Sample records for professional organizations materials

  1. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations. (United States)

    Majone, G


    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.

  2. Radiography Student Participation in Professional Organizations. (United States)

    Michael, Kimberly; Tran, Xuan; Keller, Shelby; Sayles, Harlan; Custer, Tanya


    To gather data on educational program requirements for student membership in a state or national professional society, organization, or association. A 10-question online survey about student involvement in professional societies was emailed to 616 directors of Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT)-accredited radiography programs. A total of 219 responses were received, for a 36% response rate. Of these, 89 respondents (41%) answered that their programs require students to join a professional organization. The society respondents most often required (70%) was a state radiography society. Sixty respondents (68%) answered that students join a society at the beginning of the radiography program (from matriculation to 3 months in). Of programs requiring student membership in professional societies, 42 (49%) reported that their students attend the state or national society annual conference; however, participation in activities at the conferences and in the society throughout the year is lower than conference attendance. Some directors stated that although their programs' policies do not allow membership mandates, they encourage students to become members, primarily so that they can access webinars and other educational materials or information related to the profession. Survey data showed that most JRCERT-accredited radiography programs support but do not require student membership in professional organizations. The data reveal that more programs have added those requirements in recent years. Increased student participation could be realized if programs mandated membership and supported it financially. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  3. Secondary Professional Socialization through Professional Organizations: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew; Eberline, Andrew D.; Templin, Thomas J.


    Secondary professional socialization is a phase of occupational socialization theory that focuses on graduate education in preparation for a career in academia. Due to the need to present and publish research and make professional contacts, professional organizations likely serve an important socializing function during graduate education. The…

  4. The Conflict of Professionals in Bureaucratic Organizations (United States)

    Sorensen, James E.; Sorensen, Thomas L.


    A study of 264 certified public accountants in large public accounting firms showed that when professionals work in a professional-bureaucratic organization, conflict and deprivation result with predictable consequences such as job dissatisfaction and job migration. (Author)

  5. Organic nonlinear optical materials (United States)

    Umegaki, S.


    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  6. Professions in Organizations, Professional Work in Education (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, Raf


    Professions are occupational arrangements for dealing with human problems. Professional "people work" requires a certain interactive closeness; face-to-face communication is prominent in professional-client relations. This also seems the case in the educational system. But in education, organization provides the "raison d'etre" of this profession.…

  7. Renewing Professional Organizations and Action Learning (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.


    This account concerns the renewal of established professional organizations though action learning. In order to revitalize one national organization, an executive group of leaders committed to co-leading and co-learning through a friendly, computer-supported governance structure. Manifestations of our work together were an accelerated…

  8. Development Professionals at Religiously Based Nonprofit Organizations

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    Jim Pinder


    Full Text Available The study of why a fundraising professional would choose to leave his or her employer is critical to the ongoing success of religiously based nonprofit organizations as they work to achieve their mission. Without continuity in the donor relationship, donors will likely leave the organization or become disenfranchised. This study focuses on development professionals at Seventh-Day Adventist institutions across North America. The results of this study are applicable to other religiously based nonprofit organizations. The present article reveals the reasons affecting employee retention and proposes approaches to mitigate the loss of valuable employees. Data were gathered using a structured online survey and analyzed for its descriptive outcomes.

  9. Material Utilization of Organic Residues. (United States)

    Peinemann, Jan Christoph; Pleissner, Daniel


    Each year, 1.3 billion tons of food waste is generated globally. This waste traces back to industrial and agricultural producers, bakeries, restaurants, and households. Furthermore, lignocellulosic materials, including grass clippings, leaves, bushes, shrubs, and woods, appear in large amounts. Depending on the region, organic waste is either composted, burned directly, or converted into biogas. All of the options set aside the fact that organic residues are valuable resources containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and phosphorus. Firstly, it is clear that avoidance of organic residues is imperative. However, the residues that accumulate nonetheless should be utilized by material means before energy production is targeted. This review presents different processes for the microbial utilization of organic residues towards compounds that are of great importance for the bioeconomy. The focus thereby is on the challenges coming along with downstream processing when the utilization of organic residues is carried out decentralized. Furthermore, a future process for producing lactic acid from organic residues is sketched.

  10. Undergraduate Women's Participation in Professional Organizations (United States)

    Hartman, Moshe; Hartman, Harriet

    This article focuses on the differences among female undergraduate engineering students who choose to affiliate with student chapters of discipline-specific, mixed-gender professional organizations, the student chapter of the Society of Women Engineers (SWE), or not to affiliate at all. Participants in the different kinds of organizations are compared to nonparticipants to explore how participation is related to professionalization and the development of engineering social capital. Compared with nonparticipants, participants were more involved in extracurricular enrichment and "help" activities; they were more satisfied with most aspects of the engineering program; they had higher grades; they were more self-confident about themselves as engineers, and by the end of the academic year, about their engineering competencies; and they were more strongly committed to a future in engineering. Participation in SWE was associated with greater involvement in study activities, higher satisfaction with the coursework load, and a different perception of the problems women face in the field. Data were taken from a survey of engineering students at Rowan University during the 2000-2001 academic year, which was funded by the National Science Foundation.

  11. Do infrared thermographers need a professional organization? (United States)

    Peacock, G. Raymond


    In 2003 a group of interested Thermographers headed by Greg Stockton of Stockton Infrared Services and Lee Allen began an effort to develop a professional organization to serve the Thermography community. It was named ISPOT and resulted in a Constitution, committees, legal registration and a group of dues-paying members. However, it has waned and there appears little organization left and more than a few people disappointed. Clearly there was a need. There still seems to be a need and issues in the education, continuing education and certification of Thermographer skills as well as standards for development of procedures. Applications in the Non Destructive Testing (NDT) field seem to have grown beyond the scope of present certification recommendations and promise to expand even faster. Who speaks objectively for the minimal training and in-service experience required to make a Thermographers fully qualified in areas outside NDT? How does a Thermographer extend his skill set into the newer fields of Building Thermography, Pest Control, Mold Remediation and the Next New Thing? What of the needs for purchasers of thermographic services? How can they judge the capabilities of individuals or organizations hired to perform services? What requirements exist for trained Thermographers to maintain their skills? Perhaps we can start to define some guidelines for an organization to meet the needs of the individuals, the trainers, the equipment suppliers and the users and purchasers of thermographic services.

  12. Value-Rational Authority and Professional Organizations: Weber's Missing Type (United States)

    Satow, Roberta Lynn


    Develops the concept of value-rational authority. Protestant churches are compared to autonomous professional organizations in order to show that the segmented structure of both reflects a compromise between organizational adaptation and a commitment to ideology. Professional organizations are viewed as value-rational organizations rather than as…

  13. Perspective: Conflict of interest and professional organizations: considerations and recommendations. (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Parke, David W


    There are differences in conflicts of interest (COIs) in professional organizations compared with academic medical centers. The authors discuss nine major questions pertaining to industry relationships of professional organizations: (1) What makes COI management different in professional membership organizations? (2) What COI challenges are specific to professional organizations? (3) What are potential impacts of perceived or real COIs involving professional organizations and the management of COIs? (4) Is regulation necessary, or should professional organizations proactively resolve COI issues independently? (5) Are guidelines portable from academic medical centers to professional organizations? (6) What approaches may be considered for managing COIs of the organization's leaders? (7) What approaches are reasonable for managing COI issues at professional meetings? (8) What approaches are important for integrity of educational programs, publications, and products? and (9) What approaches are reasonable for managing and enforcing COI guidelines on an ongoing basis? Responses to these questions focus on four principles: First, a code of ethics governing general behavior of members and safeguarding the interest of patients must be in place; second, the monitoring and management of COI for leadership, including, in some cases, recusal from certain activities; third, the pooling and consistent, transparent management of unrestricted grants from corporate sponsors; and, fourth, the management of industry marketing efforts at membership meetings to ensure their appropriateness. The perspectives offered are intended to encourage individuals and learned bodies to further study and provide commentary and recommendations on managing COIs of a professional organization.

  14. Transnational organizing: Issue professionals in environmental sustainability networks. (United States)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard


    An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how 'issue professionals' operate in two-level professional and organizational networks to control issues. This two-level network provides the context for action in which professionals do their institutional work. The two-level network carries information about professional incentives and also norms about how issues should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how transnational organizing happens, and how we can best identify attempts at issue control.

  15. Theory of Regression Apple Professional Cooperation Organization Research


    Ouyang Bin


    In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...

  16. Stimulating and Nurturing Professionalisms, Creativity and Innovation in Organization


    Menara Simanjuntak; Haryadi Sarjono


    Knowledge management is an emerging discipline and professionalism, creativity, innovation, organization and teams need to be thought about in this new context. This paper creates a framework in which to discuss these concepts with literature research. It goes on to explore how our professionalisms, creativity and innovations is blocked in variety ways, including deep-seated beliefs about the world. The need for professional skills today in workplace faces a number of challenges, especially i...

  17. Multiple Forms of Professional Agency for (noncrafting of Work Practices in a Hospital Organization

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    Kaija Collin


    Full Text Available In recent working life studies, professional agency is seen as pivotal to the development of work communities and work organizations. This paper addresses professional agency during a practicebased intervention (work conference in a Finnish hospital setting. To develop work practices, the intervention sought to create a dialogical space for the promotion of collective professional agency. Here, we present an investigation of the manifestations of professional agency and how they emerged within and between professional groups. We also elaborate how professional positions frame the emergence of different manifestations of professional agency. The audio and video materials from the intervention are analyzed through the utilization of qualitative content analysis and analysis of key incidents illustrating the emergence of professional agency and its connection to prevailing circumstances in a hospital work context. Transformative, responsive, relational, and resisting forms of agency were identified. The emergence of these forms differed amid the intervention and across the professional groups, reflecting power relations in the organization. In light of the findings, we discuss the meaning of different forms of professional agency for developmental efforts and how professional agency may trigger or hinder sustainable organizational development.

  18. Functional organic materials for electronics industries (United States)

    Shibayama, K.; Ono, H.


    Topics closely related with organic, high molecular weight material synthesis are discussed. These are related to applications such as display, recording, sensors, semiconductors, and I.C. correlation. New materials are also discussed. General principles of individual application are not included. Materials discussed include color, electrochromic, thermal recording, organic photoconductors for electrophotography, and photochromic materials.

  19. Stimulating and Nurturing Professionalisms, Creativity and Innovation in Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menara Simanjuntak


    Full Text Available Knowledge management is an emerging discipline and professionalism, creativity, innovation, organization and teams need to be thought about in this new context. This paper creates a framework in which to discuss these concepts with literature research. It goes on to explore how our professionalisms, creativity and innovations is blocked in variety ways, including deep-seated beliefs about the world. The need for professional skills today in workplace faces a number of challenges, especially in unfamiliar and unpredictable situations. Finally this paper takes a brief look at two tools to support knowledge management, professionalisms, creativity and innovations - one in the human domain and the other in the technology domain. We are also needs to boost its capacity for continuous professionalism, creativity and innovation for both technology, social, economic, and organization reasons. 

  20. Professionalism: good for patients and health care organizations. (United States)

    Brennan, Michael D; Monson, Verna


    Professionalism is an indispensable element in the compact between the medical profession and society that is based on trust and putting the needs of patients above all other considerations. The resurgence of interest in professionalism dates back to the 1980s when health maintenance organizations were formed and proprietary influences in health care increased. Since then, a rich and comprehensive literature has emerged in defining professionalism, including desirable individual attributes and behaviors and how they may be taught, promoted, and assessed. More recently, scholarship has shifted from individual to organizational professionalism. This literature addresses the role that health care organizations can play to establish environments that are conducive to the consistent expression of professionalism by individuals and health care teams. We reviewed interdisciplinary empirical studies from health care effectiveness and outcomes, organizational sciences, positive psychology, and social psychology, finding evidence that organizational and individual professionalism is associated with a wide range of benefits to patients and the organization. We identify actionable organizational strategies and approaches that, if adopted, can foster and promote combined organizational and individual professionalism. In doing so, trust in the medical profession and its institutions can be enhanced, which in turn will reconfirm a commitment to the social compact. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Graphic Organizers in a Language Teachers' Professional Development (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen


    Starting from 2009 academic year, the instructional coaches in a school district in a northwest American city began to provide Workshop II (pseudonym) to elementary school English teachers. This study aims to discuss the use of graphic organizers in English teachers' professional development. Different types of graphic organizers such as…

  2. The Future of Our Organizations: Students and Early Career Professionals (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana; Wang, Sherry C.; Warrior, Anitra M.


    This response focuses on the significance of ethnic minority psychology organizations and other related membership structures to early career psychologists (ECPs) and counseling psychology students. We discuss not only reasons for why students and ECPs may not be joining professional organizations, but also strategies for recruiting, supporting,…

  3. Auditors’ Assessments of Materiality Between Professional Judgment and Subjectivity

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    Saher Aqel


    Full Text Available Abstract: Materiality has been and continues to be a topic of importance for auditors. It is considered as a significant factor in the planning of the audit procedures, performing the planned audit procedures, evaluating the results of the audit procedures and issuing an audit report. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the concept of materiality motivated by concerns at the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Securities and Exchange Commission and International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board issuance of proposed standards on materiality. The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze comprehensively the concept of audit materiality including how materiality threshold is determined by auditors. Auditing standards settings bodies pointed out that auditor’s determination of materiality threshold is a matter of professional judjment. As a judgmental concept, however, materiality is susceptible to subjectivity. Furthermore, the absence of audting standards on how materiality is determined has highlighted the significance of this issue and indicated that guidance for materiality professional judgments must come from other non-authoritative sources such as empirical researches. A number of new and important areas of materiality are in need of further investigation.

  4. Teaching and Maintaining Ethical Behavior in a Professional Organization


    Brodhead, Matthew T.; Higbee, Thomas S.


    In addition to continuing education mandates by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), behavior-analytic professional organizations may adopt systems that teach and maintain ethical behavior in its employees. Systems of ethical supervision and management may allow for an organization to customize training that prevents ethical misconduct by employees. These systems may also allow supervisors to identify ethical problems in their infancy, allowing the organization to mitigate concern...

  5. Organic solar cells materials and device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, Wallace CH


    This book discusses synthesis, properties and uses of new materials in devices from electrodes, interface and carrier transport materials to the active layer of donors and acceptors. Covers polymers, exciton and charge dynamics, organic photovoltaics and more.

  6. Purification of metal-organic framework materials (United States)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.


    A method of purification of a solid mixture of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material and an unwanted second material by disposing the solid mixture in a liquid separation medium having a density that lies between those of the wanted MOF material and the unwanted material, whereby the solid mixture separates by density differences into a fraction of wanted MOF material and another fraction of unwanted material.

  7. Brazilian Healthcare Professionals: A Study of Attitudes Toward Organ Donation. (United States)

    Araujo, C; Siqueira, M


    Healthcare professionals have a crucial role in organ donation and transplantation processes. Their attitude toward organ donation can affect public opinion and the donation decision made by deceased donors' relatives. The objectives of the study were to analyze the attitude of medical and nursing personnel toward deceased organ donation in two hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the factors that can affect this attitude. A random sample (n = 162) was selected from the population of nurses and physicians in the hospitals analyzed. The sample was stratified by age, sex, marital status, religion, professional category, and educational level. A validated questionnaire addressing psychosocial aspects of organ donation was used to evaluate attitudes. The χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for statistical analysis. Of personnel surveyed, 86.4% (n = 140) were in favor of deceased organ donation, whereas 11.1% (n = 18) were not sure and 2.5% (n = 4) were against. The favorable attitude was related to the following aspects: (1) educational level, (2) having spoken with family members about organ donation, (3) having a chronic disease, (4) favorable attitude of one's family, (5) belief that organ donation can save lives, (6) concerns about body manipulation, illegal trade of organs, and organ donation being against God's will, (7) feeling proud of working with organ donation/transplantation, (8) self-assessment of experience and knowledge in organ donation/transplantation activities (P organ donation is well accepted among the healthcare professionals surveyed, and the attitude is affected by socio-personal variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 2D Organic Materials for Optoelectronic Applications. (United States)

    Yang, Fangxu; Cheng, Shanshan; Zhang, Xiaotao; Ren, Xiaochen; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping


    The remarkable merits of 2D materials with atomically thin structures and optoelectronic attributes have inspired great interest in integrating 2D materials into electronics and optoelectronics. Moreover, as an emerging field in the 2D-materials family, assembly of organic nanostructures into 2D forms offers the advantages of molecular diversity, intrinsic flexibility, ease of processing, light weight, and so on, providing an exciting prospect for optoelectronic applications. Herein, the applications of organic 2D materials for optoelectronic devices are a main focus. Material examples include 2D, organic, crystalline, small molecules, polymers, self-assembly monolayers, and covalent organic frameworks. The protocols for 2D-organic-crystal-fabrication and -patterning techniques are briefly discussed, then applications in optoelectronic devices are introduced in detail. Overall, an introduction to what is known and suggestions for the potential of many exciting developments are presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Dynamic Strategic Planning in a Professional Knowledge-Based Organization (United States)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrom; Reventlow, Susanne; Quelle, Dan Grevelund; Tulinius, Charlotte


    Professional, knowledge-based institutions have a particular form of organization and culture that makes special demands on the strategic planning supervised by research administrators and managers. A model for dynamic strategic planning based on a pragmatic utilization of the multitude of strategy models was used in a small university-affiliated…

  10. Exploration of US men's professional sport organization concussion policies. (United States)

    Cochrane, Graham Dean; Owen, Matthew; Ackerson, Joseph D; Hale, Matthew H; Gould, Sara


    Concussion policies are increasingly being developed and adopted among professional sports organizations. We sought to compare the policies of the National Hockey League (NHL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), and Major League Baseball (MLB). Our objective was to summarize each policy and evaluate the extent to which each policy is organization-specific and/or consistent with medical guidelines. We visited websites for the NHL, NBA, NFL, and MLB. We searched media articles reporting concussion policy. We utilized only publically available data. We collected information on each league's approach to the definition of concussion, education provided about concussion, baseline testing requirements, minimum return to play time and return to play protocol. We found that concussion policies vary across these organizations. Most organizations utilize the Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) definition (2013) to define concussion. The NFL and NBA mandate preseason education. All organizations require some type of baseline testing. All organizations require sideline evaluation after suspected concussion. The NFL and MLB require Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) testing for sideline evaluation of suspected concussion. MLB is the only organization to require minimum time before return to play. There is a return to play protocol in place for each organization. The NFL and MLB require independent neurologic consultation as part of their return to play protocol. There is variability in concussion policy among the professional sports organizations. The most pronounced variation from the CISG consensus statement is the variability in the minimum time to return to play. Further, the rules of the individual sports have a role in how concussion policy can be designed and implemented. Professional sports set an example for thousands of recreational sports enthusiasts so their publically available policies on concussion have a large impact.

  11. Spiers memorial lecture. Organic electronics: an organic materials perspective. (United States)

    Wudl, Fred


    This Introductory Lecture is intended to provide a background to Faraday Discussion 174: "Organic Photonics and Electronics" and will consist of a chronological, subjective review of organic electronics. Starting with "ancient history" (1888) and history (1950-present), the article will take us to the present. The principal developments involved the processes of charge carrier generation and charge transport in molecular solids, starting with insulators (photoconductors) and moving to metals, to semiconductors and ending with the most popular semiconductor devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The presentation will be from an organic chemistry/materials point of view.

  12. Engineering situational methods for professional service organizations. An action design research approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, D.C.F.


    Professional service organizations are organizations predominantly employed with professionals; employees with specific and dedicated expertise in an area. IT support of the primary operations in this type of organizations is suboptimal. Methodological support of development and implementation of

  13. The Charter on Professionalism for Health Care Organizations. (United States)

    Egener, Barry E; Mason, Diana J; McDonald, Walter J; Okun, Sally; Gaines, Martha E; Fleming, David A; Rosof, Bernie M; Gullen, David; Andresen, May-Lynn


    In 2002, the Physician Charter on Medical Professionalism was published to provide physicians with guidance for decision making in a rapidly changing environment. Feedback from physicians indicated that they were unable to fully live up to the principles in the 2002 charter partly because of their employing or affiliated health care organizations. A multistakeholder group has developed a Charter on Professionalism for Health Care Organizations, which may provide more guidance than charters for individual disciplines, given the current structure of health care delivery systems.This article contains the Charter on Professionalism for Health Care Organizations, as well as the process and rationale for its development. For hospitals and hospital systems to effectively care for patients, maintain a healthy workforce, and improve the health of populations, they must attend to the four domains addressed by the Charter: patient partnerships, organizational culture, community partnerships, and operations and business practices. Impacting the social determinants of health will require collaboration among health care organizations, government, and communities.Transitioning to the model hospital described by the Charter will challenge historical roles and assumptions of both its leadership and staff. While the Charter is aspirational, it also outlines specific institutional behaviors that will benefit both patients and workers. Lastly, this article considers obstacles to implementing the Charter and explores avenues to facilitate its dissemination.

  14. Future Sources of Organic Raw Materials. (United States)

    Shapiro, Irving S.


    Examines the need for industrial organization, academic institutions, and national governments to agree on cooperative roles in planning the future raw materials demands of the chemical industry. Political and social concerns, as well as technical and economic considerations, are important to the raw material future of the industry. (MA)

  15. E-sport organization and professional gamers in Finland


    Nguyen, Quoc Hung; Phan, Hao


    E-sports nowadays are considered as a billion dollars industry. Indeed, playing video gaming step by step become a worthy occupation and would bring decent furture for any person who have talented and determination. This thesis describes how e-sports organizations in Finland are structured. Also, it identifies the common characteristics of professional e-sports players in this coun-try. Related on interviews with persons who already have experiences by involve in E-sports, the resuls of t...

  16. Organizational Development: A Tool for Nonprofit Organizations to Become Professional

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    Ferenc Farkas


    Full Text Available The paper is based on international research and on the ongoing research ofthe authors in the field of professionalization of nonprofit organizations. Deskresearch is supported by the analysis of the results of the pilot project of anorganizational development programme in Hungary. The findings of the empiricalresearch serve as a benchmark for the large sample research. Since thepaper gives insight over changes in the operational environment of nonprofitorganizations that are connected to their learning needs and chosen solutions,and brings practical evidence, it contributes to the current research ofprofessionalization of nonprofit sector organizations internationally.

  17. Noncovalent Interactions in Organic Electronic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Ravva, Mahesh Kumar


    In this chapter, we provide an overview of how noncovalent interactions, determined by the chemical structure of π-conjugated molecules and polymers, govern essential aspects of the electronic, optical, and mechanical characteristics of organic semiconductors. We begin by describing general aspects of materials design, including the wide variety of chemistries exploited to control the electronic and optical properties of these materials. We then discuss explicit examples of how the study of noncovalent interactions can provide deeper chemical insights that can improve the design of new generations of organic electronic materials.

  18. Ion surface treatments on organic materials (United States)

    Iwaki, Masaya


    A study has been made of surface modification of various organic materials by ion bombardment or implantation to make the surface properties of high and multiple functions in RIKEN. Substrates used were polyimide (PI), polyacetylene, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polystyrene (PS), silicone rubber, various kinds of proteins and so on. Bombarded or implanted ions were inert gas elements, chemically active gaseous elements and metallic elements. Surface properties such as electrical conductivity, wettability and cell adhesion of implanted layers have been investigated. Surface characterization of implanted materials has been carried out by means of transmission electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. In this paper, studies in RIKEN are reviewed of electrical conductivity, optical absorbance, wettability and cell adhesion depending on current densities and doping elements. Applications of ion bombardment to biomedical materials are introduced using cell adhesion control. It is concluded that ion bombardment or implantation is useful to change and control surface properties of various organic materials.

  19. Printed educational materials: effects on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. (United States)

    Giguère, Anik; Légaré, France; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Turcotte, Stéphane; Fiander, Michelle; Grudniewicz, Agnes; Makosso-Kallyth, Sun; Wolf, Fredric M; Farmer, Anna P; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre


    Printed educational materials are widely used passive dissemination strategies to improve the quality of clinical practice and patient outcomes. Traditionally they are presented in paper formats such as monographs, publication in peer-reviewed journals and clinical guidelines. To assess the effect of printed educational materials on the practice of healthcare professionals and patient health outcomes.To explore the influence of some of the characteristics of the printed educational materials (e.g. source, content, format) on their effect on professional practice and patient outcomes. For this update, search strategies were rewritten and substantially changed from those published in the original review in order to refocus the search from published material to printed material and to expand terminology describing printed materials. Given the significant changes, all databases were searched from start date to June 2011. We searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), HealthStar, CINAHL, ERIC, CAB Abstracts, Global Health, and the EPOC Register. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised trials, controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITS) analyses that evaluated the impact of printed educational materials (PEMs) on healthcare professionals' practice or patient outcomes, or both. We included three types of comparisons: (1) PEM versus no intervention, (2) PEM versus single intervention, (3) multifaceted intervention where PEM is included versus multifaceted intervention without PEM. There was no language restriction. Any objective measure of professional practice (e.g. number of tests ordered, prescriptions for a particular drug), or patient health outcomes (e.g. blood pressure) were included. Two review authors undertook data extraction independently, and any disagreement was resolved by discussion among the review authors. For analyses, the included studies were grouped

  20. Professional Organizations As Drivers of Social Changes in Developing Countries

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    Andrei A. Yakovlev


    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the activity of professional organizations of advocates as a factor of transfer from limited access order to open access order, in terms of the theory of North, Wallis and Weingast. Using the analysis of the experience of advocates’ collective action in developing countries, the paper proposes a model explaining the process of mobilization of the legal community for countering the violations of the law by the ruling elite. It shows that collective action of advocates plays a significant role in implementing the principles of rule of law. However, the efficiency of such collective action in a particular country depends on the institutional capacity of its legal association (in terms of Doner & Schneider (2000 and on the position of the professional elite that is heading it. The elite of the advocates’ community in developing countries is confronted by a difficult choice between identifying itself with the national political elite and the need to respond to the demand of grass-roots members of the profession regularly encountering violations of the law by representatives of the authorities. On the example of various countries, we show, how the choice of professional elite leads to different scenarios, and make conclusions for the situation in Russia.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rаdkеvich


    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  2. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.


    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  3. Shock-induced chemistry in organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Engelke, Ray [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manner, Virginia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Choong - Shik [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV


    The combined 'extreme' environments of high pressure, temperature, and strain rates, encountered under shock loading, offer enormous potential for the discovery of new paradigms in chemical reactivity not possible under more benign conditions. All organic materials are expected to react under these conditions, yet we currently understand very little about the first bond-breaking steps behind the shock front, such as in the shock initiation of explosives, or shock-induced reactivity of other relevant materials. Here, I will present recent experimental results of shock-induced chemistry in a variety of organic materials under sustained shock conditions. A comparison between the reactivity of different structures is given, and a perspective on the kinetics of reaction completion under shock drives.

  4. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana


    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  5. Langmuir Blodgett films of molecular organic materials (United States)

    Talham, Daniel R.; Yamamoto, Takashi; Meisel, Mark W.


    Langmuir-Blodgett methods are perhaps the original approach for achieving controlled deposition of organic thin films. Molecules are first organized into a monolayer array on the surface of water before transfer as a monolayer onto solid supports. Molecular monolayers, multilayers, and multilayered heterostructures can be achieved. The capability of exercising such control over thin film assemblies has attracted materials chemists and physicists to develop Langmuir-Blodgett films for studies on organic conductors, magnets, non-linear optics, rectifiers, and intermolecular electron transfer. This article reviews objectives in each of these areas and selects some specific examples from the literature to highlight the state of the art, mostly from the point of view of the chemical systems that are studied. Mixed organic/inorganic hybrid films represent a new direction for Langmuir-Blodgett films in materials science, combining conventional inorganic solid-state phenomena with the properties of the organic networks, and recent examples, taken principally from the authors' work, are highlighted.

  6. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Son, Sehwan; Lin, Hong-Cheu


    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

  7. Organic Optoelectronic Materials: A Topical Workshop (United States)

    The topics covered include the following: Introduction to Nonlinear Optics of Organics and the Use of Second Harmonic Generation as a Polymer Probe; Experimental Characterization of Second Order Nonlinear Optical Chromophores; Chi(2) Structure-Property Relationship on the Colligative Scale; The Stability of the Poled Order in Crosslinked Systems; Corona Electric Filed Poling of Nonlinear Polymers and Femtosecond Optical Applications; Synthesis and Characterization of Photosensitive Polymers for Optical Waveguide Definition; Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Conjugated Polymers; The Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Second-Order Optical Nonlinearities or Organic Molecules; Theory and Structure/Property of chi(3) Materials; Synthesis of Well-Defined Thiophene Oligomers and Planar Conjugated Polymers for chi(3) Studies; and Spectroscopy as a Probe of chi(3) in Conjugated Materials.

  8. Physics and Materials Issues of Organic Photovoltaics (United States)

    Scully, Shawn R.; McGehee, Michael D.

    Organic materials hold promise for use in photovoltaic (PV) devices because of their potential to reduce the cost of electricity per kWh ultimately to levels below that of electricity produced by coal-fired power plants. Deposition of organics by techniques such as screen printing, doctor blading, inkjet printing, spray deposition, and thermal evaporation lends itself to incorporation in high-throughput low-cost roll-to-roll coating systems. These are low-temperature deposition techniques which allow the organics to be deposited on plastic substrates such that flexible devices can easily be made. In addition to the inherent economics of high-throughput manufacturing, lightweight and flexibility are qualities claimed to offer a simple way to reduce the price of PV panels by reducing installation costs. Flexible PVs also open niche markets like portable power generation and aesthetic-PV in building design.

  9. Acetylene-Based Materials in Organic Photovoltaics (United States)

    Silvestri, Fabio; Marrocchi, Assunta


    Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (poly)arylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (poly)arylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (co)polymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C60, and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices. PMID:20480031

  10. Acetylene-Based Materials in Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silvestri


    Full Text Available Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (polyarylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (polyarylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (copolymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C60, and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  11. Acetylene-based materials in organic photovoltaics. (United States)

    Silvestri, Fabio; Marrocchi, Assunta


    Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (poly)arylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (poly)arylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (co)polymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C(60), and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  12. Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations. (United States)

    Bazi, Tony


    Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.

  13. Mergers and acquisitions in professional organizations: a complex adaptive systems approach. (United States)

    Walls, M E; McDaniel, R R


    Nurse managers face unique challenges as they cope with mergers and acquisitions among health care organizations. These challenges can be better understood if it is recognized that health care institutions are professional organizations and that the transformations required are extremely difficult. These difficulties are caused, in part, by the institutionalized nature of professional organizations, and this nature is explicated. Professional organizations are stubborn. They are repositories of expertise and values that are societal in origin and difficult to change. When professional organizations are understood as complex adaptive systems, complexity theory offers insight that provide strategies for managing mergers and acquisitions that may not be apparent when more traditional conceptualizations of professional organizations are used. Specific managerial techniques consistent with both the institutionalized characteristics and the complex adaptive systems characteristics of professional organizations are offered to nurse managers.

  14. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson


    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  15. Explore the Human-Based Teaching for the Professional Course of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping; Chen, Li; Zhang, Yufeng


    As viewed from two sides such as teacher and student, in this article, we explore the human-based teaching reform for the college professional course of materials Science and Engineering, point out the qualities and conditions that professional teacher should possess in the process of human-based teaching reform of professional course and the…

  16. New Organic Semiconductor Materials Applied in Organic Photovoltaic and Optical Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andre F. S. Guedes; Vilmar P. Guedes; Simone Tartari; Mônica L. Souza; Idaulo J. Cunha


    The development of flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry...

  17. Living in a Materials World: Materials Science Engineering Professional Development for K-12 Educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Seifert; Louis Nadelson


    Advances in materials science are fundamental to technological developments and have broad societal impacs. For example, a cellular phone is composed of a polymer case, liquid crystal displays, LEDs, silicon chips, Ni-Cd batteries, resistors, capacitors, speakers, microphones all of which have required advances in materials science to be compacted into a phone which is typically smaller than a deck of cards. Like many technological developments, cellular phones have become a ubiquitous part of society, and yet most people know little about the materials science associated with their manufacture. The probable condition of constrained knowledge of materials science was the motivation for developing and offering a 20 hour fourday course called 'Living in a Materials World.' In addition, materials science provides a connection between our every day experiences and the work of scientists and engineers. The course was offered as part of a larger K-12 teacher professional development project and was a component of a week-long summer institute designed specifically for upper elementary and middle school teachers which included 20 hour content strands, and 12 hours of plenary sessions, planning, and collaborative sharing. The focus of the institute was on enhancing teacher content knowledge in STEM, their capacity for teaching using inquiry, their comfort and positive attitudes toward teaching STEM, their knowledge of how people learn, and strategies for integrating STEM throughout the curriculum. In addition to the summer institute the participating teachers were provided with a kit of about $300 worth of materials and equipment to use to implement the content they learned in their classrooms. As part of this professional development project the participants were required to design and implement 5 lesson plans with their students this fall and report on the results, as part of the continuing education course associated with the project. 'Living in a

  18. Biomimicry in metal-organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, MW; Gu, ZY; Bosch, M; Perry, Z; Zhou, HC


    Nature has evolved a great number of biological molecules which serve as excellent constructional or functional units for metal-organic materials (MOMs). Even though the study of biomimetic MOMs is still at its embryonic stage, considerable progress has been made in the past few years. In this critical review, we will highlight the recent advances in the design, development and application of biomimetic MOMs, and illustrate how the incorporation of biological components into MOMs could further enrich their structural and functional diversity. More importantly, this review will provide a systematic overview of different methods for rational design of MOMs with biomimetic features. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Crystalline Organic Cavitands As Microcavity Materials (United States)

    Kane, Christopher Michael

    There has been much interest in inefficiently packed molecular materials and their applications in gas storage, separations, catalysis, etc. Such known materials include metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), container molecule materials, etc. One way to design inefficiently packed materials is to construct them from compounds that are incapable of close-packing, that is rigid scaffolds with enforced cavities that cannot be filled by self-packing. Cavitand molecules, tetrameric macrocycles derived from calix[4]resorcinarene derivatives, are well known for their propensity to form crystalline inclusion compounds with small molecules; for example, of the 169 examples of calix[4]resorcinarene scaffolds found in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD), no guest-free forms exist. The guest-free forms of various cavitands, synthesized by literature methods, have been obtained as single crystals by sublimation. Gas inclusion compounds of these cavitands have also been isolated and studied by single crystal x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and 1 H NMR. Furthermore, some cavitand derivatives have shown promise as media for industrial separations (Kr vs. Xe, MeCl vs. DME, Propene vs. Propane).

  20. Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cássia Miranda Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Method: Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. Results: From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. Conclusion: The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  1. Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cássia Miranda Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Method: Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. Results: From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. Conclusion: The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  2. [Intervening factors in attention flow of professionals injured by biological material]. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luana Cássia Miranda; Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva E; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; Melo, Dulcelene Sousa; Peixoto, Myrian Karla Ayres Veronez; Munari, Denize Bouttelet


    To describe the barriers and facilitator factors to follow the attention flow of professionals injured by biological material in the worker perspective. Qualitative descriptive study with data collected through individual interviews with 18 injured workers, assisted in reference public units in the city of Goiânia. The content analysis was carried out with assistance of the ATLAS.ti 6.2 software, under the work organization and subjective perspectives. From the interviews regarding the barriers and facilitator factors emerged the categories: organizational structure, Support from close people, and Knowledge influence. The organized services have enabled more qualified consultations and the workers follow-up, which caused a satisfaction feeling in relation to the working environment.

  3. Benchmarking Professional Development Practices across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications for Extension (United States)

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy


    Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly,…

  4. Reframing cooperation: Challenges in overcoming tensions between professional services and volunteer organizations providing parenting support in immigrant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzoni, E.


    Volunteer organizations can potentially partner with mainstream professional services to provide better parenting support to immigrant parents. This qualitative study of cooperation between professional agencies and volunteer organizations known as migrant volunteer and community organizations

  5. Labor Unions or Professional Organizations: Which Have Our First Loyalty? (United States)

    Anderson, Renee N.; And Others


    Five hundred California librarians were surveyed regarding their membership in labor unions and professional associations. Respondents were asked to give their reasons for joining (or not) and the perceived benefits of membership. In general, the librarians were more loyal to their union than to their professional associations and were motivated…

  6. Titan's inventory of organic surface materials (United States)

    Lorenz, R.D.; Mitchell, K.L.; Kirk, R.L.; Hayes, A.G.; Aharonson, O.; Zebker, H.A.; Paillou, P.; Radebaugh, J.; Lunine, J.I.; Janssen, M.A.; Wall, S.D.; Lopes, R.M.; Stiles, B.; Ostro, S.; Mitri, Giuseppe; Stofan, E.R.


    Cassini RADAR observations now permit an initial assessment of the inventory of two classes, presumed to be organic, of Titan surface materials: polar lake liquids and equatorial dune sands. Several hundred lakes or seas have been observed, of which dozens are each estimated to contain more hydrocarbon liquid than the entire known oil and gas reserves on Earth. Dark dunes cover some 20% of Titan's surface, and comprise a volume of material several hundred times larger than Earth's coal reserves. Overall, however, the identified surface inventories (>3 ?? 104 km3 of liquid, and >2 ?? 105 km3 of dune sands) are small compared with estimated photochemical production on Titan over the age of the solar system. The sand volume is too large to be accounted for simply by erosion in observed river channels or ejecta from observed impact craters. The lakes are adequate in extent to buffer atmospheric methane against photolysis in the short term, but do not contain enough methane to sustain the atmosphere over geologic time. Unless frequent resupply from the interior buffers this greenhouse gas at exactly the right rate, dramatic climate change on Titan is likely in its past, present and future. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Practicing Professional Values: Factors Influencing Involvement in Social Work Student Organizations (United States)

    Martindale, Dorothy; Olate, René; Anderson, Keith A.


    One of the most promising avenues for the development of professional values is involvement in professional student organizations. A convenience sample of baccalaureate social work students (n = 482) was drawn from 15 institutions. Regression analyses revealed several predictors of involvement in social work student organizations, including…

  8. Organization of healthcare and assistance to the elderly indigenous population: synergies and particularities of the professional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidyani Karina Rissardo


    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the effects of the organization of primary healthcare on the assistance provided to the elderly Kaingang population, according to the perception of health professionals that work in this area. It is a qualitative and descriptive study, supported by ethnography methodological references, and was conducted with ten healthcare professionals that work in Faxinal, an indigenous territory in the state of Paraná, in Brazil. Data was collected from November 2010 to February 2012 through participant observation and interviews. The results revealed that health professionals strive to meet the health needs of the elderly Kaingang people; however, there are negative effects that hinder the professional care, especially limited human resources, lack of training and material resources, heavy workload and high turnover rates. This study highlights the need to improve work conditions in order to provide better healthcare.

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Willingness Toward Organ Donation Among Health Professionals in China. (United States)

    Hu, Dongmei; Huang, Hai


    The purposes of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and willingness toward organ donation among the health professionals in China. Questionnaires were delivered to 400 health professionals from 7 hospitals in Dalian and 1 hospital in Chaozhou of China between October 2013 and January 2014. In all, 400 health professionals were approached, 373 valid responses were returned. Over 90% of the participants knew about organ donation, but only 17.4% had taken part in some training courses or lectures about organ donation. Health professionals (64.9%) knew the shortage status of organ, and doctors knew more than nurses and nonclinical staffs (P death, and 68.9% professionals thought brain death was the reasonable criteria to judge death. Doctors showed a higher knowledge level about brain death than nurses and nonclinical staffs (P donation; however, only 48.5% approved living donation. Doctors' attitudes were more positive than nurses and nonclinical both in deceased donation (P donation (P donate their own organs postmortem, and doctors had higher willingness to donation postmortem compared with nurses and nonclinical staffs (P donation was: "afraid that organs would be picked up inhumanely and body would be disfigured". Health professionals showed lower favorable attitudes and willingness toward organ donation than Chinese general public. A proportion of Chinese health professionals' knowledge about organ donation was limited.

  10. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas (United States)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti


    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  11. Grants Management Training Materials for Tribal Organizations (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Grants & Debarment (OGD) worked with the national Partnership for Environmental Technology Education (NPETE) to develop training materials. Training materials, including the training manuals & webinar recordings, are available for download.

  12. Nonprofit Organizations from the Perspective of Organizational Development and Their Influence on Professionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrai Katalin


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the phenomenon of professionalization that is observable in organizations from the nonprofit sector. Empirical research was conducted among Hungarian nonprofit organizations, and the data were collected within the framework of a country-wide survey. Through the analysis of the research results, the paper provides deeper insights into knowledge about professionalization trends in the nonprofit sector. It proves that organizational development positively impacts nonprofit organizations’ improvement of their professionalization level and the members of these organizations.

  13. 78 FR 19637 - National Organic Program: Notice of Draft Guidance on Classification of Materials and Materials... (United States)


    ... production (e.g., lead salts) or that are otherwise prohibited by the USDA organic regulations (e.g., sewage... on Classification of Materials and Materials for Organic Crop Production AGENCY: Agricultural... materials used for organic crop production, livestock production, and handling. The second set of draft...

  14. Porous Organic Materials: Strategic Design and Structure-Function Correlation. (United States)

    Das, Saikat; Heasman, Patrick; Ben, Teng; Qiu, Shilun


    Porous organic materials have garnered colossal interest with the scientific fraternity due to their excellent gas sorption performances, catalytic abilities, energy storage capacities, and other intriguing applications. This review encompasses the recent significant breakthroughs and the conventional functions and practices in the field of porous organic materials to find useful applications and imparts a comprehensive understanding of the strategic evolution of the design and synthetic approaches of porous organic materials with tunable characteristics. We present an exhaustive analysis of the design strategies with special emphasis on the topologies of crystalline and amorphous porous organic materials. In addition to elucidating the structure-function correlation and state-of-the-art applications of porous organic materials, we address the challenges and restrictions that prevent us from realizing porous organic materials with tailored structures and properties for useful applications.

  15. A Model of Sustainability for Professional Organizations: Using a Learning Management System to Offer Continuing Education (United States)

    Sparrow, Gregory S.


    Professional membership organizations have long maintained their exposure and revenue stream through a variety of traditional avenues, most notably memberships, sponsored conferences, and professional journals. The synergy of this three-tiered model has depended on a certain enhanced status derived from membership benefits and proprietary…

  16. Learning Gaps in a Learning Organization: Professionals' Values versus Management Values (United States)

    Parding, Karolina; Abrahamsson, Lena


    Purpose: The aim of this article is to challenge the concept of "the learning organization" as unproblematic and inherently good. Design/methodology/approach: The research looked at how teachers--as an example of public sector professionals in a work organization that claims to be a learning organization--view their conditions for…

  17. Dissolved organic materials in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myklestad, S.; Boersheim, K.Y. (Institutt for Bioteknologi (Norway). UNIT/NTH)


    Dissolved organic matter (DOC) is one of the largest reservoirs of organic matter on our globe. DOC is intimately connected with the fluxes of CO[sub 2] through photosynthetic planktonic microalgae. A recently developed method for the measurement of organic matter utilises combustion at high temperature and a catalyst consisting of platinum and aluminium oxide. Because the new method has revealed concentrations of organic matter in the upper 100 m of oceanic water that exceed previous estimates 3-5 times, DOC is now regarded as a far more important component of carbon cycling than previously believed. 2 figs.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 28, UNAAB Post Office. Abeokuta, Nigeria. 2Department ... materials is an attractive and challenging area of research for materials chemists. For example, ..... Advances in Chemistry 218; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC; 1988; p 109. 16. Main, P. in ...

  19. Intensive care nurses' perceptions of their professional competence in the organ donor process: a national survey. (United States)

    Meyer, Käthe; Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Eide, Hilde


    This paper is a report of a study that explored Norwegian intensive care nurses' perceptions of their professional competence to identify educational needs in the organ donor process. Intensive care professionals are requested to consider organ donation each time they care for patients with severe cerebral lesion to ensure donor organs for transplantation. The donor process challenges intensive care nurses' professional competence. Nurses' knowledge and experience may influence their professional competence in caring for organ donors and their relatives. METHODS.: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all 28 Norwegian donor hospitals between October 2008 and January 2009. Intensive care nurses (N = 801) were invited to participate and the response rate was 71·4%. Dimensions of professional competence, learning needs and contextual and demographic variables were explored. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Few intensive care nurses had extensive experience of or competence and training in organ donation. Nurses working at university hospitals had more experience, but lesser training than nurses in local hospitals. Experience of donor acquisition had an impact on intensive care nurses' perceptions of their professional competence in the donor process. Discussions on the ward and educational input were seen as important for the further development of professional competence. Training provided by experienced colleagues and a culture that encourages discussion about aspects of the donor process can develop nurses' professional competence and communally defined professional practice. Educational input that cultivates various types of knowledge can be beneficial in organ donation. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Attitudes of health care professionals towards organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalraj R Edwin


    The study reveals that there is a poor understanding of the concept of brain death and organ donation even among medical students. It was also observed that they were in-terested in knowing more about the subject of organ do-nation.

  1. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex


    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  2. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Y. C.; Kang, P. H.; Choi, J. H.; and others


    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we have developed the radiation-based new therapeutic agents such as hydrogel patch, paste, naganol, nanoparticles and nano fibers containing natural medicinal materials for the treatment of atomic dermatitis and diabetic ulcer. Also, we have developed the separator, the polymer gel electrolyte, and proton exchange membranes for lithium secondary battery and fuel cell by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology. In the 3rd project, the crucial radiation-induced surface modification technologies for the fabrication of the advanced biosensors/chips and electronic devices have been successfully developed.

  3. Designing Biomimetic Materials from Marine Organisms. (United States)

    Nichols, William T


    Two biomimetic design approaches that apply biological solutions to engineering problems are discussed. In the first case, motivation comes from an engineering problem and the key challenge is to find analogous biological functions and map them into engineering materials. We illustrate with an example of water pollution remediation through appropriate design of a biomimetic sponge. In the second case, a biological function is already known and the challenge is to identify the appropriate engineering problem. We demonstrate the biological approach with marine diatoms that control energy and materials at their surface providing inspiration for a number of engineering applications. In both cases, it is essential to select materials and structures at the nanoscale to control energy and materials flows at interfaces.

  4. Nanostructured Materials for Organic Light Emitting Diodes


    Dinh, Nguyen Nang


    We have given an overview of the recent works on nanocomposites used for optoelectronic devices. From the review it is seen that a very rich publication has been issued regarding the nanostructured composites and nano-hybrid layers or heterojunctions which can be applied for different practical purposes. Among them there are organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and excitonic or organic solar cells (OSC). Our recent achievements on the use of nanocomposites for OLEDs were also presented. There...

  5. Designing Multidimensional Policing Strategy And Organization: Towards A Synthesis Of Professional And Community Police Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suve Priit


    Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.

  6. Amorphous electron-accepting materials for organic optoelectronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganesan, P.


    The importance of organic materials for use in electronic devices such as OLEDs, OFETs and photovoltaic cells has increased significantly over the past decade. Organic materials have been attractive candidates for such electronic devices because of their compatibility with high-throughput, low-cost

  7. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials (United States)

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair


    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  8. EDITORIAL Light-induced material organization Light-induced material organization (United States)

    Vainos, Nikos; Rode, Andrei V.


    Light-induced material organization extends over a broad area of research, from photon momentum transfer to atoms, molecules and particles, serving the basis for optical trapping, and expands into the laser-induced changes of material properties through photopolymerization, photodarkening, and materials ablation. Relevant phenomena are observed over many orders of magnitude of light intensity, from a few kW cm-2 for the optical trapping of living cells to 1014 W cm-2 encountered in femtosecond laser micromachining and micro-explosion. Relevant interactions reveal a rich palette of novel phenomena in the solid state, from subtle excitations and material organization to phase transformations, non-equilibrium and transient states. The laser-induced material modifications relate to changes in the crystal structure and the molecular bonding, phase transitions in liquid state, ablation and plasma production associated with extreme pressure and temperature conditions towards entirely new states of matter. The underlying physical mechanisms form the foundations for micro-engineering photonic and other functional devices and lead the way to relevant applications. At the same time, they hold the potential for creating non-equilibrium material states and a range of fundamentally new products not available by other means. The fundamental understanding of both materials nature and functional behaviour will ultimately yield novel devices and improved performance in several fields. The far reaching goals of these studies relate to the development of new methods and technologies for micro- and nano-fabrication, not only offering a significant reduction of cost, but also expanding the fabrication capabilities into unexplored areas of biophotonics and nanotechnology. This special issue of Journal of Optics presents some very recent and exciting advances in the field of materials manipulation by laser beams, aiming to underline its current trends. In optical trapping research we

  9. Development of new organic materials by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang; Kang, Phil Hyun; Choi, Jae Hak


    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. In the 1st project, we carried out the radiation-based new research to apply long-term moisturizing effects and effective natural herbal extracts on the atopic wounds using gamma-ray irradiation. Also, we have developed the separator and the polymer gel electrolyte for lithium secondary battery by radiation. In the 2nd project, we have developed the advanced composite materials such as silicon carbide fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, low dielectric materials for semiconductor and adhesive technology for TFT-LCD panel by radiation. In the 3rd project, we have developed the various radiation-based techniques for the surface modification of polymers and ceramics, biomolecules immobilization and patterning, prevention of biomolecule's non-specific adhesion, and surface modification of carbon nanotubes

  10. Introduction to organic electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Sam-Shajing


    Introduction to Optoelectronic Materials, N. Peyghambarian and M. Fallahi Introduction to Optoelectronic Device Principles, J. Piprek Basic Electronic Structures and Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Optoelectronic Materials, S.-S. Sun Charge Transport in Conducting Polymers, V.N. Prigodin and A.J. Epstein Major Classes of Organic Small Molecules for Electronic and Optoelectronics, X. Meng, W. Zhu, and H. Tian Major Classes of Conjugated Polymers and Synthetic Strategies, Y. Li and J. Hou Low Energy Gap, Conducting, and Transparent Polymers, A. Kumar, Y. Ner, and G.A. Sotzing Conjugated Polymers, Fullerene C60, and Carbon Nanotubes for Optoelectronic Devices, L. Qu, L. Dai, and S.-S. Sun Introduction of Organic Superconducting Materials, H. Mori Molecular Semiconductors for Organic Field-Effect Transistors, A. Facchetti Polymer Field-Effect Transistors, H.G.O. Sandberg Organic Molecular Light-Emitting Materials and Devices, F. So and J. Shi Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes: Devices and Materials, X. Gong and ...

  11. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Platforms for Functional Materials. (United States)

    Cui, Yuanjing; Li, Bin; He, Huajun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong


    Discoveries of novel functional materials have played very important roles to the development of science and technologies and thus to benefit our daily life. Among the diverse materials, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are rapidly emerging as a unique type of porous and organic/inorganic hybrid materials which can be simply self-assembled from their corresponding inorganic metal ions/clusters with organic linkers, and can be straightforwardly characterized by various analytical methods. In terms of porosity, they are superior to other well-known porous materials such as zeolites and carbon materials; exhibiting extremely high porosity with surface area up to 7000 m(2)/g, tunable pore sizes, and metrics through the interplay of both organic and inorganic components with the pore sizes ranging from 3 to 100 Å, and lowest framework density down to 0.13 g/cm(3). Such unique features have enabled metal-organic frameworks to exhibit great potentials for a broad range of applications in gas storage, gas separations, enantioselective separations, heterogeneous catalysis, chemical sensing and drug delivery. On the other hand, metal-organic frameworks can be also considered as organic/inorganic self-assembled hybrid materials, we can take advantages of the physical and chemical properties of both organic and inorganic components to develop their functional optical, photonic, and magnetic materials. Furthermore, the pores within MOFs can also be utilized to encapsulate a large number of different species of diverse functions, so a variety of functional MOF/composite materials can be readily synthesized. In this Account, we describe our recent research progress on pore and function engineering to develop functional MOF materials. We have been able to tune and optimize pore spaces, immobilize specific functional groups, and introduce chiral pore environments to target MOF materials for methane storage, light hydrocarbon separations, enantioselective recognitions

  12. Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water Using Superwetting Materials. (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin


    The frequent occurrence of water pollution accidents and the leakage of organic pollutants have caused severe environmental and ecological crisis. It is thus highly imperative to find efficient materials to solve the problem. Inspired by the lotus leaf, superwetting materials are receiving increasing attention in the field of removal of organic pollutants from water. Various superwetting materials have been successfully generated and integrated into devices for removal of organic pollutants from water. On the basis of our previous work in the field, we summarized in this account the progress of removal of (1) floating and underwater insoluble, (2) emulsified insoluble, and (3) both insoluble and soluble organic pollutants from water using superwetting materials including superhydrophobic & superoleophilic materials, superhydrophilic & underwater superoleophobic materials, and materials with controllable wettability. The superwetting materials are in the forms of 2D porous materials, 3D porous materials and particles, etc. Finally, the current state and future challenges in this field are discussed. We hope this account could shed light on the design of novel superwetting materials for efficient removal of organic pollutants from water. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry of Complex Organic Materials. (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Henk L. C.; And Others


    Illustrates the state of the art in pyrolysis mass spectrometry techniques through applications in: (1) structural determination and quality control of synthetic polymers; (2) quantitative analysis of polymer mixtures; (3) classification and structural characterization of fossil organic matter; and (4) nonsupervised numerical extraction of…

  14. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Paul F. (Golden, CO); Maness, Pin-Ching (Golden, CO)


    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer.

  15. Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.


    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

  16. Academic Professional Women Organizing for Change: The Struggle in Psychology. (United States)

    Walsh, Mary Roth


    Examines organized efforts of women psychologists who confronted sex discrimination in two different historical periods: 1941-1959 and the period beginning in 1969. Compares women's efforts during these two periods and offers a long range perspective on social change for those working to improve the status of women in academe. (GC)

  17. Are health professionals responsible for the shortage of organs from deceased donors in Malaysia? (United States)

    Abidin, Zada L Zainal; Ming, Wee Tong; Loch, Alexander; Hilmi, Ida; Hautmann, Oliver


    The rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia is among the lowest in the world. This may be because of the passivity among health professionals in approaching families of potential donors. A questionnaire-based study was conducted amongst health professionals in two tertiary hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-two questionnaires were completed. 93.3% of health professionals acknowledged a need for organ transplantation in Malaysia. 47.8% were willing to donate their organs (with ethnic and religious differences). Factors which may be influencing the shortage of organs from deceased donors include: nonrecognition of brainstem death (38.5%), no knowledge on how to contact the Organ Transplant Coordinator (82.3%), and never approaching families of a potential donor (63.9%). There was a general attitude of passivity in approaching families of potential donors and activating transplant teams among many of the health professionals. A misunderstanding of brainstem death and its definition hinder identification of a potential donor. Continuing medical education and highlighting the role of the Organ Transplant Coordinator, as well as increasing awareness of the public through religion and the media were identified as essential in improving the rate of organ donations from deceased donors in Malaysia. © 2012 The Authors Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Teacher Professional Development for Learning Organization on Sufficiency Economy in Small Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ariratana, Wallapha


    ... programs as well as integrating sufficient economy into the learning and teaching situations. The purposes of this study are to develop teacher professional for learning organization on sufficiency economy in small schools as well as to develop principals and teachers' concepts about learning organization on sufficient economy. This study employ...

  19. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B


    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  20. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes. (United States)

    Oltean, Viorica-Alina; Renault, Stéven; Valvo, Mario; Brandell, Daniel


    In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested.

  1. Sustainable Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage: Organic Na Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica-Alina Oltean


    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize research efforts to realize Na-based organic materials for novel battery chemistries. Na is a more abundant element than Li, thereby contributing to less costly materials with limited to no geopolitical constraints while organic electrode materials harvested from biomass resources provide the possibility of achieving renewable battery components with low environmental impact during processing and recycling. Together, this can form the basis for truly sustainable electrochemical energy storage. We explore the efforts made on electrode materials of organic salts, primarily carbonyl compounds but also Schiff bases, unsaturated compounds, nitroxides and polymers. Moreover, sodiated carbonaceous materials derived from biomasses and waste products are surveyed. As a conclusion to the review, some shortcomings of the currently investigated materials are highlighted together with the major limitations for future development in this field. Finally, routes to move forward in this direction are suggested.

  2. Filtration and compression of organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is to use more simple systems. Dextran-MnO2 particles and polystyrene particles with a water-swollen polyacrylic acid shell have therefore been synthesised. These particles have been filtered and used to study the non-linear filtration behaviour. The compressibility of the formed cake has been investigated......The conventional filtration theory has been based on filtrations of incompressible particles such as anatase, kaolin and clay. The filtration models have later been used for organic slurries but can often not explain the observed experimental data. At constant pressure, the filtrate volume does...... and the discrepancy between the filtration theory and the observed filtration behaviour explained as a time-dependent collapse of the formed cake (creep). Thus, the creep phenomenon has been adopted in the conventional filtration models and it will be shown that the model can be used to simulate filtration data...

  3. Thermally stimulated photoluminescence in disordered organic materials (United States)

    Kadashchuk, A.; Skryshevskii, Yu.; Vakhnin, A.; Ostapenko, N.; Arkhipov, V. I.; Emelianova, E. V.; Bässler, H.


    An analytical model of thermally stimulated photoluminescence (TSPL) in a random hopping system is formulated. The model is based on the assumption that TSPL originates from radiative recombination of sufficiently long geminate pairs of charge carriers created during photoexcitation of the sample at a low (helium) temperature. Since TSPL measurements are normally performed after some dwell time, the initial energy distribution of localized carriers is formed after low-temperature hopping relaxation of photogenerated carriers and, therefore, the first thermally assisted jumps of relaxed carriers are considered as the rate-limiting steps in the present model. Predictions of the model are found to be in good quantitative agreement with experimental data on molecularly doped polymers if a double-peak energy distribution of localized states is invoked for these materials. Comparing theoretical results with existing experimental data also reveals a somewhat slower low-temperature energy relaxation of charge carriers in these materials than predicted by the conventional theory of carrier random walk in random hopping systems. TSPL was also measured in a methyl-substituted ladder-type poly(paraphenylene). Both fluorescence and phosphorescence were found to contribute to the TSPL spectrum whereas only the latter was observed in the long isothermal afterglow following photoexcitation of the sample at helium temperature. This implies that the binding energy of a short off-chain geminate pair is higher than the binding energy of a singlet excitation but lower than that of a triplet exciton. The experimentally observed TSPL curve reveals an unusually low-temperature peak with the maximum at around 40 K. Interpretation of the experiment based on the hopping model of TSPL yields an effective density of states width of 0.055 eV, in good agreement with the value of 0.050 eV estimated from transport measurements.

  4. Reflection on Teachers' Personal and Professional Growth through a Materials Development Seminar (United States)

    Núñez Pardo, Astrid; Téllez Téllez, María Fernanda


    This qualitative action research study explores the role of reflection on teachers' personal and professional growth through the methodology used in the Materials Development Seminar in the Master's Programme in Education with Emphasis on English Didactics at a private university in Colombia. The project was carried out with 31 English as a…

  5. Recent Advances as Materials of Functional Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Tong


    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, also known as hybrid inorganic-organic materials, represent an emerging class of materials that have attracted the imagination of solid-state chemists because MOFs combine unprecedented levels of porosity with a range of other functional properties that occur through the metal moiety and/or the organic ligand. The purpose of this critical review is to give a representative and comprehensive overview of the arising developments in the field of functional metal-organic frameworks, including luminescence, magnetism, and porosity through presenting examples. This review will be of interest to researchers and synthetic chemists attempting to design multifunctional MOFs.

  6. Engineering the interaction between micro-organisms and construction materials. (United States)

    De Windt, W; Verstraete, W


    The influence of micro-organisms on degradation of mineral materials, cement bound systems, wood and steel is a rather new subject of research slowly becoming recognised by the 'classical' technical disciplines. An increasing amount of literature appears on biodeterioration of construction materials and microbial activity can not be neglected as a determining factor in the deterioration process. Microbial communities interact in many different ways with mineral materials and their external environment. They can be present on the surface or in crevices and fissures within the material and often their actions become organized in a biofilm. The interaction with the material and its environment can give rise to biodeterioration. Yet recent findings show that in some cases the microbial interaction can lead to protection of materials. It is our mission for the future to engineer the microbiological processes with positive impact on construction materials with a view to practical applications.

  7. Professional medical organizations and commercial conflicts of interest: ethical issues. (United States)

    Brody, Howard


    The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has recently been criticized for accepting a large corporate donation from Coca-Cola to fund patient education on obesity prevention. Conflicts of interest, whether individual or organizational, occur when one enters into arrangements that reasonably tempt one to put aside one's primary obligations in favor of secondary interests, such as financial self-interest. Accepting funds from commercial sources that seek to influence physician organizational behavior in a direction that could run counter to the public health represents one of those circumstances and so constitutes a conflict of interest. Most of the defenses offered by AAFP are rationalizations rather than ethical counterarguments. Medical organizations, as the public face of medicine and as formulator of codes of ethics for their physician members, have special obligations to adhere to high ethical standards.

  8. Effect of organic mulch materials on maize performance and weed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of organic mulch materials on maize performance and weed growth in the derived savanna of south eastern Nigeria. ... Nigeria Agricultural Journal ... The experiment was conducted at the Research and Teaching Farm of the Federal ...

  9. Review—Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cowen, Lewis M.


    Organic semiconductor materials have been promising alternatives to their inorganic counterparts in several electronic applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors as well as thermoelectric generators. Their low cost, light weight and flexibility make them appealing in future applications such as foldable electronics and wearable circuits using printing techniques. In this report, we present a mini-review on the organic materials that have been used for thermoelectric energy generation.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a new organic semiconductor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffour, Imane [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Département de Physique, Université de Tiaret, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université Mustapha Stambouli, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Dehbi, Abdelkader [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Département de Physique, Université de Tiaret, Tiaret 14000 (Algeria); Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I., E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, P.O. Box 15551 (United Arab Emirates); Belfedal, Abdelkader [Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université Mustapha Stambouli, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); LPCMME, Département de Physique, Université d' Oran Es-sénia, 3100 Oran (Algeria)


    The objective of this study is to create an ideal mixture of Acetaminophen/Curcumin leading to a new and improved semiconductor material, by a study of the electrical, thermal and optical properties. This new material will be compared with existing semiconductor technology to discuss its viability within the industry. The electrical properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy and optical properties were studied by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The electric conductivity σ, the dielectric constant ε{sub r}, the activation energy E{sub a}, the optical transmittance T and the gap energy E{sub g} have been investigated in order to characterize our organic material. The electrical conductivity of the material is approximately 10{sup −5} S/m at room temperature, increasing the temperature causes σ to increase exponentially to approximately 10{sup −4} S/m. The activation energy obtained for the material is equal to 0.49 ± 0.02 ev. The optical absorption spectra show that the investigating material has absorbance in the visible range with a maximum wavelength (λ{sub max}) 424 nm. From analysis, the absorption spectra it was found the optical band gap equal to 2.6 ± 0.02 eV and 2.46 ± 0.02 eV for the direct and indirect transition, respectively. In general, the study shows that the developed material has characteristics of organic semiconductor material that has a promising future in the field of organic electronics and their potential applications, e.g., photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • Development of a new organic acetaminophen/Curcumin semiconductor material. • The developed material has characteristics of an organic semiconductor. • It has electrical conductivity comparable to available organic semiconductors. • It has high optical transmittance and low permittivity/dielectric constant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cristina Gianini


    Full Text Available With several opportunities in the labor market, hence the professional secretary has the opportunity to perform in various industries. This is because of his knowledge and training multifunctional pluralistic in many areas of knowledge and the ability to organize, plan, execute and optimize tasks yet. He is currently responsible for valuable information, assume positions of leadership, executive and consultant in many situations a manager. This article aims to address information concerning the action of Professional Secretary in educational organizations and open space for discussion that this professional training for its comprehensive, is able to act in academic environments and not only in traditional enterprise settings. This work grounded in bibliographic study raises questions regarding the professional practice of executive secretary, interweaving their activities with those of the educational manager. The study results show that the professional executive secretary is able to perform their professional activities also in academic environment, given its pluralistic training, ensuring effective performance of functions corresponding to this segment.

  12. Knowledge Attitude and Behavior in the Domain of Organ Transplantation Among Healthcare Professionals Working in a Tertiary Care Hospital and Patients Admitted to the Urology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karabıçak


    Full Text Available Objective: To measure the knowledge level about organ and tissue donation and to determine the attitudes and behaviors of patients admitted to our hospital as well as healthcare professionals working in our hospital. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire designed to document knowledge attitude and behavior in the domain of organ transplantation and donation was prepared by the researchers. This survey was conducted among 298 participants including patients who were admitted to the urology clinic in our hospital between March 2015 and June their relatives as well as healthcare professionals working in our hospital. Results: 90.3% of the participants did not donate any organ previously. Only 50% of respondents knew that brain death and vegetative state were different concepts. 69.1% the participants had knowledge about organ donation. Conclusion: Public education about organ donation and transplantation and a positive attitude on this issue are very important to increase the number of organ donations.

  13. Organic photovoltaic devices based on a novel acceptor material: graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zunfeng; Huang, Yi; Ma, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Wei; Chen, Yongsheng [Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology Institute of Polymer Chemistry College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Liu, Qian; Yin, Shougen [Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices Institute of Material Physics, Tianjin University of Technology (China)


    Solution-processable functionalized graphene (SPFGraphene) is used as the electron-accepting material in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices for the first time, showing that it is a competitive alternative. The fabrication and performance of bulk heterojunction OPV devices with SPFGraphene and different donor materials is presented, together with the impact of post-fabrication annealing. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Effects of some Local Liming Materials and Organic Manure on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of some Local Liming Materials and Organic Manure on some Soil Chemical Properties and Growth of Maize. ... Nigerian Journal of Soil Science ... Abstract. Experiments were carried out to find out the influence of some local liming materials, namely: woodash, flue dust and carbide waste and manure on soil pH, ...

  15. Effects of different organic materials and chemical fertilizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was designed as randomized block design with four replicates. Even though organic and inorganic materials had different effects on element contents of pistachio (P. vera L.) leaves, overall, these materials had statistically significant effects on P, Mg, Na, Mn, and Cu contents of pistachio leaves. The effect of ...

  16. Newly developed standard reference materials for organic contaminant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poster, D.; Kucklick, J.; Schantz, M.; Porter, B.; Wise, S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (USA). Center for Anal. Chem.


    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued a number of Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for specified analytes. The SRMs are biota and biological related materials, sediments and particle related SRMs. The certified compounds for analysis are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-analogues, chlorinated pesticides, methylmercury, organic tin compounds, fatty acids, polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDE). The authors report on origin of materials and analytic methods. (uke)

  17. Analysis of knowledge of the general population and health professionals on organ donation after cardiac death. (United States)

    Bedenko, Ramon Correa; Nisihara, Renato; Yokoi, Douglas Shun; Candido, Vinícius de Mello; Galina, Ismael; Moriguchi, Rafael Massayuki; Ceulemans, Nico; Salvalaggio, Paolo


    To evaluate the knowledge and acceptance of the public and professionals working in intensive care units regarding organ donation after cardiac death. The three hospitals with the most brain death notifications in Curitiba were selected, and two groups of respondents were established for application of the same questionnaire: the general public (i.e., visitors of patients in intensive care units) and health professionals working in the same intensive care unit. The questionnaire contained questions concerning demographics, intention to donate organs and knowledge of current legislation regarding brain death and donation after cardiac death. In total, 543 questionnaires were collected, including 442 from family members and 101 from health professionals. There was a predominance of women and Catholics in both groups. More females intended to donate. Health professionals performed better in the knowledge comparison. The intention to donate organs was significantly higher in the health professionals group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in the intention to donate in terms of education level or income. There was a greater acceptance of donation after uncontrolled cardiac death among Catholics than among evangelicals (p donate, with greater intentions expressed by females. Education and income did not affect the decision. The type of transplant that used a donation after uncontrolled cardiac death was not well accepted in the study population, indicating the need for more clarification for its use in our setting.

  18. Organic light emitting device architecture for reducing the number of organic materials (United States)

    D'Andrade, Brian [Westampton, NJ; Esler, James [Levittown, PA


    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device includes an anode and a cathode. A first emissive layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. The first emissive layer includes a first non-emitting organic material, which is an organometallic material present in the first emissive layer in a concentration of at least 50 wt %. The first emissive layer also includes a first emitting organic material. A second emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the cathode, preferably, in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The second emissive material includes a second non-emitting organic material and a second emitting organic material. The first and second non-emitting materials, and the first and second emitting materials, are all different materials. A first non-emissive layer is disposed between the first emissive layer and the anode, and in direct contact with the first emissive layer. The first non- emissive layer comprises the first non-emissive organic material.

  19. Development and testing of promotion materials on tissue and organ donation. (United States)

    Brkljacic, Tihana; Feric, Ivana; Rihtar, Stanko


    To develop leaflets that would promote and increase tissue and organ donation and to test their persuasive value. The study was carried out in two parts. In Study 1, we assessed attitudes, knowledge, and intentions about tissue and organ donation of 200 randomly chosen persons from the population of the capital of Croatia, Zagreb, as well as of 108 health professionals in different hospitals in Zagreb. We also assessed the willingness of health care professionals to ask their patients whether they were willing to donate their tissue and/or organs. Dependent variables in this study were attitudes, knowledge, and intentions. On the basis of attitude and knowledge analyses, two types of tissue and organ donation promotional leaflet were developed: one intended for the community sample and the other for health professionals. The leaflets were used as independent variable. In Study 2, performed a year later, the leaflets were presented to another group of 184 persons from Zagreb population and 50 health professionals. We compared attitudes, knowledge, and intentions of community sample and health professionals presented with leaflets vs those not presented with leaflets, and assessed the persuasive power of the two types of promotional material developed. The community sample presented with the leaflet in Study 2 showed significantly more positive attitudes towards organ donation when compared with the group not presented with a leaflet in Study 1 (t=2.26; p=0.025), but there was no significant improvement in attitudes towards tissue donation or intention to either donate or receive tissues and organs for transplantation. For health professionals, the Study 2 group presented with a leaflet showed a tendency toward less positive attitudes but significantly more positive intention than those in Study 1 not presented with a leaflet to donate bone marrow (t=2.39; p=0.021) and one's own organs (t=2.24; pdonation (t=2.1; p=0.037). Presentation of leaflets succeeded in

  20. Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.F.


    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

  1. High mobility high efficiency organic films based on pure organic materials (United States)

    Salzman, Rhonda F [Ann Arbor, MI; Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI


    A method of purifying small molecule organic material, performed as a series of operations beginning with a first sample of the organic small molecule material. The first step is to purify the organic small molecule material by thermal gradient sublimation. The second step is to test the purity of at least one sample from the purified organic small molecule material by spectroscopy. The third step is to repeat the first through third steps on the purified small molecule material if the spectroscopic testing reveals any peaks exceeding a threshold percentage of a magnitude of a characteristic peak of a target organic small molecule. The steps are performed at least twice. The threshold percentage is at most 10%. Preferably the threshold percentage is 5% and more preferably 2%. The threshold percentage may be selected based on the spectra of past samples that achieved target performance characteristics in finished devices.

  2. Organic materials for the use in optical layer systems (United States)

    Neubert, T.; Gaida, A.; Huwer, W.; Vergöhl, M.


    Ceramic materials such as SiO2 or Ta2O5 are widely used for optical interference coatings. These materials have a high hardness and mostly offer excellent optical properties. However, there is a growing demand not only for good optical properties and a high stability, but also for coatings with a high elasticity. Especially coatings on polymer substrates need layers with improved elasticity since cracks in the layers occur easily when the coated substrates were mechanically deformed. For such applications flexible layer materials using organics or even polymers are very promising. These may be used as pure organic layers of with organic-inorganic composites. Unfortunately the chemical reactions to form polymers layers are more complex than the reactions to form oxides. Thus the deposition techniques for polymer layers are much more varying. Other important issues are the deposition rate stability and the optical properties of the polymer layers like haze, refractive and absorption index. In this paper we compare different ways for the deposition of organic and polymer layers in the gas phase at low pressures. The methods used were: evaporation, sputtering, PECVD and thermal CVD techniques. The optical parameters (refractive index, absorption and haze) and some mechanical parameters (adhesion, crack onset strain) of the different polymer layers were characterized. It will be shown that excellent organic film properties can be obtained by the use of a suitable organic material and deposition process. Also shown will be results on composite materials to modify the optical properties.

  3. 77 FR 47652 - Second Annual Food and Drug Administration Health Professional Organizations Conference (United States)


    ... professional organizations. Topics on the agenda include an update on the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (Pub. L... serves as a liaison between FDA Centers and the public on matters that involve medical product safety and also acts as the public's link to information about the medical product approval process. The...

  4. Leadership Style and Learning Organization: A Survey of Information Technology Professionals (United States)

    Stewart, Jeffrey E.


    Leadership in information technology (IT) firms remains a topic for study. Understanding how IT professionals react to leadership styles creates an opportunity for IT leaders to better lead by matching expectation to leadership style. Previous research has linked transformation leadership to the learning organization in the pharmaceutical sector,…

  5. A View of Professional Learning Communities through Three Frames: Leadership, Organization, and Culture (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Schunk, Dale H.


    In this discussion of professional learning communities (PLCs) in North American public schools, we examine three theoretical frames--leadership, organization, and culture. Issues related to learning are infused throughout our presentation of the frames. Based on our analysis of the current literature on this topic, PLCs offer a promising tool for…

  6. The Formation of Professional Readiness of a Social Teacher to Organization of Children's Leisure Time Activities (United States)

    Sadovaya, Victoriya V.; Khakhlova, Olga N.; Reznikov, Aleksandr A.


    Thematic justification of the study is conditioned by the fact that in contemporary system of higher professional pedagogical education we can see serious drawbacks in training the future teachers for the methods of organizing leisure time activities and interacting with children. Therefore, this article studies the problem of future social…

  7. The effect of professional partnership on the development of a mutual-help organization. (United States)

    Salem, Deborah A; Reischl, Thomas M; Randall, Katie W


    The effects of partnership between Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA, a mutual-help organization) and the Mental Health Association in Michigan (MHAM, a professionally staffed advocacy organization) on SA's growth and development were explored. Following the initiation of a formal partnership, SA groups were more available throughout the state, more likely to be associated with formal mental health settings, and less likely to have leaders who had been participants in other SA groups. Groups with consumer leaders had significantly greater longevity than groups with professional leaders. Changes in the organizational structure and process of SA were also identified. SA leaders reported that SA moved from a collective to a more bureaucratic structure. As a result, there was greater consistency, administrative capacity, and response capacity. This enhanced capacity came with costs reported by SA leaders. The leadership role of SA members became less defined. SA members expressed concerns about the more hierarchical structure of SA's organization, decreased consumer control, increased professional involvement in SA, and an excessive focus on group development as opposed to group maintenance. Mental Health Association in Michigan staff reported that MHAM was also impacted by the partnership, both with regard to internal functioning and external perception. Implications for effective partnerships between mutual-help and professional organizations are discussed.

  8. Organic (opto)electronic materials: understanding charge carrier dynamics (United States)

    Ostroverkhova, Oksana


    There is growing interest in using organic (opto)electronic materials for applications in electronics and photonics. In particular, organic semiconductor thin films offer several advantages over traditional silicon technology, including low-cost processing, the potential for large-area flexible devices, high-efficiency light emission, and widely tunable properties through functionalization of the molecules. Over the past decade, remarkable progress in materials design and purification has been made, which led to applications of organic semiconductors in light-emitting diodes, polymer lasers, photovoltaic cells, high-speed photodetectors, organic thin-film transistors, and many others. Most of the applications envisioned for organic semiconductors rely on their conductive or photoconductive properties. However, despite remarkable progress in organic electronics and photonics, the nature of charge carrier photogeneration and transport in organic semiconductors is not completely understood and remains controversial, partly due to difficulties in assessing intrinsic properties that are often masked by impurities, grain boundaries, etc. Measurements of charge carrier dynamics at picosecond time scales after excitation reveal the intrinsic nature of mobile charge carriers before they are trapped at defect sites. In this presentation, I will review the current state of the field and summarize our recent results on photoconductivity of novel high-performance organic semiconductors (such as functionalized pentacene and anthradithiophene thin films) from picoseconds to seconds after photoexcitation. Photoluminescent properties of these novel materials will also be discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emalia Iragiliati Sukarni


    Full Text Available Abstract: One of the ways to promote the International standard schools’ teacher professionalism was to carry out weekly workshops on material development based on curriculum pathways of the National Plus High Schools using the Information Technology (IT facilities. This research developed teacher-made materials for the X grade. The materials were graded: narrative, recount, news item, descriptive, ranging from 250 to 500 words. The materials were then tried out in a Classroom Action Research (CAR at eight classes of X grades. Based on previous research, teachers’ preferences are made in line with the students’ choice of issues to be discussed. It aimed at knowing the feasibility of the materials, the students’ preference of exercises and students’ level of competencies of each class related to the understanding of the units. Results of the questionnaires showed that most of the materials were understood and liked by the students. Thus, professionalism was seen during the process of the CAR.

  10. Organic materials for second harmonic generation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twieg, R.J. (comp.)


    Materials were chosen by screening the Cambridge Crystallographic Index for new noncentrosymmetric crystalline compounds, by screening commercially available materials or by synthesis of unique new substances. Measurements were then made on the powder form of these materials. Langmuir-Blodgett films were deposited and studied. In addition to the above studies, a computer program was developed to calculate (hyper) polarizabilities of organic molecules and thus aid in the selection of materials for testing. The nonlinear molecules have been divided into three classes according to absorption cutoff: 400 to 500 nm, 300 to 400 nm, and 200 to 300 nm. 108 refs., 7 tabs. (WRF)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição de Maria Pinheiro Barros


    Full Text Available The Professional Executive Secretary has been occupying space increasingly evident in the labor market and organizational structure, both because of market demand, the needs of dynamism in the modern administration that demonstrates the growth of the reference to it. It has sought in his field vision and attitude of performance excellence with fulfilling its role with its own characteristics. This study aims to investigate the general challenges for the Executive Secretariat professional male in contemporary organizations. We defined the following objectives: to analyze the insertion of the male in the profession of Executive Secretary and identify the challenges faced by the Executive Secretary of the males to their development and professional growth. To this end, we performed a literature search, followed by a field survey. It is a qualitative research because data collected, and then make a qualitative analysis of results from selected literature. The survey was conducted in organizations from the public and private, state of Ceará. The sample was represented by professional male graduates in the executive secretariat at the Federal University of Ceará and working in the area. After analyzing the data it was concluded that despite the obstacles to be overcome, the tendency is that these opportunities work for the professional male grow, requiring that all actors in the field to seek gender equity in the profession.

  12. Resident Involvement in Professional Otolaryngology Organizations: Current Trends in the United States. (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Jang, Minyoung; Gilad, Amir; Levi, Jessica R


    Involvement by residents in professional medical organizations can enrich their training, but little data exist regarding the number and types of involvement opportunities available to otolaryngology residents. We sought to fill this gap in knowledge by quantifying the extent to which major otolaryngology-related organizations in the United States provide involvement opportunities to otolaryngology residents. Our analysis included 23 organizations and subspecialty societies. Results showed that many opportunities exist for residents to attend conferences and present research; however, fewer involvement and funding opportunities existed in any other leadership, health policy, or service-learning experiences. These findings were consistent across general and subspecialty societies. Given the many purported benefits of resident involvement in otolaryngology outside of the standard training environment, future efforts may be warranted to increase the number and type of involvement opportunities currently available in professional societies.

  13. Microporous Organic Materials for Membrane-Based Gas Separation. (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Guangshan


    Membrane materials with excellent selectivity and high permeability are crucial to efficient membrane gas separation. Microporous organic materials have evolved as an alternative candidate for fabricating membranes due to their inherent attributes, such as permanent porosity, high surface area, and good processability. Herein, a unique pore-chemistry concept for the designed synthesis of microporous organic membranes, with an emphasis on the relationship between pore structures and membrane performances, is introduced. The latest advances in microporous organic materials for potential membrane application in gas separation of H2 , CO2 , O2 , and other industrially relevant gases are summarized. Representative examples of the recent progress in highly selective and permeable membranes are highlighted with some fundamental analyses from pore characteristics, followed by a brief perspective on future research directions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices. (United States)

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng


    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Self-Organized Construction with Continuous Building Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Wahby, Mostafa; Divband Soorati, Mohammad


    Self-organized construction with continuous, structured building material, as opposed to modular units, offers new challenges to the robot-based construction process and lends the opportunity for increased flexibility in constructed artifact properties, such as shape and deformation. As an example...... investigation, we look at continuous filaments organized into braided structures, within the context of bio-hybrids constructing architectural artifacts. We report the result of an early swarm robot experiment. The robots successfully constructed a braid in a self-organized process. The construction process can...... be extended by using different materials and by embedding sensors during the self-organized construction directly into the braided structure. In future work, we plan to apply dedicated braiding robot hardware and to construct sophisticated 3-d structures with local variability in patterns of filament...

  16. Near-infrared organic materials and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi Yuan


    Highlighting emerging applications of near-infrared (NIR) organic materials that are currently receiving great attention due to their potential use in optical communications, biomedicine, and camouflage materials, this cutting-edge book reviews important recent advances in an accessible style suitable for researchers and graduates in the field on organic/polymer solar cells, optical communications, and advanced optoelectronics. A beacon in the field literature, this comprehensive work discusses several areas of research and development including thermal control and emission detectors in which

  17. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives. (United States)

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun; Zheng, Qingdong


    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low-cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single-junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single-junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small-molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon-based materials, organic-inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron-transporting and hole-transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  18. Selection of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors (United States)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene


    In the future higher temperature Stirling convertors for improved efficiency and performance, various high temperature organic materials have been demanded as essential components for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The higher temperature capabilities would also allow current state-of-the-art (SOA) convertors to be used in additional missions, particularly those that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of comprehensive structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, o-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This paper presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection recommendations.

  19. Organic-inorganic hybrid resist materials in advanced lithography (United States)

    Takei, Satoshi; Sugino, Naoto; Hanabata, Makoto


    Advanced nano-imprint lithography appears as a simple, cost reduction in manufacturing, fast operation, develop-less patterning application compatible with conventional pattern transfer techniques such as ultraviolet and electron beam lithography. However, defects generated in nano-imprint lithography present challenges that must be resolved in order to mass-produce advanced devices. The nano-imprint lithography requires the clean separation of a quartz template from a resist material, and the force required to create this separation must be minimized to prevent the resist pattern collapse and defects. This procedure is proven to be suitable for material design and the process conditions of organic-inorganic hybrid resist materials on photo-reactive underlayer material for the defect reduction by mold contamination when the mold was removed from the organic-inorganic hybrid resist materials after ultraviolet irradiation. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid resist material with ultraviolet crosslinking groups produced high resolutions nano-patterning of 50 nm line and excellent etch properties for semiconductor memory, MEMS, NEMS, biosensors, and medical devices.

  20. The interaction of iodine with organic material in containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, J.C.; Ball, J.M.; Glown, G.A.; Portmann, R.; Sanipelli, G.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.


    Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic containment materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. A research program has been designed to determine the impact of organic impurities on iodine volatility under accident conditions. The program consists of experimental, literature and modelling studies on the radiolysis or organic compounds in the aqueous phase, thermal and radiolytic formation and decomposition of organic iodides, dissolution of organic solvents from various painted surfaces into the aqueous phase, and iodine deposition on painted surfaces. The experimental studies consist of bench-scale `separate effects` tests as well as intermediate-scale `integrated effects` in the Radioiodine Test facility. The studies have shown that organic impurities will be found in containment water, arising from the dissolution of organic compounds from various surface paints and that these compounds can potentially have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. The main impact of surface paints will occur through aqueous-phase reactions of the organic compounds that they release to the aqueous phase. Under the radiation conditions expected during an accident, these compounds will react to reduce the pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, consequently increasing the formation of I{sub 2} from I{sup -} that is present in the sump. It appears that the rates of these processes may be controlled by the dissolution kinetics of the organic compounds from the surface coatings. Moreover, the organic compounds may also react thermally and radiolytically with I{sub 2} to form organic iodides in the aqueous phase. Our studies have shown that the formation of organic iodides from soluble organics such as ketones, alcohols and phenols may have more impact on the total iodine volatility than the formation of CH{sub 3}I. (author) 13 figs., 2 tabs., 19 refs.

  1. Principal organic materials in a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden))


    The largest pool of organic material in a repository at closure is the organic material in the bentonite in buffer and backfill. It is impossible to make any assumptions as to how much of this material will be available for biodegradation, since the character of the material is unknown. However, it is unlikely that this organic material can dissolve in groundwater unless the bentonite loses its swelling capacity. The second largest pool will be the biofilms formed on the rock surfaces. This assumption presupposes that no cleaning is undertaken before repository closure. The third largest pool is the organic material produced by microorganisms using hydrogen from the anaerobic corrosion of iron in steel as an energy source. The following provides summary descriptions of the different pools of organic material that will remain in the repository: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would mainly be to reduce the redox potential soon after repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped during repository construction, an effect that would not jeopardise repository stability. If the dominant microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to the formation of HS-. The produced sulphide could corrode the copper canisters under anaerobic conditions if it reaches them. Another effect of microorganisms would be to increase the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the small amounts of such substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be to help maintain reducing conditions in the area, although this effect will likely be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among these materials, we emphasise the organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite, and wood. Hydrocarbons from asphalt may help reduce

  2. Screening of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors (United States)

    Shin, Euy-sik E.; Scheiman, Daniel A.


    Along with major advancement of Stirling-based convertors, high temperature organics are needed to develop future higher temperature convertors for much improved efficiencies as well as to improve the margin of reliability for the current SOA (State-of-the-Art) convertors. The higher temperature capabilities would improve robustness of the convertors and also allow them to be used in additional missions, particularly ones that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Various organic materials have been employed as essential components in the convertor for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of every possible material structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, O-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This report presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection

  3. Nonlinear optical properties of organic materials: A theoretical study (United States)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.


    Replacement of electronic switching circuits in computing and telecommunication systems with purely optical devices offers the potential for extremely high throughput and compact information processing systems. The potential application of organic materials containing molecules with large nonresonant nonlinear effects in this area have triggered intensive research during the last decade. Interest on this area was due to two facts: (1) that many organic materials show nonlinearities that are orders of magnitude larger than those of conventional inorganic materials such as lithium niobate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate; and (2) that organic materials show much flexibility in terms of molecular designs. Some of the desirable characteristics that these materials should have are that they be transparent to the frequency of the incident laser and its second or third harmonic, that they have a high damage threshold, and, in the case of second-order effects, that their crystal structure or molecular orientation be accentric. Since polymeric assemblages can enhance the nonlinear response of organic molecules severalfold, efforts have been directed toward the synthesis of thin films with interpenetrating lattices of electroactive molecules. The goal of this theoretical investigation is to predict the magnitude of the molecular polarizabilities of organic molecules that could be incorporated into films. These calculations are intended to become a powerful tool to assist material scientists in screening for the best candidates for optical applications. The procedure that was developed for the present calculations is based on the static-field approach, and is a modification to the method developed by Dewar and Stewart, 1984 for calculating molecular linear polarizabilities.

  4. Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; McSween, H. Y.; Raponi, A.; Marchi, S.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; Fonte, S.; Formisano, M.; Frigeri, A.; Giardino, M.; Longobardo, A.; Magni, G.; McFadden, L. A.; Palomba, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.


    Organic compounds occur in some chondritic meteorites, and their signatures on solar system bodies have been sought for decades. Spectral signatures of organics have not been unambiguously identified on the surfaces of asteroids, whereas they have been detected on cometary nuclei. Data returned by the Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer on board the Dawn spacecraft show a clear detection of an organic absorption feature at 3.4 micrometers on dwarf planet Ceres. This signature is characteristic of aliphatic organic matter and is mainly localized on a broad region of ~1000 square kilometers close to the ~50-kilometer Ernutet crater. The combined presence on Ceres of ammonia-bearing hydrated minerals, water ice, carbonates, salts, and organic material indicates a very complex chemical environment, suggesting favorable environments to prebiotic chemistry.

  5. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.


    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  6. Delivery of Organic Material and Water through Asteroid Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Frantseva, Kateryna; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.


    Meteorites, specifically carbonaceous chondrites, are frequently invoked as the primary source of Earth's water and organic materials, crucial ingredients for the formation of life. We have started developing a dynamical model of the delivery of their parent bodies, primitive low-albedo asteroids,

  7. Effect of Organic Materials With and Without Mineral Fertilizer on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, maintenance of soil fertility and management of soil for sustained and continuous crop production are essential components of the overall ... Field experiment involving the application of three different types of organic materials; compost, farm yard manure (FYM) and municipal refuse (MR) applied at 7.5 t/ha ...

  8. Effects of different organic materials and chemical fertilizers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 20, 2010 ... This study was conducted under greenhouse conditions to investigate the effects of applied nutrients such as six organic materials (gyttja, alsil, humic acid, sea moss, straw and peat) and two chemical fertilizers (15-15-15, and 20-20-0) with different dosages on nutrient uptaking ability of one-year old and.

  9. Organic thermoelectric materials: emerging green energy materials converting heat to electricity directly and efficiently. (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Yimeng; Xu, Wei; Zhu, Daoben


    The abundance of solar thermal energy and the widespread demands for waste heat recovery make thermoelectric generators (TEGs) very attractive in harvesting low-cost energy resources. Meanwhile, thermoelectric refrigeration is promising for local cooling and niche applications. In this context there is currently a growing interest in developing organic thermoelectric materials which are flexible, cost-effective, eco-friendly and potentially energy-efficient. In particular, the past several years have witnessed remarkable progress in organic thermoelectric materials and devices. In this review, thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers and small molecules are summarized, with recent progresses in materials, measurements and devices highlighted. Prospects and suggestions for future research efforts are also presented. The organic thermoelectric materials are emerging candidates for green energy conversion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Light-emitting device with organic electroluminescent material and photoluminescent materials (United States)

    McNulty, Thomas Francis; Duggal, Anil Raj; Turner, Larry Gene; Shiang, Joseph John


    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes and an organic electroluminescent material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one organic photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits light having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The organic PL material absorbs a portion of the light emitted by the light-emitting member and emits light having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. The light-emitting device can include an inorganic PL material that absorbs another portion of the light emitted from the light-emitting member and emits light having a third spectrum different than both the first and the second spectra.

  11. Charge-Transfer Interactions in Organic Functional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Yaw Jin


    Full Text Available Our goal in this review is three-fold. First, we provide an overview of a number of quantum-chemical methods that can abstract charge-transfer (CT information on the excited-state species of organic conjugated materials, which can then be exploited for the understanding and design of organic photodiodes and solar cells at the molecular level. We stress that the Composite-Molecule (CM model is useful for evaluating the electronic excited states and excitonic couplings of the organic molecules in the solid state. We start from a simple polyene dimer as an example to illustrate how interchain separation and chain size affect the intercahin interaction and the role of the charge transfer interaction in the excited state of the polyene dimers. With the basic knowledge from analysis of the polyene system, we then study more practical organic materials such as oligophenylenevinylenes (OPVn, oligothiophenes (OTn, and oligophenylenes (OPn. Finally, we apply this method to address the delocalization pathway (through-bond and/or through-space in the lowest excited state for cyclophanes by combining the charge-transfer contributions calculated on the cyclophanes and the corresponding hypothetical molecules with tethers removed. This review represents a step forward in the understanding of the nature of the charge-transfer interactions in the excited state of organic functional materials.

  12. Work Organization and Professionalization in New Media Industry – The Case of a Finnish Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Haapakorpi


    Full Text Available The article explores work organization in one new media company in a turning point of the business, in the 2000s. The company had changed from a small workshop to a medium-sized company in a few years. Growth, increasing competition, and uncertainty of profitability had altered the management and work organization. An approach of governance, aimed at efficiency and economy, was systematically implemented; the working methods were standardized, strict division of labor was carried out, and the professional qualifications were mainstreamed according to the business. The professional employees appreciated the new business-like management, but discovered that their opportunities for creative work were diminished with decreasing resources and a new project management pattern.

  13. Organic and Hybrid Organic Solid-State Photovoltaic Materials and Devices (United States)



  14. Assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyatzis, Stamatis; Ioakimoglou, Eleni; Facorellis, Yorgos


    Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects on the structu......Under the auspices of INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF), and within a holistic approach for assessing environmental effects on organic materials in cultural heritage (CH) artefacts, the effect of artificial ageing on elemental and molecular damage and their effects......, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELIZA) were realized. Results show damage within the inorganic and the organic matrix; incorporation of sulfur and nitrogen groups, minor reduction of specific aminoacids and changes in collagen integrity were...

  15. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices. (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian


    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  16. Organization of professional practices against intrafamily violence against children and adolescents in the institutional context


    Schek, Gabriele; Silva, Mara Regina Santos da; Lacharité, Carl; Bueno, Maria Emília Nunes


    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze based on the practitioners' discourse, the way they organize their practices confronting situations of intra-family violence against children and adolescents. Method: qualitative research carried out with 15 professionals who work in social and health services located in the southernmost of Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, performed at the participants' workplace. We used a theoretical matrix to analyze the data, based on Institu...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Synekop


    Full Text Available In conditions of differentiation the learning materials selection will optimize the training English for Specific Purposes of the future professionals in the field of information technology at university level. The purpose of the article is to define the basic unit of learning material, the factors of influence on the learning material selection, principles, criteria and the procedure of learning material selection in this paper. Reviewing the scientific achievements in the learning material selection in teaching English has become a basis for defining the factors of influence, principles and criteria in the research. The basic unit of learning material (learning English text for professional purposes is outlined. The factors of influence and principles (correspondence of learning materials to professional interests and needs of information technology students; necessary ability and accessibility; regarding the linguistic and stylistic necessity and sufficiency; availability of Internet sources information of the learning material selection are defined. Also, the qualitative criteria (authenticity; professional significance, relevance and informativeness; conformity of foreign language level and intellectual development of students; variety of genres and forms of speech, their sufficient filling by linguistic material; coherence, integrity, consistency, semantic completeness; topic conformity; situation conformity; unlimited access, reliability and exemplarity of Internet sources and the quantitative criteria (the amount of material of the learning material selection are highlighted. The process of English for Specific Purposes material selection (defining the disciplines of different cycles; defining spheres and related topics; outlining situations, communicative roles and intentions of professional communication; specifying the sources of selection; evaluating the texts; analysis of the knowledge, skills and sub-skills required for the

  18. Graphene - a promising material for organic photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui; Huang, Lu; Chen, Yongsheng [Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials and Centre of Nanoscale Science and Technology, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, 300071, Tianjin (China)


    As a promising two-dimensional nanomaterial with outstanding electronic, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene has been proposed for many applications. In this Progress Report we summarize and discuss comprehensively the advances made so far for applications of graphene in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, including that for transparent electrodes, active layers and interfaces layer in OPV. It is concluded that graphene may very likely play a major role in new developments/improvements in OPVs. The future studies for this area are proposed to focus on the following: i) improving the conductivity without comprising the transparency as a transparent electrode material; ii) controlling the sheet sizes, band structure and surface morphology for use as a electron acceptor material, and iii) controlling and improving the functionalization and compatibility with other materials as interface layer material. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Organic Materials for Time-Temperature Integrator Devices. (United States)

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Melucci, Manuela


    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) are devices capable of recording the thermal history of a system. They have an enormous impact in the food and pharmaceutical industries. TTIs exploit several irreversible thermally activated transitions such as recrystallization, dewetting, smoothening, chemical decomposition, and polymorphic transitions, usually considered drawbacks for many technological applications. The aim of this article is to sensitize research groups working in organic synthesis and surface science toward TTI devices, enlarging the prospects of many new materials. We reviewed the principal applications highlighting the need and criticisms of TTIs, which offer a new opportunity for the development of many materials.

  20. Experiences about HIV-AIDS preventive-control activities. Discourses from non-governmental organizations professionals and users. (United States)

    Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Violan, Concepció; Romaguera, Amparo; Mansilla, Rosa; Giménez, Albert; Almeda, Jesús


    The main aim of this study was to identify the experiences of professionals in nongovernmental organizations (NGO) in Catalonia (Spain) working in HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities and potential areas of improvement of these activities and their evaluation. A further aim was to characterize the experiences, knowledge and practices of users of these organizations with regard to HIV infection and its prevention. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted with the participation of both professionals and users of Catalan nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working in HIV/AIDS. Theoretical sampling (professional) and opportunistic sampling (users) were performed. To collect information, the following techniques were used: four focus groups and one triangular group (professionals), 22 semi-structured interviews, and two observations (users). A thematic interpretive content analysis was conducted by three analysts. The professionals of nongovernmental organizations working in HIV/AIDS adopted a holistic approach in their activities, maintained confidentiality, had cultural and professional competence and followed the principles of equality and empathy. The users of these organizations had knowledge of HIV/AIDS and understood the risk of infection. However, a gap was found between knowledge, attitudes and behavior. NGO offer distinct activities adapted to users' needs. Professionals emphasize the need for support and improvement of planning and implementation of current assessment. The preventive activities of these HIV/AIDS organizations are based on a participatory health education model adjusted to people's needs and focused on empowerment. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Lithium-based inorganic-organic framework materials


    Yeung, Hamish Hei-Man


    This dissertation describes research into lithium-based inorganic-organic frameworks, which has led to an increased understanding of the structural diversity and properties of these materials. The crystal structures of 11 new forms of lithium tartrate, based on chiral, racemic and meso forms of the ligand, have been discovered, including eight anhydrous isomers of dilithium tartrate, Li2(C4H4O6). An experimental and computational study of their formation behaviour and energetics has shown tha...

  2. Naphthobischalcogenadiazole Conjugated Polymers: Emerging Materials for Organic Electronics. (United States)

    Osaka, Itaru; Takimiya, Kazuo


    π-Conjugated polymers are an important class of materials for organic electronics. In the past decade, numerous polymers with donor-acceptor molecular structures have been developed and used as the active materials for organic devices, such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The choice of the building unit is the primary step for designing the polymers. Benzochalcogenadiazoles (BXzs) are one of the most familiar acceptor building units studied in this area. As their doubly fused system, naphthobischalcogenadiazoles (NXzs), i.e., naphthobisthiadiazole (NTz), naphthobisoxadiazole (NOz), and naphthobisselenadiazole (NSz) are emerging building units that provide interesting electronic properties and highly self-assembling nature for π-conjugated polymers. With these fruitful features, π-conjugated polymers based on these building units demonstrate great performances in OFETs and OPVs. In particular, in OPVs, NTz-based polymers have exhibited more than 10% efficiency, which is among the highest values reported so far. In this Progress Report, the synthesis, properties, and structures of NXzs and their polymers is summarized. The device performance is also highlighted and the structure-property relationships of the polymers are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000 (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, P. V.


    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's (UW) Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the free troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna fire emissions averaged 130 μg m-3. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous material.

  4. Lanthanides: new metallic cathode materials for organic photovoltaic cells. (United States)

    Nikiforov, Maxim P; Strzalka, Joseph; Jiang, Zhang; Darling, Seth B


    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are compliant with inexpensive, scalable, and environmentally benign manufacturing technologies. While substantial attention has been focused on optimization of active layer chemistry, morphology, and processing, far less research has been directed to understanding charge transport at the interfaces between the electrodes and the active layer. Electrical properties of these interfaces not only impact efficiency, but also play a central role in stability of organic solar cells. Low work function metals are the most widely used materials for the electron transport layer with Ca being the most common material. In bulk heterojunction OPV devices, low work function metals are believed to mirror the role they play in OLEDs, where such metals are used to control carrier selectivity, transport, extraction, and blocking, as well as interface band bending. Despite their advantages, low work function materials are generally prone to reactions with water, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide from air leading to rapid device degradation. Here we discuss the search for a new metallic cathode interlayer material that increases device stability and still provides device efficiency similar to that achieved with a Ca interlayer.

  5. Some Countries’ Experience in Organizing Professional Training and Activity of Probation Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duka Oleh


    Full Text Available In the article, some countries’ experience in organizing professional training and activities of probation officers has been analyzed. Based on comparative analysis of activities of the Probation Institute abroad, it has been determined that probation service has different functional and organizational features in individual countries. For instance, probation service in different countries is subordinate to different agencies. Thus, probation service in Great Britain, Denmark, Japan, Finland, Norway, Latvia, the Czech Republic and Estonia is under the control of the Ministry of Justice; in the USA, Germany, Hungary, it is subordinate to the judiciary; in the Netherlands – public prosecutor’s office; in Sweden – prison authorities; in Singapore, probation service is under the guidance of the Ministry of Community Development and Sports. Another difference consists in the fact that in some countries the law defines probation as punishment (Sweden, Finland, Latvia, whereas in other countries it refers to some criminal measures (Great Britain, exemption from punishment (Estonia or is not determined at all (the USA. Despite the differences, the goals and means of achieving them in each probation service are similar in the context of criminal law. The approaches to professional training of probation officers have been analyzed and relevant conclusions have been drawn regarding organization of probation officers’ professional training in Ukraine. In particular, work with offenders should be performed by highly qualified specialists who have a degree and who have passed specialized training courses in educational institutions subordinate to probation authorities. It is important that the content of probation officers’ professional training should be constantly updated, taking into account new approaches and methods of working with convicts, which are recognized as effective.

  6. Channeling Black Insurgency: Elite Patronage and Professional Social Movement Organizations in the Development of the Black Movement. (United States)

    Jenkins, J. Craig; Eckert, Craig M.


    Critically evaluates the theory of patronage and professional social movement organizations (SMOs) in interpreting the development of black insurgency between 1953 and 1980. Findings support and contradict the social contract theory. Professionalization was only one of many reasons for the movement's decline. (Author/PS)

  7. Investigation of Professional Readiness of Selected Male and Female Experts in Iranian Sports Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira ALIABADI


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate professional readiness of a selected group of male and female experts in Iranian sports organizations. It is a descriptive study with an applied objective. The statistical population of the study includes the entire selected male and female experts (406 experts of Iranian sports organizations among which 352 cases cooperated with the researchers and therefore were selected as research sample. Measurement tool is the professional readiness assessment standard questionnaire (Aliabadi, 2014; the validity and reliability of this questionnaire have been approved by sport experts. The descriptive and inferential statistics including KS- and T-test was used to analyze the data. The results indicate that there is no significant difference between male and female experts in sports organizations regarding mental readiness and its components (motivation, commitment, confidence; but there is a significant difference at 0.01 level between them with regard to work readiness and its components (skill, knowledge, experience. Moreover, based on the average of work/technical readiness components, male experts are better than female experts.

  8. Metal-organic frameworks as sensory materials and imaging agents. (United States)

    Liu, Demin; Lu, Kuangda; Poon, Christopher; Lin, Wenbin


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid materials self-assembled from organic bridging ligands and metal ion/cluster connecting points. The combination of a variety of organic linkers, metal ions/clusters, and structural motifs can lead to an infinite array of new materials with interesting properties for many applications. In this Forum Article, we discuss the design and applications of MOFs in chemical sensing and biological imaging. The first half of this article focuses on the development of MOFs as chemical sensors by highlighting how unique attributes of MOFs can be utilized to enhance sensitivity and selectivity. We also discuss some of the issues that need to be addressed in order to develop practically useful MOF sensors. The second half of this article focuses on the design and applications of nanoscale MOFs (NMOFs) as imaging contrast agents. NMOFs possess several interesting attributes, such as high cargo loading capacity, ease of postmodification, tunable size and shape, and intrinsic biodegradability, to make them excellent candidates as imaging contrast agents. We discuss the use of representative NMOFs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), and optical imaging. Although still in their infancy, we believe that the compositional tunability and mild synthetic conditions of NMOF imaging agents should greatly facilitate their further development for clinical translation.

  9. Renewable synthetic diesel fuel from triglycerides and organic waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillard, J.C.; Strassburger, R.S.


    A renewable, synthetic diesel fuel has been developed that employs ethanol and organic waste materials. These organic materials, such as soybean oil or animal fats, are hydrolized to yield a mixture of solid soap like materials and glycerol. These soaps, now soluble in ethanol, are blended with ethanol; the glycerol is nitrated and added as well as castor oil when necessary. The synthetic fuel is tailored to match petroleum diesel fuel in viscosity, lubricity and cetane quality and, therefore, does not require any engine modifications. Testing in a laboratory engine and in a production Oldsmobile Cutlass has revealed that this synthetic fuel is superior to petroleum diesel fuel in vehicle efficiency, cetane quality, combustion noise, cold start characteristics, exhaust odor and emissions. Performance characteristics are indistinguishable from those of petroleum diesel fuel. These soaps are added to improve the calorific value, lubricity and cetane quality of the ethanol. The glycerol from the hydrolysis process is nitrated and added to the ethanol as an additional cetane quality improver. Caster oil is added to the fuel when necessary to match the viscosity and lubricity of petroleum diesel fuel as well as to act as a corrosion inhibitor, thereby, precluding any engine modifications. The cetane quality of the synthetic fuel is better than that of petroleum diesel as the fuel carries its own oxygen. The synthetic fuel is also completely miscible with petroleum diesel.

  10. Virtual screening of electron acceptor materials for organic photovoltaic applications (United States)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Djurovich, Peter J.; Giesen, David J.; Goldberg, Alexander; Sommer, Jonathan; McAnally, Eric; Thompson, Mark E.


    Virtual screening involves the generation of structure libraries, automated analysis to predict properties related to application performance and subsequent screening to identify lead systems and estimate critical structure-property limits across a targeted chemical design space. This approach holds great promise for informing experimental discovery and development efforts for next-generation materials, such as organic semiconductors. In this work, the virtual screening approach is illustrated for nitrogen-substituted pentacene molecules to identify systems for development as electron acceptor materials for use in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. A structure library of tetra-azapentacenes (TAPs) was generated by substituting four nitrogens for CH at 12 sites on the pentacene molecular framework. Molecular properties (e.g. ELUMO, Eg and μ) were computed for each candidate structure using hybrid DFT at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. The resulting TAPs library was then analyzed with respect to intrinsic properties associated with OPV acceptor performance. Marcus reorganization energies for charge transport for the most favorable TAP candidates were then calculated to further determine suitability as OPV electron acceptors. The synthesis, characterization and OPV device testing of TAP materials is underway, guided by these results.

  11. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000 (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.


    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  12. Porphyrin Based Near Infrared-Absorbing Materials for Organic Photovoltaics (United States)

    Zhong, Qiwen

    The conservation and transformation of energy is essential to the survival of mankind, and thus concerns every modern society. Solar energy, as an everlasting source of energy, holds one of the key solutions to some of the most urgent problems the world now faces, such as global warming and the oil crisis. Advances in technologies utilizing clean, abundant solar energy, could be the steering wheel of our societies. Solar cells, one of the major advances in converting solar energy into electricity, are now capturing people's interest all over the globe. While solar cells have been commercially available for many years, the manufacturing of solar cells is quite expensive, limiting their broad based implementation. The cost of solar cell based electricity is 15-50 cents per kilowatt hour (¢/kwh), depending on the type of solar cell, compared to 0.7 ¢/kwh for fossil fuel based electricity. Clearly, decreasing the cost of electricity from solar cells is critical for their wide spread deployment. This will require a decrease in the cost of light absorbing materials and material processing used in fabricating the cells. Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) utilize organic materials such as polymers and small molecules. These devices have the advantage of being flexible and lower cost than conventional solar cells built from inorganic semiconductors (e.g. silicon). The low cost of OPVs is tied to lower materials and fabrication costs of organic cells. However, the current power conversion efficiencies of OPVs are still below 15%, while convention crystalline Si cells have efficiencies of 20-25%. A key limitation in OPVs today is their inability to utilize the near infrared (NIR) portion of the solar spectrum. This part of the spectrum comprises nearly half of the energy in sunlight that could be used to make electricity. The first and foremost step in conversion solar energy conversion is the absorption of light, which nature has provided us optimal model of, which is

  13. Organic materials for deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    Yook, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Jun Yeob


    Recently, great progress has been made in the device performance of deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) by developing high triplet energy charge-transport materials, high triplet energy host and deep blue emitting phosphorescent dopant materials. A high quantum efficiency of over 25% and a high power efficiency of over 15 lm/W have already been achieved at 1000 cd m(-2) in the deep blue PHOLEDs with a y color coordinate less than 0.20. In this work, recent developments in organic materials for high efficiency deep blue PHOLEDs are reviewed and a future strategy for the development of high efficiency deep blue PHOLEDs is proposed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Application of organic waste composts when producing forest planting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Evgeny M.


    Full Text Available Most seedlings and saplings of woody plants in the Russian Federation are produced in the open ground in forest nurseries. In order to produce high quality planting material it is necessary to support and preserve soil fertility, which can be obtained by using organic wastes and organic-based fertilizers. Our research is aimed at the assessment of the influence of non-conventional organic fertilizers on fertility of podzols and on the growth rate of seedlings and saplings of woody plants in forest nurseries. Our research shows, that the application of non-conventional organic fertilizers does not result in any accumulation of heavy metal salts in podzols, but optimizes hydro physical and agrochemical properties of the ploughed horizon. The efficiency of non-conventional organic fertilizers depends on their composition, physical and chemical characteristics of the original components, their doses applied and original fertility of soils. A combined application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and sand results in the optimization of practically all soil fertility parameters in middle clay-loam soils, while application of non-conventional organic fertilizers and clay is optimal for application on light soils. The optimal application dose of non-conventional fertilizers depends on soil texture, woody species and the fertilizer composition. An optimal application dose for Norway spruce on a light clay-loam soil is 50-80 tons/ha, and on a middle clay-loam soil is 149-182 tons/ha. It is 50 tons/ha for Scots pine growing on a sandy loam soil, and 100 tons/ha for the same species growing on a sandy soil or a light clay-loam. For Siberian larch growing on a light clay-loam soil the dose of fertilizer applied should be 150 tons/ha. It is recommended to apply composts containing over 50% (by weight of Category II wastes (substrate for the amelioration of light soils, and composts containing over 40% (by weight of Category I wastes (filler for the

  15. Women's groups and professional organizations in advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights. (United States)

    Germain, Adrienne; Liljestrand, Jerker


    After the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) have improved in many countries, and been supported by awareness raised by women's health advocates, increasingly by youth groups, and also by organizations of health professionals. In the HIV/AIDS area, involvement of organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS is crucial to improve prevention and care. However, after victories during the 1990s, combating opposition by social and political conservatives has taken up much energy in recent years. Continuous advocacy to broaden acceptance of the fundamental importance of SRHR, their role in meeting the Millennium Development Goals, and the imperative to increase funding, is essential.

  16. Dissemination and implementation sciences in pharmacy: A call to action for professional organizations. (United States)

    Seaton, Terry L

    There is a substantial gap between the generation of new knowledge and its widespread incorporation into routine clinical practice, including the medication use process. Principles of dissemination and implementation sciences, if fully embraced by clinicians and researchers, have the potential of improving healthcare effectiveness, efficiency, quality, and safety. This commentary is a call to action for member-driven professional organizations in pharmacy to serve their members and the profession by proactively and strategically leading efforts to develop pharmacist's abilities to incorporate principles of dissemination and implementation sciences into their practice. Additionally, these organizations should provide meaningful support for dissemination and implementation research that hastens the adoption, promotes intervention fidelity, and demonstrates the scaling and sustaining of evidence-based practices to optimize patient care delivery and medication therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adsorbed Organic Material and Its Control on Wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Jesper; Hassenkam, Tue; Bovet, Nicolas Emile


    salinity. Here we quantified the response of sandstone core plug material in its preserved state (i.e., after storage in kerosene) and after the same core plug material was treated with ethanol and ozone to remove adsorbed organic compounds. We used the chemical force microscopy (CFM) mode of atomic force...... microscopy (AFM) to directly measure the adhesion force for two types of molecules on pore surfaces of individual sand grains that were plucked from an oil reservoir core plug. We functionalized AFM tips with alkane or carboxylate, so they resembled tiny oil droplets and measured adhesion to the sand grain...... surfaces in artificial seawater (ASW; 35,600 ppm) and in ASW diluted to ∼1,500 ppm (ASW-low). Both before and after the ethanol/ozone treatment, and for both the alkane and the carboxylate functionalized tips, the adhesion was lower in ASW diluted to ∼1,500 ppm than in ASW. For both alkane and carboxylate...

  18. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture? (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.


    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  19. Materials development and interface studies of inverted organic solar cells (United States)

    Jeng, Lim Fang

    This thesis presents a detailed study on organic solar cells with an inverted architecture. Inverted organic solar cells (IOSC) were utilized because it can significantly improve the device lifetime while maintaining comparable device performance. Three major aspects of inverted organic solar cell devices were studied: (1) Processability; (2) Practicality and; (3) Stability. Firstly, the long-standing processability issue of inferior wettability of PEDOT:PSS on glass/ITO substrate was overcome by modifying the hole transport layer with a novel fluorosurfactant. Secondly, the light-soaking issue, which severely hinders the device practicality, was overcome by using chemical bath deposited fluorinated titanium dioxide (F-TiOx) electron transport layer as a key alternative to conventional sol-gel TiOx. Finally, with incorporation of various donor-acceptor materials other than the commonly used poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), a systematic degradation study and the light-soaking characteristics of low-bandgap benzodithiophene-thienothiophene based co-polymer and diketopyrrolopyrrole based small molecules were conducted on the modified IOSC devices. Ultimately, a solution-processed, light-soaking free, stable and high efficiency inverted organic solar cell was successfully achieved and reported in this thesis.

  20. Biazulene diimides: a new building block for organic electronic materials. (United States)

    Xin, Hanshen; Ge, Congwu; Yang, Xiaodi; Gao, Honglei; Yang, Xiaochun; Gao, Xike


    Azulene, a 10-π-electron isomer of naphthalene, is a nonbenzenoid bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with a beautiful blue color and a large dipole moment. We present here the first class of azulene-based aromatic diimides, 2,2'-biazulene-1,1',3,3'-tetracarboxylic diimides (BAzDIs), which comprise a 2,2'-biazulene moiety and two seven-membered imide groups. DFT calculations, thermal, optical and electrochemical properties of two BAzDI derivatives as well as single crystal analysis and the charge transport behavior were studied. The results demonstrate that BAzDIs have unique photophysical properties and are promising for organic electronic materials.

  1. Organic and perovskite solar cells: Working principles, materials and interfaces. (United States)

    Marinova, Nevena; Valero, Silvia; Delgado, Juan Luis


    In the last decades organic solar cells (OSCs) have been considered as a promising photovoltaic technology with the potential to provide reasonable power conversion efficiencies combined with low cost and easy processability. Unexpectedly, Perovskite Solar Cells (PSCs) have experienced unprecedented rise in Power Conversion Efficiency (PCE) thus emerging as a highly efficient photovoltaic technology. OSCs and PSCs are two different kind of devices with distinct charge generation mechanism, which however share some similarities in the materials processing, thus standard strategies developed for OSCs are currently being employed in PSCs. In this article, we recapitulate the main processes in these two types of photovoltaic technologies with an emphasis on interfacial processes and interfacial modification, spotlighting the materials and newest approaches in the interfacial engineering. We discuss on the relevance of well-known materials coming from the OSCs field, which are now being tested in the PSCs field, while maintaining a focus on the importance of the material design for highly efficient, stable and accessible solar cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of a National Faculty Development Program Embedded Within an Academic Professional Organization. (United States)

    Baldwin, Constance D; Gusic, Maryellen E; Chandran, Latha


    A sizeable literature describes the effectiveness of institution-based faculty development programs in nurturing faculty educators as scholars, but national programs are less common and seldom evaluated. To fill this role, the Educational Scholars Program (ESP) was created within the Academic Pediatric Association (APA) in 2006. It is a national, three-year, cohort-based certification program focused on fostering educational scholarship. This article describes the development and outcomes of an innovative program embedded within the framework of a national professional organization, and offers a model for potential adaptation by similar organizations to enhance their support of educators.After 10 years, 171 scholars have enrolled in the ESP, and 50 faculty have participated. Scholars are assigned a faculty advisor and participate in three full-day sessions at a national meeting; online, interactive learning modules; and a mentored, scholarly project. The program receives support from the APA in four organizational frames: structural, human resource, political, and symbolic. The self-perceived scholarly proficiency of the scholars in Cohort 1 increased significantly over time, and their productivity and collaborations increased during and after the program. Scholars wrote enthusiastically about their experience in yearly and postprogram evaluations. In interviews, eight past APA presidents explained that the ESP strengthened the APA's mission, created new leaders, and provided a new model for other APA programs. Outcomes of the ESP suggest that a longitudinal faculty development program embedded within a national professional organization can create a social enterprise not only within the organization but also within the broader national community of educator-scholars.

  3. Production of biogas and organic fertilizer by anaerobic degestion of organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skulbhram, P.; Athipanyakom, S.; Chome-Gnam, M.; Angsuratanavec, P.; Marayong, P.


    Animal manures, water hyacinth, and grass were used as feed materials to produce biogas. Digestions of various slurry ratios, seeding and nonseeding of organisms, and batch and continuous loading units were studied to identify the optimum slurry ratio, the biogas composition, the organic fertilizer values, and the average volumn of biogas production. The optimum slurry ratios for biogas production were 50 and 60 volume %. The biogas produced from organic materials contained 25-69 volume % CH4. The digested liquid waste and sludge contained N, P, and K and vitamin B12 and can be used as an organic fertilizer for plants. The biogas can be produced from the digestion of animal manures without seeding of organism in 1-3 days. Seeding of organisms is a good procedure for shortening the time of biogas production. The ambient temperature of the air in central Thailand is the optimum for biogas production. Digesters constructed on the ground or burried at some depth under the ground showed the same results.

  4. Organization of Teacher’s Professional Activity in Conditions of Innovative Educational Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Kartashova


    Full Text Available The problem of organization of teacher’s professional activity in innovative educational environment is revealed in the article. The fundamental definitions of the concept of "innovative educational environment" in different aspects are determined. The analysis of researches of primary school teacher’s training in Ukraine and highly developed countries of the world is witnessed a number of contradictions that outlined necessity to generate the innovative (information educational environment. Effective organizational and methodical decision in formation of competitive teacher is the introduction subject "Methods of organization of teacher’s professional activity in conditions of innovative educational environment" to educational process of primary school teacher’s training. Its aim, objectives, information scope, requirements to level of mastering of content component, methods and forms of monitoring and evaluation of students’ competency have been revealed. The course is based on designed innovative IT-based (cloudy-oriented environment of pedagogical training of primary school teachers, and cloudy-oriented products are integrated in it, that will make the learning process interactive: OneNote, Skype, GoogleDisk, SkyDrive, teacher’s personal website, OneNote. The managing of students’ mastering process of pedagogical subjects is performed at lessons and using teacher’s electronic classroom

  5. (Un)organizing equal collaboration between users and professionals: on management of patient education in Norway. (United States)

    Stokken, Roar


    This is an article about how patient education is managed in Norway, but it also addresses a matter of broader relevance that of how an organization imbued with a request for rational choices is able to take on board a contradictory ideology. In Norway, patient education under the auspice of hospitals is to be conducted as an equal collaboration between users and professionals, posing challenges to the ethos of rationally justified choices within the hospital sector. This calls for an exploration of how the organization copes with the contradictory demands. A theoretical approach on the basis of theories from Scandinavian institutional theory and science and technology studies, informed by documents, interviews and experiences from national, regional and local levels in Norway. The field of patient education is divided into three decoupled domains: one at management level, one at the practical level, and in the middle a domain that acts as an interface between management and practice. This interface mediates the relationship between ideas and practice, without making overt the fact that ideas might not be possible to put into practice and that practice might not reflect ideas. The decoupling of practice and management allows patient education as equal collaboration between users and professionals to thrive as an idea, not subjugated by practical challenges. Thus, it can exist as a guiding star that both management and practitioners can attune to, but this situation might now be threatened by the demand for quality assurance in the field. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. (Un)organizing equal collaboration between users and professionals: on management of patient education in Norway (United States)

    Stokken, Roar


    Abstract Background  This is an article about how patient education is managed in Norway, but it also addresses a matter of broader relevance that of how an organization imbued with a request for rational choices is able to take on board a contradictory ideology. In Norway, patient education under the auspice of hospitals is to be conducted as an equal collaboration between users and professionals, posing challenges to the ethos of rationally justified choices within the hospital sector. This calls for an exploration of how the organization copes with the contradictory demands. Methods  A theoretical approach on the basis of theories from Scandinavian institutional theory and science and technology studies, informed by documents, interviews and experiences from national, regional and local levels in Norway. Discussion  The field of patient education is divided into three decoupled domains: one at management level, one at the practical level, and in the middle a domain that acts as an interface between management and practice. This interface mediates the relationship between ideas and practice, without making overt the fact that ideas might not be possible to put into practice and that practice might not reflect ideas. Conclusions  The decoupling of practice and management allows patient education as equal collaboration between users and professionals to thrive as an idea, not subjugated by practical challenges. Thus, it can exist as a guiding star that both management and practitioners can attune to, but this situation might now be threatened by the demand for quality assurance in the field. PMID:21624027

  7. Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Levitsky, Igor A; Karachevtsev, Victor A


    Photophysics of Carbon Nanotubes Interfaced with Organic and Inorganic Materials describes physical, optical and spectroscopic properties of the emerging class of nanocomposites formed from carbon nanotubes (CNTs)  interfacing with organic and inorganic materials. The three main chapters detail novel trends in  photophysics related to the interaction of  light with various carbon nanotube composites from relatively simple CNT/small molecule assemblies to complex hybrids such as CNT/Si and CNT/DNA nanostructures.   The latest experimental results are followed up with detailed discussions and scientific and technological perspectives to provide a through coverage of major topics including: ·   Light harvesting, energy conversion, photoinduced charge separation  and transport  in CNT based nanohybrids · CNT/polymer composites exhibiting photoactuation; and ·         Optical  spectroscopy  and structure of CNT/DNA complexes. Including original data and a short review of recent research, Phot...

  8. Conjugated Polymer Zwitterions: Efficient Interlayer Materials in Organic Electronics. (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Duzhko, Volodimyr V; Page, Zachariah A; Emrick, Todd; Russell, Thomas P


    Conjugated polymer zwitterions (CPZs) are neutral, hydrophilic, polymer semiconductors. The pendent zwitterions, viewed as side chain dipoles, impart solubility in polar solvents for solution processing, and open opportunities as interfacial components of optoelectronic devices, for example, between metal electrodes and organic semiconductor active layers. Such interlayers are crucial for defining the performance of organic electronic devices, e.g., field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and photovoltaics (OPVs), all of which consist of multilayer structures. The interlayers reduce the Schottky barrier height and thus improve charge injection in OFETs and OLEDs. In OPVs, the interlayers serve to increase the built-in electric potential difference (Vbi) across the active layer, ensuring efficient extraction of photogenerated charge carriers. In general, polar and even charged electronically active polymers have gained recognition for their ability to modify metal/semiconductor interfaces to the benefit of organic electronics. While conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as interlayer materials are well-documented, open questions remain about the role of mobile counterions in CPE-containing devices. CPZs possess the processing advantages of CPEs, but as neutral molecules lack any potential complications associated with counterions. The electronic implications of CPZs on metal electrodes stem from the orientation of the zwitterion dipole moment in close proximity to the metal surface, and the resultant surface-induced polarization. This generates an interfacial dipole (Δ) at the CPZ/metal interface, altering the work function of the electrode, as confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and improving device performance. An ideal cathode interlayer would reduce electrode work function, have orthogonal processability to the active layer, exhibit good film forming properties (i.e., wettability/uniformity), prevent exciton

  9. New Organic Semiconductor Materials Applied in Organic Photovoltaic and Optical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes


    Full Text Available The development of flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells, using an optically transparent substrate material and organic semiconductor materials, has been widely utilized by the electronic industry when producing new technological products. The flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells are the base Poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, PEDOT, Poly(3-hexyl thiophene, P3HT, Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM and Polyaniline, PANI, were deposited in Indium Tin Oxide, ITO, and characterized by Electrical Measurements and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. In addition, the thin film obtained by the deposition of PANI, prepared in perchloric acid solution, was identified through PANI-X1. The result obtained by electrical Measurements has demonstrated that the PET/ITO/PEDOT/P3HT:PCBM Blend/PANI-X1 layer presents the characteristic curve of standard solar cell after spin-coating and electrodeposition. The Thin film obtained by electrodeposition of PANI-X1 on P3HT/PCBM Blend was prepared in perchloric acid solution. These flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells presented power conversion efficiency of 12%. The inclusion of the PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation these organic photovoltaic panels induced for solar irradiation. In Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM these studies reveal that the surface of PANI-X1 layers is strongly conditioned by the surface morphology of the dielectric.

  10. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)


    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  11. My maize and blue brick road to physical organic chemistry in materials. (United States)

    McNeil, Anne J


    Similar to Dorothy's journey along the yellow brick road in The Wizard of Oz, this perspective carves out the path I took from my early childhood fascinations with science through my independent career at the University of Michigan (maize and blue). The influential research projects and mentors are highlighted, including some fortuitous experimental results that drew me into the field of supramolecular chemistry, specifically, and organic materials, broadly. My research group's efforts toward designing new sensors based on small molecule gelators are described. In particular, I highlight how our design strategy has evolved as we learn more about molecular gelators. This perspective concludes with some predictions about where molecular gels, as well as my personal and professional life, are headed.

  12. Evaluation of recent pharmacy graduates' practice patterns, professional lifelong learning, pharmacy organization memberships, and salary. (United States)

    Bond, C A; Pitterle, M E; Raehl, C L


    To document information on recent bachelor of science (B.S.) pharmacy graduates' practice patterns, professional lifelong learning (PLL) methods, pharmacy organization memberships, and salary. The association between advanced training and education on PLL methods, pharmacy organization membership, and salary are explored. Pertinent literature was identified by MEDLINE searches (1966-1992). The results of a Fall 1991 survey of recent B.S. pharmacy graduates (n = 371) of the University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy are reported (55 percent response rate). Hospital pharmacists devoted more time to PLL outside of work (18.00 +/- 17.89 h/mo) than community pharmacists (9.93 +/- 8.76 h/mo), t = 5.02, degrees of freedom (df) = 289, p degree program, residency, or fellowship (advanced degree/training [ADT]) spent more time in PLL (17.76 +/- 10.63 h/mo) compared with graduates who had only obtained a B.S. degree (10.63 +/- 8.56 h/mo), t = 3.80, df = 311, p degree only) showed the strongest correlation of membership affiliation, which was about equal with ASHP (phi = 0.32) and ACCP (phi = 0.33). Although pharmacists changed their individual pharmacy organization memberships during the first seven years after graduation, there was no evidence of a decline in overall interest in pharmacy organization membership. Pharmacists who had completed ADT had an annual mean salary of $51,112 +/- $10,012; those pharmacists who did not complete an ADT program had an annual mean salary of $46,440 +/- $7802, a difference of $4672 per year. Hospital pharmacists who had obtained ADT had an annual mean salary of $51,840 +/- $9765; B.S. pharmacists without ADT in hospital practice had an annual mean salary of $43,603 +/- $8192, a difference of $8237 per year. Pharmacists' PLL methods, organization memberships, and salaries varied significantly by their practice site and the completion of an ADT program.

  13. The Effects of Organizers on the Learning of Structured Anthropology Materials in the Elementary Grades (United States)

    Clawson, Elmer U.; Barnes, Buckley R.


    Organize refers to written material that serves the function of facilitating the incorporation and retention of subject matter. The organizer provides a brief summary of the more detailed material contained in the learning passage. (Authors)

  14. Structural organization of psychological defenses and coping strategies of preschool teachers with different levels of professional burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Анатоліївна Колтунович


    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problem of modern education system – preschool teachers’ professional burnout. Assumptions about the existence of the relationship between professional burnout, coping strategies and mechanisms of psychological defenses; about the determination of burnout at different stages of its formation according to the structural organization of coping and psychological defenses were empirically proven, and their leading and basic components were defined

  15. Rational design of organic electro-optic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, L R


    Quantum mechanical calculations are used to optimize the molecular first hyperpolarizability of organic chromophores and statistical mechanical calculations are used to optimize the translation of molecular hyperpolarizability to macroscopic electro-optic activity (to values of greater than 100 pm V sup - sup 1 at telecommunications wavelengths). Macroscopic material architectures are implemented exploiting new concepts in nanoscale architectural engineering. Multi-chromophore-containing dendrimers and dendronized polymers not only permit optimization of electro-optic activity but also of auxiliary properties including optical loss (both absorption and scattering), thermal and photochemical stability and processability. New reactive ion etching and photolithographic techniques permit the fabrication of three-dimensional optical circuitry and the integration of that circuitry with semiconductor very-large-scale integration electronics and silica fibre optics. Electro-optic devices have been fabricated exploiti...

  16. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials. (United States)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Gounadaki, Antonia; Zentek, Jürgen; Häggblom, Per


    Salmonella control in animal feed is important in order to protect animal and public health. Organic acids is one of the control measures used for treatment of Salmonella contaminated feed or feed ingredients. In the present study, the efficacy of formic acid (FA) and different blends of FA, propionic acid (PA) and sodium formate (SF) was investigated. Four Salmonella strains isolated from feed were assayed for their acid tolerance. Also, the effect of lower temperatures (5°C and 15°C) compared to room temperature was investigated in rape seed and soybean meal. The efficacy of acid treatments varied significantly between different feed materials. The strongest reduction was seen in pelleted and compound mash feed (2.5 log10 reduction) followed by rapeseed meal (1 log10 reduction) after 5 days exposure. However, in soybean meal the acid effects were limited (less than 0.5 log10 reduction) even after several weeks' exposure. In all experiments the survival curves showed a concave shape, with a fast initial death phase followed by reduction at a slower rate during the remaining time of the experiment.No difference in Salmonella reduction was observed between FA and a blend of FA and PA, whereas a commercial blend of FA and SF (Amasil) was slightly more efficacious (0.5-1 log10 reduction) than a blend of FA and PA (Luprocid) in compound mash feed. The Salmonella Infantis strain was found to be the most acid tolerant strain followed by, S. Putten, S. Senftenberg and S. Typhimurium. The tolerance of the S. Infantis strain compared with the S. Typhimurium strain was statistically significant (pSalmonella in feed is a matter of reducing the number of viable bacterial cells rather than eliminating the organism. Recommendations on the use of acids for controlling Salmonella in feed should take into account the relative efficacy of acid treatment in different feed materials, the variation in acid tolerance between different Salmonella strains, and the treatment temperature.

  17. Metal-organic frameworks as functional, porous materials (United States)

    Rood, Jeffrey A.

    The research presented in this thesis investigates the use of metal carboxylates as permanently porous materials called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The project has focused on three broad areas of study, each which strives to develop a further understanding of this class of materials. The first topic is concerned with the synthesis and structural characterization of MOFs. Our group and others have found that the reaction of metal salts with carboxylic acids in polar solvents at elevated temperatures often leads the formation of crystalline MOF materials that can be examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Specifically, Chapter 2 reports on some of the first examples of magnesium MOFs, constructed from formate or aryldicarboxylate ligands. The magnesium formate MOF, [Mg3(O2CH) 6] was found to be a permanently porous 3-D material capable of selective uptake and exchange of small molecules. Once the synthesis and structures of some of these materials was known, their physical properties were studied. The magnesium formate MOF, [Mg 3(O2CH)6], was found to be permanently porous and able to reversibly adsorb both N2 and H2 gas. Furthermore, the material was also capable of taking up a variety of organic molecules to form new inclusion compounds that were characterized by XRD studies. Size exclusion was shown for cyclohexane and larger molecules. Chapters 3, 5, and 6 attempt to build off of the synthetic findings reported in Chapter 2. Specifically, the ability of these materials to take up guest molecules is expanded by the attempted synthesis of porous, homochiral MOFs using enantiopure carboxylic acids in the synthesis. It was found that under the appropriate synthetic conditions, both L-tartaric acid and (+)-camphoric acid were robust linkers for the formation of homochiral MOFs. Of the compounds synthesized, the most interesting were the set of compounds, [Zn2(Cam) 2(bipy)⊃3DMF] and [Zn2(Cam)2(apyr)⊃2DMF]. These compounds formed isoreticular cubic

  18. Landfill leachate effects on sorption of organic micropollutants onto aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Pfeffer, Fred M.


    The effect of dissolved organic carbon as present in landfill leachate, on the sorption of organic micropollutants in aquifer materials was studied by laboratory batch and column experiments involving 15 non-polar organic chemicals, 5 landfill leachates and 4 aquifer materials of low organic carbon...... content. The experiments showed that hydrophobic organic micropollutants do partition into dissolved organic carbon found in landfill leachate potentially increasing their mobility. However, landfill leachate interacted with aquifer materials apparently increases the sorbent affinity for the hydrophobic......, the effect of landfill leachate on retardation of organic micropollutants in aquifer material seems limited....

  19. Influence of volatile organic compounds of varnish-and-paint materials on the workers organism on the industrial enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г.І. Архіпова


    Full Text Available In article describes the reasons of air contamination in working area of endustrial enterprises, defines main ways of incoming and mechanism of action of volatile organic compounds of paintwork material on the organisms of workers.

  20. of Effect of different organic materials on plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehrnosh eskandari


    Full Text Available Using organic matter, such as, peat and vermicompost as soil amendment, increases aeration, water infiltration, water holding capacity and nutrients of soil . A greenhouse experiment was performed to study the effect of organic materials on plant growth characteristics, total biomass and grain weight of chickpea with four treatments; 1 Soil + 3% peat (PS, 2 Sterile soil + 3% peat (SPS, 3 Soil + vermicompost (1:6 (VCS, 4 control (C in a completely randomized design with four replications. The results showed that the maximum germination percentage, number of branch and number of pod per plant were observed in SPS treatment due to the avoidance of harmful microbial impacts. Plant height in this treatment reduced, whereas, no significant differences in total dry matter per plant and dry weight of chickpea per plant were observed compared to control. Plant growth consist of plant height, number of branch and number of pod per plant in vermicompost and soil + peat treatment reduced in the early stages probably because of plant - microbes interaction effects. Application of vermicompost increased fresh and dry weight, pod dry weight and single grain weight, probably due to more plant nutrient availability in this treatment when compared with other treatments.

  1. Conversion and Extraction of Insoluble Organic Materials in Meteorites (United States)

    Locke, Darren R.; Burton, Aaron S.; Niles, Paul B.


    We endeavor to develop and implement methods in our laboratory to convert and extract insoluble organic materials (IOM) from low car-bon bearing meteorites (such as ordinary chondrites) and Precambrian terrestrial rocks for the purpose of determining IOM structure and prebiotic chemistries preserved in these types of samples. The general scheme of converting and extracting IOM in samples is summarized in Figure 1. First, powdered samples are solvent extracted in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus multiple times using solvents ranging from non-polar to polar (hexane - non-polar, dichloromethane - non-polar to polar, methanol - polar protic, and acetonitrile - polar aprotic). Second, solid residue from solvent extractions is processed using strong acids, hydrochloric and hydrofluoric, to dissolve minerals and isolate IOM. Third, the isolated IOM is subjected to both thermal (pyrolysis) and chemical (oxidation) degradation to release compounds from the macromolecular material. Finally, products from oxidation and pyrolysis are analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GCMS). We are working toward an integrated method and analysis scheme that will allow us to determine prebiotic chemistries in ordinary chondrites and Precambrian terrestrial rocks. Powerful techniques that we are including are stepwise, flash, and gradual pyrolysis and ruthenium tetroxide oxidation. More details of the integrated scheme will be presented.

  2. Developing stable isotopic records from organic material preserved in speleothems (United States)

    Blyth, A.; Baker, A.


    Speleothems form excellent archives of environmental change as they are easy to date and preserve multiple environmental records. However, although the stable isotopic composition of speleothem calcite is well characterised, the isotopic composition of organic matter in speleothems has not been investigated in-depth. The approach has considerable potential value in providing isotopic records directly linked to the overlying ecosystem. For stable carbon isotopes, this will provide records independent of the calcite signal, and enable identification of the local primary controls (vegetation type, climate, soil conditions). However, the detailed measurement of isotopic records in speleothem organic matter is hindered by methodological constraints, including extraction of sufficient material, and recovery without adding carbon contamination. Here we present results from a number of methodological techniques and discuss which show most potential for future palaeoenvironmental work. Isotopic records in organic matter can be divided into two main types - analyses of the bulk organic fraction, and compound-specific analyses of molecules of interest (e.g. plant waxes, bacterial lipids etc.). From the point of view of sample size, bulk analysis is the most amenable. Our work shows that TOC in stalagmites can be as low as <0.1 mg/g calcite. However, this is still sufficient to produce bulk organic signals at a sample size of between 100 and 500 mg of calcite powder, which provides a workable temporal resolution at a decadal-centennial scale on many samples. The main obstacle is the recovery of bulk organics without carbon contamination, but whilst avoiding excess acid salts which might damage the instrumentation. One method we propose is the use of an iTOC-CDRS analyser, which measures total organic carbon, and also 12C and 13C isotopes. The approach has the advantage of requiring minimal sample preparation, with drilled powders simply being dissolved in acid. The major

  3. Organic hydrogels as potential sorbent materials for water purification (United States)

    Linardatos, George; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Bokias, George


    Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks capable to adsorb large amounts of water or biological fluids. The networks are composed of homopolymers or copolymers and are insoluble due to the presence of chemical or physical cross-links. Depending on the nature of the structural units, swelling or shrinking of these gels can be activated by several external stimuli, such as solvent, heat, pH, electric stimuli. As a consequence, these materials are attractive for several applications in a variety of fields: drug delivery, muscle mimetic soft linear actuators, hosts of nanoparticles and semiconductors, regenerative medicine etc. Of special interest is the application of hydrogels for water purification, since they can effectively adsorb several water soluble pollutants such as metal ions, inorganic or organic anions, organic dyestaff, etc. In the present work, anionic hydrogels bearing negatively charged -COO- groups were prepared and investigated. These are based on the anionic monomer sodium acrylate (ANa) and the nonionic one N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAM). A series of copolymeric hydrogels (P(DMAM-co-ANax) were synthesized. The molar content x of ANa units (expressing the molar charged content of the hydrogel) varies from 0 (nonionic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide), PDMAM, hydrogel) up to 1 (fully charged poly(sodium acrylate), PANa, hydrogel). The hydrogels were used to extract organic or inorganic solutes from water. Cationic and anionic model dyes, as well as multivalent inorganic ions, have been studied. It is found that cationic dyes are strongly adsorbed and retained by the hydrogels, while adsorbance of anionic dyes was negligible. Both maximum adsorption and equilibrium binding constant depend on the chemical structure of the dye, the presence of functional chemical groups and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. In the case of metal cations, adsorption depends mostly on the charge of the cation. In addition, crucial factors controlling

  4. Computational evaluation of optoelectronic properties for organic/carbon materials. (United States)

    Shuai, Zhigang; Wang, Dong; Peng, Qian; Geng, Hua


    CONSPECTUS: Organic optoelectronic materials are used in a variety of devices, including light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, spintronics, and chemico- and biosensors. The processes that determine the intrinsic optoelectronic properties occur either in the photoexcited states or within the electron-pumped charged species, and computations that predict these optical and electrical properties would help researchers design new materials. In this Account, we describe recent advances in related density functional theory (DFT) methods and present case studies that examine the efficiency of light emission, carrier mobility, and thermoelectric figures of merit by calculation of the electron-vibration couplings. First we present a unified vibrational correlation function formalism to evaluate the excited-state radiative decay rate constant kr, the nonradiative decay rate constant knr, the intersystem crossing rate constant kISC, and the optical spectra. The molecular parameters that appear in the formalism, such as the electronic excited-state energy, vibrational modes, and vibronic couplings, require extensive DFT calculations. We used experiments for anthracene at both low and ambient temperatures to benchmark the calculated photophysical parameters. In the framework of Fermi's golden rule, we incorporated the non-adiabatic coupling and the spin-orbit coupling to evaluate the phosphorescence efficiency and emission spectrum. Both of these are in good agreement with experimental results for anthracene and iridium compounds. Band electron scattering and relaxation processes within Boltzmann theory can describe charge transport in two-dimensional carbon materials and closely packed organic solids. For simplicity, we considered only the acoustic phonon scattering as modeled by the deformation potential approximation coupled with extensive DFT calculations for band structures. We then related the carrier mobility to the band

  5. Optimization of Organic Solar Cells: Materials, Devices and Interfaces (United States)

    Zhou, Nanjia

    Due to the increasing demand for sustainable clean energy, photovoltaic cells have received intensified attention in the past decade in both academia and industry. Among the types of cells, organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer promise as alternatives to conventional inorganic-type solar cells owning to several unique advantages such as low material and fabrication cost. To maximize power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), extensive research efforts focus on frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy engineering of photoactive materials. Towards this objective, a series of novel donor polymers incorporating a new building block, bithiophene imide (BTI) group are developed, with narrow bandgap and low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies to increase short circuit current density, Jsc, and open circuit voltage, Voc.. Compared to other PV technologies, OPVs often suffer from large internal recombination loss and relatively low fill factors (FFs) thin film morphology, OPVs with PCEs up to 8.7% and unprecedented FF approaching 80% are obtained. Such high FF are close to those typically achieved in amorphous Si solar cells. Systematic variations of polymer chemical structures lead to understanding of structure-property relationships between polymer geometry and the resulting blend film morphology characteristics which are crucial for achieving high local mobilities and long carrier lifetimes. Instead of using fullerene as the acceptors, an alternative type of OPV is developed employing a high electron mobility polymer, P(NDI2OD-T2), as the acceptor. To improve the all-polymer blend film morphology, the influence of basic solvent properties such as solvent boiling point and solubility on polymer phase separation and charge transport properties is investigated, yielding to a high PCE of 2.7% for all-polymer solar cells. To take advantages of the inherent mechanical flexibility associated with organic materials, the development of transparent, flexible

  6. Guidelines on chemotherapy in advanced stage gynecological malignancies: an evaluation of 224 professional societies and organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos P Polyzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines are important for guiding practice, but it is unclear if they are commensurate with the available evidence. METHODS: We examined guidelines produced by cancer and gynecological societies and organizations and evaluated their coverage of and stance towards chemotherapy for advanced stage disease among 4 gynecological malignancies (breast, ovarian, cervical, endometrial cancer where the evidence for the use of chemotherapy is very different (substantial and conclusive for breast and ovarian cancer, limited and suggesting no major benefit for cervical and endometrial cancer. Eligible societies and organizations were identified through systematic internet searches (last update June 2009. Pertinent websites were scrutinized for presence of clinical practice guidelines, and relative guidelines were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 224 identified eligible societies and organizations, 69 (31% provided any sort of guidelines, while recommendations for chemotherapy on advanced stage gynecological malignancies were available in 20 of them. Only 14 had developed their own guideline, and only 5 had developed guidelines for all 4 malignancies. Use of levels of evidence and grades of recommendations, and aspects of the production, implementation, and timeliness of the guidelines did not differ significantly across malignancies. Guidelines on breast and ovarian cancer utilized significantly more randomized trials and meta-analyses. Guidelines differed across malignancies on their coverage of disease-free survival (p = 0.033, response rates (p = 0.024, symptoms relief (p = 0.005, quality of life (p = 0.001 and toxicity (p = 0.039, with breast and ovarian cancer guidelines typically covering more frequently these outcomes. All guidelines explicitly or implicitly endorsed the use of chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical practice guidelines are provided by the minority of professional societies and organizations

  7. OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blochwitz-Nimoth, Jan; Bhandari, Abhinav; Boesch, Damien; Fincher, Curtis R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Gotthold, David W.; Greiner, Mark T.; Kido, Junji; Kondakov, Denis; Korotkov, Roman; Krylova, Valentina A.; Loeser, Falk; Lu, Min-Hao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Lussem, Bjorn; Moro, Lorenza; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rostovtsev, Vsevolod V.; Sasabe, Hisahiro; Silverman, Gary; Thompson, Mark E.; Tietze, Max; Tyan, Yuan-Sheng; Weaver, Michael; Xin , Xu; Zeng, Xianghui


    -efficiency OLED demonstrated in 1987. Thus, we expect to see exciting advances in the science, technology and commercialization in the coming years. We hope that this book helps to advance the field in some small way. Contributors to this monograph are experts from top academic institutions, industry and national laboratories who provide comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the rapidly evolving field of OLEDs. Furthermore, this monograph collects in one place, for the first time, key topics across the field of OLEDs, from fundamental chemistry and physics, to practical materials science and engineering topics, to aspects of design and manufacturing. The monograph synthesizes and puts into context information scattered throughout the literature for easy review in one book. The scope of the monograph reflects the necessity to focus on new technological challenges brought about by the transition to manufacturing. In the Section 1, all materials of construction of the OLED device are covered, from substrate to encapsulation. In Section 2, for the first time, additional challenges in devices and processing are addressed. This book is geared towards a broad audience, including materials scientists, device physicists, synthetic chemists and electrical engineers. Furthermore, this book makes a great introduction to scientists in industry and academia, as well as graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin films. This book is a comprehensive source for OLED R&D professionals from all backgrounds and institutions.

  8. On Teacher Professional Development: Improving Professional Qualifications and Membership in Professional Teacher Communities (United States)

    Sobkin, V. S.; Adamchuk, D. V.


    The article examines issues related to the professional development of teachers. The presented material is structured according to four main themes: teacher self-assessment of their professional competence; their attitude toward traditional forms of training; their participation in events organized by the educational community and associations;…

  9. Fundamentals and applications of organic electrochemistry synthesis, materials, devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchigami, Toshio; Inagi, Shinsuke


    This textbook is an accessible overview of the broad field of organic electrochemistry, covering the fundamentals and applications of contemporary organic electrochemistry.  The book begins with an introduction to the fundamental aspects of electrode electron transfer and methods for the electrochemical measurement of organic molecules. It then goes on to discuss organic electrosynthesis of molecules and macromolecules, including detailed experimental information for the electrochemical synthesis of organic compounds and conducting polymers. Later chapters highlight new methodology for organic electrochemical synthesis, for example electrolysis in ionic liquids, the application to organic electronic devices such as solar cells and LEDs, and examples of commercialized organic electrode processes. Appendices present useful supplementary information including experimental examples of organic electrosynthesis, and tables of physical data (redox potentials of various organic solvents and organic compounds and phy...

  10. The potential of organic polymer-based hydrogen storage materials. (United States)

    Budd, Peter M; Butler, Anna; Selbie, James; Mahmood, Khalid; McKeown, Neil B; Ghanem, Bader; Msayib, Kadhum; Book, David; Walton, Allan


    The challenge of storing hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric density for automotive applications has prompted investigations into the potential of cryo-adsorption on the internal surface area of microporous organic polymers. A range of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIMs) has been studied, the best PIM to date (a network-PIM incorporating a triptycene subunit) taking up 2.7% H(2) by mass at 10 bar/77 K. HyperCrosslinked Polymers (HCPs) also show promising performance as H(2) storage materials, particularly at pressures >10 bar. The N(2) and H(2) adsorption behaviour at 77 K of six PIMs and a HCP are compared. Surface areas based on Langmuir plots of H(2) adsorption at high pressure are shown to provide a useful guide to hydrogen capacity, but Langmuir plots based on low pressure data underestimate the potential H(2) uptake. The micropore distribution influences the form of the H(2) isotherm, a higher concentration of ultramicropores (pore size <0.7 nm) being associated with enhanced low pressure adsorption.

  11. The Rocky Road towards Professional Autonomy: The Estonian Journalists’ Organization in the Political Turmoil of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epp Lauk


    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the relationships between journalists, politics and the state from the perspective of collective autonomy, that of the professional organization of journalists. The case of Estonian Journalists’ Union demonstrates the complexity and historical contingency of professional autonomy of journalism. The development of the Estonian journalists’ organization occurred as a sequence of transformations from the Estonian Journalists’ Association to the Estonian Journalists’ Union to the Soviet type journalists’ union, and lastly to an independent trade union. This sequence was disrupted by several fatal breakdowns that changed not only the character of the association, but also professional values, the whole occupational ideology and the conditions of the existence of journalism as a profession in Estonia.

  12. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.


    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop…

  13. Expanding Our Reach: The Potential for Youth Development Professionals in Community-Based Organizations to Provide Sexuality Information (United States)

    Fisher, Christopher M.; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Wright, Eric; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine; Baldwin, Kathleen


    Adolescents in the United States continue to face sexual health issues. While community-based organizations (CBOs) have a long history of addressing the sexual health needs of those they serve, little attention has been given to CBOs focused on adolescent populations and the role youth development professionals (YDPs) might play in the advancement…

  14. The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Implications for practitioners, professionals, and organizations. (United States)

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Copeland, Jennifer L; Fowles, Jonathon; Zehr, Lori; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S


    The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth emphasize the integration of all movement behaviours that occur over a whole day (i.e., light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep). These guidelines shift the paradigm away from considering each behaviour in isolation. This concept of the "whole day matters" not only calls for a change in thinking about movement but also for redevelopment of dissemination and implementation practice. Past guideline launch activities largely have aimed to create awareness through passive dissemination strategies (e.g., Website posts, distribution of print resources). For the integrated guidelines to have public health impact, we must move beyond dissemination and raising of awareness to implementation and behaviour change. Shifting this focus requires new, innovative approaches to intervention, including interdisciplinary collaboration, policy change, and refocused service provision. The purpose of this paper is to identify practitioners, professionals, and organizations with potential to disseminate and/or implement the guidelines, discuss possible implementation strategies for each of these groups, and describe the few resources being developed and those needed to support dissemination and implementation efforts. This discussion makes readily apparent the need for a well-funded, comprehensive, long-term dissemination, implementation, and evaluation plan to ensure uptake and activation of the guidelines.

  15. Organizing physics teacher professional education around productive habit development: A way to meet reform challenges (United States)

    Etkina, Eugenia; Gregorcic, Bor; Vokos, Stamatis


    Extant literature on teacher preparation suggests that preservice teachers learn best when they are immersed in a community that allows them to develop dispositions, knowledge, and practical skills and share with the community a strong vision of what good teaching entails. However, even if the requisite dispositions, knowledge, and skills in pursuing the shared vision of good teaching are developed, the professional demands on a teacher's time are so great out of, and so complex during class time that if every decision requires multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself, the productive decisions might not materialize. We argue that the link between intentional decision making and actual teaching practice are teacher's habits (spontaneous responses to situational cues). Teachers unavoidably develop habits with practical experience and under the influence of knowledge and belief structures that in many ways condition the responses of teachers in their practical work. To steer new teachers away from developing unproductive habits directed towards "survival" instead of student learning, we propose that teacher preparation programs (e.g., in physics) strive to develop in preservice teachers strong habits of mind and practice that will serve as an underlying support structure for beginning teachers. We provide examples of physics teacher habits that are to be developed during the program, propose mechanisms for the development of such habits, and outline possible future research agendas around habits.

  16. Organizing physics teacher professional education around productive habit development: A way to meet reform challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Etkina


    Full Text Available Extant literature on teacher preparation suggests that preservice teachers learn best when they are immersed in a community that allows them to develop dispositions, knowledge, and practical skills and share with the community a strong vision of what good teaching entails. However, even if the requisite dispositions, knowledge, and skills in pursuing the shared vision of good teaching are developed, the professional demands on a teacher’s time are so great out of, and so complex during class time that if every decision requires multiple considerations and deliberations with oneself, the productive decisions might not materialize. We argue that the link between intentional decision making and actual teaching practice are teacher’s habits (spontaneous responses to situational cues. Teachers unavoidably develop habits with practical experience and under the influence of knowledge and belief structures that in many ways condition the responses of teachers in their practical work. To steer new teachers away from developing unproductive habits directed towards “survival” instead of student learning, we propose that teacher preparation programs (e.g., in physics strive to develop in preservice teachers strong habits of mind and practice that will serve as an underlying support structure for beginning teachers. We provide examples of physics teacher habits that are to be developed during the program, propose mechanisms for the development of such habits, and outline possible future research agendas around habits.

  17. Exploring Novel Spintronic Responses from Advanced Functional Organic Materials (United States)


    Rev. B. 89, 155304, 2014 11. Optically tunable spin-exchange energy at donor:acceptor interfaces in organic solar cells Mingxing Li, Hongfeng Wang...photovoltaic processes at D:A interface and electrode interface in organic solar cells Bin Hu Indo-US Joint Workshop on Organic Solar Cells, Kanpur, India ...Workshop on Organic Solar Cells, National Reviewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Co, June 24-25, 2013 (13) Magneto-optical Studies on Internal

  18. A Review on the Research Progress of Nano Organic Friction Materials. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bao, Jiusheng; Hu, Dongyang; Ge, Shirong; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tonggang


    Traditional organic friction materials are difficult to adapt to people's growing technical requirements for stability, safety, comfort and environmental protection in the braking process. With the rapid development of nanotechnology, the brake's organic friction materials meet new opportunities. This article aims to review the research progress of organic friction materials that have applied nanotechnology. The research progress of nano organic friction materials was reviewed from four aspects in this article. Firstly, this article outlined the development history of friction materials. Secondly, two preparation methods of the nano organic friction material were summarized as by nano modifying of matrix material and by adding nanoparticles into friction material. Thirdly, it was indicated that the nano organic friction material has generally better mechanical, physical properties and tribological performance than traditional organic friction materials. And the main factors that affect the friction and wear performance were analyzed. Finally, the main existing problems in this field were summarized. It was pointed out that the nano organic friction material may be an important developing trend of friction materials. It was also pointed out that the dispersion of nanoparticles must be a key process during preparation. What is more, the improvement mechanisms of performance by nano modifying were explained. And it was considered at the end that the functional friction material with magnetism or self-adsorption may be a leading developoing direction of nano organic friction materials in the future. The findings of this review confirm the excellent performance of nano organic friction materials. It is concluded that the development of a new functional friction material by using the special effect of nanoparticles will be an important developing trend. Few relevant patents to the topic have been reviewed and cited.

  19. ICT Governance and What to Do About the Toothless Tiger(s: Professional Organizations and Codes of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Gotterbarn


    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT has been with us for many years and in the past ten years there has been a growing interest in something called “ICT Governance” as a means of reducing information system disasters. There have been national organizations formed, professional organizations have organized sub-committees to address ICT Governance and it has even been called a “discipline”. The unwrapping of this concept, like many concepts, has several inconsistent interpretations and ineffective implementations in industry. In some cases the concept has been modified to meet a particular sectors needs. This broadening of concepts to fit individual needs is not new and sometimes is quite useful. There is however a fundamental mistake in the narrowness of most interpretations of ICT Governance which make it less likely that it will achieve its ultimate goals. I believe this mistake can and should be addressed by professional computing organizations. In what follows I will examine the various approaches to ICT governance, the difficulty it tries to address and I will argue for what I consider its critical limitations. I will than show how professional organizations can address the weakness of ICT governance using tools they already have at hand.

  20. [Healthcare professionals' perceptions of Islamic beliefs and traditions as barriers to organ donation and transplantation in Algeria]. (United States)

    Laidouni, Nouhad; Briones-Vozmediano, Érica; Garrido Clemente, Pilar; Gil González, Diana

    The aim of this study is to explore healthcare professionals' perception of the influence of Islamic beliefs and traditions concerning organ donation and transplants in Algeria. Exploratory qualitative study using individual semi-structured interviews of 17 healthcare professionals (9 men, 8 women) of different specialties in a University hospital in Algiers (Algeria). Qualitative content analysis of transcripts was performed using the computer software ATLAS.ti 5. Healthcare professionals believe that religious beliefs do not affect living donation but say they have a negative impact on donation of cadaveric organs due to the existence of myths derived from the Islamic religion and lack of knowledge of the Algerian population about the positioning of religious leaders in relation to organ donation and transplantation. There is confusion among the Algerian population on the position of Islam around organ donation and transplantation, mainly to the detriment of the rate of cadaveric donation. Collaboration between the health sector and religious leaders to raise public awareness could improve the willingness of the population to donate organs after death. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The intricate implementation of performance measurement systems, exploring developments in professional-service organizations in the Dutch non-profit sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teelken, J.C.


    Institutional and organizational theory supports the argument that current features of performance measurement systems (PMS) in public organizations are generally unsuitable for the actual nature of these professional organizations. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in the health care and

  2. Interstellar/Precometary Organic Material and the Photochemical Evolution of Complex Organics (United States)

    Allamandola, Lou J.; Bernstein, Max; Sandford, Scott; Witteborn, Fred (Technical Monitor)


    During the past two decades ground-, air-, and space-based infrared spectroscopic observations, combined with realistic laboratory simulations, have revolutionized our understanding of interstellar ice and dust, the raw materials from which planets, comets and stars form. Most interstellar material is concentrated in Large molecular clouds where simple molecules are formed by dust grain and gas phase reactions. Gaseous species striking the cold (10 K) dust will stick, forming an icy grain mantle. This accretion, coupled with energetic particle bombardment and UV photolysis, will produce a complex chemical mixture containing volatile, non-volatile, and isotopically fractionated species. Ices in molecular clouds contain the very simple molecules H2O, CH3OH, CO, CO2, H2, and perhaps some NH3 and H2CO, as well as more complex species including nitriles and ketones or esters. The evidence for these compounds as well as carbon rich materials such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), microdiamonds, and amorphous carbon will be reviewed and the possible connections with comets and meteorites will be presented in the first part of the talk. The second part of the presentation will focus on interstellar/precometary ice photochemical evolution. The chemical composition and photochemical evolution of realistic interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs containing methanol will be discussed. ultraviolet photolysis of these ices produces H2, H2CO, CO2, CO, CH4, HCO, and more complex molecules. Infrared spectroscopy, H-1 and C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrate that when ices representative of interstellar grains and comets are exposed to UV radiation at low temperature a series of moderately complex organic molecules are formed in the ice including: CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC(=O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C(=O)NH2 (acetamide), and R-C(integral)N (nitriles). Several of these are already known to be in the interstellar


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya A. Kolmakova


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of improving the quality of education in the professional educational organizations.Methods. The scientific and pedagogical analyses of the concepts forming a terminological field of a problem are used. The system, competence-based and personal approaches are used for development of models of cognitive visualization. Questioning of students was carried out to establish the level of development of their informative activity.Results. The constituent parts of the modern educational process and the need to create specific conditions for its implementation are identified and described. The author gives a generalized characteristic of visualization technology of educational information. The application of cognitive visualization models using information and communication technologies are proved. The results showing the evolution of motivational indicators of students’ activity before and after application of LSM and the «Metaplan» in the educational process are presented.Scientific novelty. The pedagogical conditions that allow using information and communication technologies as means of the trainees’ educational informative activity improvement in the professional educational organization are defined. Features of the directed application of methods of cognitive visualization of educational information, both for improvement of educational cognitive activity, and for formation of professional competences of students by profession «A chef, a confectioner» are noted.Practical importance. Use of methods of cognitive visualization in educational process on the example of studying of Chemistry and Biology in the professional educational organization is considered in details. The teaching package providing application of methods of cognitive visualization of educational information for the purpose of improvement of educational cognitive activity of students in the professional educational organization

  4. Matching the demand for and supply of IT professionals : towards a learning organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Mark; Molleman, E


    This article presents a study among information technology (TT) companies and young IT professionals, which demonstrates the central role of career development and strategic training policies in improving the match between demand for and supply of IT professionals. These policies seem to be able to

  5. Organization of professional and applied physical training and applied specifically oriented undergraduate students of forestry professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martirosova T.A.


    Full Text Available The questions of the use of facilities are examined professionally-applied physical preparation of students. The necessity of more rapid and high-quality mastering of certain labour abilities and skills, increase of the labour productivity, prophylaxis of professional diseases is marked. It is marked that forms and facilities of physical education of students of forestry specialities are determined features professionally-labour to activity of this industry. Employments of the special applied orientation are plugged in itself: theoretical employments, practical employments, sports and fitness measures, individual independent professionally-applied physical exercises, special applied types of sport. The features of forming professionally of important qualities of future specialist are certain in the process of physical education in the institute of higher.

  6. Acid-sensitive semiperfluoroalkyl resorcinarene: an imaging material for organic electronics. (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Kyun; Chatzichristidi, Margarita; Zakhidov, Alexander A; Taylor, Priscilla G; DeFranco, John A; Hwang, Ha Soo; Fong, Hon Hang; Holmes, Andrew B; Malliaras, George G; Ober, Christopher K


    An acid-sensitive semiperfluoroalkyl resorcinarene was synthesized, and its lithographic properties were evaluated. Its solubility in segregated hydrofluoroether solvents enables the patterning of delicate organic electronic materials.

  7. Growth of bulk single crystals of organic materials for nonlinear optical devices - An overview (United States)

    Penn, Benjamin G.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Moore, Craig E.; Shields, Angela W.; Frazier, D. O.


    Highly perfect single crystals of nonlinear optical organic materials are required for use in optical devices. An overview of the bulk crystal growth of these materials by melt, vapor, and solution processes is presented. Additionally, methods that may be used to purify starting materials, detect impurities at low levels, screen materials for crystal growth, and process grown crystals are discussed.

  8. Organization and content efficiency substantiation of a strengthened professional and applied physical training course for railway higher educational institution students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika Yefremova


    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally substantiate the effectiveness of the application of the experimental program for physical education with an intensified course of professional-applied physical training (PAPT for students of I–II courses of railway specialties. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of literary sources, pedagogical experiment, pedagogical testing, physiological and psycho-physiological methods, methods of mathematical statistics. Result: obtained data after the introduction of the experimental program on physical education with an intensified course of professional-applied physical training, students of railway universities. Conclusion: analysis and generalization of the literature sources found the absence of a scientifically based program of PAPT for students of higher education institutions of the railway profile. The introduction in the educational process of physical education of the experimental program on physical education with the strengthened course of the PAPT showed an increase in the level of physical, professionally applied physical and psycho-physiological readiness of students.

  9. Recent progress of high performance polymer OLED and OPV materials for organic printed electronics. (United States)

    Sekine, Chizu; Tsubata, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Takeshi; Kitano, Makoto; Doi, Shuji


    The development of organic printed electronics has been expanding to a variety of applications and is expected to bring innovations to our future life. Along with this trend, high performance organic materials with cost-efficient fabrication processes and specific features such as thin, light weight, bendable, and low power consumption are required. A variety of organic materials have been investigated in the development of this field. The basic guidelines for material design and the recent progress of polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) are reported.

  10. Porous graphitic materials obtained from carbonization of organic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dered pore system prepared by simple evaporative drying and pyrolysis of organic .... Organic xerogel recipes and content of metal in carbon xerogel/metal composite obtained after carbonization. Mechanical integrity and drying shrink of. Metal content (wt.%) in .... after the heat treatment is made up of metal nanoparticles ...

  11. (Dis)organizing through imbrications of human and material agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    and material agencies. However there is a lack of insight into how human and material agencies are imbricated during the emergence of (dis)order, and how different imbrications lead to (dis)order. This paper addresses this gap by presenting a content analysis of a book reporting the Battle of Stalingrad during...

  12. An investigation of relation between organizational justice and professional commitment of staff: A case study of public organization in Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Emami


    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and professional commitment in Kermanshah official organizations. The study uses 20 questions to measure professional commitment from a questionnaire originally developed by Spell et al. (2007 [Spell, C. S., & Arnold, T. J. (2007. A multi-level analysis of organizational justice climate, structure, and employee mental health. Journal of Management, 33(5, 724-751.]. In addition, the study adopts 12 questions from another questionnaire developed by Vallas (1999 [Vallas, S. P. (1999. Rethinking post‐Fordism: The meaning of workplace flexibility. Sociological theory, 17(1, 68-101.] to measure organizational justice. Cronbach alpha for organizational justice questionnaire and professional commitment are 0.81 and 0.89, respectively, which are well above the minimum acceptable level. Based on the results of this survey, there is a positive and meaningful relationship between organizational justice and professional commitment. The implementation of the linear regression analysis also reveals that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between inter-organizational justice and professional commitment. The study performs Freedman test to rank three components of organizational justice and the results indicate that interactional justice maintains the highest level of importance while distributive justice comes last in terms of priority.

  13. Corporate System of Advanced Education for Teachers in Educational Organization in the Context of Professional Standard Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurneshova L.Y.,


    Full Text Available The paper describes methodological approaches to the development of corporate system of advanced training for teachers in the context of implementation of the professional standard for teachers as a basis for competitive growth of educational institution. The key stage in this process is to identify areas of concern in the competencies of the teaching staff. The paper presents a system developed for these purposes which consists of the following four elements: self-testing for teachers; professional training; psychoeducational diagnostic training; training on creating a corporate roadmap for raising professional skills in teachers. The paper addresses the issues related to roadmap development basing on the foresight methodology. Finally, it provides an analysis of various forms of advanced training programs for teachers used in 46 regional centers for advanced training in every federal region of the Russian Federation. Supported by the Moscow Educational Department. The research work “Development and realization of manage- ment project “Organization and implementation of teacher professional training based on the requirements of Teacher professional standard”

  14. Evaluation of internet-based patient education materials from internal medicine subspecialty organizations: will patients understand them? (United States)

    Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; John, Elizabeth S; John, Ann M; Agarwal, Prateek; Reynolds, James C; Baker, Stephen R


    The majority of Americans use the Internet daily, if not more often, and many search online for health information to better understand a diagnosis they have been given or to research treatment options. The average American reads at an eighth-grade level. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the readability of online patient education materials on the websites of 14 professional organizations representing the major internal medicine subspecialties. We used ten well-established quantitative readability scales to assess written text from patient education materials published on the websites of the major professional organizations representing the following subspecialty groups: allergy and immunology, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, geriatrics, hematology, hospice and palliative care, infectious disease, nephrology, oncology, pulmonology and critical care, rheumatology, sleep medicine, and sports medicine. Collectively the 540 articles analyzed were written at an 11th-grade level (SD 1.4 grade levels). The sleep medicine and nephrology websites had the most readable materials, written at an academic grade level of 8.5 ± 1.5 and 9.0 ± 0.2, respectively. Material at the infectious disease site was written at the most difficult level, with average readability corresponding to grades 13.9 ± 0.3. None of the patient education materials we reviewed conformed to the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines requiring that patient education articles be written at a third- to seventh-grade reading level. If these online resources were rewritten, it is likely that more patients would derive benefit from reading them.

  15. Materials Organization, Planning, and Homework Completion in Middle School Students with ADHD: Impact on Academic Performance. (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Epstein, Jeffery N; Girio, Erin L; Becker, Stephen P; Vaughn, Aaron J; Altaye, Mekibib


    This study evaluated the homework functioning of middle school students with ADHD to determine what aspects are most predictive of school grades and the best source (e.g., parents or teachers) for obtaining this information. Students with ADHD in grades 5-8 (N = 57) and their parents and teachers completed the Children's Organization Skills Scales (COSS) to measure materials organization, planning, and time-management, and parents completed the Homework Problems Checklist (HPC) to examine homework completion and homework materials management behaviors. Regression analyses revealed that parent-rated homework materials management and teacher-rated memory and materials management were the best predictors of school grades. These findings suggest that organization of materials is a critical component of the homework completion process for students with ADHD and an important target for intervention. Teachers were the best source of information regarding materials organization and planning, whereas parents were a valuable source of information for specific homework materials management problems.

  16. [Accidents with cutting and piercing materials among nursing professionals at a university hospital]. (United States)

    da Silva, Talita Rodrigues; Rocha, Suelen Alves; Ayres, Jairo Aparecido; Juliani, Carmen Maria Casquel Monti


    The occupational hazards to which nursing professionals are subject while performing their duties are considerable. This study aims to analyze accidents with cutting and piercing instruments involving the nursing team of a university hospital that occurred between 2002 and 2006 in order to understand the context in which they happened. The use of such information can be a prevention tool. This is a descriptive, retrospective, quantitative and qualitative study. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative analysis and collective subject discourse was used for qualitative observation. By using report forms from the hospital's Epidemiological Surveillance Center, it was possible to identify a typology of accidents occurred in the studied period. Interviews were targeted at accident victims who had patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B and C as source patients. The findings show that a significant lack of knowledge and banalization of accidents still persist among health care professionals.

  17. Nurses in post-operative heart surgery: professional competencies and organization strategies. (United States)

    Santos, Ana Paula Azevedo; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Santos, Fabiana Cristina Dos; Leal, Laura Andrian; Silva, Beatriz Regina da


    To analyze nurses' competencies with regard to their work in post-operative heart surgery and the strategies implemented to mobilize these competencies. This was an exploratory study with a qualitative approach and a methodological design of collective case study. It was carried out in three post-operative heart surgery units, consisting of 18 nurses. Direct observation and semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. Data were construed through thematic analysis. nine competencies were found, as follows: theoretical-practical knowledge; high-complexity nursing care; nursing supervision; leadership in nursing; decision making; conflict management; personnel management; material and financial resources management; and on-job continued education. Organizational and individual strategies were employed to develop and improve competencies such as regular offerings of courses and lectures, in addition to the individual pursuit for knowledge and improvement. the study is expected to lead future nurses and training centers to evaluate the need for furthur training required to work in cardiac units, and also the need for implementing programs aimed at developing the competencies of these professionals. Analisar as competências dos enfermeiros para atuarem no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca e estratégias implementadas para a mobilização dessas competências. Estudo exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa e desenho metodológico estudo de caso coletivo. Foi realizado em três unidades pós-operatórias de cirurgias cardíacas, com 18 enfermeiros. Na coleta de dados utilizou-se observação direta e entrevista semiestruturada. Para interpretação dos dados optou-se pela análise temática. Foram identificadas nove competências, sendo: conhecimento teórico-prático, cuidados de enfermagem de alta complexidade, supervisão e liderança em enfermagem, tomada de decisão, gerenciamento de conflitos, de recursos humanos, materiais, financeiros e educa

  18. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J


    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  19. Organic Insulation Materials, the Effect on Indoor Humidity, and the Necessity of a Vapor Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    Examples of organic insulation products are cellulose fiber, other plant fiber, and animal wool. These materials, which are all very hygroscopic, are associated with certain assertions about their building physical behavior that need to be verified.Examples of such assertions are: "A vapor barrier...... is not needed when using organic insulation materials" and "Organic insulation materials have a stabilizing effect on the indoor humidity".The paper presents some numerical analyses of the hygrothermal behavior of wall constructions and the occupied spaces they surround when an organic insulation material...... is used. The following two main problems are analyzed:· The risk of interstitial condensation in typical building constructions with different vapor retarders when either conventional or organic insulation materials are used.· The influence on diurnal and seasonal indoor humidity variations when using...

  20. Charge carrier mobility in organic molecular materials probed by electromagnetic waves. (United States)

    Seki, Shu; Saeki, Akinori; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Sakamaki, Daisuke


    Charge carrier mobility is an essential parameter providing control over the performance of semiconductor devices fabricated using a variety of organic molecular materials. Recent design strategies toward molecular materials have been directed at the substitution of amorphous silicon-based semiconductors; accordingly, numerous measurement techniques have been designed and developed to probe the electronic conducting nature of organic materials bearing extremely wide structural variations in comparison with inorganic and/or metal-oxide semiconductor materials. The present perspective highlights the evaluation methodologies of charge carrier mobility in organic materials, as well as the merits and demerits of techniques examining the feasibility of organic molecules, crystals, and supramolecular assemblies in semiconductor applications. Beyond the simple substitution of amorphous silicon, we have attempted to address in this perspective the systematic use of measurement techniques for future development of organic molecular semiconductors.

  1. Azomethine-based Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, T.J.; Petrus, M.L.

    Solution processable organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are attracting much attention because of their anticipated advantages such as low cost, flexibility, lightweight, and the potential to be produced on a large scale. The photoactive layer of OPVs consists of a blend of an electron donating and an

  2. Local states in organic materials: Charge transport and localization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sworakowski, J.; Janus, K.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Vala, M.


    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2006), s. 1001-1015 ISSN 1070-9878 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic compounds * polymer * plastics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.771, year: 2006

  3. Consensus stability testing protocols for organic photovoltaic materials and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reese, Matthew O.; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel


    Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS). The proced...

  4. Electroactive materials for organic electronics: preparation strategies, structural aspects and characterization techniques. (United States)

    Pron, Adam; Gawrys, Pawel; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Djurado, David; Demadrille, Renaud


    This critical review discusses specific chemical and physicochemical requirements which must be met for organic compounds to be considered as promising materials for applications in organic electronics. Although emphasis is put on molecules and macromolecules suitable for fabrication of field effect transistors (FETs), a large fraction of the discussed compounds can also be applied in other organic or hybrid (organic-inorganic) electronic devices such as photodiodes, light emitting diodes, photovoltaic cells, etc. It should be of interest to chemists, physicists, material scientists and electrical engineers working in the domain of organic electronics (423 references).

  5. Organic propagation of seed and planting material: an overview of problems and challenges for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.; Jacobsen, E.


    By 1 January 2004, as a result of EU-regulation 2092/91 for organic farming, the organic sector needs to have developed efficient schemes to be able to use adequate quantities of organically produced seed and planting material. Market problems and agronomic problems that are related to obtaining

  6. Decaying organic materials and soil quality in the Inland Northwest: A management opportunity (United States)

    Alan E. Harvey; Martin F. Jurgensen; Michael J. Larsen; Russell T. Graham


    Organic debris, including wood residue, is important to the development and function of. forest soil. Organic matter stores nutrients and moisture plus it provides important habitats for microbes beneficial to tree growth. To protect long-term forest soil productivity, organic horizons and their parent materials should be maintained.

  7. Organic-inorganic hybrid materials: nanoparticle containing organogels with myriad applications. (United States)

    Peveler, William J; Bear, Joseph C; Southern, Paul; Parkin, Ivan P


    The synthesis of hybrid inorganic-organic materials from a single-component organogelator is reported. Varied functional inorganic materials were included and the resultant physico-chemical properties of the gels are presented. These materials are quick, versatile, can be cast into virtually any form, and the nanoparticles are easily reclaimed.

  8. Process data descriptions for the production of synthetic organic materials : input data for the MATTER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.A.J.

    This report describes technologies for the production of synthetic organic materials. It is a result of the MATTER study (MATerials Technologies for CO2 Emission Reduction). The MATTER study focuses on reduction of CO2 emissions caused by the use of energy and materials. This report aims at

  9. Organic Materials as Electrodes for Li-ion Batteries (United States)


    finely ground pomegranate husk was extracted thrice using 60% ethanol in water, followed by acid hydrolysis in 5.0 % H2SO4 for 5 h and...are found to be very promising, with high thermal stability. Use of these materials with magnesium- and zinc -based batteries is expected to be...Results and Discussion a. Ellagic acid - based compounds (this part of the work has already been given in the first year report). Extraction and

  10. Magnetic Nanostructures Patterned by Self-Organized Materials (United States)


    and Monte-Carlo simulations, using commercial codes and our own codes. In thin films , we have been working on the control of magnetic anisotropy in...parent continuous film , which depends on the hole size introduced in the Co thin film . This effect is related to the reversibility of the magnetic...materials and interfaces; domain wall dynamics; and inter-element interactions. There are fundamental questions in these topics that we addressed, such as

  11. Hazardous materials and waste management a guide for the professional hazards manager

    CERN Document Server

    Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P


    The management of hazardous materials and industrial wastes is complex, requiring a high degree of knowledge over very broad technical and legal subject areas. Hazardous wastes and materials are diverse, with compositions and properties that not only vary significantly between industries, but within industries, and indeed within the complexity of single facilities. Proper management not only requires an understanding of the numerous and complex regulations governing hazardous materials and waste streams, but an understanding and knowledge of the treatment, post-treatment, and waste minimizatio

  12. Organization of Professional Mobile Practice for Students--Future Social Educators (United States)

    Iskhakov, Rinad H.; Zavyalova, Janika I.; Antropova, Diana A.; Mongileva, Valeria A.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.


    The relevance of the investigated problem is due to the increasing social tension in society and the state, associated with the active manifestation of anti-social phenomena and the need for prompt resolution of these problems through the involvement of professional mobile social educators. The purpose of the article is to develop a new concept in…

  13. Training in Portuguese Non-Profit Organizations: The Quest towards Professionalization (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Melo, Solange; Ferreira, Ana Paula


    The non-profit sector is increasingly important, both in terms of the services rendered to society and level of employment provided. As part of a move towards the professionalization of the sector, training is seen as a vital tool for capacity building. Although the training practices of non-profits are fairly well documented in countries like…

  14. Professional Training in Organic Food Production: A Cross-Country Experience (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel; Costa, Daniela; Correia, Paula; Costa, Cristina; Correia, Helena; Castro, Moises; Guerra, Luis; Seeds, Catherine; Coll, Collette; Radics, Laszlo; Arslan, Meahmet; Soylu, Soner; Tothova, Monika; Toth, Peter; Basile, Salvatore


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the agricultural activities and past experiences in professional training in the context of mobile learning in different countries (Portugal, Spain, Slovakia, Hungary, UK, Italy and Turkey). Design/methodology/approach: For the survey, a questionnaire was prepared in English and Portuguese and…

  15. Organizing to Use Facebook Advertisements: A Planning Tool for Extension Professionals, Businesses, and Communities (United States)

    Barnes, James


    The purpose of this article is to explain how Extension professionals, businesses, and communities can use Facebook advertisements effectively. The article is a planning tool that introduces Facebook's Advertiser Help Center, explains some applicable key concepts, and suggests best practices to apply before launching a Facebook advertising…

  16. Organization of professional practices against intrafamily violence against children and adolescents in the institutional context. (United States)

    Schek, Gabriele; Silva, Mara Regina Santos da; Lacharité, Carl; Bueno, Maria Emília Nunes


    to analyze based on the practitioners' discourse, the way they organize their practices confronting situations of intra-family violence against children and adolescents. qualitative research carried out with 15 professionals who work in social and health services located in the southernmost of Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, performed at the participants' workplace. We used a theoretical matrix to analyze the data, based on Institutional Ethnography and the technique of discursive textual analysis. the practitioners' practices developed in situations of intra-family violence against children and adolescents are organized on the basis of: power relations that take place in services that respond to violence situations; routines instituted to meet the demands of care in services; and the interplay between the conception of violence as a public health problem and the conception of violence as a social problem. the way these practices are organized is reflected in actions that are not protective against situations of intra-family violence against children and adolescents. analisar, com base no discurso dos profissionais, como ocorre a organização de suas práticas frente às situações de violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes. pesquisa qualitativa, realizada com 15 profissionais que atuam em serviços sociais e de saúde localizados no extremo sul do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, realizadas no próprio local de trabalho dos participantes. Para a análise dos dados foi construída uma matriz teórica com base na Etnografia Institucional e utilizada a técnica de análise textual discursiva. as práticas profissionais desenvolvidas nas situações de violência intrafamiliar contra crianças e adolescentes se organizam a partir de: relações de poder que se desenrolam nos serviços que atendem às situações de violência; rotinas instituídas para suprir as demandas de

  17. Exploring Novel Spintronic Responses from Advanced Functional Organic Materials (United States)


    Figure. 2.S4b). It must also be noted that the ESR measurements could detect AA from 2 μM to 12 μM where the concentration is below the LOD of...depending on the sample preparation and measuring condition.[8, 9] For a deeper understanding of OMAR and developing new organic devices, controlling...previous paper [16]. Scheme 1.1. Synthetic route of Hex-4-TFPTA Device fabrication & measurement : SiO2/Si (300 nm-thick SiO2 with gold source-drain

  18. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids: novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials. (United States)

    Rickert, Paul G; Antonio, Mark R; Firestone, Millicent A; Kubatko, Karrie-Ann; Szreder, Tomasz; Wishart, James F; Dietz, Mark L


    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature "liquid POM" comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  19. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids : novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, P. G.; Antonio, M. P.; Firestone, M. A.; Kubatko, K.-A.; Szreder, T.; Wishart, J. F.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Univ. of Notre Dame; BNL


    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature 'liquid POM' comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  20. Hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on hydroxyapatite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Sana Ben; Bachouâ, Hassen [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Gruselle, Michel, E-mail: [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Beaunier, Patricia [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7197, Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface, F-75005 Paris (France); Flambard, Alexandrine [Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8232, Institut Parisien de Chimie Moléculaire, F-75005 Paris (France); Badraoui, Béchir [U.R. Matériaux et synthèse organique UR17ES31, Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d’Ingénieur de Monastir, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)


    The present article details the formation of calcium hydroxyapatite synthesized by the hydrothermal way, in presence of glycine or sarcosine. The presence of these amino-acids during the synthetic processes reduces the crystalline growthing through the formation of hybrid organic-inorganic species The crystallite sizes are decreasing and the morphology is modified with the increase of the amino-acid concentration. - Graphical abstract: Formation of Ca carboxylate salt leading to the grafting of glycine and sarcosine on the Ca=Hap surface (R= H, CH3).

  1. Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material (United States)

    Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

    Sucrose (α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.

  2. Crystal morphology variation in inkjet-printed organic materials (United States)

    Ihnen, Andrew C.; Petrock, Anne M.; Chou, Tsengming; Samuels, Phillip J.; Fuchs, Brian E.; Lee, Woo Y.


    The recent commercialization of piezoelectric-based drop-on-demand inkjet printers provides an additive processing platform for producing and micropatterning organic crystal structures. We report an inkjet printing approach where macro- and nano-scale energetic composites composed of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) crystals dispersed in a cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) matrix are produced by direct phase transformation from organic solvent-based all-liquid inks. The characterization of printed composites illustrates distinct morphological changes dependent on ink deposition parameters. When 10 pL ink droplets rapidly formed a liquid pool, a coffee ring structure containing dendritic RDX crystals was produced. By increasing the substrate temperature, and consequently the evaporation rate of the pooled ink, the coffee ring structure was mitigated and shorter dendrites from up to ∼1 to 0.2 mm with closer arm spacing from ∼15 to 1 μm were produced. When the nucleation and growth of RDX and CAB were confined within the evaporating droplets, a granular structure containing nanoscale RDX crystals was produced. The results suggest that evaporation rate and microfluidic droplet confinement can effectively be used to tailor the morphology of inkjet-printed energetic composites.

  3. Molecular engineering of organic electroactive materials for redox flow batteries. (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Zhang, Changkun; Zhang, Leyuan; Zhou, Yangen; Yu, Guihua


    With high scalability and independent control over energy and power, redox flow batteries (RFBs) stand out as an important large-scale energy storage system. However, the widespread application of conventional RFBs is limited by the uncompetitive performance, as well as the high cost and environmental concerns associated with the use of metal-based redox species. In consideration of advantageous features such as potentially low cost, vast molecular diversity, and highly tailorable properties, organic and organometallic molecules emerge as promising alternative electroactive species for building sustainable RFBs. This review presents a systematic molecular engineering scheme for designing these novel redox species. We provide detailed synthetic strategies for modifying the organic and organometallic redox species in terms of solubility, redox potential, and molecular size. Recent advances are then introduced covering the reaction mechanisms, specific functionalization methods, and electrochemical performances of redox species classified by their molecular structures. Finally, we conclude with an analysis of the current challenges and perspectives on future directions in this emerging research field.

  4. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector (United States)

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.


    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  5. Linkages between organization climate and work outcomes: perceptual differences among health service professionals as a function of customer contact intensity. (United States)

    Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel


    The delivery of high-quality service, rendered by health service professionals who interact with customers (patients), increases the likelihood that customers will form positive evaluations of the quality of their service encounters as well as high levels of customer satisfaction. Using linkage theory to develop our conceptual framework, we identify four clusters of variables which contribute to a chain of sequential events that connect organization climate to personal and operational work outcomes. We then examine the perceptual differences of service professionals, grouped by intensity of customer contact, with respect to these variables. National data for this project were obtained from multiple sources made available by the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA). Cross-group differences were tested using a series of variance analyses. The results indicate that level of customer-contact intensity plays a significant role in explaining variation in perceptions of support staff, clinical practitioners, and nurses at the multivariate and univariate levels of analysis. Contact intensity appears to be a core determinant of the nature of work performed by health service professionals as well as their psychological responses to organizational and customer-related dynamics. Health service professionals are important resources because of their specialized knowledge, labor expense, and scarcity. Based on findings from our research, managers are advised to survey employees' perceptions of their organizational environment and design practices that respond to the unique viewpoints of each of the professional groups identified in this study. Such tailoring should help executives maximize the value of investments in human resources by underwriting patient satisfaction and financial sustainability.

  6. Medical Professionalism: the Effects of Sociodemographic Diversity and Curricular Organization on the Attitudinal Performance of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the educational environment and the development of professional attitudes enhance the quality of health care delivery. Despite the importance of diversity for equity and accessibility to health care, its repercussions for students’ attitudinal learning have not been adequately evaluated. Purpose: Evaluate the influence of academic sociodemographic diversity and curricular organization in the development of professional attitudes in different phases of the undergraduate medical curriculum. Method: In 2012, the attitudinal performance of 310 socioeconomically diverse medical students was evaluated by the administration of a five-point professional attitudes scale. The participants were at different points in their education at a Brazilian public school of medicine in Brasília, Federal District. The scale comprised 6 factors: communication, ethics, professional excellence, self-assessment, beliefs, social determinants; and a general factor called medical professionalism and was validated for the purpose of this research. The reliability coefficients (aCronbach ranged from 0.65 to 0.87, according to different scale dimensions. Student diversity was analyzed according to differences in gender, age, religious affiliation, system of student selection and socioeconomic background. Results: The authors observed a decline in the mean attitude scores during the clinical phase compared to the preclinical phase of the curriculum. Female students displayed more positive attitudes than male students, and the students who declared a religious affiliation recorded higher attitude scores compared to those who declared themselves atheist, agnostic or non-religious. There was no correlation between family income or the system of student selection and the students’ attitude scores. The students who had attended public schools expressed a greater interest in working in the public health system

  7. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fudouzi


    Full Text Available In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  8. Soft templating strategies for the synthesis of mesoporous materials: inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids. (United States)

    Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim


    With the discovery of MCM-41 by Mobil researchers in 1992 the journey of the research on mesoporous materials started and in the 21st century this area of scientific investigation have extended into numerous branches, many of which contribute significantly in emerging areas like catalysis, energy, environment and biomedical research. As a consequence thousands of publications came out in large varieties of national and international journals. In this review, we have tried to summarize the published works on various synthetic pathways and formation mechanisms of different mesoporous materials viz. inorganic, organic-inorganic hybrid and purely organic solids via soft templating pathways. Generation of nanoscale porosity in a solid material usually requires participation of organic template (more specifically surfactants and their supramolecular assemblies) called structure-directing agent (SDA) in the bottom-up chemical reaction process. Different techniques employed for the syntheses of inorganic mesoporous solids, like silicas, metal doped silicas, transition and non-transition metal oxides, mixed oxides, metallophosphates, organic-inorganic hybrids as well as purely organic mesoporous materials like carbons, polymers etc. using surfactants are depicted schematically and elaborately in this paper. Moreover, some of the frontline applications of these mesoporous solids, which are directly related to their functionality, composition and surface properties are discussed at the appropriate places. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar power wires based on organic photovoltaic materials. (United States)

    Lee, Michael R; Eckert, Robert D; Forberich, Karen; Dennler, Gilles; Brabec, Christoph J; Gaudiana, Russell A


    Organic photovoltaics in a flexible wire format has potential advantages that are described in this paper. A wire format requires long-distance transport of current that can be achieved only with conventional metals, thus eliminating the use of transparent oxide semiconductors. A phase-separated, photovoltaic layer, comprising a conducting polymer and a fullerene derivative, is coated onto a thin metal wire. A second wire, coated with a silver film, serving as the counter electrode, is wrapped around the first wire. Both wires are encased in a transparent polymer cladding. Incident light is focused by the cladding onto to the photovoltaic layer even when it is completely shadowed by the counter electrode. Efficiency values of the wires range from 2.79% to 3.27%.

  10. Grown organic matter as a fuel raw material resource (United States)

    Roller, W. L.; Keener, H. M.; Kline, R. D.; Mederski, H. J.; Curry, R. B.


    An extensive search was made on biomass production from the standpoint of climatic zones, water, nutrients, costs and energy requirements for many species. No exotic species were uncovered that gave hope for a bonanza of biomass production under culture, location, and management markedly different from those of existing agricultural concepts. A simulation analysis of biomass production was carried out for six species using conventional production methods, including their production costs and energy requirements. These estimates were compared with data on food, fiber, and feed production. The alternative possibility of using residues from food, feed, or lumber was evaluated. It was concluded that great doubt must be cast on the feasibility of producing grown organic matter for fuel, in competition with food, feed, or fiber. The feasibility of collecting residues may be nearer, but the competition for the residues for return to the soil or cellulosic production is formidable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimov V.K.


    Full Text Available The volt - amperes characteristic of various water solutions of ethyl alcohol and multicomponent organic substances of juices and wines were investigated. Three characteristic zones are revealed. A zone of low voltage (0-3.5V and small currents fading in time. The zone of linear dependence of a current on the application voltage (4-14V and a zone of nonlinear dependence of electrical conductivity at voltage more then 15 V for the given design of a measuring cell. The linear parts of characteristics can be used to develop the techniques for express train analysis of the volumetric contents of ethyl alcohol in a solution at low expenses of energy. It is established that the short-term influence of an electric field does not result in seen changes of initial parameters of a product.

  12. Structure of Solvent-Free Nanoparticle−Organic Hybrid Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Hsiu-Yu


    We derive the radial distribution function and the static structure factor for the particles in model nanoparticleorganic hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and attached oligomeric chains in the absence of an intervening solvent. The assumption that the oligomers form an incompressible fluid of bead-chains attached to the particles that is at equilibrium for a given particle configuration allows us to apply a density functional theory for determining the equilibrium configuration of oligomers as well as the distribution function of the particles. A quasi-analytic solution is facilitated by a regular perturbation analysis valid when the oligomer radius of gyration R g is much greater than the particle radius a. The results show that the constraint that each particle carries its own share of the fluid attached to itself yields a static structure factor that approaches zero as the wavenumber approaches zero. This result indicates that each particle excludes exactly one other particle from its neighborhood. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry (United States)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.


    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  14. Influences on the implementation of TQM in health care organizations: professional bureaucracies, ownership and complexity. (United States)

    Badrick, T; Preston, A


    TQM is introduced into many organisations in an attempt to improve productivity and quality. There are a number of organisational variables that have been recognised as influencing the success of TQM implementation including leadership, teamwork, and suppliers. This paper presents findings of a study of the implementation of TQM in Australian health care organisations. Structural factors were observed to affect the progress of TQM. Professional bureaucracies were less successful than machine bureaucracies. Private organisations were more successful than their public counterparts.

  15. A Review of Patterned Organic Bioelectronic Materials and their Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Park, SooHyun; Kang, You Jung; Majd, Sheereen


    Organic electronic materials are rapidly emerging as superior replacements for a number of conventional electronic materials, such as metals and semiconductors. Conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes, graphenes, organic light-emitting diodes, and diamond films fabricated via chemical vapor deposition are the most popular organic bioelectronic materials that are currently under active research and development. Besides the capability to translate biological signals to electrical signals or vice versa, organic bioelectronic materials entail greater biocompatibility and biodegradability compared to conventional electronic materials, which makes them more suitable for biomedical applications. When patterned, these materials bring about numerous capabilities to perform various tasks in a more-sophisticated and high-throughput manner. Here, we provide an overview of the unique properties of organic bioelectronic materials, different strategies applied to pattern these materials, and finally their applications in the field of biomedical engineering, particularly biosensing, cell and tissue engineering, actuators, and drug delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The peculiarities of the organization of the self-educated work in the system of the professional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Борисівна Броннікова


    Full Text Available In the article it was discovered the role of the self-educated work as the important component of the training of the highly skilled expert, personality which is able to self-development, self-education, innovatory activity. It was determined the peculiarities of the organization of the students’ self-educated work in the system of the professional training, their consideration will promote the increasing of the effective education, will develop the activity and self-sufficiency as the features of the character

  17. Scientific integrity resource guide: Efforts by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia in the United States. (United States)

    Kretser, Alison; Murphy, Delia; Dwyer, Johanna


    Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016. It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed. Overall, there is tremendous activity in this area and there are clear linkages among the efforts of the five sectors. All the same, scientific integrity needs to remain visible in the scientific community and evolve along with new research paradigms. High priority in instilling these values falls upon all stakeholders.

  18. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  19. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, East US (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  20. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  1. Progress in high-efficient solution process organic photovoltaic devices fundamentals, materials, devices and fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Gang


    This book presents an important technique to process organic photovoltaic devices. The basics, materials aspects and manufacturing of photovoltaic devices with solution processing are explained. Solution processable organic solar cells - polymer or solution processable small molecules - have the potential to significantly reduce the costs for solar electricity and energy payback time due to the low material costs for the cells, low cost and fast fabrication processes (ambient, roll-to-roll), high material utilization etc. In addition, organic photovoltaics (OPV) also provides attractive properties like flexibility, colorful displays and transparency which could open new market opportunities. The material and device innovations lead to improved efficiency by 8% for organic photovoltaic solar cells, compared to 4% in 2005. Both academic and industry research have significant interest in the development of this technology. This book gives an overview of the booming technology, focusing on the solution process fo...

  2. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia. (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z


    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  3. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest canopy...

  4. LBA-ECO CD-02 Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen Stable Isotopes in Organic Material, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the measurement of stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in organic material (plant, litter and soil samples) in forest...

  5. Metal-organic materials (MOMs) for adsorption of polarizable gases and methods of using MOMs (United States)

    Zaworotko, Michael; Mohamed, Mona H.; Elsaidi, Sameh


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for multi-component metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems including the MOM, systems for separating components in a gas, methods of separating polarizable gases from a gas mixture, and the like.

  6. Metal-organic Materials (moms) For Co2 Adsorption And Methods Of Using Moms

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems that exhibit permanent porosity and using hydrophobic MOMs to separate components in a gas, methods of separating CO.sub.2 from a gas, and the like.

  7. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Material, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, West US (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS data is used to develop an index of the amount of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the surface waters. CDOM absorbs heavily in the blue...

  8. Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories annual report, fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.R.


    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1993. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included.

  9. Data Mining for Three-Dimensional Organic Dirac Materials: Focus on Space Group 19. (United States)

    Geilhufe, R Matthias; Borysov, Stanislav S; Bouhon, Adrien; Balatsky, Alexander V


    We combined the group theory and data mining approach within the Organic Materials Database that leads to the prediction of stable Dirac-point nodes within the electronic band structure of three-dimensional organic crystals. We find a particular space group P212121 (#19) that is conducive to the Dirac nodes formation. We prove that nodes are a consequence of the orthorhombic crystal structure. Within the electronic band structure, two different kinds of nodes can be distinguished: 8-fold degenerate Dirac nodes protected by the crystalline symmetry and 4-fold degenerate Dirac nodes protected by band topology. Mining the Organic Materials Database, we present band structure calculations and symmetry analysis for 6 previously synthesized organic materials. In all these materials, the Dirac nodes are well separated within the energy and located near the Fermi surface, which opens up a possibility for their direct experimental observation.

  10. Cell-Based Fabrication of Organic/Inorganic Composite Gel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Nakano


    Full Text Available Biomaterials containing components similar to the native biological tissue would have benefits as an implantable scaffold material. To obtain such biomimetic materials, cells may be great contributors because of their crucial roles in synthetic organics. In addition, the synthesized organics—especially those derived from osteogenic differentiated cells—become a place where mineral crystals nucleate and grow even in vitro. Therefore to fabricate an organic/inorganic composite material, which is similar to the biological osteoid tissue, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs were cultured in a 3D fibrin gel in this study. BMSCs secreted bone-related proteins that enhanced the biomineralization within the gel when the cells were cultured with an osteogenic differentiation medium. The compositions of both synthesized matrices and precipitated minerals in the obtained materials altered depending on the cell culture period. The mineral obtained in the 3D gel showed low crystalline hydroxyapatite. The composite materials also showed excellent osteoconductivity with new bone formation when implanted in mice tibiae. Thus, we demonstrated the contributions of cells for fabricating implantable organic/inorganic composite gel materials and a method for controlling the material composition in the gel. This cell-based material fabrication method would be a novel method to fabricate organic/inorganic composite biomimetic materials for bone tissue engineering.

  11. The Role of the State School Psychology Organizations in the Promotion of Professional Ethics. (United States)

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.; Wenger, Ralph D.


    A survey was conducted to examine the role of state school psychology organizations in advocating for and monitoring the ethical practice of their members. Results revealed that 76 percent of the responding organizations had adopted a code of ethics, while only 43 percent had instituted due process procedures. (Author)

  12. Dendronized Metal Nanoparticles-Self-Organizing Building Blocks for the Design of New Functional Materials (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0010 Dendronized metal nanoparticles - self-organizing building blocks for the design of new functional materials Bertrand...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendronized metal nanoparticles - self-organizing building blocks for the design of new functional materials 5a. CONTRACT...restrictions or special markings are indicated, follow agency authorization procedures, e.g. RD/FRD, PROPIN, ITAR, etc. Include copyright

  13. Methods for associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework, systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks, thermal energy transfer assemblies, and methods for transferring thermal energy (United States)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Brown, Daryl R.; Thallapally, Praveen K.


    Methods for releasing associated guest materials from a metal organic framework are provided. Methods for associating guest materials with a metal organic framework are also provided. Methods are provided for selectively associating or dissociating guest materials with a metal organic framework. Systems for associating or dissociating guest materials within a series of metal organic frameworks are provided. Thermal energy transfer assemblies are provided. Methods for transferring thermal energy are also provided.

  14. Gas cluster ion beam for the characterization of organic materials in submarine basalts as Mars analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Naoko, E-mail:; Barlow, Anders J.; Cumpson, Peter J. [National EPSRC XPS Users' Service (NEXUS), School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Stephenson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Purvis, Graham W. H.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Gray, Neil N. D. [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Devonshire Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)


    The solar system contains large quantities of organic compounds that can form complex molecular structures. The processing of organic compounds by biological systems leads to molecules with distinctive structural characteristics; thus, the detection and characterization of organic materials could lead to a high degree of confidence in the existence of extra-terrestrial life. Given the nature of the surface of most planetary bodies in the solar system, evidence of life is more likely to be found in the subsurface where conditions are more hospitable. Basalt is a common rock throughout the solar system and the primary rock type on Mars and Earth. Basalt is therefore a rock type that subsurface life might exploit and as such a suitable material for the study of methods required to detect and analyze organic material in rock. Telluric basalts from Earth represent an analog for extra-terrestrial rocks where the indigenous organic matter could be analyzed for molecular biosignatures. This study focuses on organic matter in the basalt with the use of surface analysis techniques utilizing Ar gas cluster ion beams (GCIB); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), to characterize organic molecules. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis was also used to support the data obtained using the surface analysis techniques. The authors demonstrate that organic molecules were found to be heterogeneously distributed within rock textures. A positive correlation was observed to exist between the presence of microtubule textures in the basalt and the organic compounds detected. From the results herein, the authors propose that ToF-SIMS with an Ar GCIB is effective at detecting organic materials in such geological samples, and ToF-SIMS combined with XPS and TMAH thermochemolysis may be a useful approach in the study of extra-terrestrial organic material and life.

  15. Improvement of the quality of propagation material for organic farming system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Jalink, H.; Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M.; Köhl, J.; Veerman, A.; Wenneker, M.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Bulk, van den R.W.


    The use of organic propagation material is obligatory according to the current EU regulations for organic production. However, frequently difficulties are en-countered regarding the availability, the costs or the quality. In the Netherlands a national research program aims at developing solutions,

  16. Organic Materials in the Undergraduate Laboratory: Microscale Synthesis and Investigation of a Donor-Acceptor Molecule (United States)

    Pappenfus, Ted M.; Schliep, Karl B.; Dissanayake, Anudaththa; Ludden, Trevor; Nieto-Ortega, Belen; Lopez Navarrete, Juan T.; Ruiz Delgado, M. Carmen; Casado, Juan


    A series of experiments for undergraduate courses (e.g., organic, physical) have been developed in the area of small molecule organic materials. These experiments focus on understanding the electronic and redox properties of a donor-acceptor molecule that is prepared in a convenient one-step microscale reaction. The resulting intensely colored…

  17. Computational design of inorganic-organic hybrid materials energy storage and conversion (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie

    Hybrid inorganic-organic materials are of interest for the design of new functional materials that combine the advantages of both organic and inorganic components to optimize properties and/or obtain new physical phenomena. In this talk, I will discuss our recent work using first-principles density functional theory to design nanostructured hybrid materials for energy storage and conversion applications. In particular, I will discuss the electronic, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a class of nanostructured hybrid materials based on layered transition metal phosphates, showing that these materials offer a highly tunable platform for the design of efficient, flexible photovoltaics and thermoelectrics. In addition to optimizing individual properties, I will also discuss exciting possibilities for using this platform for the design of materials with strong coupling between functionalities.

  18. Organ and tissue donation in clinical settings: a systematic review of the impact of interventions aimed at health professionals (United States)


    In countries where presumed consent for organ donation does not apply, health professionals (HP) are key players for identifying donors and obtaining their consent. This systematic review was designed to verify the efficacy of interventions aimed at HPs to promote organ and tissue donation in clinical settings. CINAHL (1982 to 2012), COCHRANE LIBRARY, EMBASE (1974 to 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012), PsycINFO (1960 to 2012), and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were searched for papers published in French or English until September 2012. Studies were considered if they met the following criteria: aimed at improving HPs’ practices regarding the donation process or at increasing donation rates; HPs working in clinical settings; and interventions with a control group or pre-post assessments. Intervention behavioral change techniques were analyzed using a validated taxonomy. A risk ratio was computed for each study having a control group. A total of 15 studies were identified, of which only 5 had a control group. Interventions were either educational, organizational or a combination of both, and had a weak theoretical basis. The most common behavior change technique was providing instruction. Two sets of interventions showed a significant risk ratio. However, most studies did not report the information needed to compute their efficacy. Therefore, interventions aimed at improving the donation process or at increasing donation rates should be based on sound theoretical frameworks. They would benefit from more rigorous evaluation methods to ensure good knowledge translation and appropriate organizational decisions to improve professional practices. PMID:24628967

  19. Transplantation and Organ Donation in the Awareness of the Non-professional Public


    Sládková, Andrea


    This bachelor thesis offers a complete overview of the tissue of organ donation and transplantation. The theoretical part contains information on the history of transplantation of vital organs. It describes the opportunities and risks of modern transplantology - the multicultural and ethical aspect. It covers activities of transplant centre and current legislation with emphasis on the criteria determination of brain death. Finally, it outlines the care of the potential donor and his/her loved...

  20. Search for new paradigms in organic materials for photonics and electronics (United States)

    You, Wei

    This dissertation describes detailed synthesis and physical studies of novel organic materials for photorefractive application and molecular electronics. Two organic photorefractive material systems were developed, namely, polymeric materials and monolithic organic materials. For polymeric photorefractive materials, it was found that careful design of energy levels between photosensitizers and transporting moieties leads to optimized PR effect. When an electron-rich photosensitizer is used, the electron deficient charge transporting component enhances photorefractive performance and reduces the response time. By incorporating the efficient non-linear optical chromophore into the fully functionalized polymers, high net optical gain and diffraction efficiency were obtained. A small library of monolithic photorefractive materials with 2-dicyanomethylene-3-cyano-2,5-dihydrofuran as the eletron-withdrawing moieties was prepared and the detailed structure-property correlation was investigated. The PR performance was significantly enhanced by fine-tuning structures of these materials It was found that the photorefractive properties were affected by doping a small amount of electron trapping moiety into two monolithic materials. The trapping molecule plays different roles in the two closely related photorefractive materials. Results from different measurements on photorefractive properties, charge mobility and charge transport activation energy confirmed that the trapping molelcule acts as an effective electron-trapping center in one of the materials but traps both electron and hole in the other material. These results shed light into the PR mechanisms and indicate that the PR performance of organic photorefractive materials can be further improved by the deliberate addition of suitable charge trapping center. A series of switch molecules was synthesized based on the novel design rationale to achieve switching behavior at molecular level. The monolayers were prepared from

  1. Synthesis of novel inorganic-organic hybrid materials for simultaneous adsorption of metal ions and organic molecules in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xinliang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Yanfeng, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, Cui; Ma, Yingxia; Yang, Liuqing; Hu, Huaiyuan [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel hybrid materials were synthesized and employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method for amphiphilic adsorbent material synthesis was first reported in this paper. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbent material showed excellent adsorption capacity to Pb(II) and phenol. - Abstract: In this paper, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and radical grafting polymerization were combined to synthesize a novel amphiphilic hybrid material, meanwhile, the amphiphilic hybrid material was employed in the absorption of heavy metal and organic pollutants. After the formation of attapulgite (ATP) ATRP initiator, ATRP block copolymers of styrene (St) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were grafted from it as ATP-P(S-b-DVB). Then radical polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) was carried out with pendent double bonds in the DVD units successfully, finally we got the inorganic-organic hybrid materials ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AN). A novel amphiphilic hybrid material ATP-P(S-b-DVB-g-AO) (ASDO) was obtained after transforming acrylonitrile (AN) units into acrylamide oxime (AO) as hydrophilic segment. The adsorption capacity of ASDO for Pb(II) could achieve 131.6 mg/g, and the maximum removal capacity of ASDO towards phenol was found to be 18.18 mg/g in the case of monolayer adsorption at 30 Degree-Sign C. The optimum pH was 5 for both lead and phenol adsorption. The adsorption kinetic suited pseudo-second-order equation and the equilibrium fitted the Freundlich model very well under optimal conditions. At the same time FT-IR, TEM and TGA were also used to study its structure and property.

  2. Tidal day organic and inorganic material flux of ponds in the Liberty Island freshwater tidal wetland. (United States)

    Lehman, Peggy W; Mayr, Shawn; Liu, Leji; Tang, Alison


    The loss of inorganic and organic material export and habitat produced by freshwater tidal wetlands is hypothesized to be an important contributing factor to the long-term decline in fishery production in San Francisco Estuary. However, due to the absence of freshwater tidal wetlands in the estuary, there is little information on the export of inorganic and organic carbon, nutrient or phytoplankton community biomass and the associated mechanisms. A single-day study was conducted to assess the potential contribution of two small vegetated ponds and one large open-water pond to the inorganic and organic material flux within the freshwater tidal wetland Liberty Island in San Francisco Estuary. The study consisted of an intensive tidal day (25.5 h) sampling program that measured the flux of inorganic and organic material at three ponds using continuous monitoring of flow, chlorophyll a, turbidity and salt combined with discrete measurements of phytoplankton community carbon, total and dissolved organic carbon and nutrient concentration at 1.5 h intervals. Vegetated ponds had greater material concentrations than the open water pond and, despite their small area, contributed up to 81% of the organic and 61% of the inorganic material flux of the wetland. Exchange between ponds was important to wetland flux. The small vegetated pond in the interior of the wetland contributed as much as 72-87% of the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a and 10% of the diatom flux of the wetland. Export of inorganic and organic material from the small vegetated ponds was facilitated by small-scale topography and tidal asymmetry that produced a 40% greater material export on ebb tide. The small vegetated ponds contrasted with the large open water pond, which imported 29-96% of the inorganic and 4-81% of the organic material into the wetland from the adjacent river. This study identified small vegetated ponds as an important source of inorganic and organic material to the wetland and the

  3. Type IV kerogens as analogues for organic macromolecular materials in aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites. (United States)

    Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A


    Understanding the processes involved in the evolution of organic matter in the early Solar System requires extensive experimental work. The scientifically valuable carbonaceous chondrites are principal targets for organic analyses, but these meteorites are rare. Meteoritic analog materials available in larger quantities, on which experiments can be performed, would be highly beneficial. The bulk of the organic inventory of carbonaceous chondrites is made up of solvent-insoluble macromolecular material. This high-molecular-weight entity provides a record of thermal and aqueous parent-body alteration of precursor organic structures present at the birth of the Solar System. To identify an effective analogue for this macromolecular material, we analyzed a series of terrestrial kerogens by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Type I and II kerogens are unsuitable analogues owing to their highly aliphatic nature. Type III kerogens show some similarities to meteoritic macromolecular materials but display a substantial biological heritage. Type IV kerogens, in this study derived from Mesozoic paleosols and produced by the reworking and oxidation of organic matter, represent an effective analogue. Some isomeric differences exist between meteoritic macromolecular materials and type IV kerogens, and stepped pyrolysis indicates variations in thermal stability. In addition to being a suitable material for novel experimentation, type IV kerogens also have the potential to aid in the optimization of instruments for deployment on Mars.

  4. [A major game in the re-organization of the Professional Nursing School]. (United States)

    de Amorin, Wellington Mendonça; Barreira, Ieda de Alencar


    This is a historical-social description study supported on the thought of Pierre Bourdieu based on documental analysis. It describes the sanitarists and psychiatrists' actions from the reformulation of Education and Public Health Ministry into Education and Health Ministry in the beginning of New State and analyse the fight's strategies of the main agents to take advantage on their proposals of Professional Nursing School's reorganization. The fight's strategies that psychiatrists, sanitarists and certificated nurses had used to stake their projects, characterized a difficult battle inserted in a hard major game. The analyse of the ten course's months of the main document shows the conflict between those agents to impose a new rule to the school.

  5. [Fatigue-related risk: what are the consequences for professionals and health-care organizations?]. (United States)

    Ventrucci, C; Zangheri, L; Fersini, F; Gnucci, V; Ingravallo, F


    Many studies have investigated the influence of fatigue on healthcare professionals' safety and clinical performances, showing associations between prolonged work shifts, sleep deprivation and both injuries and errors. Even in the absence of conclusive evidence, after the death of a girl under the care of two fatigued residents, New York State promulgated in 1989 rules to cap residents' duty hours, afterwards adopted by the Accrediting Council for Graduate Medical Education. Italian data on fatigue-related medical errors are still lacking, and no legal cases have raised public awareness of this topic. The authors explored medical-legal issues potentially arising from cases of fatigue-related errors, and proposed two interventions from a risk management perspective: 1. review of events reported through the incident reporting system in which at least one contributing factor was fatigue-related, and 2: root cause analysis of events and accidents reported during night shifts.

  6. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and parameter optimization of recycling organic materials from waste tantalum capacitors. (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyang; Niu, Bo; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming


    Recycling rare metal tantalum from waste tantalum capacitors (WTCs) is significant to alleviate the shortage of tantalum resource. However, environmental problems will be caused if the organic materials from WTCs are improperly disposed. This study presented a promising vacuum pyrolysis technology to recycle the organic materials from WTCs. The organics removal rate could reach 94.32wt% according to TG results. The optimal parameters were determined as 425°C, 50Pa and 30min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM). The oil yield and residual rate was 18.09wt% and 74.94wt%, respectively. All pyrolysis products can be recycled through a reasonable route. Besides, to deeply understand the pyrolysis process, the pyrolysis mechanism was also proposed based on the product and free radical theory. This paper provides an efficient process for recycling the organic material from WTCs, which can facilitate the following tantalum recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Organics on Mars : Laboratory studies of organic material under simulated martian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate, Inge Loes ten


    The search for organic molecules and traces of life on Mars has been a major topic in planetary science for several decades, and is the future perspective of several missions to Mars. In order to determine where and what those missions should be looking for, laboratory experiments under simulated

  8. AIEgens-Functionalized Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials: Fabrications and Applications. (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Yu, Jihong


    Inorganic materials functionalized with organic fluorescent molecules combine advantages of them both, showing potential applications in biomedicine, chemosensors, light-emitting, and so on. However, when more traditional organic dyes are doped into the inorganic materials, the emission of resulting hybrid materials may be quenched, which is not conducive to the efficiency and sensitivity of detection. In contrast to the aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) system, the aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) with high solid quantum efficiency, offer new potential for developing highly efficient inorganic-organic hybrid luminescent materials. So far, many AIEgens have been incorporated into inorganic materials through either physical doping caused by aggregation induced emission (AIE) or chemical bonding (e.g., covalent bonding, ionic bonding, and coordination bonding) caused by bonding induced emission (BIE) strategy. The hybrid materials exhibit excellent photoactive properties due to the intramolecular motion of AIEgens is restricted by inorganic matrix. Recent advances in the fabrication of AIEgens-functionalized inorganic-organic hybrid materials and their applications in biomedicine, chemical sensing, and solid-state light emitting are presented. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Humic and fluvic acids and organic colloidal materials in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Clark, S.B. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)


    Humic substances are ubiquitous in the environment, occurring in all soils, waters, and sediments of the ecosphere. Humic substances arise from the decomposition of plant and animal tissues yet are more stable than their precursors. Their size, molecular weight, elemental composition, structure, and the number and position of functional groups vary, depending on the origin and age of the material. Humic and fulvic substances have been studied extensively for more than 200 years; however, much remains unknown regarding their structure and properties. Humic substances are those organic compounds found in the environment that cannot be classified as any other chemical class of compounds. They are traditionally defined according to their solubilities. Fulvic acids are those organic materials that are soluble in water at all pH values. Humic acids are those materials that are insoluble at acidic pH values (pH < 2) but are soluble at higher pH values. Humin is the fraction of natural organic materials that is insoluble in water at all pH values. These definitions reflect the traditional methods for separating the different fractions from the original mixture. The humic content of soils varies from 0 to almost 10%. In surface waters, the humic content, expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), varies from 0.1 to 50 ppm in dark-water swamps. In ocean waters, the DOC varies from 0.5 to 1.2 ppm at the surface, and the DOC in samples from deep groundwaters varies from 0.1 to 10 ppm. In addition, about 10% of the DOC in surface waters is found in suspended matter, either as organic or organically coated inorganic particulates. Humic materials function as surfactants, with the ability to bind both hydrophobic and hydrophyllic materials, making numic and fluvic materials effective agents in transporting both organic and inorganic contaminants in the environment.

  10. Semantic organization of study materials has opposite effects on recognition and recall. (United States)

    Guerin, Scott A; Miller, Michael B


    It has been well established for several decades that semantic organization of study materials greatly enhances recall by facilitating access to information during retrieval. However, the effect of organization on recognition, and its relationship to the effect on recall, is in doubt. We report the first direct comparison of the effects of categorically organizing study lists on recognition, cued recall, and free recall. We found that whereas organization improved recall, it impaired recognition. Organization had a larger effect on free recall than on cued recall. Within the categorized lists, recall was superior for items highly associated with the category; the opposite was true of recognition. In recall, organization improved the proportion of categories recalled, but it lowered the proportion of items per category recalled. A simple framework for interpreting the dissociation is offered. Possible mechanisms underlying the detrimental effect of organization on memory and prospects for future research are briefly discussed.

  11. Attitude of Healthcare Professionals: A Major Limiting Factor in Organ Donation from Brain-Dead Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kosieradzki


    Full Text Available Public attitude toward deceased donor organ recovery in Poland is quite positive, with only 15% opposing to donation of their own organs, yet actual donation rate is only 16/pmp. Moreover, donation rate varies greatly (from 5 to 28 pmp in different regions of the country. To identify the barriers of organ donation, we surveyed 587 physicians involved in brain death diagnosis from regions with low (LDR and high donation rates (HDR. Physicians from LDR were twice more reluctant to start diagnostic procedure when clinical signs of brain death were present (14% versus 5.5% physicians from HDR who would not diagnose death, resp.. Twenty-five percent of LDR physicians (as opposed to 12% of physicians from HDR would either continue with intensive therapy or confirm brain death and limit to the so-called minimal therapy. Only 32% of LDR physicians would proceed with brain death diagnosis regardless of organ donation, compared to 67% in HDR. When donation was not an option, mechanical ventilation would be continued more often in LDR regions (43% versus 26.7%; P<0.01. In conclusion, low donation activity seems to be mostly due to medical staff attitude.

  12. Chinese and Taiwanese International College Students' Participation in Social Organizations: Implications for College Counseling Professionals (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chun; Wong, Y. Joel


    This qualitative focus group study explored the meaning of Chinese and Taiwanese international students' lived experiences in social organizations. Participants were 9 Chinese and Taiwanese international college students in a midwestern U.S. university. The analyses uncovered 7 themes: social support, recreation, emotional support, practical…

  13. Emotional and social competencies and perceptions of the interpersonal environment of an organization as related to the engagement of IT professionals. (United States)

    Pittenger, Linda M


    There is a dearth of research focused on the engagement of information technology (IT) professionals. This study analyzed the relationship between emotional and social competencies and the quality of the IT professional's perceptions of the interpersonal environment in an organization as they relate to employee engagement. Validated instruments were used and data was collected from 795 IT professionals in North America to quantitatively analyze the relationship between emotional and social competencies, role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE), with the quality of the IT professional's perceptions of the interpersonal environment, and those perceptions with employee engagement. The study results indicate that specific emotional and social competencies and RBSE relate differently to the quality of the perceptions of the interpersonal environment. The study also reveals how the quality of the IT professional's perceptions of the interpersonal environment relates to how much they engage in the organization. The findings indicate that the relationship between achievement orientation and the perceived interpersonal environment was positive and the relationship between influencing others and the perceived interpersonal environment was negative. Understanding such relationships offers much needed insight to practitioners and can benefit organizations that wish to increase the engagement of their IT professionals. The findings also can support practitioners to more effectively select and develop talent with the desired motives and traits. By doing so, organizations can experience increased employee satisfaction, engagement, and retention, resulting in higher productivity, quality, and profitability.

  14. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties (United States)

    Deeb, Maha; Grimaldi, Michel; Lerch, Thomas Z.; Pando, Anne; Gigon, Agnès; Blouin, Manuel


    There is no information on how organisms influence hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols and how such influence will be affected by the parent-material composition factor. In a laboratory experiment, parent materials, which were excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC), were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, but not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass, resulting in positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials positively affected the hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  15. Self-Assembled Hybrid Materials Based on Organic Nanocrystals and Carbon Nanotubes. (United States)

    Niazov-Elkan, Angelica; Weissman, Haim; Dutta, Sounak; Cohen, Sidney R; Iron, Mark A; Pinkas, Iddo; Bendikov, Tatyana; Rybtchinski, Boris


    Organic crystalline materials are used as dyes/pigments, pharmaceuticals, and active components of photonic and electronic devices. There is great interest in integrating organic crystals with inorganic and carbon nanomaterials to create nanocomposites with enhanced properties. Such efforts are hampered by the difficulties in interfacing organic crystals with dissimilar materials. Here, an approach that employs organic nanocrystallization is presented to fabricate solution-processed organic nanocrystal/carbon nanotube (ONC/CNT) hybrid materials based on readily available organic dyes (perylene diimides (PDIs)) and carbon nanotubes. The hybrids are prepared by self-assembly in aqueous media to afford free-standing films with tunable CNT content. These exhibit excellent conductivities (as high as 5.78 ± 0.56 S m-1 ), and high thermal stability that are superior to common polymer/CNT hybrids. The color of the hybrids can be tuned by adding various PDI derivatives. ONC/CNT hybrids represent a novel class of nanocomposites, applicable as optoelectronic and conductive colorant materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Organic Radicals Outperform LiF as Efficient Electron-Injection Materials for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes. (United States)

    Bin, Zhengyang; Liu, Ziyang; Duan, Lian


    One of the key issues for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is to achieve high electroluminescence efficiency and high power efficiency, which requires extremely efficient electron injection and thus low driving voltage. Here, we design a series of precursors for reactive organic radicals according to theoretical calculations and achieve efficient electron injection by using a highly reducing radical on the surface of the electron injection layer to reduce the electron injection barrier through an interface charge-transfer process. In contrast to bulk charge transfer in electron-transporting material, interface charge transfer allows us to make efficient electron injection at contact without introducing any structural and electronic disorder to electron-transporting material. 2-(2,4,6-Trimethoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-3-ium (R3), with the strongest electron-donating ability, could largely reduce the electron injection barrier and outperform the previously reported organic radical (2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1H-benzoimidazol-3-ium, o-MeO-DMBI or R1) and the widely used electron injection material (LiF) to boost device performance.

  17. Molecular Packing and Arrangement Govern the Photo-Oxidative Stability of Organic Photovoltaic Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mateker, William R.


    For long-term performance chemically robust materials are desired for organic solar cells (OSCs). Illuminating neat films of OSC materials in air and tracking the rate of absorption loss, or photobleaching, can quickly screen a material’s photo-chemical stability. In this report, we photobleach neat films of OSC materials including polymers, solution-processed oligomers, solution-processed small molecules, and vacuum-deposited small molecules. Across the materials we test, we observe photobleaching rates that span seven orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we find that the film morphology of any particular material impacts the observed photobleaching rate, and that amorphous films photobleach faster than crystalline ones. In an extreme case, films of amorphous rubrene photobleach at a rate 2500 times faster than polycrystalline films. When we compare density to photobleaching rate, we find that stability increases with density. We also investigate the relationship between backbone planarity and chemical reactivity. The polymer PBDTTPD is more photostable than it’s more twisted and less ordered furan derivitative, PBDFTPD. Finally, we relate our work to what is known about the chemical stability of structural polymers, organic pigments, and organic light emitting diode materials. For the highest chemical stability, planar materials that form dense, crystalline film morphologies should be designed for OSCs.

  18. Designing small molecule polyaromatic p- and n-type semiconductor materials for organic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Collis, Gavin E.


    By combining computational aided design with synthetic chemistry, we are able to identify core 2D polyaromatic small molecule templates with the necessary optoelectronic properties for p- and n-type materials. By judicious selection of the functional groups, we can tune the physical properties of the material making them amenable to solution and vacuum deposition. In addition to solubility, we observe that the functional group can influence the thin film molecular packing. By developing structure-property relationships (SPRs) for these families of compounds we observe that some compounds are better suited for use in organic solar cells, while others, varying only slightly in structure, are favoured in organic field effect transistor devices. We also find that the processing conditions can have a dramatic impact on molecular packing (i.e. 1D vs 2D polymorphism) and charge mobility; this has implications for material and device long term stability. We have developed small molecule p- and n-type materials for organic solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 2%. Subtle variations in the functional groups of these materials produces p- and ntype materials with mobilities higher than 0.3 cm2/Vs. We are also interested in using our SPR approach to develop materials for sensor and bioelectronic applications.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert J. Eatough; William K. Modey; Rebecca Sizemore; Michael Simpson


    Both annual 24-h average and seasonal diurnal samples collected at NETL during the research program have been analyzed. The fine particulate components determined include PM{sub 2.5} mass, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, elemental and organic carbonaceous material and trace elements. The analysis of the nitrate and organic material includes both the identification of nonvolatile material retained by the particle collection filter and semi-volatile material lost from the particles during sample collection. The results obtained in these analyses indicate that both the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic material in the fine particles sampled at the NETL site originate from mobile emissions in the local area. However, the majority of the nonvolatile material is associated with primary emissions and the majority of the semi-volatile material is secondary, being formed from photochemical processes in the atmosphere. In contrast, the fine particulate sulfate does not originate from the local area but is transported into the study region, mostly from sources in the Ohio River Valley. These observations have been supported by both detailed meteorological and apportionment analysis of the data.

  20. Short-term organic carbon migration from polymeric materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water. (United States)

    Mao, Guannan; Wang, Yingying; Hammes, Frederik


    Polymeric materials are widely used in drinking water distribution systems. These materials could release organic carbon that supports bacterial growth. To date, the available migration assays for polymeric materials have not included the potential influence of chlorination on organic carbon migration behavior. Hence, we established a migration and growth potential protocol specifically for analysis of carbon migration from materials in contact with chlorinated drinking water. Four different materials were tested, including ethylene propylene dienemethylene (EPDM), poly-ethylene (PEX b and PEX c) and poly-butylene (PB). Chlorine consumption rates decreased gradually over time for EPDM, PEXc and PB. In contrast, no free chlorine was detected for PEXb at any time during the 7 migration cycles. Total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was evaluated in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated migrations. TOC concentrations for EPDM and PEXb in chlorinated migrations were significantly higher than non-chlorinated migrations. The AOC results showed pronounced differences among tested materials. AOC concentrations from chlorinated migration waters of EPDM and PB were higher compared to non-chlorinated migrations, whereas the opposite trend was observed for PEXb and PEXc. There was also a considerable difference between tested materials with regards to bacterial growth potential. The results revealed that the materials exposed to chlorine-influenced migration still exhibited a strong biofilm formation potential. The overall results suggested that the choice in material would make a considerable difference in chlorine consumption and carbon migration behavior in drinking water distribution systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide. (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès


    Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety.

  2. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès


    Introduction Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. Methods The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Results Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. Discussion This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety. PMID:26406893

  3. Scientific integrity resource guide: Efforts by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia in the United States (United States)

    Kretser, Alison; Murphy, Delia; Dwyer, Johanna


    ABSTRACT Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016. It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed. Overall, there is tremendous activity in this area and there are clear linkages among the efforts of the five sectors. All the same, scientific integrity needs to remain visible in the scientific community and evolve along with new research paradigms. High priority in instilling these values falls upon all stakeholders. PMID:27748637

  4. Redox‐Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox‐Active Materials (United States)

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D.


    Abstract Research on redox‐flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of “green”, safe, and cost‐efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal‐based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow‐battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox‐active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. PMID:28070964

  5. Emotional and social competencies and perceptions of the interpersonal environment of an organization as related to the engagement of IT professionals


    Pittenger, Linda M.


    Diminishing levels of worker productivity and increased employee turnover have become a costly proposition for today’s organizations. Much of the blame for this is a decrease in employee engagement and actual complete disengagement of workers, resulting in tremendous impacts to the achievement of organization goals. In particular, research has focused on IT professionals, which have been found to be the least engaged group of workers in organizations. With such conclusions repeatedly discov...

  6. Diffraction Studies from Minerals to Organics - Lessons Learned from Materials Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield, Pamela S [ORNL


    In many regards the study of materials and minerals by powder diffraction techniques are complimentary, with techniques honed in one field equally applicable to the other. As a long-time materials researcher many of the examples are of techniques developed for materials analysis applied to minerals. However in a couple of cases the study of new minerals was the initiation into techniques later used in materials-based studies. Hopefully they will show that the study of new minerals structures can provide opportunities to add new methodologies and approaches to future problems. In keeping with the AXAA many of the examples have an Australian connection, the materials ranging from organics to battery materials.

  7. On the origin of the organic-rich material on Ceres (United States)

    Marchi, Simone; Bowling, Timothy; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina


    The detection of localized, organic-rich material on Ceres [1] poses an interesting conundrum. Either the organic-rich material has an exogenous origin, and thus it has been delivered to Ceres after its formation; or it has an endogenous origin, and thus it has been synthesized and/or concentrated in a specific location on Ceres via internal processes.Both scenarios have shortfalls, indicating we may ultimately be missing how organic matter has been formed, transported and reworked in solar system objects. The very location of Ceres at the boundary between the inner and outer solar system, and its intriguing composition characterized by clays, sodium- and ammonium-carbonates [2], suggest Ceres experienced a very complex chemical evolution. The role of organics in this evolution is not fully understood, with important astrobiological implications [3].Here we investigate the viability of organics delivery to Ceres via asteroidal/cometary impactors. We will present iSALE shock physics code [4-5] simulations that explore a range of impact parameters, such as impactor sizes and velocities, and discuss the likelihood of organics delivery. We find that comet-like projectiles, with relatively high impact velocities, are expected to lose almost all of their organics due to shock compression. Asteroidal-like impactors, with lower incident velocities, can retain 20-30% of their pre-impact organic material during delivery, especially for small impactors and very oblique impact angles. However, the spatial distribution of organics on Ceres seems difficult to reconcile with delivery from small main belt asteroids. These findings corroborate an endogenous origin for the organics on Ceres.[1] De Sanctis M. C. et al. Science 355, 2016. [2] De Sanctis M. C. et al. Nature 536, 2016. [3] Castillo-Rogez J. C. et al. Planetary Science Vision 2050 Workshop 2017 (LPI Contrib. No. 1989). [4] Amsden A. et al. LANL Report, LA-8095, 1980. [5] Collins G. S. et al. MAPS 39, 2004.

  8. Metal-organic frameworks for electronics: emerging second order nonlinear optical and dielectric materials. (United States)

    Mendiratta, Shruti; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Usman, Muhammad; Lu, Kuang-Lieh


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been intensively studied over the past decade because they represent a new category of hybrid inorganic-organic materials with extensive surface areas, ultrahigh porosity, along with the extraordinary tailorability of structure, shape and dimensions. In this highlight, we summarize the current state of MOF research and report on structure-property relationships for nonlinear optical (NLO) and dielectric applications. We focus on the design principles and structural elements needed to develop potential NLO and low dielectric (low-κ) MOFs with an emphasis on enhancing material performance. In addition, we highlight experimental evidence for the design of devices for low-dielectric applications. These results motivate us to develop better low-dielectric and NLO materials and to perform in-depth studies related to deposition techniques, patterning and the mechanical performance of these materials in the future.

  9. Interfacial Structures and Properties of Organic Materials for Biosensors: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou


    Full Text Available The capabilities of biosensors for bio-environmental monitoring have profound influences on medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental applications. This paper provides an overview on the background and applications of the state-of-the-art biosensors. Different types of biosensors are summarized and sensing mechanisms are discussed. A review of organic materials used in biosensors is given. Specifically, this review focuses on self-assembled monolayers (SAM due to their high sensitivity and high versatility. The kinetics, chemistry, and the immobilization strategies of biomolecules are discussed. Other representative organic materials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and conductive polymers are also introduced in this review.

  10. Methods of organization of SCORM-compliant teaching materials in electronic format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Marciniak


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of organizing electronic teaching materials based on their role in the teaching process rather than their technical structure. Our method allows SCORM materials stored as e-learning courses („electronic books” to be subdivided and structured so that content can be used in multiple contexts. As a standard, SCORM defines rules for organizing content, but not how to divide and structure it. Our method uses UCTS nomenclature to divide content, define relationships between content entities, and aggregate those entities into courses. This allows content to be shared in different implementations of SCORM while guaranteeing that usability and consistency are maintained.

  11. Using Lunar Impact Glasses to Inform the Amount of Organic Material Delivered to the Early Earth (United States)

    Nguyen, Pham; Zellner, Nicolle


    The delivery of organic material via comets and asteroids during the early history of Earth plays an important role in some theories about the origin of life on Earth. Given the close proximity of the Moon to the Earth, the Moon’s impact history can be used to estimate the amount of organic material delivered to the early Earth. Analysis of lunar impact glasses, derived from energetic impacts on the Moon, provide valuable data that can be used to interpret the Moon’s impact flux. Here we present the results of a study of the non-volatile lithophile element compositions of over 500 impact glass samples from the Apollo 14, 16, and 17 landing sites, along with associated ages of a subset of them. Our analyses show that many of the impact glasses possess compositions exotic to the local regolith in which they were found. Coupled with their ages, these glasses suggest material transport from distant regions of the Moon and may allow an estimate of the number of lunar (and terrestrial) impactors in a given time period. These results have important implications for constraining the Moon’s impact flux and also the amount of organic material delivered to the early Earth. Results of our preliminary study, which investigates the amounts of organic material delivered by comets and asteroids to the Moon (and Earth), will be presented.

  12. Poling and characterization of a novel organic/polymer electro-optic material (United States)

    Liao, Jinkun; Tang, Xianzhong; Lu, Rongguo; Tang, Xionggui; Li, Heping; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Yongzhi


    Electro-optic organic/polymer material is important for the fabrication of polymer integrated optic-electronic devices and organic sensors. Recently, a novel organic high μβ value chromophore FFC have been synthesized by molecular design. The absorption spectrum in 400-4000 cm-1 is measured for the material, and the measurement result shows that the absorption loss is negligibly small. An organic/polymer high electro-optic activity material FFC/PSU is obtained by dissolving guest FFC (wt. 20%) and a host polysulfone (PSU) in a solvent. The resolvability of cyclohexanone for the material is satisfactory by comparison with other solvents experimentally, and the preparation of FFC/PSU thin film is ease relatively. The materiel is poled by electric field-assisted contact poling, and the near optimum poling condition is determined by adjusting poling parameters as pre-curing duration, poling temperature and poling voltage etc. The electro-optic coefficient of the material is measured as high as 130pm/V by using the widely accepted simple reflection technique. The investigation indicates that the FFC/PSU has excellent characteristics, such as high electro-optic coefficient, low absorption loss, good thermal stability and capability for withstanding the subsequent process techniques, suitable for the fabrication of high-performance integrated optic-electronic devices and sensors.

  13. Understanding Organized Crime Groups in Russia and Their Illicit Sale of Weapons and Sensitive Materials (United States)


    lucrative market for organized crime. "It created much the same effect as Prohibition did in the United States as a new wave of bootleggers and bathtub vodka ...include such things as banking crimes, counterfeiting , embezzlement, and illegal bank acquisitions. Organized crime groups in Russia have engaged in false...materials, narcotics, people, and money. In fact, smuggling in all of its forms has been so prevalent that when Russia’s customs services increased

  14. Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alamer, Badriah


    Over the past few decades, vast majority of industrial and academic research throughout the world has witnessed the emergence of materials that can serve as ideal candidates for potential utility in desired applications, and these materials are known as Metal Organic Framework (MOFs). This exceptional new family of porous materials is fabricated by linkage of metal ions or clusters and organic linkers via strong bonds. MOFs have been awarded with remarkable interest and widely studied due to their inherent structural methodology (e.g. use of various metals, expanded library of organic building blocks with different geometry and functionality particularly frameworks designed from carboxylate organic linkers) and unquestionably unique structural and chemical features for many practical applications. (i.e. gas storage/separation, catalysis, drug delivery etc). Simply, metal organic frameworks epitomize the beauty of porous chemical structures. From a design perspective, the introduction of the Molecular Building Block (MBB) approach is actively being pursued pathway by researchers toward the construction of MOFs by employing inorganic building blocks and organic linkers and taking advantage of not only their multiple coordination modes and geometries but also the way in which they are reticulated to generate final framework. In this thesis, research studies will be directed toward (i) the investigation of the relationship between experimental parameters and synthesis of well-known fcu –MOF, (ii) rational design and synthesis of new rare earth (RE) based MOFs, (ii) isoreticular materials based on particular MBB ([M3O(RCO2)6]), M= p-and d-block metals, and (iv) zeolite- like metal organic framework assembled from single-metal ion based MBB ([MN2(CO2)4]) via 2-, 3-,and 4-connected organic linkers. Consequently, the porosity, chemical and thermal stability, and gas sorption properties will be evaluated and detailed.

  15. [Trace elements in raw materials and nutrient media for cultivation of antibiotic-producing organisms]. (United States)

    Romantseva, L M; Shablovskaia, I S; Sergeeva, A M; Marugin, V V; Sher, A A


    The contents of microelements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and As in samples of raw materials including food grade ones used in preparation of nutrient media for cultivation of antibiotic-producing organism and water were determined spectrophotometrically with using complex forming organic reagents. An original procedure for the sample combustion in the assay was developed. The natural background levels of the microelements in the nutrient media used in manufacture of some antibiotics were estimated.

  16. Polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs): organic materials for membrane separations, heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen storage. (United States)

    McKeown, Neil B; Budd, Peter M


    This tutorial review describes recent research directed towards the synthesis of polymer-based organic microporous materials termed Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIMs). PIMs can be prepared either as insoluble networks or soluble polymers with both types giving solids that exhibit analogous behaviour to that of conventional microporous materials such as activated carbons. Soluble PIMs may be processed into thin films for use as highly selective gas separation membranes. Preliminary results also demonstrate the potential of PIMs for heterogeneous catalysis and hydrogen storage.

  17. Knowledge workers and knowledge-intense organizations, Part 3. Implications for preparing healthcare professionals. (United States)

    Sorrells-Jones, J; Weaver, D


    We have outlined a framework for understanding knowledge workers, knowledge-intense organizations, and the promise of sophisticated, interdisciplinary knowledge work teams because we believe that healthcare is the quintessential knowledge-based service industry. These changes will revolutionize healthcare. We have choices to make, as individuals, and as leaders of the nursing profession. We can choose to help drive and shape the changes needed to realize the potential of this framework, or we can decide to wait and see what happens. We must find the courage and the vision to move nursing and healthcare into this knowledge-intense, interdisciplinary future. We end this series as we started it, with a quote from Peter Drucker, who said: "The best way to cope with the radically changing future is to help shape it."

  18. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta [Vita vegrandis, Hindaas (Sweden); Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)


    A compilation of the origin and composition of organic material possibly left in a repository is made. Recommendations of precautions and actions for the different material are listed as well. As a brief summary, the different categories of organic material of relevance for the repository are: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would be mainly a reduction of the redox potential in the initial stages after the repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped due to the repository construction. This effect would not jeopardize the stability of the repository. If the dominating microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to formation of HS{sup -}. The produced sulphide can corrode copper under anaerobic conditions, if it reaches the canisters. Another effect of microorganisms would be the increase of the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the low amounts of the excreted substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be a contribution to the maintenance of reducing conditions in the area, although it is likely that this effect will be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among them we can highlight organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite and wood. The most important compounds from the repository safety perspective will be those hydrocarbons from asphalt that may contribute to decreasing the redox potential around the repository, and the products of degradation of cellulose. This last category of compounds may contribute to enhance the complexing capacity of the groundwater around the repository and it is recommended to minimize the amount of cellulose left in the repository. 4. Fuels and engine emissions. No important effects from these organics in the repository are expected

  19. Scalable Sub-micron Patterning of Organic Materials Toward High Density Soft Electronics. (United States)

    Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Myung-Gil; Kim, Jaehyun; Jo, Sangho; Kang, Jingu; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Lee, Woobin; Hwang, Chahwan; Moon, Juhyuk; Yang, Lin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Jaung, Jae Yun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sung Kyu


    The success of silicon based high density integrated circuits ignited explosive expansion of microelectronics. Although the inorganic semiconductors have shown superior carrier mobilities for conventional high speed switching devices, the emergence of unconventional applications, such as flexible electronics, highly sensitive photosensors, large area sensor array, and tailored optoelectronics, brought intensive research on next generation electronic materials. The rationally designed multifunctional soft electronic materials, organic and carbon-based semiconductors, are demonstrated with low-cost solution process, exceptional mechanical stability, and on-demand optoelectronic properties. Unfortunately, the industrial implementation of the soft electronic materials has been hindered due to lack of scalable fine-patterning methods. In this report, we demonstrated facile general route for high throughput sub-micron patterning of soft materials, using spatially selective deep-ultraviolet irradiation. For organic and carbon-based materials, the highly energetic photons (e.g. deep-ultraviolet rays) enable direct photo-conversion from conducting/semiconducting to insulating state through molecular dissociation and disordering with spatial resolution down to a sub-μm-scale. The successful demonstration of organic semiconductor circuitry promise our result proliferate industrial adoption of soft materials for next generation electronics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov


    Full Text Available Summary. There proposed contactless method of formation of transporting constructions elements consisting of organicmineral composite materials in the article. The results of mathematical modeling of hydro-gas-dynamic processes occurring when casting of organic- mineral composite material onto the bearing air buffer realizing original hypotheses reflected in the choice of transformation algorithm and limiting conditions are presented. When developing the mathematical model there were used classical equations of mechanics, hydro- and gas-dynamics taking into account rheological properties of organic- mineral composite material. The obtained correlations allow to define general parameters of the processes occurring in the system ‘material - bearing air buffer’ when casting of organic- mineral composite material and to work out the law of damping the oscillations appearing during this process. The application of this method allows to eliminate the possibility of contact between the composite material and the working surface of the equipment and also to reduce the cost of production of transporting constructions’ elements, to improve their quality operational characteristics of pneumatic equipment.

  1. Accommodating Ontologies to Biological Reality—Top-Level Categories of Cumulative-Constitutively Organized Material Entities (United States)

    Vogt, Lars; Grobe, Peter; Quast, Björn; Bartolomaeus, Thomas


    Background The Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) is a top-level formal foundational ontology for the biomedical domain. It has been developed with the purpose to serve as an ontologically consistent template for top-level categories of application oriented and domain reference ontologies within the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies Foundry (OBO). BFO is important for enabling OBO ontologies to facilitate in reliably communicating and managing data and metadata within and across biomedical databases. Following its intended single inheritance policy, BFO's three top-level categories of material entity (i.e. ‘object’, ‘fiat object part’, ‘object aggregate’) must be exhaustive and mutually disjoint. We have shown elsewhere that for accommodating all types of constitutively organized material entities, BFO must be extended by additional categories of material entity. Methodology/Principal Findings Unfortunately, most biomedical material entities are cumulative-constitutively organized. We show that even the extended BFO does not exhaustively cover cumulative-constitutively organized material entities. We provide examples from biology and everyday life that demonstrate the necessity for ‘portion of matter’ as another material building block. This implies the necessity for further extending BFO by ‘portion of matter’ as well as three additional categories that possess portions of matter as aggregate components. These extensions are necessary if the basic assumption that all parts that share the same granularity level exhaustively sum to the whole should also apply to cumulative-constitutively organized material entities. By suggesting a notion of granular representation we provide a way to maintain the single inheritance principle when dealing with cumulative-constitutively organized material entities. Conclusions/Significance We suggest to extend BFO to incorporate additional categories of material entity and to rearrange its top-level material

  2. Effect of Different Organic Material Turnover on Soil Structure and Maize Photosynthetic Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jiu-ming


    Full Text Available The effect of different organic material turnover on soil structure and maize photosynthetic rate was researched in this paper. The results showed that comparing the control treatment, the soil bulk density of two treatments of shallow reversing and chiseling plow with straw returning and organic fertilizer were decreased by 0.13 g·cm-3and 0.09 g·cm-3, respectively. The application of shallow reversing and chiseling plow with straw turnover,organic fertilizer, green organic fertilizer and bio-fertilizer could reduce soil hardness, change the soil three phase state, improve the soil physics structure. Organic fertilizer and green organic fertilizer and bio-fertilizer increased the maize photosynthetic rate at trumpet period by 2.1~7.6 μmol·m-2·s-1. The transpiration rate of straw turnover and bio-fertilizer treatments was decreased by57% and 56% separately. Conductances of all treatments were lower than that of the control treatment at trumpet period. Meanwhile stomatal conductance was increased at filling stage which may lead to the decreasing CO2concentration with the reason that reducing of stomatal booster caused the lower CO2concentration. Returning of organic materials could reduce soil bulk density and com paction, make the soil three phase state having a reasonable range, improve crop photosynthetic rate, decrease the transpiration rate, especially the treatments of straw returning and organic fertilize. In short, protection tillage and organic materials returning to field play a positive role for improving soil fertility, soil physical characteristics, crop photosynthetic rate and crop yields.

  3. [The use of the synthetic material Vitaflon in cardiac surgery on the growing organism]. (United States)

    Lazarev, S M; Gritsenko, V V; Fedorov, M Iu; Andreĭchuk, K A; Smirnov, A D


    Clinico-experimental investigations of Vitaflon in cardiosurgery of growing organism have shown that Vitaflon is a firm, plastic and good material for patches of different size and form, has high thrombus resistance. Inflammatory alterations in the surrounding tissues were not pronounced. The ingrowth of the connective tissue elements into the pores of the patch and its endothelialization were noted. Since 1996 the material has been used as patches in surgical correction of congenital heart diseases. The follow-up of the patients during 4 years failed to find symptoms of recanalization, thrombotic and infectious complications. Vitaflon can be widely used as a plastic material in cardiosurgery for congenital heart diseases.

  4. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) and Optically-Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) studies on organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Min [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Organic semiconductors have evolved rapidly over the last decades and currently are considered as the next-generation technology for many applications, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in flat-panel displays (FPDs) and solid state lighting (SSL), and organic solar cells (OSCs) in clean renewable energy. This dissertation focuses mainly on OLEDs. Although the commercialization of the OLED technology in FPDs is growing and appears to be just around the corner for SSL, there are still several key issues that need to be addressed: (1) the cost of OLEDs is very high, largely due to the costly current manufacturing process; (2) the efficiency of OLEDs needs to be improved. This is vital to the success of OLEDs in the FPD and SSL industries; (3) the lifetime of OLEDs, especially blue OLEDs, is the biggest technical challenge. All these issues raise the demand for new organic materials, new device structures, and continued lower-cost fabrication methods. In an attempt to address these issues, we used solution-processing methods to fabricate highly efficient small molecule OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is costeffective in comparison to the more common thermal vacuum evaporation. We also successfully made efficient indium tin oxide (ITO)-free SMOLEDs to further improve the efficiency of the OLEDs. We employed the spin-dependent optically-detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique to study the luminescence quenching processes in OLEDs and organic materials in order to understand the intrinsic degradation mechanisms. We also fabricated polymer LEDs (PLEDs) based on a new electron-accepting blue-emitting polymer and studied the effect of molecular weight on the efficiency of PLEDs. All these studies helped us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OLEDs’ performance, and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiency of OLEDs. With strongly improved device performance (in addition to

  5. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics. (United States)

    Heim, Lori


    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed.

  6. Plant-derived Secondary Organic Material in the Air and Ecosystems. (United States)

    Holopainen, J K; Kivimäenpää, M; Nizkorodov, S A


    Biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and deposited secondary organic material (SOM) are formed by oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. Many SOA compounds have much longer chemical lifetimes than the original VOC, and may accumulate on plant surfaces and in soil as SOM because of their low volatility. This suggests that they may have important and presently unrecognized roles in plant adaptation. Using reactive plant terpenoids as a model we propose a three-tier (atmosphere-vegetation-soil) framework to better understand the ecological and evolutionary functions of SOM. In this framework, SOA in the atmosphere is known to affect solar radiation, SOM on the plant surfaces influences the interactive organisms, and wet and dry deposition of SOM on soil affects soil organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of volatile organic compounds by natural materials during composting of poultry litter. (United States)

    Turan, N G; Akdemir, A; Ergun, O N


    The objective of this study was to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of poultry litter. The natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite as the natural materials were used for the reducing of VOCs. Composting was performed in a laboratory scale in-vessel composting plant. Poultry litter was composted for 100 d with volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. The VOCs were tested using the FT-IR method by VOCs analyzer. Studies showed that VOCs generation was the greatest in the control treatment without any natural materials. The natural materials significantly reduced VOCs. At the end of the processes, removal efficiency was 79.73% for NZ treatment, 54.59% for EP treatment, 88.22% for P treatment and 61.53% for EV treatment. Potential of removal for VOCs on poultry litter matrix using natural materials was in order of: P>NZ>EV>EP.

  8. Service engineers in change: count your words : A case study into professional discourse and culture within three Dutch organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Jos Pieterse


    This doctoral thesis describes three case studies of service engineers participating in organizational change, interacting with managers and consultants. The study investigates the role of differences in professional discourse and culture when these three professional groups interact in

  9. Investigation of defect states in organic semiconductors. Towards long term stable materials for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafferhans, Julia


    In this work, the trap states in the conjugated polymer P3HT, often used as electron donor in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, three commonly used fullerene based electron acceptors and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends were investigated. Concerning the lifetime of organic solar cells the influence of oxygen on P3HT and P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM blends was studied. Fractional TSC measurements on P3HT diodes revealed a quasi-continuous trap distribution. The deeper traps exhibited a strong dependence on oxygen. Exposure of the P3HT diodes to oxygen, ambient air and synthetic (dry) air all revealed an increase of the deeper traps density with exposure time in the same manner. While the lower limit of the trap density in non aged P3HT samples was in the range of (1.0-1.2) x 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, it was more than doubled after an exposure of 50 h to air. An increase of the trap density with oxygen exposure time was also seen in the Q-DLTS measurements accompanied with an increase of the temperature dependence of the emission rates. Due to the raise in density of the deeper traps, the charge carrier mobility in P3HT significantly decreased, as revealed by photo-CELIV measurements, resulting in a loss in mobility of about two orders of magnitude after 100 h exposure to synthetic air. This effect was partially reversible by applying vacuum to the sample for several hours or, more significantly, by a thermal treatment of the devices in nitrogen atmosphere. The trap states in the methanofullerenes PC{sub 61}BM, bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM were investigated by TSC measurements. PC{sub 61}BM yielded a broad quasi-continuous trap distribution with the maximum of the distribution at about 75 meV. The comparison of the TSC spectra of the three methanofullerenes exhibited significant differences in the trap states with higher activation energies of the most prominent traps in bisPC{sub 61}BM and PC71BM compared to PC{sub 61}BM. The lower limit of the trap density of all of the three

  10. Using Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Thin-Film Devices to Teach Materials Science (United States)

    Sevian, Hannah; Muller, Sean; Rudmann, Hartmut; Rubner, Michael F.


    Materials science can be taught by applying organic light-emitting electrochemical thin-film devices and in this method students were allowed to make a light-emitting device by spin coating a thin film containing ruthenium (II) complex ions onto a glass slide. Through this laboratory method students are provided with the opportunity to learn about…

  11. Exploring the Nutrient Release Potential of Organic Materials as Integrated Soil Fertility Management Components Using SAFERNAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maro, G.P.; Mrema, J.P.; Msanya, B.M.; Janssen, B.H.; Teri, J.M.


    The aim of this study was to establish the nutrient release potential of different organic materials and assess their role in integrated soil fertility management for coffee using the new coffee yield model SAFERNAC. It involved an incubation experiment conducted at TaCRI Lyamungu Screenhouse for

  12. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  13. Novel High-Activity Organic Piezoelectric Materials - From Single-Molecule Response to Energy Harvesting Films (United States)


    With this project, we have established that dramatic improvements can be found in piezoelectric materials designed from the geometric conformational...conventional organic piezoelectrics and devised molecular springs with predicted response far exceeding ZnO or PVDF. Investigating different molecular...scaffolds, we designed single-molecule ferroelectrics with stable hysteresis and piezoelectric response predicted on par with champion perovskites

  14. A quick screening method for sorption effects of volatile organic compounds on indoor materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, J.F. van der


    Sorption effects of a number of combinations of indoor materials and volatile organic compounds have been investigated. A limited number of experiments have been conducted to investigate the influence of parameters such as the adsorption time, the desorption time, the concentration of the pollutants

  15. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels. (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming


    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Input materials and processing conditions control compost dissolved organic carbon quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, A.L.; Comans, R.N.J.


    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been proposed as an indicator of compost maturity and stability. Further fractionation of compost DOC may be useful for determining how particular composting conditions will influence DOC quality. Eleven composts ranging in input materials and processing techniques

  17. Competence-Based, Research-Related Lab Courses for Materials Modeling: The Case of Organic Photovoltaics (United States)

    Schellhammer, Karl Sebastian; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio


    We are hereby presenting a didactic concept for an advanced lab course that focuses on the design of donor materials for organic solar cells. Its research-related and competence-based approach qualifies the students to independently and creatively apply computational methods and to profoundly and critically discuss the results obtained. The high…

  18. The influence of denture cleansers on the release of organic compounds from soft lining materials. (United States)

    Brozek, Rafal; Rogalewicz, Rafal; Koczorowski, Ryszard; Voelkel, Adam


    Biocompatibility constitutes the most fundamental requirement with respect to all dental materials to be applied within the oral cavity. In its environment, various toxic compounds may be released by dental materials which pose potential threats to the patient's health. Due to the fact that dentures remain in the oral cavity for a very long time, a detailed examination and verification of prosthetic materials with a view to their toxicity seems to be essential. By using very sensitive measurement techniques such as gas chromatography, one may determine which compounds are released by these materials. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of various denture cleansers on the release of organic compounds from four soft dental materials used in prosthetics for lining dentures. These materials when placed in commonly used disinfectants (Corega Tabs, sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide), as well as in artificial saliva, produced 13 chemical compounds such as monomers (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, dodecyl methacrylate), plasticizers (dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, tributyl acetylcitrate) and others (e.g. benzophenone). A comparison of chemical compounds released from acrylic-based materials and those released from silica-based materials demonstrated that acrylic-based materials are less resistant to disinfectants.

  19. Emotional and Social Competencies and Perceptions of the Interpersonal Environment of an Organization as Related to the Engagement of IT Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda M Pittenger


    Full Text Available Diminishing levels of worker productivity and increased employee turnover have become a costly proposition for today’s organizations. Much of the blame for this is a decrease in employee engagement and actual complete disengagement of workers, resulting in tremendous impacts to the achievement of organization goals. In particular, research has focused on IT professionals, which have been found to be the least engaged group of workers in organizations. With such conclusions repeatedly discovered, it is surprising that IT employee engagement has been largely ignored as a focus of scholarly research. This study examines the relationship between specific behavioral competencies and characteristics of the organization environment and the relationship between the organizational environment characteristics and components of employee engagement. We used validated instruments to perform a quantitative study and collected data from 795 IT professionals in North America to test the effects of behavioral competencies and role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE on the organization environment and in turn, the organization environment on employee engagement. The findings revealed two behavioral competencies − achievement orientation and influencing others − powerfully impact the three sub-constructs of the organization environment: vision, compassion and overall positive mood, which in turn, influence the engagement (dedication, vigor, and absorption of IT professionals at work. We contribute to literature by revealing specific behavioral and organizational factors found to positively impact engagement. Our findings contribute to practitioners by enabling them to more effectively select, develop and promote IT professionals. By better understanding what factors differentiate the performance of IT professionals, practitioners can implement tools and programs to increase employee satisfaction, engagement, and retention, resulting in higher productivity, quality

  20. Professionalization as an Advocacy Strategy: A Content Analysis of Canadian Child Care Social Movement Organizations' 2008 Discursive Resources (United States)

    Langford, Rachel; Prentice, Susan; Albanese, Patrizia; Summers, Bernadette; Messina-Goertzen, Brianne; Richardson, Brooke


    Do early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals make good advocates? Canadian advocates have fought for better child care policies since the mid-1940s. What has happened to this advocacy with the recent increased professionalization of the ECEC sector? How does increased professionalization limit, innovate or expand advocacy strategies?…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav E. Prokushev


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a problem of theorganization of professional developmentof personnel. The article is consideringtwo interconnected tasks. The fi rst task is: estimation of degree of need of professional development of the specifi c worker. The second task is: choice of the programof professional development. Functionalinformation models of procedures ofadoption of administrative decisions withinthese tasks are developed.

  2. Organic photovoltaic devices based on graphene as an electron-acceptor material and P3OT as a donor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiteng; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Hongpeng; Wang, Jigang [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)


    We present the fabrication and performance studies of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure that use organic solution-processable functionalized graphene (SPFGraphene) as an electron-acceptor material and poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) as a donor material. The structural configuration of the device is ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3OT:PCBM-SPFGraphene/LiF/Al. After mixing graphene into the device, the performance enhanced significantly. Given illumination at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} AM1.5 and P3OT/PCBM (1:1) mixture with 9 wt% of SPFGraphene, we recorded the best performances. The open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) is 0.67 V. The short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) is 4.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. The FF is 0.37. And the power conversion efficiency is 1.14%. In the P3OT:PCBM-SPFGraphene composite, the SPFGraphene acts as exciton dissociation sites and provides the transport pathway of LUMO-graphene-Al. Adding SPFGraphene into P3OT produces an appropriate energetic distance between the HOMO and the LUMO of the donor/acceptor, which leads to a high open-circuit voltage. Besides, doping SPFGraphene provides a higher exciton dissociation volume mobility of carrier transport, which leads to a large short-circuit current density. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Theoretical description of structural and electronic properties of organic photovoltaic materials. (United States)

    Zhugayevych, Andriy; Tretiak, Sergei


    We review recent progress in the modeling of organic solar cells and photovoltaic materials, as well as discuss the underlying theoretical methods with an emphasis on dynamical electronic processes occurring in organic semiconductors. The key feature of the latter is a strong electron-phonon interaction, making the evolution of electronic and structural degrees of freedom inseparable. We discuss commonly used approaches for first-principles modeling of this evolution, focusing on a multiscale framework based on the Holstein-Peierls Hamiltonian solved via polaron transformation. A challenge for both theoretical and experimental investigations of organic solar cells is the complex multiscale morphology of these devices. Nevertheless, predictive modeling of photovoltaic materials and devices is attainable and is rapidly developing, as reviewed here.

  4. In silico evaluation of highly efficient organic light-emitting materials (United States)

    Kwak, H. Shaun; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang; Gavartin, Jacob; Dixon, Steve; Halls, Mathew D.


    Design and development of highly efficient organic and organometallic dopants is one of the central challenges in the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) technology. Recent advances in the computational materials science have made it possible to apply computer-aided evaluation and screening framework directly to the design space of organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, we will showcase two major components of the latest in silico framework for development of organometallic phosphorescent dopants - (1) rapid screening of dopants by machine-learned quantum mechanical models and (2) phosphorescence lifetime predictions with spin-orbit coupled calculations (SOC-TDDFT). The combined work of virtual screening and evaluation would significantly widen the design space for highly efficient phosphorescent dopants with unbiased measures to evaluate performance of the materials from first principles.

  5. Professional Organizations and the Professionalizing of Practice: The Role of MER, EdCom, and the NAEA Museum Education Division, 1969-2002 (United States)

    Kai-Kee, Elliott


    The establishment of the Museum Education Roundtable (MER) in 1969, the formation of the Committee on Education of the American Association of Museums (AAM) in 1973, and the creation of the Museum Education Division of the National Art Education Association (NAEA) in 1981 all represent milestones in the professionalization of museum education…

  6. Application of Aloe vera gel instead of silicon dioxide as organic dielectric material in microelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Sardar Masud


    Full Text Available Organic materials are now being used in a wide range of microelectronic applications in parallel with inorganic materials, because of their superior properties, environmental safety, and low cost. This paper describes the characterization of Aloe vera gel (AVG, a new organic dielectric material. The surface morphology, spatial distribution of elements, and structural characteristics of an AVG layer were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The resistance of the AVG layer, determined using a four-probe station, was 640 Ω EDX showed that the elements contained in the layer were carbon, oxygen, aluminum, silicon, calcium, potassium, and copper. The XRD results suggested that the sample primarily consisted of bornite (Cu5FeS4, geerite (Cu8S5, sal ammoniac (NH4Cl, and carobbite (KF.

  7. Materials and Systems for Organic Redox Flow Batteries: Status and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xiaoliang [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pan, Wenxiao [Department; Duan, Wentao [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Hollas, Aaron [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Yang, Zheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Bin [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Nie, Zimin [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Liu, Jun [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR), Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Reed, David [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Wang, Wei [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Sprenkle, Vincent [Energy & amp, Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, Washington 99354, United States


    Redox flow batteries are propitious stationary energy storage technologies with exceptional scalability and flexibility to improve the stability, efficiency and sustainability of our power grid. The redox-active materials are the central component to RFBs for achieving high energy density and good cyclability. Traditional inorganic-based materials encounter critical technical and economic limitations such as low solubility, inferior electrochemical activity, and high cost. Redox-active organic materials (ROMs) are promising alternative “green” candidates to push the boundaries of energy storage because of the significant advantages of molecular diversity, structural tailorability, and natural abundance. Here the recent development of a variety of ROM families and associated battery designs in both aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes are reviewed. Moreover, the critical challenges and potential research opportunities for developing practically relevant organic flow batteries are discussed.

  8. Fumed silica nanoparticle mediated biomimicry for optimal cell-material interactions for artificial organ development. (United States)

    de Mel, Achala; Ramesh, Bala; Scurr, David J; Alexander, Morgan R; Hamilton, George; Birchall, Martin; Seifalian, Alexander M


    Replacement of irreversibly damaged organs due to chronic disease, with suitable tissue engineered implants is now a familiar area of interest to clinicians and multidisciplinary scientists. Ideal tissue engineering approaches require scaffolds to be tailor made to mimic physiological environments of interest with specific surface topographical and biological properties for optimal cell-material interactions. This study demonstrates a single-step procedure for inducing biomimicry in a novel nanocomposite base material scaffold, to re-create the extracellular matrix, which is required for stem cell integration and differentiation to mature cells. Fumed silica nanoparticle mediated procedure of scaffold functionalization, can be potentially adapted with multiple bioactive molecules to induce cellular biomimicry, in the development human organs. The proposed nanocomposite materials already in patients for number of implants, including world first synthetic trachea, tear ducts and vascular bypass graft. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Vermicomposting of different organic materials and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of their dissolved organic matter]. (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Man-qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-xin; Huang, Zhong-yang; Chang, Yi-jun; Jiao, Jia-guo


    In this experiment, different proportions of the cattle manure, tea-leaf, herb and mushroom residues, were used as food for earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to study the growth of the earth-worm. Then the characteristics and transformation of nutrient content and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence (3DEEM) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during vermistabilization were investigated by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The result showed that the mixture of different ratios of cattle manure with herb residue, and cattle manure with tea-leaf were conducive to the growth of earthworm, while the materials compounded with mushroom residue inhibited the growth of earthworm. With the increasing time of verimcomposting, the pH in vermicompost tended to be circumneutral and weakly acidic, and there were increases in electrical conductivity, and the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus, while the total potassium and available potassium increased first and then decreased, and the organic matter content decreased. 3DEEM and fluorescence regional integration results indicated that, the fluorescence of protein-like fluorescence peaks declined significantly, while the intensity of humic-like fluorescence peak increased significantly in DOM. Vermicomposting process might change the compositions of DOM with elevated concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid in the organics. In all, this study suggested the suitability of 3DEEM for monitoring the organics transformation and assessing the maturity in the vermicomposting.

  10. Soft X-ray excited optical luminescence from functional organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sham, T.K., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Many functional organic materials convert X-ray energy into visible light. • The X-ray induced luminescence (XEOL) across an absorption edge can be site and excitation channel specific. • XEOL is composition, morphology, size and crystallinity dependent. • XEOL using the time structure of a synchrotron can reveal the decay and energy transfer dynamics of the sample. • The combined use of XEOL and XAS in the analysis of functional organic materials is illustrated. - Abstract: This brief report reviews some of the recent findings in the study of synchrotron based X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) from representative organic light emitting device (OLED) and related functional organic materials. The systems of interest include Alq{sub 3}, aluminium tris(8-hydroxylquinoline); Ru(bipy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, tris-(2,2-bipyridine) ruthenium(II); Ir(bpy){sub 3}, tris(2-phenyl-bipyridine)iridium; PVK (poly(N-vinylcarbazole)) and [Au{sub 2}(dppe)(bipy)]{sup 2+}, a Au(I) polymer containing 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane and the 4,40-bipyridyl ligands, as well as TBPe (2,5,8,11-tetra-tert-butylperylene) polyhedral crystals and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and FITC-labelled proteins. It is shown that tunable and pulsed X-rays from synchrotron light sources enable the detailed tracking of the optical properties of organic functional materials by monitoring the luminescence in both the energy and time domain as the excitation energy is scanned across an element-specific absorption edge. The use of XEOL and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in materials analysis is illustrated.

  11. Novel materials and techniques of fabrication for organic light emitting diodes (United States)

    Adamovich, Vadim Igorevich

    The present dissertation work is devoted to the utilization of novel materials for various layers of the organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The first chapter of the thesis is the introduction into OLED's structure and basic principles of operation. The influence of the structure on the device performance as well as functions of different OLED layers is considered. The second chapter describes the utilization of transition metal nitride semitransparent conductive films as a new class of anode materials for the OLEDs, alternative to conventionally used indium-tin oxide. The third chapter has three novel concepts. The first is the utilization of cyclometallated iridium complexes as new materials for hole-blocking layer (HBL) phosphorescent OLEDs. The second is the novel host-guest approach to the HBL architecture, and the third is the introduction of the electron blocking layer (EBL) in order to prevent electron and exciton leakage to the hole transporter layer (HTL) and confine excitons within emissive layer. The EBL prevents emission from the HTL and dramatically increases the device efficiency particularly for blue phosphorescence OLEDs. The fourth chapter demonstrates the application of iridium and platinum emissive cyclometalated complexes as HTL, ETL and host materials for phosphorescence OLEDs. The all-iridium OLEDs, which contain only iridium complexes in all organic layers, have been fabricated and proved to be highly efficient. Systematic studies on influence of some particular properties of the layer material on the device performance are described. The fifth chapter describes white electroluminescence from single dopant as an emissive material. The high efficiency white phosphorescence OLEDs with only single dopant as an emitter are reported. Chapter six describes organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) as a novel technique of organic thin films deposition alternative to conventionally used vacuum thermal evaporation. OVPD has been used for fabricating

  12. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples (United States)

    Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N. Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M.; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M.; Leigh, Stefan D.; Patterson, Donald G.; Pintar, Adam L.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Wise, Stephen A.


    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4′-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  13. Chemical stability of salt cake in the presence of organic materials. [Detonation hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitel, G.A.


    High-level waste stored as salt cake is principally NaNO/sub 3/. Some organic material is known to have been added to the waste tanks. It has been suggested that some of this organic material may have become nitrated and transformed to a detonable state. Arguments are presented to discount the presence of nitrated organics in the waste tanks. Nitrated organics generated accidentally usually explode at the time of formation. Detonation tests show that salt cake and ''worst-case'' organic mixtures are not detonable. Organic mixtures with salt cake are compared with black powder, a related exothermic reactant. Black-powder mixtures of widely varying composition can and do burn explosively; ignition temperatures are 300-450/sup 0/C. However, black-powder-type mixes cannot be ignited by radiation and are shock-insensitive. Temperatures generated by radionuclide decay in the salt are below 175/sup 0/C and would be incapable of igniting any of these mixtures. The expected effect of radiation on organics in the waste tanks is a slow dehydrogenation and depolymerization along with a slight increase in sensitivity to oxidation. The greatest explosion hazard, if any exists, is a hydrogen--oxygen explosion from water radiolysis, but the hydrogen must first be generated and then trapped so that the concentration of hydrogen can rise above 4 vol percent. This is impossible in salt cake. Final confirmation of the safety against organic-related explosive reactions in the salt cake will be based upon analytical determinations of organic concentrations. 12 tables, 5 fig. (DLC)

  14. Impact of materials used in lab and field experiments on the recovery of organic micropollutants (United States)

    Hebig, Klaus; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Scheytt, Traugott


    Organic micropollutants are frequently detected in the aquatic environment. There-fore, a large number of field and laboratory studies have been conducted in order to study their fate in the environment. Due to the diversity of chemical properties among these compounds some of them may interact with materials commonly used in field and laboratory studies like tubes, filters, or sample bottles. The aim of our experiment was to study the interaction between those materials and an aqueous solution of 43 widely detected basic, neutral, and acidic organic micropollutants hereby covering a broad range of polarities. Experiments with materials were conducted as a batch study using spiked tap water and for different syringe filters by filtration with subsequent fraction collection. The best recoveries over a wide range of organic compounds were observed for batches in contact with the following materials (in descending order) acryl glass, PTFE, HDPE, and PP. The use of Pharmed©, silicone, NBR70, Tygon©, and LDPE should be avoided. Flexible tubing materials especially influence many of the investigated compounds here. Filtration with most of the tested filter types leads to no significant loss of almost all of the investigated micropollutants. Nonetheless, significant mass losses of some compounds (loratadine, fluoxetine, sertraline, and diuron) were observed during the first mL of the filtration process. No systematic correlation between compound properties, tested materials, and ob-served mass losses could be identified in this study. The behavior of each compound is specific and thus, not predictable. It is therefore suggested to study the interaction of compounds with filters and material prior to the actual experiment or include blank studies.

  15. Zirconium-Based metal organic framework (Zr-MOF) material with high hydrostability for hydrogen storage applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei


    Full Text Available Material-based solutions, such as metal organic frameworks (MOFs), continue to attract increasing attention as viable options for hydrogen storage applications. MOFs are widely regarded as promising materials for hydrogen storage due to their high...

  16. Reactive Uptake of Ammonia and Formation of Organic Nitrogen Species for Non-Liquid/Liquid Secondary Organic Material (United States)

    Martin, S. T.; Li, Y.; Liu, P.


    Formation of ammonium and organic nitrogen (ON) species was studied for secondary organic material (SOM) of variable viscosity, ranging from non-liquid to liquid physical states. The SOM was produced as particles of 50 to 150 nm in diameter in aerosol form from six precursors, including three terpenoid and three aromatic species. The viscosity of the hygroscopic SOM was adjusted by exposure to relative humidity (RH) from 90% RH in steps of 10% at 293 ± 2 K. The aerosol was subsequently exposed to 5 ppm NH3 for mean reaction times of 30, 370, or 5230 s. Ammonium and ON were characterized by high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS). The ammonium-to-organic ratio of mass concentrations (MNH4/MOrg) in the particles increased monotonically from kinetics from a system limited by diffusivity within the SOM for low RH to one limited by other factors, such as saturated uptake, at higher RH. Formation of ON was observed for aromatic-derived SOMs, but not significant for terpenoid-derived SOMs. For aromatic-derived SOMs, the ON-to-organic ratio of mass concentrations (MON/MOrg) was negligible for RH 60%. The threshold RH for the switchover from kinetically controlled regime to a non-kinetically-controlled one was thus different between formation of ammonium and ON. This difference suggests that water may play a role in the slow reactions of ON formation as a reactant or a catalyst, in addition to affecting the reactant diffusion as in the fast reaction of ammonium formation. The implication is that formation of ammonium salts and organic nitrogen species by certain SOMs should be treated separately in chemical transport models to reflect the different roles of water that may affect the phase state of the SOMs or may act as a reactant or a catalyst.

  17. Justification of the conceptual construct "readiness to the labour organization staff sports schools" in the context of vocational training future professionals of physical culture and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepletchikov D.A.


    Full Text Available Was analyzed literature devoted to the preparation of students of physical education to administrative activities. In the context of their training we held a comparative analysis of the approaches to organize the pedagogical process. As a reference point for the formation of professional preparedness specialist physical education and sports identified qualifying characteristics posts in this industry. Based on the analysis of literature given the definition of the concept of "readiness for organization of the Youth sports school.

  18. Crystal growth of an organic non-linear optical material from the vapour phase

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, W


    Due to the potential applications of organic non-linear optical materials in the areas of optical processing and communication, the investigation of the crystal growth of new organic NLO materials has been an active field for the last 20 years. For such uses it is necessary to produce single crystals of high quality and perfection, free of strain and defects. When crystals are grown from the solution and the melt, solvent and the decomposition component in the melt can introduce impurities and imperfection to the as-grown crystals. For crystals grown from vapour phase, in the absence of the solvent, this cannot occur and the method promises to yield single crystals of higher quality. Despite this attraction, little attention has been paid to the vapour phase growth of organic NLO crystals. It was with this in mind that the following investigation was carried out. Using Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (p-MHB), a potential organic NLO material, a comparison investigation was made of its crystal growth from both the va...

  19. Co, Zn and Ag-MOFs evaluation as biocidal materials towards photosynthetic organisms. (United States)

    Martín-Betancor, Keila; Aguado, Sonia; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Tamayo-Belda, Miguel; Leganés, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca


    In the present study, the biocidal activity of three different metal organic frameworks (MOFs) based on Co (Co-SIM1), Zn (Zn-SIM1) and Ag (Ag-TAZ) has been evaluated towards one green alga and two cyanobacteria. These organisms are present in fresh- and seawater and take part in the early stages of the biofouling process. The biocidal activity of these materials was evaluated by measuring chlorophyll a concentration and by inhibition zone testing. After 24h of exposure the three different MOFs caused >50% of chlorophyll a concentration inhibition towards both cyanobacteria, however, although the green alga presented a great sensitivity for Ag-TAZ (reaching 90% of chlorophyll a concentration inhibition), it was much more resistant to the rest of MOFs. Bioavailability of these metals was studied using ICP-MS, the chemical speciation program Visual MINTEQ, and a heavy metal bioreporter bioanalytical tool. We have elucidated that the biocidal activity presented by these MOFs was due to the dissolved metals released from them and more exactly, it depended on the bioavailability presented by these metal ions, which was closely related with the free ion concentration. This article highlights the potential use of different MOFs as biocidal material towards photosynthetic organisms and reveals important differences in the sensitivity between these organisms that should be taken into account in order to increase the biocidal spectrum of these materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Response to Anastas and Coffey: The Science of Social Work and Its Relationship to Social Work Education and Professional Organizations (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Wong, Marleen; Samuels, Gina Miranda


    Relationships are central to the profession of social work; relationships with allied disciplines, among professional social work organizations, and between classroom and field education. However, embedded within these relationships are historical tensions, and contemporary opportunities that can advance both the science of social work and the…

  1. Metal-organic frameworks as competitive materials for non-linear optics. (United States)

    Mingabudinova, L R; Vinogradov, V V; Milichko, V A; Hey-Hawkins, E; Vinogradov, A V


    The last five years have witnessed a huge breakthrough in the creation and the study of the properties of a new class of compounds - metamaterials. The next stage of this technological revolution will be the development of active, controllable, and non-linear metamaterials, surpassing natural media as platforms for optical data processing and quantum information applications. However, scientists are constantly faced with the need to find new methods that can ensure the formation of quantum and non-linear metamaterials with higher resolution. One such method of producing metamaterials in the future, which will provide scalability and availability, is chemical synthesis. Meanwhile, the chemical synthesis of organized 3D structures with a period of a few nanometers and a size of up to a few millimeters is not an easy task and is yet to be resolved. The most promising avenue seems to be the use of highly porous structures based on metal-organic frameworks that have demonstrated their unique properties in the field of non-linear optics (NLO) over the past three years. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine current progress and the possibilities of using metal-organic frameworks in the field of non-linear optics as chemically obtained metamaterials of the future. The review begins by presenting the theoretical principles of physical phenomena represented by mathematical descriptions for clarity. Major attention is paid to the second harmonic generation (SHG) effect. In this section we compare inorganic single crystals, which are most commonly used to study the effect in question, to organic materials, which also possess the required properties. Based on these data, we present a rationale for the possibility of studying the non-linear optical properties of metal-organic structures as well as describing the use of synthetic approaches and the difficulties associated with them. The second part of the review explicitly acquaints the reader with a new class of materials

  2. Material matters for learning in virtual networks: a case study of a professional learning programme hosted in a Google+ online community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Ackland


    Full Text Available In this paper, we draw on Actor–Network Theories (ANT to explore how material components functioned to create gateways and barriers to a virtual learning network in the context of a professional development module in higher education. Students were practitioners engaged in family learning in different professional roles and contexts. The data comprised postings in the Google+ community, email correspondence, meeting notes, feedback submitted at the final workshop and post-module evaluation forms. Our analysis revealed a complex set of interactions, and suggests multiple ways human actors story their encounters with non-human components and the effects these have on the learning experience. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more holistic understanding of the components and dynamics of social learning networks in the virtual world and consider the implications for the design of online learning for continuous professional development (CPD.

  3. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates. (United States)

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement


    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture.

  4. Vinasse organic matter quality and mineralization potential, as influenced by raw material, fermentation and concentration processes. (United States)

    Parnaudeau, V; Condom, N; Oliver, R; Cazevieille, P; Recous, S


    Both dilute and concentrated vinasse can be spread on agricultural fields or used as organic fertilizer. The effects of different characteristics of the original raw material on the biochemical composition of vinasse and their C and N mineralization in soil were investigated. Vinasse samples were obtained from similar industrial fermentation processes based on the growth of microorganisms on molasses from different raw material (sugar beet or sugar cane) and vinasse concentration (dilute or concentrated). The nature of the raw material used for fermentation had the greatest effect on the nature and size of the resistant organic pool. This fraction included aromatic compounds originating from the raw material or from complex molecules and seemed to be quantitatively related to acid-insoluble N. Samples derived from sugar beet were richer in N compounds and induced greater net N mineralization. The effect of evaporation varied with the nature of the raw material. Concentration led to a slight increase in the abundance of phenolic compounds, acid-insoluble fraction, and a slight decrease in the labile fraction of vinasses partly or totally derived from sugar beet. The effect of the dilute vinasse from sugar cane was greater. The concentrated vinasse had a smaller labile fraction, induced N immobilization at the beginning of incubation, and exhibited greater N concentration in the acid-insoluble fraction than the dilute vinasse.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Heryanto Langsa


    Full Text Available This study examined the organic constituents aquatically leached from leaf components of two tree species (wandoo eucalyptus and pinus radiate. In particular this study aimed to assess the stable isotope composition behaviour of dissolved organic carbon (DOC from the residue leaves after leaching over five months. The changes in the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of the leached leaves materials were investigated using an elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-irMS. The stable isotope compositions were found to vary according to microbially-mediated alteration and decomposition. The average  d13C content of the raw plant elements was consistent with the  d13C values of terrestrial plants using a C3 photosynthetic pathway. The isotope compositions of leached materials of wandoo eucalyptus fresh leaf were continually depleted in d13C over the leaching period of three months. These variations correlated well with its DOC profile. Changes in  d13C values may also relate to the differential leaching of the macromolecular precursors of the original material. Lignin, for example, has a typically low  d13C and probably contributed to the decrease of  d13C in residue of the plant materials.   Keywords: isotope composition, leached materials, C3 plant

  6. Metal-organic fireworks: MOFs as integrated structural scaffolds for pyrotechnic materials. (United States)

    Blair, L H; Colakel, A; Vrcelj, R M; Sinclair, I; Coles, S J


    A new approach to formulating pyrotechnic materials is presented whereby constituent ingredients are bound together in a solid-state lattice. This reduces the batch inconsistencies arising from the traditional approach of combining powders by ensuring the key ingredients are 'mixed' in appropriate quantities and are in intimate contact. Further benefits of these types of material are increased safety levels as well as simpler logistics, storage and manufacture. A systematic series of new frameworks comprising fuel and oxidiser agents (group 1 and 2 metal nodes & terephthalic acid derivatives as linkers) has been synthesised and structurally characterised. These new materials have been assessed for pyrotechnic effect by calorimetry and burn tests. Results indicate that these materials exhibit the desired pyrotechnic material properties and the effect can be correlated to the dimensionality of the structure. A new approach to formulating pyrotechnic materials is proposed whereby constituent ingredients are bound together in a solid-state lattice. A series of Metal-organic framework frameworks comprising fuel and oxidiser agents exhibits the desired properties of a pyrotechnic material and this effect is correlated to the dimensionality of the structure.

  7. Analysis of wear in organic and sintered friction materials used in small wind energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Lewis Esswein Junior


    Full Text Available Wind energy converters of small size used in isolated units to generate electrical energy must present low maintenance cost to such facilities economically viable. The aspect to be analyzed in cost reduction is the brake system, since in isolated systems the use of brake is more frequent reducing the brake pads life time. This study aims at analyzing the wear behavior of some materials used in brake pads. An organic material was analyzed comparing it with a commercial brake pad, and the sintered material was developed and tested. The materials behaviors were evaluated in both wear and friction coefficient. The sintered samples were made by powder metallurgy. The composition was compacted at 550 MPa and sintered in a furnace with controlled atmosphere to avoid oxidation. Despite the different compositions of the two types of materials, they presented a very similar wear; however, the sintered material presented a higher friction coefficient. An adjustment in the braking system of the wind generator might be proposed to use the sintered brake pad, due to its higher friction coefficient. Consequently, the braking action becomes lower, reducing the wear rate of the material.

  8. Nanomaterial translocation - the biokinetics, tissue accumulation, toxicity and fate of materials in secondary organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Balharry, Dominique; Wallin, Håkan


    into the toxicity posed by the NMs in these secondary organs is expanding due to the realisation that some materials may reach and accumulate in these target sites. The translocation to secondary organs includes, but is not limited to, the hepatic, central nervous, cardiovascular and renal systems. Current data...... indicates that pulmonary exposure is associated with low (inhalation route-0.00001-1% of total applied dose-24 h) translocation of virtually insoluble NMs such as iridium, carbon black, gold and polystyrene, while slightly higher translocation has been observed for NMs with either slow (e.g. silver, cerium...

  9. Sorption Characteristics of Organic Powder Sorption Material in Fluidized Bed with a Cooling Pipe (United States)

    Horibe, Akihiko; Husain, Syahrul; Inaba, Hideo; Haruki, Naoto

    The dynamic sorption characteristics of organic sorbent materials have been studied by using fluidized bed with a cooling pipe. The organic powder type sorbent made from a bridged complex of sodium polyacrylate which is one of the sorption polymers is adopted in this study. Sorption rate of water vapor and the variation of temperature in the sorbent bed with time were measured under various conditions. As a result, sorption ratio increases and the completion time for the sorption process decreases by using a cooling pipe. Furthermore, the non-dimensional correlation equations were obtained for water vapor mass transfer under sorption process in terms of relevant non-dimensional parameters.

  10. Metal-organic frameworks as host materials of confined supercooled liquids (United States)

    Fischer, J. K. H.; Sippel, P.; Denysenko, D.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Volkmer, D.; Loidl, A.


    In this work, we examine the use of metal-organic framework (MOF) systems as host materials for the investigation of glassy dynamics in confined geometry. We investigate the confinement of the molecular glass former glycerol in three MFU-type MOFs with different pore sizes (MFU stands for "Metal-Organic Framework Ulm-University") and study the dynamics of the confined liquid via dielectric spectroscopy. In accord with previous reports on confined glass formers, we find different degrees of deviations from bulk behavior depending on pore size, demonstrating that MOFs are well-suited host systems for confinement investigations.

  11. Organic/inorganic-polyimide nanohybrid materials for advanced opto-electronic applications (United States)

    Ando, Shinji


    Nano-hybridization techniques based on the pyrolytic reactions of organo-soluble metallic precursors dissolved in poly(amic acid)s followed by spontaneous precipitation of metal/inorganic nano-particles in solid polyimide (PI) films is facile and effective for functionalization of PI optical and electronic materials. The organic/inorganinc PI nanohybrid materials, which were recently developed by the authors, having a variety of functionalities such as a) high refractive indices, b) low refractive indices, c) controlled thermo-optical property and its anisotropy, d) high polarizing property, and e) high thermal conductivity are reviewed with future prospects on their advanced opto-electronic applications.

  12. Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials: Multi-Functional Solids for Multi-Step Reaction Processes. (United States)

    Díaz, Urbano; Corma, Avelino


    The design of new hybrid materials with tailored properties at the nano-, meso-, and macro-scale, with the use of structural functional nanobuilding units, is carried out to obtain specific multi-functional materials. Organization into controlled 1D, 2D, and 3D architectures with selected functionalities is key for developing advanced catalysts, but this is hardly accomplished using conventional synthesis procedures. The use of pre-formed nanostructures, derived either from known materials or made with specific innovative synthetic methodologies, has enormous potential in the generation of multi-site catalytic materials for one-pot processes. The present concept article introduces a new archetype wherein self-assembled nanostructured builder units are the base for the design of multifunctional catalysts, which combine catalytic efficiency with fast reactant and product diffusion. The article addresses a new generation of versatile hybrid organic-inorganic multi-site catalytic materials for their use in the production of (chiral) high-added-value products within the scope of chemicals and fine chemicals production. The use of those multi-reactive solids for more nanotechnological applications, such as sensors, due to the inclusion of electron donor-acceptor structural arrays is also considered, together with the adsorption-desorption capacities due to the combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic sub-domains. The innovative structured hybrid materials for multipurpose processes here considered, can allow the development of multi-stage one-pot reactions with industrial applications, using the materials as one nanoreactor systems, favoring more sustainable production pathways with economic, environmental and energetic advantages. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Development and Utilization of Host Materials for White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ching; Chen, Shaw


    Our project was primarily focused on the MYPP 2015 goal for white phosphorescent organic devices (PhOLEDs or phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes) for solid-state lighting with long lifetimes and high efficiencies. Our central activity was to synthesize and evaluate a new class of host materials for blue phosphors in the PhOLEDs, known to be a weak link in the device operating lifetime. The work was a collaborative effort between three groups, one primarily responsible for chemical design and characterization (Chen), one primarily responsible for device development (Tang) and one primarily responsible for mechanistic studies and degradation analysis (Rothberg). The host materials were designed with a novel architecture that chemically links groups with good ability to move electrons with those having good ability to move “holes” (positive charges), the main premise being that we could suppress the instability associated with physical separation and crystallization of the electron conducting and hole conducting materials that might cause the devices to fail. We found that these materials do prevent crystallization and that this will increase device lifetimes but that efficiencies were reduced substantially due to interactions between the materials creating new low energy “charge transfer” states that are non-luminescent. Therefore, while our proposed strategy could in principle improve device lifetimes, we were unable to find a materials combination where the efficiency was not substantially compromised. In the course of our project, we made several important contributions that are peripherally related to the main project goal. First, we were able to prepare the proposed new family of materials and develop synthetic routes to make them efficiently. These types of materials that can transport both electrons and holes may yet have important roles to play in organic device technology. Second we developed an important new method for controlling the

  14. Suppressing molecular motions for enhanced room-temperature phosphorescence of metal-free organic materials (United States)

    Kwon, Min Sang; Yu, Youngchang; Coburn, Caleb; Phillips, Andrew W.; Chung, Kyeongwoon; Shanker, Apoorv; Jung, Jaehun; Kim, Gunho; Pipe, Kevin; Forrest, Stephen R.; Youk, Ji Ho; Gierschner, Johannes; Kim, Jinsang


    Metal-free organic phosphorescent materials are attractive alternatives to the predominantly used organometallic phosphors but are generally dimmer and are relatively rare, as, without heavy-metal atoms, spin-orbit coupling is less efficient and phosphorescence usually cannot compete with radiationless relaxation processes. Here we present a general design rule and a method to effectively reduce radiationless transitions and hence greatly enhance phosphorescence efficiency of metal-free organic materials in a variety of amorphous polymer matrices, based on the restriction of molecular motions in the proximity of embedded phosphors. Covalent cross-linking between phosphors and polymer matrices via Diels-Alder click chemistry is devised as a method. A sharp increase in phosphorescence quantum efficiency is observed in a variety of polymer matrices with this method, which is ca. two to five times higher than that of phosphor-doped polymer systems having no such covalent linkage.

  15. Evaluation of Three Fish Species as Bioassay Organisms for Dredged Material Testing. (United States)


    factors that apply to species selected for bioaccumulation studies are:the organism should accumulate the pollutant without excessive 0 mortality at...on (LC) Pollution --Research (LC) Water-- Pollution -- Environmental aspects. (LC) 20. ADSTR ACT (Cesihue m rers00 &(d it rncegesey and Idtmtify by block...governing dredged material disposal have focused on two primary measures of biological effects: acute toxicity and bioaccumulation potential of

  16. Histopathological Effects of Black Rock Harbor Dredged Material on Marine Organisms: A Laboratory Investigation. (United States)


    material. Evaluations were to be based on technology existing within the two agencies or developed during the six-year life of the program. 3. The...know the difterence between the normal histophysiological changes that occur during the lire cycles of aquatic organisms, and those caused by harmful...where it was 97 percent. In the experiments with N. arenaceodentata, survival was 87 percent or better in all treatments. 53. The worms were fed prawn

  17. Аn improvement of process of organization of pedagogical practice is priority condition of forming of professional competence of future teachers the basics of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.І. Kara


    Full Text Available The problem of improving the organization of teaching practice as one of the primary conditions of formation professional competence of future teachers of basic health. Highlighted that the improvement of the process of organizing teaching practice can be done by improving the content of the students during the teaching practice, the organization of joint work of all supervisors (teachers of higher educational institutions and teachers of general educational institutions, compliance with the uniform requirements supervisors to an evaluation of the student's performance. It is noted that purposeful pedagogical guidance and to improve the content of the students during the teaching practice creates the conditions for the formation of all the components of professional competence of future teachers.

  18. Рђn improvement of process of organization of pedagogical practice is priority condition of forming of professional competence of future teachers the basics of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara S.Р†.


    Full Text Available The problem of improving the organization of teaching practice as one of the primary conditions of formation professional competence of future teachers of basic health. Highlighted that the improvement of the process of organizing teaching practice can be done by improving the content of the students during the teaching practice, the organization of joint work of all supervisors (teachers of higher educational institutions and teachers of general educational institutions, compliance with the uniform requirements supervisors to an evaluation of the student's performance. It is noted that purposeful pedagogical guidance and to improve the content of the students during the teaching practice creates the conditions for the formation of all the components of professional competence of future teachers.

  19. Effect Of Shade Organic Materials And Varieties On Growth And Production Of Upland Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ginting


    Full Text Available Abstract There is a shade factor and low organic matter content of the soil is a problem that needs to be addressed in the development of upland rice cultivation as intercrops in the plantation area. Based on these considerations then one study that needs to be done is to conduct experiments on the effect of shade factor combined with the the provision of the organic material to the some varieties of upland rice that has been recommended nationally. The objective of experiment is to study the influence of shade organic materials and varieties on the growth and production of upland rice. This research using experimental design of Split - Split Plot Design with 3 treatment factors and 3 replications or blocks. The first factor is the treatment of shade with 3 levels shade percentage 0 20 and 40. The second factor is the dosage of organic material consists of 3 levels 0 g polybag 25 g polybag 50 g polybag and 75 g polybag. The third factor is the treatment of varieties consists of 4 types of upland rice varieties Si Kembiri Situ Patengggang Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti. The research results showed that the effect of shade on upland rice varieties decrease number of tillers number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of uplnd rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. Effect of organic matter increases number of panicles number of productive grains grain production per hill of upland rice plants and total sugar content of upland rice plants. It is known that the the variety of Situ Patenggang provides better growth and production compared with three other varieties Si Kembiri Situ Bagendit and Tuwoti in shaded conditions.

  20. Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments. (United States)

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K; Holland, Gregory P; Williams, Lynda B


    The composition of the Sutter's Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter's Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials.

  1. Redox-Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox-Active Materials. (United States)

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S


    Research on redox-flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of "green", safe, and cost-efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal-based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow-battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox-active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Uncovering the Intramolecular Emission and Tuning the Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials by Cocrystallization. (United States)

    Zhu, Weigang; Zhu, Lingyun; Sun, Lingjie; Zhen, Yonggang; Dong, Huanli; Wei, Zhixiang; Hu, Wenping


    The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of organic materials in the solid-state are widely accepted as a result of their molecular packing structure and intermolecular interactions, such as J- and H-aggregation, charge-transfer (CT), excimer and exciplex. However, in this work, we show that Spe-F4 DIB cocrystals (SFCs) surprisingly retain the energy levels of photoluminescence (PL) states of Spe crystals, despite a significantly altered molecular packing structure after cocrystallization. In comparison, Npe-F4 DIB cocrystals (NFCs) with new spectroscopic states display different spectra and photophysical behaviors as compared with those of individual component crystals. These may be related to the molecular configuration in crystals, and we propose Spe as an "intramolecular emissive" material, thus providing a new viewpoint on light-emitting species of organic chromophores. Moreover, the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of Npe and Spe are firstly demonstrated and modulated by cocrystallization. The established "molecule-packing-property" relationship helps to rationally control the optical properties of organic materials through cocrystallization. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Application of headspace for research volatile organic compounds emitted from building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kultys Beata


    Full Text Available Headspace technique and gas chromatography method with mas detector has been used for the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC emitted from various building and finishing materials, such as sealing foams, mounting strips, paints, varnishes, floor coverings. The tests were carried out for different temperatures (in the temperature range of 60 to 180 °C and the time of heated vials with tested materials inside. These tests were conducted to verify the possibility of use this method of determination the VOC emission. Interpretation of chromatograms and mass spectra allowed to identify the type of compounds emitted from the tested materials and the optimum time and temperature for each type of material was determined. The increase in heating temperature of the samples resulted in increase the type and number of identified compounds: for four materials the increase was in the whole temperature range, for others it was from 90 °C. On the other hand, emission from mineral wool was low in whole temperature range. 30-minutes heating of the samples was sufficient to identify emitted compounds for most of tested materials. Applying a longer time, i.e. 24 hours, significantly increased the sensitivity of the method.

  4. Ambipolar organic field effect transistors and inverters with the natural material Tyrian Purple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Daniel Głowacki


    Full Text Available Ambipolar organic semiconductors enable complementary-like circuits in organic electronics. Here we show promising electron and hole transport properties in the natural pigment Tyrian Purple (6,6’-dibromoindigo. X-ray diffraction of Tyrian Purple films reveals a highly-ordered structure with a single preferential orientation, attributed to intermolecular hydrogen bonding. This material, with a band gap of ∼1.8 eV, demonstrates high hole and electron mobilities of 0.22 cm2/V·s and 0.03 cm2/V·s in transistors, respectively; and air-stable operation. Inverters with gains of 250 in the first and third quadrant show the large potential of Tyrian Purple for the development of integrated organic electronic circuits.

  5. Metal-organic frameworks: a rapidly growing class of versatile nanoporous materials. (United States)

    Meek, Scott T; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Allendorf, Mark D


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of hybrid organic-inorganic supramolecular materials comprised of ordered networks formed from organic electron donor linkers and metal cations. They can exhibit extremely high surface areas, as well as tunable pore size and functionality, and can act as hosts for a variety of guest molecules. Since their discovery, MOFs have enjoyed extensive exploration, with applications ranging from gas storage to drug delivery to sensing. This review covers advances in the MOF field from the past three years, focusing on applications, including gas separation, catalysis, drug delivery, optical and electronic applications, and sensing. We also summarize recent work on methods for MOF synthesis and computational modeling.

  6. 25th anniversary article: organic electronics marries photochromism: generation of multifunctional interfaces, materials, and devices. (United States)

    Orgiu, Emanuele; Samorì, Paolo


    Organic semiconductors have garnered significant interest as key components for flexible, low-cost, and large-area electronics. Hitherto, both materials and processing thereof seems to head towards a mature technology which shall ultimately meet expectations and efforts built up over the past years. However, by its own organic electronics cannot compete or complement the silicon-based electronics in integrating multiple functions in a small area unless novel solutions are brought into play. Photochromic molecules are small organic molecules able to undergo reversible photochemical isomerization between (at least) two (meta)stable states which exhibit markedly different properties. They can be embedded as additional component in organic-based materials ready to be exploited in devices such as OLEDs, OFETs, and OLETs. The structurally controlled incorporation of photochromic molecules can be done at various interfaces of a device, including the electrode/semiconductor or dielectric/semiconductor interface, or even as a binary mixture in the active layer, in order to impart a light responsive nature to the device. This can be accomplished by modulating via a light stimulus fundamental physico-chemical properties such as charge injection and transport in the device. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Search for greener Li-ion batteries: an alternative offered by organic electroactive materials (United States)

    Geng, Joaquin; Renault, Stéven; Poizot, Philippe; Dolhem, Franck


    The threats of climate change and the issues of secure energy supply are among the fundamental challenges of the 21stcentury that push humanity to adopt a sustainable development and to favour the use of renewable sources of energy. In addition to their historical use, LIBs seem on the road to power the next "Zero Emission" vehicles or could be used to assist the integration of renewable energy sources both on- and off-the-grid. Consequently, production of LIBs is expected to keep on growing. However LIBs are nearly exclusively based on inorganic compounds, non-renewable and energy-greedy materials. Thus in parallel with regular research on inorganic-based LIBs, we have recently proposed to probe an alternative pathway by searching for redox-active organic materials, easier to discard while possibly derived from biomass resources. As solid-state electrochemistry of organics is not that well documented, our current approach consists in a global survey of selected organic structures in order to grasp relevant parameters that affect the redox potential, the stability upon cycling and so on. In this report, we extend our current database of redox-active organic structures by evaluating vs. Li bulky pyrazine-based structures and dilithium polyporate as a supplementary specimen of p-benzoquinone derivatives.

  8. Investigation of nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials by the Z-scan method (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Tugushev, R. I.; Usmanov, T.


    We have studied the nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials (vegetable oil, juice, wine, cognac, Coca-Cola and Fanta drinks, Nescafé coffee, tea, gasoline, clock oil, glycerol, and polyphenyl ether) that are used in everyday life. Their nonlinearities have been studied by the Z-scan method in the near-IR and visible spectral ranges. We have shown that the majority of samples possess a nonlinear absorption; however, some of the studied materials show a strong saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction. Red wine and glycerol proved to be the most interesting materials. For these samples, we have observed a change in the sign of the nonlinear absorption with increasing laser intensity, which was attributed to the competition between two-photon absorption and saturated absorption.

  9. High laser-fluence deposition of organic materials in water ice matrices by ''MAPLE''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Rodrigo, K.; Schou, Jørgen


    that the mass distribution of the deposited PEG is similar to that of the starting material. Optical pictures of the films show particle structures of PEG of a size up to 5-10 mu m. The deposition rate measured with a quartz crystal microbalance is typically of the order of 1 ng/ (cm(2) shot). (c) 2005 Elsevier......Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) is a deposition technique for organic material. Water ice was used as a matrix for the biotechnologically important guest material, polyethylene glycol (PEG), for concentrations from 0.5 to 4 wt.%. The target was irradiated with 6 ns laser pulses...... at 355 nm at a fluence of 2.5-12 J/cm(2). Even at this high fluence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates a chemical structure of the deposit close to that of the un-irradiated PEG. Matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization (MALDI) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) show...

  10. Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices: Working Principle and Iridium Based Emitter Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil J. W. List


    Full Text Available Even though organic light-emitting device (OLED technology has evolved to a point where it is now an important competitor to liquid crystal displays (LCDs, further scientific efforts devoted to the design, engineering and fabrication of OLEDs are required for complete commercialization of this technology. Along these lines, the present work reviews the essentials of OLED technology putting special focus on the general working principle of single and multilayer OLEDs, fluorescent and phosphorescent emitter materials as well as transfer processes in host materials doped with phosphorescent dyes. Moreover, as a prototypical example of phosphorescent emitter materials, a brief discussion of homo- and heteroleptic iridium(III complexes is enclosed concentrating on their synthesis, photophysical properties and approaches for realizing iridium based phosphorescent polymers.

  11. An efficient recyclable magnetic material for the selective removal of organic pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Monteil


    Full Text Available Wastewater cleaning strategies based on the adsorption of materials are being increasingly considered, but the wide variety of organic pollutants at low concentrations still makes their removal a challenge. The hybrid material proposed here consists of a zwitterionic polyethylenimine polymer coating a magnetic core. Polyethylenimine is phosphonated at different percentages by a one-step process and used to coat maghemite nanoparticles. It selectively extracts high amounts of cationic and anionic contaminants over a wide range of pH values, depending on the adjustable number of phosphonate groups introduced on the polymer. After recovering the nanoparticles with a magnet, pollutants are quantitatively released by repeated washing with low amounts of pH-adjusted water. The material can be reused many times without noticeable loss of efficiency and is designed to resist high temperatures, oxidation and harsh conditions.

  12. Synthesis of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Designed for Radiation Detection, Luminescence, and Gas Storage (United States)

    Vaughn, Shae Anne

    Materials discovery is the driving force behind the research presented herein. Basic research has been conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of coordination chemistry and structural outcomes, particularly within the area of trivalent lanthanides. Discovering new materials is one route to further advancement of technology; another one is the focus on incremental changes to already existing materials. Often the building blocks of a compound are chosen in an effort to synthesize a material that makes use of the properties of each individual component and may result in a better, more robust, applicable material. The combination of organic and inorganic components for the synthesis of novel materials with potential applications such as scintillation photoluminescence, catalysis, and gas storage are the focus of the research presented herein. The first part focuses on lanthanide organic hybrid materials, where the synthesis of a new family of potential scintillating materials was undertaken and yielded improved understanding of the control that can be achieved over the topological structure of these materials by controlling the coordinating crystallization solvents. This research has led to the synthesis of an array of unique motifs, ranging from dimeric complexes, tetrameric complexes, to 1-D chains, and most intriguing of all, catenated tetradecanuclear rings. These rings represent the largest lanthanide rings synthesized to date, the next largest multinuclear rings, until now, were dodecanuclear complexes of alkoxides. From a basic research standpoint this is an exciting new development in lanthanide coordination chemistry and illustrates the importance of steric effects upon a system. These complexes are potential scintillators, supported by their luminescence and measurements of similar compounds that demonstrate surprising scintillation efficiencies. In the second part, other hybrid materials that have also been prepared are discussed, including the

  13. Innovative approaches to organization and management of material streams of building complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Arutyunyan


    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of theoretic and methodological approaches and scientific and practical recommendations concerning the management of the material flows of building complex. Methodology. Research includes analysis of existing scientific works concerning the problems of management of the construction development programs taking into account logistization on the enterprises of different branches related to the building complex. Experience generalization of administrative decision making in the process of production preparation, in particular the motion of material flows management of building resources and information flows (which accompany building resources, systematization of experience, logic analysis, design and system processing of information. Findings. Results give the building organization management an opportunity to estimate the material and technical support of the building objects according to the terms of building, technology of building processes, as well as to into account the minimization of expenses. Originality. Originality lies in the fact that the theoretical and methodological management foundations of the logistic system formation in the programs of building complex development are formulated on the basis of organization methodology development, planning and management from the point of view of the only system positions. Practical value. The contribution to the decision of the number of complex organizational and economic problems accompanied by the problems of building development is provided due to the increase of management efficiency of the material flows of building complex.

  14. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials (United States)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.


    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  15. The Effects of the Position of Organizers to Facilitate Learning of Structured Anthropology Materials in the Sixth Grade. (United States)

    Barnes, Buckley Richard

    The purpose of the study, part of the research and curriculum development of the Anthropology Curriculum Project, was to compare the facilitative effects of pre- and post-organizers on the learning of structured anthropology materials at the sixth-grade level. Organizers were defined, in this thesis, as written material that serves the function of…

  16. The Effects of E-Training versus Traditional Training Delivery Methods on Professional Students in Contemporary Organizations (United States)

    Seda, Albert


    This research investigated the limitations of Albert Bandura's theory of observational training (also known as observational learning) when applied to e-learning. The study focused on professional employees in different industries around the United States. These professionals engaged in continuous training either in the classroom or on in an…

  17. Creating a Discovery Platform for Confined-Space Chemistry and Materials: Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Blake


    Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a recently discovered class of nanoporous, defect-free crystalline materials that enable rational design and exploration of porous materials at the molecular level. MOFs have tunable monolithic pore sizes and cavity environments due to their crystalline nature, yielding properties exceeding those of most other porous materials. These include: the lowest known density (91% free space); highest surface area; tunable photoluminescence; selective molecular adsorption; and methane sorption rivaling gas cylinders. These properties are achieved by coupling inorganic metal complexes such as ZnO4 with tunable organic ligands that serve as struts, allowing facile manipulation of pore size and surface area through reactant selection. MOFs thus provide a discovery platform for generating both new understanding of chemistry in confined spaces and novel sensors and devices based on their unique properties. At the outset of this project in FY06, virtually nothing was known about how to couple MOFs to substrates and the science of MOF properties and how to tune them was in its infancy. An integrated approach was needed to establish the required knowledge base for nanoscale design and develop methodologies integrate MOFs with other materials. This report summarizes the key accomplishments of this project, which include creation of a new class of radiation detection materials based on MOFs, luminescent MOFs for chemical detection, use of MOFs as templates to create nanoparticles of hydrogen storage materials, MOF coatings for stress-based chemical detection using microcantilevers, and "flexible" force fields that account for structural changes in MOFs that occur upon molecular adsorption/desorption. Eight journal articles, twenty presentations at scientific conferences, and two patent applications resulted from the work. The project created a basis for continuing development of MOFs for many Sandia applications and succeeded in securing $2.75 M in

  18. Materials Science of Electrodes and Interfaces for High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)


    The science of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has made dramatic advances over the past three years with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) now reaching ~12%. The upper PCE limit of light-to-electrical power conversion for single-junction OPVs as predicted by theory is ~23%. With further basic research, the vision of such devices, composed of non-toxic, earth-abundant, readily easily processed materials replacing/supplementing current-generation inorganic solar cells may become a reality. Organic cells offer potentially low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and durable solar power for diverse in-door and out-door applications. Importantly, further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with inorganic PVs, will require fundamental, understanding-based advances in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This team-science research effort brought together an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary group with expertise in hard and soft matter materials chemistry, materials electronic structure theory, solar cell fabrication and characterization, microstructure characterization, and low temperature materials processing. We addressed in unconventional ways critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance -- controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organic active-materials, addressing current loss/leakage phenomena at interfaces, and new techniques in cost-effective low temperature and large area cell fabrication. The research foci were: 1) Theory-guided design and synthesis of advanced crystalline and amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers which test our basic understanding of TCO structure-transport property relationships, and have high conductivity, transparency, and tunable work functions but without (or minimizing) the dependence on indium. 2) Development of theory-based understanding of optimum configurations for the interfaces between oxide electrodes

  19. Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming (United States)

    María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón


    Mulching is the most common technique used worldwide by vegetable growers in protected cultivation. For this purpose, several plastic materials have been used, with polyethylene (PE) being the most widespread. However, PE is produced from petroleum derivatives, it is not degradable, and thus pollutes the environment for periods much longer than the crop duration (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011), which are very important negative aspects especially for organic farmers. A large portion of plastic films is left on the field or burnt uncontrollably by the farmers, with the associated negative consequences to the environment (Moreno and Moreno, 2008). Therefore, the best solution is to find a material with a lifetime similar to the crop duration time that can be later incorporated by the agricultural system through a biodegradation process (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011). In this context, various biodegradable materials have been considered as alternatives in the last few years, including oxo-biodegradable films, biopolymer mulches, different types of papers, and crop residues (Kasirajan and Ngouajio, 2012). In this work we evaluate the evolution of different properties related to mulch degradation in both the buried and the superficial (exposed) part of mulch materials of different composition (standard black PE, papers and black biodegradable plastics) in summer vegetable crops under organic management in Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain). As results, it is remarkable the early deterioration suffered by the buried part of the papers, disappearing completely in the soil at the end of the crop cycles and therefore indicating the total incorporation of these materials to the soil once the crop has finished. In the case of the degradation of the exposed mulch, small differences between crops were observed. In general, all the materials were less degraded under the plants than when receiving directly the solar radiation. As conclusion, biodegradable mulches degrade

  20. Influence of Organic Material and Biofilms on Disinfectant Efficacy Against Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Nyati


    Full Text Available The effects of organic material and biofilm formation on the efficacy of Suma Tab D4 chlorine tablets and Suma Bac D10 quaternary ammonium compound (QAC against Listeria monocytogenes was determined in suspension and on stainless steel and polystyrene surfaces according to standard disinfectant test methodology. Exposure to 200 and 740 mg L-1 QAC and to 150 mg L-1 active chlorine resulted in a > 5.0 log10 CFU mL-1 and > 5.0 log10 CFU/coupon reduction of six L. monocytogenes strains within one minute, in suspension tests, and on stainless steel surfaces, respectively. Additionally, there was a reduction by as much as 5 log10 CFU/coupon or 5 log10 CFU/well of reference strains EGDe and Scott A biofilms within five minutes on stainless steel and polystyrene surfaces. Organic material, added as bovine serum albumin at 0.3% (w/v completely prevented the inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 150 mg L-1 chlorine, while reductions of only 0.6 +- 0.1 log10 CFU mL-1 were recorded in the presence of UHT milk at 3% (v/v. In contrast, reductions of 5 log10 CFU mL-1 were recorded within one minute on exposure to 740 mg L-1 QAC in the presence of 0.3% (w/v bovine serum albumin and within two minutes in the presence of 20 % (v/v UHT milk. Although Suma D4 chlorine tablets and Suma Bac D10 QAC are effective listericidal agents at recommended concentrations, Suma Tab D4 chlorine efficacy against L. monocytogenes is impaired by the presence of low concentrations of organic material, while Suma Bac D10 QAC maintains its listericidal activity in high organic loads.

  1. [Determination of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material by headspace gas chromatography]. (United States)

    Hu, Huilian


    A method for the determination of five kinds of residual organic solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material was developed by headspace gas chromatography. An HP-FFAP capillary column (30 m x 0.32 mm x 1.0 microm), a flame ionization detector and the external standard method were used for the separation and quantitative analysis. The effects of equilibrium temperature and equilibrium time on the determination of residual organic solvents were investigated. The good results were obtained in the equilibrium temperature of 90 degrees C and equilibrium time of 30 min. The standard curves were linear in the range of 0.40-7.93 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethyl acetate, 7.32-146.48 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for methanol, 4.53-90.61 mg/L (r = 0.999 9) for isopropanol, 3.62-72.32 mg/L (r = 0.999 8) for ethanol and 2.31-46.24 mg/L (r = 0.999 6) for acetonitrile. The recoveries for the five residual organic solvents were between 95.96% and 100.31% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 6) of 1.97%-3.28%. The detection limits of ethyl acetate, methanol, isopropanol, ethanol and acetonitrile were 0.08, 0.9, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the residual organic solvents in the real sample of flunixin meglumine raw material. The results showed that only isopropanol and ethanol were found in the sample with the contents of 177.44 microg/g and 69.32 microg/g, respectively. The method is rapid, sensitive and accurate for the content determination of residual solvents in flunixin meglumine raw material.

  2. Enhanced procedural blank control for organic geochemical studies of critical sample material. (United States)

    Leider, A; Schumacher, T C; Hallmann, C


    Organic contamination of sedimentary rocks can produce artefacts in studies of hydrocarbon composition, and this can have significant negative consequences for interpretations of the geobiological record. False positives - that is cases of non-syngenetic hydrocarbon biomarkers - are common in Precambrian studies, and significant challenges persist despite the intensive effort devoted to these studies. Efforts to standardize the 'burden of proof' for distinguishing between contamination and syngenetic material have to date failed to yield a simple or universal protocol, yet the need remains great, as both bitumen-lean rocks and bitumen-rich samples can be vulnerable to the accumulation of false-positive signals. In an effort to determine the best approach to quality control, we tested the capability of different blank materials to collect ambient contamination by assessing their capacity to adsorb hydrocarbons during storage in plastic bags and found that commonly used Quartz sand does not provide an adequate measure of storage- or laboratory-induced contamination. Brick blanks, having the advantage that they can parallel rock samples even during the sawing process, are characterized by similar poor adsorption properties. Primarily steered by mineralogy, organic carbon content and surface area, model-black shales can adsorb up to 20 times more contaminants than sand blanks and up to 200 times more contaminants than organic-free model-carbonates. This observation provides an explanation for reports and observations of seemingly systematic stratigraphic variation of contaminants, but mostly should raise awareness for the evaluation of procedural blanks, in particular of sample-to-blank ratios, when studying bitumen-lean rock samples of varying lithologies. Additionally, differences between the hydrocarbon profiles in plastic bags and the hydrocarbon signatures transferred to blank materials emphasize difficulties in the unequivocal detection of contamination sources

  3. New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping


    The widespread adoption of relative stable isotope-ratio measurements in organic matter by diverse scientific disciplines is at odds with the dearth of international organic stable isotopic reference materials (RMs). Only two of the few carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) organic RMs, namely L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 [1], both available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provide an isotopically contrasting pair of organic RMs to enable essential 2-point calibrations for δ-scale normalization [2, 3]. The supply of hydrogen (H) organic RMs is even more limited. Numerous stable isotope laboratories have resorted to questionable practices, for example by using 'CO2, N2, and H2 reference gas pulses' for isotopic calibrations, which violates the principle of identical treatment of sample and standard (i.e., organic unknowns should be calibrated directly against chemically similar organic RMs) [4], or by using only 1 anchor instead of 2 for scale calibration. The absence of international organic RMs frequently serves as an excuse for indefensible calibrations. In 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded an initiative of 10 laboratories from 7 countries to jointly develop much needed new organic RMs for future distribution by the USGS and the IAEA. The selection of targeted RMs attempts to cover various common compound classes of broad technical and scientific interest. We had to accept compromises to approach the ideal of high chemical stability, lack of toxicity, and low price of raw materials. Hazardous gases and flammable liquids were avoided in order to facilitate international shipping of future RMs. With the exception of polyethylene and vacuum pump oil, all organic RMs are individual, chemically-pure substances, which can be used for compound-specific isotopic measurements in conjunction with liquid and gas chromatographic interfaces. The compounds listed below are under isotopic calibration by

  4. The American Medical Association's Section on Surgery: The Beginnings of the Organization, Professionalization, and Specialization of Surgery in the United States. (United States)

    Rutkow, Ira


    To explore the founding of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery in 1859 and how it represented, on a national basis, the beginnings of organized surgery and the formal start of the professionalization and specialization of surgery in the United States. The broad social process of organization, professionalization, and specialization that began for various disciplines in America in the mid-19th century was a reaction to emerging economic, political, and scientific influences including industrialization, urbanization, and technology. For surgeons or, at least, those men who performed surgical operations, the efforts toward group organization provided a means to promote their skills and restrict competition. An analysis of the published literature, and unpublished documents relating to the creation of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery. During the 1850s and through the 1870s, a time when surgery was still not considered a separate branch of medicine, the organization of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery provided the much needed encouragement to surgeons in their quest for professional and specialty recognition. The establishment of the American Medical Association's Section on Surgery in 1859 helped shape the nationwide future of the craft, in particular, surgery's rise as a specialty and profession.

  5. From self-organization to self-assembly: a new materialism? (United States)

    Vincent, Bernadette Bensaude


    While self-organization has been an integral part of academic discussions about the distinctive features of living organisms, at least since Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgement, the term 'self-assembly' has only been used for a few decades as it became a hot research topic with the emergence of nanotechnology. Could it be considered as an attempt at reducing vital organization to a sort of assembly line of molecules? Considering the context of research on self-assembly I argue that the shift of attention from self-organization to self-assembly does not really challenge the boundary between chemistry and biology. Self-assembly was first and foremost investigated in an engineering context as a strategy for manufacturing without human intervention and did not raise new perspectives on the emergence of vital organization itself. However self-assembly implies metaphysical assumptions that this paper tries to disentangle. It first describes the emergence of self-assembly as a research field in the context of materials science and nanotechnology. The second section outlines the metaphysical implications and will emphasize a sharp contrast between the ontology underlying two practices of self-assembly developed under the umbrella of synthetic biology. And unexpectedly, we shall see that chemists are less on the reductionist side than most synthetic biologists. Finally, the third section ventures some reflections on the kind of design involved in self-assembly practices.

  6. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Literature Survey and Recommendation of Potential Sorbent Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, T F


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a special type of porous material with a number of unique properties, including exceptionally high surface areas, large internal pore volumes (void space) and tunable pore sizes. These materials are prepared through the assembly of molecular building blocks into ordered three-dimensional structures. The bulk properties of the MOF are determined by the nature of the building blocks and, as such, these materials can be designed with special characteristics that cannot be realized in other sorbent materials, like activated carbons. For example, MOFs can be constructed with binding sites or pockets that can exhibit selectivity for specific analytes. Alternatively, the framework can be engineered to undergo reversible dimensional changes (or 'breathing') upon interaction with an analyte, effectively trapping the molecule of interest in the lattice structure. In this report, we have surveyed the 4000 different MOF structures reported in the open literature and provided recommendations for specific MOF materials that should be investigated as sorbents for this project.

  7. Metal-organic frameworks: functional luminescent and photonic materials for sensing applications. (United States)

    Lustig, William P; Mukherjee, Soumya; Rudd, Nathan D; Desai, Aamod V; Li, Jing; Ghosh, Sujit K


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers (PCPs) are open, crystalline supramolecular coordination architectures with porous facets. These chemically tailorable framework materials are the subject of intense and expansive research, and are particularly relevant in the fields of sensory materials and device engineering. As the subfield of MOF-based sensing has developed, many diverse chemical functionalities have been carefully and rationally implanted into the coordination nanospace of MOF materials. MOFs with widely varied fluorometric sensing properties have been developed using the design principles of crystal engineering and structure-property correlations, resulting in a large and rapidly growing body of literature. This work has led to advancements in a number of crucial sensing domains, including biomolecules, environmental toxins, explosives, ionic species, and many others. Furthermore, new classes of MOF sensory materials utilizing advanced signal transduction by devices based on MOF photonic crystals and thin films have been developed. This comprehensive review summarizes the topical developments in the field of luminescent MOF and MOF-based photonic crystals/thin film sensory materials.

  8. Survival of Organic Materials in Ancient Cryovolcanically-Produced Halite Crystals (United States)

    Zolensky, M.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bodnar, R.; Burton, A.; Callahan, M.; Steele, A.; Sandford, S.


    Spectroscopic evidence supports the presence of Mg-Na-K salts derived from cryovolcanism on the surface of Europa. Halite (NaCl) is effective at very long-term preservation of organic phases and structures. Collection of salt crystals from Europan plumes would provide solid inclusions of organics, potentially also biomaterials, all suitable for analysis. Two thermally-metamorphosed ordinary chondrite regolith breccias (Monahans 1998 (H5) and Zag (H3-6)) contain fluid and solid inclusion-bearing halite crystals, dated to approximately 4.5 billion years, and thus the trapped aqueous fluids and solids are at least as old. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 degrees Centigrade, and their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid occurred after that body's metamorphism ended, since heating would have dessicated the halite. O and H isotopes of the trapped fluids are consistent with mixing of asteroidal and cometary water. Cryovolcanic Origin of the Halite: We hypothesize that these meteoritic halites derive from ancient cryovolcanism based on the following points. (1) Salts crystals are observed as products of current cryovolcanism on Enceladus. (2) In-situ spacecraft analysis of some of the icy grains associated with the Enceladus salt found minor organic or siliceous components, including methane, also found in the Monahans halite. (3) Cryovolcanic fluids are observed to be in chemical disequilibrium, reflecting incomplete reactions between interior volatiles and rocky materials. The coexistence of N2 and HCN in Enceladus' cryovolcanic fluids requires that the plume consists of a mixture of materials whose sources experienced different degrees of aqueous processing, including primordial material trapped in ice that has not been in contact with liquid water. The observed mineral assemblage within the Monahans and Zag halites is

  9. Residual influence of organic materials, crop residues, and biofertilizers on performance of succeeding mung bean in an organic rice-based cropping system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davari, Mohammadreza; Sharma, Shri Niwas; Mirzakhani, Mohammad


    The present investigation was undertaken to assess the residual influence of organic materials and biofertilizers applied to rice and wheat on yield, nutrient status, and economics of succeeding mung...

  10. Strategies for increasing the efficiency of heterojunction organic solar cells: material selection and device architecture. (United States)

    Heremans, Paul; Cheyns, David; Rand, Barry P


    Thin-film blends or bilayers of donor- and acceptor-type organic semiconductors form the core of heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. Researchers measure the quality of photovoltaic cells based on their power conversion efficiency, the ratio of the electrical power that can be generated versus the power of incident solar radiation. The efficiency of organic solar cells has increased steadily in the last decade, currently reaching up to 6%. Understanding and combating the various loss mechanisms that occur in processes from optical excitation to charge collection should lead to efficiencies on the order of 10% in the near future. In organic heterojunction solar cells, the generation of photocurrent is a cascade of four steps: generation of excitons (electrically neutral bound electron-hole pairs) by photon absorption, diffusion of excitons to the heterojunction, dissociation of the excitons into free charge carriers, and transport of these carriers to the contacts. In this Account, we review our recent contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms that govern these steps. Starting from archetype donor-acceptor systems of planar small-molecule heterojunctions and solution-processed bulk heterojunctions, we outline our search for alternative materials and device architectures. We show that non-planar phthalocynanines have appealing absorption characteristics but also have reduced charge carrier transport. As a result, the donor layer needs to be ultrathin, and all layers of the device have to be tuned to account for optical interference effects. Using these optimization techniques, we illustrate cells with 3.1% efficiency for the non-planar chloroboron subphthalocyanine donor. Molecules offering a better compromise between absorption and carrier mobility should allow for further improvements. We also propose a method for increasing the exciton diffusion length by converting singlet excitons into long-lived triplets. By doping a polymer with a

  11. Thermal conductivity of organic semi-conducting materials using 3omega and photothermal radiometry techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisdorffer Frederic


    Full Text Available Organic semiconductors for opto-electronic devices show several defects which can be enhanced while increasing the operating temperature. Their thermal management and especially the reduction of their temperature are of great interest. For the heat transfer study, one has to measure the thermal conductivity of thin film organic materials. However the major difficulty for this measurement is the very low thickness of the films which needs the use of very specific techniques. In our work, the 3-omega and photothermal radiometric methods were used to measure the thermal conductivity of thin film organic semiconducting material (Alq3. The measurements were performed as function of the thin film thickness from 45 to 785 nm and also of its temperature from 80 to 350 K. With the 3 omega method, a thermal conductivity value of 0.066 W.m−1K−1 was obtained for Alq3 thin film of 200 nm at room temperature, in close agreement with the photothermal value. Both techniques appear to be complementary: the 3 omega method is easier to implement for large temperature range and small thicknesses down to a few tens of nanometers whereas the photothermal method is more suitable for thicknesses over 200nm since it provides additional information such as the thin film volumetric heat capacity.

  12. Thermal analysis on organic phase change materials for heat storage applications (United States)

    Lager, Daniel


    In this paper, methodologies based on thermal analysis to evaluate specific heat capacity, phase transition enthalpies, thermal cycling stability and thermal conductivity of organic phase change materials (PCMs) are discussed. Calibration routines for a disc type heat flow differential scanning calorimetry (hf-DSC) are compared and the applied heating rates are adapted due to the low thermal conductivity of the organic PCMs. An assessment of thermal conductivity measurements based on "Laser Flash Analysis" (LFA) and the "Transient Hot Bridge" method (THB) in solid and liquid state has been performed. It could be shown that a disc type hf-DSC is a useful method for measuring specific heat capacity, melting enthalpies and cycling stability of organic PCM if temperature and sensitivity calibration are adapted to the material and quantity to be measured. The LFA method shows repeatable and reproducible thermal diffusivity results in solid state and a high effort for sample preparation in comparison to THB in liquid state. Thermal conductivity results of the two applied methods show large deviations in liquid phase and have to be validated by further experiments.

  13. Two-Dimensional Metal-Free Organic Multiferroic Material for Design of Multifunctional Integrated Circuits. (United States)

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Wu, Menghao; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    Coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in a single 2D material is highly desirable for integration of multifunctional units in 2D material-based circuits. We report theoretical evidence of C6N8H organic network as being the first 2D organic multiferroic material with coexisting ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties. The ferroelectricity stems from multimode proton-transfer within the 2D C6N8H network, in which a long-range proton-transfer mode is enabled by the facilitation of oxygen molecule when the network is exposed to the air. Such oxygen-assisted ferroelectricity also leads to a high Curie temperature and coupling between ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. We also find that hydrogenation and carbon doping can transform the 2D g-C3N4 network from an insulator to an n-type/p-type magnetic semiconductor with modest bandgap. Akin to the dopant induced n/p channels in silicon wafer, a variety of dopant created functional units can be integrated into the g-C3N4 wafer by design for nanoelectronic applications.

  14. Carcinogenic organic residual compounds readsorbed on thermally reduced graphene materials are released at low temperature. (United States)

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Wong, Gwendeline K S; Webster, Richard D; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin


    The preliminary oxidation of graphite to graphite oxide followed by a thermal exfoliation is one of the methods most frequently employed in the preparation of graphene. Such thermally reduced graphene can be widely used for several applications that range from coatings to sensing device fabrication. It is therefore important to investigate in detail the fabrication procedure, the structural features of the resulting graphene, and its potential toxicological effects. Low-molecular-weight and carcinogenic compounds are known to be generated during the thermal reduction/exfoliation of graphite oxide. Such compounds are readsorbed onto the reduced material during the cooling process. We investigate here the composition of the organic compounds that are adsorbed onto the graphene material and show that they can be easily released during the following processing steps even at temperatures as low as 50 °C. Some of the released organic compounds are classified as highly carcinogenic. The results shown here are important not only from a chemical point of view to better understand the composition and properties of the graphene material produced, but also to bring attention to the potential toxicological effects that the synthesis itself or the post-production processes can cause. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Micro-scale thermal imaging of advanced organic and polymeric materials (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko


    Recent topics of micro-scale thermal imaging on advanced organic and polymeric materials are presented, the originally developed IR camera systems equipped with a real time direct impose-signal capturing device and a laser drive generating a modulated spot heating with a diode laser, controlled by the x-y positioning actuator, has been applied to measure the micro-scale thermal phenomena. The advanced organic and polymeric materials are now actively developed especially for the purpose of the effective heat dissipation in the new energy system, including, LED, Lithium battery, Solar cell, etc. The micro-scale thermal imaging in the heat dissipation process has become important in view of the effective power saving. In our system, the imposed temperature data are applied to the pixel emissivity corrections and visualizes the anisotropic thermal properties of the composite materials at the same time. The anisotropic thermal diffusion in the ultra-drawn high-thermal conductive metal-filler composite polymer film and the carbon-cloth for the battery systems are visualized.

  16. Geometric Shape Regulation and Noncovalent Synthesis of One-Dimensional Organic Luminescent Nano-/Micro-Materials. (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Zuolun; Zhang, Shoufeng; Wei, Jinbei; Ye, Kaiqi; Liu, Yu; Marder, Todd B; Wang, Yue


    Noncovalent synthesis of one-dimensional (1D) organic nano-/micro-materials with controllable geometric shapes or morphologies and special luminescent and electronic properties is one of the greatest challenges in modern chemistry and material science. Control of noncovalent interactions is fundamental for realizing desired 1D structures and crucial for understanding the functions of these interactions. Here, a series of thiophene-fused phenazines composed of a halogen-substituted π-conjugated plate and a pair of flexible side chains is presented, which displays halogen-dependent 1D self-assemblies. Luminescent 1D twisted wires, straight rods, and zigzag wires, respectively, can be generated in sequence when the halogen atoms are varied from the lightest F to the heaviest I. It was demonstrated that halogen-dependent anisotropic noncovalent interactions and mirror-symmetrical crystallization dominated the 1D-assembly behaviors of this class of molecules. The methodology developed in this study provides a potential strategy for constructing 1D organic materials with unique optoelectronic functions.

  17. DNA-nanoparticle assemblies go organic: Macroscopic polymeric materials with nanosized features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentovich Elad D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals in the field of structural DNA nanotechnology is the use of DNA to build up 2- and 3-D nanostructures. The research in this field is motivated by the remarkable structural features of DNA as well as by its unique and reversible recognition properties. Nucleic acids can be used alone as the skeleton of a broad range of periodic nanopatterns and nanoobjects and in addition, DNA can serve as a linker or template to form DNA-hybrid structures with other materials. This approach can be used for the development of new detection strategies as well as nanoelectronic structures and devices. Method Here we present a new method for the generation of unprecedented all-organic conjugated-polymer nanoparticle networks guided by DNA, based on a hierarchical self-assembly process. First, microphase separation of amphiphilic block copolymers induced the formation of spherical nanoobjects. As a second ordering concept, DNA base pairing has been employed for the controlled spatial definition of the conjugated-polymer particles within the bulk material. These networks offer the flexibility and the diversity of soft polymeric materials. Thus, simple chemical methodologies could be applied in order to tune the network's electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Results and conclusions One- two- and three-dimensional networks have been successfully formed. Common to all morphologies is the integrity of the micelles consisting of DNA block copolymer (DBC, which creates an all-organic engineered network.

  18. Fabrication of organic semiconducting materials and high-performance organic thin-film transistors based on electron-irradiated polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeok Moo


    It was discovered that non-luminescent polystyrene (PS) can be converted to luminescent materials whose color can be changed in a wide visible range by electron irradiation. After the analyses of electron-irradiated PS, it was found that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are produced by the irradiation and these PAHs are the origin of the luminescence from the electron-irradiated polymer. Based on the finding, a straightforward approach to produce desired light-emitting nanoarchitectures and nanopatterns only by irradiating an electron beam to the polymer was presented. In particular, the top-down irradiation approach provides a powerful tool to fabricate a variety of interesting nanoarchitectures when combined with bottom-up approaches; PS nanostructures prepared by self-assembling techniques can be directly transformed to luminescent nanostructures by electron irradiation while keeping their pristine morphologies. Light-emitting materials are widely used for optical, photonic, chemical and biomedical devices and a rapid progress in the devices requires well-defined luminescent nanoarchitectures. The approach presented here will be useful for a wide range of research fields including optics, photonics, chemistry, and biologics. On the other hand, a very simple but effective approach to produce high-performance rubrene organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with characteristics better than amorphous silicon TFTs was presented. Only by an abrupt heating process, high-quality crystalline rubrene semiconductor thin films that have almost ideal structures for OTFTs are created. The produced crystalline thin films consist of highly ordered, uniaxially oriented single-crystalline grains with large average sizes and the grains are interconnected with one another to form continuous films over the whole dielectric surfaces. Such high-quality crystalline rubrene thin films are remarkably rapidly produced in just 30 sec through this approach. Moreover, the increase of carrier

  19. Effect of organic fertilizers prepared from organic waste materials on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds by two biocontrol Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains. (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Wei, Zhong; Ling, Ning; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong


    Three organic fertilizers made of different animal and plant waste materials (BOFs) were evaluated for their effects on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains SQR-9 and T-5 against the tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). Both strains could produce VOCs that inhibited the growth and virulence traits of RS; however, in the presence of BOFs, the production of antibacterial VOCs was significantly increased. The maximum inhibition of growth and virulence traits of RS by VOCs of T-5 and SQR-9 was determined at 1.5% BOF2 and 2% BOF3, respectively. In case of strain T-5, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene, benzothiazole, and butylated hydroxy toluene and in case of strain SQR-9, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene and 2-undecanone were the main antibacterial VOCs whose production was increased in the presence of BOFs. The results of this study reveal another significance of using organic fertilizers to improve the antagonistic activity of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A preliminary review of organic materials single crystal growth by the Czochralski technique (United States)

    Penn, B. G.; Shields, A. W.; Frazier, D. O.


    The growth of single crystals of organic compounds by the Czochralski method is reviewed. From the literature it is found that single crystals of benzil, a nonlinear optical material with a d sub 11 value of 11.2 + or - 1.5 x d sub 11 value of alpha quartz, has fewer dislocations than generally contained in Bridgman crystals. More perfect crystals were grown by repeated Czochralski growth. This consists of etching away the defect-containing portion of a Czochralski grown crystal and using it as a seed for further growth. Other compounds used to grow single crystals are benzophenone, 12-tricosanone (laurone), and salol. The physical properties, growth apparatus, and processing conditions presented in the literature are discussed. Moreover, some of the possible advantages of growing single crystals of organic compounds in microgravity to obtain more perfect crystals than on Earth are reviewed.

  1. Materials for organic photovoltaics: insights from detailed structural models and molecular simulations (United States)

    Casalegno, Mosè; Baggioli, Alberto; Famulari, Antonino; Meille, Stefano V.; Nicolini, Tommaso; Po, Riccardo; Raos, Guido


    This paper contains a brief discussion of the role of detailed structural and computational studies, within the general field of organic photovoltaics. We review some of our recent work on poly(3-butylthiophene) (P3BT) and on [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The first is a prototypical hole-transporting material, whose crystal forms I.' and II were solved by us through the combined use of powder Xray diffraction, electron diffraction and molecular modelling. PCBM is a widely used fullerene derivative with electron-transporting properties. It has a rich polymorphism, which to date remains largely unexplored. Our molecular dynamics simulations have revealed interesting features of its solid-state organization, including that in the amorphous phase.

  2. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials (United States)

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.


    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  3. Bulk Crystal Growth of Nonlinear Optical Organic Materials Using Inverted Vertical Gradient Freeze Method (United States)

    Choi, J.; Cruz, Magda; Metzl, R.; Wang, W. S.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.


    A new process for producing large bulk single crystals of benzil (C6H5COCOC6H5) is reported in this paper. Good quality crystals have been successfully grown using this approach to crystal growth. This method seems to be very promising for other thermally stable NLO organic materials also. The entire contents vycor crucible 1.5 inch in diameter and 2 inch deep was converted to single crystal. Purity of the starting growth material is also an important factor in the final quality of the grown crystals. The entire crystal can be very easily taken out of the crucible by simple maneuvering. Initial characterization of the grown crystals indicated that the crystals are as good as other crystals grown by conventional Bridgman Stockbarger technique.

  4. Chromium(II) Metal–Organic Polyhedra as Highly Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Perry, Zachary; Chen, Ying-Pin; Bae, Jaeyeon; Zhou, Hong-Cai (DGIST); (TAM)


    Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of Cr(II)-based metal–organic polyhedra (MOPs) and the characterization of their porosities. Unlike the isostructural Cu(II)- or Mo(II)-based MOPs, Cr(II)-based MOPs show unusually high gas uptakes and surface areas. The combination of comparatively robust dichromium paddlewheel units (Cr2 units), cage symmetries, and packing motifs enable these materials to achieve Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas of up to 1000 m2/g. Reducing the aggregation of the Cr(II)-based MOPs upon activation makes their pores more accessible than their Cu(II) or Mo(II) counterparts. Further comparisons of surface areas on a molar (m2/mol cage) rather than gravimetric (m2/g) basis is proposed as a rational method of comparing members of a family of related molecular materials.

  5. Mimicking Heme Enzymes in the Solid State: Metal-Organic Materials with Selectively Encapsulated Heme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Randy W; Wojtas, Lukasz; Perman, Jason; Musselman, Ronald L; Zaworotko, Michael J; Vetromile, Carissa M [USF


    To carry out essential life processes, nature has had to evolve heme enzymes capable of synthesizing and manipulating complex molecules. These proteins perform a plethora of chemical reactions utilizing a single iron porphyrin active site embedded within an evolutionarily designed protein pocket. We herein report the first class of metal–organic materials (MOMs) that mimic heme enzymes in terms of both structure and reactivity. The MOMzyme-1 class is based upon a prototypal MOM, HKUST-1, into which catalytically active metalloporphyrins are selectively encapsulated in a “ship-in-a-bottle” fashion within one of the three nanoscale cages that exist in HKUST-1. MOMs offer unparalleled levels of permanent porosity and their modular nature affords enormous diversity of structures and properties. The MOMzyme-1 class could therefore represent a new paradigm for heme biomimetic catalysis since it combines the activity of a homogeneous catalyst with the stability and recyclability of heterogeneous catalytic systems within a single material.

  6. Mimicking heme enzymes in the solid state: metal-organic materials with selectively encapsulated heme. (United States)

    Larsen, Randy W; Wojtas, Lukasz; Perman, Jason; Musselman, Ronald L; Zaworotko, Michael J; Vetromile, Carissa M


    To carry out essential life processes, nature has had to evolve heme enzymes capable of synthesizing and manipulating complex molecules. These proteins perform a plethora of chemical reactions utilizing a single iron porphyrin active site embedded within an evolutionarily designed protein pocket. We herein report the first class of metal-organic materials (MOMs) that mimic heme enzymes in terms of both structure and reactivity. The MOMzyme-1 class is based upon a prototypal MOM, HKUST-1, into which catalytically active metalloporphyrins are selectively encapsulated in a "ship-in-a-bottle" fashion within one of the three nanoscale cages that exist in HKUST-1. MOMs offer unparalleled levels of permanent porosity and their modular nature affords enormous diversity of structures and properties. The MOMzyme-1 class could therefore represent a new paradigm for heme biomimetic catalysis since it combines the activity of a homogeneous catalyst with the stability and recyclability of heterogeneous catalytic systems within a single material.

  7. Growth and characterization of an organic nonlinear optical material: L-Histidine malonate (United States)

    Ramya, K.; Saraswathi, N. T.; Raja, C. Ramachandra


    L-Histidine malonate is one of the potential organic material for nonlinear optical applications. Single crystals of L-Histidine malonate were grown by the liquid diffusion method. The lattice parameter values were evaluated from single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The Fourier Transform Infra Red and Raman spectral studies were employed to identify the different modes of vibrations of molecular groups in the crystal. Optical characterization and the percentage of optical transmission were recorded using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The molecular structure was established by proton and carbon Nuclear magnetic resonance spectral studies. The thermal behavior of the material has been studied by Thermo gravimetric and Differential thermal plots. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency was found out from the powder technique of Kurtz and Perry.

  8. Embedding effects on charge-transport parameters in molecular organic materials. (United States)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Mennucci, Benedetta


    We present a generalized version of the tight-binding approach to determine the electronic coupling parameter in charge (hole) transport phenomena in organic materials. The main novelty of this approach is that the "embedding effects" of the environment (either a solvent or a crystal packing) can be explicitly included in the calculation by considering an embedded dimer. One of the main features shown by the application of the method to both model systems and oligoacene crystals is that the routinely used "energy splitting in a dimer" approximation gives reasonable results even if the transfer units are not equivalent by symmetry but the embedding effects are properly taken into account.

  9. Embedding effects on charge-transport parameters in molecular organic materials (United States)

    Lipparini, Filippo; Mennucci, Benedetta


    We present a generalized version of the tight-binding approach to determine the electronic coupling parameter in charge (hole) transport phenomena in organic materials. The main novelty of this approach is that the "embedding effects" of the environment (either a solvent or a crystal packing) can be explicitly included in the calculation by considering an embedded dimer. One of the main features shown by the application of the method to both model systems and oligoacene crystals is that the routinely used "energy splitting in a dimer" approximation gives reasonable results even if the transfer units are not equivalent by symmetry but the embedding effects are properly taken into account.

  10. Applications of Continuous-Flow Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis, Material Science, and Water Treatment. (United States)

    Cambié, Dario; Bottecchia, Cecilia; Straathof, Natan J W; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy


    Continuous-flow photochemistry in microreactors receives a lot of attention from researchers in academia and industry as this technology provides reduced reaction times, higher selectivities, straightforward scalability, and the possibility to safely use hazardous intermediates and gaseous reactants. In this review, an up-to-date overview is given of photochemical transformations in continuous-flow reactors, including applications in organic synthesis, material science, and water treatment. In addition, the advantages of continuous-flow photochemistry are pointed out and a thorough comparison with batch processing is presented.

  11. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laili, Zalina, E-mail: [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abdul [Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  12. Terrestrial bitumen analogue of orgueil organic material demonstrates high sensitivity to usual HF-HCl treatment (United States)

    Korochantsev, A. V.; Nikolaeva, O. V.


    The relationship between the chemical composition and the interlayer spacing (d002) of organic materials (OM's) is known for various terrestrial OM's. We improved this general trend by correlation with corresponding trend of natural solid bitumens (asphaltite-kerite-anthraxolite) up to graphite. Using the improved trend we identified bitumen analogs of carbonaceous chondrite OM's residued after HF-HCl treatment. Our laboratory experiment revealed that these analogs and, hence, structure and chemical composition of carbonaceous chondrite OM's are very sensitive to the HF-HCl treatment. So, usual extraction of OM from carbonaceous chondrites may change significantly structural and chemical composition of extracted OM.

  13. Strategies for Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Organic Materials: Polymers and Biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, William; Cagin, Tahir; Blanco, Mario; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Dasgupta, Siddharth; Floriano, Wely B.; Belmares, Michael; Kua, Jeremy S.; Zamanakos, Georgios; Kashihara, Seichi; Iotov, Mihail; Gao, Guanghua


    Advances in theory and methods are making it practical to consider fully first principles (de novo) predictions of structures, properties, and processes for organic materials. However, despite the progress there remains an enormous challenge in bridging the vast range of distances and time scales between de novo atomistic simulations and the quantitative continuum models for the macroscopic systems essential in industrial design and operations. Recent advances relevant to such developments include: quantum chemistry including continuum solvation and force field embedding, de novo force fields to describe phase transitions, molecular dynamics (MD) including continuum solvent, non equilibrium MD for rheology and thermal conductivity and mesoscale simulations.

  14. Templated synthesis, postsynthetic metal exchange, and properties of a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie


    Reaction of biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate (H 3BPT) and CdCl 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) afforded porph@MOM-10, a microporous metal-organic material containing CdTMPyP cations encapsulated in an anionic Cd(II) carboxylate framework, [Cd 6(BPT) 4Cl 4(H 2O) 4]. Porph@MOM-10 is a versatile platform that undergoes exchange to serve as the parent of a series of porph@MOMs that exhibit permanent porosity and heterogeneous catalytic activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Interface modification and material synthesis of organic light-emitting diodes using plasma technology (United States)

    Liang, Rongqing; Ou, Qiongrong; Yang, Cheng; He, Kongduo; Yang, Xilu; Zhong, Shaofeng; plasma application Team


    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), due to their unique properties of solution processability, compatibility with flexible substrates and with large-scale printing technology, attract huge interest in the field of lighting. The integration of plasma technology into OLEDs provides a new route to improve their performance. Here we demonstrate the modification of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) work function by plasma treatment, synthesis of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials using plasma grafting (polymerisation), and multi-layer solution processing achieved by plasma cross-linking.

  16. Backwater rise due to large wood accumulations: Effect of organic fine material (United States)

    Schalko, Isabella; Schmocker, Lukas; Weitbrecht, Volker; Boes, Robert M.


    Large wood (logs with a diameter ≥ 0.1 m and a length ≥ 1.0 m) in rivers improves the diversity of morphological structures and flow conditions. It may be transported as single logs or in a bulk, forming a log jam or an accumulation at an obstruction. In a natural river, large wood (LW) accumulations create heterogeneous hydraulic gradients and increase the flow resistance. Besides various ecological benefits, LW accumulations may intensify flood hazard. During flood events, transported LW may accumulate at river infrastructures or is retained intentionally at LW retention structures. In both cases, the accumulation results in an upstream backwater rise and may lead to flooding of the nearby area. Consequently, engineering measures are necessary to mitigate LW accumulation risk. The number of investigations on the role of LW during flood events has substantially increased within the last decades. At the Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology, and Glaciology (VAW) of ETH Zurich, several studies were conducted on LW accumulation probability and rate. Formulae for backwater rise calculation already exist, but the governing parameters are still contradictory. In addition, the effect of organic fine material (e.g. branches or leaves in a LW accumulation) was neglected in all previous studies. In this present study, a series of small-scale and close-to-prototype model tests were conducted to identify the governing parameters on backwater rise due to LW accumulations. During the experiments, the approach flow conditions (inflow flow depth and Froude number) and LW accumulation characteristics (accumulation length, compactness of LW accumulations, LW characteristics, and organic fine material) were varied systematically. The experimental results show that the backwater rise depends mainly on the compactness of LW accumulations, approach flow Froude number, and organic fine material. The study confirms the hypothesis that organic fine material changes the accumulation

  17. Design rules for charge-transport efficient host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. (United States)

    May, Falk; Al-Helwi, Mustapha; Baumeier, Björn; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Evelyn; Lennartz, Christian; Andrienko, Denis


    The use of blue phosphorescent emitters in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) imposes demanding requirements on a host material. Among these are large triplet energies, the alignment of levels with respect to the emitter, the ability to form and sustain amorphous order, material processability, and an adequate charge carrier mobility. A possible design strategy is to choose a π-conjugated core with a high triplet level and to fulfill the other requirements by using suitable substituents. Bulky substituents, however, induce large spatial separations between conjugated cores, can substantially reduce intermolecular electronic couplings, and decrease the charge mobility of the host. In this work we analyze charge transport in amorphous 2,8-bis(triphenylsilyl)dibenzofuran, an electron-transporting material synthesized to serve as a host in deep-blue OLEDs. We show that mesomeric effects delocalize the frontier orbitals over the substituents recovering strong electronic couplings and lowering reorganization energies, especially for electrons, while keeping energetic disorder small. Admittance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the material has indeed a high electron mobility and a small Poole-Frenkel slope, supporting our conclusions. By linking electronic structure, molecular packing, and mobility, we provide a pathway to the rational design of hosts with high charge mobilities.

  18. Sorption mechanisms of organic compounds by carbonaceous materials: site energy distribution consideration. (United States)

    Shen, Xiaofang; Guo, Xiaoying; Zhang, Meng; Tao, Shu; Wang, Xilong


    Sorption of naphthalene, lindane, and atrazine on 10 kinds of carbonaceous materials which included four kinds of graphene, three kinds of graphite, two kinds of carbon nanotubes and one kind of mesoporous carbon was investigated. The approximate sorption site energy distributions were calculated based on Dubinin-Ashtakhov (DA) model. The average sorption site energy and standard deviation of the site energy distribution were deduced and applied to analyze the interaction between sorbents and sorbates, and the sorption site heterogeneity. The introduction of oxygen-containing functional groups to the sorbents caused a decrease in their average sorption energy for the studied compounds. However, relative to the decrease in average site energy, the reduction in number of sorption sites as indicated by surface area more strongly reduced their sorption capacity to the tested carbonaceous materials based on the result of the linear regression analysis. Sorption site heterogeneity of the sorbents decreased as their oxygen contents increased, which is attributed to the better dispersion of the oxygen-containing materials as indicated by their TEM images. The method proposed in this study to quantify the average sorption site energy and heterogeneity is helpful for a better understanding of the sorption mechanisms of organic pollutants to carbonaceous materials.

  19. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby


    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  20. Ternary solution-processed organic solar cells incorporating 2D materials (United States)

    Stylianakis, Minas M.; Konios, Dimitrios; Petridis, Constantinos; Kakavelakis, George; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Kymakis, Emmanuel


    Recently, the study of ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) has attracted the efforts of the scientific community, leading to significantly higher performance due to the enhanced harvesting of incoming irradiation. Here, for the first time, and in order to promote this OSC architecture, we review the progress implemented by the application of two-dimensional (2D) materials in the field of blend bulk heterojunction ternary OSCs. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvements of the order of 40% compared to the reference binary devices, and PCEs in excess of 8% have been reported by incorporating graphene-based or other 2D materials as a third element inside the active layer. These OSCs combine the synergetic advantages of ternary devices and the superb properties of the 2D material family. In conclusion, the incorporation of the unique properties of graphene and other 2D materials inside the active layer opens up a very promising pathway in the design and construction of high-performance, simply fabricated and low- cost photovoltaic devices.

  1. Understanding interactions in the adsorption of gaseous organic compounds to indoor materials. (United States)

    Ongwandee, Maneerat; Chatsuvan, Thabtim; Suksawas Na Ayudhya, Wichitsawat; Morris, John


    We studied adsorption of organic compounds to a wide range of indoor materials, including plastics, gypsum board, carpet, and many others, under various relative humidity conditions by applying a conceptual model of the free energy of interfacial interactions of both van der Waals and Lewis acid-base (e-donor/acceptor) types. Data used for the analyses were partitioning coefficients of adsorbates between surface and gas phase obtained from three sources: our sorption experiments and two other published studies. Target organic compounds included apolars, monopolars, and bipolars. We established correlations of partitioning coefficients of adsorbates for a considered surface with the corresponding hexadecane/air partitioning coefficients of the adsorbates which are used as representative of a van der Waals descriptor instead of vapor pressure. The logarithmic adsorption coefficients of the apolars and weak bases, e.g., aliphatics and aromatics, to indoor materials linearly correlates well with the logarithmic hexadecane/air partitioning coefficients regardless of the surface polarity. The surface polarity in terms of e-donor/acceptor interactions becomes important for adsorption of the strong bases and bipolars, e.g., amines, phenols, and alcohols, to unpainted gypsum board. Under dry or humid conditions, the adsorption to flat plastic materials still linearly correlates well with the van der Waals interactions of the adsorbates, but no correlations were observed for the adsorption to fleecy or plush materials, e.g., carpet. Adsorption of highly bipolar compounds, e.g., phenol and isopropanol, is strongly affected by humidity, attributed to Lewis acid-base interactions with modified surfaces.

  2. Molecular Engineering with Organic Carbonyl Electrode Materials for Advanced Stationary and Redox Flow Rechargeable Batteries. (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun


    Organic carbonyl electrode materials that have the advantages of high capacity, low cost and being environmentally friendly, are regarded as powerful candidates for next-generation stationary and redox flow rechargeable batteries (RFBs). However, low carbonyl utilization, poor electronic conductivity and undesired dissolution in electrolyte are urgent issues to be solved. Here, we summarize a molecular engineering approach for tuning the capacity, working potential, concentration of active species, kinetics, and stability of stationary and redox flow batteries, which well resolves the problems of organic carbonyl electrode materials. As an example, in stationary batteries, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with two carbonyls delivers a capacity of 257 mAh g -1 (2.27 V vs Li + /Li), while increasing the number of carbonyls to four with the formation of 5,7,12,14-pentacenetetrone results in a higher capacity of 317 mAh g -1 (2.60 V vs Li + /Li). In RFBs, AQ, which is less soluble in aqueous electrolyte, reaches 1 M by grafting -SO 3 H with the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid, resulting in a power density exceeding 0.6 W cm -2 with long cycling life. Therefore, through regulating substituent groups, conjugated structures, Coulomb interactions, and the molecular weight, the electrochemical performance of carbonyl electrode materials can be rationally optimized. This review offers fundamental principles and insight into designing advanced carbonyl materials for the electrodes of next-generation rechargeable batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Novel inorganic and organic electrode materials for sustainable and greener Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarascon, J.M. [Univ., de Picardie Jules Verne CNRS, Amiens (France). Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides


    Rechargeable batteries are among the major technological developments that will have an impact on the commercialization of electric-powered vehicles. Their development relies on advancements in energy storage as well as on the design of better performing and less expensive materials for electrode assemblies. Issues of sustainability must also be taken into consideration when choosing electrode materials for the next generation of batteries. This presentation reported on a study in which LiFePO{sub 4} electrodes were synthesized via eco-efficient hydrothermal/solvothermal processes using latent bases or other bio-related approaches. The recently developed ionothermal approach was successfully applied to prepare materials derived from the olivine-type structure (LiMPO{sub 4}; M=Mn, Co, and Ni) as well as other electrodes having F- in addition to PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} as part of the anionic lattice. A new family of fluorophosphates compounds AMSO{sub 4}F (A= Li, Na; M= 3d metals) having the tavorite-type structure or other derived structures were also synthesized through this study. The most promising electrode was LiFeSO4F, which is based on several chemical elements, making it a serious contender to LiFePO4 for the next generation of Li-ion batteries for automotive applications. However, this electrode is not a sufficient step forward towards the long-term demand for materials sustainability. In contrast, organic electrodes appear as ideal candidates because they can be synthesized from natural organic sources, are biodegradable and are not resource limited. For that reason, this presentation also examined the feasibility of using conjugated dicarboxylates anodes and oxocarbons positive electrodes, for renewable Li-ion batteries.

  4. [Right of access to healthcare in the context of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012: the perspective of civil society organizations and professional associations]. (United States)

    Suess, Amets; Ruiz Pérez, Isabel; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; March Cerdà, Joan Carles


    The recent publication of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 (RDL 16/2012), which introduces structural changes in the Spanish Public Healthcare System, can be placed in the broader context of budgetary adjustments in response to the current economic crisis. An analysis of the interrelationships among economic crisis, healthcare policies, and health reveals that citizen participation is one of several potential strategies for reducing the impact of this situation on the population. This observation raises the interest to know the citizens' perspectives on the modifications introduced by the RDL 16/2012. Narrative review of documents related to the RDL 16/2012 published by civil society organizations and professional associations in the Spanish context. A broad citizen response can be observed to the introduction of RDL 16/2012. The documents reviewed include an analysis of changes in the healthcare model inherent to the RDL 16/2012, as well as predictions on its impact on access to healthcare, healthcare quality, and health. The civil society organizations and professional associations offer recommendations and proposals, as well as collaboration in elaborating alternative strategies to reduce costs. The response of civil society organizations and professional associations underscores the importance of strengthening citizen participation in the development of healthcare policies aimed at maintaining the universal character and sustainability of the Spanish Public Healthcare System in the current moment of economic and systemic crisis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Internet-Based Assessment of Oncology Health Care Professional Learning Style and Optimization of Materials for Web-Based Learning: Controlled Trial With Concealed Allocation. (United States)

    Micheel, Christine M; Anderson, Ingrid A; Lee, Patricia; Chen, Sheau-Chiann; Justiss, Katy; Giuse, Nunzia B; Ye, Fei; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Levy, Mia A


    Precision medicine has resulted in increasing complexity in the treatment of cancer. Web-based educational materials can help address the needs of oncology health care professionals seeking to understand up-to-date treatment strategies. This study aimed to assess learning styles of oncology health care professionals and to determine whether learning style-tailored educational materials lead to enhanced learning. In all, 21,465 oncology health care professionals were invited by email to participate in the fully automated, parallel group study. Enrollment and follow-up occurred between July 13 and September 7, 2015. Self-enrolled participants took a learning style survey and were assigned to the intervention or control arm using concealed alternating allocation. Participants in the intervention group viewed educational materials consistent with their preferences for learning (reading, listening, and/or watching); participants in the control group viewed educational materials typical of the My Cancer Genome website. Educational materials covered the topic of treatment of metastatic estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer using cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors. Participant knowledge was assessed immediately before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 2 weeks after (follow-up test) review of the educational materials. Study statisticians were blinded to group assignment. A total of 751 participants enrolled in the study. Of these, 367 (48.9%) were allocated to the intervention arm and 384 (51.1%) were allocated to the control arm. Of those allocated to the intervention arm, 256 (69.8%) completed all assessments. Of those allocated to the control arm, 296 (77.1%) completed all assessments. An additional 12 participants were deemed ineligible and one withdrew. Of the 552 participants, 438 (79.3%) self-identified as multimodal learners. The intervention arm showed greater improvement in posttest score compared to the control group (0.4 points

  6. Spatial variability in organic material sinking export in the Hudson Bay system, Canada, during fall (United States)

    Lapoussière, Amandine; Michel, Christine; Gosselin, Michel; Poulin, Michel


    Spatial variations in the sinking export of organic material were assessed within the Hudson Bay system (i.e., Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait and Foxe Basin) during the second oceanographic expedition of ArcticNet, on board the CCGS Amundsen in early fall 2005. Sinking fluxes of particulate organic material were measured using short-term free-drifting particle interceptor traps deployed at 50, 100 and 150 m for 8-20 h at eight stations. Measurements of chlorophyll a (chl a), pheopigments (pheo), particulate organic carbon (POC), biogenic silica (BioSi), protists, fecal pellets and bacteria were performed on the collected material. In parallel, sea surface salinity and temperature were determined at 121 stations in the Hudson Bay system. Three hydrographic regions presenting different sedimentation patterns were identified based on average surface salinity and temperature. Hudson Strait was characterized by a marine signature, with high salinity (average=32.3) and low temperature (average=2.1 °C). Eastern Hudson Bay was strongly influenced by river runoff and showed the lowest average salinity (26.6) and highest average temperature (7.6 °C) of the three regions. Western Hudson Bay showed intermediate salinity (average=29.4) and temperature (average=4.4 °C). Sinking fluxes of total pigments (chl a+pheo: 3.37 mg m -2 d -1), diatom-associated carbon (19.8 mg m -2 d -1) and BioSi (50.2 mg m -2 d -1) at 50 m were highest in Hudson Strait. Eastern Hudson Bay showed higher sinking fluxes of total pigments (0.52 mg m -2 d -1), diatom-associated carbon (3.29 mg m -2 d -1) and BioSi (36.6 mg m -2 d -1) compared to western Hudson Bay (0.19, 0.05 and 7.76 mg m -2 d -1, respectively). POC sinking fluxes at 50 m were low and relatively uniform throughout the Hudson Bay system (50.0-76.8 mg C m -2 d -1), but spatial variations in the composition of the sinking organic material were observed. A large part (37-78%) of the total sinking POC was unidentifiable by microscopic observation

  7. A double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for a fast and safe digestion of different kinds of organic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, G.; Sieber, M.; Buschmann, J.; Burkhardat, M.


    The fermentation of organic material is a four-step-process. It is admissible to merge the first two steps (hydrolysis and acidification) to hydrolysis in general and the last two steps (aceto genesis and methano genesis) to methano genesis. The Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus has devised a double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Using these processes, it is possible to decompose different kinds of organic material like renewable material (e. g. maize silage), waste (e. g. household-waste) and industrial material (e. g. glycerine). (Author)

  8. Synthesis and gas adsorption study of porous metal-organic framework materials (United States)

    Mu, Bin

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers (PCPs) have become the focus of intense study over the past decade due to their potential for advancing a variety of applications including air purification, gas storage, adsorption separations, catalysis, gas sensing, drug delivery, and so on. These materials have some distinct advantages over traditional porous materials such as the well-defined structures, uniform pore sizes, chemically functionalized sorption sites, and potential for postsynthetic modification, etc. Thus, synthesis and adsorption studies of porous MOFs have increased substantially in recent years. Among various prospective applications, air purification is one of the most immediate concerns, which has urgent requirements to improve current nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) filters involving commercial and military purposes. Thus, the major goal of this funded project is to search, synthesize, and test these novel hybrid porous materials for adsorptive removal of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and chemical warfare agents (CWAs), and to install the benchmark for new-generation NBC filters. The objective of this study is three-fold: (i) Advance our understanding of coordination chemistry by synthesizing novel MOFs and characterizing these porous coordination polymers; (ii) Evaluate porous MOF materials for gasadsorption applications including CO2 capture, CH4 storage, other light gas adsorption and separations, and examine the chemical and physical properties of these solid adsorbents including thermal stability and heat capacity of MOFs; (iii) Evaluate porous MOF materials for next-generation NBC filter media by adsorption breakthrough measurements of TICs on MOFs, and advance our understanding about structureproperty relationships of these novel adsorbents.

  9. Covalent Organic Framework Material bearing Phloroglucinol Building Units as a Potent Anticancer Agent

    KAUST Repository

    Bhanja, Piyali


    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) having periodicity in pores of nanoscale dimensions can be suitably designed for the organic building units bearing reactive functional groups at their surfaces. Thus, they are an attractive option as an anticancer agent to overcome the limitations of chemotherapy. Herein, we first report a new porous biodegradable nitrogen containing COF material, EDTFP-1 (ethylenedianiline-triformyl phloroglucinol), synthesized using 4,4\\'-ethylenedianiline and 2,4,6-triformylphloroglucinol via Schiff base condensation reaction. EDTFP-1 exhibited 3D-hexagonal porous structure with average pores of ca. 1.5 nm dimension. Here, we have explored the anti-cancer potentiality of EDTFP-1. Result demonstrated an enhanced cytotoxicity was observed against four cancer cells HCT 116, HepG2, A549, and MIA-Paca2 with significant lower IC50 on HCT116 cells. Additionally, EDTFP-1-induced cell death was associated with the characteristic apoptotic changes like cell membrane blebbing, nuclear DNA fragmentation, externalization of phosphatidylserine from the cell membrane followed by a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as modulation of pro and anti-apoptotic proteins. Further, the result depicted a direct correlation between the generations of ROS with mitochondrial-dependant apoptosis through the involvement of p53 phosphorylation upon EDTFP-1 induction, suggesting this COF material is a novel chemotherapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  10. Organic getter materials for the removal of hydrogen and its isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.M.; Shepodd, T.J.; Gilliom, L.R.


    Herein, we describe hydrogen getter technologies developed at SNL and KCD over the past decade. The technologies are based on the irreversible removal of hydrogen by catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds. Different types have been developed: crystalline getters, dialkynes combined with heterogeneous catalysts; and a polymeric getter, a thermoplastic elastomer capable of reacting with hydrogen in the presence of oxygen without producing water. These materials can remove up to 300 cc (STP) of hydrogen per gram of material, and can maintain atmospheres of less than 10 ppM hydrogen. Crystalline getters for tritium and the combination hydrogen(tritium), water, and oxygen are described. The accumulation of hydrogen is usually an undesired event. Large leaks from hydrogen storage and handling facilities pose explosion hazards. Small amounts of hydrogen that may build up in sealed containers after long storage times can damage integral components. Any tritium leak is an immediate health hazard. Hydrogen scavengers or getters can avert all of these potential problems by irreversibly removing hydrogen from such environments. In this paper, we describe the development of two types of organic getters: the first is a new crystalline getter, based on 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene{sup 5} (DEB); the second is a polymeric hydrogen getter, based on styrene-butadiene copolymer.

  11. Development of organic-inorganic double hole-transporting material for high performance perovskite solar cells (United States)

    Jo, Jea Woong; Seo, Myung-Seok; Jung, Jae Woong; Park, Joon-Suh; Sohn, Byeong-Hyeok; Ko, Min Jae; Son, Hae Jung


    The control of the optoelectronic properties of the interlayers of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is crucial for achieving high photovoltaic performances. Of the solution-processable interlayer candidates, NiOx is considered one of the best inorganic hole-transporting layer (HTL) materials. However, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of NiOx-based PSCs are limited by the unfavorable contact between perovskite layers and NiOx HTLs, the high density of surface trap sites, and the inefficient charge extraction from perovskite photoactive layers to anodes. Here, we introduce a new organic-inorganic double HTL consisting of a Cu:NiOx thin film passivated by a conjugated polyelectrolyte (PhNa-1T) film. This double HTL has a significantly lower pinhole density and forms better contact with perovskite films, which results in enhanced charge extraction. As a result, the PCEs of PSCs fabricated with the double HTL are impressively improved up to 17.0%, which is more than 25% higher than that of the corresponding PSC with a Cu:NiOx HTL. Moreover, PSCs with the double HTLs exhibit similar stabilities under ambient conditions to devices using inorganic Cu:NiOx. Therefore, this organic-inorganic double HTL is a promising interlayer material for high performance PSCs with high air stability.

  12. Near infrared organic semiconducting materials for bulk heterojunction and dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Singh, Surya Prakash; Sharma, G D


    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been the subject of intensive academic interest over the past two decades, and significant commercial effort has been directed towards this area with the vison of developing the next generation of low cost solar cells. Materials development has played a vital role in the dramatic improvement of both DSSC and BHJ solar cell performance in the recent years. Organic conjugated polymers and small molecules that absorb solar light in the visible and near infrared (NIR) regions represent a class of emering materials and show a great potential for the use of different optoelectronic devices such as DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. This account describes the emering class of near infrared (NIR) organic polymers and small molecules having donor and acceptors units, and explores their potential applications in the DSSCs and BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Improving quality of textile wastewater with organic materials as multi soil layering (United States)

    Supriyadi; Widijanto, H.; Pranoto; Dewi, AK


    On agricultural land, fresh water is needed especially for irrigation. Alternative ways to fulfill needs of fresh water is by utilizing wastewater from industry. Wastewater that produced in the industry in Surakarta is over flowing especially textile wastewater. Wastewater that produced from industry has many pollutants that affected decreasing fresh water quality for irrigation. Multi Soil Layering (MSL) is one of method that utilize the soil ability as main media by increasing its function of soil structure to purify wastewater, so it does not contaminate the environment and reusable. This research was purposed to know affectivity of organic materials (such as rice straw, baggase, sawdust, coconut fibre, and corncob) and dosage (5%, 10% and 25%) in MSL, also get alternative purification ways with easy and cheaper price as natural adsorbent. This study using field and laboratory experiment. The result shows that MSL can be an alternative method of purification of wastewater. The appropriate composition of organic materials that can be used as adsorbent is MSL with wood sawdust 10% dosage because it can increase pH, decrease the number of Cr, ammonia, and phosphate but less effective to decrease BOD and COD.

  14. Recycling as a Pedagogical Strategy for the Reutilization of Organic and Inorganic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Aranel Gonzalez Orozco


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to establish recycling as a pedagogical strategy for the reuse of organic and inorganic material with the students of the National Basic School "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" of the Pedraza Municipality Barinas State; The researcher, through a direct approach to the study reality, has been able to verify firsthand that the subject of recycling is not being given due treatment, since it has been approached as a topic of more content, without being given due importance , Especially from the use of organic and inorganic materials, which makes this study an element of great importance in terms of the contribution that can be generated from it to the institution and to conscious formation. The informants of the present study will be made up of people from the "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" National Basic School of the Pedraza Municipality of Barinas, where the research will be carried out. Specifically, two (02 teachers and two (02 students of the institution, collaborators of the different activities that take place in the same. The technique used is the semi-structured interview, and the instrument is the interview guide. The analysis of the information will be done through the codification, categorization, triangulation and structuring of theories.

  15. Understanding and predicting the orientation of heteroleptic phosphors in organic light-emitting materials (United States)

    Jurow, Matthew J.; Mayr, Christian; Schmidt, Tobias D.; Lampe, Thomas; Djurovich, Peter I.; Brütting, Wolfgang; Thompson, Mark E.


    Controlling the alignment of the emitting molecules used as dopants in organic light-emitting diodes is an effective strategy to improve the outcoupling efficiency of these devices. To explore the mechanism behind the orientation of dopants in films of organic host materials, we synthesized a coumarin-based ligand that was cyclometalated onto an iridium core to form three phosphorescent heteroleptic molecules, (bppo)2Ir(acac), (bppo)2Ir(ppy) and (ppy)2Ir(bppo) (bppo represents benzopyranopyridinone, ppy represents 2-phenylpyridinate, and acac represents acetylacetonate). Each emitter was doped into a 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl host layer, and the resultant orientation of their transition dipole moment vectors was measured by angle-dependent p-polarized photoluminescent emission spectroscopy. In solid films, (bppo)2Ir(acac) is found to have a largely horizontal transition dipole vector orientation relative to the substrate, whereas (ppy)2Ir(bppo) and (bppo)2Ir(ppy) are isotropic. We propose that the inherent asymmetry at the surface of the growing film promotes dopant alignment in these otherwise amorphous films. Modelling the net orientation of the transition dipole moments of these materials yields general design rules for further improving horizontal orientation.

  16. Persistence of Two Isolates of Trichomonas gallinae in Simulated Bird Baths With and Without Organic Material. (United States)

    Purple, Kathryn E; Gerhold, Richard W


    Trichomonas gallinae, a well-documented protozoan parasite of avian hosts, has been implicated in major passerine mortality events recently and historically throughout the literature. It has been suggested that bird baths and artificial water sources could serve as a source of infection for naive birds; however, trichomonad persistence in water is not well understood. We measured the persistence of T. gallinae isolates from two avian hosts in distilled water and distilled water with the addition of organic material. We inoculated plastic containers in a laboratory setting with 1 × 10(6) trichomonads and then sampled 500 μl from each container at various time points postinoculation (0-20 hr). The 500-μl aliquots were inoculated into flasks with 5 ml of modified Diamond media at each time point. Flasks were incubated at 37 C and examined by light microscopy for five consecutive days for the characteristic movements of live trichomonads. The maximum persistence was 16 hr with a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) isolate in the organic material treatment, far longer than the 1 hr persistence previously reported. We show that T. gallinae isolates are capable of persisting for long periods of time in water, illustrating that bird baths may be validated as a potential source of transmission in epidemics.

  17. Validation of intermolecular transfer integral and bandwidth calculations for organic molecular materials. (United States)

    Huang, Jingsong; Kertesz, Miklos


    We present an interpretation of the intermolecular transfer integral that is independent from the origin of the energy scale allowing convergence studies of this important parameter of organic molecular materials. We present extensive numerical studies by using an ethylene pi dimer to investigate the dependence of transfer integrals on the level of theory and intermolecular packing. Transfer integrals obtained from semiempirical calculations differ substantially from one another and from ab initio results. The ab initio results are consistent across all the levels used including Hartree-Fock, outer valence Green's function, and various forms of density functional theory (DFT). Validation of transfer integrals and bandwidths is performed by comparing the calculated values with the experimental values of tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ), bis[1,2,5]thiadiazolo-p-quinobis(1,3-dithiole), (BTQBT) K-TCNQ, and hexagonal graphite. DFT in one of its presently popular forms, such as Perdew-Wang functionals (PW91), in combination with sufficient basis sets provides reliable transfer integrals, and therefore can serve as a basis for energy band calculations for soft organic materials with van der Waals gaps.

  18. Structures and Gas Storage Performance of Metal-organic Framework Materials at High Pressures (United States)

    Song, Yang; Hu, Yue; Huang, Yining


    Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), are crystalline nanoporous materials comprised of small metal clusters connected three-dimensionally by polyfunctional organic ligands. MOFs have been widely studied due to their high porosity, surface area and thermal stability, which make them promising candidates for gas capture and storage. In the MOF family, Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) have attracted much attention because of their promising applications for CO2 storage. In contrast to the extensive studies under ambient conditions, most ZIFs have only been studied under pressure in a very limited range. It is known that pressure can provide an effective driving force to achieve structural modification which includes changes in pore size, opening and geometry, channel shape and internal surface area. Subsequently, these pressure-induced changes will affect the sorption selectivity, capacity and access to the binding sites of the porous materials. Here, we report the first in situ high-pressure investigation of several ZIFs by FTIR spectroscopy. We observed rich pressure-induced transformations upon compression in different pressure ranges. Furthermore, the reversibilities of these transformations upon decompression were also examined. Finally, the performance of CO2 storage of selected ZIFs at high pressures will be addressed. Our observation and analyses contribute to the understanding of chemical and mechanical properties of ZIFs under high-pressure conditions and provide new insight into their storage applications.

  19. Polysilsesquioxanes for Gate-Insulating Materials of Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Matsukawa


    Full Text Available Printable organic thin-film transistor (O-TFT is one of the most recognized technical issues nowadays. Our recent progress on the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films consists of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ, and its applications for the gate-insulating layer of O-TFTs are introduced in this paper. PMSQ synthesized in toluene solution with formic acid catalyst exhibited the electric resistivity of higher than 1014 Ω cm after thermal treatment at 150°C, and the very low concentration of residual silanol groups in PMSQ was confirmed. The PMSQ film contains no mobile ionic impurities, and this is also important property for the practical use for the gate-insulating materials. In the case of top-contact type TFT using poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT with PMSQ gate-insulating layer, the device properties were comparable with the TFTs having thermally grown SiO2 gate-insulating layer. The feasibility of PMSQ as a gate-insulating material for O-TFTs, which was fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate, has been demonstrated. Moreover, by the modification of PMSQ, further functionalities, such as surface hydrophobicity, high permittivity that allows low driving voltage, and photocurability that allows photolithography, could be appended to the PMSQ gate-insulating layers.

  20. Hygroscopic influence on the semisolid-to-liquid transition of secondary organic materials. (United States)

    Bateman, Adam P; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T


    The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the rebound of particles composed of isoprene, α-pinene, and toluene secondary organic materials (SOMs) was studied. A three-arm impaction apparatus was used to study rebound from 5 to 95% RH at 298 K. Calibration experiments using sucrose particles of variable but known viscosities showed that the transition from rebounding to adhering particles occurred for a change in viscosity from 100 to 1 Pa s, corresponding to a transition from semisolid to liquid material. The experimentally determined rebound fractions of the studied SOMs were compared with results from a model of the rebound processes of hard particles, taking into account the particle kinetic energy, van der Waals forces, and RH-dependent capillary forces. For low RH values, the hard-particle model explained the diameter-dependent rebound behavior for all studied SOMs. For elevated RH, however, the experimental observations deviated from the model predictions. On the basis of the calibration experiments using sucrose particles as well as a comparison between the observations and the predictions of the hard-particle model, the interpretation is made that a semisolid-to-liquid transition occurred at elevated RH. Material softening, increased adhesion, or a combination of the two implied the action of additional modes of energy relaxation that were not included in the hard-particle model. The RH threshold for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition was 40% RH for isoprene SOM, 70% for toluene SOM, and 70% for α-pinene SOM. A correlation between the rebound fraction and the hygroscopic growth factor G was demonstrated, implying that absorbed water volume was a dominant governing factor of the semisolid-to-liquid transition for the studied classes of SOM. Simple heuristic rules based on G of 1.15 for the semisolid-to-liquid phase transition could be used for prognostication of the SOM phase in modeling applications at 298 K. With respect to atmospheric processes, the

  1. Dissolved organic matter composition of Arctic rivers: Linking permafrost and parent material to riverine carbon (United States)

    O’Donnell, Jonathan A.; Aiken, George R.; Swanson, David K.; Santosh, Panda; Butler, Kenna; Baltensperger, Andrew P.


    Recent climate change in the Arctic is driving permafrost thaw, which has important implications for regional hydrology and global carbon dynamics. Permafrost is an important control on groundwater dynamics and the amount and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) transported by high-latitude rivers. The consequences of permafrost thaw for riverine DOM dynamics will likely vary across space and time, due in part to spatial variation in ecosystem properties in Arctic watersheds. Here we examined watershed controls on DOM composition in 69 streams and rivers draining heterogeneous landscapes across a broad region of Arctic Alaska. We characterized DOM using bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, optical properties, and chemical fractionation and classified watersheds based on permafrost characteristics (mapping of parent material and ground ice content, modeling of thermal state) and ecotypes. Parent material and ground ice content significantly affected the amount and composition of DOM. DOC concentrations were higher in watersheds underlain by fine-grained loess compared to watersheds underlain by coarse-grained sand or shallow bedrock. DOC concentration was also higher in rivers draining ice-rich landscapes compared to rivers draining ice-poor landscapes. Similarly, specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254, an index of DOM aromaticity) values were highest in watersheds underlain by fine-grained deposits or ice-rich permafrost. We also observed differences in hydrophobic organic acids, hydrophilic compounds, and DOM fluorescence across watersheds. Both DOC concentration and SUVA254 were negatively correlated with watershed active layer thickness, as determined by high-resolution permafrost modeling. Together, these findings highlight how spatial variations in permafrost physical and thermal properties can influence riverine DOM.

  2. Dissolved Organic Matter Composition of Arctic Rivers: Linking Permafrost, Parent Material, and Groundwater to Riverine Carbon (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Aiken, G.; Butler, K. D.; Swanson, D. K.


    Recent warming in the Arctic is modifying the chemical composition of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) through changes in growing season length, wildfire, and permafrost thaw. In arctic rivers, DOM composition is an important control on nutrient availability, trace metal mobilization, and greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, shifts in DOM associated with a changing arctic landscape may alter how aquatic ecosystems function in this region. Here, we examined spatial variation in DOM composition in 72 rivers in the Brooks Range and Seward Peninsula of northern Alaska. We characterized DOM using a suite of techniques, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, absorbance spectra, fluorescence, and chemical fractionation. Watersheds were classified based on traits that influence subsurface hydrology, including parent material (volcanic deposits, loess, sand, glacial moraine, bedrock) and permafrost extent (continuous vs. discontinuous zone) and state (ice-rich vs. ice-poor). We observed considerable variability in DOM composition across rivers. DOC concentrations were lowest in rivers influenced by glacial deposits (10 mgC L-1). Specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254), which serves as an index of DOM aromaticity, was also variable across rivers; spring-fed mountain streams had the lowest SUVA254 values (4 L mgC-1 m-1). While hydrophobic organic acids were the dominant DOM fraction in all rivers, we observed a significant increase in the proportion of hydrophilic compounds during winter flow and in groundwater-fed systems. We also observed variation in DOM composition with permafrost extent and ground ice distribution across the region. Model projections over the next century suggest a heterogeneous response of DOM to thaw, likely mediated by spatial variations in ground ice and parent material.

  3. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to a diverse suite of carbonaceous materials with emphasis on biochar. (United States)

    Kupryianchyk, Darya; Hale, Sarah; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Harvey, Omar; Rutherford, David; Abiven, Samuel; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Rumpel, Cornelia; Cornelissen, Gerard


    Carbonaceous materials like biochars are increasingly recognized as effective sorbent materials for sequestering organic pollutants. Here, we study sorption behavior of two common hydrophobic organic contaminants 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB52) and phenanthrene (PHE), on biochars and other carbonaceous materials (CM) produced at a wide range of conditions and temperatures from various feedstocks. The primary aim was to establish structure-reactivity relationships responsible for the observed variation in CM and biochar sorption characteristics. CM were characterized for their elemental composition, surface area, pore size distribution, aromaticity and thermal stability. Freundlich sorption coefficients for CB52 and PHE (i.e. LogK(F,CB52) and K(F,PHE), respectively) to CM showed a variation of two to three orders of magnitude, with LogK(F,CB52) ranging from 5.12 ± 0.38 to 8.01 ± 0.18 and LogK(F,PHE) from 5.18 ± 0.09 to 7.42 ± 1.09. The highest LogK(F) values were observed for the activated CM, however, non-activated biochars produced at high temperatures (>700 °C) sorbed almost as strongly (within 0.2-0.5 Log units) as the activated ones. Sorption coefficients significantly increased with pyrolysis temperature, CM surface area and pore volume, aromaticity, and thermal stability, and decreased with H/C, O/C, (O + N)/C content. The results of our study contribute to the understanding of processes underlying HOC sorption to CM and explore the potential of CM as engineered sorbents for environmental applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of condensed carbonaceous materials on the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants in subsurface sediments. (United States)

    Jeong, Sangjo; Wander, Michelle M; Kleineidam, Sybille; Grathwohl, Peter; Ligouis, Bertrand S; Werth, Charles J


    The identification and characterization of carbonaceous materials (CMs) that control hydrophobic organic chemical (HOC) sorption is essential to predict the fate and transport of HOCs in soils and sediments. The objectives of this paper are to determine the types of CMs that control HOC sorption in the oxidized and reduced zones of a glacially deposited groundwater sediment in central Illinois, with a special emphasis on the roles of kerogen and black carbon. After collection, the sediments were treated to obtain fractions of the sediment samples enriched in different types of CMs (e.g., humic acid, kerogen, black carbon), and selected fractions were subject to quantitative petrographic analysis. The original sediments and their enrichment fractions were evaluated for their ability to sorb trichloroethene (TCE), a common groundwater pollutant. Isotherm results and mass fractions of CM enrichments were used to calculate sorption contributions of different CMs. The results indicate that CMs in the heavy fractions dominate sorption because of their greater mass. Black carbon mass fractions of total CMs in the reduced sediments were calculated and used to estimate the sorption contribution of these materials. Results indicate that in the reduced sediments, black carbon may sequester as much as 32% of the sorbed TCE mass, butthat kerogen and humin are the dominant sorption environments. Organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients (K(oc)) were compared to literature values. Values for the central Illinois sediments are relatively large and in the range of values determined for materials high in kerogen and humin. This work demonstrates the advantage of using both sequential chemical treatment and petrographic analysis to analyze the sorption contributions of different CMs in natural soils and sediments, and the importance of sorption to natural geopolymers in groundwater sediments not impacted by anthropogenic sources of black carbon.

  5. A novel source of atmospheric H2: abiotic degradation of organic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Throop


    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by competing for reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH· and contributing to the production of H2O in the stratosphere, indirectly influencing stratospheric ozone concentrations. The dominant pathway for loss of H2 from the atmosphere is via microbially-mediated soil uptake, although the magnitude of this loss is still regarded as highly uncertain. Recent studies have shown that abiotic processes such as photochemically mediated degradation (photodegradation of organic material result in direct emissions of carbon (C and nitrogen (N-based trace gases as well as H2. This H2 production has important implications on source-sink dynamics of H2 at the soil-atmosphere interface and thus it is important to quantify its variability over a range of plant types and materials. Here, we show laboratory observations of H2 production and its temperature dependence during abiotic degradation of four plant litter types as well as pure cellulose and high lignin content woody material. A greater amount of H2 was produced in the absence of solar radiation than from photodegradation alone, verifying that low temperature thermal degradation of plant litter is a source of H2. In addition, we measured a significant release of H2 both in the presence and absence of O2. Our results suggest that abiotic release of H2 during organic matter degradation is ubiquitous in arid ecosystems and may also occur in other terrestrial ecosystems. We propose that because these processes occur at the soil-atmosphere interface, they provide a previously unrecognized proximal source of H2 for microbial uptake and confound interpretation of direct measurements of atmospheric uptake that are important for constraining the global H2 budget.

  6. Evaluation of low-cost materials for sorption of hydrophobic organic pollutants in stormwater. (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Li, Loretta


    Conventional stormwater treatment techniques such as sedimentation and filtration are inefficient for removing the dissolved and colloidal phases of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) present in stormwater. Adsorption could be a promising technique for removing colloidal and dissolved pollutants. Five low-cost sorbent materials were investigated in this project, including two minerals – vermiculite and perlite – and three waste products – two pine barks and a sawdust – as potential adsorbents for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols and phthalates; HOCs commonly found in stormwater. Adsorption capacity and kinetics were studied through batch adsorption tests using synthetic stormwater spiked with a mixture of HOCs. Vermiculite and perlite exhibited insignificant removal of the organic contaminants. The three wood-based materials retained >80% of the initial HOC concentration (10-300 μg/L). The two barks exhibited slightly higher adsorption capacities of HOCs than the sawdust. For all compounds tested, maximum adsorption onto the wood-based media was reached in <10 min. The highest adsorption capacity was found for PAHs (up to 45 μg/g), followed by alkylphenols and phthalates. No correlation was found between adsorption capacity and physical-chemical parameters such as solubility and partition coefficients (log K(ow)). Agreement between empirical data and the pseudo-second order kinetic model suggest chemisorption of HOCs onto a monolayer on wood-based media. This could lead to early saturation of the materials and should be investigated in future studies through repeated adsorption of HOCs, for example in column studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dispersion-model-free determination of optical constants: application to materials for organic thin film devices. (United States)

    Flämmich, Michael; Danz, Norbert; Michaelis, Dirk; Bräuer, Andreas; Gather, Malte C; Kremer, Jonas H-W M; Meerholz, Klaus


    We describe a method to determine the refractive index and extinction coefficient of thin film materials without prior knowledge of the film thickness and without the assumption of a dispersion model. A straightforward back calculation to the optical parameters can be performed starting from simple measurements of reflection and transmission spectra of a 100-250 nm thick supported film. The exact film thickness is found simultaneously by fulfilling the intrinsic demand of continuity of the refractive index as a function of wavelength. If both the layer and the substrate are homogeneous and isotropic media with plane and parallel interfaces, effects like surface roughness, scattering, or thickness inhomogeneities can be neglected. Then, the accuracy of the measurement is approximately 10(-2) and 10(-3) for the refractive index and the extinction coefficient, respectively. The error of the thin film thickness determination is well below 1 nm. Thus this technique is well suited to determine the input parameters for optical simulations of organic thin film devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. We apply the method to the electroluminescent polymer poly(2,5-dioctyl-p-phenylene vinylene) (PDO-PPV) and show its applicability by comparing the measured and calculated reflection and transmission spectra of OLED stacks with up to five layers.

  8. Triboelectric Nanogenerator Powered Electrochemical Degradation of Organic Pollutant Using Pt-Free Carbon Materials. (United States)

    Gao, Shuyan; Chen, Ye; Su, Jingzhen; Wang, Miao; Wei, Xianjun; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zhong Lin


    Carbon electrode materials are fabricated from bean curd to replace costly Pt-based electrodes to degrade methyl red (MR) as self-driven by a multilayer linkage triboelectric nanogenerator (ML-TENG). With the sponge as the buffer layer and precharge injection, the peak open-circuit voltage, Voc, short-circuit current, Isc, and maximum power density of the ML-TENG can reach and remain stable at 1300 V, 1.2 mA, and 7.4 W m-2 (load resistance = 500 KΩ), respectively. Using the electric power generated by such an updated TENG, highly toxic and carcinogenic MR can be indirectly degraded to CO2 through an oxidation process induced by active chlorine produced at the as-obtained carbon-based electrode interface. Such an electrochemical degradation mechanism is proposed based on the cyclic voltammogram, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, and mass spectrometer. With compelling features of the TENG and carbon materials, such as sustainable energy, high and stable output performance, cost savings, and high degradation efficiency, this work pioneers the marriage of the TENG with carbon-based materials to self-power electrochemical degradation of organic pollutants for environmental protection.

  9. Impact of Waste Materials and Organic Amendments on Soil Properties and Vegetative Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. McGeehan


    Full Text Available Waste materials, and materials derived from wastes, possess many characteristics that can improve soil fertility and enhance crop performance. These materials can be particularly useful as amendments to severely degraded soils associated with mining activities. This study evaluated biosolids, composts, log yard wastes, and two organic soil treatments for improved soil fertility and vegetative performance using side-by-side comparisons. Each plot was seeded with a standardized seed mix and evaluated for a series of soil chemical and physical parameters, total vegetation response, species diversity, ecological plant response, and invasion indices. All treatments were successful at improving soil fertility and promoting a self-sustaining vegetative cover. The level of available nitrogen had a strong impact on vegetative coverage, species distribution, and extent of unseeded vegetation. For example, high nitrogen treatments promoted a grass-dominated (low forb plant community with a low content of unseeded vegetation. In contrast, low nitrogen treatments promoted a more balanced plant community with a mixture of grass and forb species and greater susceptibility to unseeded vegetation establishment.

  10. Synchronization in material flow networks with biologically inspired self-organized control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, Reik; Laemmer, Stefan [TU Dresden (Germany); Helbing, Dirk [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)


    The efficient operation of material flows in traffic or production networks is a subject of broad economic interest. Traditional centralized as well as decentralized approaches to operating material flow networks are known to have severe disadvantages. As an alternative approach that may help to overcome these problems, we propose a simple self-organization mechanism of conflicting flows that is inspired by oscillatory phenomena of pedestrian or animal counter-flows at bottlenecks. As a result, one may observe a synchronization of the switching dynamics at different intersections in the network. For regular grid topologies, we find different synchronization regimes depending on the inertia of the switching from one service state to the next one. In order to test the robustness of our corresponding observations, we study how the detailed properties of the network as well as dynamic feedbacks between the relevant state variables affect the degree of achievable synchronization and the resulting performance of the network. Our results yield an improved understanding of the conditions that have to be present for efficiently operating material flow networks by a decentralized control, which is of paramount importance for future implementations in real-world traffic or production systems.

  11. Adsorptive removal of hazardous materials using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): a review. (United States)

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    Efficient removal of hazardous materials from the environment has become an important issue from a biological and environmental standpoint. Adsorptive removal of toxic components from fuel, waste-water or air is one of the most attractive approaches for cleaning technologies. Recently, porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have been very promising in the adsorption/separation of various liquids and gases due to their unique characteristics. This review summarizes the recent literatures on the adsorptive removal of various hazardous compounds mainly from fuel, water, and air by virgin or modified MOF materials. Possible interactions between the adsorbates and active adsorption sites of the MOFs will be also discussed to understand the adsorption mechanism. Most of the observed results can be explained with the following mechanisms: (1) adsorption onto a coordinatively unsaturated site, (2) adsorption via acid-base interaction, (3) adsorption via π-complex formation, (4) adsorption via hydrogen bonding, (5) adsorption via electrostatic interaction, and (6) adsorption based on the breathing properties of some MOFs and so on. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A self-consistent first-principle based approach to model carrier mobility in organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meded, Velimir; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Wenzel, Wolfgang [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    Transport through thin organic amorphous films, utilized in OLEDs and OPVs, has been a challenge to model by using ab-initio methods. Charge carrier mobility depends strongly on the disorder strength and reorganization energy, both of which are significantly affected by the details in environment of each molecule. Here we present a multi-scale approach to describe carrier mobility in which the materials morphology is generated using DEPOSIT, a Monte Carlo based atomistic simulation approach, or, alternatively by molecular dynamics calculations performed with GROMACS. From this morphology we extract the material specific hopping rates, as well as the on-site energies using a fully self-consistent embedding approach to compute the electronic structure parameters, which are then used in an analytic expression for the carrier mobility. We apply this strategy to compute the carrier mobility for a set of widely studied molecules and obtain good agreement between experiment and theory varying over several orders of magnitude in the mobility without any freely adjustable parameters. The work focuses on the quantum mechanical step of the multi-scale workflow, explains the concept along with the recently published workflow optimization, which combines density functional with semi-empirical tight binding approaches. This is followed by discussion on the analytic formula and its agreement with established percolation fits as well as kinetic Monte Carlo numerical approaches. Finally, we skatch an unified multi-disciplinary approach that integrates materials science simulation and high performance computing, developed within EU project MMM@HPC.

  13. No time to waste organic waste: Nanosizing converts remains of food processing into refined materials. (United States)

    Griffin, Sharoon; Sarfraz, Muhammad; Farida, Verda; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; Keck, Cornelia M; Jacob, Claus


    Modern food processing results in considerable amounts of side-products, such as grape seeds, walnut shells, spent coffee grounds, and harvested tomato plants. These materials are still rich in valuable and biologically active substances and therefore of interest from the perspective of waste management and "up-cycling". In contrast to traditional, often time consuming and low-value uses, such as vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion, the complete conversion into nanosuspensions unlocks considerable potentials of and new applications for such already spent organic materials without the need of extraction and without producing any additional waste. In this study, nanosuspensions were produced using a sequence of milling and homogenization methods, including High Speed Stirring (HSS) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) which reduced the size of the particles to 200-400 nm. The resulting nanosuspensions demonstrated nematicidal and antimicrobial activity and their antioxidant activities exceeded the ones of the bulk materials. In the future, this simple nanosizing approach may fulfil several important objectives, such as reducing and turning readily available waste into new value and eventually closing a crucial cycle of agricultural products returning to their fields - with a resounding ecological impact in the fields of medicine, agriculture, cosmetics and fermentation. Moreover, up-cycling via nanosizing adds an economical promise of increased value to residue-free waste management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Table of contents, structure and methodical providing of preparation of future trainers-teachers to development of professional presentations of educational material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatyev А.V.


    Full Text Available In the article maintenance, structure and methodical providing of preparation of future trainers-teachers to development of professional presentations of educational material is analysed. The authors approach near lining up the stages of work with students in relation to the input of information technologies in an educational process is offered. The variants of combination of the program of studies and methodical providing of scientific process of future specialists are thoroughly considered. 100 respondents-students of 4 and 5 courses of physical education department were polled. A term "presentation" is exposed, it kinds are certain and classification of presentations is offered. Modern technologies of development of presentation are analysed.

  15. J.A. van der Kloes (1845-1935) : A professional biography of the first Dutch professor in building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quist, W.J.


    Prof. Jacobus Alida van der Kloes (1845-1935) was appointed teacher in building materials at the “Polytechnische school” of Delft in 1882. From 1905 until his retirement in 1915 he was promoted to full professor on the subject of knowledge and research of building materials at the “Technische

  16. The Role of Demographics as Predictors of Successful Performance of Sales Professionals in Business-to-Business Sales Organizations (United States)

    Frino, Michael G.; Desiderio, Katie P.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact demographic variables of gender and sales experience have on the performance of business-to-business (B2B) sales professionals. If a deeper understanding can be established of how gender and sales experience variables relate to B2B sales performance, human resource development (HRD) and human…

  17. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira


    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  18. Effect of different mulch materials on the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in an organic pepper crop (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Peco, Jesús; Campos, Juan; Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen


    The use biodegradable materials (biopolymers of different composition and papers) as an alternative to conventional mulches has increased considerably during the last years mainly for environmental reason. In order to assess the effect of these materials on the soil microbial activity during the season of a pepper crop organically grown in Central Spain, the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured in laboratory. The mulch materials tested were: 1) black polyethylene (PE, 15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. Soil samples (5-10 cm depth) under the different mulches were taken at different dates (at the beginning of the crop cycle and at different dates throughout the crop season). Additionally, samples of bare soil in a manual weeding and in an untreated control were taken. The results obtained show the negative effect of black PE on the DHA activity, mainly as result of the higher temperature reached under the mulch and the reduction in the gas interchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The values corresponding to the biodegradable materials were variable, although highlighting the low DHA activity observed under Bioflex®. In general, the uncovered treatments showed higher values than those reached under mulches, especially in the untreated control. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, dehydrogenase activity (DHA). Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  19. Who Am I? What Am I Doing Here? Professional Identity and the Epistemic Development of Organic Chemists (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam


    This paper presents a model of the epistemic development of organic chemists from student to practitioner. Key features of this model suggest that individuals first learn the language of organic chemistry, followed by the heuristics. Deep conceptual understanding of the concepts and models of organic chemistry does not occur until individuals…

  20. On the nature of organic matter from natural and contaminated materials : isolation methods, characterisation and application to geochemical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomeren, van A.


    Natural organic matter (NOM) is the material that is formed after the natural decomposition and transformation of dead plant and animal matter. The fresh organic matter (e.g. plant leaves or animal debris) is decomposed and transformed by microbial activity. As such, NOM is found everywhere in