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei covaries with water transparency. Focusing on coloration patches implicated in sexual selection, we predicted that in clear waters, with broad-spectrum light, (1 colours should become more saturated and (2 shift in hue away from the dominant ambient wavelengths, compared to more turbid waters. We found support for these predictions for the red and yellow coloration of P. nyererei but not the blue coloration of P. pundamilia. This may be explained by the species difference in depth distribution, which generates a steeper gradient in visual conditions for P. nyererei compared to P. pundamilia. Alternatively, the importance of male coloration in intraspecific sexual selection may differ between the species. We also found that anal fin spots, that is, the orange spots on male haplochromine anal fins that presumably mimic eggs, covaried with water transparency in a similar way for both species. This is in contrast to the other body regions studied and suggests that, while indeed functioning as signals, these spots may not play a role in species differentiation.
Campos-Vazquez, Miguel Angel; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Gonzalez-Jurado, Jose Antonio; León-Prados, Juan Antonio; Santalla, Alfredo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis
To describe the internal training load (ITL) of common training sessions performed during a typical week and to determine the relationships between different indicators of ITL commonly employed in professional football (soccer). Session-rating-of-perceived-exertion TL (sRPE-TL) and heart-rate- (HR) derived measurements of ITL as Edwards TL and Stagno training impulses (TRIMPMOD) were used in 9 players during 3 periods of the season. The relationships between them were analyzed in different training sessions during a typical week: skill drills/circuit training + small-sided games (SCT+SSGs), ball-possession games+technical-tactical exercises (BPG+TTE), tactical training (TT), and prematch activation (PMa). HR values obtained during SCT+SSGs and BPG+TTE were substantially greater than those in the other 2 sessions, all the ITL markers and session duration were substantially greater in SCT+SSGs than in any other session, and all ITL measures in BPG+TTE were substantially greater than in TT and PMa sessions. Large relationships were found between HR>80% HRmax and HR>90% HRmax vs sRPE-TL during BPG+TTE and TT sessions (r=.61-.68). Very large relationships were found between Edwards TL and sRPE-TL and between TRIMPMOD and sRPE-TL in sessions with BPG+TTE and TT (r=.73-.87). Correlations between the different HR-based methods were always extremely large (r=.92-.98), and unclear correlations were observed for other relationships between variables. sRPE-TL provided variable-magnitude within-individual correlations with HR-derived measures of training intensity and load during different types of training sessions typically performed during a week in professional soccer. Caution should be applied when using RPE- or HR-derived measures of exercise intensity/load in soccer training interchangeably.
Roya Nayebi Limoodehi
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between five dimensions of the epistemological beliefs regarding structure of knowledge, stability of knowledge, source of knowledge, ability to learn and, speed of learning and six measures of the motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies (intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy, control of learning, and test anxiety among male and female EFL learners across years of study (freshman and sophomore students. The participants of this study were 101 EFL students studying English literature and English translation in the Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Iran, during the spring semester of 2013. The participants completed Persian version of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia & McKeachie, 1991 and Persian version of Epistemological Questionnaire (Schommer, 1990. Results showed that, in general, the more naïve the epistemological beliefs of students, the less likely they are to use motivational learning strategies. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between dimensions of epistemological beliefs and motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies among male and female students. On the other hand, a statistically significant relationship was found between dimensions of epistemological beliefs and motivational components of self-regulated learning strategies for both freshman and sophomore students.
Thai Trung M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The anatomy course offers important opportunities to develop professionalism at an early stage in medical education. It is an academically significant course that also engenders stress in some students. Methods Over a three-year period, 115 of 297 students completed creative projects. Thirty-four project completers and 47 non-completers consented to participate in the study. Projects were analyzed for professionalism themes using grounded theory. A subset of project completers and non-completers were interviewed to determine their views about the stress of anatomy and medical school, as well as the value of the creative projects. We also compared test performance of project completers and non-completers. Results Projects completed early in the course often expressed ambivalence about anatomy, whereas later projects showed more gratitude and sense of awe. Project completers tended to report greater stress than noncompleters, but stated that doing projects reduced stress and caused them to develop a richer appreciation for anatomy and medicine. Project completers performed significantly lower than non-completers on the first written exam (pre-project. Differences between groups on individual exams after both the first and second creative project were nonsignificant. Conclusion For some students, creative projects may offer a useful way of reflecting on various aspects of professionalism while helping them to manage stress.
Wahlstrom, Laura C; McChargue, Dennis E; Mackillop, James
Binge drinking remains prevalent on college campuses (particularly among males), and a behavioral economic conceptualization of alcohol use provides novel insight into this problem. Further understanding also comes from identifying personality and genetic vulnerabilities associated with problem drinking among male college students. The present study hypothesized that DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A (rs1800497) genotype would moderate the relationship between alexithymia and an alcohol purchase task (APT) among male college binge drinkers. Specifically, among individuals with at least 1 A1 allele (A1+), greater alexithymia would be related to higher breakpoint (the point at which consumption is 0), O(max) (maximum expenditure on consumption), P(max) (price at which maximum expenditure occurs), intensity (consumption at the lowest price), and lesser elasticity (sensitivity to increasing price). Secondary analyses aimed to replicate APT associations with problematic drinking (AUDIT) and alcohol-related problems (RAPI). Participants were 120 male European-American college student binge drinkers ( M=10.33, SD=4.41). Five Bonferroni-corrected moderation models were tested using APT indices as the criteria, alexithymia as the predictor, and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqI A1 allele presence as the moderator. Results indicated that, in A1+ individuals, greater alexithymia predicted lesser elasticity. Findings were not significant in A1- individuals. APT intensity was positively correlated with AUDIT total; however, no other significant relationships were found. This suggests that possession of the A1 allele interacts with hypoemotionality to predict a novel index of problem drinking. Results support the notion that college campuses would benefit from behavioral economic approaches to reduce binge drinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Targher, G; Seidell, J C; Tonoli, M; Muggeo, M; de Sandre, G; Cigolini, M
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationships of total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count to the components of the so-called insulin resistance syndrome. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: The study population consisted of a random sample of 90 38-year-old healthy men with normal glucose tolerance.
David D. Cass
Full Text Available Barley embryo sacs were examined using light and electron microscopy before and during fertilization. One synergid degenerates after pollination with loss of nuclear and cytoplasmic organization and cell wall material between synergid and central cell. Some wall between egg and central cell is also lost. After pollen tube discharge into the degenerate synergid, the male gametes leave the synergid entering a pocket of central cell cytoplasm separated from the synergid only by membranes. This could provide for efficient gamete transmission and possible recognition through specific membrane contacts.
Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.
The current study examined the relationship between belief-based barriers to seeking professional mental health care and help-seeking intentions in a sample of 1037 adolescents. From early adolescence to adulthood, for males and females, the need for autonomy was a strong barrier to seeking professional mental health care. Help-seeking fears were…
Calderón, Berniza; Gómez-Martín, Jesús M; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia; Galindo, Julio; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I
To study the prevalence of male obesity-secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) in patients with moderate to severe obesity, we performed a prospective prevalence study including 100 male patients with moderate to severe obesity at a university tertiary hospital. Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations among others were assayed in all patients. Serum-free testosterone (FT) concentration was calculated from TT and SHBG levels. Semen analysis was conducted in 31 patients. We found a prevalence of 45% (95% CI: 35-55%) when considering decreased TT and/or FT concentrations. Serum concentrations of TT were correlated negatively with glucose (r = -0.328, p body weight (ρ = -0.464, p = 0.010). Our data show the prevalence of MOSH in patients with moderate to severe obesity is high. Low circulating testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and low ejaculate volume with higher BMI and excess body weight. Semen analysis must be performed in these patients when considering fertility whether or not presenting low circulating testosterone. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.
Xiang Yang Zhang
Full Text Available The high prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia of European background may be related to smoking's reducing clinical symptoms and medication side effects. Because smoking prevalence and its associations with clinical phenotypes are less well characterized in Chinese than European patients with schizophrenia, we assessed these smoking behaviors using clinician-administered questionnaires and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND in 776 Chinese male schizophrenia and 560 control subjects. Patients also were rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. We found that the schizophrenia patients had a higher lifetime incidence of smoking (79% vs 63%, were more likely to be heavy smokers (61% vs 31%, and had lower smoking cessation rates (4% vs 9% (all p0.05 than the non-smoking patients. These results suggest that Chinese males with schizophrenia smoke more frequently than the general population. Further, smokers with schizophrenia may display fewer negative symptoms and possibly less parkinsonism than non-smokers with schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and constipation can affect the quality of life and various factors play a role in these disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the environmental factors related to these problems among Iranian male university students. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 186 male students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Rome Criteria III (to identify gastrointestinal disorders, Dutch eating behavior, food pattern brief instrument and international physical activity questionnaires were completed by all participants moreover, their anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: The results showed a significant difference in weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio in the students suffering from constipation compared with the healthy ones. The students with constipation had more significant milk intake and those with IBS had less intake of vegetables. No significant differences were observed in the eating behavior of students with constipation and IBS, and the healthy ones. Conclusions: Weight and other anthropometric indices could be considered as factors related to constipation. According to the results, an appropriate and balanced intake of different food groups with emphasis on vegetables, milk and dairy products could be recommended. Keywords: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, Constipation, Diet, Anthropometry
Liu, Jun-Jie; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Mo, Zeng-Nan; Tian, Gui-Xiang; Tan, Ai-Hua; Gao, Yong; Yang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Li, Zhi-Xian
AIM To determine serum osteocalcin levels in South Chinese males with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to examine the relation between serum osteocalcin and NAFLD. METHODS Data were collected from 1683 men attending the Fangchenggang Area Male Healthy and Examination Survey (FAMHES) from September 2009 to December 2009. Serum osteocalcin was measured with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination for all individuals was performed by two experienced ultrasonographers. The associations of serum osteocalcin with NAFLD were evaluated. RESULTS The levels of serum osteocalcin were lower in 364 NAFLD participants than in 1319 non-NAFLD participants (24.51 ± 1.38 ng/mL vs. 20.81 ± 1.33 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Serum osteocalin level was associated with the scale of NAFLD (r = −0.150, p < 0.01). Serum osteocalin level tended to decrease with the scale of NAFLD. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that decreased ORs for NAFLD were observed from the first to the fourth osteocalcin quartiles. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that a lower serum osteocalcin level is associated with the presence of NAFLD. PMID:24084725
Banks, Matthew L.; Smith, Douglas A.; Kisor, David F.; Poklis, Justin L.
Methamphetamine is a globally abused drug that is metabolized to amphetamine, which also produces abuse-related behavioral effects. However, the contributing role of methamphetamine metabolism to amphetamine in methamphetamine's abuse-related subjective effects is unknown. This preclinical study was designed to determine 1) the relationship between plasma methamphetamine levels and methamphetamine discriminative stimulus effects and 2) the contribution of the methamphetamine metabolite amphet...
Being formed through learning a practice is best understood within a constitutive theory of meaning as articulated by Charles Taylor. Disengaged views of the person cannot account for the formative changes in a person's identity and capacities upon learning a professional practice. Representational or correspondence theories of meaning cannot account for formation. Formation occurs over time because students actively seek and take up new concerns and learn new knowledge and skills. Engaged situated reasoning about underdetermined practice situations requires well-formed skillful clinicians caring for particular patients in particular situations.
Full Text Available Written in response to the ethical and professional considerations associated with the conduct of a large qualitative study (BLODGETT, BOYER, & TURK, 2005, I argue the importance of authenticity in the research context, communicative interactions of value to the research, and the ethics of the study. I propose some alternative stances to those presented by the researchers in specific aspects of the study including construction of knowledge from the research, "walking in the shoes" of others, vulnerable populations, and insider-outsider interactions. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503382
Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa
Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15-24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population.
Full Text Available This study analysed the relationships between sprinting, jumping and strength abilities, with regard to 800 m running performance. Fourteen athletes of national and international levels in 800 m (personal best: 1:43-1:58 min:ss completed sprint tests (20 m and 200 m, a countermovement jump, jump squat and full squat test as well as an 800 m race. Significant relationships (p < 0.01 were observed between 800 m performance and sprint tests: 20 m (r = 0.72 and 200 m (r = 0.84. Analysing the 200 m run, the magnitude of the relationship between the first to the last 50 m interval times and the 800 m time tended to increase (1st 50 m: r = 0.71; 2nd 50 m: r = 0.72; 3rd 50 m: r = 0.81; 4th 50 m: r = 0.85. Performance in 800 m also correlated significantly (p < 0.01-0.05 with strength variables: the countermovement jump (r = -0.69, jump squat (r = -0.65, and full squat test (r = -0.58. Performance of 800 m in high-level athletes was related to sprint, strength and jumping abilities, with 200 m and the latest 50 m of the 200 m being the variables that most explained the variance of the 800 m performance.
Durkin, Mark; Beaumont, Elaine; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Carson, Jerome
Compassion fatigue and burnout can impact on performance of nurses. This paper explores the relationship between self-compassion, self-judgement, self-kindness, compassion, professional quality of life, and wellbeing among community nurses. To measure associations between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, wellbeing, and burnout in community nurses. Quantitative data were collected using standardised psychometric questionnaires: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale; (4) Compassion For Others Scale, used to measure relationships between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, wellbeing, and burnout. A cross sectional sample of registered community nurses (n=37) studying for a postgraduate diploma at a University in the North of England took part in this study. Results show that community nurses who score high on measures of self-compassion and wellbeing, also report less burnout. Greater compassion satisfaction was also positively associated with compassion for others, and wellbeing, whilst also being negatively correlated with burnout. High levels of self-compassion were linked with lower levels of burnout. Furthermore when community nurses have greater compassion satisfaction they also report more compassion for others, increased wellbeing, and less burnout. The implications of this are discussed alongside suggestions for the promotion of greater compassion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina
The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.
Marsillach, Judit; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel Angel; Maestre-Martínez, Carmen; Fabián, Enrique; Brassesco, Mario; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Aragonès, Gerard; Carreras, Ramon; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi
Study Type - Aetiology (case series). 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Oxidative stress seems to be one of the biochemical causes of defective sperm function. Paraoxonases are antioxidant enzymes that degrade lipid peroxides. There is a paucity of data on the possible role played by these enzymes in the pathophysiology of male sub-fertility. The present study shows that testicular tissue of sub-fertile patients clearly expresses paraoxonases-1, 2, and 3. These findings suggest a role for these enzymes in the protection against lipid peroxidation inside the cell. However, the concentration and activity of paraoxonase-1 in semen are negligible and are probably the result of cellular catabolism, with no significant biological function. To characterise the immunohistochemical sites of paraoxonase (PON) 1, PON2 and PON3 in human testicular tissue, and to analyse PON1 levels in semen, aiming to investigate the role played by these enzymes in the pathophysiology of male subfertility. The present study was performed in 41 semen samples from normal donors and in 52 semen samples and ten testicle biopsies from patients who were being evaluated for causes of subfertility. Immunohistochemical analyses showed high levels of PON1 and PON3 expression in testicular tissue. PON2 expression was also detected, albeit at weaker levels. Oxidative stress indicators in biopsies were low and localized in some specific areas of the seminiferous tubules. PON1 was detected in seminal fluid at very low levels but with no significant differences between patients and controls. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed a low diagnostic power of semen PON1 levels. The present study shows high protein expression levels of PON1, PON2 and PON3 in testicular cells. The concentrations and activities of PON1 in semen are negligible and are probably the result of cellular catabolism, with no significant biological function in the testes. © 2010 THE AUTHORS; BJU
THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE MALE GENDER EXECUTIVE SECRETARY PROFESSIONAL IN CONTEMPORARY ORGANIZATIONS OS DESAFIOS ENFRENTADOS PELO PROFISSIONAL DE SECRETARIADO EXECUTIVO DO GÊNERO MASCULINO NAS ORGANIZAÇÕES CONTEMPORÂNEAS
Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros
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The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.
O profissional de secretariado executivo vem ocupando espaço cada vez mais evidente no mercado de trabalho e na estrutura organizacional, tanto em virtude da demanda de mercado, quanto das necessidades de dinamismo na administração moderna que demonstra o crescimento da referência deste profissional. Tem buscado em seu campo de trabalho visão e atitude de atuação com excelência cumprindo o seu papel com características próprias. Este trabalho tem como objetivo geral investigar
Portnoy, Jill; Raine, Adrian; Glenn, Andrea L; Chen, Frances R; Choy, Olivia; Granger, Douglas A
Although reduced cortisol reactivity to stress and increased circulating testosterone level are hypothesized to be associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior, empirical findings are inconsistent. One factor that may account for the heterogeneity in these relationships is prenatal testosterone exposure. This study examined whether the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal testosterone exposure, moderates the relationships of testosterone and cortisol reactivity with externalizing behavior. Left and right hand 2D:4D and self-reported externalizing behavior were measured in a sample of 353 young adolescents (M age=11.92 years; 178 females; 79.7% African American). Saliva samples were collected before and after a stress task and later assayed for cortisol. Testosterone levels were determined from an AM saliva sample. 2D:4D interacted with cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior in males, but not females. In males, low cortisol reactivity was associated with higher levels of aggression and rule-breaking behavior, but only among subjects with low 2D:4D (i.e., high prenatal testosterone). Findings suggest the importance of a multi-systems approach in which interactions between multiple hormones are taken into account. Furthermore, results demonstrate the importance of considering the organizational influence of prenatal testosterone in order to understand the activational influence of circulating hormones during adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...
S. V. Melnikova
Full Text Available Amylolytic activity indicators of oral liquid of dentists in different conditions of professional activity at outpatient dental care and lectures have been studied. We observed an increase in amylolytic activity of oral liquid of dentists men and women after outpatient dental care, that indicates the activation of the sympathetic-adrenal system in response to the professional stress. We also identified the gender-specific response to the α-amylase load in professional dentists: male amylolytic activity of oral fluid was higher than female. In the group of male and female dentist cadets we registered the decrease of amylolytic activity of oral fluid. The correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between the level of α-amylase and rigidity in a group of male dentists. We suggested that male dentists reduced their adaptation to the psychosocial conditions under job stress. Keywords: dentist, professional activity, professional stress, outpatient dental care, lectures, amylolytic activity of oral fluid.
Nassis, George P; Geladas, Nickos D; Soldatos, Yiannis; Sotiropoulos, Aristomenis; Bekris, Vaggelis; Souglis, Athanasios
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of 2 different field tests for the assessment of aerobic fitness in soccer players with the multistage 20-m test used for the evaluation of maximum oxygen uptake. Nineteen semi-professional male soccer players (age: 22.8 ± 2.5 mean ± SD) performed, under similar conditions, 3 field tests in a counterbalanced order 7 days apart. These tests were the multistage 20-m shuttle run test (MSRT), the Bangsbo test, and the Hoff test. Heart rate was recorded in all tests with telemetry, and the Borg scale was introduced at the end of exercise. Finally, 3-minute post-test lactate concentration was determined. Performance was 11.2 ± 0.9 levels in the MSRT, 1,658.9 ± 119.9 m in the Bangsbo test, and 1,798.2 ± 125.9 m in the Hoff test. There was a significant correlation between the Hoff test and performance in the MSRT (r = 0.49, p 0.05). The maximum heart rate achieved in the Bangsbo test was significantly lower compared with that in the MSRT and Hoff test (Bangsbo: 186.6 ± 9.6, Hoff: 192 ± 7.6, MSRT: 190.4 ± 9.3 beats/min, p < 0.05). No difference was found in post-test lactate concentration among the 3 tests. In conclusion, the Hoff test can be used for the assessment of endurance in adult semi-professional soccer players. Coaches and teams could benefit from using the Hoff test that resembles soccer actions for the assessment of players' aerobic fitness.
Levine, Stephen B
Thirty-one years after living full time as a woman, a 53-year-old skilled machinist returned to have therapy with me, a psychiatrist, because of a decision to return to living as a man. As our work together continued, I suggested to this would-be published novelist that others might benefit from his experience. This led to his posting an extensive account of his life in September 2016 on Gender Trender. Now living in good mental and physical health as a male, he has given me permission to discuss his initial presentation, my understanding of his motivations, and to reflect on the broader questions that his life rises for the field of transgenderism. This report describes regret, defenses against regret, and a dramatic 3-day catharsis followed by the patient's first loving relationship. He now ironically reflects that he escaped from the sensed inauthenticity of his youthful maleness only to create a felt inauthentic feminine social psychological state. The professional literature about the long-term outcome of the transgendered who do not have surgery is largely nonexistent in English. Anecdotal accounts, however, are readily accessible on the Internet.
Montaner Abasolo, M Carmen; Soler Company, Enrique
The ability to communicate with patients is part of health care practice and contributes to the humanization of such care and to the objectives. With basic coaching tools and personalized attention, the life of the patient can be transformed from the first moments of intervention. Beyond words, patient, in all their multidimensionality, need to be comforted and fell that they are being taken care of. The health care professionals transmits information verbally and non-verbally. ″Positive″ consultations are described as warm, friendly, firm and reassuring, and there exists an emphatic response to the cognitive and emotional concerns of the patient. The opposite approach involves the assumption of roles and a lack of empathy (paternalism, servility, authoritarianism, laissez-faire, etc.). The ability to communicate is an ethical need in health care training. A personalized perspective, open to transcendence, is especially suitable in the health field, where communication must take into account the complex reality that the patient is living.
Capitanio, J P; Mendoza, S P; Baroncelli, S
Studies of nonhuman primate personality have suggested that physiological correlates of relevant behavioral dimensions exist. The present study examined personality using techniques similar to those employed in human personality research. Adult male rhesus monkeys were each rated on 25 adjectives while living in their natal groups. Approximately 1.5 years later, 18 animals were inoculated with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and exposed to socially stable or socially unstable conditions. Behavior, viral load (SIV RNA), plasma cortisol concentrations, and the IgG response to SIV and to rhesus cytomegalovirus were measured at regular intervals. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the four personality dimensions (Sociability, Confidence, Equability, Excitability) were correlated with various measures. Following inoculation with SIV, animals higher in Sociability showed a more rapid decline in plasma cortisol concentrations, elevations in the anti-RhCMV IgG response, and a decline in SIV RNA. The results indicate that personality factors in rhesus monkeys do have physiological correlates that have significance for disease processes and that in the context of a social manipulation, Sociability, reflecting the tendency to engage in affiliative interactions, is an important factor in explaining outcome measures at early time points. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Ambaryan, A B; Maltzev, A N; Kotenkova, E V
Some physiological parameters that determine quality of male sperm (its concentration, spermatozoa morphology) and testicle size vary in integrity, i.e. the bigger are testicles the higher is sperm quality. Therefore, the estimate of testicles relative mass is often used as a characteristic of sperm competitive ability when comparing phylogenetically close mammal species. In house mice belonging to the superspecies complex Mus musculus s.l., testicles relative mass is greater in exoanthropic species than in synanthropic ones. It is shown in our study that this pattern is apparent also at the intraspecies level since testicles mass index, sperm concentration, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa in subspecies Mus musculus wagneri, which is facultatively synanthropic, are higher compared with synanthropic subspecies M m. musculus. An analysis of sexual behavior of the three forms (namely, exoanthropic species M. spicilegus and two subspecies mentioned above) indicates that in M. spicilegus both sexual behavior efficiency and ejaculation rate during coupling were higher as compared with other two subspecies. Based on the analysis of life pattern, reproduction systems, and group spatial-ethological structure, the hypotheses are formulated that explain the maintenance of selection directed to increase of sperm competitive ability in exoanthropic house mice species.
Setuain, Igor; González-Izal, Miriam; Alfaro, Jesús; Gorostiaga, Esteban; Izquierdo, Mikel
Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations can be observed in athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Commonly identified jumping biomechanical alterations have been described by the use of laboratory technologies. However, portable and easy-to-handle technologies that enable an evaluation of jumping biomechanics at the training field are lacking. To analyze unilateral/bilateral acceleration and orientation jumping performance differences among elite male handball athletes with or without previous ACL reconstruction via a single inertial sensor unit device. Case control descriptive study. At the athletes' usual training court. Twenty-two elite male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) handball players were evaluated. The participants performed a vertical jump test battery that included a 50-cm vertical bilateral drop jump, a 20-cm vertical unilateral drop jump, and vertical unilateral countermovement jump maneuvers. Peak 3-dimensional (X, Y, Z) acceleration (m·s(-2)), jump phase duration and 3-dimensional orientation values (°) were obtained from the inertial sensor unit device. Two-tailed t-tests and a one-way analysis of variance were performed to compare means. The P value cut-off for significance was set at P handball athletes with previous ACL reconstruction demonstrated a jumping biomechanical profile similar to control players, including similar jumping performance values in both bilateral and unilateral jumping maneuvers, several years after ACL reconstruction. These findings are in agreement with previous research showing full functional restoration of abilities in top-level male athletes after ACL reconstruction, rehabilitation and subsequent return to sports at the previous level. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carlos Eduardo Laburú; Marcelo Alves Barros; Bruno Gusmão Kanbach
In this work we investigated particular reasons that take medium physics teachers to use or not experimental activities. Starting from the presupposition that experimental activities in physics are important for teaching, it is essentially looked for to understand the reasons of the “experimental failure”, in the sense of little given importance to that teaching practice, demonstrable by absence of practically widespread of empiric activities in physics schools. We associated the relationship...
Sadeghifar, Jamil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Baldacchino, Donia; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Jafari, Mehdi
Background and Aims: Career motivation in university educators through efficient ways and appropriate with the educational system, is considered one of the important factors affecting education of students and their competence. This study aimed to determine the relationship between career motivation and spiritual leadership among a university of medical sciences in the west, Iran. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional correlation study was conducted among the university educators of medi...
Eriko eAiba; Toshie eMatsui
This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory...
Sadeghifar, Jamil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Baldacchino, Donia; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Jafari, Mehdi
Career motivation in university educators through efficient ways and appropriate with the educational system, is considered one of the important factors affecting education of students and their competence. This study aimed to determine the relationship between career motivation and spiritual leadership among a university of medical sciences in the west, Iran. This descriptive, cross-sectional correlation study was conducted among the university educators of medical sciences in the west, Iran in 2012. All of the educators (N=230) were selected and recruited according to census method. The data were collected by two established self-completed questionnaires on spiritual leadership (SL) and career motivation. Data were analyzed statistically by parametric tests: Pearson correlation, independent student t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Pearson correlation test identified a significant relationship between educators' career motivation and vision, altruistic love, hope/faith, meaning/calling and membership dimensions of spiritual leadership (pmotivation (p=0.003) and the dimension of 'membership' (pleadership may have a positive relationship with educators' career motivation.
Full Text Available Objective:This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between behavioral activation-inhibition systems and bullyingvictimization behaviors among adolescents.Method:This was a correlational and cross-sectional study. Two hundred and thirty school boys were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling method, and participated in this research. This sample responded to a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Olweus Bully/ Victim questionnaire and the child version of behavioral inhibition/activation systems Scale in their classrooms and in the presence of the researcher. The collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regressions. Result:The results showed that bullying and victimization were correlated with both behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition systems (p<0.01. The results also showed that 18% of the variance in victimization and 31 % of the variance in bullying were explained by behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation systems respectively .Conclusion:The results of this study implied that BAS and BIS may play a role in the manifestation of bullying in adolescents.
Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol
This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern.
The purpose of this study was to explore how community-based case managers interface with their clients' healthcare providers and other community organizations as a function within their advocacy efforts. Case managers previously defined advocacy as occurring at individual, organizational, and community levels. The relationships they attempt to develop and maintain are consistent with case management ideology, yet this is a complex process to ensure care for vulnerable populations with many medical and socioeconomic needs. Community-based case management settings. In-depth qualitative interviews with a total of 20 nurse and social work case managers working in public housing, university-affiliated community nursing centers, local parishes, and community ministry. The case managers in this study reflected on how they interface with their clients, other healthcare providers, and community organizations on behalf of their clients. They reflect on the importance of trust and communication to facilitate this process. The advocacy work of case managers is influenced by the setting, others' perceptions of their knowledge and expertise, and power dynamics. Their ability to effectively advocate is greatly influenced by the strength of the relationships they forge. Advocacy for vulnerable clients is influenced by the existing relationship between case managers and their clients' healthcare providers. Case managers need to be persistent in their interactions with other providers to ensure that their clients have access to valuable community resources. Clear lines of communication should be established between case managers so that there is clarity around roles and expectations in service provision. Case managers should also participate in the mentoring of future health professions students so they may learn the application of advocacy work in community settings.
Willis, Elizabeth C; Kenny, Dianna T
This 12-month prospective longitudinal study used acoustic analysis to identify phonational gaps in the vocal range of adolescent boys undergoing voice change and to investigate the relationship between the appearance of phonational gaps, weight gain, and changes in speaking fundamental frequency (SF0). Eighteen pubescent boys were recorded producing three descending and three ascending glides over their physiological voice range using the vowel "ah." Recordings were digitized over the range 0-16 kHz and then analyzed to determine both the frequency range and appearance and frequency characteristics of the phonational gaps. Data were plotted against changes in weight and SF0 both as an indicator of pubertal development and to test the hypothesis that changes in weight and SF0 were related to the appearance of phonational gaps. Results indicated that minimum F0 decreased significantly over the time period and phonational gaps increased significantly, but there were no significant changes in maximum F0 or range. Individual data indicated the initial appearance of a lower-frequency gap followed by a higher-frequency gap before the long-term establishment of a midrange gap. At time 5, all boys in the weight range 42.7-44.9 kg had either low- or high-range gaps. The SF0 for this group varied from 117 to 216 Hz. All boys heavier than 54.8 kg had highly variable phonational gaps. SF0 range for this group was 99.5-151 Hz. Transitory low- then high-frequency phonational gaps appeared before the establishment of a midrange phonational gap. In this study, these phonational gaps were associated with certain weight ranges and rapid weight gain, with changes to boys' speaking voices, and with loss of ability to use the mid- and falsetto vocal range.
Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung [Center for Occupational Health Research, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0
Reid, Joan A; Richards, Tara N; Loughran, Thomas A; Mulvey, Edward P
Gun violence and psychological problems are often conflated in public discourse on gun safety. However, few studies have empirically assessed the effect of exposure to violence when exploring the association between gun carrying and psychological distress. To examine the potential effect of exposure to violence on the associations between gun carrying and psychological distress among vulnerable adolescents. Longitudinal cohort study. The Pathways to Desistance study, a study of youths found guilty of a serious criminal offense in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, or Maricopa County, Arizona. 1170 male youths aged 14 to 19 years who had been found guilty of a serious criminal offense. Youths were assessed at baseline and at four 6-month intervals with regard to gun carrying ("Have you carried a gun?"), psychological distress (Global Severity Index), and exposure to violence (modified version of the Exposure to Violence Inventory). At the bivariate level, gun carrying was consistently associated with higher levels of psychological distress. However, the association between psychological distress and gun carrying diminished or disappeared when exposure to violence was considered. Exposure to violence (as either a victim or a witness) was significantly related to gun carrying at all follow-up assessments, with increased odds of gun carrying ranging from 1.43 to 1.87 with each additional report of exposure to violence. The study sample was limited to justice-involved male youths. Precarrying distress and exposure to violence could not be fully captured because many participants had initiated gun carrying before baseline. In male youths involved in the criminal justice system, the relationship between psychological distress and gun carrying seems to be influenced by exposure to violence (either experiencing or witnessing it). Further study is warranted to explore whether interventions after exposure to violence could reduce gun carrying in this population. None.
Lutoslawska, Grażyna; Malara, Marzena; Tomaszewski, Paweł; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Czajkowska, Anna; Kęska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna
Limited data have indicated that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) of athletes and young adults provide misleading results concerning body fat content. This study was aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between different surrogate indices of fatness (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and body adiposity index (BAI)) with the percentage of body fat in Polish students with respect to their sex and physical activity. A total of 272 students volunteered to participate in the study. Of these students, 177 physical education students (90 males and 87 females) were accepted as active (physical activity of 7 to 9 hours/week); and 95 students of other specializations (49 males and 46 females) were accepted as sedentary (physical activity of 1.5 hours/week). Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, and BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI were calculated. Body fat percentage was assessed using four skinfold measurements. Classification of fatness according to the BMI and the percentage of body fat have indicated that BMI overestimates fatness in lean subjects (active men and women, sedentary men), but underestimates body fat in obese subjects (sedentary women). In all groups, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI were significantly correlated with the percentage of body fat (with the exception of WHR and hip circumference in active and sedentary women, respectively). However, coefficients of determination not exceeding 50% and Lin's concordance correlation coefficients lower than 0.9 indicated no relationship between measured and calculated body fat. The findings in the present study support the concept that irrespective of physical activity and sex none of the calculated indices of fatness are useful in the determination of body fat in young adults. Thus, it seems that easily calculated indices may contribute to distorted body image and unhealthy dietary habits observed in many young adults in Western countries, but
Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don
Body dissatisfaction is particularly prevalent during adolescence and has recently been linked to stress in females and males. However, prospective studies are needed to better understand the relationship between stress and body dissatisfaction. The present study investigates the direction of this association and the mediating role of self-esteem and body image importance. A sample of 298 adolescent females and males in Grades 7 to 10 (ages 12 to 17 years) were surveyed at two time points over a one-year period. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that stress significantly predicted body dissatisfaction one year later. Furthermore, a multiple mediation analysis controlling for gender revealed a significant indirect effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, indicating that stress predicts reductions in self-esteem and increases in body importance, which in turn predict body dissatisfaction. These findings suggest that stress, self-esteem, and body importance should be included in programmes aimed at improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study was undertaken to investigate if such anthropometric measurements (i.e., height, weight and body mass index can be used to predict graft diameters in 4 strand semitendinosus and gracilis hamstring autografts. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 89 consecutive male patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis autografts. Intraoperative measurements of the fashioned quadrupled hamstring graft were performed using sizing tubes calibrated to 0.5mm. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r analysis was used to determine the relationship between hamstring graft diameter and predictor variables: gender, height, mass, and body mass index. RESULTS: The mean hamstring graft diameter, 7.90mm, was comparable with previously published studies. Weight (r=0.18 and body mass index (r=0.19 correlated positively with graft diameter. There was no correlation between graft diameter and height (r=0.01. CONCLUSION: In Asian male patients, height, weight and BMI cannot be used for preoperative identification of graft size.
Aiba, Eriko; Matsui, Toshie
This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioral experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice. Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance. There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants' responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice.
Graham, Stuart R; Cormack, Stuart; Parfitt, Gaynor; Eston, Roger
To assess and compare the validity of internal and external Australian Football (AF) training load measures for predicting match exercise intensity (MEI.min -1 ) and player rank score (PR Score ) using a variable dose-response model. 25 professional AF players (23 ± 3 y, 188.3 ± 7.2 cm and 87.7 ± 8.4 kg) completed a 24-week in-season macrocycle. In-season internal training and match load was quantified using session-RPE (sRPE) and external load from satellite and accelerometer data. Using a training impulse (TRIMPs) calculation; external load (au) was represented as distance (TRIMP Dist ), distance ≥ 4.16m.s -1 (TRIMPs HS Dist ) and player load (TRIMP PL ). In-season training load, MEI.min -1 and PR Score were applied to a variable dose-response model, which provided estimates of MEI.min -1 and PR Score . Predicted MEI.min -1 and PR Score were correlated with actual measures from each match. The magnitude of the difference between MEI.min -1 and PR Score estimates for each model input and the difference between the precision of internal and external load measures to predict MEI.min -1 and PR Score were calculated using the effect-size ± 90% confidence interval [CI]. Estimates of MEI.min -1 demonstrated very large associations with actual MEI.min -1 (r, 90% CI) (e.g. TRIMPs Dist 0.76, 0.73-0.78 and sRPE Skills 0.73, 0.70-0.76). Estimates of PR Score demonstrated associations of large magnitude with actual PR Score using the same inputs. Precision of actual MEI.min -1 was lowest using sRPE compared to (ES ± 90% CL) TRIMPS Dist -0.67 ± 0.34 and, TRIMPs PL -0.91 ± 0.39. There were trivial and unclear differences in the precision of PR Score estimates between TRIMPS and sRPE inputs. Dose-response models from multiple training load inputs can predict within-individual variation of MEI.min -1 and PR Score . Internal and external training input methods exhibited comparable predictive power.
Full Text Available AimsPersonality characteristics are linked to nicotine dependence (ND. It remains unclear whether these factors differ across African-American (AA and European-American (EA male and female smokers. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between personality traits and smoking status, as well as the degree of ND, in AA and EA male and female samples.MethodsA total of 5,040 participants (AA: N = 3,737, female = 54.31%; EA: N = 1,313, female = 64.51% were included in this study, with 2,474 smokers and 2,566 non-smokers. The measures used in this study included five dimensions of personality by the NEO-personality inventory-revised (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness, Fagerström test for ND, and drive subscale of the ND Syndrome Scale (NDSS.ResultsIn the AA sample, neuroticism was significantly associated with a higher risk of smoking [odds ratio (OR = 1.057; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.032, 1.083; p < 0.0001], and conscientiousness was significantly associated with decreased risk of smoking (OR = 0.936; 95% CI 0.912, 0.961; p < 0.0001. In the EA sample, higher neuroticism was associated with increased risk of being a current smoker (OR = 1.058; 95% CI 1.013, 1.104; p = 0.0105. Furthermore, we found that a lower level of neuroticism and higher level of conscientiousness were associated with the severity of ND in both the AA and EA samples and a broader range of personality factors were involved in predicting the severity of ND in the AA samples. However, no differential association was detected between male and female smokers of both AA and EA samples.ConclusionThere exist differential relationships between personality traits and the severity of ND in the AA and EA samples.
Michaud, D S; Kelsey, K T; Papathanasiou, E; Genco, C A; Giovannucci, E
Periodontal disease has a direct impact on the immune response and has been linked to several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis and stroke. Few studies have examined the association between periodontal disease and cancer. A total of 19 933 men reported being never smokers (of cigarette, pipes or cigars) in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study. Periodontal disease status and teeth number were self-reported at baseline and during follow-up. All cancers were ascertained during 26 years of follow-up. Cox's proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusting for risk factors. A 13% increase in total cancer was observed among men reporting periodontitis at baseline, and a 45% increase in risk was observed among men with advanced periodontitis (periodontitis with Periodontitis was not associated with prostate cancer, colorectal cancer or melanoma, the three most common cancers in this cohort of never smokers, but a 33% increase in risk was observed for smoking-related cancers (lung, bladder, oropharnygeal, esophageal, kidney, stomach and liver cancers; HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.65). Men with advanced periodontitis had an HR of 2.57 (95% CI 1.56-4.21; P = 0.0002) for smoking-related cancers, compared with men who did not have periodontitis and had 17 teeth or more. Advanced periodontitis was associated with elevated risks of esophageal and head and neck cancers (HR = 6.29, 95% CI 2.13-18.6; based on five cases with advanced periodontitis) and bladder cancer (HR = 5.06, 95% CI 2.32-11.0; based on nine cases with advanced periodontitis). Advanced periodontitis was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in smoking-related cancers among never smokers. Periodontitis may impact cancer risk through system immune dysregulation. Further studies need to examine the immune impact of advanced periodontitis on cancer, especially for cancers known to be caused by smoking. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford
Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between the ability to sight-read and the ability to memorize a score using a behavioural experiment. By measuring the amount of memorization following short-term practice, we examined whether better sight-readers not only estimate forthcoming notes but also memorize musical structures and phrases with more practice.Eleven pianists performed the music first by sight-reading. After a 20-minute practice, the participants were asked to perform from memory without any advance notice. The number of mistakes was used as an index of performance.There were no correlations in the numbers of mistakes between sight-reading and memory trial performance. Some pianists memorized almost the entire score, while others hardly remembered it despite demonstrating almost completely accurate performance just before memory trial performance. However, judging from the participants’ responses to a questionnaire regarding their practice strategies, we found auditory memory was helpful for memorizing music following short-term practice.
Clare E. Mackay
Full Text Available A rigorous new methodology was applied to the study of structure function relationships in the living human brain. Face recognition memory (FRM and other cognitive measures were made in 29 healthy young male subjects (mean age = 21.7 years and related to volumetric measurements of their cerebral hemispheres and of structures in their medial temporal lobes, obtained using the Cavalieri method in combination with high resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Greatest proportional variability in volumes was found for the lateral ventricles (57% for the cerebral hemispheres (8% in the mean volumes of the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, caudate nucleus, temporal pole and temporal lobe on the right and left sides of the brain. The volumes of the right and left parahippocampal gyrus, temporal pole, temporal lobe, and left hippocampus were, prior to application of the Bonferroni correction to take account of 12 multiple comparisons, significantly correlated with the volume of the corresponding hemisphere (p < 0.05. The volumes of all structures were highly correlated (p < 0.0002 for all comparisons between the two cerebral hemispheres. There were no positive relationships between structure volumes and FRM score. However, the volume of the right amygdala was, prior to application of the Bonferroni correction to take account of 38~multiple comparisons, found to be significantly smaller in the five most consistent high scorers compared to the five most consistent low scorers (t = 2.77, p = 0.025. The implications for possible relationships between healthy medial temporal lobe structures and memory are discussed.
A British educational psychologist critically examines her practices toward parents. Aspects of the power relationship are explored, including acting as a friend, the trappings of professionalism, privacy and confidentiality, interprofessional trust, and service provision. Professional survival is seen to be the underlying motive in these…
Zhou, Cindy Ke; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Cleary, Sean D; Hoffman, Heather J; Levine, Paul H; Chu, Lisa W; Hsing, Ann W; Cook, Michael B
Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer appear to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. However, results from previous studies that assess their relationship have been inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of male pattern baldness at age 45 years with risks of overall and subtypes of prostate cancer in a large, prospective cohort—the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We included 39,070 men from the usual care and screening arms of the trial cohort who had no cancer diagnosis (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) at the start of follow-up and recalled their hair-loss patterns at age 45 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time metric. During follow-up (median, 2.78 years), 1,138 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed, 571 of which were aggressive (biopsy Gleason score ≥ 7, and/or clinical stage III or greater, and/or fatal). Compared with no baldness, frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years was not significantly associated with overall (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.45) or nonaggressive (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.30) prostate cancer risk but was significantly associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.80). Adjustment for covariates did not substantially alter these estimates. Other classes of baldness were not significantly associated with overall or subtypes of prostate cancer. Our analysis indicates that frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years is associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer and supports the possibility of common pathophysiologic mechanisms. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Full Text Available Objective: Neck pain is a common cause for which people refer to physiotherapy centers. Neck pain may be related to prolonged static posture in head, neck, and shoulder during daily activities and studying. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between Forward head posture (FHP and neck pain in female and male students of different educational levels. Materials & Methods: 1017 students (511 girls, 506 boys from the University of Tehran in undergraduate, graduate and PhD level participated in this correlation study. Selection in departments have been target, however sample, s selection have been random. The mean of age of girls and boys was 23.78±3.74, the weight was 63.24±12.1, and height 162.42±7.14 and boy’s age was 23.74±3.91, weight 57.23±8.87, and height 168.53±9.74.FHP was measured in students by questionnaire, visual analog scale (VAS and by using the Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (HPSCI. Spearman correlation test was administered to analyze the data using SPSS 18 software (P&le0.05. Results: Neck pain was significantly and negatively correlated with FHP in female PhD students (P=0.007, while this relationship between undergraduate, graduate students and male PhD students was not significant (P>0.05. Conclusion: Neck pain is associated with forward head posture in PhD students. Therefore, it is important to address these faulty postures and correct them in treatment sessions. However, due to the progression of student community to higher education level, it is more critical to be aware of the correct of posture position in students.
Zhou, Cindy Ke; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Cleary, Sean D.; Hoffman, Heather J.; Levine, Paul H.; Chu, Lisa W.; Hsing, Ann W.; Cook, Michael B.
Purpose Male pattern baldness and prostate cancer appear to share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. However, results from previous studies that assess their relationship have been inconsistent. Therefore, we investigated the association of male pattern baldness at age 45 years with risks of overall and subtypes of prostate cancer in a large, prospective cohort—the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Methods We included 39,070 men from the usual care and screening arms of the trial cohort who had no cancer diagnosis (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) at the start of follow-up and recalled their hair-loss patterns at age 45 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models with age as the time metric. Results During follow-up (median, 2.78 years), 1,138 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed, 571 of which were aggressive (biopsy Gleason score ≥ 7, and/or clinical stage III or greater, and/or fatal). Compared with no baldness, frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years was not significantly associated with overall (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.45) or nonaggressive (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.30) prostate cancer risk but was significantly associated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.80). Adjustment for covariates did not substantially alter these estimates. Other classes of baldness were not significantly associated with overall or subtypes of prostate cancer. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that frontal plus moderate vertex baldness at age 45 years is associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer and supports the possibility of common pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:25225425
Chew, Kew-Kim; Bremner, Alexandra; Stuckey, Bronwyn; Earle, Carolyn; Jamrozik, Konrad
Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and as a risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, various aspects of the associations between cigarette smoking, ED, and CVD need further elucidation. We explored the relationship between cigarette smoking, ED, and CVD using data from a population-based cross-sectional study of 1,580 participants. Postal questionnaires were sent to randomly selected age-stratified male population samples obtained from the Western Australia Electoral Roll. In addition to items covering sociodemographic and self-reported clinical information and smoking habits, the 5-item International Index of Erectile Function was used to assess erectile function. Compared with never smokers, the odds of ED, adjusted for age, square of age, and CVD, were significantly higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.92) and ever smokers (OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.02, 2.42). Similarly, the adjusted odds of severe ED were significantly higher among former smokers. Albeit not statistically significant, the age-adjusted odds of ED among current smokers increased with the number of cigarettes smoked. Among former smokers, the age-adjusted odds of ED were significantly higher 6-10 years following cessation of smoking than 10 years. Compared with never smokers without CVD, the age-adjusted odds of ED among former smokers and ever smokers without CVD were about 1.6. Regardless of smoking, these odds were significantly higher among participants with CVD. Compared with never smokers, former smokers and ever smokers have significantly higher odds of ED. The relationship between smoking and ED is independent of that between smoking and CVD, and not because of confounding by CVD. Patterns of ED in former smokers suggest that there may be a latent interval between active smoking and symptomatic ED, involving a process initially triggered by smoking.
Otsuka, Toshiaki; Munakata, Ryo; Kato, Katsuhito; Kodani, Eitaro; Ibuki, Chikao; Kusama, Yoshiki; Seino, Yoshihiko; Kawada, Tomoyuki
An enlarged arterial diameter is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. This study examined the relationship of noninvasively measured brachial artery cross-sectional area with cardiovascular risk factors and arterial stiffness in a middle-aged male population. Absolute volumetric changes of the brachial artery were measured with a newly developed oscillometric method during a general health examination in 387 men (mean age: 38±9 years) without known cardiovascular disease. Based on the measurement, the estimated area (eA) of the brachial artery at end-diastole was obtained. Brachial artery volume elastic modulus (VE) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were simultaneously measured as indices of arterial stiffness by the same device. The relationships of eA with cardiovascular risk factors, including age, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose/diabetes mellitus (IFG/DM), hyperuricemia, smoking and their associated continuous variables, as well as VE and baPWV, were examined. Overall, the mean eA was 12.9 ± 2.9 mm². The eA was significantly higher in subjects with obesity, hypertension or IFG/DM than in those without each of these risk factors. In a multiple linear regression analysis, body mass index (β=0.31, P<0.001), age (β=0.25, P<0.001), systolic blood pressure (β=0.16, P=0.004) and pulse rate (β=-0.13, P=0.005) were independent determinants of eA. In contrast, neither VE nor baPWV were selected as independent determinants of eA. In conclusion, enlarged brachial artery cross-sectional area was significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure, but it was not associated with increased arterial stiffness.
Watanabe, Yuya; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Matsui, Tomoyuki; Seo, Kazuya; Azuma, Yoshikazu; Hiramoto, Machiko; Miura, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Hideaki; Shimazu, Akito; Eto, Toshiaki; Saotome, Homare; Kida, Noriyuki; Morihara, Toru
This study examined anthropometric and fitness profiles of Japanese female professional baseball players and investigated the relationship between players' physical fitness and in-season game performance. Fifty-seven players who were registered in the Japan Women's Baseball League (JWBL) participated. Height, weight, grip strength, back strength, knee-extension and -flexion strength, hamstring extensibility, vertical jump height, and horizontal jump distance were measured at pre-season (February and March) in 2013. Game performance during the 2013 season (March to November) was obtained from official JWBL statistics. Vertical jump height showed significant positive correlations with individual performance records [e.g., total bases (r = 0.551), slugging percentage (r = 0.459), and stolen bases (r = 0.442)]. Similar relationships were observed between horizontal jump distance and performance statistics in most cases. In contrast, grip, back, and lower-limb strength, and hamstring extensibility were not significantly correlated with game performance. Stepwise regression analysis selected vertical jump height as an independent variable, significantly correlating with several game performance measures (e.g., total bases: adjusted R = 0.257). Also, vertical jump height and body mass index were identified as independent variables significantly associated with stolen bases (adjusted R = 0.251). Maximal jump performance, rather than simple isometric muscle strength or flexibility, is a good performance test that can be used at the end of pre-season to predict in-season batting and stolen base performance. Our findings demonstrate the importance of constructing pre-season training programs to enhance lower-limb muscular power that is linked to successful in-season performance in female baseball players.
Fernandez, Jorge Muriel; Cenador, Maria Begoña García; Manuel López Millan, J; Méndez, Juan Antonio Juanes; Ledesma, María José Sánchez
The increasing relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in medical care is indisputable. This evidence makes it necessary to start studies that analyse the scope these new forms of access to information and understanding of medicine have on the professional activity of the physician, on the attitude and on the knowledge of patients or, on the doctor-patient relationship. The purpose of this study is to explore some of these aspects in a group of physicians whose clinical activity is related to one of the greatest social impact health problems which is the treatment of chronic pain. Starting with the completion of a questionnaire, in the study group it is observed that the interaction between social structure, increase of information flows and ICTs generate transformations in social practices and behaviour of the actors of the health system. Internet is confirmed as an information space on the subject, but is shown as an underutilized space of interaction between the doctor and his patient.
Garcia-Cuyàs, Francesc; de San Pedro, Marc; Martínez Roldan, Jordi
We find ourselves at the end of an era of asymmetry in the domain of health information where the majority of this data is in the hands of the healthcare system. Increasingly, the public are calling for a more central role in the new paradigm that enables them to duly exercise their right of access to their health data while availing of more reliable and safer technologies which contribute to the management of their condition and promote healthy lifestyles. So far, the TIC Salud strategic plan has been developed independently from the Generalitat de Catalunya Health Department's Healthcare Plan, which sets out health policy strategy in Catalonia. However, from its initial design stage the new Healthcare Plan (2016- 2020) envisages incorporating a new strategic Information and communications technology (ICT) line called "Digital Health". Incorporating ICT into the Health Plan will allow these technologies to become integral part of all strategic healthcare processes, acting as a driving force for a shift towards a new healthcare models and an innovative relationship between the public and healthcare professionals. The Digital Health implies a disruption in itself, by way of the convergence of several technologies and their positive impact on health and healthcare procedures, by way of the public's access to information concerning their health, and by creating new opportunities for promoting health and the salutogenic paradigm which empowers people to develop their health, welfare and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.