Zintgraff, Alfred Clifton
This mixed methods dissertation study explored how secondary school educators in specific K-12 competition programs recruited and deployed STEM professional volunteers. The study explored which practices were viewed as most important, and how practices related to constructivist pedagogy, all from the viewpoint of educators. The non-positivist approach sought new knowledge without pursuing generalized results. Review of the literature uncovered extensive anecdotal information about current practices, and suggested that large investments are made in engaging volunteers. One National Science Foundation-sponsored study was identified, and its recommendations for a sustained research agenda were advanced. Three study phases were performed, one to explore practices and operationalize definitions, a second to rate practice's importance and their relation to pedagogy, and a third to seek explanations. Educators preferred recruiting local, meaning recruiting parents and former students, versus from industry or other employers. Most educators preferred volunteers with mentoring skills, and placing them in direct contact with students, versus deploying volunteers to help with behind-the-scenes tasks supporting the educator. Relationships were identified between the highest-rated practices and constructivism in programs. In STEM professional volunteers, educators see affordances, in the same way a classroom tool opens affordances. A model is proposed which shows educators considering practicality, pedagogy, knowledge and skills, and rapport when accessing the affordances opened by STEM professional volunteers. Benefits are maximized when programs align with strong industry clusters in the community.
Cal, Anita Marie
This phenomenological study examines innovative pedagogy and the integration of literature by professors in STEM, leadership, and professional programs to foster leadership. The study probes university professors' personal experiences integrating literature, focusing on pedagogical strategies and practices. Many studies exist on the use of…
Walz, Kenneth A.; Slowinski, Mary; Alfano, Kathleen
Calls for increased international competency in U.S. college graduates and the global nature of the renewable energy industry require an exploration of how to incorporate a global perspective in STEM curricula, and how to best develop faculty providing them with global knowledge and skills necessary to update and improve existing teaching…
Robert L. SCHALOCK
Full Text Available By focusing on evidence-based practices this article asks us to pursue jointly what are best practices, who is a professional, and what does it mean to be an effective and efficient organization. Both professionals and organizations provide services and supports that enhance the personal well-being and personal growth of their clientele. In discussing professional and organizational practices, I will suggest that professional best practices begin with respect for the individual and embrace professional standards, professional ethics, evidence-based practices, and impact evaluation. Analogously, I will suggest that organization best practices begin with a commitment to being a values-based entity that is effective and efficient in the provision of services and supports. This organization commitment is reflected in best practices related to high performance teams, the supports paradigm, outcomes evaluation, and continuous quality improvement.As depicted in Figure 1, the presentation will discuss each of these components of professional and organizational best practices. Additionally, I will suggest that through their reciprocal action, the best practices exhibited by professionals and organizations also create a cultural milieu that directly enhances not only the services and supports provided to the organization’s clientele, but also directly impacts the personal wellbeing and growth of organization personnel, which in turn enhances their effectiveness and efficiency.
Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.
This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…
Professional care work in preschools in Denmark is faced with a knowledge crisis, due to increasing influence by regulations from state and market. As a consequence the professionals seem more inclined to focus on how to meet demands for documentation, rather than focusing on developing...... their professional knowledge with regards to collective reflection and creating coherent practices and everyday lives for children and families. I propose an alternative perspective on development of professional knowledge, which takes aspects of professional knowledge and everyday practice......, that are not traditionally valued, nor by “users” or the professionals themselves, into account. With inspiration from a Danish researcher of everyday life and her concept of ‘the unnoticed/unrecognized’ (det upåagtede) (Bech-Jørgensen 1994), this paper will discuss how understandings of professional identity...
Milburn, Peter C.; Colyer, Hazel
Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners
Nurses work in a healthcare system in which different partners in care have different expectations of them. Demands to provide compassionate care that is patient-centred and responsive while adhering to budget constraints are contributing to 'compassion fatigue' and adversely affecting nurses' mood and effectiveness. This article discusses how an understanding of professional practice skills, communication skills and teamwork can help nurses to cope with these conflicting demands and compassion fatigue while performing their professional roles and responsibilities. This approach is discussed in the context of nursing discourse and related professional and government recommendations.
Milburn, Peter C. [Canterbury Christ Church University, Undergraduate Interprofessional Studies, North Holmes Road, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: email@example.com; Colyer, Hazel [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)
Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners.
self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering. A total of 88 students from a national girls' high school participated in STEM project-based learning. A survey questionnaire named The STEM Self-efficacy and Professional Commitment to Engineering Questionnaire, developed by the researchers, was ...
Practical Ontologies for Information Professionals provides an introduction to ontologies and their development, an essential tool for fighting back against information overload. The development of robust and widely used ontologies is an increasingly important tool in the fight against information overload. The publishing and sharing of explicit explanations for a wide variety of conceptualizations, in a machine readable format, has the power to both improve information retrieval and identify new knowledge. This new book provides an accessible introduction to the following: * What is an ontology? Defining the concept and why it is increasingly important to the information professional * Ontologies and the semantic web * Existing ontologies, such as SKOS, OWL, FOAF, schema.org, and the DBpedia Ontology * Adopting and building ontologies, showing how to avoid repetition of work and how to build a simple ontology with Protege * Interrogating semantic web ontologies * The future of ontologies and the role of the ...
Dickerson, Pamela S
The Nursing Professional Development: Scope and Standards of Practice is foundational to the work of nurses in a continuing professional development role. Use of the practice and professional performance aspects of the standards supports both quality of learning activities and the continuous growth process of nurses engaged in this area of practice. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Performance of public professional services (PPS) form an ongoing debate, often linked to NPM, between politicians, managers, professionals and citizens. The introduction of NPM has presumably led to the managerialization of professional practices, it is perceived as a managerial discourse focused
Sanders, Mark E.
In accordance with the conference theme—“Exploring Best Practice in Technology Design & Engineering Education”— I make a case in this paper for investigating “integrative STEM education” as a prospective best practice in technology education. I begin with an embellished operational definition of integrative STEM education and follow that with an extensive rationale for investigating the integrative STEM education pedagogical model as a technology education best practice. In the...
Bouras, N; Ikkos, G
Psychiatry, associated as it is with social and cultural factors, has undergone profound changes over the last 50 years. Values, attitudes, beliefs and ideology all influence psychiatry. Deinstitutionalisation, the normalization principle, advocacy, empowerment and the recovery model are ideologies that have been closely associated with policy, service developments and clinical practice in psychiatry. A "new professionalism" is emerging as a consequence of a number of changes in mental health care that needs to be guided by the highest standards of care which are best epitomized in psychiatry as a social contract with society. Looking to the future it is important that the profession recognises the impact ideology can make, if it is not to remain constantly on the defensive. In order to engage proactively and effectively with ideology as well as clinical science and evidence based service development, psychiatry as a profession will do best to approach significant future policy, practice and service changes by adopting an ethical approach, as a form a social contract. Psychiatrists must pay increasing attention to understanding values as expressed by ideologies, working in a collaborative way with other mental health professionals, involve service users and manage systems as well as be competent in clinical assessment and treatment. Whether in time of plenty or in times of deprivation, ideology produces effects on practice and in the context of constantly changing knowledge and the current financial stress this is likely to be more the case (and not less) in the foreseeable future. Psychiatrists must take into consideration the new social problems seen in some high income countries with the increased availability of highly potent "street drugs", perceived threats from various immigrant and minority communities and breakdown of "social capital" such as the decline of the nuclear family.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines are attracting increased attention in education. The iSTEM 2017 conference was a professional development program designed to acquaint pre-service teachers with interdisciplinary, research-based STEM instructional strategies that can transform traditional classroom instruction into dynamic learning environments. The STEM Education Scholars (STEMES) is a Learning Community of Practice, housed in the College of Education, at a mid-sized mid-western public research university. The program of study focused on designing a professional development program for future Pre-K12 teachers. The iSTEM 2017 conference presented by the STEMES Community of Practice sought to inform pre-service teachers of STEM pedagogy, and focused on innovative classroom resources, hands-on learning and increasing content confidence when incorporating STEM into classroom instruction. iSTEM 2017 was held in February, 2017, and offered twenty refereed presentations and workshop sessions, a keynote address, and a closing session to over 200 pre-service teachers. Conference participants chose sessions, participated in game-like experiences and shared their learning with each other as well as with conference organizers. Results from participant self-reported surveys were analyzed to measure the impact of the conference on improving participants' confidence in teaching STEM topics, and their attitudes about the instructional methods. These results were added to the conference proceedings, which also contain documentation of each iSTEM 2017 session. Findings suggest that the iSTEM 2017 conference had an overall positive impact on participants' familiarity with STEM education, their belief in the importance of STEM education, and their confidence to integrate STEM education into future instructional practices.
Chitroda, Parita K; Katti, Girish; Attar, Nikhat M; Shahbaz, Syed; Sreenivasarao, G; Patil, Ambika
Dental stem cell, a type of adult stem cell, exhibits multipotent differentiation capacity and is drawing worldwide attention because of its numerous applications. The advances in applications of dental stem cells seem to be unsurpassed in the near future, for which specialized skills and knowledge in this arena are of prime significance. Hence, there is a need to acquire more knowledge about dental stem cells to obtain maximum benefits from it in the coming years. Dental stem cells in India are still at the budding stage, and there seems to be limited awareness regarding dental stem cells. This study aimed to assess the awareness of stem cells among the dental professionals. The present study was a questionnaire-based study of dental professionals (MDS, BDS, postgraduates, and interns) of three different institutions. Results showed that 95.2% of dental professionals are aware of the terminology dental stem cells and 53.9% of them are aware of various applications of dental stem cells. Chi-square test showed a significant correlation between the sources of information, source of dental stem cells, and clinical applications in relation to the academic qualification of the dental professionals. This study revealed a good level of awareness among the dental professionals, and it also showed the need to spread more knowledge about the advances in applications, storage, banking, and guidelines related to dental stem cells.
Parita K Chitroda
Full Text Available Background: Dental stem cell, a type of adult stem cell, exhibits multipotent differentiation capacity and is drawing worldwide attention because of its numerous applications. The advances in applications of dental stem cells seem to be unsurpassed in the near future, for which specialized skills and knowledge in this arena are of prime significance. Hence, there is a need to acquire more knowledge about dental stem cells to obtain maximum benefits from it in the coming years. Dental stem cells in India are still at the budding stage, and there seems to be limited awareness regarding dental stem cells. Aim: This study aimed to assess the awareness of stem cells among the dental professionals. Methodology: The present study was a questionnaire-based study of dental professionals (MDS, BDS, postgraduates, and interns of three different institutions. Results: Results showed that 95.2% of dental professionals are aware of the terminology dental stem cells and 53.9% of them are aware of various applications of dental stem cells. Chi-square test showed a significant correlation between the sources of information, source of dental stem cells, and clinical applications in relation to the academic qualification of the dental professionals. Conclusion: This study revealed a good level of awareness among the dental professionals, and it also showed the need to spread more knowledge about the advances in applications, storage, banking, and guidelines related to dental stem cells.
With the ever-increasing availability and accessibility of the Internet, students are able to access a multitude of resources in support of their studies. However, this has also led to an increase in their ability to cheat through plagiarising text and claiming it as their own. Increased pressures of balancing work and study have contributed to this rise. Not only confined to the student population, some academics are also guilty of engaging in this practice providing a less than favourable role model for their students. Of increasing concern is the links of this practice to professionalism or indeed in this case unprofessionalism. Both pre- and post-registration nursing students who plagiarise risk bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There are a number of methods that may be used to detect plagiarism but often the penalties are menial and inconsistently applied. Overall it is essential that academic institutions foster a culture of honesty and integrity amongst its academic community. A culture that clearly emphasises that plagiarism in any form is unacceptable.
Jankauskiene, Zymante; Kubiliene, Erika; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Venalis, Algirdas
The aim of this study was to evaluate professional socialization of nurses and its association with assurance of practice activity. The study was carried out in randomly selected Lithuanian health care institutions from January to June 2007. A total of 1300 nurses, enrolled in the study, were divided into three groups according to the position held by participants: general practice nurses, 77.8%; senior nurses and leaders, 10.7%; and 4th-year students of general nurse education program, 11.5%. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out. The data were processed with SPSS 15.0 statistical software. Descriptive and multidimensional statistical methods were applied in the study. The matrix model, integrating characteristics of nurses' professional socialization and dimensions of practice activity and disclosing parameters and indicators of assurance of these processes, was applied for data analysis. The respondents favorably evaluated the aspects ensuring professional socialization and practice activity such as "professional activity," "motivators of professional activity," "professional characteristic," "system of professional values," and "professional behavior." The respondents unfavorably evaluated the following parameters: "security of professional self-expression and self-education," "professional development," "professional expectations," and "implementation of institution strategies." For the evaluation of nurses' professional socialization and practice activity, a theoretical model was created, and nine diagnostic criteria, integrating the characteristics of professional socialization and dimensions of practice activity, were formulated. A significant positive correlation was determined among the majority of the diagnostic criteria of the intercorrelation matrix of theoretical model. Having summarized the attitude of nurses toward professional socialization and the provision of practice activity, both favorable and unfavorable aspects of assessment
Fan, Szu-Chun; Yu, Kuang-Chao
STEM-oriented engineering design practice has become recognized increasingly by technology education professionals in Taiwan. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of the application of an integrative STEM approach within engineering design practices in high school technology education in Taiwan. A quasi-experimental study was conducted…
Brazier, A S A; Balneaves, L G; Seely, D; Stephen, J E; Suryaprakash, N; Taylor-Brown, J W
Cancer patients are increasingly known to use complementary medicine (CAM) during conventional treatment, but data are limited on how Canadian oncology health professionals attempt to assist patients with their use of cam in the context of conventional cancer care. As part of a larger qualitative study assessing the perceptions of Canadian oncology health professionals regarding integrated breast cancer care, we undertook an exploration of current integrative practices of oncology health professionals. Using an interpretive description research design and a purposive sampling, we conducted a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with various oncology health professionals recruited from provincial cancer agencies, hospitals, integrative clinics, and private practice settings in four Canadian cities: Vancouver, Winnipeg, Montreal, and Halifax. A total of 16 oncology health professionals participated, including medical and radiation oncologists, nurses, and pharmacists. Findings highlighted two main strategies used by oncology health professionals to create a more integrative approach for cancer patients: acting as an integrative care guide, and collaborating with other health professionals. Although few clear standards of practice or guidance material were in place within their organizational settings, health professionals discussed some integrative roles that they had adopted, depending on interest, knowledge, and skills, in supporting patients with cam decisions. Given that cancer patients report that they want to be able to confer with their conventional health professionals, particularly their oncologists, about their cam use, health professionals who elect to adopt integrative practices are likely offering patients much-welcomed support.
Popular media have played a crucial role in the construction, representation, reproduction, and transmission of stereotypes of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals, yet little is known about how these stereotypes influence STEM identity formation. Media images of STEM professionals may be important sources of information about STEM and may be particularly salient and relevant for girls during adolescence as they actively consider future personal and professional identities. This article describes gender-stereotyped media images of STEM professionals and examines theories to identify variables that explain the potential influence of these images on STEM identity formation. Understanding these variables is important for expanding current conceptual frameworks of science/STEM identity to better determine how and when cues in the broader sociocultural context may affect adolescent girls' STEM identity. This article emphasizes the importance of focusing on STEM identity relevant variables and STEM identity status to explain individual differences in STEM identity formation.
Popular media have played a crucial role in the construction, representation, reproduction, and transmission of stereotypes of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals, yet little is known about how these stereotypes influence STEM identity formation. Media images of STEM professionals may be important sources of information about STEM and may be particularly salient and relevant for girls during adolescence as they actively consider future personal and professional identities. This article describes gender-stereotyped media images of STEM professionals and examines theories to identify variables that explain the potential influence of these images on STEM identity formation. Understanding these variables is important for expanding current conceptual frameworks of science/STEM identity to better determine how and when cues in the broader sociocultural context may affect adolescent girls’ STEM identity. This article emphasizes the importance of focusing on STEM identity relevant variables and STEM identity status to explain individual differences in STEM identity formation. PMID:28603505
Noesgaard, Signe Schack
The natural expectation for professional development courses is that they will improve a participant’s work performance, but do they? This PhD research challenges several assumptions underlying the design of online professional development courses, revealing that it is after such interventions th...... as adaptive “just-in-time” technologies and proposes a design theory called “situated online professional development,” entailing six design principles for advancing work practices....
This study investigated ethical and professional standards compliance among practicing librariansin university libraries in Benue State. The purpose of the study was todetermine the extent to which librarians in university libraries comply with ethics and professional standards in librarianship. The study adopted a descriptive ...
In today's global society where innovations spread rapidly, the escalating focus on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has quickly intensified in the United States, East Asia and much of Western Europe. Our ever-changing, increasingly global society faces many multidisciplinary problems, and many of the solutions require the integration of multiple science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts. Thus, there is a critical need to explore the integration of STEM subjects in international education contexts. This dissertation study examined the exploration of integration of STEM in the unique context of Pakistan. This study used three-phase design-based methodological framework derived from McKenney and Reeves (2012) to explore the development of a STEM focused online teacher professional development (oTPD-STEM) and to identify the design features that facilitate teacher learning. The oTPD-STEM program was designed to facilitate eight Pakistani elementary school teachers' exploration of the new idea of STEM integration through both practical and theoretical considerations. This design-based study employed inductive analysis (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) to analyze multiple data sources of interviews, STEM perception responses, reflective learning team conversations, pre-post surveys and artifacts produced in oTPD-STEM. Findings of this study are presented as: (1) design-based decisions for oTPD-STEM, and (2) evolution in understanding of STEM by sharing participant teachers' STEM model for Pakistani context. This study advocates for the potential of school-wide oTPD for interdisciplinary collaboration through support for learner-centered practices.
Levy, M A; Arnold, R M; Fine, M J; Kapoor, W N
Physicians have long provided care free of charge or at a reduced rate as a professional courtesy to other physicians and their families. We conducted a stratified national mail survey to assess the extent to which this practice has changed in recent years. Using the American Medical Association's 1991 master list of physicians, we selected a random sample of 4800 practicing physicians from 12 direct-care specialties. These physicians were asked about their current policy and opinions regarding professional courtesy. Of the 2224 respondents, 2127 (96 percent) offered professional courtesy, defined as providing free or discounted health care to physicians and their families. Psychiatrists were less likely to offer professional courtesy than physicians in any of the other specialties (80 percent vs. 91 to 99 percent, P courtesy included billing only the insurance company (75 percent), providing care at no charge (49 percent), and giving a partial discount (23 percent). Twenty-three percent of the respondents reported that they had changed their policy regarding professional courtesy since starting to practice. Among those who had changed their policy, the most common changes were to increase the practice of billing only the insurance company (67 percent) and to provide care at no charge less often (58 percent). The majority of physicians responding to the survey thought that professional courtesy solidified bonds between physicians (79 percent) and was sound business practice (62 percent); 12 percent believed that it was too expensive to offer free or discounted care as a professional courtesy, and 14 percent thought that the practice had negative effects on the physician-patient interaction. Our survey of physicians involved in direct patient care indicates that, with the exception of psychiatrists, almost all American physicians offer free or discounted care as a professional courtesy and support the practice.
Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal of c...... it examines the journalists’ reactions to discrepancies in relation to their organizational commitment. The results suggest that discrepancies do have a negative impact on journalists’ commitment. Further implications for research and practice of the findings are discussed.......Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal...
Weaver, Kathryn; Morse, Janice; Mitcham, Carl
This paper is a report of a concept analysis of ethical sensitivity. Ethical sensitivity enables nurses and other professionals to respond morally to the suffering and vulnerability of those receiving professional care and services. Because of its significance to nursing and other professional practices, ethical sensitivity deserves more focused analysis. A criteria-based method oriented toward pragmatic utility guided the analysis of 200 papers and books from the fields of nursing, medicine, psychology, dentistry, clinical ethics, theology, education, law, accounting or business, journalism, philosophy, political and social sciences and women's studies. This literature spanned 1970 to 2006 and was sorted by discipline and concept dimensions and examined for concept structure and use across various contexts. The analysis was completed in September 2007. Ethical sensitivity in professional practice develops in contexts of uncertainty, client suffering and vulnerability, and through relationships characterized by receptivity, responsiveness and courage on the part of professionals. Essential attributes of ethical sensitivity are identified as moral perception, affectivity and dividing loyalties. Outcomes include integrity preserving decision-making, comfort and well-being, learning and professional transcendence. Our findings promote ethical sensitivity as a type of practical wisdom that pursues client comfort and professional satisfaction with care delivery. The analysis and resulting model offers an inclusive view of ethical sensitivity that addresses some of the limitations with prior conceptualizations.
The idea of evidence- based practice is influential in public welfare services, including education. The idea is controversial, however, not least because it involves a poten tial redefinition of the relation ship between knowledge, authority and professionalism. This is discussed based on a study...... of evidence- based methods in Danish pre-school education and care. The management sees the use of these methods as strengthening pre- school teacher professionalism, but the actual practices in the day-careinstitutions are ambiguous. In some cases, using the methods becomes an end in itself and tends...... to displace important educational objectives. In other cases, the methods are reflectively adjusted to a given context. Used in this way only, evid ence-based practice and methodology is a valuable resource for professional practice in education. From such a perspective, at least some types of research based...
Nielsen, Trine Kløveager
of ”Bridging the Gap”, a Danish research project conducted in collaboration between the Institute of Education, University of Aarhus (DPU), Danish Institute of Governmental Research (AKF), University College Capital (UCC) and the Engineering College of Aarhus. The aim of Bridging the Gap is to explore......Background: A fundamental component in professional education is the link between theory and practice. However, many students in professional education programs experience a lack of coherence between theory and practice which is often described as the theory practice gap. This PhD-project is part...... the relationship between theory and practice in teacher, nurse, social work and engineering education, and to contribute with knowledge about how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in these educations. Aim: The aim of the present study is to identify the most promising strategies for improving...
Bootsma, M.C.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the labor market position of environmental science graduates and the core competencies of these environmental professionals related to their working practice. Design/methodology/approach: The authors carried out two surveys amongst alumni of the
This paper explores how strategic management concepts, especially the notion of 'wicked problems', can be useful in analysing the professional practice of teachers in higher education. The keeping of a dialogical journal with a colleague helped illuminate that strategic management and education have much in common. Both are situated in…
Bødker, Susanne; Iversen, Ole Sejer
Use and users have an important and acknowledged role to most designers of interactive systems. Nevertheless any touch of user hands does not in itself secure development of meaningful artifacts. In this article we stress the need for a professional PD practice in order to yield the full...
In the shift to a more clearly economic imperative for universities than social good, the relationship between higher education teaching and professional practice has become increasingly apparent. It is seen in the courses offered by universities, and the relationship with employment and employers advocated by government and funding agencies. From…
Clinical teachers in the discipline of nursing in Denmark undergo additional education in addition to their registered nursing education to establish their teaching skill qualifications practicum. This ethnographic study examines some of the pedagogical initiatives clinical teachers are practicing...... as working professionals attempting to gain a foothold in their own jurisdiction. This study demonstrates that teaching practices contain implicit norms of what counts as knowledge among clinical teachers. Consequently, the classic knowledge hierarchy is continuously reproduced, and the intrinsic qualities...... of nursing from clinical teaching. Organisational imperatives strongly disrupt the pedagogical agenda. When clinical teachers struggle to demarcate jurisdictions, their professional identities are at risk of being blurred and becoming unclear....
Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Vogel, Ellen; Jones-Taggart, Holly; Green-Johnson, Julia; Castle, David; Austin, Zubin; Anderson, Kristin
Nutrigenomics is concerned with the role of nutrients in gene expression, and nutrigenetics is the study of how genetic variants or polymorphisms (mutations) can affect responses to nutrients; nutritional genomics is the umbrella term. Nutritional genomics can be expected to revolutionize the way dietitians and other health professionals identify people with chronic diseases and treat those diseases. Understanding the science of nutritional genomics is important to dietitians and other health professionals because major scientific advancements such as this usually have a significant impact on ethics, policy, and practice. Blood lipid profiles are one area in which nutritional genomics has quickly advanced knowledge. New knowledge is available on blood lipid profiles and associated conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. New technology has also had an impact on policy and practice issues, and ethics is an important issue to consider.
Autonomous professional practice continues to be elusive for registered nurses. Autonomous professional practice implies that nurses would be free to determine the procedures for carrying out their nursing work. In other works, they would be able to make independent decisions about their own nursing practice. This article reports research that describes the nature of nursing leadership that supports autonomous professional practice of registered nurses.
Fisher, Carl Erik; Chin, Lisa; Klitzman, Robert
Neuromarketing has recently generated controversies concerning the involvement of medical professionals, and many key questions remain-ones that have potentially important implications for the field of psychiatry. Conflicting definitions of neuromarketing have been proposed, and little is known about the actual practices of companies, physicians, and scientists involved in its practice. This article reviews the history of neuromarketing and uses an exploratory survey of neuromarketing Web sites to illustrate ethical issues raised by this new field. Neuromarketing, as currently practiced, is heterogeneous, as companies are offering a variety of technologies. Many companies employ academicians and professionals, but few list their clients or fees. Media coverage of neuromarketing appears disproportionately high compared to the paucity of peer-reviewed reports in the field. Companies may be making premature claims about the power of neuroscience to predict consumer behavior. Overall, neuromarketing has important implications for academic-industrial partnerships, the responsible conduct of research, and the public understanding of the brain. We explore these themes to uncover issues relevant to professional ethics, research, and policy. Of particular relevance to psychiatry, neuromarketing may be seen as an extension of the search for quantification and certainty in previously indefinite aspects of human behavior.
Langone, Luis; Vanetta, Marcos; Vazquez, Marcelo; Rotger, Viviana I; Olivera, Juan Manuel
In the curricula of the Biomedical Engineering career of the Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y TecnologIa of the Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Argenitna, there are the Assisted Professional Practices. Within this framework, the students have the possibility of performing practices in the clinic Sanatorio 9 de Julio. One of the objectives of these practices is to apply the concepts, methods and procedures studied along the career in the field work under real work conditions. From the point of view of the host institution, the objective is to improve the performance of the different services and areas applying the tools of Biomedical Engineering. The present work shows an example of such practices where an equipment preliminary analysis was made, its use and maintenance corresponding to the surgical unit of the clinic
Ozar, David T; Kristensen, Cynthia; Fadem, Stephen Z; Blaser, Robert; Singer, Dale; Moss, Alvin H
Although the number of incidents is unknown, professional quality-oriented renal organizations have become aware of an increased number of complaints regarding nephrologists who approach patients with the purpose of influencing patients to change nephrologists or dialysis facilities (hereinafter referred to as patient solicitation). This development prompted the Forum of ESRD Networks and the Renal Physicians Association to publish a policy statement on professionalism and ethics in medical practice as these concepts relate to patient solicitation. Also common but not new is the practice of nephrologists trying to recruit their own patients to a new dialysis unit in which they have a financial interest. This paper presents two illustrative cases and provides an ethical framework for analyzing patient solicitation and physician conflict of interest. This work concludes that, in the absence of objective data that medical treatment is better elsewhere, nephrologists who attempt to influence patients to change nephrologists or dialysis facilities fall short of accepted ethical standards pertaining to professional conduct, particularly with regard to the physician-patient relationship, informed consent, continuity of care, and conflict of interest.
Jacobsen, Alice Juel; Buch, Anders
This article investigates organizational reform changes as they are con-structed in the interaction between managers and teachers in a school context. The empirical basis is comprised of case studies carried out in Danish upper secondary schools. An ethnographic approach and a concept of paradox...... related to an under-standing of professionals are used to investigate the practices involved in the change processes. The article argues that the ambiguity of a primus inter pares management position among professionals leads to several paradoxes, deadlocks, and detours, all of which affect the work...... for change in the schools. Significant paradoxes are identi-fied on the basis of the empirical material, and methodological advantages of a pro-posed paradox perspective, are demonstrated....
Mulnix, Amy B.
Discipline-based education research (DBER) publications are opportunities for professional development around science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education reform. Learning theory tells us these publications could be more impactful if authors, reviewers, and editors pay greater attention to linking principles and practice.…
This study was designed to explore elementary STEM professional development viewed from the presenters' and participants' perspectives. Numerous committees and educational organizations recommend investing in STEM professional development at the local, state, and national level. This investment must begin with research that inquires how STEM professional development is structured and what is needed for teacher and student success. Since there is a recent STEM education push in schools, elementary teachers need effective professional development in order to gain the necessary content, skills, confidence, and pedagogy required for those changing demands. This qualitative study embraced. Yin's case study methodology by observing short-duration STEM professional development for elementary teachers within a large metropolitan school system and an educational professional development agency. The study discussed the analysis and findings in the context of Bandura's sources of efficacy and Desimone's critical features of professional development. Data were gathered form professional development observations, presenter interviews, and participant interviews. The research questions for this study included: (a) based on Desimone's (2009) framework for professional development, what does content focused, active learning, coherence, duration, and collective participation look like in initial STEM professional development for elementary teachers? (b) are Bandura's (1997) four sources of self- efficacy: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social persuasion, and affective states evidenced within the short duration professional development? and (c) how do these two frameworks align between presenter and participant thoughts and actions? This study uncovered additional sources of efficacy are present in short-duration STEM professional development. These found sources include coherence, content, and active learning delivered in a definitive order. The findings of this study
Harris, Curtis E; Richards, Warren; Fincham, Jack E
To review the practice and legal principles of negligence law. An illustrative, fictional case is presented, based in part on facts gleaned from actual case law. A respected pharmacist, faced with the financial loss of his business, decided to engage in 2 creative but unethical schemes to increase his profit margin. In doing so, he violated federal Medicare law and placed a number of the patients who used his services at significant risk for medical complications. Negligence law has evolved over the past 30 years in a manner that significantly increases the liability of the practicing pharmacist for both ordinary negligence actions and criminal negligence actions. In addition, the past decade has seen the expansion of Medicare Fraud and Abuse law such that it now represents an increasingly high risk area for every medical service provider, including the pharmacist. Professional practice in the US is highly regulated, governed by both case law and statutory law. Every practicing pharmacist should be aware of the law that governs his or her behavior to avoid both civil and criminal liability.
This requirement relates to personal ... Keywords: professionalism, anaesthetic practice, professional duty, ethics of responsibility, virtue ethics, Aristotle ..... regulation is an important professional responsibility that applies to both the individual and the collective. The individual professional should have the moral compass, ...
Professionals working in a range of contexts are increasingly expected to engage in ongoing professional learning to maintain their skills and develop their practices. In this paper, I focus on professional learning in Higher Education and challenge the standardisation of professional learning that is becoming prevalent in a number of countries. I…
Examines to what extent the skills and techniques of evidence-based practice are transferable to the areas of professional practice of librarians and information professionals? Is it desirable for information professionals to integrate research findings into their day-to-day decision making?
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines are attracting increased attention in education. The iSTEM 2017 conference was a professional development program designed to acquaint pre-service teachers with interdisciplinary, research-based STEM instructional strategies that can transform traditional classroom instruction…
Mueller, Paul S
Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual's career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a "professionalism portfolio," the totality of which represents a picture of the individual's professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.
Charity Hudley, Anne H.; Mallinson, Christine
Professional development on issues of language and culture is often separate from professional development on issues related to STEM education, resulting in linguistic and cultural gaps in K-12 STEM pedagogy and practice. To address this issue, we have designed a model of professional development in which we work with educators to build cultural and linguistic competence and to disseminate information about how educators view the relevance of language, communication, and culture to STEM teaching and learning. We describe the design and facilitation of our model of culturally and linguistically responsive professional development, grounded in theories of multicultural education and culturally supportive teaching, through professional development workshops to 60 K-12 STEM educators from schools in Maryland and Virginia that serve African American students. Participants noted that culturally and linguistically responsive approaches had yet to permeate their K-12 STEM settings, which they identified as a critical challenge to effectively teaching and engaging African-American students. Based on pre-surveys, workshops were tailored to participants' stated needs for information on literacy (e.g., disciplinary literacies and discipline-specific jargon), cultural conflict and mismatch (e.g., student-teacher miscommunication), and linguistic bias in student assessment (e.g., test design). Educators shared feedback via post-workshop surveys, and a subset of 28 participants completed in-depth interviews and a focus group. Results indicate the need for further implementation of professional development such as ours that address linguistic and cultural issues, tailored for K-12 STEM educators. Although participants in this study enumerated several challenges to meeting this need, they also identified opportunities for collaborative solutions that draw upon teacher expertise and are integrated with curricula across content areas.
Thorsen, Thorkil; Mäkelä, M.
vejledninger. Bogen beskriver metoder og giver værdifuld information til brug for dem, som er ansvarlige for at formidle kliniske vejledninger, eller som skal undersøge effekten af en sådan formid-ling. Den henvender sig ligeledes til sundhedspolitiske beslutnings-tagere og klinikere.Bogen, der er på engelsk......, er skrevet af forskere, som har deltaget i et europæisk forsknings-samarbejdsprojekt med titlen Changing Professional Practice, som blev koordineret af DSI Institut for Sundhedsvæsen. Kommentarer:Rapporten er på engelsk...
AbdulRahman Al Asmari
Professional development is considered as an essential element in enhancing the teaching and learning process to ensure student learning. Professional development can also be deemed as a cornerstone of teacher professionalism and quality. The governments and educational institutions invest significantly in Continuous Professional Development (CPD) to improve teacher quality and to meet the changing needs of the students. To uncover the perceptions and practices of professional development in ...
Eaton, K A; Reynolds, P A
Ever-increasing needs and demands by dentists and all other members of the dental team for education and training at all levels - undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing - are straining the resources of existing providers of such education. At the same time, there are ever-increasing opportunities to develop online delivery and the use of a range of information and communication technology (ICT) systems and services further, in all aspects of dental education. This paper reviews recent developments that have led to an increased demand for dental postgraduate programmes and continuing professional development (CPD) courses in the United Kingdom and then discusses how ICT has and will impact on teaching practice. Examples include the use of teaching and learning resources in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and the increasing use of blended learning. The paper then explores the need for both teachers and students to adapt to the new environment to ensure they can benefit to the maximum and that teaching and learning practices are changed accordingly.
García-Guerrero, J; Vera-Remartínez, E J
To study the knowledge on professional deontology amongst doctors in prisons. Descriptive, transversal and multi-centre study. Labour, collegiate, social, demographic and deontological variables were collected. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. A bivariate analysis was made by binary logistic regression models, attending to the odds ratio, and assuming a 95% confidence interval. Data was processed by SPSS v.20 software. 118 doctors replied. 68 men (57.6%), with an average age of 51 years (50-53). 100 know about the Deontology Committee (84.7%), but just 77 (65.3%) know its functions properly. 42 (35.6%) know about the existence of the Deontological Code, and 37 (31.3%) have read and apply it. Those who made a correct definition of deontology do find more deontological issues in their daily work [23(46.9%) vs. 18(26.1%); OR: 2.506; IC95%: 1.153-5.451; p=0.020] and would denounce a colleague more often to the Medical Association [40(81.6%) vs. 42 (60.9%); OR: 2.857; IC95%: 1.197-6.819; p=0.018]. Older ones know more about the deontology commissions' functions [54(73%) vs. 23(52.3%); OR: 2.465; IC95%: 1.127-5.394; p=0.024] and have already denounced situations to the Medical Association [27(36.5% vs. 5(11.4%); OR: 4.481; IC95%: 1.577-12.733; p=0.005], but think that a different Care Ethics Committee is unnecessary [57(77%) vs. 42(95.5%); OR: 0.160; IC95%: 0.035- 0.729; p=0.018]. Prison doctors know little about what professional deontology really is. This knowledge increases with age in the profession and is associated with an increased perception of deontological issues in daily practice.
Glover, Todd A.; Nugent, Gwen C.; Chumney, Frances L.; Ihlo, Tanya; Shapiro, Edward S.; Guard, Kirra; Koziol, Natalie; Bovaird, Jim
Teachers Speak was a national survey study designed to investigate the characteristics of rural elementary school teachers' existing professional development; differences in professional development practices between rural and non-rural settings; and the potential influence of professional development characteristics on rural teachers' knowledge,…
Spillane, Nancy Kay
Within successful Inclusive Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)-focused High Schools (ISHSs), it is not only the students who are learning. Teachers, with diverse backgrounds, training, and experience, share and develop their knowledge through rich, embedded professional development to continuously shape their craft, improve their teaching, and support student success. This study of four exemplars of ISHSs (identified by experts in STEM education as highly successful in preparing students underrepresented in STEM for STEM majors in college and future STEM careers) provides a rich description of the relationships among the characteristics of STEM teachers, their professional development, and the school cultures that allow teachers to develop professionally and serve the needs of students. By providing a framework for the development of teaching staffs in ISHSs and contributing to the better understanding of STEM teaching in any school, this study offers valuable insight, implications, and information for states and school districts as they begin planning improvements to STEM education programs. A thorough examination of an existing data set that included site visits to four ISHSs along with pre- and post-visit data, provided the resource for this multiple case study with cross-case analysis of the teachers and their teacher professional development experiences. Administrators in these ISHSs had the autonomy to hire teachers with strong content backgrounds, philosophical alignment with the school missions, and a willingness to work collaboratively toward achieving the schools' goals. Ongoing teacher professional development began before school started and continued throughout the school day and year through intense and sustained, formal and informal, active learning experiences. Flexible professional development systems varied, but aligned with targeted school reforms and teacher and student needs. Importantly, collaborative teacher learning
Full Text Available Objective: To study the knowledge on professional deontology amongst doctors in prisons. Materials and Method: Descriptive, transversal and multi-centre study. Labour, collegiate, social, demographic and deontological variables were collected. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. A bivariate analysis was made by binary logistic regression models, attending to the odds ratio, and assuming a 95% confidence interval. Data was processed by SPSS v.20 software. Results: 118 doctors replied. 68 men (57.6%, with an average age of 51 years (50-53. 100 know about the Deontology Committee (84.7%, but just 77 (65.3% know its functions properly. 42 (35.6% know about the existence of the Deontological Code, and 37 (31.3% have read and apply it. Those who made a correct definition of deontology do find more deontological issues in their daily work [23(46.9% vs. 18(26.1%; OR: 2.506; IC95%: 1.153-5.451; p=0.020] and would denounce a colleague more often to the Medical Association [40(81.6% vs. 42 (60.9%; OR: 2.857; IC95%: 1.197-6.819; p=0.018]. Older ones know more about the deontology commissions' functions [54(73% vs. 23(52.3%; OR: 2.465; IC95%: 1.127-5.394; p=0.024] and have already denounced situations to the Medical Association [27(36.5% vs. 5(11.4%; OR: 4.481; IC95%: 1.577-12.733; p=0.005], but think that a different Care Ethics Committee is unnecessary [57(77% vs. 42(95.5%; OR: 0.160; IC95%: 0.035- 0.729; p=0.018]. Conclusions: Prison doctors know little about what professional deontology really is. This knowledge increases with age in the profession and is associated with an increased perception of deontological issues in daily practice.
This paper addresses the practice of professional development within the Vocational Education and Training (VET) arena. The study object was to gain the perceptions held by a selected group of VET educators in the tourism and hospitality sector of the professional teaching/training competencies required for effective practice. The study was…
Knowles, J. Geoff
This research analyzed the effects of teacher professional development and lesson implementation in integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) on: 1.) Teacher self-efficacy and their confidence to teach specific STEM subjects; 2.) Teaching outcome expectancy beliefs concerning the impact of actions by teachers on student learning; and 3.) Teacher awareness of STEM careers. High school science and technology education teachers participating in the Teachers and Researchers Advancing Integrated Lessons in STEM (TRAILS) project experimental group attended a ten-day summer professional development institute designed to educate teachers in using an integrated STEM education model to implement integrated STEM lessons. The research design utilized a quasi-experimental nonequivalent comparison group design that incorporated an experimental group and an untreated comparison group with both pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest assessments on non-randomized participants. Teacher self-efficacy has been identified as a key factor in effective teaching and student learning, and teacher awareness of STEM careers impacts students as they consider career choices. The T-STEM Survey for teachers was given for the pretest and posttest assessments to measure attitudes and beliefs toward the specific constructs of this study. Significant effects of the TRAILS professional development were found in the teacher group (experimental or comparison) and teacher subject (technology or science) in pretest and posttest scores using cumulative link models for the constructs of teacher self-efficacy and beliefs to teach STEM subjects, teacher outcome expectancy beliefs, and teacher awareness of STEM careers. Effect sizes ranged from small to large varying by construct and assessment time. Highly significant p-values and effect sizes revealed impacts on science teachers were greater when teacher subject groups were analyzed separately.
Anthony, Denise L; Stablein, Timothy
care delivery, challenging professional practices for the control of patient information that may change the value or meaning of medical records for different professional groups. Qualitative findings suggest that professional groups in health care vary in the extent of information control they have, as well in how they view such control. Some groups may be more likely to (be able to) resist changes in the professional control of information that stem from new technologies or regulatory policies. Some professionals recognize that new IT systems and regulations challenge existing social control of information in health care, with the potential to undermine (or possibly bolster) professional self-control for some but not necessarily all occupational groups.
Rogers, Wendy; Ballantyne, Angela
Professionalism remains a challenging part of the medical curriculum to define, teach and evaluate. We suggest that one way to meet these challenges is to clarify the definition of professionalism and distinguish this from medical ethics. Our analysis is two staged. First, we reviewed influential definitions of professionalism and separated elements relating to (a) ethico-legal competencies, (b) clinical competence and (c) professionalism. In reference to professionalism, we then distinguished between aspirational virtues/values and specific behaviours. From these, we develop a working definition of medical professional behaviour consisting of six domains of behaviour: responsibility; relationships with and respect for patients; probity and honesty; self awareness and capacity for reflection; collaboration and team work; and care of colleagues. Second, we tested this working definition against empirical data concerning disciplinary action against practising doctors using (a) sources in the literature and (b) an original analysis of complaints received by the Medical Board of South Australia. Our empirical analysis supports the relevance of four of the six potential domains: responsibility; relationships with and respect for patients; probity and honesty; self awareness and capacity for reflection. There are additional reasons for retaining 'collaboration and team work' in the medical professional behaviour curriculum but 'care of colleagues' may be better addressed in the ethico-legal curriculum. Our definition of professional behaviour is consistent with the theoretical literature, captures behaviours that predict future complaints against practitioners and is consistent with current complaints about professionalism in South Australian practitioners. This definition can further the teaching and assessing of professional behaviour in medical schools.
Paul S. Mueller
Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.
McGinnis, Patricia Quinn; Guenther, Lee Ann; Wainwright, Susan F
The physical therapy profession has adopted professional core values, which define expected values for its members, and developed a self-assessment tool with sample behaviors for each of the 7 core values. However, evidence related to the integration of these core values into practice is limited. The aims of this study were: (1) to gain insight into physical therapists' development of professional core values and (2) to gain insight into participants' integration of professional core values into clinical practice. A qualitative design permitted in-depth exploration of the development and integration of the American Physical Therapy Association's professional core values into physical therapist practice. Twenty practicing physical therapists were purposefully selected to explore the role of varied professional, postprofessional, and continuing education experiences related to exposure to professional values. The Core Values Self-Assessment and résumé sort served as prompts for reflection via semistructured interviews. Three themes were identified: (1) personal values were the foundation for developing professional values, which were further shaped by academic and clinical experiences, (2) core values were integrated into practice independent of practice setting and varied career paths, and (3) participants described the following professional core values as well integrated into their practice: integrity, compassion/caring, and accountability. Social responsibility was an area consistently identified as not being integrated into their practice. The Core Values Self-Assessment tool is a consensus-based document developed through a Delphi process. Future studies to establish reliability and construct validity of the tool may be warranted. Gaining an in-depth understanding of how practicing clinicians incorporate professional core values into clinical practice may shed light on the relationship between core values mastery and its impact on patient care. Findings may
Full Text Available The growing international market for unproven stem cell-based interventions advertised on a direct-to-consumer basis over the internet (“stem cell tourism” is a source of concern because of the risks it presents to patients as well as their supporters, domestic health care systems, and the stem cell research field. Emerging responses such as public and health provider-focused education and national regulatory efforts are encouraging, but the market continues to grow. Physicians play a number of roles in the stem cell tourism market and, in many jurisdictions, are members of a regulated profession. In this article, we consider the use of professional regulation to address physician involvement in stem cell tourism. Although it is not without its limitations, professional regulation is a potentially valuable tool that can be employed in response to problematic types of physician involvement in the stem cell tourism market.
Zarzeczny, Amy; Caulfield, Timothy; Ogbogu, Ubaka; Bell, Peter; Crooks, Valorie A; Kamenova, Kalina; Master, Zubin; Rachul, Christen; Snyder, Jeremy; Toews, Maeghan; Zoeller, Sonja
The growing international market for unproven stem cell-based interventions advertised on a direct-to-consumer basis over the internet ("stem cell tourism") is a source of concern because of the risks it presents to patients as well as their supporters, domestic health care systems, and the stem cell research field. Emerging responses such as public and health provider-focused education and national regulatory efforts are encouraging, but the market continues to grow. Physicians play a number of roles in the stem cell tourism market and, in many jurisdictions, are members of a regulated profession. In this article, we consider the use of professional regulation to address physician involvement in stem cell tourism. Although it is not without its limitations, professional regulation is a potentially valuable tool that can be employed in response to problematic types of physician involvement in the stem cell tourism market. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thana, Aduldej; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
The STEM education is new issue of teaching and learning in school setting. Building up STEM education professional learning community may provide some suggestions for further collaborative work of STEM Education from grounded up. This paper aimed to clarify the building up STEM education learning community in Khon Kaen Wittayayon (KKW) School setting. Participants included Khon Kaen University researchers, Khon Kaen Wittayayon School administrators and teachers. Methodology regarded interpretative paradigm. The tools of interpretation included participant observation, interview and document analysis. Data was analyzed to categories of condition for building up STEM education professional learning community. The findings revealed that the actions of developing STEM learning activities and research showed some issues of KKW STEM community of inquiry and improvement. The paper will discuss what and how the community learns about sharing vision of STEM Education, supportive physical and social conditions of KKW, sharing activities of STEM, and good things from some key STEM teachers' ambition. The paper may has implication of supporting STEM education in Thailand school setting.
Derting, Terry L; Ebert-May, Diane; Henkel, Timothy P; Maher, Jessica Middlemis; Arnold, Bryan; Passmore, Heather A
We tested the effectiveness of Faculty Institutes for Reforming Science Teaching IV (FIRST), a professional development program for postdoctoral scholars, by conducting a study of program alumni. Faculty professional development programs are critical components of efforts to improve teaching and learning in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, but reliable evidence of the sustained impacts of these programs is lacking. We used a paired design in which we matched a FIRST alumnus employed in a tenure-track position with a non-FIRST faculty member at the same institution. The members of a pair taught courses that were of similar size and level. To determine whether teaching practices of FIRST participants were more learner-centered than those of non-FIRST faculty, we compared faculty perceptions of their teaching strategies, perceptions of environmental factors that influence teaching, and actual teaching practice. Non-FIRST and FIRST faculty reported similar perceptions of their teaching strategies and teaching environment. FIRST faculty reported using active learning and interactive engagement in lecture sessions more frequently compared with non-FIRST faculty. Ratings from external reviewers also documented that FIRST faculty taught class sessions that were learner-centered, contrasting with the teacher-centered class sessions of most non-FIRST faculty. Despite marked differences in teaching practice, FIRST and non-FIRST participants used assessments that targeted lower-level cognitive skills. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of the FIRST program and the empirical utility of comparison groups, where groups are well matched and controlled for contextual variables (for example, departments), for evaluating the effectiveness of professional development for subsequent teaching practices.
Parita K Chitroda; Girish Katti; Nikhat M Attar; Syed Shahbaz; G Sreenivasarao; Ambika Patil
Background: Dental stem cell, a type of adult stem cell, exhibits multipotent differentiation capacity and is drawing worldwide attention because of its numerous applications. The advances in applications of dental stem cells seem to be unsurpassed in the near future, for which specialized skills and knowledge in this arena are of prime significance. Hence, there is a need to acquire more knowledge about dental stem cells to obtain maximum benefits from it in the coming years. Dental stem cel...
Korkmazgil, Sibel; Seferoğlu, Gölge
One-shot professional development activities designed and accomplished without considering teachers’ needs are generally reported to fail to lead to long-lasting changes in terms of teacher growth and learning. Therefore, professional development programs need to be based on the immediate needs of teachers, and designed and directed with teachers’ input. In this regard, this study aims to investigate a group of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ professional development practices i...
Lefebvre, Cedric; Mesner, Jason; Stopyra, Jason; O'Neill, James; Husain, Iltifat; Geer, Carol; Gerancher, Karen; Atkinson, Hal; Harper, Erin; Huang, William; Cline, David M
Background For younger generations, unconstrained online social activity is the norm. Little data are available about perceptions among young medical practitioners who enter the professional clinical arena, while the impact of existing social media policy on these perceptions is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existing perceptions about social media and professionalism among new physicians entering in professional clinical practice; and to determine the e...
Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne
Reflective practice is one of the most popular theories of professional knowledge in the last 20 years and has been widely adopted by nursing, health, and social care professions. The term was coined by Donald Schön in his influential books The Reflective Practitioner, and Educating the Reflective Practitioner, and has garnered the unprecedented attention of theorists and practitioners of professional education and practice. Reflective practice has been integrated into professional preparatory programmes, continuing education programmes, and by the regulatory bodies of a wide range of health and social care professions. Yet, despite its popularity and widespread adoption, a problem frequently raised in the literature concerns the lack of conceptual clarity surrounding the term reflective practice. This paper seeks to respond to this problem by offering an analysis of the epistemology of reflective practice as revealed through a critical examination of philosophical influences within the theory. The aim is to discern philosophical underpinnings of reflective practice in order to advance increasingly coherent interpretations, and to consider the implications for conceptions of professional knowledge in professional life. The paper briefly examines major philosophical underpinnings in reflective practice to explicate central themes that inform the epistemological assumptions of the theory. The study draws on the work of Donald Schön, and on texts from four philosophers: John Dewey, Nelson Goodman, Michael Polanyi, and Gilbert Ryle. Five central epistemological themes in reflective practice are illuminated: (1) a broad critique of technical rationality; (2) professional practice knowledge as artistry; (3) constructivist assumptions in the theory; (4) the significance of tacit knowledge for professional practice knowledge; and (5) overcoming mind body dualism to recognize the knowledge revealed in intelligent action. The paper reveals that the theory of reflective
Kinneer, James W.
The literature on continuing education (CE) in dietetics was reviewed. The review focused on the following: motivators and barriers for participation in continuing dietetic education, formats for CE in dietetics, and approaches to assessing learner needs. The role of professional associations, the existence of voluntary credentialing programs, the…
Vohmann, B.; Frame, I.
Employability skills are known to be valuable to undergraduates when entering the workplace and expected by employers, yet, in construction as in many disciplines, these skills often are not well developed. However, construction professionals frequently work in complex dynamic environments and employability skills may enhance undergraduates' practitioner effectiveness. Therefore it is important tutors exploit opportunities to help undergraduates develop their employability skills. This paper ...
Banerjee, Rashida; Luckner, John L.
Assessment plays a critical role in the planning and delivery of quality services for young children and their families. The purpose of this study was to identify the current assessment practices and training needs of early childhood professionals. A large sample of early childhood professionals responded to a comprehensive survey. The most…
Anctil, Tina M.; Smith, Carol Klose; Schenck, Paulette; Dahir, Carol
This study explored the practices of professional school counselors in their delivery of career counseling. School counselors were found to spend significantly less time on career development than on personal-social and academic development. In addition, new professionals placed more priority on career counseling compared with their more…
Keywords: Teledentistry, attitude, knowledge, practice, dental professionals. Background. Oral health disparities are a global issue with most dental specialists located in urban areas. Limited number of dental professionals in rural area leaves people without access to quality dental care in those areas (Berndt, Leone, &.
Teachers' professional development is the core of educational improvement. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to assess the practices and challenges of teacher educators' professional development through Lesson Study in Oromia colleges of teacher education. To this effect, descriptive survey method was used.
Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Mitchell, Sean M; Taylor, Nathanael J; Quinnett, Paul; Ries, Richard
Approximately 20% of suicide decedents have had contact with a mental health professional within 1 month prior to their death, and the majority of mental health professionals have treated suicidal individuals. Despite limited evidence-based training, mental health professionals make important clinical decisions related to suicide risk assessment and management. The current study aimed to determine the frequency of suicide risk assessment and management practices and the association between fear of suicide-related outcomes or comfort working with suicidal individuals and adequacy of suicide risk management decisions among mental health professionals. Mental health professionals completed self-report assessments of fear, comfort, and suicide risk assessment and management practices. Approximately one third of mental health professionals did not ask every patient about current or previous suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Further, comfort, but not fear, was positively associated with greater odds of conducting evidence-based suicide risk assessments at first appointments and adequacy of suicide risk management practices with patients reporting suicide ideation and a recent suicide attempt. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the majority of mental health professionals report using evidenced-based practices, there appears to be variability in utilization of evidence-based practices.
Mazon, Clara; Kerrou, Yamina
An assessment of professional practices was carried out in 2013-2014 with the aim of improving the treatment of cardiac arrest in hospitals. Two methods were used: an assessment by questionnaire to evaluate theoretical knowledge and a practical assessment of external cardiac massage. The results highlight the need for greater knowledge. The use of cardiac massage must be included in continuing professional development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zaglaniczny, K L
The CCNA has completed a PPA and will begin implementing its recommendations with the December 1993 certification examination. The results of the PPA provide content validation for the CCNA certification examination. The certification examination is reflective of the knowledge and skill required for entry-level practice. Assessment of this knowledge is accomplished through the use of questions that are based on the areas represented in the content outline. Analysis of the PPA has resulted in changes in the examination content outline and percentages of questions in each area to reflect current entry-level nurse anesthesia practice. The new outline is based on the major domains of knowledge required for nurse anesthesia practice. These changes are justified by the consistency in the responses of the practitioners surveyed. There was overall agreement as to the knowledge and skills related to patient conditions, procedures, agents, techniques, and equipment that an entry-level CRNA must have to practice. Members of the CCNA and Examination Committee will use the revised outline to develop questions for the certification examination. The questions will be focused on the areas identified as requiring high levels of expertise and those that appeared higher in frequency. The PPA survey will be used as a basis for subsequent content validation studies. It will be revised to reflect new knowledge, technology, and techniques related to nurse anesthesia practice. The CCNA has demonstrated its commitment to the certification process through completion of the PPA and implementation of changes in the structure of the examination.
Kelly, Meghan; Little, Samuel; Phelps, Kaitlin; Roble, Carrie; Zint, Michaela
This study investigated the practices, challenges, and needs of Chesapeake Bay watershed outreach professionals, as related to behavior change strategies and best outreach practices. Data were collected through a questionnaire e-mailed to applicants to the Chesapeake Bay Trust's environmental outreach grant program (n = 108, r = 56%). Almost all…
This qualitative study explored the degree to which knowledge management strategies addressed teacher professional learning at the high school level. In the setting of a Connecticut public high school, interviews were conducted which explored teacher perceptions of knowledge sharing practices in the school and how those practices influenced their…
Russ, Samuel H
This textbook teaches how to design working systems at very high frequencies. It is designed to introduce computer engineers to the design of extremely high speed digital systems. Combining an intuitive, physics-based approach to electromagnetics with a focus on solving realistic problems, the author presents concepts that are essential for computer and electrical engineers today. The book emphasizes an intuitive approach to electromagnetics, and then uses this foundation to show the reader how both physical phenomena can cause signals to propagate incorrectly; and how to solve commonly encountered issues. Emphasis is placed on real problems that the author has encountered in his professional career, integrating problem-solving strategies and real signal-integrity case studies throughout the presentation. Students are challenged to think about managing complex design projects and implementing successful engineering and manufacturing processes. Each chapter includes exercises to test concepts introduced.
The Higher Education Quality Committee's emphasis on the assessment of student learning in its criteria for institutional audits (June 2004) signals that institutional arrangements to ensure quality assessment practices are to come under the spotlight. One means to demonstrate institutional commitment to quality in ...
Furthermore, the study shows that the teachers relate to students' context and own experiences as a means of ... The three research questions are: how do teachers comprehend their own literacy practice, what kind ... learners in literacy activities and to strengthen teaching and learning, along with a shift to a more affirming.
Clickner, Deborah A; Shirey, Maria R
The aim of this concept analysis of professional comportment is to elucidate the dimension of nursing practice that fosters cooperation, collaboration, effective communication, and team cohesion among nurses. Professional comportment is a concept that has not been developed or analyzed, and its integration into nursing practice is unclear and not specified. The body of knowledge concentrating on the spectrum of professional comportment, civility, and lateral violence is presently incomplete. Analyzing and developing the concept of professional comportment will satisfy a gap in the literature. A concept analysis of professional comportment will clarify for the nurse the power of words, behaviors, and communication needed to achieve effective communication and civility. The Walker and Avant framework for concept analysis was used to analyze the concept of professional comportment. An electronic review of the literature through the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Health Sources, Medical Complete, and ProQuest was conducted. This review rendered approximately 300 articles, of which 85 were reviewed. Eighteen articles informed comportment as a definition and are utilized in this analysis. The individual nurse is the level of focus in the analysis, not the organizational culture. Comportment is defined as a dignified manner or conduct. Professional comportment is critical in determining a nurse's effectiveness in relating, communicating, and collaborating with colleagues and members of the healthcare team. In the absence of professional comportment, a culture of incivility, nurse aggression, and compromised patient safety will emerge. Self-regulation and individual accountability are sequelae to professional comportment. The personal assimilation of professional comportment promotes mutual respect, harmony, commitment, and collaboration. The nurse, patient, and healthcare team are the beneficiaries of a nurse who demonstrates professional
Simpson, Amber; Maltese, Adam
The term failure typically evokes negative connotations in educational settings and is likely to be accompanied by negative emotional states, low sense of confidence, and lack of persistence. These negative emotional and behavioral states may factor into an individual not pursuing a degree or career in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). This is of particular concern considering the low number of women and underrepresented minorities pursing and working in a STEM field. Utilizing interview data with professionals across STEM, we sought to understand the role failure played in the persistence of individuals who enter and pursue paths toward STEM-related careers. Findings highlighted how participants' experiences with failure (1) shaped their outlooks or views of failure, (2) shaped their trajectories within STEM, and (3) provided them with additional skills or qualities. A few differences based on participants' sex, field, and highest degree also manifested in our analysis. We expect the results from this study to add research-based results to the current conversation around whether experiences with failure should be part of formal and informal educational settings and standards-based practices.
Fincher, Bridgette Ann
The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions and approaches of 14 third-through-fifth grade Arkansan elementary teachers towards integrative engineering and engineering practices during 80 hours of integrated STEM professional development training in the summer and fall of 2014. This training was known as Project Flight. The purpose of the professional development was to learn integrated STEM content related to aviation and to write grade level curriculum units using Wiggins and McTighe's Understanding by Design curriculum framework. The current study builds upon on the original research. Using a mixed method exploratory, embedded QUAL[quan] case study design and a non-experimental convenience sample derived from original 20 participants of Project Flight, this research sought to answer the following question: Does professional development influence elementary teachers' perceptions of the curriculum and instruction of integrated STEM engineering and engineering practices in a 3-to-5 grade level setting? A series of six qualitative and one quantitative sub-questions informed the research of the mixed method question. Hermeneutic content analysis was applied to archival and current qualitative data sets while descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and repeated measures ANOVA tests were performed on the quantitative data. Broad themes in the teachers' perceptions and understanding of the nature of integrated engineering and engineering practices emerged through triangulation. After the professional development and the teaching of the integrated STEM units, all 14 teachers sustained higher perceptions of personal self-efficacy in their understanding of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The teachers gained understanding of engineering and engineering practices, excluding engineering habits of mind, throughout the professional development training and unit teaching. The research resulted in four major findings specific to elementary engineering
Cypel, Yasmin; Sunshine, Jonathan H.; Schepps, Barbara
Purpose: To describe the demographic, professional, and practice characteristics of radiation oncologists, emphasizing comparisons to data from a similar 1995 Survey. Methods and Materials: In spring 2000, we surveyed 603 randomly selected radiation oncologists by mail, using a one-page questionnaire - 455 responded. We weighted responses to make answers representative of all radiation oncologists in the United States. Results: Approximately 45% of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists were <45 years old and 22% were women. Forty-two percent of radiation oncologists in training were women. Thirty-three percent of radiation-oncology-only practices were solo practices. The greatest percentage of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists were in nonacademic private radiation oncology practices. Fifty-three percent of post-training, professionally active, radiation oncologists reported that their workload was about right. Eighteen percent of individuals 60-64 years old and approximately two-thirds of those ≥65 years old were not working (retired). The full-time equivalency of those aged 55-74 fell by 12 percentage points between 1995 and 2000. Conclusions: Most demographic, professional, and practice characteristics remained relatively constant between 1995 and 2000, with the exception of work status patterns. Radiation oncologists reported a more balanced workload than that reported by diagnostic radiologists. The surplus of radiation oncologists, which was predicted in the mid-1990s, was not demonstrated
Full Text Available This paper introduces an innovative course design incorporating both communities of practice and reflective practice as a learning strategy for part-time learners in higher education. The new design has been applied to teaching HR practitioners in a UK-based business school. Findings indicate that the suggested way of organizing teaching and learning for part-time professionals is very informative and facilitates a richer engagement with theory whilst addressing issues of practice.
Zarzeczny, Amy; Clark, Marianne
The pursuit of unproven stem cell-based interventions ("stem cell tourism") is an emerging issue that raises various concerns. Physicians play different roles in this market, many of which engage their legal, ethical and professional obligations. In Canada, physicians are members of a self-regulated profession and their professional regulatory bodies are responsible for regulating the practice of medicine and protecting the public interest. They also provide policy guidance to their members and discipline members for unprofessional conduct. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with representatives from six different provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada to discuss their experiences and perspectives regarding stem cell tourism. Our focus was on exploring how different types of physician involvement in this market would be viewed by physicians' professional regulatory bodies in Canada. When considering physicians' professional obligations, participants drew analogies between stem cell tourism and other areas of medical tourism as well as with some aspects of complementary alternative medicine where existing policies, codes of ethics and regulations provide some guidance. Canadian physicians are required to act in the best interests of their patients, respect patient autonomy, avoid conflicts of interest and pursue evidence-based practice in accordance with accepted standards of care. Physicians who provide unproven treatments falling outside the standard of care, not in the context of an approved research protocol, could be subject to professional discipline. Other types of problematic conduct include referrals involving financial conflict of interest and failure to provide urgent medically necessary care. Areas of ambiguity include physicians' obligations when asked for information and advice about seeking unproven medical treatments, in terms of providing non-urgent follow-up care, and when asked to support efforts to go abroad by
Hings, R F; Wagstaff, C R D; Thelwell, R C; Gilmore, S; Anderson, V
The aim of this study was to explore how sport medicine and science practitioners manage their emotions through emotional labor when engaging in professional practice in elite sport. To address the research aim a semistructured interview design was adopted. Specifically, eighteen professional sport medicine and science staff provided interviews. The sample comprised sport and exercise psychologists (n=6), strength and conditioning coaches (n=5), physiotherapists (n=5), one sports doctor and one generic sport scientist. Following a process of thematic analysis, the results were organized into the following overarching themes: (a) factors influencing emotional labor enactment, (b) emotional labor enactment, and (c) professional and personal outcomes. The findings provide a novel contribution to understanding the professional demands faced by practitioners and are discussed in relation to the development of professional competencies and the welfare and performance of sport medics and scientists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
How mental illnesses are defined has significant ramifications, given the substantial social and individual repercussions of these conditions. Using actor-network theory, I analyze how mental health professionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in their work. Drawing on observations of a neuropsychological laboratory and interviews with 27 professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, psychologists), I investigate how the DSM is used in research, clinical, and institutional work. In research, the DSM influences study design and exclusion/inclusion criteria. In the clinic, the DSM influences how disorders are conceptualized and diagnosed. Institutionally, the DSM aligns the patient-professional encounter to insurance and pharmaceutical interests. I conclude that the DSM operates as multiple, context-specific taxonomies that pervasively influence professional practices, such that all possible actions must orient to DSM criteria, with professionals both a source and an object of institutionalized gaze. © American Sociological Association 2016.
Noesgaard, Signe Schack
The influence of frustration on the effectiveness of teacher professional development has previously been overlooked. This study of in-service teachers who become frustrated during professional development interventions considers the development of two Danish science teachers. Frustration theory...... of teacher change. At a practical level, the effectiveness of teacher professional development in advancing teaching is shown to be unpredictable, requiring individualized and timely support...... is expanded with situated learning theory to illuminate some of the complexities of teacher frustration found in the empirical case. Through multiple new perspectives on the field, the study conceptualizes transformative and regressive frustration to illustrate how frustration operates at the tipping point...
Bishop, SueZanne Monique
Little research exists linking interview-appropriate attire to improved employment outcomes for women. Thus, it appears that the professional clothing bank has not been investigated as evidence-based practice. To provide preliminary evidence for clothing banks, in this article the author synthesizes findings from existing research on the provision of a professional clothing bank as a means for offering interview-appropriate attire to poor women in job readiness programming. For context, job readiness programs are explored and a case study of one program operating a professional clothing bank is presented. Finally, preliminary considerations for planning and implementing clothing banks based on this literature review are given.
AbdulRahman Al Asmari
Full Text Available Professional development is considered as an essential element in enhancing the teaching and learning process to ensure student learning. Professional development can also be deemed as a cornerstone of teacher professionalism and quality. The governments and educational institutions invest significantly in Continuous Professional Development (CPD to improve teacher quality and to meet the changing needs of the students. To uncover the perceptions and practices of professional development in Saudi Arabia, a survey was conducted at Taif University English Language Centre. The sample consisted of 121 English language teachers from various countries and having varied educational and academic experiences. The survey comprised items relevant to learning approaches, concept of professional development, perceptions and feedback on CPD. The respondents supported lifelong learning and experiential learning leading towards learner centered approach. They perceived the CPD as a challenge to their existing knowledge and classroom practice. However, they expressed their concerns regarding indigenization of activities in CPDs, institutional support in conducting classroom activities, and follow up activities. Keywords: Professional development, Teacher perception, ELT in Saudi Arabia
Vinson, Erin L.; Smith, Jeremy A.; Lewin, Justin D.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.
At the University of Maine, middle and high school science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers observed 51 STEM courses across 13 different departments and collected information on the active-engagement nature of instruction. The results of these observations show that faculty members teaching STEM courses cannot simply be classified into two groups, traditional lecturers or instructors who teach in a highly interactive manner, but instead exhibit a continuum of instructional behaviors between these two classifications. In addition, the observation data reveal that student behavior differs greatly in classes with varied levels of lecture. Although faculty members who teach large-enrollment courses are more likely to lecture, we also identified instructors of several large courses using interactive teaching methods. Observed faculty members were also asked to complete a survey about how often they use specific teaching practices, and we find that faculty members are generally self-aware of their own practices. Taken together, these findings provide comprehensive information about the range of STEM teaching practices at a campus-wide level and how such information can be used to design targeted professional development for faculty. PMID:25452485
Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai; Watcharadamrongkun, Suntaree
Objective To assess the online social constructivist learning environment (SCLE) and student perceptions of the outcomes of the online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice that was designed based on social constructivism theory. Design The online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was carefully designed by organizing various activities, which were intended to encourage social interaction among students. The Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) was applied to assess the SCLE. Course evaluation questionnaires were administered to assess student perceptions of this online module. Assessment The result from the COLLES illustrated the development of SCLE in the course. The students reported positive perceptions of the course. Conclusion An online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was effective in promoting SCLE. PMID:19513147
Sthapornnanon, Nunthaluxna; Sakulbumrungsil, Rungpetch; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai; Watcharadamrongkun, Suntaree
To assess the online social constructivist learning environment (SCLE) and student perceptions of the outcomes of the online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice that was designed based on social constructivism theory. The online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was carefully designed by organizing various activities, which were intended to encourage social interaction among students. The Constructivist Online Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) was applied to assess the SCLE. Course evaluation questionnaires were administered to assess student perceptions of this online module. The result from the COLLES illustrated the development of SCLE in the course. The students reported positive perceptions of the course. An online introductory module of pharmacy professional practice in pharmaceutical marketing and business was effective in promoting SCLE.
Halcomb, Elizabeth; Stephens, Moira; Bryce, Julianne; Foley, Elizabeth; Ashley, Christine
The aim of this study was to explore the current role of general practice nurses and the scope of nursing practice to inform the development of national professional practice standards for Australian general practice nurses. Increasing numbers of nurses have been employed in Australian general practice to meet the growing demand for primary care services. This has brought significant changes to the nursing role. Competency standards for nurses working in general practice were first developed in Australia in 2005, but limited attention has been placed on articulating the contemporary scope of practice for nurses in this setting. Concurrent mixed methods design. Data collection was conducted during 2013-2014 and involved two online surveys of Registered and Enrolled Nurses currently working in general practice, a series of 14 focus groups across Australia and a series of consultations with key experts. Data collection enabled the development of 22 Practice Standards separated into four domains: (i) Professional Practice; (ii) Nursing Care; (iii) General Practice Environment and (iv) Collaborative Practice. To differentiate the variations in enacting these Standards, performance indicators for the Enrolled Nurse, Registered Nurse and Registered Nurse Advanced Practice are provided under each Standard. The development of national professional practice standards for nurses working in Australian general practice will support ongoing workforce development. These Standards are also an important means of articulating the role and scope of the nurses' practice for both consumers and other health professionals, as well as being a guide for curriculum development and measurement of performance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lankshear, Sara; Kerr, Michael S; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Wong, Carol A
Professional practice leadership (PPL) roles are those roles responsible for expert practice, providing professional leadership, facilitating ongoing professional development, and research. Despite the extensive implementation of this role, most of the available literature focuses on the implementation of the role, with few empirical studies examining the factors that contribute to PPL role effectiveness. This article will share the results of a research study regarding the role of organizational power and personal influence in creating a high-quality professional practice environment for nurses. Survey results from nurses and PPLs from 45 hospitals will be presented. Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized model and relationships between the key variables of interest. Results indicate that there is a direct and positive relationship between PPL organizational power and achievement of PPL role functions, as well as an indirect, partially mediated effect of PPL influence tactics on PPL role function. There is also a direct and positive relationship between PPL role functions and nurses' perceptions of their practice environment. The evidence generated from this study highlights the importance of organizational power and personal influence as significantly contributing to the ability of those in PPL roles to achieve desired outcomes. This information can be used by administrators, researchers, and clinicians regarding the factors that can optimize the organizational and systematic strategies for enhancing the practice environment for nursing and other health care professionals.
Alsup, Philip R.
Inspiring learners toward career options available in STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) is important not only for economic development but also for maintaining creative thinking and innovation. Limited amounts of research in STEM education have focused on the population of students enrolled in religious and parochial schools, and given the historic conflict between religion and science, this sector of American education is worthy of examination. The purpose of this quantitative study is to extend Gottfredson's (1981) Theory of Circumscription and Compromise as it relates to occupational aspirations. Bem's (1981) Gender Schema Theory is examined as it relates to the role of gender in career expectations, and Crenshaw's (1989) Intersectionality Theory is included as it pertains to religion as a group identifier. Six professionals in STEM career fields were video recorded while being interviewed about their skills and education as well as positive and negative aspects of their jobs. The interviews were compiled into a 25-minute video for the purpose of increasing understanding of STEM careers among middle school viewers. The research questions asked whether middle school students from conservative, Protestant Christian schools in a Midwest region increased in STEM-subject attitude and STEM-career interest as a result of viewing the video and whether gender interacted with exposure to the video. A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control groups, pretest/posttest factorial design was employed to evaluate data collected from the STEM Semantic Survey. A Two-Way ANCOVA revealed no significant differences in dependent variables from pretest to posttest. Implications of the findings are examined and recommendations for future research are made. Descriptors: STEM career interest, STEM attitude, STEM gender disparity, Occupational aspirations, Conservative Protestant education.
Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa-María; Sánchez-Borrego, Elena; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Solano-Reina, Enrique; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción
New protocols for regenerative endodontic treatment along with the parallel development of tissue engineering technologies are changing traditional knowledge and treatment possibilities for young patients with pulp-affected permanent immature teeth. The regeneration and completion of apical root development in pathological situations such as these is a clinical challenge that traditional treatments have not so far been able to resolve with complete success. In clinical terms, the decision of whether to perform apexogenesis or apexification on an immature tooth is determined by whether the pulp tissue is vital or non-vital. Recent evidence and reports in the literature have questioned the old dogmas. In this respect, the ever growing scientific literature in this field makes it essential to compile a critical reflection and summary of everything that has been written to date, in order to understand the biological basis of current clinical advances and ensuing lines of future therapy. In this paper, we wish to give scientific coverage and background to more recent clinical and molecular advances described in the field of apical regeneration using stem cell therapy and their potentially key role in the future clinical success of new pulp regenerative protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vu, Viet Quoc
STEM education reform in higher education is framed around the need to improve student learning outcomes, increase student retention, and increase the number of underrepresented minorities and female students in STEM fields, all of which would ultimately contribute to America's competitiveness and prosperity. To achieve these goals, education reformers call for an increase in the adoption of research-based "promising practices" in classrooms. Despite efforts to increase the adoption of more promising practices in classrooms, postsecondary instructors are still likely to lecture and use traditional teaching approaches. To shed light on this adoption dilemma, a mix-methods study was conducted. First, instructional practices in large introductory STEM courses were identified, followed by an analysis of factors that inhibit or contribute to the use of promising practices. Data were obtained from classroom observations (N = 259) of large gateway courses across STEM departments and from instructor interviews (N = 67). Results show that instructors are already aware of promising practices and that change strategies could move from focusing on the development and dissemination of promising practices to focusing on improving adoption rates. Teaching-track instructors such as lecturers with potential for security of employment (LPSOE) and lecturers with security of employment (LSOE) have adopted promising practices more than other instructors. Interview data show that LPSOEs are also effective at disseminating promising practices to their peers, but opinion leaders (influential faculty in a department) are necessary to promote adoption of promising practices by higher ranking instructors. However, hiring more LPSOEs or opinion leaders will not be enough to shift instructional practices. Variations in the adoption of promising practices by instructors and across departments show that any reform strategy needs to be systematic and take into consideration how information is
Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen A; Guile, David
Animal health care is being delivered by an increasing number of professions and occupations. This article takes an inward look at the veterinary team, focusing on the day-to-day life of veterinarians and those with whom they work, such as veterinary technicians/nurses, physical therapists, and farriers. The evolution of the work of the veterinarian should be explored alongside the evolution of closely related occupations, as the current working practice of veterinarians is affected by the practice of these other occupations. An example is given of UK veterinary nurses (similar to veterinary technicians in North America) who are currently undergoing professionalization. Seminal implementations have included a register (2007), disciplinary procedures (2011), a declaration of professional responsibilities (2012), and required continuing professional development for registered veterinary nurses (RVNs). These implementations result in veterinary nurses who are now accountable for their actions. There are many potential benefits to good inter-professional practice for the practice itself, individual team members, clients, and patients, including better results produced by the whole team rather than the sum of the parts, financial benefits to using individuals in lower-paid occupations for shared roles, and greater client satisfaction regarding increased options for treatment. There are, however, many challenges to inter-professional working that center on the interlinked themes of hierarchy (power, status, and the understanding/appreciation of professional roles) and communication (lack of/poor). Inter-professional education (IPE) is suggested as a potential means to overcome these challenges; however, research into IPE exclusively related to the veterinary team is lacking.
Reich, Ann; Rooney, Donna; Gardner, Anne; Willey, Keith; Boud, David; Fitzgerald, Terry
With the increasing challenges facing professional engineers working in more complex, global and interdisciplinary contexts, different approaches to understanding how engineers practice and learn are necessary. This paper draws on recent research in the social sciences from the field of workplace learning, to suggest that a practice-theory perspective on engineers' professional learning is fruitful. It shifts the focus from the attributes of the individual learner (knowledge, skills and attitudes) to the attributes of the practice (interactions, materiality, opportunities and challenges). Learning is thus more than the technical acquisition and transfer of knowledge, but a complex bundle of activities, that is, social, material, embodied and emerging. The paper is illustrated with examples from a research study of the learning of experienced engineers in the construction industry to demonstrate common practices - site walks and design review meetings - in which learning takes place.
The purpose of this study was to examine an entire PD project as a case to understand the dynamic nature of science PD in a holistic manner. I used a pedagogical content knowledge model by Magnusson, Krajcik, and Borko (1999) as my theoretical framework in examining the professional developers' and teacher participants' knowledge, orientation, and practice for professional development and elementary science teaching. The case study is my research tradition; I used grounded theory for data analysis. The primary data sources were interview, card sort activity, and observation field notes collected during the PD and subsequently in teacher participants' classrooms. Secondary data sources were documents and artifacts that I collected from the professional developers and teachers. An analysis of the data led me to interpret the following findings: (a) the professional developers displayed multiple orientations. These orientations included activity-driven, didactic, discovery, and pedagogy-driven orientations. The orientations that were found among the professional developers deviated from the reformed Thai Science Education Standards; (b) the professional developers had limited PCK for PD, which were knowledge of teachers' learning, knowledge of PD strategies, knowledge of PD curriculum, and knowledge of assessment.; (c) the professional developers' knowledge and orientations influenced their decisions in selecting PD activities and teaching approaches; (d) their orientations and PCK as well as the time factor influenced the design and implementation of the professional development; (e) the elementary teachers displayed didactic, activity-driven, and academic rigor orientations. The orientations that the teachers displayed deviated from the reformed Thai Science Education Standards; and (f) the elementary teachers exhibited limited PCK. It is evident that the limitation of one type of knowledge resulted in an ineffective use of other components of PCK. This study
Full Text Available Working in a rural community locates the professional in a wider social network as community members often expect more from their professionals; not only as service providers, but also as engaged members of the community. This can result in the rural social worker being highly visible both personally and professionally and it can also lead to overlapping relationships. These higher expectations can place stress on the worker in terms of maintaining accepted professional roles and a sense of professional identity. This qualitative study explores the first-hand experiences of a cross-section of service providers in more than a dozen communities within northwestern Ontario and northern Manitoba, Canada. The responses of the participants provide some insight into how rural practitioners maintain their professional identity when working within the unique demands of the rural and remote context. Recurring themes from the interviews suggest that these professionals craft their own informal decision-making processes to address intersecting roles, community gossip, and personal isolation, even while, in some cases, practicing in their home community. The findings provide greater understanding of the pressures and realities of working in small remote towns and the challenges of responding to the expectations and realities of relationships including the expectation of working with friends and family members of friends or colleagues: issues that have not been adequately studied in the literature to date.
Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro
This paper discusses some guidelines for use with the accepted fundamental canons of ethics for engineers. We present some rules of practice and professional obligations emerging from these canons. Basic recommendations for engineers dissenting on ethical grounds are also presented. Ethical issues relating to Biomedical Engineering research are illustrated. We mention some cases that could be used to further understanding the ethical implications of biomedical engineering practice.
Castellani, B; Wear, D
Arnold Relman argues that medical education does not prepare students and residents to practice their profession in today's corporate health care system. Corporate health care administrators agree: Physicians enter the workforce unskilled in contract negotiation, evidence-based medicine, navigating bureaucratic systems, and so forth. What about practicing physicians? Do they agree as well? According to this study, they do. Feeling like decentered double agents and unprepared, physicians find themselves professionally lost, struggling to balance issues of cost and care and expressing lots of negativity toward the cultures of medicine and managed care. However, physicians are resilient. A group of physicians, who may be called proactive, are meeting the professional demands of corporate health care by becoming sophisticated about its bureaucratic organization and the ways in which their professional and personal commitments fit within the system. Following the lead of proactive physicians, the authors support Relman's thesis and education for both students and physicians requires a major overhaul.
Keyko, Kacey; Cummings, Greta G; Yonge, Olive; Wong, Carol A
Work engagement in professional nursing practice is critically important to consider when addressing key challenges of health systems, including the global nursing shortage, pressures to reduce health care spending, and increasing demands for quality care and positive outcomes for patients. However, research on work engagement in professional nursing practice has not yet been synthesized and therefore, does not provide a sufficient foundation of knowledge to guide practice and further research. The overall aim of this systematic review is to determine what is currently known about the antecedents and outcomes of work engagement in professional nursing practice. Systematic review. The search strategy included eight electronic databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PROQUEST, SCOPUS, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Business Source Complete. The search was conducted in October 2013. Quantitative and qualitative research that examined relationships between work engagement and antecedent or outcome factors was included. Quality assessment, data extractions, and analysis were completed on all included studies. Data extracted from included studies were synthesized through descriptive and narrative synthesis. Content analysis was used to categorize factors into themes and categories. 3621 titles and abstracts were screened and yielded 113 manuscripts for full text review. Full text review resulted in 18 included studies. All factors examined were grouped into either influences or outcomes of work engagement. A total of 77 influencing factors were categorized into 6 themes: organizational climate, job resources, professional resources, personal resources, job demands, and demographic variables. A total of 17 outcomes of work engagement were categorized into 3 themes: performance and care outcomes, professional outcomes, and personal outcomes. Based on the results, we adapted the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model and developed the Nursing Job Demands-Resources (NJD-R) model for
Goodwin, Donna L.; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda
There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or…
The knowledge, attitude and daily internet access were significantly positively associated with practice (p <0.05). Also knowledge of dental professionals towards the benefits and application of teledentistry was significantly and positively associated with their attitude teledentistry (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results revealed ...
Full Text Available This paper explores an Israeli professional community on Twitter practicing educational technology. Networking analysis of 42 users and 296 structural connections among them revealed that the adoption of Twitter was normally distributed and active participation was asymmetrical - 14.3% of users produced 80% of the tweets. Investment in participation was highly gratified by influence on the audience.
Muccio, Leah S.; Kidd, Julie K.; White, C. Stephen; Burns, M. Susan
This study considered the facilitators and barriers of successful inclusion in Head Start classrooms by examining the perspectives and practices of instructional professionals. A cross-sectional survey design was combined with direct observation in inclusive Head Start classrooms. Survey data were collected from 71 Head Start instructional…
Summers, Susan Janko, Ed.; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel, Ed.
Integrating infant mental health services into early education programs leads to better child outcomes and stronger parent-child relationships--the big question is how to do it appropriately and effectively. Clear answers are in this accessible textbook, created to prepare early childhood professionals and programs to weave best practices in…
This is a study on teachers' professional development through action research practice. The participants of the study were 23 English Language Teachers (ELT) who teach in high schools, preparatory schools and colleges in Debre Markos, in Dessie and around in 2014. The methods of data collection were teacher reflection, and in-depth interview. The…
Thingstrup, Signe Hvid
This paper discusses the demand for knowledge-based practice and two different answers to this demand, namely evidence-based thinking and critical-political thinking. The paper discusses the implications these have for views on knowledge and professional development. The paper presents and discus...
Yanchar, Stephen C.; Hawkley, Melissa N.
This qualitative study explored the nature of informal learning in professional instructional designers' everyday work activities. Based on intensive interviews with six full-time practitioners, and using a hermeneutic form of data analysis, this study produced seven themes concerning the practices, tensions, and ironies associated with this…
Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…
Ross, Erin J; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Click, Elizabeth R; Krouse, Helene J; Clavelle, Joanne T
This study describes the transformational leadership (TL) practices of nurse leaders in professional nursing associations (PNAs). Professional nursing associations are vehicles to provide educational opportunities for nurses as well as leadership opportunities for members. Little has been published about the leadership practices of PNA members. E-mail surveys of 448 nurse leaders in PNAs were conducted in 2013 using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The top 2 TL practices of these nurse leaders were enabling others to act and encouraging the heart. Respondents with more leadership training reported higher TL practices. This is the 1st study to describe TL practices of nurse leaders in PNAs. Results of this study show that nurse leaders of PNAs emulate practices of TL. Transformational leaders can mobilize and direct association members in reaching shared values, objectives, and outcomes. Understanding TL practices of nurse leaders in PNAs are important to the future of nursing in order to enable nurses to lead change and advance health through these organizations.
Lansiquot, Reneta D., Ed.
This book highlights models for promoting interdisciplinary thinking and an appreciation for interdisciplinary understanding among students in STEM-related fields. Students majoring in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics often perceive that courses in their major are not related to the general education liberal arts courses required…
Piihl, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jens Smed; Rowley, Jennifer
Internship programs can enhance generic learning outcomes by develop-ing students’ ability to interact with stakeholders in real world complexi-ties and contribute to changes in knowledge and practice. Experience from Denmark and Australia is used as background to show how intern-ship programs can...... be designed to integrate differences in conceptions of knowledge in professional practices and pressures from short deadlines. The chapter explores how internship can enhance students’ learning and how students develop their role as academics-in-practice. Internships qualify as case based learning when...
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Kung, Justin W; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Slanetz, Priscilla J
Digital professionalism is increasingly being integrated into postgraduate medical education. We developed a small-group, reflective practice-based session incorporating radiology-specific cases to heighten residents' awareness about digital professionalism. Case-based, radiology-specific scenarios were created for a small-group, reflective practice-based session on digital professionalism. Anonymous pre- and postsession surveys evaluating residents' use of social media and their thoughts about the session were administered to the radiology residents. Twenty-five of 38 (66%) residents responded to the presession survey with 40% (10/25) reporting daily social media use; 50% (12/24) witnessing an unprofessional posting on Facebook; and 8% (2/25) posting something unprofessional themselves. Of the 21 residents who attended the session, 13 (62%) responded to the postsession survey. Residents reported that the session added to their understanding of professionalism 3.92, 95% CI (3.57-4.27). As a result of the session, residents stated that they were more aware of protecting patient privacy and confidentiality on social media sites 3.92, 95% CI (3.47-4.37), and would take a more active role in ensuring professional use of social media as it relates to patient care 4.00, 95% CI (3.66-4.34). Residents favorably viewed the reflective case-based session on digital professionalism as a means to be more aware of ways to avoid unprofessional interactions on the internet. Our results suggest that such reflective sessions are an effective method to educate residents on key concepts regarding digital professionalism. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bennie, Jason A; Wiesner, Glen H; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Harvey, Jack T; Craike, Melinda J; Biddle, Stuart J H
Assessment and monitoring of client health and fitness is a key part of fitness professionals' practices. However, little is known about prevalence of this practice. This study describes the assessment/monitoring practices of a large sample of Australian fitness professionals. Cross-sectional. In 2014, 1206 fitness professionals completed an online survey. Respondents reported their frequency (4 point-scale:  'never' to  'always') of assessment/monitoring of eight health and fitness constructs (e.g. body composition, aerobic fitness). This was classified as: (i) 'high' ('always' assessing/monitoring ≥5 constructs); (ii) 'medium' (1-4 constructs); (iii) 'low' (0 constructs). Classifications are reported by demographic and fitness industry characteristics. The odds of being classified as a 'high assessor/monitor' according to social ecological correlates were examined using a multiple-factor logistic regression model. Mean age of respondents was 39.3 (±11.6) years and 71.6% were female. A total of 15.8% (95% CI: 13.7%-17.9%) were classified as a 'high' assessor/monitor. Constructs with the largest proportion of being 'always' assessed were body composition (47.7%; 95% CI: 45.0%-50.1%) and aerobic fitness (42.5%; 95% CI: 39.6%-45.3%). Those with the lowest proportion of being 'always' assessed were balance (24.0%; 95% CI: 24.7%-26.5%) and mental health (20.2%; 95% CI: 18.1%-29.6%). A perceived lack of client interest and fitness professionals not considering assessing their responsibility were associated with lower odds of being classified as a 'high assessor/monitor'. Most fitness professionals do not routinely assess/monitor client fitness and health. Key factors limiting client health assessment and monitoring include a perceived lack of client interest and professionals not considering this their role. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lefebvre, Cedric; Mesner, Jason; Stopyra, Jason; O'Neill, James; Husain, Iltifat; Geer, Carol; Gerancher, Karen; Atkinson, Hal; Harper, Erin; Huang, William; Cline, David M
For younger generations, unconstrained online social activity is the norm. Little data are available about perceptions among young medical practitioners who enter the professional clinical arena, while the impact of existing social media policy on these perceptions is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the existing perceptions about social media and professionalism among new physicians entering in professional clinical practice; and to determine the effects of formal social media instruction and policy on young professionals' ability to navigate case-based scenarios about online behavior in the context of professional medicine. This was a prospective observational study involving the new resident physicians at a large academic medical center. Medical residents from 9 specialties were invited to participate and answer an anonymous questionnaire about social media in clinical medicine. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4 (Cary, NC), chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used as appropriate, and the correct responses were compared between different groups using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Familiarity with current institutional policy was associated with an average of 2.2 more correct responses (P=.01). Instruction on social media use during medical school was related to correct responses for 2 additional questions (P=.03). On dividing the groups into no policy exposure, single policy exposure, or both exposures, the mean differences were found to be statistically significant (3.5, 7.5, and 9.4, respectively) (P=.03). In this study, a number of young physicians demonstrated a casual approach to social media activity in the context of professional medical practice. Several areas of potential educational opportunity and focus were identified: (1) online privacy, (2) maintaining digital professionalism, (3) safeguarding the protected health information of patients, and (4) the impact of existing social media policies. Prior social media
Jensen, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik
Research has shown the potential for early childhood education and care (ECEC) in making a difference for all children. However, research also highlights how hard overcoming the ‘gaps’ between children from differing social backgrounds still is. The overall aim of this article is to examine the i...... inequality. The study emphasises that practices are enhanced through professional development that makes sense for participants, is organised in communities of practices (CoP) and communities of innovation (CoI), and is facilitated and integrated in entire ECEC systems...... conditions and well-being of all children, and socially disadvantaged children in particular. The overall argument is that co-construction as well as openness and reflection in the ECEC field is needed when professionals are to change their pedagogical practices towards tackling the issues of social...
Elkjær, Bente; Nielsen, Lise Tingleff
The point of departure for the research reported in this paper is observations of examples of successful practising professional practice without relevant formal education to do so. This raised the question of whether education matters, and to research work and working life as a source of becoming...... professional practitioners as well as the relation between education and working life learning. The issues that are dealt with are the ‘when’ and ‘where’ of professionals’ learning by viewing practice, education and learning in a trajectory of life and subject to certain conditions. The purpose is to provide...... insights about possible compositions of professionals’ learning through working life and participation in education. The focus is upon management biographies, and it is theoretically anchored in research on professionals’ practice and working life learning in a pragmatist version focussing on meetings...
Background For younger generations, unconstrained online social activity is the norm. Little data are available about perceptions among young medical practitioners who enter the professional clinical arena, while the impact of existing social media policy on these perceptions is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existing perceptions about social media and professionalism among new physicians entering in professional clinical practice; and to determine the effects of formal social media instruction and policy on young professionals’ ability to navigate case-based scenarios about online behavior in the context of professional medicine. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving the new resident physicians at a large academic medical center. Medical residents from 9 specialties were invited to participate and answer an anonymous questionnaire about social media in clinical medicine. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4 (Cary, NC), chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used as appropriate, and the correct responses were compared between different groups using the Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance. Results Familiarity with current institutional policy was associated with an average of 2.2 more correct responses (P=.01). Instruction on social media use during medical school was related to correct responses for 2 additional questions (P=.03). On dividing the groups into no policy exposure, single policy exposure, or both exposures, the mean differences were found to be statistically significant (3.5, 7.5, and 9.4, respectively) (P=.03). Conclusions In this study, a number of young physicians demonstrated a casual approach to social media activity in the context of professional medical practice. Several areas of potential educational opportunity and focus were identified: (1) online privacy, (2) maintaining digital professionalism, (3) safeguarding the protected health information of patients, and (4) the impact of
Standal, Øyvind F
Through the increased use of qualitative research methods, the term phenomenology has become a quite familiar notion for researchers in adapted physical activity (APA). In contrast to this increasing interest in phenomenology as methodology, relatively little work has focused on phenomenology as philosophy or as an approach to professional practice. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of phenomenology as philosophy and as pedagogy to the field of APA. First, phenomenology as philosophy is introduced through three key notions, namely the first-person perspective, embodiment, and life-world. The relevance of these terms to APA is then outlined. Second, the concept of phenomenological pedagogy is introduced, and its application and potential for APA are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that phenomenology can help theorize ways of understanding human difference in movement contexts and form a basis of action-oriented research aiming at developing professional practice.
Collis, Sarah; Gaff, Clara; Wake, Samantha; McEwen, Alison
Genetic counsellors face tensions between past and future identities: between established values and goals, and a broadening scope of settings and activities. This study examines the advent of genetic counsellors in private practice in Australia and New Zealand from the perspectives of the small numbers working in this sector and those who have only worked in public practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 genetic counsellors who had experience in private practice, and 14 genetic counsellors without private sector experience. Results demonstrated that circumstantial and personal factors can mitigate the challenges experienced and the amount of support desired by those who had established a private practice, and those who were employed by private companies. Notably, most participants with private sector experience perceived themselves to be viewed negatively by other genetic counsellors. Most participants without private sector experience expressed concern that the challenges they believed genetic counsellors face in private practice may impact service quality, but wished to address such concerns by providing appropriate support. Together, our results reinforce that participants in private and public sectors are strong advocates for peer support, multidisciplinary team work, and professional development. These core values, and seeking understanding of different circumstances and support needs, will enable genetic counsellors in different sectors to move forward together. Our results suggest supports that may be acted upon by members of the profession, professional groups, and training programs, in Australia, New Zealand, and overseas.
The old standard dental practice of yesterday, with a stubborn dentist who thinks marketing and advertising (concepts key to retail establishment success) are "unethical" doesn't cut it anymore. The practical retail concepts discussed about in this article allow dentists to create a marketing and professionalism hybrid. Providing first-class, customer-service treatment is the underlying principle. Patients who feel their dentist and staff know them will always feel at ease and a great sense of loyalty. The reward for treating patients like customers, consumers, and friends is that patients patronize businesses, including dental practices that meet or exceed their expectations. There's a man driving down your street right now with a toothache. Will it be your practice or the one down the block.
Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Erickson, Darin J; Kilian, Gunna R; Nelson, Toben F; Fabian, Lindsey E A
Alcohol-related problems such as assaults and drinking-driving at or near professional sporting events are commonly reported in the media. An important strategy to reduce such problems may be the use of alcohol control policies at sports stadiums. The objective of this study was to examine alcohol control policies and practices at professional sports stadiums in the U.S. We conducted a telephone survey of food/beverage managers from 66 of the 100 U.S professional sports stadiums that house a professional hockey, basketball, baseball, and/or football team. The survey consisted of 18 items pertaining to policies regulating alcohol sales and consumption. Most managers indicated that their stadium had a range of alcohol control policies and practices. For example, all or nearly all reported their stadium allows no more than two alcoholic beverages per sale and their alcohol servers are required to check age identification of patrons who appear younger than age 30. In contrast, only about half prohibit servers younger than 21 years of age from selling alcohol both in seating areas and at concession booths, and approximately one-third designate sections of their stadiums as alcohol-free. Although we found that some alcohol control policies appear to be common across stadiums, others are uncommon, leaving room for potential areas of improvement in reducing or preventing alcohol-related problems at professional sporting events. The results provide an important starting point for identifying policies that can be evaluated to determine their effectiveness in reducing alcohol-related injuries and deaths at sporting events.
Byock, Ira; Twohig, Jeanne Sheils; Merriman, Melanie; Collins, Karyn
As part of a comprehensive national effort to improve care at the end of life, the Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care program of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation convened "national peer-professional workgroups" of recognized authorities or leaders to advance palliative aspects of practice in their respective specialties or fields. The conveners' goals were to establish research and practice agendas to integrate palliative care within selected fields and health care settings, and to expand delivery of palliative care to special patient populations that have been underserved by palliative care. We hypothesized that leading professionals within specific fields, chartered to achieve clear goals, and then provided with sufficient administrative and logistical support, could develop recommendations for expanding access to, quality of and financing for palliative care within their disciplines. Staff at the national program office of Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care convened eight disease-based, specialty-based or issue-based workgroups (the selected workgroup topics were amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cost accounting, critical care, end-stage renal disease, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome [HIV/AIDS] disease, Huntington's disease, pediatric care, and surgical palliative care). The national program office implemented a small group process design in convening the groups, and provided coordination, oversight and administrative support, along with funds to support meetings (telephone and in-person). A workgroup "charter" guided groups in determining the scope of efforts and set specific, time-limited goals. From the outset, the workgroups developed plans for dissemination of workgroup recommendations to defined stakeholder audiences, including health care providers, policy-makers, payers, researchers, funders, educators, professional organizations and patient advocacy groups. Groups averaged 25 members and met for an average of
Stummann, Cathy Brown
The use of stories from professional experience in continuing professional education has been on the rise in many fields, often aimed at bolstering capacity through sharing professional knowledge and/or supporting reflective practice. Practice stories are also suggested to be beneficial in supporting professional learning of new concepts. These…
Full Text Available This study employed social cognitive theory and social cognitive career theory (SCCT as foundations to explore the influence of high school students' beliefs about female gender roles and female engineer role models on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering. A total of 88 students from a national girls' high school participated in STEM project-based learning. A survey questionnaire named The STEM Self-efficacy and Professional Commitment to Engineering Questionnaire, developed by the researchers, was administered to collect data, and a structured equation model was employed to confirm the multi-theoretical model developed in this study. The results of this study show that enhancing the gender role beliefs and engineer role models of female students may increase their STEM self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering. In other words, the female high school students' professional commitment to engineering model can explain students' intentions for future engineering careers. Thus, this study suggests integrating STEM project-based learning into the curricula of various schools and integrating female engineer role models into STEM project-based learning activities for female students, which can enhance female high school students' STEM self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering.
Edison Luiz Devos Barlem
Full Text Available Constantly experiencing limiting situations that hinder a professional practice coherent with its principles - of autonomy and advocacy of users' interests -, and often conditioned to experience moral distress, the nursing profession plays a prominent role in the current health model because it has the characteristic of managing the care rendered to users in a perspective of social inclusion, both in the basic health network and in hospitals. Aiming at carrying out a reflection on the nursing practice and the difficulties present in its work routine, and considering its characteristics as a profession, this article sought to make a reflection between the practice of nursing and the numerous moral challenges imposed by the routine, resulting, in many cases, in a value crisis that can reverberate directly on the quality of the service rendered, and in abandonment of the ideals of advocacy for users.
Edison Luiz Devos Barlem
Full Text Available Constantly experiencing limiting situations that hinder a professional practice coherent with its principles - of autonomy and advocacy of users' interests -, and often conditioned to experience moral distress, the nursing profession plays a prominent role in the current health model because it has the characteristic of managing the care rendered to users in a perspective of social inclusion, both in the basic health network and in hospitals. Aiming at carrying out a reflection on the nursing practice and the difficulties present in its work routine, and considering its characteristics as a profession, this article sought to make a reflection between the practice of nursing and the numerous moral challenges imposed by the routine, resulting, in many cases, in a value crisis that can reverberate directly on the quality of the service rendered, and in abandonment of the ideals of advocacy for users.
Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Tomaschewski, Jamila Geri; Lunardi, Guilherme Lerch; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; Schwonke, Camila Rose Guadalupe Barcelos
Constantly experiencing limiting situations that hinder a professional practice coherent with its principles - of autonomy and advocacy of users' interests -, and often conditioned to experience moral distress, the nursing profession plays a prominent role in the current health model because it has the characteristic of managing the care rendered to users in a perspective of social inclusion, both in the basic health network and in hospitals. Aiming at carrying out a reflection on the nursing practice and the difficulties present in its work routine, and considering its characteristics as a profession, this article sought to make a reflection between the practice of nursing and the numerous moral challenges imposed by the routine, resulting, in many cases, in a value crisis that can reverberate directly on the quality of the service rendered, and in abandonment of the ideals of advocacy for users.
Habets, Michelle G J L; van Delden, Johannes J M; Bredenoord, Annelien L
AIM: The inherent uncertainty of first-in-human trials, combined with the technical complexity of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), makes early phase PSC studies ethically challenging. Conducting parallel bioethics research based on experiences and views of professionals in the stem cell field is
Wilson, Leanne; McNeill, Brigid; Gillon, Gail T.
Background: Preliminary studies of inter-professional education (IPE) among student speech-language therapists (SLTs) and student teachers suggest that workshop-based applications are beneficial in preparing participants for elements of collaborative practice. Situating IPE within the students' professional practice placements may provide another…
It has become increasingly accepted that important digital data must be retained and shared in order to preserve and promote knowledge, advance research in and across all disciplines of scholarly endeavor, and maximize the return on investment of public funds. To meet this challenge, colleges and universities are adding data services to existing infrastructures by drawing on the expertise of information professionals who are already involved in the acquisition, management and preservation of data in their daily jobs. Data services include planning and implementing good data management practices, thereby increasing researchers’ ability to compete for grant funding and ensuring that data collections with continuing value are preserved for reuse. This volume provides a framework to guide information professionals in academic libraries, presses, and data centers through the process of managing research data from the planning stages through the life of a grant project and beyond. It illustrates principle...
Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Strange, Majbrit Højland
for the professional development of teachers are relatively new. This systematic literature review reports a qualitative synthesis of literature on in-service teachers’ online CoP participation. It adheres to the five-step literature search and analysis process by Creswell (2012). Seven peer-reviewed articles were......This study informs researchers of educational technology, teachers, teacher associations and moderators or admins of online platforms who are interested in knowledge sharing among teachers within online communities of practice (CoPs). The continuous professional development of teachers is primarily...... hand, informal knowledge sharing through CoPs can transform teachers by contributing to their immediate context or needs. There are various national and global IT platforms that are designed to enable teachers to participate and share knowledge in a CoP but in many countries, online platforms...
Muckle, Timothy J; Apatov, Nathaniel M; Plaus, Karen
The purpose of this column is to present the results of the 2007 Professional Practice Analysis (PPA) of the field of nurse anesthesia, conducted by the Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists. The PPA used survey and rating scale methodologies to collect data regarding the relative emphasis of various aspects of the nurse anesthesia knowledge domain and competencies. A total of 3,805 survey responses were analyzed using the Rasch rating scale model, which aggregates and transforms ordinal (rating scale) responses into linear measures of relative importance and frequency. Summaries of respondent demographics and educational and professional background are provided, as well as descriptions of how the survey results are used to develop test specifications. The results of this analysis provide evidence for the content outline and test specifications (content percentages) and thus serve as a basis of content validation for the National Certification Examination.
Elliott, Donna D; May, Win; Schaff, Pamela B; Nyquist, Julie G; Trial, Janet; Reilly, Jo Marie; Lattore, Patrick
Increasing emphasis is placed on teaching and assessment of professionalism in the continuum of medical education. Consistent and longitudinal instruction and assessment are crucial factors that learners need in order to internalize the tenets of professionalism. We aimed to develop a novel longitudinal course in professionalism spanning the first 2 years in a medical curriculum. This is a description of the process undertaken over the past 7 years to develop and implement a professionalism curriculum. We used the conceptual framework of constructivism, principles of adult learning, experiential learning and reflective practice to integrate learning with experience. We included student input in session development. Faculty mentors serve as role models to guide, assist and counsel students. Assessment of learners is accomplished using self, peer and mentor evaluation, and a student portfolio. Program evaluation is by course and faculty evaluation. Students are given a final grade of pass or fail, together with a brief narrative. Course evaluations were positive. A survey questionnaire showed that more than 60% of the students reported gaining skills related to course goals. A longitudinal curriculum for the pre-clinical years was successfully launched. Plans are under way to expand this into the clinical years.
Dewsbury, Bryan M
Faculty development of inclusive teaching practices has become more common in response to significant differences in STEM student retention between underrepresented minorities in the USA and students from other ethnic groups. Approaches to solve this have shifted from focusing on student deficits to changing campus culture, including the mindsets of instructors who teach STEM courses. In this article, I argue that based on the literature informing the conceptual frameworks used for faculty development in inclusive teaching, faculty developers should reframe the message of their workshops to focus participants more on the scope of the journey, and shift the direction of overall efforts some to redevelop pedagogical training at the graduate and postdoc levels. Informed by historical as well as recent theories on the role of higher education to society, I highlight the areas of the literature that can effectively inform our current approaches to inclusion. I also briefly review the reasons why this approach is needed, and include suggestions for new faculty development approaches for long-term sustainable change in STEM inclusive education at the postsecondary level. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The Connected Learning Massive Open Online Collaboration (CLMOOC is an online professional development experience designed as an openly networked, production-centered, participatory learning collaboration for educators. Addressing the paucity of research that investigates learning processes in MOOC experiences, this paper examines the situated literacy practices that emerged as educators in CLMOOC composed, collaborated, and distributed multimediated artifacts. Using a collaborative, interactive visual mapping tool as participant-researchers, we analyzed relationships between publically available artifacts and posts generated in one week through a transliteracies framework. Culled data included posts on Twitter (n = 678, a Google+ Community (n = 105, a Facebook Group (n = 19, a blog feed (n = 5, and a “make” repository (n = 21. Remix was found to be a primary form of interaction and mediator of learning. Participants not only iterated on each others’ artifacts, but on social processes and shared practices as well. Our analysis illuminated four distinct remix mobilities and relational tendencies—bursting, drifting, leveraging, and turning. Bursting and drifting characterize the paces and proximities of remixing while leveraging and turning are activities more obviously disruptive of social processes and power hierarchies. These mobilities and tendencies revealed remix as an emergent, iterative, collaborative, critical practice with transformative possibilities for openly networked web-mediated professional learning.
Full Text Available Aims and objectives : The present study was carried out to assess the oral hygiene practices and habits among practicing general dentists. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out in four dental schools with the help of a self administered questionnaire. The questionnaire covered dentists′ oral self care, smoking habits, professional reading and oral health concepts. A total of 700 dentists responded, of which 457 were males. Recommended oral self care (ROSC included tooth brushing one per day, eating sugary snacks daily or rarely and regularly using fluoride tooth paste. Results : The data obtained was then subjected to statistical analyses and evaluated using chi-square tests and logistic regressions.It was found that 55.9% of all respondents brushed twice a day, 59.4% consumed sugar containing snacks less than once daily and 55.1% of them used fluoride containing paste regularly while brushing. 81.1% of the 700 dentists never used tobacco products. In all, 19.6% 0f the practicing general dentists followed recommended oral self care. Conclusion : From the present study, it can be concluded that only 19.6% of south Indian dentists follow recommended oral self care and hence awareness programs and continuous dental education programs among dentists is essential to improve the present scenario and to increase the number of dental professionals following ROSC.
Smith, Ben J; Bonfiglioli, Catriona M F
Advocacy informed by scientific evidence is necessary to influence policy and planning to address physical inactivity. The mass media is a key arena for this advocacy. This study investigated the perceptions and practices of news media professionals reporting physical activity and sedentariness to inform strategic communication about these issues. We interviewed media professionals working for major television, radio, newspaper and online news outlets in Australia. The interviews explored understandings of physical activity and sedentariness, attributions of causality, assignment of responsibility, and factors affecting news reporting on these topics. Data were thematically analyzed using NVivo. Physical inactivity was recognized as pervasive and important, but tended to be seen as mundane and not newsworthy. Sedentariness was regarded as more novel than physical activity, and more likely to require organizational and environment action. Respondents identified that presenting these issues in visual and engaging ways was an ongoing challenge. Physical activity researchers and advocates need to take account of prevailing news values and media practices to improve engagement with the news media. These include understanding the importance of novelty, narratives, imagery, and practical messages, and how to use these to build support for environmental and policy action.
Domínguez Bustillo, L; Barrasa Villar, J I; Castán Ruíz, S; Moliner Lahoz, F J; Aibar Remón, C
To estimate the frequency of ineffective practices in Primary Health Care (PHC) based on the opinions of clinical professionals from the sector, and to assess the significance, implications and factors that may be contributing to their continuance. An on line survey of opinion from a convenience sample of 575 professionals who had published articles over the last years in Atención Primaria and Semergen medical journals. A total of 212 professionals replied (37%). For 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64.5 to 73.3) the problem of ineffective practices is frequent or very frequent in PHC, and rate their importance with an average score of 7.3 (standard deviation [SD]=1.8) out of 10. The main consequences would be endangering the sustainability of the system (48.1%; 95% CI, 41.2 to 54.9) and harming patients (32.1%; 95% CI, 25.7 to 38.5). These ineffective practices are the result of the behaviour of the patients themselves (28%; 95% CI, 22.6 to 35.0) workload (26.4%; 95% CI, 20.3 to 32.5), and the lack of the continuous education (19.3%; 95% CI, 13.9 to 24.7). Clinical procedures of greatest misuse are the prescribing of antibiotics for certain infections, the frequency of cervical cancer screening, rigorous pharmacological monitoring of type 2 diabetes in patients over 65 years, the use of psychotropic drugs in the elderly, or the use of analgesics in patients with hypertension or renal failure. The use of ineffective procedures in PHC is considered a very important issue that negatively affects many patients and their treatment, and possibly endangering the sustainability of the system and causing harm to patients. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Warring, Niels; Nielsen, Birger Steen
for learning outcomes. For the social educators this has meant more time being spent on formal learning activities, and they have received the new demands with mixed feelings: on the one hand they can help the social educators getting more acknowledged for doing some valuable and visible work. On the other...... based workshops) the paper will discuss work practice in an everyday life perspective. This perspective opens for understanding professional competence as part of creating coherence in children’s and families’ lives as well as during the day in the day care centers. It also opens for a discussion of how...
Wolf, Gail A; Hayden, Margaret; Bradle, Judith A
Healthcare organizations face the increasingly difficult challenge of providing services that are of high quality, reasonable cost, and easy accessibility for their constituents. Mergers and acquisitions are one strategy for accomplishing this, but in doing so it is critical to have a "road map" to create an integrated system, rather than merely a consortium of hospitals. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has successfully created an integrated healthcare system of 19 hospitals. The authors describe the professional practice model used as a framework for success in integrating patient care.
Endedijk, M.D.; van Veelen, R.; Möwes, Randy
Although there is a high demand of highly educated professionals in the technical sector, only about 50% of the graduates from a study program in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) opt for a career in the technical sector. Professional identity has been shown to influence
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the main elements of novelty brought by the transposition of the Directive 2011/7/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on combating late payment in commercial transactions in the Romanian national legislation by Law no. 72/2013 on the measures for combating late payment of a certain amounts of money resulting from the agreements concluded between the professionals and between professionals and contracting authorities. The current analysis is based on the interpretation of the legal previsions of the above mentioned acts as well as on the related secondary legislation. It is important to underline that at the moment of this study there is few court practice on this subject matter at the national level as well as of the European community level. Further more, considering the relatively new presence of the Law no. 72/2013 in the national legislation, albeit this law is adopting certain elements from the existent legislation, there is a lack of substantial doctrine in this respect. Starting form the considerations expressed above, we intend by this article to underline the main measures to be take into consideration by the professionals in the commercial relations established between them as well as in the commercial relations established with contracting authorities.
Lautz, L.; McCay, D.; Driscoll, C. T.; Glas, R. L.; Gutchess, K. M.; Johnson, A.; Millard, G.
Recognizing that over half of STEM Ph.D. graduates are finding work outside of academia, a new, NSF-funded program at Syracuse University, EMPOWER (or Education Model Program on Water-Energy Research) is encouraging its graduate students to take ownership of their graduate program and design it to meet their anticipated needs. Launched in 2016, EMPOWER's goal is to prepare graduate students for careers in the water-energy field by offering targeted workshops, professional training coursework, a career capstone experience, a professional development mini-grant program, and an interdisciplinary "foundations" seminar. Through regular student feedback and program evaluation, EMPOWER has learned some important lessons this first year: career options and graduate students' interests are diverse, requiring individualized programs designed to meet the needs of prospective employers and employees; students need exposure to the range of careers in their field to provide a roadmap for designing their own graduate school experience; effective programs nurture a culture that values professional development thereby giving students permission to pursue career paths and professional development opportunities that meet their own needs and interests; and existing university resources support the effective and efficient integration of professional development activities into graduate programs. Many of the positive outcomes experienced by EMPOWER students may be achieved in departmental graduate programs with small changes to their graduate curricula.
What is the impact of open access on science communication? How can scientists effectively engage and interact with the public? What role can science communication have when scientific controversies arise? Practising science communication in the information age is a collection of newly-commissioned chapters by leading scholars and practitioners of science communication. It considers how scientists communicate with each other as part of their professional practice, critically evaluating how this forms the basis of the documenting of scientific knowledge, and investigating how open access publication and open review are influencing current practices. It also explores how science communication can play a crucial role when science is disputed, investigating the role of expertise in the formation of scientific controversy and consensus. The volume provides a theoretically informed review of contemporary trends and issues that are engaging practitioners of science communication, focusing on issues such as the norms...
Ducharme, Maria P; Bernhardt, Jean M; Padula, Cynthia A; Adams, Jeffrey M
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between leaders' perceived influence over professional practice environments (PPEs) and clinical nurses' reported engagement in essential professional nursing practice. There is little empirical evidence identifying impact of nurse leader influence or why nursing leaders are not perceived, nor do they perceive themselves, as influential in healthcare decision making. A nonexperimental method of prediction was used to examine relationships between engagement in professional practice, measured by Essentials of Magnetism II (EOMII) tool, and nurse leaders' perceived influence, measured by Leadership Influence over Professional Practice Environment Scale (LIPPES). A convenience sample of 30 nurse leaders and 169 clinical nurses, employed in a 247-bed acute care Magnet® hospital, participated. Findings indicated that leaders perceived their influence presence from "often" to "always," with mean scores of 3.02 to 3.70 on a 4-point Likert scale, with the lowest subscale as "access to resources" for which a significant relationship was found with clinical nurses' reported presence of adequate staffing (P influence links structures necessary for an environment that supports outcomes.
Irish, Teresa J.
The aim of this study was to provide insights addressing national concerns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education by examining how a set of six perimeter urban K-12 schools were transformed into STEM-focused professional learning communities (PLC). The concept of a STEM Academy as a STEM-focused PLC emphasizes the development of a STEM culture where professional discourse and teaching are focused on STEM learning. The STEM Academies examined used the STEM Academy Measurement Tool and Rubric (Tool) as a catalyst for discussion and change. This Tool was developed with input from stakeholders and used for school-wide initiatives, teacher professional development and K-12 student engagement to improve STEM teaching and learning. Two primary goals of this study were to assess the levels of awareness and use of the tool by all stakeholders involved in the project and to determine how the Tool assisted in the development and advancement of these schools as STEM PLCs. Data from the STEM Academy Participant Survey was analyzed to determine stakeholders' perceptions of the Tool in terms of (i) how aware stakeholders were of the Tool, (ii) whether they participated in the use of the Tool, (iii) how the characteristics of PLCs were perceived in their schools, and finally (iv) how the awareness of the Tool influenced teachers' perceptions of the presence of PLC characteristics. Findings indicate that school faculty were aware of the Tool on a number of different levels and evidence exists that the use of the Tool assisted in the development of STEM Academies, however impact varied from school to school. Implications of this study suggest that the survey should be used for a longer period of time to gain more in-depth knowledge on teachers' perceptions of the Tool as a catalyst across time. Additional findings indicate that the process for using the Tool should be ongoing and involve the stakeholders to have the greatest impact on school culture
Alexander Nealy, Yolande Kristine
This study examined factors that contribute to the success of African American professionals in STEM careers. Data were collected through a survey from 40 participants and in-depth interviews with eight of them. The survey was used to explore the participants' educational experiences from elementary school through college and on their STEM-related careers, whereas the individual interviews were used to gain insights into their perspectives as STEM professionals. The results of this study indicate that most of these African American STEM professionals attributed their choice of a STEM career to early exposure to and positive experiences in science and mathematics mediated by teachers and/or parents. Furthermore, the positive experiences and success in science and mathematics continued in high school and college, further solidifying their choice of a STEM career. However, for almost half of the participants, attending a HBCU seems to have played an important role in their enjoyment of and success in a STEM major. HBCUs provided them with role models and the necessary support and encouragement to succeed in their pursuit of a STEM degree. The results of this study illustrate the various factors that play a role in preventing leakage in the minority STEM pipeline: K-12 experiences mediated by parents and teachers; support systems in college and the workplace mediated by counselors, professors, peers, and administrators; and policies that facilitate integration and the development of such support systems. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge on minorities in STEM by focusing on what works, instead of focusing on the deficit model and what does not work. It is hoped that these results help validate the efforts of those who work towards a more equitable representation of the STEM fields.
Full Text Available This study intends to (i evaluate the impact of the Master Courses’ attendance on the professional practices of Science teachers, in Portugal, (ii to disseminate examples of good practices of teaching with a strong impact on the Master Course (MC, and (iii to present suggestions to improve the articulation between Training, Research and Practices, in the post-graduation context. Semi-structured interviews were made to 5 Biology/Geology Master Teachers (MT of primary or secondary education. Two of this 5 MT were deepened studied as examples of good practices through classes’ observation and documental analysis. There were evidences of strong impact of the MC in all interviewed teachers, mainly in the classroom level, as the impact on peers was only evidenced by the two case studies. It is suggested that collaborative practices, involving teachers and researchers, namely as a result of post-graduation contexts, would promote the changing of the existent teachers’ practices.
Bowman, Thomas G.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Barrett, Jessica L.
Context: Athletic training students' ability to transition into professional practice is a critical component for the future of the profession. However, research on professional master's students' transition to practice and readiness to provide autonomous care is lacking. Objective: To determine professional master's athletic training students'…
... Professional Conduct of Attorneys Practicing Under the Cognizance and Supervision of the Judge Advocate General...) is amending its rules to update existing sections relating to the professional conduct of attorneys...), Professional Conduct of Attorneys Practicing Under the Cognizance and Supervision of the Judge Advocate General...
Mulnix, Amy B
Discipline-based education research (DBER) publications are opportunities for professional development around science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education reform. Learning theory tells us these publications could be more impactful if authors, reviewers, and editors pay greater attention to linking principles and practice. This approach, which considers faculty as learners and STEM education reform as content, has the potential to better support faculty members because it promotes a deeper understanding of the reasons why a pedagogical change is effective. This depth of understanding is necessary for faculty members to successfully transfer new knowledge to their own contexts. A challenge ahead for the emergent learning sciences is to better integrate findings from across sister disciplines; DBER reports can take a step in that direction while improving their usefulness for instructors. © 2016 A. B. Mulnix. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Full Text Available Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.
Stummann, Cathy Brown
The use of stories from professional experience in continuing professional education has been on the rise in many fields, often aimed at bolstering capacity through sharing professional knowledge and/or supporting reflective practice. Practice stories are also suggested to be beneficial...... in supporting professional learning of new concepts. These uses of practice stories are not evident in public natural resource management (NRM) continuing professional education. In light of greater public involvement in NRM practice over the last 20 years, however, the use of practice stories could now...... be particularly beneficial to NRM professionals. This study examines the use of practice stories in workshops aimed at deepening public NRM professionals' understanding of social science concepts suggested to be valuable in making sense of the social and political complexity intertwined in public involvement...
Pacheco, Heather A.
This is a qualitative study about sources of self-efficacy and roles of assistive technologies (AT) associated with the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) choice and participation of STEM professionals and graduate students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities. People with disabilities are underrepresented in STEM, which can be traced back along the STEM pipeline to early undergraduate participation in STEM. Little research exists, however, about pathways and factors associated with successful STEM participation for people with disabilities at any point along their trajectories. Eighteen STEM professionals and graduate students with sensory and orthopedic disabilities were interviewed for this study. Sources of self-efficacy were sought from interview transcripts, as were emergent themes associated with the types, uses and roles of AT. Findings suggest that people with sensory and orthopedic disabilities weigh sources of self-efficacy differently from white males without disabilities in STEM and more like other underrepresented minorities in STEM. Social persuasions were most frequently reported and in far more detail than other sources, suggesting that this source may be most impactful in the development of self-efficacy beliefs for this group. Additionally, findings indicate that AT is critical to the successful participation of people with sensory and orthopedic disabilities in STEM at all points along their STEM pathways. Barriers center around issues of access to full engagement in mainstream STEM classrooms and out of school opportunities as well as the impact of ill-informed perceptions about the capabilities of people with disabilities held by parents, teachers and college faculty who can act as gatekeepers along STEM pathways. Gaps in disability specialists' knowledge about STEM-specific assistive technologies, especially at the college level, are also problematic. The prevalence of mainstream public school attendance reported by
Horowitz, J E; Abramowitz, R L
Written partnership agreements, employment contracts and related documents may seem to complicate what appears to be a straightforward arrangement, and can make a close relationship somewhat more impersonal. The decision to add a partner, however, is fundamentally a professional and business consideration, and raises many economic and practical issues that either aren't initially apparent or which may only become relevant after the passage of time. In addition, the tax laws may cause two seemingly similar approaches to have significantly different results. It is worth the time and effort to think through your objectives and the price you are willing to pay to realize them, and to recognize that your new associate will have some legitimate concerns that need to be addressed. A well thought-out written arrangement will provide both of you with a degree of certainty and the comfort of knowing that you and your associate have the same understanding of your common venture.
Al Asmari, AbdulRahman
Professional development is considered as an essential element in enhancing the teaching and learning process to ensure student learning. Professional development can also be deemed as a cornerstone of teacher professionalism and quality. The governments and educational institutions invest significantly in Continuous Professional Development (CPD)…
Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin
The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942
Ávila-Morales, Juan Carlos
Full Text Available Dehumanization is referred to as the loss of the properly human axiological capacity, by the fact of being surrounded by the scientific and technological powers, which have been part of the development of teaching and practice of medicine. The latter has seen the appearance of models such as paternalism, autonomism, and the one in which terms such as economy, administration, insurance, and so on, are routinely used. This article analyses dehumanization in the context of professional exercise encompassing from the formation of the student to the implementation of the medical act and the establishment of the doctor-patient relationship. Analysis of the concept and of its implications in medicine and nursery in three categories given by the levels of training, assistance and administrative is used. This text is the result of a documental review about the maleficent medical act in a doctoral investigation. It can be concluded that the complexity of present medical practice, specialization and the compartmentalization of knowledge have altered the raison d’être of medicine leading to dehumanization of the medical act, and that a new approach in medical faculties could humanize medical teaching.
Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin
The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services.
Cornelissen, Evelyn; Mitton, Craig; Sheps, Sam
Clients and practitioners desire up-to-date, safe and effective healthcare. Knowledge translation, a term used to describe the interchange of knowledge between its producers and users, aims to support this desire. Knowledge, and by extension knowledge translation, is subject to varying perspectives ranging from the objective truth-tested knowledge of empiricism, associated by some with academia, to knowledge in the practitioner realm. This latter knowledge is often based on multiple users' experiences and contexts, thus constructed to meet their needs. The goal of this paper is to compare and contrast knowledge and knowledge translation from empirical and constructivist perspectives. It then relates knowledge translation to professional practice discourse and concludes with thoughts on constructivist knowledge translation strategies, including practitioner-driven strategies derived from practice. For example, knowledge translation can be woven into processes to train/integrate new graduates into the healthcare system, it can be captured in practitioner-driven provision of continuing education, and/or it can be facilitated through practitioner collaboration in research via action research approaches. Regardless of the perspective taken, delivery of up-to-date, safe and effective care requires useful, relevant knowledge available when necessary and applicable to real-life issues as perceived, critically, by the knowledge end-user. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare © 2011 The Joanna Briggs Institute.
Implementation of participatory action research during pedagogical practice facilitates sustainable education because its objective is to understand professional practice, enrich the capacity of involved participants and an opportunity to make inquiries for the improvement of quality. In the research of professional practice, subjects explore…
Professional education has for decades been based on the premise that theory and practice are dichotomous, and that somehow a way must be found to enable professional practitioners to translate theory (the knowledge they acquire) into practice (what they actually do). The article examines the relationship between theory and practice, contending…
Wilson, Leanne; McNeill, Brigid; Gillon, Gail T
Preliminary studies of inter-professional education (IPE) among student speech-language therapists (SLTs) and student teachers suggest that workshop-based applications are beneficial in preparing participants for elements of collaborative practice. Situating IPE within the students' professional practice placements may provide another useful avenue to develop attitudes, knowledge and skills for inter-professional collaboration. Research examining the impact of different approaches to IPE is required to advance our understanding of effective design and evaluation of such initiatives. To understand how student SLTs and student teachers develop competency for collaborative practice when co-working during professional practice placements to support children's speech and literacy development. A case study design was used to monitor the impact of the IPE. Student SLTs (n = 4) were paired with student teachers (n = 4) to participate in shared professional practice placements in junior school classrooms. An inductive thematic analysis of interviews conducted with participants after the IPE was employed to explore the development of competencies in collaborative practice. Change in inter-disciplinary knowledge and perceptions over the IPE was evaluated via survey to further explore the development of collaborative competencies. Integration of qualitative and quantitative findings suggested that participants began to develop four broad areas of collaborative competency: understanding of professional roles and expertise, communication skills to support shared decision-making, inter-dependency in supporting children's learning, and flexibility to implement alternative instructional practices. Interview analysis also revealed factors related to the facilitators and learning contexts that supported and/or limited the collaboration between participants. Shared placement experiences between student SLTs and student teachers may be an effective method for building participants
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the quality and effectiveness of clinical practice is becoming a key task within all health services. Primary medical care, as organised in the UK is composed of clinicians who work in independent partnerships (general practices that collaborate with other health care professionals. Although many practices have successfully introduced innovations, there are no organisational development structures in place that support the evolution of primary medical care towards integrated care processes. Providing incentives for attendance at passive educational events and promoting 'teamwork' without first identifying organisational priorities are interventions that have proved to be ineffective at changing clinical processes. A practice and professional development plan feasibility study was evaluated in Wales and provided the experiential basis for a summary of the lessons learnt on how best to guide organisational development systems for primary medical care. Results Practice and professional development plans are hybrids produced by the combination of ideas from management (the applied behavioural science of organisational development and education (self-directed adult learning theories and, in conceptual terms, address the lack of effectiveness of passive educational strategies by making interventions relevant to identified system wide needs. In the intervention, each practice participated in a series of multidisciplinary workshops (minimum 4 where the process outcome was the production of a practice development plan and a set of personal portfolios, and the final outcome was a realised organisational change. It was apparent during the project that organisational admission to a process of developmental planning needed to be a stepwise process, where initial interest can lead to a fuller understanding, which subsequently develops into motivation and ownership, sufficient to complete the exercise. The advantages of
Elwyn, Glyn; Hocking, Paul
Background Improving the quality and effectiveness of clinical practice is becoming a key task within all health services. Primary medical care, as organised in the UK is composed of clinicians who work in independent partnerships (general practices) that collaborate with other health care professionals. Although many practices have successfully introduced innovations, there are no organisational development structures in place that support the evolution of primary medical care towards integrated care processes. Providing incentives for attendance at passive educational events and promoting 'teamwork' without first identifying organisational priorities are interventions that have proved to be ineffective at changing clinical processes. A practice and professional development plan feasibility study was evaluated in Wales and provided the experiential basis for a summary of the lessons learnt on how best to guide organisational development systems for primary medical care. Results Practice and professional development plans are hybrids produced by the combination of ideas from management (the applied behavioural science of organisational development) and education (self-directed adult learning theories) and, in conceptual terms, address the lack of effectiveness of passive educational strategies by making interventions relevant to identified system wide needs. In the intervention, each practice participated in a series of multidisciplinary workshops (minimum 4) where the process outcome was the production of a practice development plan and a set of personal portfolios, and the final outcome was a realised organisational change. It was apparent during the project that organisational admission to a process of developmental planning needed to be a stepwise process, where initial interest can lead to a fuller understanding, which subsequently develops into motivation and ownership, sufficient to complete the exercise. The advantages of introducing expert external
Nolan, Christine; Deehan, Ann; Wylie, Ann; Jones, Roger
This qualitative study explored the professional and practice-based factors affecting the role legitimacy and adequacy of practice nurses in managing obese patients. There are strong clinical, financial and practical reasons for tackling obesity in UK general practice. Although practice nurses may seem to be in an ideal position to manage obesity, there remain questions about their role adequacy (sense of self-efficacy in responding to patients' problems) and role legitimacy (their perceived boundaries of professional responsibility and right to intervene). Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 22 practice nurses in Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham in South London. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Key themes were identified following coding of the data. Findings Factors that positively affected nurses' role adequacy and legitimacy were: their belief that obesity management was part of their chronic disease management and health promotion remit; their confidence in their own communication skills and ability to build rapport with patients; having attended training and being supported to take extra time for obesity management. Factors negatively affecting their role legitimacy and adequacy were: their low awareness and use of guidance; lack of knowledge of referral options; limited knowledge and use of non-medical and non-persuasive approaches; perceived lack of expertise in motivating patients, as well as in nutrition, child obesity and assessment; belief that there were some contexts in which it was more appropriate to raise the issue than others; lack of culturally appropriate materials and language barriers; belief that they had limited impact on outcome and that the patient is responsible for lack of success. Other factors negatively affecting their role adequacy and legitimacy included their ambivalence about the effectiveness of the interventions offered; perceived lack of priority for obesity management within practices
Cornett, Patricia A; O'Rourke, Maria W
The professional practice of registered nurses (RNs) and their professional role competence are key variables that have an impact on quality and patient safety. Organizations in which RNs practice must have the capacity to fully support the professional role of those RNs in exercising their legitimate power derived through nurse licensing laws and professional standards and ethics. The interplay of individual RN practice and organizational practice, and measurement thereof, are the essence of organizational capacity. Two models are discussed that tie together the attributes of healthy workplace environments and provide the structure to guide and sustain organizational capacity.
Elliott, Elizabeth C; Walden, Marlene; Young, Anne; Symes, Lene; Fredland, Nina
The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experiences of nurse practitioners (NPs) practicing within the Transformational Advanced Professional Practice (TAPP) Model, a professional practice model (PPM). A descriptive phenomenological analysis using semistructured interviews of 11 NPs across multiple inpatient and outpatient clinical areas at Texas Children's Hospital. Member checking and theming data occurred using Colaizzi's Method concurrently with Mind Mapping technique. Main themes included: (a) transforming professional practice, (b) cultivating the inner self, and (c) mentoring professional transitions. The findings of this study provide qualitative evidence that the TAPP Model influences role transition and professional development. Transforming NP practice within organizations and within the nursing profession itself will take mindfulness with an intentional approach to design PPMs specifically for NPs. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Martinez, L; Demanet, J; Mignaux, V; Dewavrin, F
Tracheostomy is a commonly performed procedure. The aim of this study was to assess professional practice, describe patient characteristics and examine short and long-term outcomes. All patients with CCAM GEPA004 code were retrospectively included. Two hundred and fourteen (7%) patients who were mecanically ventilated had a tracheostomy performed in intensive care unit (ICU). Median time to tracheostomy was 22 (14-28) days. In total, 95.3% of tracheostomy procedures were surgical. Median age was 58 (48-67) years. Eighty-three (38.8%) tracheostomies were performed for respiratory reasons. Twenty-eight-day and 90-day mortality were 4.2% and 35.5%. One-year mortality was 52.4%. Patients with tracheostomies performed for weaning from mechanical ventilation had a higher mortality rate. After ICU discharge, mortality rate was 29.8% and was higher in non-decannulated patients. Patient characteristics, timing, technique, indication and outcomes were stable over the years. Young patients weaning from mechanical ventilation were more likely to receive a tracheostomy. More than half died during the first year. Patients discharged from ICU with a tracheostomy tube in place had higher mortality rate. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Haldane, Sarah; Hinchcliff, Kenneth; Mansell, Peter; Baik, Chi
Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of six different skill sets: knowledge base; medical and technical skills; surgical skills; verbal communication and interpersonal skills; written communication skills; and critical thinking and problem solving. They were then asked to rate the importance of specific communication skills for new graduate veterinarians. Veterinarians and students ranked verbal communication and interpersonal skills as the most important skill set for an entry-level veterinarian. Veterinarians considered many new graduates to be deficient in these skills. Students often felt they lacked confidence in this area. This has important implications for veterinary educators in terms of managing the expectations of students and improving the delivery of communication skills courses within the veterinary curriculum.
Fenech, Marianne; Lotz, Mianna
Dominant constructions of professionalism in early childhood education can diminish early childhood teachers' and educators' undertaking of advocacy at the systems or political level. In this paper, we propose an ethically grounded construction of professionalism that provides space for professional practice to move beyond the classroom and into…
Lee, Alison; Dunston, Roger
This article addresses the question of the implications for professional education of economic, social and political changes that are transforming the boundaries, accountabilities and governance of professional practice. We argue that approaches to professional education that are uni-disciplinary and focused on the individual, cannot prepare…
Zheng, Xin; Yin, Hongbiao; Liu, Yuan; Ke, Zheng
The building of professional learning communities has been widely recognized as an effective strategy for schools wanting to improve student performance and enhance teachers' professional capacity. This study explored the relationship between leadership practices and professional learning communities, with a particular focus on the mediating role…
Kier, Meredith Weaver
National efforts to interest students in STEM careers are intensifying around the globe, due to a shortage of professionals to fill the growing demands in these fields. Although some US studies find high interest in STEM in K-12 students, longitudinal studies show a decline in interest following middle school. Many students, particularly females and minorities, feel that they do not fit the image of a STEM professional. Little is known about perceptions held by students in rural areas, who have limited access to diverse STEM careers. This dissertation study employed an in school STEM career video intervention with eighty-five rural, minority, eighth grade students in a high poverty district in the southeastern US. Research questions explore students' STEM career interests before and after the STEM career video intervention, and analyze how students in this population negotiate a potential identity in STEM. Applying aspects of Lent, Brown, & Hackett's social cognitive career theory (SCCT), students' exploration sheets and video planning sheets were coded to understand positive or negative contributors to STEM career interests. Students' initial explorations were limited to careers to which they had been previously exposed at home or in class, and were influenced by their personal dispositions Over the course of the intervention, increased knowledge of careers increased the diversity of careers selected, attention to educational level, and the influence of more sophisticated career outcomes on interest. Students selected careers based on personal interests and outcome expectations, but were able to identify how their academic strengths, dispositions, and family support systems related to their career goals. Post survey analyses found the presence of role models and high self-efficacy were new predictors of interest. Study results imply that similar interventions can help students gain more sophisticated understandings of careers, can motivate students without
Bernabeo, E C; Holmboe, E S; Ross, K; Chesluk, B; Ginsburg, S
Professionalism remains a substantive theme in medical literature. There is an emerging emphasis on sociological and complex adaptive systems perspectives that refocuses attention from just the individual role to working within one's system to enact professionalism in practice. Reflecting on responses to professional dilemmas may be one method to help practicing physicians identify both internal and external factors contributing to (un) professional behavior. We present a rationale and theoretical framework that supports and guides a reflective approach to the self assessment of professionalism. Guided by principles grounded in this theoretical framework, we developed and piloted a set of vignettes on professionally challenging situations, designed to stimulate reflection in practicing physicians. Findings show that participants found the vignettes to be authentic and typical, and reported the group experience as facilitative around discussions of professional ambiguity. Providing an opportunity for physicians to reflect on professional behavior in an open and safe forum may be a practical way to guide physicians to assess themselves on professional behavior and engage with the complexities of their work. The finding that the focus groups led to reflection at a group level suggests that effective reflection on professional behavior may require a socially interactive process. Emphasizing both the behaviors and the internal and external context in which they occur can thus be viewed as critically important for understanding professionalism in practicing physicians.
M Gourie Devi
Full Text Available Introduction: Neurologists in their clinical practice are faced with inquiries about the suitability of stem cell approaches by patients with a variety of acute and chronic (namely neurodegenerative disorders. The challenge is to provide these patients with accurate information about the scope of stem cell use as well as at the same time, empowering patients with the capacity to make an autonomous decision regarding the use of stem cells. Methods: The Indian Academy of Neurology commissioned an Expert Group Meeting to formulate an advisory to practicing neurologists to counsel patients seeking information and advice about stem cell approaches. Results and Conclusions: In the course of such counselling, it should be emphasized that the information provided by many lay websites might be unsubstantiated. Besides, standard recommendations for the stem cell research, in particular, the application of several layers of oversight should be strictly adhered in order to ensure safety and ethical use of stem cells in neurological disorders.
Liu, Yi-hui; Lou, Shi-jer; Shih, Ru-chu
This study employed social cognitive theory and social cognitive career theory (SCCT) as foundations to explore the influence of high school students' beliefs about female gender roles and female engineer role models on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) self-efficacy and professional commitment to engineering. A total of 88…
Wise, Erica H
In this article, I discuss the importance of the psychotherapist's capacities and attributes that go beyond formal education and training as they relate to both readiness for clinical training and continued competence throughout one's professional life. Professional development is essential to the maintenance of professional competence as a psychotherapist. Principles and standards from the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethics Code are reviewed and illustrated with clinical vignettes. In striving to maintain competence, psychotherapists are strongly encouraged to focus on proactive self-care and professional development in addition to complying with the formal continuing education mandated by most states.
Scott, Susan D
New professionalism values egalitarian professional-client partnerships and considers competence integral. Within nursing competence has been accepted as the legitimate indicator of professional practice. There is a growing emphasis on instrumental competence and this has been accompanied by some erosion of relational care. In this paper I argue that new professionalism is problematic and nursing education faces particular challenges. These include negotiating service-education partnerships which reflect service user involvement and enable the integration of wider notions of competence.
Vu, Viet Quoc
STEM education reform in higher education is framed around the need to improve student learning outcomes, increase student retention, and increase the number of underrepresented minorities and female students in STEM fields, all of which would ultimately contribute to America's competitiveness and prosperity. To achieve these goals, education…
Rose, Jayln; Glass, Nel
The article reports on selected findings of a research study concerning emotional wellbeing and professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). It highlights the relationship between community mental health nurses' and emotional wellbeing, and their capacity to provide satisfying professional nursing practice (Rose 2002). The notion of emotional wellbeing, factors that impacted upon the participants' emotional wellbeing, and the relationship of emotional wellbeing to professional practice were revealed in the study. These findings were based on a qualitative critical feminist research inquiry and specifically, interviews with five women community mental health nurses in Australia. Whilst complex, emotional wellbeing was found to be both implicitly and explicitly linked to the participants intertwined personal and professional experiences. Four key components were identified: the nebulous notion; the stress relationship; the mind, body, spirit connection; and, inner sense of balance. In terms of emotional wellbeing and professional practice, three themes were revealed. These were: being able to speak out (or not); being autonomous (or not) and being satisfied (or not). The authors argue that the emotional wellbeing of nurses working in community mental health settings is critical to satisfying professional practice. Furthermore nursing work involves emotional work which impacts on one's emotional wellbeing and emotional wellbeing is integrally linked to professional practice. It is recommended that health organisations must be pro-active in addressing the emotional needs of nurses to ensure the delivery of health care that is aligned to professional practice. This approach will ensure nurses will feel more recognised and validated in terms of their nursing practice.
Dawson, Kara; Kumar, Swapna
The University of Florida offers an online professional practice Ed.D. focused on Educational Technology. Twenty-three students have completed professional practice dissertations and graduated since the program's inception in 2008. The purpose of this article is to share what these dissertations have looked like and to begin a dialogue about…
Rosen, Brittany L.; Ashwood, Daniel; Richardson, George B.
Because U.S. human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates remain low, we evaluated school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, self-efficacy, intention, and professional practice regarding the HPV vaccine and determined if these variables influenced their professional practice concerning the HPV vaccine. We…
War and Man: Finding Practical Value in Psychological Theories for the Military Professional A Monograph by MAJ Trevor P. O’Malley...Practical Value in Psychological Theories for the Military Professional 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT When military professionals employ psychological models in appropriate ways, they may find perspectives that
Daniel L. Moody
Full Text Available In most professional (applied disciplines, research findings take a long time to filter into practice, if they ever do at all. The result of this is under-utilisation of research results and sub-optimal practices. There are a number of reasons for the lack of knowledge transfer. On the "demand side", people working in professional practice have little time available to keep up with the latest research in their field. In addition, the volume of research published each year means that the average practitioner would not have time to read all the research articles in their area of interest even if they devoted all their time to it. From the "supply side", academic research is primarily focused on the production rather than distribution of knowledge. While they have highly developed mechanisms for transferring knowledge among themselves, there is little investment in the distribution of research results be-yond research communities. The World Wide Web provides a potential solution to this problem, as it provides a global information infrastructure for connecting those who produce knowledge (researchers and those who need to apply this knowledge (practitioners. This paper describes two projects which use the World Wide Web to make research results directly available to support decision making in the workplace. The first is a successful knowledge management project in a health department which provides medical staff with on-line access to the latest medical research at the point of care. The second is a project currently in progress to implement a similar system to support decision making in IS practice. Finally, we draw some general lessons about how to improve transfers of knowledge from research and practice, which could be applied in any discipline.
Nitin E Gade
Full Text Available Stem cell research acquired great attention during last decade inspite of incredible therapeutic potential of these cells the ethical controversies exists. Stem cells have enormous uses in animal cloning, drug discovery, gene targeting, transgenic production and regenerative therapy. Stem cells are the naïve cells of body which can self-renew and differentiate into other cell types to carry out multiple functions, these properties have been utilized in therapeutic application of stem cells in human and veterinary medicine. The application of stem cells in human medicine is well established and it is commonly used for chronic and accidental injuries. In Veterinary sciences previous studies mostly focused on establishing protocols for isolation and their characterization but with advancement in array of techniques for in vitro studies, stem cells rapidly became a viable tool for regenerative therapy of chronic, debilitating and various unresponsive clinical diseases and disorders. Multipotent adult stem cells have certain advantages over embryonic stem cells like easy isolation and expansion from numerous sources, less immunogenicity and no risk of teratoma formation hence their use is preferred in therapeutics. Adult stem cells have been utilized for treatment of spinal injuries, tendonitis, cartilage defects, osteoarthritis and ligament defects, liver diseases, wounds, cardiac and bone defects in animals. The multi-potential capability of these cells can be better utilized in near future to overcome the challenges faced by the clinicians. This review will emphasize on the therapeutic utilization and success of stem cell therapies in animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 499-507
Scipio, Deana Aeolani
This dissertation examines learning within an out-of-school time (OST) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) broadening participation program. The dissertation includes an introduction, three empirical chapters (written as individual articles), and a conclusion. The dissertation context is a chemical oceanography OST program for middle school students called Project COOL---Chemical Oceanography Outside the Lab. The program was a collaboration between middle school OST programming, a learning sciences research laboratory, and a chemical oceanography laboratory. Both labs were located at a research-based university in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Participants include 34 youth, 12 undergraduates, and five professional scientists. The dissertation data corpus includes six years of ethnographic field notes across three field sites, 400 hours of video and audio recordings, 40 hours of semi-structured interviews, and more than 100 participant generated artifacts. Analysis methods include comparative case analysis, cognitive mapping, semiotic cluster analysis, video interaction analysis, and discourse analysis. The first empirical article focuses on synthesizing productive programmatic features from four years of design-based research.. The second article is a comparative case study of three STEM mentors from non-dominant communities in the 2011 COOL OST Program. The third article is a comparative case study of undergraduates learning to be mentors in the 2014 COOL OST Program. Findings introduce Deep Hanging as a theory of learning in practice. Deep Hanging entails authentic tasks in rich contexts, providing access, capitalizing on opportunity, and building interpersonal relationships. Taken together, these three chapters illuminate the process of designing a rich OST learning environment and the kinds of learning in practice that occurred for adult learners learning to be mentors through their participation in the COOL OST program. In
Addressed to practitioners working with adoptive families, this book examines the question: How do professionals help children and families make transracial adoptions and foster care placements work? The book describes specific ways to ensure that children develop positive racial and cultural identities and how professionals can better serve…
Spencer, Elizabeth J.
The inclusion of professional learning community (PLC) groups is now a common initiative in many districts across the country. While this step supports the professional development of teachers, an effective PLC program must go beyond just bringing colleagues together during a common time. The author recommends organizational structures for schools…
An e-portfolio is an organized collection of professional work (artifacts), selected and reflected upon by the author, that represents a person's best efforts. Over time, an e-portfolio will reflect professional changes and growth. This article discusses some of the reasons for a school librarian to create an e-portfolio. Before creating an…
Lowe, Wendy Anne
Objectives: Discourses of complexity have entered health professional education. This paper explores the meaning of complexity by asking how health professionals are educated and some of the consequences of that education. Design: A qualitative study was carried out drawing on reflexivity, discourse analysis and grounded methodology. Setting: Two…
Sevcik, Emily E; Jones, Jennifer D; Myers, Charles E
Given the rise in music therapy master's programs that offer dual degrees in music therapy and counseling or programs that satisfy state mental health counseling licensure laws, the professional counseling field is playing an increased role in the advanced education and professional practices of music therapists. To identify factors that lead music therapists to pursue advanced education with an emphasis in professional counseling, perceptions about benefits and drawbacks for three advanced degree options (i.e., music therapy, counseling, and music therapy/counseling dual degree), and describe the professional practices and identity of dual-trained music therapists as counselors. A convenience sample of music therapists (n = 123) who held board certification, and held a master's degree or higher that emphasized professional counseling, completed an online survey. We used descriptive statistics to analyze categorical and numeric survey data. Eligibility for licensure as a professional counselor was the most important decisional factor in selecting a specific master's degree program. Respondents also reported favorable perceptions of the dual degree in music therapy and counseling. With regard to professional practice and identity, respondents reported high use of verbal processing techniques alongside music therapy interventions, and dual-trained music therapists retained their professional identity as a music therapist. The reported view of licensure in a related field as beneficial and frequent use of verbal processing techniques warrants future study into the role of counseling in the advanced training of music therapists. Given contradictory findings across studies, we recommend investigators also explore how a degree in a related field affects career longevity of music therapists. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
LaDuke, Casey; Barr, William; Brodale, Donald L; Rabin, Laura A
This study investigated professional practice and common test use among clinical neuropsychologists engaging in forensic assessment. Doctorate-level psychologists active in the practice of neuropsychology and on the INS and NAN membership listings (n = 502) were surveyed about their demographics, professional practice, and common test use. Participants who reported engaging in forensic practice (n = 255) were further surveyed about their forensic practice. Forensic participants were more likely to be male and Caucasian, and reported higher ages, more years of professional experience, and a higher prevalence of board certification. While characteristics of their professional and forensic practice varied, forensic participants reported spending most of their professional time conducting neuropsychological assessments with adult clients in a private or group practice setting, focusing on civil referrals and civil legal questions involving older adult issues, developmental issues, head injury, and psychiatric issues. Common test use across neuropsychological assessment domains is presented for board-certified forensic participants (n = 77). An examination of these results reveals that the current pattern of test use is similar to the results of a more general survey of neuropsychological test use. The findings provide insight into the practice of forensic neuropsychological assessment, and further establish the admissibility of neuropsychological evidence in the United States legal system. Results will be useful for clinical neuropsychologists, field leaders, and legal professionals hoping to gain insight into the role of clinical neuropsychology in civil and criminal legal decision-making.
Previous work on new teacher professional identity has focused on identity as a process of negotiation between individual and contextual factors. These negotiations are often filled with a struggle between personal agency and structures that prevent the enactment of an ideal professional self. This study introduces and discusses three teacher…
Full Text Available STEM is one of the most current educational trends, it provides young people training according to information society in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The leading ideas are interdisciplinary education by solving real practical problems, project work and cooperation. The state of STEM-education in the world and Ukraine is analyzed. Particular attention is paid robotics that enables to develop programming skills and design, and it is the integrator of all components of STEM. The range of services in robotics, constructors for learning is considered. The experience of STEM-center of Kherson State University is presented
Click-Cuellar, Heather Lynn
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has required districts to staff all classrooms with highly qualified teachers. Yet, retaining certified teachers in the profession has been a national concern, especially among new teachers who leave at alarming rates within their first three years. This comes at a heavy cost to districts financially and in trying to maintain highly qualified status, but also to the continuity and effective education of students. Mentoring has been identified by many researchers as a plausible solution to reducing attrition rates for beginning teachers. In this dissertation, I conducted qualitative research to explore and understand the perceptions of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Master Teachers' mentoring professional development in the context of the Master Teacher Academies program situated at Desert State University (pseudonym), a large institution located on the Texas-Mexico border. Additionally, I examined the reported teaching self-efficacy of STEM Master Teachers (mentors), as well as that of their novice teachers (mentees). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the forms and elements of interactions between these mentors and their mentees. Participants of this study were Texas certified Master Mathematics or Master Science Teachers, and their novice mathematics or science teacher mentees; all of whom teach in a high need U.S. Mexico border city school district serving a student population that is over 93% Hispanic. A grounded theory approach was used in examining and analyzing mentor and mentee perceptions and experiences through case studies. A constructivist framework was utilized to derive findings from interviews and the review of documents and contribute a diverse context and population to the literature. The study reveals conclusions and recommendations that will benefit educators, universities, school districts, and policy makers in regard to teacher mentor preparation.
Goren Sahin, Deniz; Arat, Mutlu
Proper stem cell mobilization is one of the most important steps in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this paper is to share our 6 years' experience and provide practical clinical approaches particularly for stem cell mobilization and collection within the series of more than 200 successive allogeneic HSCT at our transplant center. Two hundred and seven consecutive patients who underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were included in this study. Age, sex, weight, complete blood counts, CD34 + cell counts, total collected amount of CD34 + cells, CD34 + cells per 10l processed, mobilization failure and adverse events were reviewed. Median age was 40.2±12.9 (21-68) years and 46.4±13.4 (17-67) years for donors and patients, respectively. The number of donors who had undergone adequate CD34 + cell harvesting and completed the procedure on the fourth day was 67 (32.8% of all patients). Only 12 patients required cell apheresis both on day 5 and 6. Apheresis was completed on day 4 and/or day 5 in 94.2% of all our donors. There was no significant association between CD34 + stem cell volume and age, gender and weight values of donors. Mobilization failure was not seen in our series. G-CSF is highly effective in 1/3 of the donors on the 4th day in order to collect enough number of stem cells. We propose that peripheral stem cell collection might start on day 4th of G-CSF treatment for avoiding G-CSF related side effects and complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piil, Karin; Kolbæk, Raymond; Ottmann, Goetz
. The aim of this case study was to explore the impact of “nurse consultations,” representing an expanded nursing role, of 5 nurses focusing on their perception of autonomy, self-esteem, and confidence. Methods: The case study used semistructured interviews with 5 participants triangulated and validated...... gained a higher sense of autonomy, self-esteem, and confidence in their practice. These elements have a positive impact on their professional identity. Conclusion: The research demonstrates that for the nurses involved in expanded professional practice, the boundaries of professional practice have...
Militello, Matthew; Fusarelli, Bonnie; Alsbury, Thomas; Warren, Thomas P.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to provide an empirical measure of how principals enact prescribed leadership standards into practice. The aim of the study was to ascertain how current school principals perceive the practice of a specific set of leadership standards. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 61 practicing school principals in…
Green, Robert G; Baskind, Frank R; Mustian, Brandi E; Reed, Laura N; Taylor, Heather R
This article summarizes results of a national study conducted to evaluate the private practice career intentions of MSW graduate student members of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) (n = 271), the extent to which these students are being prepared for private practice by the graduate schools, and the views of the graduate deans (n = 104) and macro practice (n = 152) and clinical (n = 278) members of NASW about private practice and social work education. An analysis of mailed questionnaire responses from these stakeholding groups suggests a striking disconnect between practice and education. Although a majority of graduate students plan to enter private practice, most on a full-time basis, graduate schools do not teach content specific to private practice careers, and many faculty even discourage the discussion of private practice career aspirations. On the other hand, a majority of NASW members, whether clinical or macro social workers, expected graduate schools to begin educating students for private practice. It is proposed that the labor force transition from the public to the private sector has resulted in the bifurcation of social work education. Implications for social work practice are discussed; short- and long-term initiatives for matching social work education to social work practice are proposed.
Grose, Nellie P.; And Others
The development of professional identity as a family physician is better understood by referring to Erikson's description of the development of personal identity. Erikson describes eight stages, each one defined by its alternative outcomes--the best versus the worst that can happen. (MLW)
The practitioner's own self is a resource in early childhood education and care (ECEC). It is proposed that an experiential training focusing on the "professional self" helps to raise awareness of how psychological dispositions may impair or enhance quality of provision. A key concept in such training is emotional labour, explored with…
For the last decade, reflection has been a major theme in discussions about professional skillfulness and the development of the competence of practitioners such as nurses and teachers. The intellectual pattern that has structured ambitions in relation to reflection is found mainly in Schön's (1983) The Reflective Practitioner ...
Møller, Marie Østergaard
clients. Based on this finding the paper contributes to the ongoing academic and political discussion about how and why it is a good idea to discipline professionals to be primarily loyal to the public regulative setting. The paper’s analysis suggests that simply adding more rules to the work conditions...
Offers an introduction to web accessibility and usability for information professionals, offering advice on the concerns relevant to library and information organizations. This book can be used as a resource for developing staff training and awareness activities. It will also be of value to website managers involved in web design and development.
dr. Donald Ropes
The field of higher professional educational in the Netherlands is undergoing drastic structural changes. Organizational-wide mergers are commonplace and are often followed by development of new curricula. Furthermore, this is often accompanied by the implementation of a completely new educational
Marchant, Michelle; Christensen, Lynnette; Womack, Sue; Conley, Laura; Fisher, Adam
This exploratory study addressed the scarcity of research into professional development for school-wide positive behavior support. A train-the-trainer model was designed. These principles were embedded within the recommended guidelines for implementing school-wide positive behavior support. School-based individuals were selected by building…
Wiener, Ross; Pimentel, Susan
To improve teaching and advance student learning requires weaving together the curriculum that students engage with every day with the professional learning of teachers. This paper is designed as a resource for system leaders at the district, state, and charter-management organization (CMO) levels looking to improve instructional outcomes for…
Rubino-Hare, Lori A.; Whitworth, Brooke A.; Bloom, Nena E.; Claesgens, Jennifer M.; Fredrickson, Kristi M.; Sample, James C.
This case study described teachers with varying technology skills who were implementing the use of geospatial technology (GST) within project-based instruction (PBI) at varying grade levels and contexts 1 to 2 years following professional development. The sample consisted of 10 fifth- to ninth-grade teachers. Data sources included artifacts,…
... emotions are put forward as measures to scaffold, respectively, the supervision and socio-emotional dimensions of becoming a teacher. Keywords: contextual supervision model; dimensions of becoming a teacher; initial teacher education; learning to teach; personal and socio-professional development; student teachers; ...
M. Yu. Semenov
Full Text Available The professional standards for heat treatment specialists such as "Specialist in thermal equipment installation and tests", "Specialist in analysis and diagnosis of heat treatment process systems", "Specialist in automation and mechanization of heat treatment process systems" were developed according to the Rules for the Development, Approval, and Application of Professional Standards adopted by a Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated 01.22.2013 № 23.The article objective is to find a way that allows directors of machine-building plants to understand the provisions of abovementioned professional standards.This commentary was developed with participation of experts, who were in charge of the professional standards.When developing the professional standards it was taken into consideration that, presently, the most promising are vacuum and ion processes of heat and thermo-chemical treatment.In this connection a new classification of the thermal equipment and manufacturing processes has been realized according to criterion of technical complexity. This classification puts the thermal equipment and manufacturing processes into simple, complex, and specifically complex.As proposed, the specifically complex thermal equipment is a multi-zone thermal one with each zone being under precise temperature control, and a vacuum or ion equipment for thermal and thermochemical treatment with integrated cooling system. The complex thermal equipment is an equipment for heat and thermochemical treatment in controlled atmosphere, and a multichamber or continuous heat treatment furnaces, as well as vacuum and ion-plasma equipment, except for specifically complex thermal equipment. The simple thermal equipment is a heat treatment one except for complex and specifically complex thermal equipment.The article gives concrete examples of simple, complex and specifically complex thermal equipment.The criteria to classify the heat treatment technological
McGlynn, Karen; Griffin, Mary Quinn; Donahue, Moreen; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
This paper describes the initial assessment of job satisfaction and satisfaction with the professional practice environment of registered nurses working on units where a professional practice model was implemented and the relationship between these two variables. The nursing shortage has been linked to overall job satisfaction and specifically to nurses' satisfaction with the professional practice environment. Initiatives to increase retention and recruitment and decrease turnover have been linked to work satisfaction among nurses. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used with participants (N = 101) from four patient care units; this represented a 55% response rate. The nurses were moderately satisfied with the professional practice environment but had overall low job satisfaction. There was a significant negative relationship between overall work satisfaction and satisfaction with the professional practice environment (P job satisfaction that were not being met. Thus, the nurses may have become more knowledgeable about the potential needs in these areas. Nurse managers and leaders must recognize that job satisfaction consists of many dimensions, and each of these dimensions is important to nurse retention. Implementation of a professional practice model may heighten awareness of the missing components within a practice environment and lead to decreased overall satisfaction. A broader understanding of characteristics associated with increased satisfaction may aid in development of organizational change necessary to retain and attract nurses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Jarosz, Mirosław J; Goniewicz, Mariusz
Dissonance between the high 'technical' competences of medical professionals, including paramedics or emergency medical technicians (EMT), and the relatively low level of patient satisfaction with care received, is a phenomenon observed in many countries. Many studies show that it occurs in the case of an inadequate interpersonal communication between medical professionals and patients. The primary goal of the presented research was evaluation of the level (study of the state) of communication competences of paramedics, and determination of the factors on which this level depends. An additional goal was analysis of the needs and educational possibilities within the existing models of education in the area of interpersonal communication provided by higher medical education institutions. The following three methods were used: 1) documentation analysis (standards, plans and educational programmes); 2) diagnostic survey concerning professional communication competences of paramedics; 3) self-reported communication skills in emergency medical services--adjective check list. The last two instruments were subject to standardization from the aspect of reliability and validity. The study group covered a total of 105 respondents in the following subgroups: 1) professional paramedics who, as a rule, were not trained in interpersonal communication (31 respondents); paramedic students covered by a standard educational programme (54 respondents); 3) paramedic students who, in addition to a standard educational programme, attended extra courses in professional interpersonal communications (20 respondents). The results of studies indicate poor efficacy of shaping communication competences of paramedics based on education in the area of general psychology and general interpersonal communication. Communication competences acquired by paramedics during undergraduate education are subject to regression during occupational activity. Methods of evaluating communication competences are
National Academies Press, 2016
U.S. strength in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has formed the basis of innovations, technologies, and industries that have spurred the nation's economic growth throughout the last 150 years. Universities are essential to the creation and transfer of new knowledge that drives innovation. This knowledge moves…
Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung; Wang, Ting; Leung, Zoe Lai-Mei
This study explored the characteristics of professional learning communities (PLCs) in Hong Kong primary schools. It investigated the profiles of the strengths of professional learning community in schools under study and particularly examined the practices in schools which were identified as strong PLCs. It extends research on PLCs in the Hong…
Walker, Allison Edwards
Many teachers, after having worked in isolation for so long and a business capital model of education reform, do not understand the concept of professional capital and its impact for transforming education. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary teachers' perception of professional capital within their community of practice. The data…
This doctoral thesis explored how faculty members in higher education use an online community of practice for professional development in teaching and, if so, in what ways and for what purposes? Answering this inquiry involved the knowledge of social constructivism, higher education, teaching, professional development, and online communities.…
Professional ethics has currently raised its public profile in the UK as part of social anxiety around governance of health and social care, fuelled by catastrophically bad practice identified in particular healthcare facilities. Professional ethics is regulated by compliance with abstracted, normative codes but experienced as contextualised…
MacPhail, Ann; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Tannehill, Deborah
There has been a limited interest in examining physical education teacher educators' role and practices in embedding professional responsibility and commitment to continued professional learning for both teacher educators and pre-service teachers in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program (MacPhail, 2011) Directed by a landscape…
This handbook examines the role and the skills of professional journalists in newspaper, radio, magazine, and television reporting. It is designed for use in the college classroom and in professional courses aimed at improving the skills of newsmen. It can also serve as a handbook for the practicing journalist wishing to increase his knowledge…
Kang, Jung Jin
This study investigated how three instructors developed their professional learning of beliefs, knowledge, and practice by examining their professional learning processes using constructive, social constructive, and transformative theoretical perspectives on learning. It also focused on their challenges and supports in developing their…
De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin
Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…
Yurkewecz, Thea A.
This dissertation reports on how one school community engaged in a professional development grant initiative that incorporated teacher leadership. Teacher leaders may have numerous roles and responsibilities that support the professional learning and instructional practices of school communities. This study examined the experiences of three…
This paper explores the metaphor of the classroom as a "crucible" for early professional learning where beginning teachers forge professional identities in complex, unpredictable, paradoxical, affectively and physically potent contexts of practice. It works into the dissonances and contradictions of the micro-narratives embedded in the…
Grebennikov, Valery V.; Grudtsina, Ludmila Yu.; Marchuk, Nikolay N.; Sangadgiev, Badma V.; Kudyashev, Nail K.
The research urgency is caused by the transition to the knowledge society and new demands for training and methodical provision of professional pedagogical education. The purpose of this paper is to develop practical recommendations to improve the quality of training and methodical support of professional pedagogical education. The leading…
Ahuja, Y.R.; Vijayalakshmi, V.; Polasa, K.
During early embryonic development, at blastocyst stage, the embryo has an outer coat of cells and an inner cell mass (ICM). ICM is the reservoir of embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are pluripotent, i.e., have the potential to differentiate into all cell types of the body. Cell lines have been developed from ES cells. In addition, there are embryonic germ (EG) cell lines developed from progenitor germ cells, and embryonic carcinoma (EC) cell lines developed from teratomas. These cell lines are being used for the study of basic and applied aspects in medical therapeutics, and disease management. Another potential of these cell lines is in the field of environmental mutagenesis. In addition to ES cells, there are adult stem cells in and around different organs and tissues of the body. It is now possible to grow pure populations of specific cell types from these adult stem cells. Treating specific cell types with chemical or physical agents and measuring their response offers a shortcut to test the toxicity in various organ systems in the adult organism. For example, to evaluate the genotoxicity of a chemical (e.g., drug or pesticide) or a physical agent (e.g., ionizing radiation or non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation) during embryonic development, a large number of animals are being used. As an alternative, use of stem cell lines would be a feasible proposition. Using stem cell lines, efforts are being made to standardize the protocols, which will not only be useful in testing the toxicity of a chemical or a physical agent, but also in the field of drug development, environmental mutagenesis, biomonitoring and other studies
Bok, H.G.; Teunissen, P.W.; Boerboom, T.B.; Rhind, S.M.; Baillie, S.; Tegzes, J.; Annandale, H.; Matthew, S.; Torgersen, A.; Hecker, K.G.; Hardi-Landerer, C.M.; Gomez-Lucia, E.; Ahmad, B.; Muijtjens, A.M.; Jaarsma, D.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beukelen, P. van
OBJECTIVE: To determine the perceived importance of specific competencies in professional veterinary practice and education among veterinarians in several countries. DESIGN: Survey-based prospective study. SAMPLE: 1,137 veterinarians in 10 countries. PROCEDURES: Veterinarians were invited via email
Barry, Margot; Kuijer-Siebelink, Wietske; Nieuwenhuis, Loek; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke
Background: This literature review investigates what research reports about the contribution that communities of practice (CoPs) can make in the continuing professional development (CPD) of qualified occupational therapists. Methods: Academic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE and ERIC) were searched
Barry, M.; Kuijer-Siebelink, W.; Nieuwenhuis, L.; Scherpbier-de Haan, N.D.
BACKGROUND: This literature review investigates what research reports about the contribution that communities of practice (CoPs) can make in the continuing professional development (CPD) of qualified occupational therapists. METHODS: Academic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE and ERIC) were searched and
Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Turner, Herbert M.
The current science education reform movement emphasizes the importance of professional development as a means of improving student science achievement. Reformers have developed a vision for professional development based upon intensive and sustained training around concrete tasks that is focused on subject-matter knowledge, connected to specific standards for student performance, and embedded in a systemic context. Using data from a National Science Foundation Teacher Enhancement program called the Local Systemic Change initiative, this study employs hierarchical linear modeling to examine the relationship between professional development and the reformers' vision of teaching practice. The findings indicate that the quantity of professional development in which teachers participate is strongly linked with both inquiry-based teaching practice and investigative classroom culture. At the individual level, teachers' content preparation also has a powerful influence on teaching practice and classroom culture. At the school level, school socioeconomic status was found to influence practice more substantially than either principal supportiveness or available resources.
... Regarding Auditing, Attestation, and Related Professional Practice Standards Related To Brokers and Dealers... Oversight Board in the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act to establish auditing... 60617
McDaniels, Melissa; Skogsberg, Erik
In this chapter we call for immediate action to prepare more dynamic transdisciplinary professionals by leveraging the scholarship of practice. Transdisciplinary refers to contexts both inside and outside of the academy where today's doctoral students will work.
Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Yanhui; Huang, Chunping; Zhu, Lefeng
A higher turnover rate was identified in Chinese staff nurses and it was highly correlated with lower commitment. Empowering work environments that support professional practice have been positively related to nurse outcomes. This study was to integrate structural empowerment theory with magnet hospital characteristics and provide empirical evidence on the relationships between structural empowerment, professional practice environments and organizational commitment. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the relationships in a sample of 750 full-time nurses employed in five Chinese hospitals in 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results support the hypothesized model. Professional practice environments partially mediated the relationship between empowerment and organizational commitment. Our findings suggest that higher empowerment facilitates the professional practice environments and commitment of these nurses. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
A.J.C. van der Hoeven (Arno)
textabstractThis study examines the changing roles of heritage professionals by focusing on the participatory practices of intangible urban heritage. Developments towards democratisation in the heritage sector led to a growing expectation that heritage
Teubner, Rolf Alexander; Pellengahr, Alexander; Mocker, Martin
Information Technology (IT) strategy is a top-priority issue in practice. However, despite its practical relevance, research on IT strategy has been limited so far. With respect to the definition of an IT strategy and its scope, there are a number of ad hoc recommendations and a few conceptual models with little scientific backing. In particular, latest research indicates a gap between the academic discussion on IT strategy and how IT strategy is perceived in practice. Taking this as a motiva...
Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maybery, Darryl; Reupert, Andrea; Kowalenko, Nick; Foster, Kim
Many people with a mental illness are parents caring for dependent children. These children are at greater risk of developing their own mental health concerns compared to other children. Mental health services are opportune places for healthcare professionals to identify clients' parenting status and address the needs of their children. There is a knowledge gap regarding Thai mental health professionals' family-focused knowledge and practices when working with parents with mental illness and their children and families. This cross -sectional survey study examined the attitudes, knowledge and practices of a sample (n = 349) of the Thai mental health professional workforce (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists) using a translated version of the Family-Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire (FFMHPQ). The majority of clinicians reported no training in family (76.8%) or child-focused practice (79.7%). Compared to other professional groups, psychiatric nurses reported lower scores on almost all aspects of family-focused practice except supporting clients in their parenting role within the context of their mental illness. Social workers scored highest overall including having more workplace support for family-focused practice as well as a higher awareness of family-focused policy and procedures than psychiatrists; social workers also scored higher than psychologists on providing support to families and parents. All mental health care professional groups reported a need for training and inter-professional practice when working with families. The findings indicate an important opportunity for the prevention of intergenerational mental illness in whose parents have mental illness by strengthening the professional development of nurses and other health professionals in child and family-focused knowledge and practice.
McGuigan, Patrick J
This article reviews negotiation best practices while highlighting some of the factors that confound or enhance the ability to negotiate. Healthcare professionals will benefit by obtaining a set of practices that they can consistently apply to obtain more value from negotiation. In today's turbulent healthcare market, more relationships are governed by and through negotiated agreements, so it is imperative that healthcare professionals develop and sharpen their negotiating acumen.
Gehrke, Sean; Kezar, Adrianna
This study examines how involvement in four cross-institutional STEM faculty communities of practice is associated with local departmental and institutional change for faculty members belonging to these communities. It is informed by the communities of practice and change in higher education literature and utilizes data gathered through a survey…
Avila, Liziani Iturriet; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Fernandes, Geani Farias Machado; Mancia, Joel Rolim; da Silveira, Juliana Teixeira
Nursing construction image is permeated by historical socioeconomic and cultural aspects. This theme aims to understand the perception of nurses regarding the visibility of nursing staff's daily work. This qualitative research is exploratory, with 30 nurses at a university hospital in southern Brazil. The data was collected from July to October 2012, through semi-structured interviews and submitted for a discursive textual analysis. The results show that nursing visibility is related to a professional historical trajectory, to an absence of recognition of the scientific aspect of Nursing, to erroneous placement in the media, to improper behavior towards the staff and also to work overload. Thus, the demystification of nursing's image includes greater media visibility, conducting personnel marketing, appropriate behavior in front of health staff and professional demonstrations of autonomy, challenges that must be overcome by nursing.
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik
semesters. The target groups are professional environmental managers working in businesses including consultants, governmental institutions and organizations. To get access to the education the students must have a technical/nature science competence at master level or bachelor level combined with relevant...... is based on the view that different competencies are needed for managing business economics and for environmental management. Integration of general management principles with specific disciplines within environmental management is therefore used as a method to acquire the necessary qualifications. Another......This paper is based on almost seven years of experience from the post-graduate Master’s program for professionals in Environmental Management at the Technical University of Denmark. The curriculum equals a one-year full time study carried out as two years half-time study activities in four...
Gomes, Melissa; Hash, Pamela; Orsolini, Liana; Watkins, Aimee; Mazzoccoli, Andrea
The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of implementing an electronic health record on medical-surgical registered nurses' time spent in direct professional patient-centered nursing activities, attitudes and beliefs related to implementation, and changes in level of nursing engagement after deployment of the electronic health record. Patient-centered activities were categorized using Watson's Caritas Processes and the Relationship-Based Care Delivery System. Methods included ...
Smith, Ramsey L.
The internship process can be difficult to navigate. Going into an internship with an open mind and prepared to conquer the academic challenges you will face will result in a wonderful professional development experience. From the application process to how to conduct yourself once you get the job, most students are left to fend for themselves when they face these situations. This presentation will help you avoid some pitfalls and assist in maximizing your internship experience.
Søndergaard, Katia Dupret
strategies, where governing strategies are made invisible, and where management strategies are converted to individual existential projects. A central argument is that the individual ethical project of the introduction of a new treatment approach melts together with psychiatric treatment. There is no longer...... a primary focus on the crucial balance between care and coercion in psychiatric treatment and prevention, but what is at stake is rather sustaining a balance between professionalism and individual existential ethical considerations....
Kindle, Karen J.
Shared reading is a common practice in preschool classrooms and is purported to develop oral language, print concepts, and listening comprehension. The actual practice of reading aloud differed greatly among observed classrooms resulting in variations in potential positive effects. This study examines the potential effects of professional…
Reilly, Karen M; Jurchak, Martha
Nurse leaders are responsible for a practice environment that fosters safe, quality patient outcomes through excellence in nursing practice. This article describes a reflective practice intervention in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit of an urban academic medical center led by the unit nursing director and the hospital's nurse ethicist. The twice monthly case-based discussions, called "Nursing Practice and Ethics Rounds," were attended by staff and unit managers (nurse director, assistant nurse director, and clinical educator) and were facilitated by the nurse ethicist. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to identify nurses' perceptions of the rounds on individual practice, unit practice, and the practice of their peers. Two focus groups were conducted with nurses who attended 3 or more sessions. Staff reported that they felt valued; experienced a decrease in moral distress; and improved empathy with patients, families, and other staff members after the intervention. They also reported better understanding of ethical issues and language to better talk about them. The presence of nurse leaders was valued as affirming the importance of practice development and of witnessing the experience of staff nurses. Finally, the process of reflection was valued for the opportunity it provided to process emotional and intellectual aspects of challenging cases.
Rowlands, Kate; Avramenko, Alex
This paper introduces an innovative course design incorporating both communities of practice and reflective practice as a learning strategy for part-time learners in higher education. The new design has been applied to teaching HR practitioners in a UK-based business school. Findings indicate that the suggested way of organizing teaching and…
Miville, Marie L.; Duan, Changming; Nutt, Roberta L.; Waehler, Charles A.; Suzuki, Lisa; Pistole, M. Carole; Arredondo, Patricia; Duffy, Michael; Mejia, Brenda X.; Corpus, Melissa
The authors present the findings of a special task group (STG) organized to explore effective training strategies for the practice guidelines focused on diverse populations. They provide a brief literature review and summarize survey data from academic training directors regarding current use of practice guidelines. The authors then describe the…
Alfaro Vega, Albert; Alvarado Garcia, Danny; Amen Montero, Omar; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Jonnathan; Jimenez Alpizar, Ana Carolina; Solano Arguello, Mariana
A vision of how to address the challenges facing, daily, the professional person imaging specialist has been raised with the use of new and emerging technologies. Issues to consider conflicts, ethical and moral dilemmas that may affect the way patient care, besides his family; and also, working relationship with colleagues and the institution in which he serves. This professional requires of development and training that will enable him to assess with sufficient objectivity, ethical-moral and conflicting situations to take decisions more convenient, from a critical and reflective practice. A rule of professional practice in diagnostic and therapy imaging has been missing in Costa Rica. Consequently, the need for a study, both theoretical and practical, which take into account ethical and moral guidelines, professional and regulatory was presented, with the objective to establish a possible course to comprehensive consolidation of the professional. The imaging specialist has a great responsibility in his practice, with society and with the patient attending the services in which he works. Different data collection techniques were used, to develop a proposal for guidelines for a possible rules of conduct for the professional person imaging specialist in Costa Rica; in this, have addressed the appropriate deontological topics for future implementation taking into account the professional profile, the academic level, professional practice and the requirements of society. This research has made evident the need and importance of establishing such guidelines as main result. A proposed improvement to the practice of professional person imaging specialist in diagnosis and therapy in Costa Rica is exposed from the qualitative data analysis. (author) [es
Akyash, Fatemeh; Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Tahajjodi, Somayyeh Sadat; Nikukar, Habib; Farashahi Yazd, Ehsan; Azimzadeh, Mostafa; D Moore, Harry; Aflatoonian, Behrouz
This report explains briefly the minutes of a 1-day workshop entitled; "human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and good manufacturing practice (GMP)" held by Stem Cell Biology Research Center based in Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran on 27 th April 2017. In this workshop, in addition to the practical sessions, Prof. Harry D. Moore from Centre for Stem Cell Biology, University of Sheffield, UK presented the challenges and the importance of the biotechnology of clinical-grade human embryonic stem cells from first derivation to robust defined culture for therapeutic applications.
Røn Larsen, Maja
of defining “special needs” also depends on the way different professional’s cooperation is organized. The understanding of children’s difficulties and the implications of the understanding must be seen in relation to the bureaucratic structures and professional practices, that the children’s difficulties...... and the production of the “child as a case”. I intend to explore the connections between bureaucratic, interdisciplinary and professional practices that are organised to support children, including the bureaucratic process of defining children’s “special needs”. In the process different professionals understand...
MacPhail, Ann; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Tannehil, Deborah
peer-reviewed There has been a limited interest in examining physical education teacher educators role and practices in embedding professional responsibility and commitment to continued professional learning for both teacher educators and pre-service teachers in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program (MacPhail, 2011). Directed by a landscape of community of practice (CoP) as professional development (Parker, Patton & Tannehill, 201...
Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Jarosz, Mirosław J
Dissonance between the high 'technical' competences of medical professionals, including physiotherapists, and the relatively low level of patient satisfaction with care received is a phenomenon observed in many countries. Many studies show that it occurs in the case of an inadequate interpersonal communication between medical professionals and patients. The primary goal of the presented research was evaluation of the level (study of the state) of communication competences of physiotherapists, and determination of the factors on which this level depends. An additional goal was analysis of the needs and educational possibilities within the existing models of education in the area of interpersonal communication provided by higher medical education institutions. The self-designed questionnaire and adjective check list were subject to standardization from the aspect of reliability and validity. Information available on the websites of 20 educational facilities in Poland were compared. The study group covered a total number of 115 respondents in the following subgroups: 1) occupationally-active physiotherapists who, as a rule, were not trained in interpersonal communication (35 respondents); students of physiotherapy covered by a standard educational programme (60 respondents); 3) students of physiotherapy who, in addition to a standard educational programme, attended extra courses in professional interpersonal communications (20 respondents). The results of studies indicate poor efficacy of shaping communication competences of physiotherapists based on education in the area of general psychology and general interpersonal communication. Communication competences acquired during undergraduate physiotherapy education are subject to regression during occupational activity. Methods of evaluating communication competences are useful in constructing group and individual programmes focused on specific communication competences, rather than on general communication skills.
Full Text Available In this work it is both discussed and provided a framework of specific competences that may serve as a guide for setting up an ongoing process in the professional development of Science, Technology and Mathematics (STEM teachers. The fundamentals of the TPACK model serve to base the theoretical background of this scheme, to which we have incorporated an additional feature which means to consider the linguistic (L dimension, thus transforming it into the TPACLK model. The different detailed professional STEM capacities have been classified into six main sections. The two first points discussed establish the STEM disciplinary and didactic capacities; the third section corresponds to the role of language in the STEM classroom; the fourth category is focused on the motivational elements of the teaching and learning process; the fifth corresponds to the self-perception of teachers and the last section summarises how to integrate effectively the information and communication technologies into the educational STEM activity. This professional development is framed within innovative and research educational activities.
Maria Flavia Gazzinelli
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the concept understood by Family Healthcare Strategy (ESF professionals of knowledge, education and subjects participating in learning activities. METHOD Qualitative study carried out with the ESF professionals with university degree, members of the healthcare staff who undertook educational health group activities at Basic Healthcare Units (UBS in Belo Horizonte. The following triangulation techniques were used: participant observation, photos and field notes; interviews with professionals; and document analysis. RESULTS We identified three interaction patterns that are different from each other. Firstly, the professional questions, listens and provides information to users, trusting in the transmission of knowledge; secondly, the professional questions and listens, trusting that users can learn from each other; thirdly, the professional questions, listens, discusses and produces knowledge with users, both teaching and learning from each other. CONCLUSION There are educational practices that include unique methods capable of creating a militant space for citizenship engagement.
Nascimento, Edna de Fátima Gonçalves Alves do; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de
This was a qualitative exploratory study with the objective of identifying perceptions and practices among health professionals in Angola concerning intimate partner violence against women. Semi-structured interviews were held with a senior health administrator, head nurses, medical directors, psychologists, and nurse technicians in three national hospitals in the capital city of Luanda. The perceptions of Angolan health professionals towards violence against women are marked by the cultural construction of woman's social role in the family and the belief in male superiority and female weakness. Despite their familiarity with the types of violence and the consequences for physical and mental health, the health professionals' practices in providing care for women in situations of violence focus on the treatment of physical injuries, overlooking the subjectivity and complexity of these situations. Recent inclusion of the issue in public policies is reflected in health professionals' practices and raises challenges for the health sector in caring for women in situations of violence.
Provides a foundation for understanding a range of linguistic, cultural, and technological factors to effectively practice international communication in a variety of professional communication arenas This book presents a range of perspectives, examples, and concepts for teaching international professional communication in different settings. Industry professionals and academic researchers alike have written entries for Teaching and Training for Global Engineering: Perspectives on Culture and Professional Communication Practices, which have been organized into four cohesive, context-based sections that examine central issues associated with offering effective instruction on communication in global settings. The first section presents approaches for teaching issues of language and visual design related to international communication. The second section reviews aspects of software use and ethical practices associated with communicating globally. The third ection discusses how educators can use information a...
Cook, Sandra; Fillion, Lise; Fitch, Margaret; Veillette, Anne-Marie; Matheson, Tanya; Aubin, Michèle; de Serres, Marie; Doll, Richard; Rainville, François
Fillion et al. (2012) recently designed a conceptual framework for professional cancer navigators describing key functions of professional cancer navigation. Building on this framework, this study defines the core areas of practice and associated competencies for professional cancer navigators. The methods used in this study included: literature review, mapping of navigation functions against practice standards and competencies, and validation of this mapping process with professional navigators, their managers and nursing experts and comparison of roles in similar navigation programs. Associated competencies were linked to the three identified core areas of practice, which are: 1) providing information and education, 2) providing emotional and supportive care, and 3) facilitating coordination and continuity of care. Cancer navigators are in a key position to improve patient and family empowerment and continuity of care. This is an important step for advancing the role of oncology nurses in navigator positions and identifying areas for further research.
Bok, Harold G J; Teunissen, Pim W; Boerboom, Tobias B B; Rhind, Susan M; Baillie, Sarah; Tegzes, John; Annandale, Henry; Matthew, Susan; Torgersen, Anne; Hecker, Kent G; Härdi-Landerer, Christina M; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Ahmad, Bashir; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; van Beukelen, Peter
To determine the perceived importance of specific competencies in professional veterinary practice and education among veterinarians in several countries. Survey-based prospective study. 1,137 veterinarians in 10 countries. Veterinarians were invited via email to participate in the study. A framework of 18 competencies grouped into 7 domains (veterinary expertise, communication, collaboration, entrepreneurship, health and welfare, scholarship, and personal development) was used. Respondents rated the importance of each competency for veterinary professional practice and for veterinary education by use of a 9-point Likert scale in an online questionnaire. Quantitative statistical analyses were performed to assess the data. All described competencies were perceived as having importance (with overall mean ratings [all countries] ≥ 6.45/9) for professional practice and education. Competencies related to veterinary expertise had the highest ratings (overall mean, 8.33/9 for both professional practice and education). For the veterinary expertise, entrepreneurship, and scholarship domains, substantial differences (determined on the basis of statistical significance and effect size) were found in importance ratings among veterinarians in different countries. Results indicated a general consensus regarding the importance of specific types of competencies in veterinary professional practice and education. Further research into the definition of competencies essential for veterinary professionals is needed to help inform an international dialogue on the subject.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the research literature on continuing professional development and School Improvement demonstrate that teachers who have the opportunity to develop "knowledge of practice" by integrating theory and practice have a positive impact on student attainment. It is argued in this article that we have…
This paper captures and characterises the interplay between a group of student teachers' narratives of social network practice and their emergent professional practice with technologies. Teachers on an Initial Teacher Education programme in the UK spent a semester studying a module that synthesised university-based lectures with a professional…
Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…
Hodges, Thomas E.; Cady, JoAnn
In this paper, we draw on Wenger's (1998) conception of communities of practice to observe the emergence of a community of practice among middle grades mathematics teachers who participated in a two-year blended-format (online synchronous, online asynchronous, and face to face) professional development program designed to increase middle-grades…
Trust, Torrey; Horrocks, Brian
Well-designed face-to-face and virtual communities of practice provide opportunities for teachers to learn, grow as professionals and make changes to their practice with the support of peers. However, as more K-12 teachers become Connected Educators and act as conduits between online spaces and communities in their schools, the boundaries between…
Belluigi, Dina Zoe
This paper expands on empirical research which revealed that, whether or not an institution's interpretative community was explicitly informed by outcomes-based assessment, the more powerful and implicit discourses that emerged in assessment practices were those of their professional practice and academic traditions. Tensions, between the emerging…
Meredith, Tamara R.
Many game-based learning (GBL) researchers working in K-12 educational settings have supported the incorporation of gaming technologies into classroom practice, but little has been communicated about the effect of incorporating GBL into practicing K-12 educators' professional development. This review is a critical appraisal of the quantity and…
Alongside the central focus on the persons requiring nursing care in professional nursing practice, the perspective of the sustainability of interventions and the use of materials (for example, nursing aids and hygiene articles) is gaining prominence in nursing decision-making processes. This contribution makes the principle of sustainability concrete and delineates its importance in the context of professional nursing practice and decision-making. It further suggests the development of an ethical policy in order to systematically ensure that sustainability has a place in ethical reflection and decision-making, and describes the elements involved. Finally, a synthesis is made between the importance of the principle of sustainability, suggested ethical policies (system of ethical reflection) as they affect nursing practice and professional reflection, decision-making, and practice. PMID:27417590
Hickey, Rosa G; Buchko, Barbara L; Coe, Paula F; Woods, Anne B
This replication study examined differences in RN perception of the professional practice environment (PPE) between salary- and hourly-wage compensation models over time. A previous study demonstrated that nurses in a salary-wage model had a significantly higher perception of the PPE compared with their peers receiving hourly wages. A descriptive, comparative design was used to examine the Revised Professional Practice Environment (RPPE) scale of nurses in the same units surveyed in the previous study 2 years later. Mean scores on the RPPE continued to be significantly lower for hourly-wage RNs compared with the RNs in the salary-wage model. Nurses in an hourly-wage unit have significantly lower perceptions of the clinical practice environment than their peers in a salary-wage unit, indicating that professional practice perceptions in a salary-wage unit were sustained for a 2-year period and may provide a more effective PPE.
Canadian ethicists have a long legacy of leadership in advocating for standards and quality in healthcare ethics. Continuing this tradition, a grassroots organization of practicing healthcare ethicists (PHEs) concerned about the lack of standardization in the field recently formed to explore potential options related to professionalization. This group calls itself "practicing healthcare ethicists exploring professionalization" (PHEEP). This paper provides a description of the process by which PHEEP has begun to engage the Canadian PHE community in the development of practice standards and related projects. By making our process and its ethical and cultural underpinnings transparent, we hope to prompt PHEs around the world to reflect on the importance of context, process and principles (not just outcomes) in the exploration of and possible movement towards professionalization. By sharing some of our key successes and challenges, we also hope to inspire our colleagues to recognize the value in developing practice standards and to contribute to this endeavor.
The purpose of this article is to provide knowledge of traditional Muslim generic (folk) care beliefs, expressions and practices derived from research and descriptive sources, in order to assist nurses and other health care professionals to integrate generic (folk) into professional care practices. Muslim generic (folk) care beliefs and practices related to the caregiving process, health, illness, dietary needs, dress, privacy, modesty, touch, gender relations, eye contact, abortion, contraception, birth, death and bereavement were explored. A discussion involving the use of Leininger's culture care preservation and/or maintenance, culture care accommodation and/or negotiation and culture care repatterning and/or restructuring action modes to bridge the gap between generic (folk) and professional (etic) care practices and to consequently promote culturally congruent care is presented.
Items 1 - 22 ... A non-experimental survey research design involving quantitative data was used. A questionnaire, adapted from Caires and Almeida's Inventory of. Experiences and Perceptions at Teaching Practice (IEPTP), was used to collect the data. The data were assessed through statistical analysis, using mean ranking.
Felver, Joshua C.; Doerner, Erin; Jones, Jeremy; Kaye, Nicole C.; Merrell, Kenneth W.
Although the use of mindfulness is increasing in other areas of applied psychology, school psychology has yet to embrace it in practice. This article introduces school psychologists to the burgeoning field of mindfulness psychology and to the possibilities that it offers to their discipline. A background on the Western scientific study and…
Shokorova, Larisa Vladimirovna; Grechneva, Natalia Vladislavovna; Bochkovskay, Vera Igorevna
The article discusses the role and importance of plein-air practice in vocational training of art specialties' students. It analyzes the historical aspect of plein-air drawing in nature origin. It identifies psychophysiological characteristics of visual perception in fine and decorative art. It characterizes methods of artistic perception of…
This project, managed by the American University of Beirut, will survey public health academics and practitioners around the world about their attitudes and practices around funding from for-profit corporations, particularly those whose products are associated with non-communicable diseases. The project will also review ...
Grob, George F.
This article is the fifth in a series on the relationship of evaluation theory and practice. It was commissioned by the Eastern Evaluation Research Society and the American Evaluation Association as part of The Chelimsky Forum, launched in 2013 to honor Eleanor Chelimsky, one of the most influential and respected program evaluators of our era, and…
Golden, Larry; O'Malley, Patrick
Data indicate that practice by unqualified personnel, financial exploitation, and sexual exploitation are the most frequent types of misconduct by mental health practitioners. Solutions to these problems lie in the areas of regulation, education of counselors-in-training, and education of consumers of mental health services. (Author)
Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.
This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…
Using a post-structural approach this article investigates the working lives of frontline managers in VET and how they negotiate change in their day to day practices and decision making. The article is organised around accounts made by managers from different types of Vocational Education and Training (VET) organisations, namely: Technical and…
Schryer, Catherine F.; Bell, Stephanie; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee M.; Lingard, Lorelei
Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of…
Lynda J. Dimitroff
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to engage registered nurses (RNs in the creation of a Professional Practice Model (PPM. Background. PPMs are essential as the philosophical underpinnings for nursing practice. The study institution created a new PPM utilizing the voice of their RNs. Methods. Qualitative inquiry with focus groups was conducted to explore RNs values and beliefs about their professional practice. Constant-comparative analysis was used to code data and identify domains. Results. The 92 RN participants represented diverse roles and practice settings. The four domains identified were caring, knowing, navigating, and leading. Conclusions. Nurse leaders face the challenge of assisting nurses in articulating their practice using a common voice. In this study, nurses described their identity, their roles, and how they envisioned nursing should be practiced. The results align with the ANCC Magnet® Model, ANA standards, and important foundational and organization specific documents.
Dimitroff, Lynda J; Tydings, Donna M; Nickoley, Sue; Nichols, Lynn W; Krenzer, Maureen E
Objective . The purpose of this study was to engage registered nurses (RNs) in the creation of a Professional Practice Model (PPM). Background . PPMs are essential as the philosophical underpinnings for nursing practice. The study institution created a new PPM utilizing the voice of their RNs. Methods . Qualitative inquiry with focus groups was conducted to explore RNs values and beliefs about their professional practice. Constant-comparative analysis was used to code data and identify domains. Results . The 92 RN participants represented diverse roles and practice settings. The four domains identified were caring, knowing, navigating, and leading. Conclusions . Nurse leaders face the challenge of assisting nurses in articulating their practice using a common voice. In this study, nurses described their identity, their roles, and how they envisioned nursing should be practiced. The results align with the ANCC Magnet® Model, ANA standards, and important foundational and organization specific documents.
Full Text Available Research into effectiveness of teaching practices and professional development invites questions of teaching and learning change: how it takes effect and is accounted for, and where its agency is claimed and contested across a range of institutional, disciplinary and pedagogical actors. This article investigates change in teaching practices and professional development through the notion of obduracy (Law, 2003: ordered arrangements that persist in the background and surface in a process of change. In focussing on practice as the object of inquiry, this study is part of a shift away from the study of professional learning drawing on individualist, cognitive traditions towards practice-oriented understandings of change and agency as an effect of social and material arrangements. The setting for this study of teaching practice is two disciplinary academic collectives, or workgroups, in one Australian university. Rather than approaching change as a human-centred and intentional process, the method of sociomaterial tracing was applied to teaching practice undergoing an institutional change process. The study highlights the process in which change is assembled, resisted or accomplished through heterogeneous networks of curriculum, discourses, technologies, and policies. Teaching and learning change, it is argued, involves recognising how obduracy is embedded in distinct networks across the university. The contribution of this study is to draw attention to the agentic role of materials and spaces in the negotiation and stabilisation of teaching practices and in approaches to professional development.
Jerzy Marian Brzeziński
Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.
Kang, So-Young; Um, Young-Rhan; Han, Sung-Suk
This study was aimed at (a) describing professional nursing practice environments embedded in nursing care units and (b) examining its relationships to nurses' task motivation. Using the Nursing Work Index Revised (NWI-R) and the Work Preference Inventory (WPI), a descriptive study was conducted with a sample of 320 registered nurses on 26 nursing care units in one University hospital in Korea. Mean scores were 12.9 on a 5-20 score range of an autonomous environment scale, 7.3 on a 3-12 score range of a collaborative environment, and 15.8 on a 7-28 score range of control over nursing practice. Nurses' age, educational level, job position, working period at the hospital and employment status were significantly related to the degree of a professional practice environment. The extent to which a professional practice environment accounted for task motivation was 19.5%. There is a certain degree of professionalism in the workplace environment that nurses perceived within the nursing care units. When nurses care for patients, the degree of task motivation depends on the work environment supporting the professional nursing practice.
Furukawa, Patricia de Oliveira; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves; Marck, Patricia Beryl
ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the correlation between the characteristics of professionals and the practice of sustainable actions in the medication processes in an ICU, and to determine if interventions such as training and awareness can promote sustainable practices performed by nursing staff in the hospital. Methods: before-and-after design study using Lean Six Sigma methodology, applied in an intensive care unit. Nursing staff were observed regarding the practice of ecologically sust...
Full Text Available It is a particularly volatile and unpredictable time in UK Further Education (FE. This article aims to give an insightful and honest account of one pre-service trainee’s post-compulsory PGCE (1 year; full-time experience with close reference to various aspects of professionalism within the FE community of practice, looking at the degree to which the Lifelong Learning UK (LLUK professional standards have been met throughout the year. The paper sheds some light on the positive and negative aspects of Initial Teacher Education (ITE in FE, concluding that professionalism can be defined using both subjective and objective measurements, that individual conceptions of professionalism may or may not overlap with others, and that it is felt some of the LLUK standards have been met more than others in the author’s own teaching practice. The training provider was in central London; the teaching placement was in an FE college in south-west London.
Dehghani, Ali; Mosalanejad, Leili; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid
Professional ethics refers to the use of logical and consistent communication, knowledge, clinical skills, emotions and values in nursing practice. This study aimed to explore and describe factors that affect professional ethics in nursing practice in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis approach. Thirty nurses with at least 5 years of experience participated in the study; they were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. After encoding and classifying the data, five major categories were identified: individual character and responsibility, communication challenges, organizational preconditions, support systems, educational and cultural development. Awareness of professional ethics and its contributing factors could help nurses and healthcare professionals provide better services for patients. At the same time, such understanding would be valuable for educational administrators for effective planning and management.
Meehan, Therese Connell; Timmins, Fiona; Burke, Jacqueline
To propose the Careful Nursing Philosophy and Professional Practice Model© as a conceptual and practice solution to current fundamental nursing care erosion and deficits. There is growing awareness of the crucial importance of fundamental care. Efforts are underway to heighten nurses' awareness of values that motivate fundamental care and thereby increase their attention to effective provision of fundamental care. However, there remains a need for nursing frameworks which motivate nurses to bring fundamental care values to life in their practice and strengthen their commitment to provide fundamental care. This descriptive position paper builds on the Careful Nursing Philosophy and Professional Practice Model© (Careful Nursing). Careful Nursing elaborates explicit nursing values and addresses both relational and pragmatic aspects of nursing practice, offering an ideal guide to provision of fundamental nursing care. A comparative alignment approach is used to review the capacity of Careful Nursing to address fundamentals of nursing care. Careful Nursing provides a value-based comprehensive and practical framework which can strengthen clinical nurses' ability to articulate and control their practice and, thereby, more effectively fulfil their responsibility to provide fundamental care and measure its effectiveness. This explicitly values-based nursing philosophy and professional practice model offers nurses a comprehensive, pragmatic and engaging framework designed to strengthen their control over their practice and ability to provide high quality fundamental nursing care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Facilitated by modern networked ICT, people around the world organize in self-sustaining communities of practice (CoP) across professional domains and organizational boundaries. Communities thereby pursue the main goal to learn how to do better. With today’s trend for mass individualization, we find a vast number and diversity of small professional niche communities in the long tail, apart from few large communities in the mainstream of the Web. As prerequisite for sustained success, communit...
Drennan, Vari M; Joseph, Judy
This paper reports on the perceptions of experienced health visitors working with refugee families in Inner London. Women who are refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom are more likely to experience depression than either non-refugee women or male asylum seekers. Health visitors provide a universal public health service to all women on the birth of a child, or with children aged under five, and as such are well placed to identify emotional and mental health problems of women who are refugees. Despite successive waves of refugees to the United Kingdom in the 20th century, there are no empirical studies of health visiting practice with this vulnerable group. There is also no body of evidence to inform the practice of health visitors new to working with asylum seekers and refugees. An exploratory study was undertaken in Inner London in 2001. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 13 health visitors experienced in working with women and families who are refugees. A range of structural challenges was identified that mediated against the development of a health-promoting relationship between health visitors and refugee women. With refugee families, who were living in temporary accommodation, health visitors were prioritizing basic needs that had to be addressed: in addition, they prioritized the needs of children before those of women. Health visitors were aware of the emotional needs of women and had strategies for addressing these with women in more settled circumstances. Health visitors considered themselves ill-prepared to deal with the complexities of working with women in these situations. This study identifies issues for further exploration, not least from the perspective of refugee women receiving health visiting services. Health visitors in countries receiving refugee women are framing their work with these women in ways that reflect Maslow's theory of a hierarchy of needs. This study suggests ways that public health
The literature on team and inter-professional care practice describes numerous barriers to the institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare. Responses to slow institutionalization of inter-professional healthcare practice have failed to describe change variables and to identify change agents relevant to inter-professional healthcare practice. The purpose of this paper is to (1) describe individual and organizational level barriers to collaborative practice in healthcare; (2) identify change variables relevant to the institutionalization of inter-professional practice at individual and organizational levels of analysis; and (3) identify human resource professionals as change agents and describe how the strategic use of the human resource function could transform individual and organizational level change variables and therefore facilitate the healthcare system's shift toward inter-professional practice. A proposed program of institutionalization includes the following components: a strategic plan to align human resource functions with organizational level inter-professional healthcare strategies, activities to enhance professional competencies and the organizational position of human resource personnel, activities to integrate inter-professional healthcare practices into the daily routines of institutional and individual providers, activities to stand up health provider champions as permanent leaders of inter-professional teams with human resource professionals as consultants and activities to bring all key players to the table including health providers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The context of contemporary practice exposes nurses to a wide variety of ethical dilemmas. In 1978, nurses were granted autonomy within the scope of their therapeutic role but there was also a need for the profession to embark on a new stage by introducing a code of ethics. It was not until 2016 that the first code of ethics for nurses was published in France, 63 years after the publication of a code by the International Council of Nurses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Sepsis in Africa: practical steps to stem the tide. Akaninyene Otu, James Elston, Emmanuel Nsutebu. Abstract. Pan African Medical Journal 2015; 21. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
Childhood brain stem glioma presents as a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG; a fast-growing tumor that is difficult to treat and has a poor prognosis) or a focal glioma (grows more slowly, is easier to treat, and has a better prognosis). Learn about the diagnosis, cellular classification, staging, treatment, and clinical trials for pediatric brain stem glioma in this expert-reviewed summary.
Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.
Colaceci, Sofia; Giusti, Angela; Chapin, Elise M; Bettinelli, Maria Enrica; De Angelis, Alessia; Zambri, Francesca; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria; De Mei, Barbara
Breastfeeding training has a crucial role in increasing healthcare professionals' attitudes and in improving professional support for breastfeeding. The collaboration between the Italian National Institute of Health, UNICEF, and the Local Health Authority of Milan has led to the development of an online course on lactation and infant feeding practices. To assess if the course was effective in improving healthcare professionals' attitudes and practices (APs). We conducted a prestudy-poststudy, comparing users' APs before (T0) and after (T1) the course through a 20-item questionnaire. Changes in APs were analyzed using paired t-test. Lower mean differences indicated more positive attitudes and more frequent professional practices favoring breastfeeding. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 15.0. The course had 26,009 registrants and was successfully completed by 91.3% of users. The dropout rate was 8.7%. The final cohort was composed of 15,004 participants. The course improved attitudes, while minor changes were observed on practices (p e-learning approach seems to be a useful tool for improving awareness and positive attitudes toward breastfeeding among healthcare professionals.
Rose, Jayln; Glass, Nel
This study set out to explore the relationship between emotional work, emotional well-being and professional practice of generalist community health nurses who provided palliative care to clients living at home. Research suggests that palliative care practice is emotionally demanding and at times challenging. Whilst nurses find their palliative practice a source of job satisfaction the associated stresses can impact on nurses emotional well-being. A qualitative emancipatory methodology informed this study. Semi-structured interviews/storytelling and reflective journaling were the two methods applied. Sixteen community health nurses including the researcher participated. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. The concept of emotional well-being is associated with nurses' feelings of being balanced or out of balance. There is a pervasive interconnectedness between emotional work, emotional well-being and professional practice that is influenced by factors such as organisational and workplace issues; communication with health professionals, professional boundaries; education and professional development. Three major interwoven themes emerged highlighting that palliative care provision was demanding and rewarding, yet dependent on the nurse's comfortability within practice. Self-care is also important to the generalist nurses and strategies to enhance well-being include healthy lifestyle choices, debriefing, self-validation, assertiveness and emotional support. Emotional well-being is complex and multifaceted. The value of emotional well-being to professional practice is important. Palliative care provision is associated with demands, rewards and comfortability. It is essential that attention be given to the experiences of generalist community health nurses who engage in palliative care provision. As the demand for community palliative care increases, the issues that limit and enhance the emotional well-being of generalist palliative care nurses' become critical
Stone, Jacqueline D; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Attoh, Prince; D'Abundo, Michelle; Gong, Tao
Leadership is a process by which an individual influences a group or individual to achieve a common goal, in this case health promotion for individuals with disabilities. (1) To examine the association between the transformational leadership behaviors of the Association of University Centers on Disabilities (AUCD) network professionals and their practice beliefs about health promotion activities, specifically cardiovascular fitness and healthy weight, for people with disabilities. (2) To determine if discipline and/or years of practice moderate the association between transformational leadership behaviors and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. There is a positive association between transformational leadership behaviors and health professionals practice beliefs regarding health promotion activities for persons with disabilities. A quantitative cross-sectional web-based survey design was used to determine the association between leadership behaviors and practices beliefs regarding health promotion for people with disabilities. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and an adapted version of the Role of Health Promotion in Physical Therapy Survey were used to measure leadership and practice beliefs, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the association of leadership behaviors with health promotion practice beliefs variables. Transformational leadership behaviors of the AUCD network professionals were positively associated with health promotion practice beliefs about cardiovascular fitness for people with disabilities. Years post licensure and discipline did not moderate the association between transformational leadership and practice beliefs regarding health promotion. Transformational leadership may facilitate health professionals' health promotion practices for people with disabilities. Further research and training in leadership is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this short contribution is to present a summary of the decision problem within the profession of the pedagogist, and the fundamental role of the abduction (’απαγωγή, retroduction process in its proper context, in professional practice of the pedagogist, as in all professional practice involving the social and professional pedagogy. Pedagogy is a field for reflection, application and commitment or engagement to education. Moreover, pedagogy is establishing itself as a profession, the profession of the pedagogist (not of the educator, who is a different figure, in the socio-health, intellectual, cultural and aid profession field, even in spite of heavy delays and failures of the Italian laws and the resistance of professional groups related but already recognized both by law and by society. The so-called “pedagogical interlocution” is a paradigmatic form of the professional pedagogical practice. Decision in professional pedagogy, properly speaking, must be reached by the interlocutor(s, who must debate and develop it, with the aid of the professional pedagogist. Abduction is not a valid syllogism: it concerns a possible example of a general case or of a rule, whose the actual pertinence to this general case or this rule is mediated by the professional or expert assumptions. The professional approach of the pedagogist, from methodological point of view, is casuistic (case based and situational as a form of aid given to the person, alternative and other than to the statistical-operational methodology that addresses rather to populations composed of individuals. Cases of general interest in professional pedagogy can be labeled as “casuistries” or “case study” categories. A good collection of casuistries - case study categories is provided by Erich Fromm, concerning the problems of family education; and by Viktor E. Frankl in his search for sense, Lebenssinn or λόγος. A further range of examples of categories
Borbasi, Sally; Jones, Jacqueline; Lockwood, Craig; Emden, Carolyn
This article reports an interpretative research project about the care of patients with dementia admitted to the acute setting with a non-dementia-related illness. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 25 medical, nursing, and other health care professionals drawn from 3 metropolitan teaching hospitals in Australia. Qualitative data analysis generated 5 major themes relating to the built environment and organizational "system" as determinants of practice, the influence of key players, current dementia care management, and ideal dementia care management. Results showed acute care hospitals are not the best place for people with dementia and can negatively influence health outcomes such as functional independence and quality of life. Participants reported attempts to provide best practice but experienced major constraints stemming largely from environmental, sociocultural, and economic issues. Recommendations include the delivery of acute services in tandem with dementia services and a whole organization shift in thinking away from what conveniently suits the institution to thinking that is person-centered and dementia-friendly. With support from executive-level management, nurses can play a leading role in the implementation of practice change.
Ament, Stephanie M C; de Groot, Jeanny J A; Maessen, José M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy; Kleijnen, Jos
To evaluate (1) the state of the art in sustainability research and (2) the outcomes of professionals' adherence to guideline recommendations in medical practice. Systematic review. Searches were conducted until August 2015 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Guidelines International Network (GIN) library. A snowball strategy, in which reference sections of other reviews and of included papers were searched, was used to identify additional papers. Studies needed to be focused on sustainability and on professionals' adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care. Studies had to include at least 2 measurements: 1 before (PRE) or immediately after implementation (EARLY POST) and 1 measurement longer than 1 year after active implementation (LATE POST). The search retrieved 4219 items, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving 18 sustainability evaluations. The mean timeframe between the end of active implementation and the sustainability evaluation was 2.6 years (minimum 1.5-maximum 7.0). The studies were heterogeneous with respect to their methodology. Sustainability was considered to be successful if performance in terms of professionals' adherence was fully maintained in the late postimplementation phase. Long-term sustainability of professionals' adherence was reported in 7 out of 18 evaluations, adherence was not sustained in 6 evaluations, 4 evaluations showed mixed sustainability results and in 1 evaluation it was unclear whether the professional adherence was sustained. (2) Professionals' adherence to a clinical practice guideline in medical care decreased after more than 1 year after implementation in about half of the cases. (1) Owing to the limited number of studies, the absence of a uniform definition, the high risk of bias, and the mixed results of studies, no firm conclusion about the sustainability of professionals' adherence to guidelines in medical practice can be drawn
Cisterna Alburquerque, Dante Igor
This study describes and analyzes the experiences of two high-school chemistry teachers who participated in a team-based professional development program to learn about and enact formative assessment in their classrooms. The overall purpose of this study is to explain how participation in this professional development influenced both teachers' classroom enactment of formative assessment practices. This study focuses on 1) teachers' participation in the professional development program, 2) teachers' enactment of formative assessment, and 3) factors that enabled or hindered enactment of formative assessment. Drawing on cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and using evidence from teacher lessons, teacher interviews, professional development meetings as data sources, this single embedded case study analyzes how these two teachers who participated in the same learning team and have similar characteristics (i.e., teaching in the same school, teaching the same courses and population of students, and using the same materials) differentially used the professional development learning about formative assessment as mediating tools to improve their classroom instruction. The learning team experience contributed to both teachers' development of a better understanding of formative assessment---especially in recognizing that their current grading and assessment practices were not appropriate to promote student learning---and the co-creation of artifacts to gather evidence of students' ideas. Although both teachers demonstrated understanding about how formative assessment may serve to promote student learning and had a set of tools available to utilize for formative assessment use, they did not enact these tools in the same way. One teacher appropriated formative assessment as mediating tool to verify if the students were following her explanations, and to check if the students were able to provide the correct response. The other teacher used the mediating tool to promote
Watt Graham CM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice nurses have a key role within UK general practice, especially since the 2004 GMS contract. This study aimed to describe that role, identify how professionally supported they felt and their career intentions. An additional aim was to explore whether they felt isolated and identify contributory factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey in one large urban Scottish Health Board, targeted all practice nurses (n = 329. Domains included demographics, workload, training and professional support. Following univariate descriptive statistics, associations between categorical variables were tested using the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend; associations between dichotomous variables were tested using Fisher's Exact test. Variables significantly associated with isolation were entered into a binary logistic regression model using backwards elimination. Results There were 200 responses (61.0% response rate. Most respondents were aged 40 or over and were practice nurses for a median of 10 years. Commonest clinical activities were coronary heart disease management, cervical cytology, diabetes and the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although most had a Personal Development Plan and a recent appraisal, 103 (52.3% felt isolated at least sometimes; 30 (15.5% intended leaving practice nursing within 5 years. Isolated nurses worked in practices with smaller list sizes (p = 0.024 and nursing teams (p = 0.003; were less likely to have someone they could discuss a clinical/professional (p = 0.002 or personal (p Conclusions A significant proportion of practice nurses reported feeling isolated, at least some of the time. They were more likely to be in small practices and more likely to be considering leaving practice nursing. Factors contributing to their isolation were generally located within the practice environment. Providing support to these nurses within their practice setting may help
Ewertsson, Mona; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta; Allvin, Renée; Blomberg, Karin
Clinical practice is a pivotal part of nursing education. It provides students with the opportunity to put the knowledge and skills they have acquired from lectures into practice with real patients, under the guidance of registered nurses. Clinical experience is also essential for shaping the nursing students' identity as future professional nurses. There is a lack of knowledge and understanding of the ways in which students learn practical skills and apply knowledge within and across different contexts, i.e. how they apply clinical skills, learnt in the laboratory in university settings, in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how nursing students describe, and use, their prior experiences related to practical skills during their clinical practice. An ethnographic case study design was used. Fieldwork included participant observations (82 h), informal conversations, and interviews ( n = 7) that were conducted during nursing students' ( n = 17) clinical practice at an emergency department at a university hospital in Sweden. The overarching theme identified was "Learning about professional identities with respect to situated power". This encompasses tensions in students' learning when they are socialized into practical skills in the nursing profession. This overarching theme consists of three sub-themes: "Embodied knowledge", "Divergent ways of assessing and evaluating knowledge" and "Balancing approaches". Nursing students do not automatically possess the ability to transfer knowledge from one setting to another; rather, their development is shaped by their experiences and interactions with others when they meet real patients. The study revealed different ways in which students navigated tensions related to power differentials. Reflecting on actions is a prerequisite for developing and learning practical skills and professional identities. This highlights the importance of both educators' and the preceptors' roles for
Clark, Phillip G
Health and social care professionals increasingly use narrative approaches to focus on the patient and to communicate with each other. Both effective interprofessional education (IPE) and practice (IPP) require recognizing the various values and voices of different professions, how they relate to the patient's life story, and how they interact with each other at the level of the healthcare team. This article analyzes and integrates the literature on narrative to explore: self-narrative as an expression of one's professional identity; the co-creation of the patient's narrative by the professional and the patient; and the interprofessional multi-vocal narrative discourse as co-constructed by members of the healthcare team. Using a narrative approach to thinking about professional identity, provider-patient communication, and interprofessional teamwork expands our thinking about both IPE and IPP by providing new insights into the nature of professional practice based on relationships to oneself, the patient, and others on the team. How professionals define themselves, gather and present information from the patient, and communicate as members of a clinical team all have important dimensions that can be revealed by a narrative approach. Implications and conclusions for the further development of the narrative approach in IPE and IPP are offered.
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available From the point of view of deontological ethics, privacy is a moral right that patients are entitled to and it is bound to professional confidentiality. Otherwise, the information given by patients to health professionals would not be reliable and a trustable relationship could not be established. The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of questionnaires with open and closed questions, the awareness and attitudes of 100 dentists working in the city of Andradina, São Paulo State, Brazil, with respect to professional confidentiality in dental practice. Most dentists (91.43% reported to have instructed their assistants on professional confidentiality. However, 44.29% of the interviewees showed to act contradictorily as reported talking about the clinical cases of their patients to their friends or spouses. The great majority of professionals (98.57% believed that it is important to have classes on Ethics and Bioethics during graduation and, when asked about their knowledge of the penalties imposed for breach of professional confidentiality, only 48.57% of them declared to be aware of it. Only 28.57% of the interviewees affirmed to have exclusive access to the files; 67.14% reported that that files were also accessed by their secretary; 1.43% answered that their spouses also had access, and 2.86% did not answer. From the results of the present survey, it could be observed that, although dentists affirmed to be aware of professional confidentiality, their attitudes did not adhere to ethical and legal requirements. This stand of health professionals has contributed to violate professional ethics and the law itself, bringing problems both to the professional and to the patient.
Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Saliba, Nemre Adas; de Lima, Daniela Coelho; de Macedo, Ana Paula Ayala
From the point of view of deontological ethics, privacy is a moral right that patients are entitled to and it is bound to professional confidentiality. Otherwise, the information given by patients to health professionals would not be reliable and a trustable relationship could not be established. The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of questionnaires with open and closed questions, the awareness and attitudes of 100 dentists working in the city of Andradina, São Paulo State, Brazil, with respect to professional confidentiality in dental practice. Most dentists (91.43%) reported to have instructed their assistants on professional confidentiality. However, 44.29% of the interviewees showed to act contradictorily as reported talking about the clinical cases of their patients to their friends or spouses. The great majority of professionals (98.57%) believed that it is important to have classes on Ethics and Bioethics during graduation and, when asked about their knowledge of the penalties imposed for breach of professional confidentiality, only 48.57% of them declared to be aware of it. Only 28.57% of the interviewees affirmed to have exclusive access to the files; 67.14% reported that that files were also accessed by their secretary; 1.43% answered that their spouses also had access, and 2.86% did not answer. From the results of the present survey, it could be observed that, although dentists affirmed to be aware of professional confidentiality, their attitudes did not adhere to ethical and legal requirements. This stand of health professionals has contributed to violate professional ethics and the law itself, bringing problems both to the professional and to the patient.
Leonardo dos Santos Antunes
Full Text Available School and family together play an important role in the individual development of children. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the practices and attitudes towards oral health care of 245 education professionals working in 24 public municipal pre-schools in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The data were obtained from self-questionnaires consisting of both open and closed questions. The methodology was both quantitative and qualitative, and the quantitative analysis was based on frequency (%. Regarding oral health practices, it was observed that the majority of the education professionals emphasized toothbrushing as a vital method of oral hygiene. In addition, 70.7% of the education professionals performed other types of oral hygiene activities with the schoolchildren, and 17.1% did so with the children's families. All the participants of the study considered that education professionals have a key role in promoting healthy oral habits amongst the schoolchildren and they believe that involving the dentist in educative programs is important. It was therefore concluded that the education professionals surveyed have positive practices and attitudes regarding the children's care, and they recognize their role in fostering healthy habits and developing integrated pedagogic oral health programs.
Fisher, Pamela; Byrne, Victoria
Contemporary transitions in the delivery of health and social care are a global phenomenon. They prompt a particular need to reconsider how quality in relation to professional practice should be understood and whether greater importance should be attached to values such as goodwill, altruism and commitment. Based on a qualitative study of a small voluntary sector organisation in the North of England, this paper addresses how changes in policy articulate with the identities of professionals who work in learning disability services. Drawing on MacIntyre's After Virtue, which is discussed in relation to some recent sociological debates on emotion, it is suggested that professionals have an emotionally based commitment to their work as well as to the people they work with. Professional commitment is embedded in a coherent sense of self that problematises traditional binaries between the private and the public, and the cognitive and affective. The participants in this study appeared to pursue what MacIntyre terms the 'internal goods' of practice; they valued being able to work innovatively and responsively with service users. It is suggested that this requires a particular type of relationship with oneself, with others, and with practice, which engenders a criticality towards dominant professional discourses. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Burns, Suzanne Perea; Pickens, Noralyn Davel
To explore inter-professional home evaluators' perspectives and needs for building useful and acceptable decision-support tools for the field of home modifications. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of home modification professionals from different regions of the United States. The interview transcripts were analyzed with a qualitative, descriptive, perspective approach. Technology supports current best practice and has potential to inform decision making through features that could enhance home evaluation processes, quality, efficiency and inter-professional communication. Technological advances with app design have created numerous opportunities for the field of home modifications. Integrating technology and inter-professional best practices will improve home safety evaluation and intervention development to meet client-centred and societal needs. Implications for rehabilitation Understanding home evaluators technology needs for home safety evaluations contributes to the development of app-based assessments. Integrating inter-professional perspectives of best practice and technological needs in an app for home assessments improves processes. Novice and expert home evaluators would benefit from decision support systems embedded in app-based assessments. Adoption of app-based assessment would improve efficiency while remaining client-centred.
Full Text Available A case study was conducted in 2004-2005 on the professional development experiences of beginning teachers (1-5 years of experience in an Ontario, Canada secondary school (Grades 7-12 and the impact of those experiences in improving their practices. For comparative purposes, the study included the perspectives of administrators from the same school on the impact of professional development on these teachers. The findings revealed that the literacy training program was successfully implemented at the school and positively affected beginning teachers’ knowledge, instructional strategies, and planning practices. Other findings indicated that beginning teachers needed subject content and instructional strategies, ongoing mentoring, and skills in both classroom management and mapping the curriculum. Based on the findings of the study, a new framework for professional development is suggested. A number of recommendations propose ways of connecting research, policy and practice that could ultimately improve the effectiveness of professional development programs for beginning teachers. Key words: teacher professional development, beginning teacher, adult learning, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, supervision, organizational policies and culture
Today, different cultures and contexts of nursing adhere to different codes of ethics. This pluralism may be traced back to differing beliefs about the nature of man and the world, involving different approaches to, and understandings of, spirituality. How significant is this pluralism of beliefs surrounding spirituality for proper nursing practice? I argue that certain introductory nursing textbooks perceive the significance of spirituality for nursing practice as marginal, because of certain assumptions as to what constitutes a proper, or professional, practice. After arguing that such assumptions are problematic, especially from an ethical point of view, I will advance an alternative understanding of professional practice, by drawing upon Alasdair MacIntyre's work. The aim is to give the spiritual dimension of nursing care its rightful place.
Seruya, Francine M; Hinojosa, Jim
The professional and organizational commitment of paediatric occupational therapists working in two distinct practice settings, schools and medically based settings, was investigated. A web-based survey program was used to administer a questionnaire to occupational therapists employed in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. The study employed social identity theory as a guiding perspective in understanding therapists' professional and organizational commitment. One hundred and fifty-seven paediatric therapists responded to the Professional Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire to gauge their commitment to both the profession and their employing organizations. Results indicated that paediatric therapists, regardless of employment setting, have high professional commitment. Paediatric occupational therapists employed in medically based settings indicated statistically significant higher organizational commitment than their school-based counterparts. For therapists that work in school settings, the presence of a professional cohort did not influence professional commitment scores. As the study employed a web-based survey methodology, only individuals who were members of associations and had access to a computer and the Internet were able to participate. Further study might include widening the participant pool as well as adding additional instruments to explore both professional and organizational commitment on a more national scale. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The APA Awards for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice are intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in institutional settings in psychology. The 2017 award winner is Linda R. Mona, whose treatment of veterans with disabilities has advanced treatment with respect to sexual health. Her clinical work and advocacy for psychology practice have received national recognition. Mona's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
non-peer-reviewed Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand how occupational therapists engage in reflexive professional practice while completing an 8 week programme for unemployed people. The study proposes to identify key elements of reflexivity and discuss what stimulates this process in practice. Methods: Six occupational therapists recorded their reflections on delivering an 8 week intervention in a weekly written journal. Post intervention interviews...
da Costa, Marta Cocco; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques
The present article refers to a qualitative study that was performed with the objective to identify and analyze the practice of healthcare professionals regarding rural women victims of violence, under the perspective of comprehensive care, in cities located in southern Rio Grande do Sul state. Participants were healthcare professionals and workers from health services who work in rural areas. The information was generated through interviews and analyzed using the thematic mode. In regards to care elements provided to rural women who are victims of violence, the study pointed out not only the relational strategies - welcoming, attachment and dialogue - but also the construction of collective actions through group activities, recognized as supporting health promotion, as well as individual and collective empowerment in the dimension of violent events. It was found that the professionals' care practices are aimed at focusing care on the rural women, establishing a relationship between the worker and client to produce comprehensiveness of care.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of professional development on the knowledge and classroom practices of teachers of science in kindergarten through Grade 5. These teachers, trained to be generalists in the content areas, were strongly prepared in pedagogical practices, reading skills, basic language arts, and mathematics content areas. Science reform has led to more content-specific science standards that were difficult for these unprepared teachers to address without professional development. The researcher implemented a professional development program that used a collaborative model involving 8 teachers in Grade 4. The researcher conducted the professional development, assisted at times by personnel from the New Jersey State Department of Education. The new standards were learned, reinforced, and adopted. The data that were analyzed to determine the effects of the professional development came from a comparison of student achievement of the classes of 2 sets of teachers in Grade 4, one of which was the control set ( n = 8). The other was the experimental set (n = 8). The researcher administered pre- and postintervention content tests to both groups to measure teacher knowledge. In addition, the researcher reviewed lesson plans, conducted observations, and administered surveys to determine whether professional development in science impacted teacher practices in the classroom. This limited study suggested that teacher instruction did not significantly differ after professional development intervention. It also suggested that teacher content knowledge did not significantly increase due to the intervention. The researcher believes that local factors influenced the outcome and recommends a more systemic program that includes the involvement of all stakeholders.
Frankford, D M; Patterson, M A; Konrad, T R
Practice organizations will increasingly engage in activities that are the functional equivalents of continuing medical education. The authors maintain that if these activities are properly structured within practice organizations, they can become powerful engines of socialization to enhance physicians' lifelong learning and commitment to medical professionalism. They propose that this promise can be realized if new or reformed practice organizations combine education and service delivery and institutionalize processes of individual and collective reflection. The resulting "institutions of reflective practice" would be ones of collegial, experiential, reflective lifelong learning concerning the technical and normative aspects of medical work. They would extend recent methods of medical education such as problem-based learning into the practice setting and draw on extant methods used in complex organizations to maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages that practice organizations typically present for adult learning. As such, these institutions would balance the potentially conflicting organizational needs for, on the one hand, (1) self-direction, risk taking, and creativity; (2) specialization; and (3) collegiality; and, on the other hand, (4) organizational structure, (5) coordination of division of labor, and (6) hierarchy. Overall, this institutionalization of reflective practice would enrich practice with education and education with practice, and accomplish the ideals of what the authors call "responsive medical professionalism." The medical profession would both contribute and be responsive to social values, and medical work would be valued intrinsically and as central to practitioners' self-identity and as a contribution to the public good.
Burtonwood, Ann M.; Hocking, Paul J.; Elwyn, Glyn
Examined the experiences of a team of facilitators from the National Health Service Staff College, Wales, who participated in an effort to help general practices identify, prioritize, and implement systemic developments interlinked with individuals' professional development and become effective, interprofessional, interagency organizations.…
Olson, Jonathan R.
Advances in the field of prevention science have resulted in strategies that target various youth outcomes. In recent years, numerous "best practices" lists have been developed to help professionals identify such strategies. Some scholars have questioned the quality of these lists and cautioned that there are flaws in evaluations of many…
Bok, Harold G. J.; Teunissen, Pim W.; Boerboom, Tobias B. B.; Rhind, Susan M.; Baillie, Sarah; Tegzes, John; Annandale, Henry; Matthew, Susan; Torgersen, Anne; Hecker, Kent G.; Härdi-Landerer, Christina M.; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Ahmad, Bashir; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; van Beukelen, Peter
To determine the perceived importance of specific competencies in professional veterinary practice and education among veterinarians in several countries. Survey-based prospective study. 1,137 veterinarians in 10 countries. Veterinarians were invited via email to participate in the study. A
Menorath, Darren; Antonczak, Laurent
This paper examines the state of the art of mobile Augmented Reality (AR) and mobile Virtual Reality (VR) in relation to collaboration and professional practices in a creative digital environment and higher education. To support their discussion, the authors use a recent design-based research project named "Juxtapose," which explores…
Menendez, Anthony L.; Mayton, Michael R.; Yurick, Amanda L.
When rural school districts employ Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) to assist in meeting the needs of students with disabilities, it is important that they be aware of the ethical and professional guidelines to which BCBAs are required to adhere. This article describes the role of these guidelines within the practice of BCBAs and presents…
Abu-Shreah, Mohammad; Zidan, Hiam
The study aims to know the degree of schools principals practicing innovation and its relationship with the teachers' professional development; the population of the study is consisted of all male and female teachers numbering to 415 teachers; the sample of the study is consisted of 205 male and female teachers from members of the study…
This paper makes a contribution to the theory and practice of educational action research by introducing two theoretical and methodological resources as part of a personal review of sustained professional experience: "appreciative inquiry" and the "enneagram". It is more than a theoretical exercise, however, because it also…
Mak, Barley; Pun, Shuk-Han
This ethnographic study-cum-action research documents the cultivation of a community of practice for sustainable professional development among a group of 18 teachers of English as second language in Hong Kong through a series of planned efforts over 10?months. By juxtaposing the theory-driven planned efforts and the spontaneous actions and…
Mottier Lopez, Lucie; Pasquini, Raphaël
This article describes two collaborative research projects whose common goal was to explore the potential role of professional controversies in building teachers' summative assessment capacity. In the first project, upper primary teachers were encouraged to compare their practices through a form of social moderation, without prior instructor input…
Education Resource Strategies, 2013
Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…
Simpson, Colin; Sommer, Daniela
In light of the prominent role of socio-materiality in contemporary social scientific, and particularly educational research, this article uses two practice-based theories to investigate the experiences of German business management professionals on a U.K.-based DBA delivered in Germany. We specifically take concepts from cultural historical…
Education Resource Strategies, 2013
Four organizations with promising practices in teacher Professional Growth & Support have significantly raised outcomes for low-income students. The charter management networks, Achievement First and Aspire Public Schools, and the two reform organizations, Teach Plus and Agile Mind, have successfully increased student achievement with a…
Low, Setha M.
This paper describes two research projects in the anthropology of landscape architecture design which show that "professional culture" restrictions often prevent anthropologists from putting their theories into practice. The first research project grew out of the author's assumption that landscape architecture students were not producing…
Lea, Mary R.; Stierer, Barry
In this article we examine issues of academic identity through the lens of academics' everyday workplace writing, offering a complementary perspective to those already evident in the higher education research literature. Motivated by an interest in the relationship between routine writing and aspects of professional practice, we draw on data from…
This document presents knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are needed for achieving and practicing the competencies listed in Addiction Counseling Competencies, as written by the National Curriculum Committee of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center Program. The document is intended to provide guidance for the professional treatment of…
Erin, Jane N.
In February of 2009, the "Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness" ("JVIB") published the first articles under the heading of Practice Perspectives. These articles featured work by three professionals who described how they taught reading to children or adults. The feature reflects the commitment of the American Foundation…
As more institutions respond to the American College & University Presidents Climate Commitment, or are otherwise responsible for campus environmental stewardship, this implementation guide gives educational facilities professionals a practical framework for moving forward in their unique role within this process. The intent is to help facilities…
Shabbir, Muhammad; Khalid, M. Ibrahim; Bakhsh, Khuda; Mohsin, Muhammad Naeem; Rasool, Shafqat; Mohsin, M. Saleem
The rationalization of this research was to investigate about improving professional development system through Quality Assurance Practices (QAP) in the Universities of Pakistan pertaining to the opinions of students, teachers and Directors of Quality Enhancement Cells (QECs) and to differentiate the ideas of students, teachers and Directors of…
This article examines the sociocultural learning of popular and jazz music in communities of practice as part of secondary vocational music education in a Finnish conservatory. The research is based on performance workshops which were implemented as a joint effort between professional musicians and music students. These workshops are suggested as…
Deliverable 28.5.4 reports on the preparation of the book "Analysing Networked Learning Practices in Higher Education and Continuing Professional Development", which consists of an Introduction, case studies and a concluding section, which presents the theoretical work and empirical work conducted...
Bozkurt, Gulay; Ruthven, Kenneth
This study examines the classroom practice and craft knowledge underpinning one teacher's integration of the use of GeoGebra software into mathematics teaching. The chosen teacher worked in an English secondary school and was professionally well regarded as an accomplished user of digital technology in mathematics teaching. Designed in accordance…
Chauraya, Million; Brodie, Karin
Professional learning communities as a form of teacher development have been in existence internationally for some time now and more recently in South Africa. Although strong claims have been made for their influence on teacher practices, very few research studies have investigated these claims. This paper presents a case study that connects…
Paul, A. K.; Anantharaman, R. N.
Although organizational commitment has been discussed frequently in organizational psychology for almost four decades, few studies have involved software professionals. A study in India reveals that HRM practices such as employee-friendly work environment, career development, development oriented appraisal, and comprehensive training show a…
Ament, S.M.; Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Maessen, J.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Weijden, T. van der; Kleijnen, J.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate (1) the state of the art in sustainability research and (2) the outcomes of professionals' adherence to guideline recommendations in medical practice. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted until August 2015 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane
Hauge, Trond Eiliv; Norenes, Svein Olav
This study demonstrates the possibilities of videopaper to support teacher professional development in a workplace setting. A team of five mathematics teachers in a secondary school was followed over a period of six months as they worked jointly to improve their teaching and team practice. In a stepwise strategy for deliberate and object-oriented…
Waterhouse, P. J.
A combination of narrative, autobiographical, and arts-based research methods was used to explore experiential learning and professional practice in diverse teaching/learning and adult education settings. The research methodology drew upon concepts developed by the following individuals: Jerome Bruner and his constructivist approach that values…
Hindman, Annemarie H.; Snell, Emily K.; Wasik, Barbara A.; Lewis, Kandia N.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Iannone-Campbell, Charlene
This article describes how a research-practice partnership has informed the iterative development of a web-mediated early childhood language and literacy professional development (PD) intervention. Funded through the Investing in Innovation (i3) program, this new PD model is based on an effective in-situ intervention. As we translated the…
Thinking like a nurse (TLN) has been identified as a core competency of professional nursing practice. The term embraces the full context of the daily metacognitive process nurses use to provide competent nursing care and was theorized in this study to have four attributes: critical thinking, clinical judgment, moral reasoning, and professional…
Bell, Christina Lynn
Bachelors of Science Nursing students at a small liberal arts college in the upper Midwest volunteer with an instructor at a free clinic as part of their curriculum. This study's purpose was to identify the impact of nursing students' free-clinic experiences on their subsequent professional nursing practice and their ability to attend to: (a)…
Baptiste, Diana-Lyn; Shaefer, Sarah J. M.
Prelicensure nursing students have a final capstone, practicum, or clinical course as they transition to the professional nurse role. Generally, the student role requires increased independent practice and this can be a challenge. To maximize learning in this clinical experience, an online module was designed. This article will describe course…
Lofthouse, Rachel; Flanagan, Jo; Wigley, Bibiana
The development of pedagogies to meet the needs of diverse communities can be supported through inter-professional practice development. This article explores one such experience, that of speech and language therapists developing a new video-based coaching approach for teachers and teaching assistants in multi-cultural settings with high numbers…
Carrillo, Carmen; Baguley, Margaret; Vilar, Mercè
This study explores the influence of professional identity on the teaching practice of four school music educators, two from Spain and two from Australia. Narrative inquiry methodology was utilized in order to investigate the full spectrum of their musical experiences, ranging from their earliest childhood memories to their current positions in…
As a continuum of professional learning for building and district leaders transitioning from leadership preparation programs into practice, the state of Kansas enacted mentoring and induction requirements as part of their role in supporting development of leadership skills important to on-the-job application of essential knowledge. One approved…
Williams, Emily; Poel, Elissa; Licona, Miguel M.; Arroyos, Elsa C.; Meraz-Rodriguez, Alma
The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs and concerns of pre-service teachers as they relate to professional practice during their practicum experience. This study took place in a minority-serving university in the Southwest. All activities were conducted during one academic semester and held during the weekly on-campus seminars. The…
The success of alternative and flexible education settings, serving young people for whom mainstream schooling has not worked well, rests on the practices of their staff. This paper explores interview and survey data on the professional learning experiences and perceptions of staff working in flexible learning programmes across Victoria,…
Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…
In today's global society where innovations spread rapidly, the escalating focus on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) has quickly intensified in the United States, East Asia and much of Western Europe. Our ever-changing, increasingly global society faces many multidisciplinary problems, and many of the solutions require the…
Goodnough, Karen; Pelech, Sharon; Stordy, Mary
This qualitative study reports on the perceptions of a group of primary/elementary teachers who are engaged in a collaborative action research project, Teachers in Action, focused on enhancing STEM teaching and learning. The teacher researchers are novice action researchers from five school districts in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. At the…
Flottorp, S.A.; Oxman, A.D.; Krause, J.; Musila, N.R.; Wensing, M.; Godycki-Cwirko, M.; Baker, R.; Eccles, M.P.
BACKGROUND: Determinants of practice are factors that might prevent or enable improvements. Several checklists, frameworks, taxonomies, and classifications of determinants of healthcare professional practice have been published. In this paper, we describe the development of a comprehensive,
Janssen, Anna; Robinson, Tracy; Shaw, Tim
The Opioid Treatment Accreditation Course (OTAC) is a mandatory accreditation requirement in New South Wales, Australia, and aims to prepare medical practitioners for the provision of safe and effective Opioid Substitution Treatment to people with opioid dependence. The course has a strong focus on safe prescribing practices and the course design includes a Professional Practice Forum that is engaging for participants and effective at imparting complex ideas and concepts that do not place additional time constraints on already time-poor health professionals. The study aimed to use participatory action research methods to develop and evaluate an online Professional Practice Forum that is a key component of the OTAC teaching and learning experience. Three evaluation cycles were implemented with three cohorts of participants (N=40) to inform the design and review of the updated OTAC course. Overall, the study relied on participatory action research methods to enhance a sense of online community and to revise the Professional Practice Forum component of the course. Findings from survey feedback and an examination of Web metrics were used to monitor participant learning and were subsequently subject to thematic analysis in order to identify key themes. The use of participatory action techniques in the redesign of the OTAC course was a successful means of engaging with participants and resulted in four revisions based on feedback from facilitators and participants. The Professional Practice Forum was rated highly and received positive feedback from both moderators and participants. The use of interactive forums in online learning in an educational module for adult learners can prove extremely valuable as a means for participants to share their expertise and improve their learning outcomes. In particular, the use of sticky and welcome threads were significant features that enhanced interactions between participants and facilitators and resulted in increased quantity and
Ng, Stella L.; Lingard, Lorelei; Hibbert, Kathryn; Regan, Sandra; Phelan, Shanon; Stooke, Rosamund; Meston, Christine; Schryer, Catherine; Manamperi, Madhushani; Friesen, Farah
Abstract Purpose: School settings are a common practice context for rehabilitation professionals; health advocacy is a common and challenging practice role for professionals in this context. This study explored how pediatric practitioners advocate for children with disabilities at school. Specifically, we examined everyday advocacy in the context of school-based support for children with disabilities. Method: Our theoretical framework and methodological approach were informed by institutional ethnography, which maps and makes visible hidden social coordinators of work processes with a view to improving processes and outcomes. We included families, educators, and health/rehabilitation practitioners from Ontario. Of the 37 consented informants, 27 were interviewed and 15 observed. Documents and texts were collected from the micro-level (e.g. clinician reports) and the macro-level (e.g. policies). Results: Pediatric practitioners' advocacy work included two main work processes: spotlighting invisible disabilities and orienteering the special education terrain. Practitioners advocated indirectly, by proxy, with common proxies being documents and parents. Unintended consequences of advocacy by proxy included conflict and inefficiency, which were often unknown to the practitioner. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide practice-based knowledge about advocacy for children with disabilities, which may be used to inform further development of competency frameworks and continuing education for pediatric practitioners. The findings also show how everyday practices are influenced by policies and social discourses and how rehabilitation professionals may enact change.Implications for RehabilitationRehabilitation professionals frequently perform advocacy work. They may find it beneficial to perform advocacy work that is informed by overarching professional and ethical guidelines, and a nuanced understanding of local processes and structures.Competency frameworks and
Poorchangizi, Batool; Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mirzaee, Moghaddameh
Background and aims Professional values of undergraduate nursing students are considerably to changes made by educational programs. Therefore, this is important to integrate professional values in nursing curricula and study about professional values of nursing students in applying them in their professional future. The aim of this study was to examine the professional values from perspective undergraduate nursing students. Methods This study was a descriptive-analytical research. A total of 100 undergraduate nursing students by stratified random sampling participated from a university in Kerman, Iran in 2016. Data were collected by Persian version of the Nurses Professional Values Scale-Revised (NPVS-R) Weis and Schank. Data analyzed by SPSS version 19. Results The findings showed that student's mean score of professional values were high (101.79±12.42). The four most important professional values identified by students were maintaining confidentiality of patients, safeguarding patients' right to privacy, assuming responsibility for meeting health needs of the culturally diverse population, maintain competency in area of practice and accepting responsibility and accountability for own practice. The four least important values include participating in public policy decisions affecting distribution of resources, participating in peer review, recognizing role of professional nursing associations in shaping healthcare policy and participating in nursing research and/or implement research findings appropriate to practice. Score of values had statistically significant relationship with classroom grade average and economic status of family of students (P<0.05). Conclusion The high total score students' professional values could indicate impact of education and role of educators in formation and instillation of professional values in classrooms and clinical settings. Regarding low importance of some values for undergraduate nursing students, this is necessary to
Reimer, Lynn Christine
First-generation, low-income, underrepresented minority (URM) and female undergraduates are matriculating into science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors at unprecedented levels. However, a disproportionate number of these students end up graduating in non-STEM disciplines. Attrition rates have been observed to spike in conjunction with introductory STEM courses in chemistry, biology, and physics. These "gateway" courses tend to be housed in large, impersonal lecture halls. First-generation and URM students struggle in this environment, possibly because of instructors' reliance on lecture-based content delivery and rote memorization. Recent social psychological studies suggest the problem may be related to cultural mismatch, or misalignment between independent learning norms typical of American universities and interdependent learning expectancies for first-generation and URM students. Value-affirming and utility-value interventions yield impressive academic achievement gains for these students. These findings overlap with a second body of literature on culturally responsive instruction. Active gateway learning practices that emphasize interactive instruction, frequent assessment, and epistemological instruction can be successful because of their propensity to incorporate values affirming and utility-value techniques. The present study observed instruction for gateway STEM courses over a three-year period at the University of California, Irvine (N = 13,856 undergraduates in 168 courses). Exploratory polychoric factor analysis was used to identify latent variables for observational data on gateway STEM instructional practices. Variables were regressed on institutional student data. Practices implemented in large lecture halls fall into three general categories: Faculty-Student Interaction, Epistemological Instruction, and Peer Interaction . The present study found that Faculty-Student Interaction was negatively associated with student outcomes for
Full Text Available This study approaches critical reflexivity as a mediating element of the integration between research and teaching practices in the training of the education professional. Based on the parameter of research as an educational principle associated to the presupposition that involvement in research activities encourages the development of rationalities that support reflective practices, which lead the most significant and independent learning processes, this essay aims at, on the one hand, identifying “macro” theoretic schemes that may support the analysis of different knowledge types and therefore, the rationalities that affect theory-practice dynamics in education initiatives and on the other hand, finding “micro” theoretical-practical schemes for reflective training related to the practice in learning contexts. The study analyzes proposals made by reference authors, as well as educational practices that support enunciated presuppositions.
Weber-Mayrer, Melissa M.
Research that describes how adults acquire and use new information, collectively called adult learning theory, has potentially important implications for facilitating such adult learning experiences as educator professional development. The purpose of this study was to examine whether integrating adult teaching practices derived from adult learning theories into early childhood educators professional development would result in better gains in educator engagement in professional development, phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness knowledge, and language and literacy beliefs. The impact on educator engagement and educator proximal knowledge was analyzed using one way ANOVA. The impact on educator phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness general knowledge, and beliefs was analyzed using a 3 X (2 X S) mixed analyses of variance to examine the pretest to posttest change between educators participating the three conditions. Results revealed significant findings for increased engagement in professional learning and gains in educators general knowledge. This study is a first step in understanding effective adult teaching practices that may or may not contribute to better educator outcomes and promoting more effective professional learning experiences for early childhood educators.
Dawn E. Pollon
Full Text Available Research assistantships have long been viewed as an extension of the formal education process, a form of apprenticeship, and a pathway into the professional practice of research in institutional settings. However, there are other contexts in which researchers practice research. This self-study documents the formative role research assistantships played in the authors’ development as professional research consultants. Four professional research consultants who held research assistant positions during their master’s and doctoral studies describe the contributions of their research assistantship experiences to the advancement of their knowledge, skills, and passion for research and subsequently to their career decisions. Professional research consulting is identified as a natural extension of research assistant roles and a potential career path. The article enhances current understandings about the ways research assistantships contribute to the development of researchers, and specifically to the development of professional research consultants. The analysis will be of interest to students contemplating entering into research assistantships, current research assistants, current research assistant supervisors, academic staff looking to improve their research productivity, and department chairs.
Poghosyan, Lusine; Nannini, Angela; Stone, Patricia W; Smaldone, Arlene
The expansion of the nurse practitioner (NP) workforce in primary care is key to meeting the increased demand for care. Organizational climates in primary care settings affect NP professional practice and the quality of care. This study investigated organizational climate and its domains affecting NP professional practice in primary care settings. A qualitative descriptive design, with purposive sampling, was used to recruit 16 NPs practicing in primary care settings in Massachusetts. An interview guide was developed and pretested with two NPs and in 1 group interview with 7 NPs. Data collection took place in spring of 2011. Individual interviews lasted from 30-70 minutes, were audio recorded, and transcribed. Data were analyzed using Atlas.ti 6.0 software by 3 researchers. Content analysis was applied. Three previously identified themes, NP-physician relations, independent practice and autonomy, and professional visibility, as well as two new themes, organizational support and resources and NP-administration relations emerged from the analyses. NPs reported collegial relations with physicians, challenges in establishing independent practice, suboptimal relationships with administration, and lack of support. NP contributions to patient care were invisible. Favorable organizational climates should be promoted to support the expanding of NP workforce in primary care and to optimize recruitment and retention efforts. © 2013.
Patricia de Oliveira Furukawa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the correlation between the characteristics of professionals and the practice of sustainable actions in the medication processes in an ICU, and to determine if interventions such as training and awareness can promote sustainable practices performed by nursing staff in the hospital. Methods: before-and-after design study using Lean Six Sigma methodology, applied in an intensive care unit. Nursing staff were observed regarding the practice of ecologically sustainable actions during medication processes (n = 324 cases for each group (pre and post-intervention through a data collection instrument. The processes analyzed involved 99 professionals in the pre-intervention phase and 97 in the post-intervention phase. Data were analyzed quantitatively and the association of variables was accomplished by means of statistical inference, according to the nature of the related variables. Results: the education level was the only characteristic that showed to be relevant to an increase in sustainable practices, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002. When comparing before and after the intervention, there was an increase in environmentally friendly actions with statistically significant differences (p = 0.001. Conclusions: the results suggest that institutions should encourage and invest in formal education, as well as training of health professionals to promote sustainable practices in the hospital.
Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Svane, Marita Susanna
Based on the concepts self-formation and phronesis (practical wisdom), this chapter argues against professionalizing leadership. Professionalization implies rules, guidelines, procedures, and accreditation standards in relation to contents, curricula and the pedagogy of education. It thus...... is important because of its potential to nurture a creative, critical and responsible relation to the world. Leadership thus requires a practice-based educational program and a “free space” for experimentation, reflection and self-formation, which is inconsistent with turning leadership into a profession....... misconceives the role of leadership education to be only a question of acquiring epistemic (rational and universal) knowledge and skills while it fails to acknowledge technê as craft and art and local and situated awareness and sensitivity. Practical wisdom involves all dimensions. Leadership education...
The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Institutional Practice is intended to recognize outstanding practitioners in psychology. Nominations are considered for psychologists working in a wide variety of institutional practice settings (e.g., schools, military, state hospital, Department of Veterans Affairs). Services provided to diverse client groups or patient populations, including but not limited to children/adolescents/adults/older adults, urban/rural/frontier populations, minority populations, and persons with serious mental illness, are considered. The 2014 recipient is Kevin M. McGuinness, for "broadening the public conception of professional psychology through institutional practice. McGuinness has distinguished himself through service with the U.S Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and academic institutions." McGuiness's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Ruth Folake Aluko
Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of a distance education program offered by the University of Pretoria, South Africa, on the professional practice of teachers. A pilot study was conducted using a combination of surveys and focus group interviews. Findings reveal that the program was beneficial to graduates’ personal development, professional practice, schools, learners, and colleagues. Further, principals who participated in the study attested to the differences they observed between the graduates and other teachers who had not been exposed to such a program. Suggestions for improvements included the introduction of subjects taught at school as areas of specialization, involvement of school principals in the assessment of enrolled students, visits to schools by the organizers, and exposure of students to the practical opportunities offered by the program (with portfolios that could be a part of the assessment.
Manning, C. B.
Providing authentic research opportunities is a potent form of professional development that significantly impacts teaching practices. The University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project (2003-2010) was funded by the National Science Foundation to create opportunities for teachers to work with marine science researchers and implement best-practices in their classrooms. In early 2009, I participated in a 6-week research experience that has changed how I teach and how I learn. On board the R/V Knorr, I worked as a sedimentologist with an international crew who used geophysics, geochemistry, microbiology and geology to understand the controls on and distribution of subseafloor microbial life in the equatorial Pacific. This experience has affected my educational practices in two ways: (1) motivating me to fill gaps in my own understanding of natural chemical processes, and (2) prioritizing authentic research opportunities for all students at my school. My participation in the ARMADA project underscored the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research. The team of scientists exposed me to a variety of topics. Biochemistry and the role of redox reactions in biological systems were relatively new to me. Scientists encouraged me to dig deeper into the chemical systems that we were researching. Through self-study and coursework focusing on biogeochemical cycles, deriving energy through chemical processes, and atmospheric chemistry, I have learned much of the chemistry that I am now expected to teach in my courses. I continue to seek out opportunities to learn more and am currently volunteering at geochemistry laboratories at the USGS. My ARMADA research experience depended on teamwork. I learned that while the dynamics of research teams can be simplified if the teams are carefully designed, it is important that students need to learn to work with a variety of people in different situations. Therefore, in my courses, students work in different teams to design and
Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Gloeckner, Claire; Fortunato, Angela
The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one's professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: (1) Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. (2) Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. (3) The non-research group--students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student's level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills.
Marriage, Amanda Lynn
This study reviewed how Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is used in psychotherapeutic practice, and how it is understood and experienced by the practitioners who use it. Participants included 18 mental health professionals who have obtained the certification-level of training in NET and have incorporated NET into their professional practice. A qualitative method was used to explore NET providers' experiences through an online survey. Data from these surveys was analyzed using the constant comparative method. Six categories containing 18 themes emerged as a result of this analysis. These categories included: (1) practitioners currently employing NET; (2) technique utilization; (3) participant estimation of the efficacy of NET; (4) talking about NET; (5) clients most likely to benefit from NET; and (6) clients least likely to benefit from NET. The 18 themes that emerged within these categories represent important components of the integration of NET into psychological treatment. These themes were compared with existing literature to serve as valuable information for psychologists and other mental health professionals seeking to incorporate NET into their professional practices. This study helps to fill the current void in the area of research on NET as a psychological intervention, or more specifically, as a holistic mind-body approach to self-betterment and the amelioration of symptoms for humans who are healing from a broad spectrum of traumatic and stressful experiences.
Kieser, Jules A; Dall'alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: relieving pain or generally caring for teeth, carrying out particular dental procedures, diagnosing and treating dental problems or diseases, evaluating and responding to oral health, and finally, evaluating oral health and preventing oral disease in the community. At entry into the dental program the most common understandings among both men and women focused on dental procedures or diagnosis and treatment. The largest changes in students' responses at the end of the first and second professional years were generally in line with the emphasis of the curriculum in each of these 2 years, although prevention was not clearly featured. These data suggest that at least some students responded to the curriculum and, hence, highlight the impact of the curriculum on students' emerging understandings. We conclude that curricula can have a key role in the development of understanding of professional practice during professional programmes, although the impact of curricula is not always as expected and merits investigation.
Pomerance, Philip L
At the end of the twentieth century, bar scholars and regulators were reexamining two traditionally improper aspects of legal practice. The first was the multidisciplinary practice of law, which would permit lawyers to offer accounting and other professional services to their clients, and allow lawyers to share fees with non-lawyers. The second was the multijurisdictional practice of law, which would permit a lawyer licensed in one jurisdiction to practice law in other jurisdiction in which he was not admitted to the bar. Enron and other corporate scandals deflated the movement towards multidisciplinary practice, but the movement to allow multijurisdictional practice bore some limited, yet important, results. This Article argues that the American Bar Association's new Model Rules 5.5 and 8.5, which broaden the ability of healthcare lawyers to practice outside of the states in which they are admitted, are a suitable accommodation to today's mode of practice, while still preserving the states' ability to regulate lawyers and protect clients.
Cadwallader, Jean-Sébastien; Lebeau, Jean-Pierre; Lasserre, Evelyne; Letrilliart, Laurent
Since the 1990s, professional institutions worldwide have emphasised the need to develop research in general practice to improve the health of the population. The recent creation of professorships in general practice in French Universities should foster research in this field. Our aim was to explore the views of patients and relevant professionals on research in general practice. Qualitative study, using the grounded theory approach according to Strauss and Corbin, conducted in 2010 in three French regions. Nine focus groups were run to data saturation, and included 57 participants in four different categories: patients, non-academic GPs, academic GPs, academics in other disciplines. Most of the participants in the four categories described research in general practice as specific to the population managed and relevant for health care. They considered that its grounding in day-to-day practice enabled pragmatic approaches. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry, rivalries between university disciplines and a possible gap between research and practice were considered as pitfalls. The barriers identified were representations of the medical researcher as a "laboratory worker", the lack of awareness of any research in the discipline, and lack of time and training. While the views of patients and non-academic GPs are mostly focused on professional issues and the views of academics other than GPs on technical issues, academic GPs are in a position to play a role of interface between the universities and general practices. Although the role of GPs in research is perceived differently by the various protagonists, research in general practice has an undisputed legitimacy in France. Solutions for overcoming the identified barriers include research networks with appropriate resources and training and scientifically sound collaborative research projects, as already implemented in leading countries.
Taffurelli, Chiara; Sollami, Alfonso; Camera, Carmen; Federa, Francesca; Grandi, Annise; Marino, Marcella; Marrosu, Tiziano; Sarli, Leopoldo
The incidence of Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) is an important indicator of the quality of care. The behaviors associated with the prevention of infections are not only supported by rational knowledge or motivation, but are mediated by social, emotional and often stereotyped behaviors. The awarness of the good practices related to HAI, may be a factor. Other studies, identify how the perception of the problem in healthcare professionals is often influenced by a tendency towards an external Locus of Control: the patient, the family, the other wards, other care settings. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of healthcare professionals. In particular they have been measured their awarness of the good practices, perceptions of the potential contamination level of some commonly used objects, knowledge about the management of invasive devices, Locus of Control. A cross-sectional correlational design was utilized. An ad hoc questionnaire was interviewed by 222 health professionals nurses and physicians in a northern hospital of Italy. The percentage of professionals who have attended training courses over the last 5 years was quite high, both for upgrades on HAI (78.7%) and Vascular Catheters (78.8%), while the percentage of professionals who updated on bladder catheterization (59.46%) was lower. The mean score of good practice awareness towards HAI (5.06), is high. The perception of the potential level of contamination of some devices had a mean ranging from 4.62 (for the drip) to 5.26 (for the door handle). The average value of the Locus of Control (43.54) indicates that participants demonstrated a value that is midway between External and Internal. The correlation test analysis revealed no significant relationships among professionals'age, knowledge about HAI, or infection related venus catheter. Also, results revealed that there were statistically significant positive relationships between professionals' Good Practices
Park, Eliza M; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Ravindranath, Divy; Aquino, Patrick R; Aggarwal, Rashi; Nemeroff, Sarah-Frances P; Gerkin, Jonathan S; Gitlin, David F
The number of interested candidates for psychosomatic medicine (PM) training programs has not matched the growing need for psychiatrists trained to care for complex medically ill patients. The reasons for this lack of growth may be found in the experience of new entrants into the subspecialty. To investigate this issue, we conducted a survey of early career psychiatrists (ECPs) practicing PM to identify the personal and professional characteristics of ECP PM specialists and to examine the relevance of PM training to professional practice. ECPs who attended the 2012 Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine annual meeting or who were registered members of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine completed a survey on training and work experiences. Decisional factors associated with pursuit of subspecialty fellowship education and professional practice patterns were identified using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. A total of 102 ECPs completed the survey. Of the respondents, 67 (67%) had completed a PM fellowship. Motivating factors for pursuing fellowship training included (1) obtaining additional clinical training, (2) developing a special interest in PM training, and (3) improving job candidacy. Overall, 80% of ECPs desired inpatient consultation-liaison positions at the time of fellowship graduation. Overall, 22% reported difficulty in obtaining employment in PM after training. Chi-square tests between subjects who pursued a PM fellowship and those who did not proved nonsignificant. PM fellowship training remains relevant and important to ECPs in this sample. The survey results can be used to shape institutional and professional supports to better meet early career transition needs for PM psychiatrists. Copyright © 2014 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Presents Antonio E. Puente as the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice. "For his decades of efforts to enhance the recognition of psychologists in providing health care services, through his work with the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) Panel to develop and maintain appropriate CPT codes for the breadth of professional practice; for his willingness to participate in litigation establishing the expertise of neuropsychologists to testify in court about their findings; for his tireless work in cross-cultural assessment relative to criminal trials; for his leadership of professional societies in clinical neuropsychology; for his promotion of legislation and policy at all levels of government; and for his countless other contributions to the enhancement of independent practice in psychology. Antonio Puente is a far-thinking visionary who freely shares his knowledge to improve the quality of psychological practice and the reimbursement system that attests to the worth of the profession. He is the very embodiment of the psychologist for whom this award is intended." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Torres, Sara; Richard, Lucie; Guichard, Anne; Chiocchio, François; Litvak, Eric; Beaudet, Nicole
Developing innovative interventions that are in sync with a health promotion paradigm often represents a challenge for professionals working in local public health organizations. Thus, it is critical to have both professional development programs that favor new practices and tools to examine these practices. In this case study, we analyze the health promotion approach used in a pilot intervention addressing children's vulnerability that was developed and carried out by participants enrolled in a public health professional development program. More specifically, we use a modified version of Guichard and Ridde's (Une grille d'analyse des actions pour lutter contre les inégalités sociales de santé. In Potvin, L., Moquet, M.-J. and Jones, C. M. (eds), Réduire les Inégalités Sociales en Santé. INPES, Saint-Denis Cedex, pp. 297-312, 2010) analytical grid to assess deductively the program participants' use of health promotion practices in the analysis and planning, implementation, evaluation, sustainability and empowerment phases of the pilot intervention. We also seek evidence of practices involving (empowerment, participation, equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability) in the intervention. The results are mixed: our findings reveal evidence of the application of several dimensions of health promotion (equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability), but also a lack of integration of two key dimensions; that is, empowerment and participation, during various phases of the pilot intervention. These results show that the professional development program is associated with the adoption of a pilot intervention integrating multiple but not all dimensions of health promotion. We make recommendations to facilitate a more complete integration. This research also shows that the Guichard and Ridde grid proves to be a thorough instrument to document the practices of participants. © The Author 2015. Published by
Aglair Alencar Setubal
Full Text Available The reflections contained in this essay seek to the call attention of professionals, professors and students of Social Work to the importance of research in the various contexts of activity in this field, despite the challenges and difficulties presented in its realization. It offers possibilities for conducting research from a critical professional intervention, in keeping with the concrete reality - the context of professional practice. It also highlights the importance for the preparation of a history of Social Work based on theoretical-methodological postures that consider the wealth, complexity and essence of reality, breaking with the 'pseudoconcreticity', with the utilitarian, manipulative praxis that is constructed in the dimension of a 'common consciousness'. Despite the importance attributed to research, it sought to avoid separating it from human-social reality, given that it is in this context that research acquires meaning, becomes accepted and considers the needs of Social Work as a historic profession.
Fleischmann, Kenneth R.
The biggest challenge facing computer security researchers and professionals is not learning how to make ethical decisions; rather it is learning how to recognize ethical decisions. All too often, technology development suffers from what Langdon Winner terms technological somnambulism - we sleepwalk through our technology design, following past precedents without a second thought, and fail to consider the perspectives of other stakeholders . Computer security research and practice involves a number of opportunities for ethical decisions. For example, decisions about whether or not to automatically provide security updates involve tradeoffs related to caring versus user autonomy. Decisions about online voting include tradeoffs between convenience and security. Finally, decisions about routinely screening e-mails for spam involve tradeoffs of efficiency and privacy. It is critical that these and other decisions facing computer security researchers and professionals are confronted head on as value-laden design decisions, and that computer security researchers and professionals consider the perspectives of various stakeholders in making these decisions.
Morgan, Simon; Ingham, Gerard; Wearne, Susan; Saltis, Tony; Canalese, Rosa; McArthur, Lawrie
Within the apprenticeship model of general practice training, the majority of teaching and learning occurs in the practice under the guidance of the general practice supervisor. One of the foundations of a high-quality general practice training program is the delivery of relevant, evidence-based educational continuing professional development (EdCPD) for general practice supervisors. Despite The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) and the Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM) standards requiring EdCPD, there is currently no standardised educational curriculum for Australian general practice supervisors. There are a number of emerging themes with significant implications for future general practice supervisor EdCPD. These include clinical supervision and structural issues, capacity constraints, and emerging educational issues. We propose the development of a core curriculum for general practice supervisors that is competency-based and evidence-based, and reflects the changing landscape of Australian general practice training. A national general practice supervisor core curriculum would provide standardisation, encourage collaboration, allow for regional adaptation, focus on developing competencies and require rigorous evaluation.
Stahlke Wall, Sarah
Since at least the 1970s in Canada, there have been calls for health system reforms based on innovative roles and expanded scopes of practice for nurses. Professional regulatory organizations, through legislation, define the standards and parameters of professional nursing practice. Nursing regulators emphasize public protection over the advancement of nursing; regulatory processes and decisions tend to be conservative and risk-averse. This study explored the impact that regulatory processes have on innovation in nursing roles. Nurses in a range of unique practice situations were interviewed, including nurses in non-traditional roles and/or settings, those with cross-jurisdictional career histories, and those working in interdisciplinary practices and educational settings. For these nurses, nursing practice was viewed through a traditional clinical lens, which did not fit for them. They experienced hassle, delay, and inconsistencies in regulatory practices. They felt mistreated and fearful of the regulator and lamented the ways in which ambitious, creative, capable nurses were stymied in attempting new applications for nursing knowledge. Nursing is constraining its own mandate to contribute to health care through stringent licensing processes. Healthcare reform provides an opportunity for nursing regulators to rethink their processes and provide the latitude for nurse-driven change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available As the focus of research developed by Jenkins (2009, convergence culture brings changes to journalism; it affects the practices, routines and profiles of its professionals and their relations with the public. One example is TV Folha from Brazil, a program made by professionals in different areas using press equipment and objectives. Their convergent nature affects production processes and favours hybridization of languages and multiplatform production, accentuating the presence of transmedia storytelling; a term adopted by Jenkins to refer to a model which emerged out of media convergence. This study adopted a qualitative methodology using interviews and observational analysis in order to understand the effects convergence culture has on the way journalism is done and the profile of its professionals. This discussion leads us to believe that the challenge is more than just multiplatform production; it is in the relationships developed out of convergence.as the focus of research developed by Jenkins (2009, convergence culture brings changes to journalism; it affects the practices, routines and profiles of its professionals and their relations with the public. One example is TV Folha from Brazil, a program made by professionals in different areas using press equipment and objectives. Their convergent nature affects production processes and favours hybridization of languages and multiplatform production, accentuating the presence of transmedia storytelling; a term adopted by Jenkins to refer to a model which emerged out of media convergence. This study adopted a qualitative methodology using interviews and observational analysis in order to understand the effects convergence culture has on the way journalism is done and the profile of its professionals. This discussion leads us to believe that the challenge is more than just multiplatform production; it is in the relationships developed out of convergence.
Munsie, Megan; Hyun, Insoo
The idea that the body's own stem cells could act as a repair kit for many conditions, including cardiac repair, underpins regenerative medicine. While progress is being made, with hundreds of clinical trials underway to evaluate possible autologous cell-based therapies, some patients and physicians are not prepared to wait and are pursuing treatments without evidence that the proposed treatments are effective, or even safe. This article explores the inherent tension between patients, practitioners and the need to regulate the development and commercialization of new cellular therapies--even when the cells come from the patient. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The idea that the body's own stem cells could act as a repair kit for many conditions, including cardiac repair, underpins regenerative medicine. While progress is being made, with hundreds of clinical trials underway to evaluate possible autologous cell-based therapies, some patients and physicians are not prepared to wait and are pursuing treatments without evidence that the proposed treatments are effective, or even safe. This article explores the inherent tension between patients, practitioners and the need to regulate the development and commercialization of new cellular therapies — even when the cells come from the patient.
Pérez-Campos, M Amparo; Sánchez-García, Inmaculada; Pancorbo-Hidalgo, Pedro L
To assess the professional work environment by Spanish nurses who participate in professional discussion groups on the Internet. A cross-sectional study (online survey) developed in 2011. The study variables were: socio-demographic and professional data; nursing practice environment, using the questionnaire Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI). Out of a total of 295 questionnaires received, 214 were valid (72.54%). Most of the nurses were female (70.6%), with an average age of 43.55 years (SD = 9.82). The average score of the PES-NWI was 2.45 (SD = 0.63). The work environment was assessed as a mixed type, as three subscales scored over 2.5 (nursing foundations for quality of care, nurse manager leadership and support of nurses, and nurse-physician relations). The work environment assessment was influenced by several factors: professional category (P <.001); function (P <.001); and type of centre, which only affected the perception of the nurse-physician relations subscale. The work environment received a moderate evaluation by participants. The staffing and resource adequacy subscale scored the worst, while the nursing foundations for quality of care was the highest scored. Nurses with management function and those with higher positions tended to give a better assessment of the work environment. The nurse-physician relations dimension was higher rated in primary care and nursing homes than in hospitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
This qualitative social scientific interview study delves into the ways in which professional vision is constructed in clinical ethics consultation (CEC). The data consist of 11 semi-structured interviews that were conducted with clinical ethics consultants currently working in hospitals in one major urban area in the U.S. The interviews were analyzed with the qualitative research method of critical discourse analysis, with a focus on identifying the cultural structures of knowledge that shape CEC as a professional practice. The discourses were first identified as belonging to two higher discourse categories, order and agency. Order was divided into three lower categories, emotional, managerial, and rational order, and discourses of agency into the lower categories of exploration, technique, deliberation, and distancing. An additional discourse of neutral interaction was identified as a bridging discourse, activated to level tensions emerging out of conflicting goals and agencies embedded in CEC practice. This analysis brings out as its main observation that clinical ethics consultants draw on and shift between potentially ideologically conflicting social positions that can create built-in tensions within the professional domain. The study calls attention to these tensions and suggests for the professional group to discuss the possibility of defining priorities between different kinds of order, identified in this study, that shape the CEC domain. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Emond, Yvette; de Groot, Jos; Wetzels, Wendy; van Osch, Liesbeth
Many cancer patients turn to the Internet to obtain information on their disease. This digital quest is often motivated by a perceived discrepancy between the information received from health professionals and patients' actual informational needs. This discrepancy may be reduced by supplementing standard patient education with reliable online information sources. This study investigates health professionals' opinions, cognitions, and behavior regarding referring cancer patients to Internet-based information. Online and written questionnaires were distributed among Dutch oncology nurses and medical specialists, measuring perception of patients' informational needs, prompted and unprompted Internet referral, and socio-cognitive factors regarding referral behavior. Health professionals (N = 130) positively appraised Internet use among cancer patients. Despite recognizing patients' needs for additional information (84%) and need for referral to reliable websites (67%), only 20% frequently referred patients to Internet-based information. Prompted Internet referral was higher (64%). Motives for nonreferral included unfamiliarity with websites and uncertainty about information quality. Intentions towards future referral were moderate to high. To translate intentions into referral, health professionals need reminder tools and information on reliability and content of websites. Cognitive determinants of referral behavior included professionals' attitude, self-efficacy, and intentions regarding referral. Recognition of patients' information needs does not culminate in Internet referral among health professionals in cancer care. High intentions to change, however, indicate good prospects for future referral. This study yields valuable insights into behavioral determinants of health professionals' Internet referral behavior. Targeting determinants and barriers in future interventions will provide opportunities for optimization of educational practices. Copyright © 2011 John
Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel
There is consensus that reliable ground models, based on a sound understanding of the geology and surface processes are vital as a basis for natural hazard identification and risk assessment, and there is a great deal of skill and experience in the geoscience community with mapping, modelling and predicting natural hazards and their likely impacts. This presentation will highlight the contributions of geology and geomorphology in the identification of natural hazards and mitigation of their impacts. It will then consider a range of "professional skills" that are needed by geoscientists working with other specialists and non-specialists (e.g. engineers, emergency services, land-use planners, architects responsible for building codes, politicians, regulators, the public etc) alongside technical and scientific excellence. It will argue that development and application of both scientific/technical and professional skills is essential to ensure that the maps, models and other data relevant to natural hazards and environmental change are used to provide effective public protection through communication, land-use planning and planning for resilience. The professional skills of particular importance include interdisciplinary collaboration; project management; cost-benefit analysis; effective communication with specialists and non specialists (especially the public); and facilitative skills. All the technical, scientific and professional skills need to be applied competently and with the highest standards of ethical underpinning. The contribution will consider how this can be achieved (or at least facilitated) through professional training, award of professional titles, licensure etc, drawing on international examples of best practice in professional codes of conduct and regulation directed to the protection of the public.
Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde; Lund, Jens Hansen; Beck, Mette Holdsendorf
understandings of the relationship between teacher education and professional practice. We found that this relationship may impact how a teacher or manager actually practices the profession of education, including the methods teachers employ to teach, the methods the student teachers employ to teach......, and on the education totality. We also found that a lack of explanation of the educational paradigms to which teachers adhere may influence students’ optimal professional development.......In the Center for Didactic Methods and Approaches, VIA University College, we have developed a didactic model of reflection for teachers and managers with the purpose of reflecting on education, teaching, and explaining the educators’ educational paradigms. During the work, we found different...
Miller, Jennifer Renea
This study investigated a Makerspace professional development program, the Makers' Guild, provided to teachers within north Texas over the course of a semester. The research employed a constructionist approach delivered via 2D and 3D technologies during STEM instructional activities within a creative space. Participants reported statistically…
Osakwe, Adeline; Oreagba, Ibrahim; Adewunmi, Adebowale J; Adekoya, Abisola; Fajolu, Iretiola
Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug related problem.. The effectiveness of this system revolves on the active participation of the healthcare practitioners. Poor knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance has necessitated training of healthcare professionals in different parts of Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to determine the knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance amongst health professionals in Nigeria and the impact of previous training in pharmacovigilance on their knowledge and practice. In this descriptive cross sectional study, purposive and systematic random sampling method was used in selecting health facilities and health care practitioners respectively. Data were collected using a three-part peer-reviewed structured questionnaire administered through electronic mail (25) and self administration by healthcare professionals (316). Respondents who had received training on pharmacovigilance had better knowledge of correct definition of pharmacovigilance (P = 0.001) and better theoretical knowledge and practice scores of pharmacovigilance (P = 0.001). Receiving quarterly newsletters was not significantly associated (p = 0.220) with improved knowledge of pharmacovigilance. Overall, knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance in Nigeria was still below average. The main challenges faced in the reporting and detecting of ADR were lack of awareness, poor communication, lack of continuity in training and poor funding. Although training was associated with improved knowledge and practice of pharmacovigilance amongst the health care providers studied, its overall impact was mild. Strengthened awareness creation and innovations in PV training methods are necessary to improve the efficiency of the program.
Russell-Rose, Tony; Chamberlain, Jon
Background Healthcare information professionals play a key role in closing the knowledge gap between medical research and clinical practice. Their work involves meticulous searching of literature databases using complex search strategies that can consist of hundreds of keywords, operators, and ontology terms. This process is prone to error and can lead to inefficiency and bias if performed incorrectly. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the search behavior of healthcare inform...
Li, Shujuan; Yang, Bo; Yan, Jie
3D digital graphics and representation have been a critical part in landscape architecture professional practice. However, few studies have been conducted to document how 3D digital graphics are currently being used. Some important questions are largely unknown. For example, who are the primary users of 3D digital graphics programs, and what are the most popular 3D software packages, and why. A better understanding of these questions is not only important to practitioners, but also to educato...
Persky, Adam M; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E
The flipped classroom is growing in popularity in health professional education. As such, instructors are experiencing various growing pains in functionalizing this model, from justifying the approach to managing time inside and outside of class to assessing impact on learning. This review focuses on some key theories that support the flipped model and translates those key theories into practice across core aspects of the flipped classroom: pre-class preparation, in-class activities, after-class activities and assessment of student learning.
The Thesis represents seven different stories of pedagogical workers, who have innovation in common, and share a strong vision and passion to work. They are all founders of innovative pedagogical practices, approaches and/or institutions. This research includes qualitative analyses of interviews with active individuals who implemented holistic and long-term changes in the Slovenian educational field. Interviewees shared their professional and personal life paths impeded with a variety of inte...
Katane, Irena; Katans, Edgars; Īriste, Sandra
The ecological approach offers a wide range of opportunities regarding performing of interdisciplinary research in the educational sciences, as well as comprises significant potential of innovative, creative pedagogical activities in practice. One of the ways of the implementation of ecological approach is the workplace-based learning. The workplace-based learning are both scientific conception and strategy for the elaboration and development of professional education dual system in the state...
Anatoliy G. Gritchenko
Full Text Available The article outlines the theoretical and practical aspects of software training aids development and implementation in professional preparation practice of technological education teacher. The myriad opportunities of new information technologies are described; the characteristic features of modern software training tool (STT are revealed; the main algorithmic structure circuits of training programs construction (linear, cyclic, with hyperlinks, to the labels, which enable the development of STT variety and functionality are given; the methodology of STT creating is described based on the analysis of the technology teacher preparation in HEE content, MITE didactic functions and selection criteria of educational software for this area of specialist’s preparation.
Morin, P; Guillois, B; Gloanec, L; Chatelier, N; Saint-Lorant, G
Adverse drug events are a daily concern in neonatology departments. The aim of this study was to assess the professional practices of preparation and administration of injectable forms of medications in neonatology. A professional practice evaluation with regard to the preparation and administration of various injectable forms of medications in different neonatology units within a given department was conducted by a pharmacy intern based on an assessment grid comprising ten criteria. Following an initial assessment, the results were presented to the care team, which validated the corrective measures put forward by a multiprofessional work group. A second assessment was conducted following the same methodology. Fifty of the department's 76 pediatric nurses were assessed during the first round of the audit and 21 during the second round. Two improvement priorities were identified: taking account of the dead volume of medication in needles and syringe hubs, together with complete identification of syringes used to administer medication. During the second round, these two aspects were improved, progressing from 38% to 100% and from 59% to 89%, respectively. To improve drug administration in neonatology and consequently, to improve patient safety, professional practice evaluation is an essential tool that requires close collaboration between the paramedical team, physicians and pharmacists. Its main value lies in the mobilization of the entire team around the subject in question, hence generating improved understanding and application of corrective measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
I. B. Ardashkin
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze and summarize the Russian best practices of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the professional activity of the academic staff; to identify the role of motivational factors as a method to manage and control the publication activity of the academic staff.Methods. The authors address the methodology of comprehensive research based on the method of document analysis, comparative analysis, and method of secondary use of sociological and psychological data.Results and scientific novelty concludes in presenting Russian and international best practices generalized on using the publication activity to assess the engagement of HEI (Higher Educational Institution academic staff; the most appropriate formats of using the publication activity as a criterion to assess the research component of the academic staff engagement are defined. Degree of reliability of this criterion is shown – its strengths and shortcomings. The conclusion is drawn on need of the essential changes in management of publication activity affecting both professional and motivational spheres of scientific and pedagogical staff. The most acceptable options of measurement of staff work efficiency of this category are formulated.Practical significance. The research outcomes can be the corpus for designing the assessment method for the professional engagement of the academic staff.
Singer, Jonathan; Lotter, Christine; Feller, Robert; Gates, Harry
A hallmark of current science education reform involves teaching through inquiry. However, the widespread use of inquiry-based instruction in many classrooms has not occurred (Roehrig and Luft in Int J Sci Educ 26:3-24, 2004; Schneider et al. in J Res Sci Teach 42:283-312, 2005). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a professional development program on middle school science teachers' ability to enact inquiry-based pedagogical practices. Data were generated through evaluation of teacher practice using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawada et al. in School Sci Math 102:245-253, 2002) at three distinct junctures, before, during, and after the professional development treatment. Analysis of teacher-participant post-institute reflections was then utilized to determine the perceived role of the various institute components. Statistical significant changes in RTOP scores indicated that the teachers were able to successfully transfer the enactment of the inquiry-based practices into their classrooms. The subsequent discussion provides connection between these pedagogical changes with use of professional development strategies that provide a situated learning environment.
Forsetlund, Louise; Bjørndal, Arild; Rashidian, Arash; Jamtvedt, Gro; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Wolf, Fredric; Davis, Dave; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Oxman, Andrew D
Educational meetings are widely used for continuing medical education. Previous reviews found that interactive workshops resulted in moderately large improvements in professional practice, whereas didactic sessions did not. To assess the effects of educational meetings on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Trials Register and pending file, from 1999 to March 2006. Randomised controlled trials of educational meetings that reported an objective measure of professional practice or healthcare outcomes. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Studies with a low or moderate risk of bias and that reported baseline data were included in the primary analysis. They were weighted according to the number of health professionals participating. For each comparison, we calculated the risk difference (RD) for dichotomous outcomes, adjusted for baseline compliance; and for continuous outcomes the percentage change relative to the control group average after the intervention, adjusted for baseline performance. Professional and patient outcomes were analysed separately. We considered 10 factors to explain heterogeneity of effect estimates using weighted meta-regression supplemented by visual analysis of bubble and box plots. In updating the review, 49 new studies were identified for inclusion. A total of 81 trials involving more than 11,000 health professionals are now included in the review. Based on 30 trials (36 comparisons), the median adjusted RD in compliance with desired practice was 6% (interquartile range 1.8 to 15.9) when any intervention in which educational meetings were a component was compared to no intervention. Educational meetings alone had similar effects (median adjusted RD 6%, interquartile range 2.9 to 15.3; based on 21 comparisons in 19 trials). For continuous outcomes the median adjusted percentage change relative to
van Driel, Jan H.; Beijaard, Douwe; Verloop, Nico
In this article, professional development in the context of the current reforms in science education is discussed from the perspective of developing teachers' practical knowledge. It is argued that reform efforts in the past have often been unsuccessful because they failed to take teachers' existing knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes into account. Teachers' practical knowledge is conceptualized as action-oriented and person-bound. As it is constructed by teachers in the context of their work, practical knowledge integrates experiential knowledge, formal knowledge, and personal beliefs. To capture this complex type of knowledge, multimethod designs are necessary. On the basis of a literature review, it is concluded that long-term professional development programs are needed to achieve lasting changes in teachers' practical knowledge. In particular, the following strategies are potentially powerful: (a) learning in networks, (b) peer coaching, (c) collaborative action research, and (d) the use of cases. In any case, it is recommended that teachers' practical knowledge be investigated at the start of a reform project, and that changes in this knowledge be monitored throughout the project. In that way, the reform project may benefit from teachers' expertise. Moreover, this makes it possible to adjust the reform so as to enhance the chances of a successful implementation.
Patterson, Freyr; Fleming, Jennifer; Marshall, Kathryn; Ninness, Nadine
Professional practice education is a core and essential component of occupational therapy training. With increasing numbers of education programmes and more students requiring professional practice placements, development of innovative models of professional practice education has emerged, but these require investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate student experiences and perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program model of professional practice education in an inpatient brain injury rehabilitation unit. A qualitative approach, guided by phenomenological theory was used. Participants were 15 students who had completed a professional practice placement in the Student-Led Groups Program. Data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically. Three over-arching themes emerged from the data; balance of support and freedom, development of clinical skills and missed opportunities. Students described how the structure of the placement facilitated independent learning and autonomy that was balanced with support from clinicians and student peers. Students perceived that they had developed a breadth of clinical skills and also had missed some learning opportunities in this professional practice placement structure. Overall student perceptions of the Student-Led Groups Program were positive, supporting the continued use of this model of professional practice education in this setting. The results highlight the value of structured and consistent approaches for supervision, including the use of formal approaches to peer supervision in the initial stages of learning. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Harding, Trevor S; Carpenter, Donald D; Finelli, Cynthia J; Passow, Honor J
Previous research indicates that students in engineering self-report cheating in college at higher rates than those in most other disciplines. Prior work also suggests that participation in one deviant behavior is a reasonable predictor of future deviant behavior. This combination of factors leads to a situation where engineering students who frequently participate in academic dishonesty are more likely to make unethical decisions in professional practice. To investigate this scenario, we propose the hypotheses that (1) there are similarities in the decision-making processes used by engineering students when considering whether or not to participate in academic and professional dishonesty, and (2) prior academic dishonesty by engineering students is an indicator of future decisions to act dishonestly. Our sample consisted of undergraduate engineering students from two technically-oriented private universities. As a group, the sample reported working full-time an average of six months per year as professionals in addition to attending classes during the remaining six months. This combination of both academic and professional experience provides a sample of students who are experienced in both settings. Responses to open-ended questions on an exploratory survey indicate that students identify common themes in describing both temptations to cheat or to violate workplace policies and factors which caused them to hesitate in acting unethically, thus supporting our first hypothesis and laying the foundation for future surveys having forced-choice responses. As indicated by the responses to forced-choice questions for the engineering students surveyed, there is a relationship between self-reported rates of cheating in high school and decisions to cheat in college and to violate workplace policies; supporting our second hypothesis. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrates connections between decision-making about both academic and professional dishonesty. If better
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR reporting among Healthcare Professionals.Methods: A cross-sectional study was done by survey using questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed to 260 healthcare professionals working at M.R. Medical College and S Nijalingappa Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalaburagi, India.Results: Out 260 people 221 provided the response, giving a response rate of 85%. Among respondents 69.68% were Doctors, 23.53% were Nurses and 6.78% were Pharmacists. 71% of the healthcare professionals knew what are ADRs, 62.4% knew what is pharmacovigilance, 35.7% were aware of Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI and 21.7% knew nearest pharmacovigilance center. 50.2% had seen patients experiencing ADR out of which only 8.1% of them have reported ADR to the concerned unit. 72.4% feel that all the cases of ADR should be reported irrespective of seriousness. Concern that report may be wrong and fear of legal liability were the main factors discouraging them for reporting ADR. Local coordination, Financial Support, ADR reporting awareness programmes were the major expectations from respondents.Conclusion: Healthcare professionals working at HKE Society’s M.R. Medical College and S Nijalingappa Institute of Dental Sciences have positive attitudes towards ADR reporting. However knowledge regarding ADR reporting among Doctors is superior to that of Nurses and Pharmacists, awareness programmes can overcome this problem. But the practice of ADR reporting is poor among all Healthcare professionals.
Gené-Badia, Joan; Gallo, Pedro; Caïs, Jordi; Sánchez, Emília; Carrion, Carme; Arroyo, Liliana; Aymerich, Marta
To identify the relevant barriers and enablers perceived by primary care professionals in implementing the recommendations of clinical practice guidelines (CPG). Two focus groups were conducted with primary care physicians and nurses in Catalonia (Spain) between October and December 2012. Thirty-nine health professionals were selected based on their knowledge and daily use of CPG. Finally, eight general practitioners and eight nurses were included in the discussion groups. Participants were asked to share their views and beliefs on the accessibility of CPG, their knowledge and use of these documents, the content and format of CPG, dissemination strategy, training, professional-patient relationship, and the use of CPG by the management structure. We recorded and transcribed the content verbatim and analysed the data using qualitative analysis techniques. Physicians believed that, overall, CPG were of little practical use and frequently referred to them as a largely bureaucratic management control instrument that threatened their professional autonomy. In contrast, nurses believed that CPG were rather helpful tools in their day-to-day practice, although they would like them to be more sensitive to the current role of nurses. Both groups believed that CPG did not provide a response to most of the decisions they faced in the primary care setting. Compliance with CPG recommendations would be improved if these documents were brief, non-compulsory, not cost-containment oriented, more based on nursing care models, sensitive to the specific needs of primary care patients, and integrated into the computer workstation. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.
Eva, Kevin W; Bordage, Georges; Campbell, Craig; Galbraith, Robert; Ginsburg, Shiphra; Holmboe, Eric; Regehr, Glenn
Despite multifaceted attempts to "protect the public," including the implementation of various assessment practices designed to identify individuals at all stages of training and practice who underperform, profound deficiencies in quality and safety continue to plague the healthcare system. The purpose of this reflections paper is to cast a critical lens on current assessment practices and to offer insights into ways in which they might be adapted to ensure alignment with modern conceptions of health professional education for the ultimate goal of improved healthcare. Three dominant themes will be addressed: (1) The need to redress unintended consequences of competency-based assessment; (2) The potential to design assessment systems that facilitate performance improvement; and (3) The importance of ensuring authentic linkage between assessment and practice. Several principles cut across each of these themes and represent the foundational goals we would put forward as signposts for decision making about the continued evolution of assessment practices in the health professions: (1) Increasing opportunities to promote learning rather than simply measuring performance; (2) Enabling integration across stages of training and practice; and (3) Reinforcing point-in-time assessments with continuous professional development in a way that enhances shared responsibility and accountability between practitioners, educational programs, and testing organizations. Many of the ideas generated represent suggestions for strategies to pilot test, for infrastructure to build, and for harmonization across groups to be enabled. These include novel strategies for OSCE station development, formative (diagnostic) assessment protocols tailored to shed light on the practices of individual clinicians, the use of continuous workplace-based assessment, and broadening the focus of high-stakes decision making beyond determining who passes and who fails. We conclude with reflections on systemic (i
Skela-Savič, Brigita; Hvalič-Touzery, Simona; Pesjak, Katja
To establish the connection between values, competencies, selected job characteristics and evidence-based practice use. Nurses rarely apply evidence-based practice in everyday work. A recent body of research has looked at various variables explaining the use of evidence-based practice, but not values and competencies. A cross-sectional, non-experimental quantitative explorative research design. Standardized instruments were used (Nurse Professional Values Scale-R, Nurse Competence Scale, Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Implementation Scale). The sample included 780 nurses from 20 Slovenian hospitals. The data were collected in 2015. The study identifies two new variables contributing to a better understanding of beliefs on and implementation of evidence-based practice, thus broadening the existing research evidence. These are the values of activism and professionalism and competencies aimed at the development and professionalization of nursing. Values of caring, trust and justice and competencies expected in everyday practice do not influence the beliefs and implementation of evidence-based practice. Respondents ascribed less importance to values connected with activism and professionalism and competencies connected with the development of professionalism. Nurses agree that evidence-based practice is useful in their clinical work, but they lack the knowledge to implement it in practice. Evidence-based practice implementation in nursing practice is low. Study results stress the importance of increasing the knowledge and skills on professional values of activism and professionalism and competencies connected to nursing development. The study expands the current understanding of evidence-based practice use and provides invaluable insight for nursing managers, higher education managers and the national nursing association. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background D-CPR (Defibrillator Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation is a technique for optimal basic life support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Guidelines recommend that healthcare professionals can perform CPR with competence. How CPR training and provision is organized varies between hospitals, and it is our impression that in Sweden this has generally improved during the last 15-20 years. However, some hospitals still do not have any AED (Automated External Defibrillators. The aim was to investigate potential differences in practical skills between different healthcare professions before and after training in D-CPR. Methods Seventy-four healthcare professionals were video recorded and evaluated for adherence to a modified Cardiff Score. A Laerdal Resusci Anne manikin in connection to PC Skill reporting System was used to evaluate CPR quality. A simulated CPR situation was accomplished during a 5-10 min scenario of ventricular fibrillation. Paired and unpaired statistical methods were used to examine differences within and between occupations with respect to the intervention. Results There were no differences in skills among the different healthcare professions, except for compressions per minute. In total, the number of compression per minute and depth improved for all groups (P P Conclusion Nearly all healthcare professionals learned to use the AED. There were no differences in CPR skill performances among the different healthcare professionals.
Hancock, Helen C; Easen, Patrick R
Current day realities of diminishing resources, reductions in spending and organizational change within health care systems have resulted in an increased emphasis on a multidisciplinary team approach to quality patient care. The movement of nursing towards more autonomous practice combined with the current trend towards 'evidence-based practice' in health care demands increased accountability in clinical decision making. This paper focuses on one aspect of nurses' clinical decision making within the demands of evidence-based practice and cardiac surgery. In this field recent advances, combined with increasing demands on health care institutions, have promoted early extubation of post-operative cardiac patients. While this remains a medical role in many institutions, an increasing number of intensive care units now consider it as a nursing role. This paper explores the realities of nurses' clinical decision making through a discussion of current practice in the extubation of patients following cardiac surgery. In addition, it considers the implications of current practice for both nurse education and the continued development of clinical nursing practice. The findings indicate that evidence-based practice appears to be an incomplete model of the relationship between theory and professional work.
Full Text Available In the past decade, health and human service educational programs have transitioned to competence-based outcomes to enhance the quality of graduating professionals. While such outcomes are a critical step in ensuring professional quality, they require curricular and pedagogical adjustments that do not fit easily within university environments. Technology has eased many problems of fit through the development of hybrid and flipped courses that allow on-campus time to be better focused on developing professional skills. This study explored the question: Can flipped delivery improve competence-based outcomes in social work practice classes? The study assessed pedagogical adjustments that integrated competence-based learning principles with flipped classroom delivery. Principles of organizing the class to maximize competence development are explored and illustrated. Improved competence development and student satisfaction were demonstrated in three flipped practice courses with a combined sample size of 269 Bachelor of Social Work (BSW and Masters of Social Work (MSW students. Researchers concluded that using flipped-classroom methods enhanced the students’ capacity to apply concepts and develop skills. In particular, the ability to receive and process feedback on applied skills was improved.
Khalil, Kathayoon; Ardoin, Nicole M; Wojcik, Deborah
The accessibility and ubiquity of zoos and aquariums-which reach over 700 million people worldwide annually-make them critical sites for science and environmental learning. Through educational offerings, these sites can generate excitement and curiosity about nature and motivate stewardship behavior, but only if their programs are high quality and meet the needs of their audiences. Evaluation is, therefore, critical: knowing what works, for whom, and under what conditions must be central to these organizations. Yet, many zoo and aquarium educators find evaluation to be daunting, and they are challenged to implement evaluations and/or use the findings iteratively in program development and improvement. This article examines how zoo education professionals engage with one another in a learning community related to evaluation. We use a communities of practice lens and social network analysis to understand the structure of this networked learning community, considering changes over time. Our findings suggest that individuals' roles in a networked learning community are influenced by factors such as communicative convenience and one's perceptions of others' evaluation expertise, which also contribute to forming and sustaining professional relationships. This study illuminates how project-based professional networks can become communities of practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ghanem, Samia; Glaoui, Meriem; Elkhoyaali, Siham; Mesmoudi, Mohamed; Boutayeb, Saber; Errihani, Hassan
Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Morocco. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that female healthcare professionals have greater influence on women's positive perception of breast cancer and motivation to practice screening methods for early detection of the disease. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Morocco. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 136 female doctors and nurses working in the university hospital of Rabat, Morocco. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v19.0. Female doctors were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors while the nurses had an unsatisfactory knowledge with a mean score of 43%. A half of participants believed that that herbal therapy can cure breast cancer. 75% practice breast self-examination once a month and only 15% have ever had a mammogram. Age, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study; however this rate is influenced by knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programs aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among the nurses.
Sievert, Anne; Chaiklin, Seth
The three-fold purpose of this paper is to (a) present a theoretical argument about the role of models in professional education (drawing upon ideas developed by Davydov), (b) argue for the need for a general model of a profession’s practice within that education, and (c) present the results of our...... attempt to formulate such a general model for nursing practice. As part of his work on developing a general approach for subject-matter teaching for schoolchildren, Vasili Davydov elaborated the importance of using models as a way of developing theoretical thinking (i.e., understanding the general......, abstract relations that organise a phenomenon and the capabilities to relate these general relations to concrete situations, known as ‘rising from the abstract to the concrete’). Given that theoretical thinking can (or should) be found in many other spheres of practice than primary education, it is obvious...
Pastushenko, I; Prieto-Torres, L; Gilaberte, Y; Blanpain, C
Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the different cell lineages of their tissue of origin. The discovery of stem cells in adult tissues, together with the description of specific markers for their isolation, has opened up new lines of investigation, expanding the horizons of biomedical research and raising new hope in the treatment of many diseases. In this article, we review in detail the main characteristics of the stem cells that produce the specialized cells of the skin (epidermal, mesenchymal, and melanocyte stem cells) and their potential implications and applications in diseases affecting the skin. Part I deals with the principal characteristics and potential applications of epidermal stem cells in dermatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Abdelmoumene, N.; Le Moign, R.
In France, accreditation of health care organisations (HCOs) is mandatory every 4 years. It is based on a systemic approach and, since 2004, includes professional practice appraisal (EPP) against good practice guidelines. However, following an incident in Epinal, a new quality assurance criterion was introduced in 2007 for external radiotherapy (ERT) on top of the annual inspection of patient radiation protection by the Nuclear Safety Authority. In the accreditation procedure starting January 2010, ERT work organisation will come under 'high-risk activity' (criterion 26b) and radio-vigilance will be included in the adverse events reporting system (8i). In addition, ERT will have to comply with many generic criteria on quality and safety improvement. For example, practice appraisal of all clinical activities will become routine. Thus, besides self-assessment against criteria 26b and 8i, ERT professionals will have report the impact of their quality improvement actions on patient care. They will be able to freely choose the area for improvement, as long as it is in line with the HCO's overall quality and safety plan. In oncology, multidisciplinary team meetings for deciding on the treatment plan, as well as mortality and morbidity meetings providing feedback, are compulsory (28a). Appraisal of appropriateness of care (28b) and indicator-based practice appraisal (28c) complete the process. In conclusion, the generic practice appraisal approach that is part of the French HCO accreditation procedure can contribute toward improving health care and education, but it has not been designed for in-depth assessment of complex, multidisciplinary clinical practice such as ERT. Such assessment requires a specific clinical audit and specialized auditors. (authors)
Full Text Available Communities of Practice. Niches for cooperation between experts-by-experience and professionals in community developmentSince 2000, problems in the care of people with multiple complex problems have been on the increase. These people can often have problems in multiple domains of life which may reinforce each other in a negative way. Unfortunately, these people, who need care more than others, often do not receive appropriate care. This is due to the compartmentalized way in which care is organized. Caregiving is supply-oriented and not tailored to the needs and abilities of these people. Two studies, “Bridge building” by Kal (2001 and “A theory of presence” by Baart (2001 have helped to put this topic onto the social agenda.However, a method has been developed in mental health care to support people with psychiatric problems in everyday life. Beginning on a small scale in the 1990s, the use of a social support system involves a network of individuals and organizations that supports those with a history of psychiatric issues in their daily lives. The bridge builders (professionals who work towards an inclusive society and the “experts-by-experience” are at the centre of this social support system. They try to eliminate any mismatches and to align the support needed with the support provided. To prevent the compartmentalization of the care, they seek to cooperate with the organizations involved in the household. Based on the principle of joint responsibility, they manage the care given in consultation with the people concerned.Since 2010, care in the Netherlands has increasingly become community-based. Professionals who were previously based in different institutions for people with mental illness, addiction or a mental disability, now organize themselves regionally. Their work has changed in two ways: firstly, they must now cooperate with professionals from different sectors working in a particular area, and secondly, their work
Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Kutesa, Annet; Baingana, Rhona; Muhumuza, Christine; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Chalo, Rose Nabirye; Sewankambo, Nelson K
Students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) are introduced to ethics and professionalism using the inter-professional education (IPE) model. Ethics and professionalism should be running themes throughout succeeding years of study during which students are expected to develop qualities and skills for future inter-professional practice (IPP). We performed a situation analysis of IPE and IPP among students and teaching health professionals at MakCHS to guide development of a relevant training curriculum of ethics and professionalism. A cross sectional study with quantitative and qualitative methods which included questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. We interviewed 236 undergraduate students (148, 63 % male) and 32 teaching health professionals (25, 78 % male). Two hundred fifteen (91 %) students indicated they had joint learning activities with students of other professions and 166 (70 %) stated there was benefit in having an IPE model training curriculum. Most students (140, 59 %) strongly agreed that learning with other students will make them more effective members of the health team. Whereas the respondents reported inter professionalism as being well articulated in their course curricula, more than half said IPE is only implemented in the pre-clinical years of study. They noted that IPE and IPP concepts were not well programmed, health professionals engaged in teaching had poor attitudes towards IPE and IPP, there were limited numbers of skilled health care workers to implement IPP and there was poor communication between students and teaching health professionals. Majority of teaching health professionals noted challenges in implementation of IPE such as poor coordination and large student population and major factors influencing ethics and professionalism in healthcare such as limited government support, low pay for the health care workers, disrespect and lack of appreciation of the health workers by the
Full Text Available The work addresses the relationship between law and politics in the early 70s. More precisely aims to identify and reconstruct the main features that assumes the defense of political prisoners in this period. Rather than a specific work, means that the defense of political prisoners in those years represented a new configuration that was able to articulate a new association of legal professionals, renewed defense strategies, a vast and systematic effort of denunciation, a fluid network of lawyers national and a peculiar rhetoric aimed at the formation of a “new law”. Conceived in these terms, we believe that the defense of political prisoners in the early ‘70s redefined the conventional modes of understanding the relationship between professional practice, law and politics, encouraging the emergence of a new model of counsel in the public sphere.
Polin, Linda G.
This chapter describes academic life at the intersection of three related topics: community of practice (CoP), a pedagogical model; digital culture, as embodied in the current and future student population; and post-secondary education, in particular graduate professional education. The aim is to illustrate ways in which social computing applications enable the use of a CoP model in graduate professional education. The illustrations are drawn from two hybrid, or blended, degree programs (a mix of face-to-face and online interactions) at the graduate school of education and psychology at Pepperdine University. These fully accredited programs have each been in operation for more than a decade. One is the MA degree in educational technology, begun in 1998; the other is the EdD degree in educational technology leadership, begun in 1995.
A change in British health care has resulted in a broadening of roles and responsibilities beyond 'traditional boundaries' for a range of health care professionals. This has occurred because of staff shortages (particularly within the medical profession) and the recognition that many 'non-doctor' health care staff can make safe, competent and effective contributions outside their 'normal' sphere of responsibilities. In the context of advanced clinical practice, this paper will explain the current arrangements for radiographers' roles and responsibilities, their accountability and the educational provision that underpins the development of competencies at these higher clinical levels. Some advanced roles that British radiographers perform, within their current normal responsibilities, will be identified and some British legislation and professional body guidance that make role advancement possible will be outlined. The article will conclude with an indication of the educational level at which the advanced competencies are learned and assessed. (author)
Katsikitis, Mary; McAllister, Margaret; Sharman, Rachael; Raith, Lisa; Faithfull-Byrne, Annette; Priaulx, Rae
Australian nurses and midwives are expected to compile a professional development portfolio during their annual registration process. This study aimed to ascertain the current understanding, practice and future continuing professional development (CPD) needs of nurses and midwives employed in a regional area of Queensland, Australia. Perceived barriers and incentives for CPD were also measured. 289 public and private hospital nurses and midwives responded to the survey. Results showed that participants understood the new requirements, valued ongoing learning, preferred education to occur within work hours, and considered their workplaces as accepting of change. Approximately two-thirds of participants believed CPD should be shared between them and their employers. Barriers to undertaking CPD included understaffing, and the concern that CPD would interfere with time outside work. Organisational support positively influenced attitudes to CPD. This study highlights the importance of supportive management in encouraging their workforce to embrace ongoing learning and change.
Lotter, Christine R.; Thompson, Stephen; Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Smiley, Whitney F.; Blue, Genine; Rea, Mary
This study examined changes in middle school teachers' beliefs about inquiry, implementation of inquiry practices, and self-efficacy to teach science through inquiry after participating in a year-long professional development program. The professional development model design was based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory of learning and…
Peberdy, Lisa; Young, Jeanine; Kearney, Lauren
Collection and storage of an infant's cord blood at birth is an option available to many new parents. Antenatal health care providers have an important role in providing non-biased and evidence based information to expectant parents about cord blood and tissue banking options. The aim of this paper was to identify and review studies of health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning cord blood banking and the sources by which healthcare professionals obtained their information on this topic. An integrative review was conducted using several electronic databases to identify papers on health care professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to cord blood banking. The CASP tool was used to determine validity and quality of the studies included in the review. The search of the international literature identified nine papers which met review inclusion criteria. The literature review identified that there was little focus placed on antenatal health care professionals' knowledge of cord blood banking options despite these health care professionals being identified by expectant parents as their preferred, key source of information. Limited high quality studies have investigated what health care professionals know and communicate to expectant parents regarding cord blood banking. Further research should focus on understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals and how they communicate with expectant parents about this issue. In addition, how this knowledge influences professional practice around birth is also important, as this may positively or negatively impact the information that is provided to expectant parents.
Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene
The study examines the impact of professional development on the topic of poverty in one high poverty school community located in a small city in southern Ontario, Canada. It considers narrative-based experiences of teachers' collaborative inquiry on literacy practices after a significant amount of professional development was provided to…
Katarina Ivana Tudor
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines are systematically created documents that summarize knowledge and assist in delivering high-quality medicine by identifying evidence that supports best clinical care. They are produced not only by international professional groups but also by local professionals to address locally-relevant clinical practice. We evaluated the methodological rigour and transparency of guideline development in neurology formulated by professionals in a local medical community. METHODS: We analyzed clinical guidelines in neurology publicly available at the web-site of the Physicians' Assembly in Croatia in 2012: 6 guidelines developed by Croatian authors and 1 adapted from the European Federation of Neurological Societies. The quality was assessed by 2 independent evaluators using the AGREE II instrument. We also conducted a search of the Cochrane Library to identify potential changes in recommendation from Cochrane systematic reviews included in guideline preparation. RESULTS: The methodological quality of the guidelines greatly varied across different domains. "Scope and Purpose" and "Clarity of Presentation" domains received high scores (100% [95% confidence interval (CI 98.5-100] and 97% [77.9-100], respectively, the lowest scores were in "Stakeholder Involvement" (19% [15.5-34.6] and "Editorial Independence" (0% [0-19.2]. Conclusions of 3 guidelines based on Cochrane systematic reviews were confirmed in updated versions and one update provided new information on the effectiveness of another antidepressant. Two Cochrane reviews used in guidelines were withdrawn and split into new reviews and their findings are now considered to be out of date. CONCLUSION: Neurological guidelines used in Croatia differ in structure and their methodological quality. We recommend to national societies and professional groups to develop a more systematic and rigorous approach to the development of the guidelines, timely inclusion of best
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of professional nursing practice in private enterprise health care services in the Republic of South Africa. In the light of the future health care needs and the relationship between the private and public sector health care establishments, information about the role and task of the I professional nurse was needed. Information would provide a data base about the registered nurse and so facilitate future health care planning. An exploratory field study was undertaken to locate the various work environments of the registered nurse in four statistical urban regions. Questionnaires were handed out and collected from a proportional stratified sample of professional nurses who were working in thirteen types of health care environments in the period between I June 1983 and 30 September 1983. A return rate of 68 percent yielded 340 completed questionnaires from 501 registered nurses. The study revealed that the majority of nurses in the private sector were relatively young. White, female, English-speaking professionals who were practising in four broad areas of health care: • Custodial care environments such as residential homes for the aged, institutions for the chronic sick and frail aged, homes for children and homes for the adult handicapped. • Hospitals and related special health centres catering for drug addicts, alcoholics and patients suffering from psychiatric/nervous disorders. • Institutions for child and adult education which included crèches/nursery schools, primary and secondary hoarding schools, special schools for the handicapped, and university based student health centres. • Medical and dental consulting room practices. • Other entrepreneurial employment settings such as business and industrial occupational health care services, nursing service agencies, and mobile emergency care units.
Martinez, William; Pichert, James W; Hickson, Gerald B; Braddy, Casey H; Brown, Amy J; Catron, Thomas F; Moore, Ilene N; Stampfle, Morgan R; Webb, Lynn E; Cooper, William O
The aims of the study were to develop a valid and reliable taxonomy of coworker reports of alleged unprofessional behavior by physicians and advanced practice professionals and determine the prevalence of reports describing particular types of unprofessional conduct. We conducted qualitative content analysis of coworker reports of alleged unprofessional behavior by physicians and advanced practice professionals to create a standardized taxonomy. We conducted a focus group of experts in medical professionalism to assess the taxonomy's face validity. We randomly selected 120 reports (20%) of the 590 total reports submitted through the medical center's safety event reporting system between June 2015 and September 2016 to measure interrater reliability of taxonomy codes and estimate the prevalence of reports describing particular types of conduct. The initial taxonomy contained 22 codes organized into the following four domains: competent medical care, clear and respectful communication, integrity, and responsibility. All 10 experts agreed that the four domains reflected essential elements of medical professionalism. Interrater reliabilities for all codes and domains had a κ value greater than the 0.60 threshold for good reliability. Most reports (60%, 95% confidence interval = 51%-69%) described disrespectful or offensive communication. Nine codes had a prevalence of less than 1% and were folded into their respective domains resulting in a final taxonomy composed of 13 codes. The final taxonomy represents a useful tool with demonstrated validity and reliability, opening the door for reliable analysis and systems to promote accountability and behavior change. Given the safety implications of unprofessional behavior, understanding the typology of coworker observations of unprofessional behavior may inform organization strategies to address this threat to patient safety.
Russell-Rose, Tony; Chamberlain, Jon
Healthcare information professionals play a key role in closing the knowledge gap between medical research and clinical practice. Their work involves meticulous searching of literature databases using complex search strategies that can consist of hundreds of keywords, operators, and ontology terms. This process is prone to error and can lead to inefficiency and bias if performed incorrectly. The aim of this study was to investigate the search behavior of healthcare information professionals, uncovering their needs, goals, and requirements for information retrieval systems. A survey was distributed to healthcare information professionals via professional association email discussion lists. It investigated the search tasks they undertake, their techniques for search strategy formulation, their approaches to evaluating search results, and their preferred functionality for searching library-style databases. The popular literature search system PubMed was then evaluated to determine the extent to which their needs were met. The 107 respondents indicated that their information retrieval process relied on the use of complex, repeatable, and transparent search strategies. On average it took 60 minutes to formulate a search strategy, with a search task taking 4 hours and consisting of 15 strategy lines. Respondents reviewed a median of 175 results per search task, far more than they would ideally like (100). The most desired features of a search system were merging search queries and combining search results. Healthcare information professionals routinely address some of the most challenging information retrieval problems of any profession. However, their needs are not fully supported by current literature search systems and there is demand for improved functionality, in particular regarding the development and management of search strategies. ©Tony Russell-Rose, Jon Chamberlain. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 02.10.2017.
Frechette, Julie; Pugnaire Gros, Catherine; B Brewer, Barbara; Kramer, Marlene; Lavigne, Geneviève; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie
Quality organizational structures and nursing practices are key to positive patient outcomes. Whereas structures have been largely studied over the past few decades, less is known of the nursing practices that account for patient outcomes, such as patient satisfaction. This is especially true in psychiatric, mental health care settings. The aim of the present study is to determine the relative importance of eight Essential Professional Nursing Practices (EPNPs) on the satisfaction of hospitalized patients on mental health care units. A cross-sectional design was selected; 226 point-of-care mental health nurses completed the online EPNP questionnaire in Spring 2015. Statistical analyses included MANOVAs and a 2-step linear regression. A significant relationship was found between university preparation and scores on two EPNP subscales: autonomous decision-making and practicing with competent nurses. Scores on patient advocacy and control over practice subscales were significantly related to nurse-rated patient satisfaction. The findings reinforce the positive link between university education and the work of nurses and highlight the power dynamics that are salient in mental health care. The pertinence of EPNPs in psychiatric settings is brought to the fore, with practices of patient advocacy and nurse control over care examined in relation to empowerment. Implications for clinical and administrative leaders are addressed, with a focus on strategies for empowering patients and nurses. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Vaughan-Graham, Julie; Cott, Cheryl
Clinical reasoning is an essential aspect of clinical practice, however is largely ignored in the current rehabilitation sciences evidence base. Literature related to clinical reasoning and clinical expertise has evolved concurrently although rehabilitation reasoning frameworks remain relatively generic. The purpose of this study was to explicate the clinical reasoning process of Bobath instructors of a widely used neuro-rehabilitation approach, the Bobath concept. A qualitative interpretive description approach consisting of stimulated recall using video-recorded treatment sessions and in-depth interviews. Purposive sampling was used to recruit members of the International Bobath Instructors Training Association (IBITA). Interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim providing the raw data. Data analysis was progressive, iterative, and inductive. Twenty-two IBITA instructors from 7 different countries participated. Ranging in clinical experience from 12 to 40 years, and instructor experience from 1 to 35 years. Three themes were developed, (a) a Bobath clinical framework, (b) person-centered, and (c) a Bobath reasoning approach, highlighting the role of practical wisdom, phronesis in the clinical reasoning process. In particular the role of visuospatial-kinesthetic perception, an element of technical expertise, was illuminated as an integral aspect of clinical reasoning in this expert group. This study provides an interpretive understanding of the clinical reasoning process used by IBITA instructors illustrating an inactive embodied view of clinical reasoning, specifically the role of phronesis, requiring further investigation in nonexpert Bobath therapists, as well as in novice and experienced therapists in other specialty areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Koenig, Harold G; Perno, Kathleen; Hamilton, Ted
A screening spiritual history (SSH) is how health professionals (HP) identify patients' spiritual values, beliefs and preferences (VBPs) in the outpatient setting. We report on attitudes and practices of HPs in the largest Protestant health system in the U.S., the Adventist Health System (AHS). Physicians or mid-level practitioners (N = 1082) in AHS-affiliated practices were approached and 513 (47%) agreed to participate. Participants were asked to identify a "spiritual care coordinator" (nurse/staff) and complete a questionnaire that assessed demographics, practice characteristics, religious involvement, and attitudes/practices concerning the SSH. Prevalence and predictors of attitudes/practices were identified. Questionnaires were completed by 427 physicians, 86 mid-level practitioners, and 224 nurses/staff (i.e., spiritual care coordinators). Among physicians, 45% agreed that HPs should take a SSH; of mid-level practitioners, 56% agreed; and of nurses/staff, 54% agreed. A significant proportion (range 31-54%) agreed that physicians should take the SSH. Participants indicated a SSH is appropriate for all outpatients (46-57%), well-visit exams (50-60%), the chronically ill (71-75%) and terminally ill (79-82%). A majority agreed the SSH should be documented in the medical record (67-80%). Few (11-17%) currently took a SSH, although most were at least sometimes willing to take a SSH (87-94%) or review the results thereof (86-98%). Self-rated importance of religion was the strongest predictor of SSH attitudes/practices. Many in the AHS say a SSH should be done, are willing to do it, and are willing to review the results, although few currently do so. Education, training, and support may help HPs identify and address patients' spiritual VBPs.
Steinmetz, C N; Zheng, C; Okunseri, E; Szabo, A; Okunseri, C
The prescription of opioid analgesics by dental professionals is widespread in the United States. Policy makers, government agencies, and professional organizations consider this phenomenon a growing public health concern. This study examined trends in the prescription of opioid analgesics for adults by dental professionals and associated factors in the United States. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (1996-2013) were analyzed. Descriptive statistics were calculated separately for each year. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the overall trend during the period with and without adjusting for dental procedures and personal characteristics. Survey weights were incorporated to handle the sampling design. The prescription of opioid analgesics following dental care increased over time. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, source of payment, and type of dental procedure, the odds ratio (OR) of prescribing opioid analgesics following a dental visit per each decade difference was 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.38). Surgical, root canal, and implant procedures had the highest rates of opioid prescriptions and the greatest increases in rates over the study period. After adjusting for personal characteristics and type of dental procedure, the OR of receiving a prescription for opioids comparing blacks, Asians, and Hispanics to whites was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.17-1.41), 0.57 (95% CI, 0.47-0.70), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.95), respectively. Opioid analgesic prescriptions following dental visits increased over time after adjusting for personal characteristics and type of dental procedure. The odds of receiving a prescription for opioids were higher for certain racial/ethnic minority groups. Knowledge Transfer Statement: This study highlights dental professionals prescribing practices of opioid analgesics by following dental treatments in the United States. With this knowledge, appropriate guidelines, protocols, and policies can be
José Luís Guedes dos Santos
Full Text Available Objective: to elaborate an interpretative model for the governance of professional nursing practice in a hospital setting. Method: a mixed methods study with concurrent triangulation strategy, using data from a cross-sectional study with 106 nurses and a Grounded Theory study with 63 participants. The quantitative data were collected through the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised and underwent descriptive statistical analysis. Qualitative data were obtained from interviews and analyzed through initial, selective and focused coding. Results: based on the results obtained with the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, it is possible to state that nurses perceived that they had autonomy, control over the environment, good relationships with physicians and organizational support for nursing governance. The governance of the professional nursing practice is based on the management of nursing care and services carried out by the nurses. To perform these tasks, nurses aim to get around the constraints of the organizational support and develop management knowledge and skills. Conclusion: it is important to reorganize the structures and processes of nursing governance, especially the support provided by the organization for the management practices of nurses.
Cornu, Catherine; Camberlein, Clémence; Binquet, Christine; Robert, Carine; Vigouroux, Céline; Bouyssou, Caroline; Felin, Alexandra; Dupont-Mordelet, Marie-Françoise; Sailly, Annabelle; Kubiak, Christine; Poli, Géraldine; Gueguen, Sonia; Duchesne, Charlène; Ploix, Stéphanie; Thalamas, Claire
Clinical Investigation Centres (CICs) are academic organisations for performing clinical studies. They are a part of a national network which is co-ordinated by French national institute for health and medical research (Inserm), and the head office of healthcare provision (DGOS). There are working groups and specialised networks within the overall CIC network. The Harmonisation of CIC Procedures (HPCIC) group wrote a manual of good professional practices for clinical research. This manual is described here. This manual was written by consensus. It was approved by the coordinators of all CICs, external experts, and validated by representatives of both Inserm and the General directorate of healthcare provision (DGOS). The CIC Good Professional Practices manual is a guide divided into two sections. The first section covers the general management of a CIC (common to all CICs). The second section covers the core activities of CICs, running clinical studies (clinical study coordination, clinical investigation, data management, statistical analysis, valorisation). This manual is available for all CICs and any other clinical research organisations. It will serve as a basis for CIC self-quality evaluation, audits between CICs, and external audits. This manual shows how much the CICs want to standardise practices and procedures nationwide to offer their partners the best quality in performing clinical studies. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
Pringle, Rose M.; Mesa, Jennifer; Hayes, Lynda
Preparing teachers to teach science consistent with current reforms in science education is a daunting enterprise given a lack of high-quality science professional development (PD) adaptable across various contexts (Wilson 2013). This study examines the impact of a comprehensive professional development program on middle school teachers' disciplinary content knowledge and instructional practices. In this mixed methods investigation, data sources included classroom observations, content knowledge assessments, surveys, and a range of interviews. The teachers in the program showed significant improvements in their disciplinary content knowledge and demonstrated through their enactment of a reform-based curriculum, a range of ability levels to translate their knowledge into instructional practices consistent with the principles espoused in the PD. We conclude that programs that attend to elements of effective PD identified in the literature can positively impact middle school science teachers' enactment of reform-based science teaching. Our findings extend these elements to include the strategic engagement of school and district leadership and the provision of a safe learning space for teachers to collectively engage in reciprocal learning and critical practice. This study has worldwide implications for designing PD for science teachers and for extending our understanding of the impact of each element.
Murdoch, Alison; Braude, Peter; Courtney, Aidan; Brison, Daniel; Hunt, Charles; Lawford-Davies, James; Moore, Harry; Stacey, Glyn; Sethe, Sebastian
The donation of human embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines that may be used in the development of therapeutic products raises more complex ethical, practical and regulatory problems than the donation of embryos for non-clinical research. This review considers these issues and offers recommendations for good practice.
Mowat, Stephanie; Hein, Casey; Walsh, Tanya; MacDonald, Laura; Grymonpre, Ruby; Sisler, Jeffrey
Integration of oral-systemic science into clinical care holds promise for improving patient outcomes and presenting opportunities for individuals in various health care professions to learn with, from, and about each other. The aim of this study was to examine whether an interprofessional continuing education program dedicated to oral-systemic health improved participants' attitudes toward interprofessional education and collaboration between dental and non-dental health care professionals and whether it influenced the physicians' practice of screening for debilitating oral diseases. The study took place in 2014 and used a mixed-methods approach, consisting of Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) surveys conducted before, immediately after, and six months after the intervention, as well as surveys of self-reported practice behaviors and semi-structured interviews. A total of 231 health care professionals participated in the lectures and roundtable discussions. Of those, 134 responded to the pre-program survey (58% response rate), 110 responded to the post-program survey (48% response rate), and 58 responded to the survey six months after the program (25% response rate). The participants' median total RIPLS score at baseline was 76.5, which increased significantly immediately following the program (81.0) but returned to baseline six months later (76.5). Participants' RIPLS domain scores also increased significantly by profession from before to after the event, with effects returning to baseline after six months. Significantly more physicians reported screening for caries and periodontal disease after the intervention. An overall theme of "learning with, from, and about each other" was drawn from the interviews with 15 participants. The physicians took away a message of "just look in the mouth," while the dental professionals reported feeling valued as members of the health care team. Although reported improvements in oral-systemic health practice
Furman Shaharabani, Yael; Tal, Tali
Science teachers are expected to teach in innovative ways that are different from their long experience as students. Professional development programs are planned to help teachers' development, yet, there is little knowledge of the long-term effects of professional development programs (PDPs), and especially on actual practice. The purpose of this study is to gain a long-term perspective of the ways in which the process and outcomes of a reform-oriented, extended PDP are expressed in science teachers' practice. Data sources included interviews and documents. The study presents four case studies of the practices of junior high school science teachers (grades 7-9) in Israel, with respect to a past PDP in which they took part a decade ago. The cases are presented in pairs of a leader and a follower. Each case details the teacher's work context, sustained implementation, coherence of tools and approaches, and adaptations. All four teachers shared the view that scientific skills are important to their students as learners in a changing world. All four teachers adopted one or two major approaches, which were the PDP's main focus. In addition, the two leaders adopted two more approaches. The teachers were still using many strategies associated with the major foci of the PDP. The level of enactment and modifications of the strategies varied. Usability of innovations is discussed in relation to the teachers' context. We suggest that science teachers' professional development include the ability to adapt the innovation to their teaching context in order to sustain the changes for a long period of time.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dissatisfaction with uniprofessional education structures as a means of improving the quality of healthcare has led to proposals to develop ways of integrating professional learning and organisational development. Aims Test the feasibility of introducing practice and professional development plans using a centrally sponsored project in Wales. Design Qualitative observational study. Study sample All 541 practices in Wales were alerted to the project and invited to apply. A selection process was suggested to Health Authorities but not always efficiently conducted: 23 practices were selected and 18 participated in the process. Method Central funding was made available to health authorities. The project framework was designed by an educational department and conceptualised as the development of personal portfolios linked to one key organisation change in each practice, facilitated by external consultants who would typically hold workshops or other events. An independent researcher using non-participant observation techniques at workshops and practices undertook documentary analysis and fieldwork in four health authorities. Results Difficulties were encountered with the process of implementing the project: marketing and practice selection inconsistencies delayed the work and it was difficult to recruit practices into the project. The lack of experienced individuals to do the work and practitioner suspicion about perceived 'management' agendas were significant problems. After initial hesitancies most practices appreciated the value of developing wider ownership and commitment to proposed practice changes. Organisations found it difficult to support individual completion of the personal portfolio component of the plans. The ability to develop systems for clinical services was dependent on having already established a culture of effective teamwork in the organisation. Conclusions This work supports the view that organisational
Elwyn, G; Carlisle, S; Hocking, P; Smail, S
Dissatisfaction with uniprofessional education structures as a means of improving the quality of healthcare has led to proposals to develop ways of integrating professional learning and organisational development. Test the feasibility of introducing practice and professional development plans using a centrally sponsored project in Wales. Qualitative observational study. All 541 practices in Wales were alerted to the project and invited to apply. A selection process was suggested to Health Authorities but not always efficiently conducted: 23 practices were selected and 18 participated in the process. Central funding was made available to health authorities. The project framework was designed by an educational department and conceptualised as the development of personal portfolios linked to one key organisation change in each practice, facilitated by external consultants who would typically hold workshops or other events. An independent researcher using non-participant observation techniques at workshops and practices undertook documentary analysis and fieldwork in four health authorities. Difficulties were encountered with the process of implementing the project: marketing and practice selection inconsistencies delayed the work and it was difficult to recruit practices into the project. The lack of experienced individuals to do the work and practitioner suspicion about perceived 'management' agendas were significant problems. After initial hesitancies most practices appreciated the value of developing wider ownership and commitment to proposed practice changes. Organisations found it difficult to support individual completion of the personal portfolio component of the plans. The ability to develop systems for clinical services was dependent on having already established a culture of effective teamwork in the organisation. This work supports the view that organisational development has considerable potential for bringing about effective change, and individual
Full Text Available Since 2013, the authors’ Japanese team in the Department of Science Education at Shizuoka University has held trials of STEM Education in informal fields as participatory action research (e.g., Science museum in Shizuoka, Lifelong Learning Center in Fujieda City, and STEM Summer camp for the preparation for implementing STEM education in public schools and for proposing science education reform in a Japanese context. Problems in preparing STEM lessons include numerous new instructional materials and programs and emerging specialized schools. In addition, while most of these initiatives address one or more of the STEM subjects separately, there are increasing calls for emphasizing connections between and among the subjects (Honey, Pearson and Schweingruber, 2014. Unfamiliar problems for Japanese teachers are, What is Engineering? What is Design? and How can they be implemented in lessons? While gathering STEM learning materials to implement in their STEM Summer Camp, the authors noticed a pattern with which to develop a STEM lesson and developed a template “T-SM-E” in reference to prior STEM studies. After the STEM Summer Camp, the authors introduced the model in the pre-service teacher preparation program. As a result, the authors received suggestions about how teachers can develop integrated STEM lessons, how undergraduate (UG teachers can implement it in their lessons, and how teachers can assess student learning in their STEM lessons. From standard based student assessments and reflections written by the UG teachers, the authors found that it was difficult for the UG teachers to include technology in their lessons, and their assessment also indicated that the students did not show performance proficiency in technology. The authors discuss this existing problem in the Japanese education system.
Full Text Available le doctors were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors while the nurses had an unsatisfactory knowledge with a mean score of 43%. A half of participants believed that that herbal therapy can cure breast cancer. 75% practice breast self-examination once a month and only 15% have ever had a mammogram. Age, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study; however this rate is influenced by knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. CONCLUSION: Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programs aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among the nurses.
McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.
The flipped classroom is growing in popularity in health professional education. As such, instructors are experiencing various growing pains in functionalizing this model, from justifying the approach to managing time inside and outside of class to assessing impact on learning. This review focuses on some key theories that support the flipped model and translates those key theories into practice across core aspects of the flipped classroom: pre-class preparation, in-class activities, after-class activities and assessment of student learning. PMID:28970619
Jacob, K J; Longstaff, H; Scott, C T; Illes, J
The migration of researchers across geographic borders, or "brain drain" as it is commonly called, remains an important issue for governments around the world as loss or gain of highly qualified personnel in research can have substantial social, economic and political consequences. In the present study we seek to examine the forces that drive international professional migration of stem cell (SC) researchers, for which variation of SC policy in different jurisdictions has previously been implicated as a driving force. Structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of SC researchers in the professoriate who had made international moves after postdoctoral work between the years 2001-2014, or were actively anticipating a future move. Participants were asked to rank motivators of international movement on a 5-point Likert scale and prompted to elaborate on their answers. The results suggest that career considerations, availability of research funding, and personal considerations are of high importance to the participants when considering an international move, while the permissiveness or restrictiveness SC research policy is of comparably lower importance. Participants also expressed that international movements are beneficial to scientific careers overall. The findings have important implications for policy and strategies to attract and retain members of the SC research community.
Theberge, N; Neumann, W P
Literature on ergonomic practice contains many discussions of how ergonomists should work but far less attention has been paid to how they do work and the factors that influence their practice. In an effort to improve our understanding of ergonomic practice as it occurs and how it is conditioned by broader contexts, we conducted an interview study with 21 ergonomists in Canada. We were particularly interested to understand the different kinds of activities study participants engaged in during the course of their work, the challenges they faced and the strategies they employed for facing these challenges. Findings indicate that in the course of their professional practice ergonomists engage in a variety of types of activities. This includes consulting on risk factors as well as a proactive role of fostering the application of ergonomics in organizations. The process of advocating for ergonomics brought study participants into a variety of interactions and collaborations with workplace parties in a type of activity we have called "organizational work". In the course of doing organizational work, ergonomists utilize different strategies, including "political manoeuvring", tailoring data collection and report presentations to clients' concerns and 'goal hooking' in order to make the case for implementing ergonomics in workplaces. The article concludes with a list of "tips" for practicing ergonomists that are suggested by the analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Novakovich, Jeanette; Shaw, Steven; Miah, Sophia
This DIB article includes the course artefacts, instruments, survey data, and descriptive statistics, along with in-depth correlational analysis for the first iteration of a design-based research study on designing curriculum for developing online professional identity and social media practices for a multi-major advanced professional writing course. Raw data was entered into SPSS software. For interpretation and discussion, please see the original article entitled, "Designing curriculum to shape professional social media skills and identity in virtual communities of practice" (J. Novakovich, S. Miah, S. Shaw, 2017) .
Williams, J. W.; Warner, J. L.
ASBOG® was founded in 1988 to facilitate cooperation and coordination among states with licensing of practicing professional geologists-currently 29 states and Puerto Rico. ASBOG® creates national exams which are used by all of the states granting licensure. Periodic surveys of the practicing profession every 5 years are used to determine the skills and knowledge needed for professional practice and are used to generate the exam blueprints. Currently questions on professional ethics are included on the national licensing exams. Thirteen professional ethics issues in the geosciences were included on the Task Analysis Surveys (TAS) in 2005, 2010 and 2015. Professional geologists rate the seriousness of and the frequency of contact with these ethics issues. Topics include such items as gift-giving, whistleblowing, plagiarism, etc. The respondents are grouped into one of three categories: practicing licensed geologists in the United States, practicing licensed geologists in Canada, and geologists employed in the academic sector. Regardless of the employment sector, the responses to the professional ethics questions were statistically very similar (r values - Seriousness - USA vs. Academic +0.81, USA vs. Canada +0.94, Academic vs. Canada +0.86: Frequency - USA vs. Academic +0.71, USA vs. Canada +0.85, Academic vs. Canada +0.72). Some differences were detected. For example, plagiarism is regarded by practitioners in the academic sector as more important than this issue among licensed practicing geologists in the United States and Canada. The professional ethics issues asked on the 2010 and 2015 surveys are identical to facilitate detection of any temporal changes in response patterns. Statistically, the responses from practicing geologists in the USA in the 2010 and 2015 surveys are nearly identical, indicating that the profession has maintained virtually the same attitudes with regard to professional ethics (Seriousness r = +0.99, Frequency r = +0.99).
Franchitto, Nicolas; Gavarri, Laurent; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel
Bullfighting can provoke strong reactions, for fans and laymen alike. Risks to the health of participants are inseparable from the spectacle. Organisers call on a medical team whose main task is to treat the bullfighter's injuries. Despite the special features of this medical practice doctors are not exempt from the possibility of the question of their liability being raised in the event of medical malpractice and large financial damages for the bullfighter if he is harmed. The doctor's public liability and professional indemnity insurance contract is therefore all the more important, in fact, this insurance covers damages for harm caused by the policy holder from the moment he is declared liable. In the statute of 4th March 2002, the French legislature brought in compulsory insurance for health professionals with the aim of achieving the best possible compensation for harm. While public liability and professional indemnity insurance is compulsory for doctors, the purpose of making this insurance compulsory is to cover compensation for harm suffered by the victim. In the case of bullfights, faced with insufficient legal regulation and the fact that more often than not the medicine practised in this field is on a voluntary basis, it might be interesting to offer some thoughts on the special features of the insurance contract that ought to be adapted to these extreme working conditions.
Boland, M. A.; Keane, C.
In 2015, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) published a revised version of the 1999 Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct, an aspirational document outlining ethical principles that should inform the professional behavior of all geoscientists. The revised Guidelines reflect a consensus of opinion among AGI's 51 member societies and show an evolution in thinking about geoscience ethics. The Guidelines also represent a foundational document to support the expansion of ethical guidelines by individual societies and organizations. Publishing the Guidelines was a significant milestone but aspirations need to be matched by action. We examine several developments that implement aspects of the Guidelines, including the development of a consensus statement regarding access and inclusion of individuals living with disabilities in the geosciences, a Joint AGI/Geological Society of America Societies meeting on professional conduct, geoethics training initiatives, and efforts to foster international cooperation in recognizing and implementing ethical practice in the geosciences. In addition, we examine the level of success in using these Guidelines as philosophical cornerstones for a number of international projects, such as Resourcing Future Generations and the International Raw Materials Observatory, that bring geoscience directly into contact with large societal issues.
Strange, David M
Behavior guidance in pediatric dentistry is a composite of influences including expert opinion, historical precedent, scientific studies, and social factors including the law and the media. The early icons of pediatric dentistry injected their personal views on child management, and those often reflected the child-rearing norms of the times. The business of pediatric dentistry with its efficiency and quality orientations also shaped approaches to behavior management. Scientific studies contributed minimally. A major influence on behavior guidelines in recent years has been external scrutiny of techniques prompted by media and other exposure of both private practice and corporate management of children. Changing parenting and reaction of society to authority have also had significant impact on behavior. This paper describes in more detail the evolution of behavior guidance and the subsequent codification of practices into professionally derived guidelines.
Berard, Philippe; Blanchin, Nicolas; Fottorino, Robert; Gonin, Michele; Quesne, Benoit; Agrinier, Anne-Laure; Bourgaut, Laurent; Blanchardon, Eric; Challeton de Vathaire, Cecile; Franck, Didier; Piechowski, Jean; Fritsch, Paul; Poncy, Jean-Luc
The first part of this voluminous report presents the context and method of definition of recommendations for a clinical practice and comprises a literature review of national, European and international recommendations, standards and work-group reports. The second part develops recommendations under four main themes: assessment of the committed effective dose (objectives, implementation, communication, traceability and archiving), control programs, dosimetric estimation based on results, and health risk and taking into care by the occupational physician. The authors adopted the same structure for each sub-theme or issue: target extract of regulatory and standard requirements and international recommendations, analysis of literature and of data from professional practices, opinion of the work-group, and graded recommendations with respect to the proof level
Teram, Eli; Schachter, Candice L; Stalker, Carol A
Grounded theory and participatory action research methods are distinct approaches to qualitative inquiry. Although grounded theory has been conceptualized in constructivist terms, it has elements of positivist thinking with an image of neutral search for objective truth through rigorous data collection and analysis. Participatory action research is based on a critique of this image and calls for more inclusive research processes. It questions the possibility of objective social sciences and aspires to engage people actively in all stages of generating knowledge. The authors applied both approaches in a project designed to explore the experiences of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse with physical therapy and subsequently develop a handbook on sensitive practice for clinicians that takes into consideration the needs and perspectives of these clients. Building on this experience, they argue that the integration of grounded theory and participatory action research can empower clients to inform professional practice.
Bunkenborg, Gitte; Samuelson, Karin; Akeson, Jonas
AIM: This article reports a study exploring nursing practice of monitoring in-hospital patients including intra- and interprofessional communication and collaboration. BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal care in general in-hospital wards may lead to admission for intensive care, cardiac arrest, or sudden death....... Reasons may include infrequent measurements of vital parameters, insufficient knowledge of their predictive values, and/or sub-optimal use of Medical Emergency Teams. This study was designed to improve understanding of nursing practice and to identify changes required to support nursing staff in improving...... of 2009, structured observations and semi-structured interviews of 13 nurses were carried out at a university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. The observational notes and interview transcriptions were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: One theme (Professionalism influences nursing monitoring...
Chevassus, Hugues; Duchesne, Charlène; Sailly, Annabelle; Vigouroux, Céline; Foulon, Christine; Kubiak, Christine; Binquet, Christine; Felin, Alexandra Lamotte; Chaud, Pascal; Thalamas, Claire; Cornu, Catherine
French clinical investigation centers (CICs) are academic platforms dedicated to clinical research. The QUALI-CIC working group helps to improve and harmonize practices within the CIC network. After some years of implementation, the manual of good professional practices of CICs (MGPP CIC) completed in 2010, needed to be revised to best fit with the large panel of CIC activities. The aim was also to make it more accurate and to reinforce requirements about participants safety and data security. In its second version published in the present article, the MGPP CIC includes 255 items divided into 15 chapters. An explanatory document, currently being drafted, will complete the manual to facilitate its implementation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The walk to continue quality improvement is an obligation in all French health structures and the departments of nuclear medicine have to take part in, particularly for the evaluation of professional practices (E.P.P.). This work meant to show how simple and classical tools (process analysis, scheme of Ishikawa, '5M' method, logo-grams, EFQM or Shortell methods) could be used to impulse an E.P.P. according to the rules proposed by the 'Haute Autorite de sante'. We try to show how these tools can be used to analyze and solve practical as managerial problems. For example, we set out a process analysis of nuclear medicine acts in several levels of discrimination. Lastly, we expose some classical problems in the application of the E.P.P.. The aim of this article is not to offer ready-made solutions, but only to show what is possible with these user-friendly tools. (author)
Alejandra López Gómez
Full Text Available The implementation of a pre- and post-abortion health care strategy, adopted in 2004 in Uruguay within a restrictive legal context prior to the decriminalization of abortion in 2012, opened a window of opportunity to link women facing unwanted pregnancies and abortion to health services in order to prevent unsafe abortion practices. This article looks into the tensions generated by the change of focus from maternal-child health to health and sexual and reproductive rights, and how those tensions operate. Using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, the practices and perception and assessment frameworks of professionals in their care of women facing unwanted pregnancy and abortion in the National Integrated Health System in Montevideo are analyzed. The results offer insights into some of the barriers and difficulties that can currently be observed in the implementation of the new law.
Chaar, Betty Bouad
To develop and validate a psychometric measure of cognitive moral development in professional ethics in pharmacy. Pharmacy practice in Australia. A psychometric instrument, the Professional Ethics in Pharmacy (PEP) test, was developed and validated following a systematic procedure. The theoretical foundation of the instrument was based on a hypothesised theory of cognitive moral development in professional ethics, which was integrated into a selection of scenarios experienced in practice by pharmacists in NSW, Australia. The PEP, along with the well established DIT test, was mailed in the form of a questionnaire to a randomly selected sample of 1,500 practising pharmacists. Data collected from returned questionnaires were statistically analysed to establish validity and reliability of the instrument. The P-score calculated for each participant from DIT and PEP data and defined as a measure of principled moral reasoning, represented the main outcome measure for statistical testing. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the strength of the relationship of the PEP with the DIT (regarded as the "gold standard") in order to establish criterion and concurrent validity. Factor analysis was used to investigate construct validity. Cronbach's Alpha, a measure of reliability of the instrument, was used for indicating internal consistency. Linear regression models further investigated construct validity in relation to predictors of moral reasoning. Face and content validity were established by pilot and peer review. Pearson's coefficient of 0.53 indicated an acceptable level of concurrent validity. Factor analysis yielded factors closely related to the theoretical stages of cognitive moral development hypothesised, which indicated construct validity. Cronbach's alpha of 0.75 demonstrated the reliability of the instrument, and linear regression models provided further evidence of construct validity. The PEP was established as a robust instrument on several
Conti Cuesta, F; Baena Parejo, M I; Pinzón Pulido, S A
This study describes the opinion of the veterinarians in Andalusia regarding the organization and management of their professional practice and pinpoints solutions to the problems found for the purpose of providing planning and management aspects in view of the reforms undertaken in the Andalusian Health Service Strategy Plan. Descriptive opinion poll employing a questionnaire filled out by each individual among all of the Primary Care (PC) veterinarians in Andalusia (including those who have been currently employed who possess at least one year's experience, except substitutes). A description was provided of their personal traits, their opinion of the management-related factors involved in their professional practice. A description was also provided of the suggestions for improving the problems found to exist. Over 70% said they were aware of the objectives, although only the coordinators found them to be clearly motivating the practice. Their opinion was that the indicators of activity neither include any quality-related criteria nor afford the possibility of evaluating the activity they are carrying out. They believed that the contributions from other members of the multidisciplinary team improve their work and are in favor of continuing their involvement therein. They were satisfied with doing their work (the coordinators to a greater degree). They found the productivity pay to be too low and not useful as regards providing them with any incentive. They were not satisfied with the training with which they are provided and thought that what they are offered is far less than their other colleagues in the health care field. Most were of the opinion that they should remain under the authority of the Andalusian Health Service. This group prefers to continue working for the same organization, but improving the following management aspects: training offer, practice incentives and activity indicators.
Shaw, Niamh; Sorkhabi, Elburz; Gasquez, Oriol; Yajima, Saho
STEAMakers is a global initiative founded by Niamh Shaw, Elburz Sorkhabi, Oriol Gasquez & Saho Yajima, four alumni of The International Space University's Space Studies Programme 2015 who each shared a vision to inspire the next generation to embrace science, technology, engineering & maths (STEM) in new ways, by embedding the Arts within STEM, putting the 'A' in STEAM. STEAMakers invited STEM professionals around the world to join their community, providing training and a suite of STEAM events, specially designed to encourage students to perceive science, technology, engineering & maths as a set of tools with which to create, design, troubleshoot, innovate, and imagine. The ultimate goal of STEAMakers is to grow this community and create a global culture of non-linear learning among the next generation, to nurture within them a new multidisciplinary mindset and incubate new forms of innovation and thought leadership required for the future through the power of inspiration and creativity.
Whitacre, Michelle Phillips
This qualitative, multiple case study examines five teachers' experiences with a National Science Foundation-funded professional development (PD) program focused on science literacy. Using a three dimensional conceptual framework combining transformative learning theory, communities of practice, and sociocultural conceptions of identity it explores: the ways the "Science Literacy through Science Journalism" (SciJourn) project built professional community and influenced teacher learning; the influence of the project on participating science teachers' professional identities, knowledge, and classroom practices; and the ways teachers were or were not transformed by participation in the project. To this end, data from surveys and phenomenological interviews were analyzed through qualitative textual analysis and narrative analysis. Four of the teachers experienced a change in their stories to live by, aka, an identity shift. Three predominant themes emerged across these cases. These included a changed conceptualization of science literacy, the importance of student engagement and authenticity, and the value of SciJourn's professional development and community. The changed conceptualization of science literacy was particularly salient as it challenged these teachers' assumptions, led them to rethink how they teach science literacy, and also influenced them to re-evaluate their teaching priorities beyond the PD. Consequently, this study concludes that PD efforts should focus as much, or more, on influencing teachers' ideas regarding what and how they teach and less on teaching strategies. A close comparison between two teachers' diverging experiences with the program showed that student engagement played a significant role in teachers' perceptions of the value of project, suggesting that whether or not teachers sustain a new practice is closely tied to their students' feedback. Additionally, this analysis showed that a teacher's individualized needs and sense of efficacy
Bataille, J; Bardo-Brouard, P; Cordonnier-Jourdin, C; Kini-Matondo, W; Simpelaere, S; Astier, A; Paul, M
As drug delivery activity to outpatients in precarious situation is rising continuously, the goal of this work was to perform an assessment of the professional practices of the care pathway of these patients, called PASS in France (permanence d'accès aux soins de santé). At first, two pharmacists did an audit of this care pathway. Then, options for improvement were suggested and established after a multidisciplinary work with pharmacists, physicians and social workers of the relevant services. Finally, after six months, those actions and their impact were evaluated. Over a three-year period, the audit showed an increase by a factor of 1.77 of the average number of prescriptions provided per year. Over the same period, the number of dispensed lines was increased by 2.2 and the annual costs were multiplied per 1.82. The pharmacy department suggested several corrective actions: at first, initiating new schedules suited to the activity; then, making adjustments in the reception zone; but also, establishing two new specific prescriptions and 89 helps cards about the most frequently delivered medications. As a result, the time dedicated to drug delivery has been cut in half while the number of pharmaceutical actions remained constant. This assessment of the professional practices showed how hard it is to formalize a transversal circuit as the PASS in hospital. The actions established had improved the organization and the drug delivery activity in the pharmacy department. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Baumle, Amanda K
Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world. Findings reveal that the professional identities and practice of LGBT family lawyers are shaped by uncertainty, characteristics of activist lawyering, community membership, and community service. Individual motivations and institutional forces work to generate a professional identity that is resilient and dynamic, characterized by skepticism and distrust coupled with flexibility and creativity. These features are likely to play a role in the evolution of the LGBT family lawyer professional identity post-marriage equality.
Zhao, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiaohui
The current study used mixed methods to research pre-service teachers' professional identity. Ninety-eight pre-service teachers were investigated and twelve teachers were interviewed in China. The results were as follows: (1) The results of quantitative data showed that compared with before the field teaching practice, pre-service teachers' professional identity increased after the field teaching practice-specifically, intrinsic value identity increased, and extrinsic value identity did not significantly change; (2) The results of qualitative data validated and elaborated the results of quantitative data in more detail with regard to changes in professional identity. Specifically, compared with before the field teaching practice, intrinsic value identity including work content, work pattern, etc., increased and extrinsic value identity including work environment, income, and social status, etc., did not significantly change after experiencing teaching practice; (3) The results of qualitative data also showed that mentor support at field school promoted the development of pre-service teachers' professional identity. Moreover, the development of pre-service teachers' professional identity during field teaching practice further promoted their professional commitment; that is, it promoted their emotional evaluation and belief in the teaching profession. The study discussed these results and proposed solutions and suggestions for future studies.
This article will discuss new regulations and professional guidance addressing bullying and workplace violence including addressing recent organizational initiatives to support the health care workforce; reviewing how professional education has historically contributed to a culture of bullying across health care; and exploring how academia is shifting the culture of professional practice through innovative education programming. Applicable to all health care sectors where case management is practiced. This article is the second of two on this topic. Part 2 focuses on how traditional professional education has been cited as a contributing factor to bullying within and across disciplines. Changes to educational programming will impact the practice culture by enhancing collaboration and meaningful interactions across the workforce. Attention is also given to the latest regulations, professional guidelines, and organizational initiatives. Workplace bullying and violence have contributed to health care become the most dangerous workplace sector. This is a concerning issue that warrants serious attention by all industry stakeholders.Traditional professional education models have created a practice culture that promotes more than hinders workplace bullying and violence in the industry. Changes to both academic coursework and curricula have shifted these antiquated practice paradigms across disciplines. New care delivery modes and models have fostered innovative care and treatment perspectives. Case management is poised to facilitate the implementation of these perspectives and further efforts to promote a safe health care workplace for patients and practitioners alike.
Flodgren, Gerd; Parmelli, Elena; Doumit, Gaby; Gattellari, Melina; O’Brien, Mary Ann; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Eccles, Martin P
Background Clinical practice is not always evidence-based and, therefore, may not optimise patient outcomes. Opinion leaders disseminating and implementing ‘best evidence’ is one method that holds promise as a strategy to bridge evidence-practice gaps. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of the use of local opinion leaders in improving professional practice and patient outcomes. Search methods We searched Cochrane EPOC Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, HMIC, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, ISI Conference Proceedings and World Cat Dissertations up to 5 May 2009. In addition, we searched reference lists of included articles. Selection criteria Studies eligible for inclusion were randomised controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of using opinion leaders to disseminate evidence-based practice and reporting objective measures of professional performance and/or health outcomes. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data from each study and assessed its risk of bias. For each trial, we calculated the median risk difference (RD) for compliance with desired practice, adjusting for baseline where data were available. We reported the median adjusted RD for each of the main comparisons. Main results We included 18 studies involving more than 296 hospitals and 318 PCPs. Fifteen studies (18 comparisons) contributed to the calculations of the median adjusted RD for the main comparisons. The effects of interventions varied across the 63 outcomes from 15% decrease in compliance to 72% increase in compliance with desired practice. The median adjusted RD for the main comparisons were: i) Opinion leaders compared to no intervention, +0.09; ii) Opinion leaders alone compared to a single intervention, +0.14; iii) Opinion leaders with one or more additional intervention(s) compared to the one or more additional intervention(s), +0.10; iv) Opinion leaders as
Petersen, Polly A; Way, Sandra M
Little is known about the effects of physician oversight on advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs). Examination of these relationships provides insight into the strength of independent practice. The purpose of this study was to examine whether APRNs' perceptions of autonomy and empowerment varied according to type of physician oversight, whether facilitative or restrictive. A cross-sectional survey design was used to examine whether APRNs' perceptions of autonomy and empowerment varied according to physician oversight, geographical location, and practice setting. Five hundred questionnaires were mailed in March 2013 with 274 returned. Participants were asked about autonomy, empowerment, demographics, physician oversight, geographical location, and practice setting. Among surveyed respondents, physician oversight was related to increased empowerment, regardless of whether the oversight was defined in facilitative or restrictive terms; both had similar positive effects on empowerment. If APRNs are to be part of the solution to the growing problem of healthcare access, it is important to study factors that contribute to their success. We speculate that increasing opportunities for collaboration and interaction with physicians, and possibly other healthcare professionals, could facilitate APRN empowerment, optimizing their contribution. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Full Text Available Religion and religious practices can affect Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD symptom expression and influence the way that people with OCD seek advice or treatment. This study investigated the expression of OCD symptoms and help seeking for religious OCD symptoms among practicing Muslim women. Method: Five practicing Muslim women aged 33 to 45 years who had immigrated to Australia from Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Afghanistan and were diagnosed with OCD washing subtype (OCD-W took part in semi-structured interviews. Data Analysis: Thematic Analysis within a scientific realist framework was employed. Results: The most common compulsions reported by participants were performing excessive washing and repeating rituals before prayer, and these behaviours were carried out to prevent being punished by God. All participants had sought help for their OCD symptoms from an Imam before seeking help from a mental health professional, and the delay between symptom onset and OCD diagnosis by a psychiatrist ranged from 5 to 13 years. Conclusion: Effective evidence-based interventions for OCD are available and increasing awareness of OCD symptoms and treatment among Imams has the potential to reduce the delay between symptom onset and access to treatment for practicing Muslims who seek help and support.
Williams, Bev; Richard, Liz; Al Sayah, Fatima
Graduates from Problem/Context Based Learning (CBL) undergraduate nursing programs often express concern that they may not be as well prepared for transition to graduate nursing practice as their colleagues from more traditional lecture-based programs. To determine if there is a difference in how graduates from CBL and non-CBL programs describe their transition to graduate practice within the first 2 years of graduation. This was a comparative descriptive study that involved the use of a web-based survey. A convenience sample of 163 graduate nurses with 1 to 2 years of experience consented to be part of the study. They completed a researcher-designed questionnaire, which consisted of 26 items based on entry to practice competencies identified by the provincial professional nursing organization. There was no significant difference in the transition experience of graduates from CBL and traditional education programs within their first 2 years following graduation. These results confirm the findings of authors who compared transition among CBL and non-CBL graduates who had graduated anywhere from six months to several years following graduation. It is clear that CBL programs do prepare graduates to successfully transition into graduate nurse practice. Graduates from both CBL and non-CBL programs indicated a need for more formal agency sponsored orientation and transition assistance programs at the beginning of their initial employment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Evgeny M. Dorozhkin
Full Text Available The study is aimed at investigating a justification of the new approach to the problem of vocational education development through the prism of interdependence research methodology and practice. This conceptual setup allows determining the main directions for teacher training modernization of vocational schools. The authors note that the current socio-economic situation in our country has actualized the problem of personnel training. Politicians, economists and scientists’ speeches are all about the shortage of skilled personnel. They see the main reason of this catastrophic situation in the present system of primary and secondary vocational education. At least they concern over the current practice of pedagogical personnel training of vocational education who are to restore the system of vocational education. Our country, Russia has a great positive experience in solving this problem. Scientific-methodological centre for vocational teacher education is the Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University under the scientific direction of Academician of the Russian Academy of Education, G. M. Romantsev. The reflection of scientifictheoretical bases of this education led the authors to the analysis and designing (formation of existent and new professional and pedagogical methodology. Methods. The fundamental position of A. M. Novikov on the generality of the research (scientific and practical activity methodology has become the theoretical platform of the present study. Conceptual field, conceptual statements and professional model are presented as the whole system (or integrating factor. The theoretical framework has determined the logic of the study and its results. Scientific and educational methodology differentiation in terms of the subject of cognitive activity has allowed identifying the main scientific and practical disciplines of vocational teacher education. The creative concept as the subject ground is instrumental analysis of
Wald, Hedy S; Anthony, David; Hutchinson, Tom A; Liben, Stephen; Smilovitch, Mark; Donato, Anthony A
Recent calls for an expanded perspective on medical education and training include focusing on complexities of professional identity formation (PIF). Medical educators are challenged to facilitate the active constructive, integrative developmental process of PIF within standardized and personalized and/or formal and informal curricular approaches. How can we best support the complex iterative PIF process for a humanistic, resilient health care professional? How can we effectively scaffold the necessary critical reflective learning and practice skill set for our learners to support the shaping of a professional identity?The authors present three pedagogic innovations contributing to the PIF process within undergraduate and graduate medical education (GME) at their institutions. These are (1) interactive reflective writing fostering reflective capacity, emotional awareness, and resiliency (as complexities within physician-patient interactions are explored) for personal and professional development; (2) synergistic teaching modules about mindful clinical practice and resilient responses to difficult interactions, to foster clinician resilience and enhanced well-being for effective professional functioning; and (3) strategies for effective use of a professional development e-portfolio and faculty development of reflective coaching skills in GME.These strategies as "bridges from theory to practice" embody and integrate key elements of promoting and enriching PIF, including guided reflection, the significant role of relationships (faculty and peers), mindfulness, adequate feedback, and creating collaborative learning environments. Ideally, such pedagogic innovations can make a significant contribution toward enhancing quality of care and caring with resilience for the being, relating, and doing of a humanistic health care professional.
Jones, Claire L
This article explores how medical practitioners read, used, and experienced medical trade catalogs in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Britain. Reader responses to the catalog, a book-like publication promoting medical tools, appliances, and pharmaceuticals, have been chronically understudied, as have professional reading practices within medicine more generally. Yet, evidence suggests that clinicians frequently used the catalog and did so in three main ways: to order medical products, to acquire new information about these products, and to display their own product endorsements and product designs. The seemingly widespread nature of these practices demonstrates an individual and collective professional desire to improve medical practice and highlights the importance of studying professional reading practices in the cultural history of medicine.
Soto, Marissa; Suskavcevic, Miliana; Forrest, Rebecca; Cheung, Margaret; Kapral, Andrew; Khon, Lawrence
When teaching physics, many factors determine the final impact the course will have on a student. Using STEP, a teacher content professional development program, we are studying the incorporation of inquiry-based teaching strategies in the professional development of university professors through an active engagement program. Through the professors' involvement in the program, they gain experience with inquiry-based instruction that can be put into effect in their own classrooms to possibly create a shift in understanding and success ratesat physics undergraduate courses. This model consists of faculty peer mentoring, facilitating instruction within a community of practice, and implementation of undergraduate inquiry-based physics teaching strategies. Here, professors are facilitating the physics lessons to in-service high school teachers while using inquiry strategies and interactive activities rather than traditional lecture. This project aided the creation of an undergraduate inquiry-based physics course at the University of Houston. It could lead to a new form of professor professional development workshop that does not only benefit the professor, but also highschoolteachers not properly trained in the field of physics.
Zhao, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiaohui
The current study used mixed methods to research pre-service teachers’ professional identity. Ninety-eight pre-service teachers were investigated and twelve teachers were interviewed in China. The results were as follows: (1) The results of quantitative data showed that compared with before the field teaching practice, pre-service teachers’ professional identity increased after the field teaching practice—specifically, intrinsic value identity increased, and extrinsic value identity did not significantly change; (2) The results of qualitative data validated and elaborated the results of quantitative data in more detail with regard to changes in professional identity. Specifically, compared with before the field teaching practice, intrinsic value identity including work content, work pattern, etc., increased and extrinsic value identity including work environment, income, and social status, etc., did not significantly change after experiencing teaching practice; (3) The results of qualitative data also showed that mentor support at field school promoted the development of pre-service teachers’ professional identity. Moreover, the development of pre-service teachers’ professional identity during field teaching practice further promoted their professional commitment; that is, it promoted their emotional evaluation and belief in the teaching profession. The study discussed these results and proposed solutions and suggestions for future studies. PMID:28790956
Hayward, Lorna M; Black, Lisa L; Mostrom, Elizabeth; Jensen, Gail M; Ritzline, Pamela D; Perkins, Jan
Physical therapists work in complex health care systems requiring professional competence in clinical reasoning and confidence in decision-making skills. For novice physical therapists, the initial practice years are a time for developing professional identity and practical knowledge. The study purpose was to extend previous research describing the experiences, learning, and professional development of 11 promising novice therapists during their first year of practice. The present study examined the continued development of the same therapists during their second year of clinical practice. Seven researchers from 4 physical therapist educational programs in the eastern and midwestern United States used a longitudinal, qualitative, multiple case study approach. Eleven physical therapist graduates identified as "promising novices" were recruited using purposive sampling. Participants ranged in age from 24 to 29 years and entered varied practice settings. Data were collected for 2 years using semistructured interviews, reflective journals, and participant observation. A conceptual model describing the participants' ongoing development during the second year of practice emerged. The 3 themes were formal and informal learning, increasing confidence and expansion of skills, and engagement in an environment characterized by collaborative exchange and opportunities for teaching. The second year represented consolidation and elaboration of practice-based learning and skills. The expansion of confidence, skills, and responsibilities and the externalization of learning the participants experienced promoted professional role formation. Learning previously directed inward and self-focused turned outward, fueled by growing self-confidence. Research illuminating the professional role formation experienced during early clinical practice is not widely available. The current study and further research into the learning and development of novice practitioners may assist educators in
West, C C; Murray, I R; González, Z N; Hindle, P; Hay, D C; Stewart, K J; Péault, B
Access to human tissue is critical to medical research, however the laws and regulations surrounding gaining ethical and legal access to tissue are often poorly understood. Recently, there has been a huge increase in the interest surrounding the therapeutic application of adipose tissue, and adipose-derived stem cells. To facilitate our own research interests and possibly assist our local colleagues and collaborators, we established a Research Tissue Bank (RTB) to collect, store and distribute human adipose tissue derived cells with all the appropriate ethical approval for subsequent downstream research. Here we examine the legal, ethical and practical issues relating to the banking of adipose tissue for research in the UK, and discuss relevant international guidelines and policies. We also share our experiences of establishing an RTB including the necessary infrastructure and the submission of an application to a Research Ethics Committee (REC). Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foster, J.; Connolly, R.
WGBH's "Bringing the Universe to America's Classrooms" project is a 5-year effort to design, produce and evaluate digital media tools and resources that support scientific practice skills in diverse K-12 learners. Resources leverage data and content from NASA and WGBH signature programs, like NOVA, into sound instructional experiences that provide K-12 STEM teachers with free, quality resources for teaching topics in the Earth and Space Sciences. Resources address the content and practices in the new K-12 Framework for Science Education and are aligned with the NGSS. Participants will learn about design strategies, findings from our evaluation efforts, and how to access free resources on PBS LearningMedia.
This article draws on the transcripts of focus group interviews held with three groups of students, all in their final year of four-year Bachelor degrees. All had completed the professional experience requirements for their course. One group comprised education students, one group comprised nursing students, and the third was studying engineering.…
Mukeredzi, Tabitha Grace
Attempts to address global pressure to achieve Education for All have been hampered by two fundamental challenges in developing countries, namely an acute shortage of teachers and large rural populations in these countries. In addition, qualified, competent teachers shun working in rural settings. While recruitment of professionally unqualified…
Jensen, Bente; Brandi, Ulrik
Research has shown the potential for early childhood education and care (ECEC) in making a difference for all children. However, research also highlights how hard overcoming the "gaps" between children from differing social backgrounds still is. The overall aim of this article is to examine the impact of a professional development…
Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Naser, Shereen
The United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child was designed to promote and protect the survival, development, and well-being of children, thus extending human rights to individuals from birth to age 18. This article examines the consistency of the Articles of the Convention with the professional standards for school psychology, as…
Bills, Andrew M.; Giles, David; Rogers, Bev
Dominant discourses on professional development for teachers internationally are increasingly geared to the priority of ensuring individual teachers are meeting prescribed standards-based performance benchmarks which we call "performativities" in this paper. While this intent is invariably played out in individualised performance…
Smith, Tony; Sutton, Keith; Pit, Sabrina; Muyambi, Kuda; Terry, Daniel; Farthing, Annie; Courtney, Claire; Cross, Merylin
The aim of this study was to profile students undertaking placements at University Departments of Rural Health (UDRHs) and investigate factors affecting students' satisfaction and intention to enter rural practice. Cross-sectional survey comprising 21 core questions used by all UDRHs. Eleven UDRHs across Australia that support students' placements in regional, rural and remote locations. Medical, nursing and allied health students who participated in UDRH placements between July 2014 and November 2015 and completed the questionnaire. Key dependent variables were placement satisfaction and rural practice intention. Descriptive variables were age, gender, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) background, location of placement, healthcare discipline, year of study and type and length of placement. A total of 3328 students responded. The sample was predominantly female (79%), the mean age was 26.0 years and 1.8% identified as ATSI. Most placements (69%) were >2 but ≤12 weeks, 80% were in Modified Monash 3, 4 or 5 geographical locations. Public hospitals and community health made up 63% of placements. Students satisfied with their placement had 2.33 higher odds of rural practice intention. Those satisfied with Indigenous cultural training, workplace supervision, access to education resources and accommodation had higher odds of overall satisfaction and post-placement rural practice intention. The majority of students were highly satisfied with their placement and the support provided by rural clinicians and the UDRHs. UDRHs are well placed to provide health professional students with highly satisfactory placements that foster rural practice intention. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.